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Sample records for adult grass shrimp

  1. CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

  2. EFFECTS OF FOOD AVAILABILITY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH, AND REPRODUCTION OF THE GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO: A LABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grass shrimp are abundant, ecologically important inhabitants of estuarine ecosystems; adults and embryos have been used extensively in laboratory experiments, including studies of the impacts of environmental toxicants. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions for grass sh...

  3. Spatial distributions of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations in southeastern estuarine ecosystems influenced by urbanization

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.; Daugomah, J.; Devane, J.; Porter, D.; Edwards, D.

    1995-12-31

    Urbanization of coastal regions has resulted in the increased discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trace metals and habitat changes/modifications in adjacent upland areas which may affect grass shrimp populations. A study was conducted comparing larval abundance and adult grass shrimp biomass, abundance, size structure and sex ratios in an urbanized estuary, Murrells Inlet with pristine North Inlet, a NOAA national estuarine research reserve and sanctuary site. A total of 60 sites were sampled during the peak of grass shrimp abundance and compared in terms of spatial distributions and other relevant ancillary information. Factors such as sediment contaminant levels, physico-chemical parameters and land-use habitat modification were statistically compared using a Geographical Information Processing (GIP) techniques and appropriate spatial statistical methods. GIP results indicated similar levels of larval abundance in both estuaries and identified specific nursery ground regions in both estuaries. Adult grass shrimp abundances were greatly reduced in urban areas and grass shrimp desert regions were identified. These areas were correlated with regions having high levels of chemical contaminants and greatest physical disturbances. The mortality rate between larval and adult stages was much higher in urban areas suggesting that urbanization had a profound impact on grass shrimp.

  4. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  5. TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

  6. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  7. EFFECTS OF FOOD AVAILABILITY ON LIPID CLASS COMPOSITION AND C AND N ACCUMULATION IN HEPATOPANCREATIC, OVARIAN AND EMBRYONIC TISSUES OF THE GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO: A LABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a laboratory experiment, limited food availability caused severe mortality and reduced growth of adult female grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. However, reproduction, measured by % gravid females and clutch size, was unaffected by food availability. It appears that female shrim...

  8. Developmental arrest in grass shrimp embryos exposed to selected toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.E.H.

    1998-12-31

    Excised embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to single pulse concentrations of selected pollutants for 4 days. The following toxicity endpoints were monitored: rate of embryonic development, embryo mortality, and types of embryo malformation. Each endpoint exhibited concentration--response relationships which were modified by the embryonic age at which exposure commenced. Developmental retardation of up to 3 days was effected by phenol at 0.01% (V/V) and complete developmental arrest occurred at 0.05% and 0.1% (V/V). Similarly for methylene chloride, developmental retardation of 1003 days were observed at 0.1% (V/V) depending on the age of the embryos at the start of the tests. The morphological abnormalities of the embryos are described. The ecological significance of these findings and implications for the development of short-term toxicity tests using grass shrimp embryos are discussed.

  9. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  10. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  11. EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 3. RESPONSE OF CAGED PINK SHRIMP AND GRASS SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) were deployed in floating cages to determine if fenthion, in an actual-use application in the field, affected shrimp survival. After four ultra-low-volume ground applications (equivalent to llg/ha or 0...

  12. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  13. The role of native salinity regime on grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) sensitivity to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Andrew Y; Klerks, Paul L

    2013-03-01

    In euryhaline crustaceans, sensitivity to toxic trace metals may be linked to osmoregulation and salinity conditions. This study investigated if grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations from different salinity regimes differed in sensitivity to cadmium (Cd). Grass shrimp were collected in May 2011 from two marsh sites with average salinities of ~3.0 ppt and 24.0 ppt. Groups were acclimated for 3-32 weeks in either their respective native salinity (3.0 ppt → 3.0 ppt and 24.0 ppt → 24.0 ppt), or the average of the salinities of the two collection sites (3.0 ppt → 13.5 ppt and 24.0 ppt → 13.5 ppt). After acclimation, groups were exposed to equivalent free-ion Cd concentration (4.8 ± 0.3 mg/L, Cd(2+)) in their respective acclimated salinity to compare survival among salinity treatments. Results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that 3.0 ppt → 3.0 ppt shrimp were more sensitive to Cd(2+) than any other group (p < 0.0001). Additionally, 3.0 ppt → 13.5 ppt shrimp were less sensitive to Cd(2+) than were 24.0 ppt → 13.5 ppt shrimp (p = 0.0013). These results suggest that sensitivity of grass shrimp to Cd is dependent upon the salinity during exposure, and the salinity regime from which the tested population originated. The implication is that toxicity studies and risk assessments using euryhaline crustaceans should consider the salinity of test population collection sites when interpreting and comparing results. PMID:23212442

  14. Exposure of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, to antimicrobial compounds affects associated Vibrio bacterial density and development of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, M E; Brooker, J; Chung, K W; Kelly, M; Martinez, J; Moore, J G; Thomas, M

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial compounds are widespread, emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment and may threaten ecosystem and human health. This study characterized effects of antimicrobial compounds common to human and veterinary medicine, aquaculture, and consumer personal care products [erythromycin (ERY), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxytetracycline (OTC), and triclosan (TCS)] in the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. The effects of antimicrobial treatments on grass shrimp mortality and lipid peroxidation activity were measured. The effects of antimicrobial treatments on the bacterial community of the shrimp were then assessed by measuring Vibrio density and testing bacterial isolates for antibiotic resistance. TCS (0.33 mg/L) increased shrimp mortality by 37% and increased lipid peroxidation activity by 63%. A mixture of 0.33 mg/L TCS and 60 mg/L SMX caused a 47% increase in shrimp mortality and an 88% increase in lipid peroxidation activity. Exposure to SMX (30 mg/L or 60 mg/L) alone and to a mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC did not significantly affect shrimp survival or lipid peroxidation activity. Shrimp exposure to 0.33 mg/L TCS increased Vibrio density 350% as compared to the control whereas SMX, the SMX/TCS mixture, and the mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC decreased Vibrio density 78-94%. Increased Vibrio antibiotic resistance was observed for all shrimp antimicrobial treatments except for the mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC. Approximately 87% of grass shrimp Vibrio isolates displayed resistance to TCS in the control treatment suggesting a high level of TCS resistance in environmental Vibrio populations. The presence of TCS in coastal waters may preferentially increase the resistance and abundance of pathogenic bacteria. These results indicate the need for further study into the potential interactions between antimicrobials, aquatic organisms, and associated bacterial communities. PMID:25348372

  15. Comparison of toxicity test methods using embryos of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.R.; Fisher, W.S.; Foss, S.S.; Glas, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water soluble fraction of number 2 fuel oil (WSF{sub oil}). To determine the repeatability and versatility of the grass shrimp in bioassays, detailed concentration-response curves were performed using altered test methods. These alterations were to make the test system easier to use, require less volume of toxic material and to shorten the time of the assay. LC50 values for each method were obtained. The methods evaluated the differences between altering time of exposure from 12 to 4 days. The 4-day assay in 24-well plastic plates included the time of hatch, a critical life stage of these embryos. The average 12-day LC50 in the glass Leighton tubes was 11.8% VN WSF{sub oil}. The coefficient of variation of the individual test methods were approximately 25%, showing that the repeatability was reasonable for bioassays. These results show that a 4-day assay is practical for screening for the detection of number 2 fuel oil contamination. However, the 12-day assay may be necessary for detection of developmental abnormalities.

  16. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE ANTENNAL GLAND, MIDGUT, HEPATOPANCREAS, AND GILL OF GRASS SHRIMP FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed for 1 month to subacute concentrations of hexavalent chromium (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 ppm) after which the gills, midgut, hepatopancreas, and antennal glands were examined for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Pathological c...

  17. SIMPLE TEST FOR TOXICITY OF NUMBER 2 FUEL OIL AND OIL DISPERSANTS TO EMBRYOS OF GRASS SHRIMP, PALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple test, using embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, was employed to determine the toxicity of two commercial oil dispersants (Corexit 7664 and Corexit 9527) and toxicity of the water soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil (WSF oil) prepared with and without the ad...

  18. ROSETTE GLANDS IN THE GILLS OF THE GRASS SHRIMP, 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' I. COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY, CYCLICAL ACTIVITY, AND INNERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of exocrine rosette glands (type A and type B), located in the gill axes of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are described. The type A glands are embedded within the longitudinal median spetum of the gill axes, whereas the type B glands typically project into the e...

  19. THE EFFECT OF PREHATCH AND POSTHATCH EXPOSURE TO CADMIUM ON SALINITY TOLERANCE OF LARVAL GRASS SHRIMP, 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of embryonic grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to 0.1 and 0.3 mg/l cadmium at 30 ppt salinity and 25C for the last 1, 4, or 8 days prior to hatching. Other groups of embryos were cultured in uncontaminated seawater. Prehatch exposure to cadmium was found to ha...

  20. Sexual sterilization of the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) by the bopyrid isopod Probopyrus pandalicola (Isopoda: Bopyridae).

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michele B; Curran, Mary Carla

    2015-02-01

    Probopyrus pandalicola is a bopyrid isopod that infects several palaemonid shrimp species, including the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio . The parasite can have several negative effects on its host, including loss of hemolymph, reduced reproductive potential, and decreased molting frequency and growth. To date, there are conflicting reports on whether Probopyrus pandalicola affects the reproductive capability of both male and female daggerblade grass shrimp. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infection by Probopyrus pandalicola resulted in the sexual sterilization of Palaemonetes pugio , and if the reproductive capability of male and/or female shrimp was restored after the bopyrid was removed. We found that parasitized and deparasitized males were able to fertilize the eggs of unparasitized females successfully, as 18.9 ± 7.1% and 42.7 ± 5.2% of the females paired with them became ovigerous in 4 wk, respectively. Neither parasitized nor deparasitized females became ovigerous when placed with unparasitized males during the 4-wk period. However, 45.4 ± 20.6% of deparasitized females did become ovigerous within 10 wk. Despite the fact that female shrimp are able to reproduce again when no longer parasitized, the majority of females remain infected with the bopyrid for their entire lives. Therefore, the sexual sterilization of female shrimp could potentially have a significant impact on estuarine food webs, as grass shrimp are conduits of detrital energy and a food source for many recreationally and commercially important species in estuaries on the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:25353615

  1. Bioaccumulation of four heavy metals in two populations of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Weis, J.S.; D'Andrea, L.

    1989-03-01

    Bioaccumulation can occur only if the rate of uptake of a chemical by an organism exceeds its rate of elimination. Many aquatic animals are able to excrete a greater proportion of their intake under contaminated conditions and thus maintain trace metal concentration in the body at an approximately normal level. The biological activity or the metabolic rate of an organism often changes due to natural seasonal variations causing the rate of incorporation and release of heavy metals to change. This paper reports on the comparative bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn in two populations of grass shrimp, Palaemontes pugio, one of the few species surviving in highly contaminated estuaries in northern New Jersey. One population they studied was from Piles Creek (PC), a tributary of the Arthur Kill in heavily industrialized Linden, New Jersey, and the other population was from Big Sheepshead Creek (BSC), a relatively pristine creek near non-industrialized Tuckerton, New Jersey.

  2. The developmental toxicity of three carrier solvents using embryos of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.R.; Fisher, W.S.

    1995-12-31

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates this test may be ideal for use as an estuarine developmental toxicity test. Many chemicals that require testing of this nature are insoluble in water. To determine the possible use of carrier solvents in the grass shrimp bioassays, detailed concentration-response curves for each solvent were performed using two test methods. LC50 values for each method were obtained. The first test was a 4-day assay that included the time of hatch, a critical life stage of these embryos. The second test was a 12-d assay which included development from tissue cap stage embryos through 2 days post hatch. The average 4-day LC50s for ETOH, DMSO and acetone were 12.07, 22.57, and 6.80 g/L, respectively. The average 12-day LC50s for ETOH, DMSO and Acetone were 3.63, 12.33 and 6.94 g/L, respectively. The coefficients of variation of each test were always less than 25.2%. Eye malformations were observed with embryos exposed to ETOH, while embryos exposed to DMSO and acetone showed very little embryo malformation. One experiment showed abnormal development of the last abdominal segment. Based on the concentration-response curves, the maximum allowable limit of ETOH, DMSO and acetone to be used as a carrier should be 1, 6, and 4 g/L, respectively.

  3. Effects of salinity, temperature, and cadmium stress on cadmium-binding protein in the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    In 96-hour bioassays, shrimp were exposed to zero or one of three levels of cadmium, under one of six different salinity and temperature regimes. CdBP concentrations were quantified in survivors from the 24 exposure groups. Salinity and temperature did not affect survivorship unless the shrimp were also exposed to cadmium. Grass shrimp were most sensitive to cadmium at low salinity-high temperature, and least sensitive at high salinity-low temperature. The incidence of cadmium-associated black lesions in gill tissue was influenced by salinity and temperature stress. P. pugio produced a 10,000 dalton metallothionein-like CdBP when exposed to at least 0.1 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 96 hours. Accumulation of CdBP was increased with increases in the exposure cadmium level, increases in temperature and decreases in salinity, independently and in conjunction with one another. Maximum CdBP concentrations occurred in grass shrimp that survived the salinity-temperature-cadmium conditions creating maximum stress as measured by highest mortality, not necessarily in shrimp exposed to the highest cadmium levels. The potential utility of this method as a monitor of physiological stress in estuarine biota inhabiting metal-polluted environments is discussed.

  4. A test for evaluating the toxicity of oils, dispersants, and oil biodegradation products to embryos of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio)

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, S.S.; Fisher, W.S.; Chapman, P.J.; Shelton, M.

    1994-12-31

    A test has been developed to determine the toxicity of oil, commercial oil dispersants, and oil biodegradation products to embryos of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. The system has several advantages over traditional toxicity tests: Embryos are exposed separately in glass tubes eliminating interaction between individuals, they do not require feeding, are easily examined, and require low volumes of test toxicant. Additionally, tests can be performed using artificial sea salts and adult P. pugio can be maintained and cultured year round in the laboratory. Toxicity tests demonstrated that oil dispersants increased the toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of No. 2 Fuel Oil with estimated LC50 values approximating those obtained with the 7d chronic tests using Mysidopsis bahia. Embryos exposed to neutral fractions derived by microbial degradation of weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil showed toxicity of metabolic products at relatively low concentrations and cause virtually 100% mortality within a narrow time interval. P. pugio embryos were especially responsive to oil metabolites, exhibiting high sensitivity and low variability. All tests showed a consistently high survival (90--100%) of control embryos to hatch under a variety of temperatures and salinities; embryos at any given test condition usually hatched within 24h of one another.

  5. Waterborne and sediment-source toxicities of six organic chemicals to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and amphioxus (Branchiostoma caribaeum)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Patrick, J.M.; Moore, J.C.; Lores, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to either waterborne or sediment-source concentrations of fenvalerate, cypermethrin, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), tributyltin oxide (TBTO), triphenyltin oxide, and di-n-butylphthalate in static or flow-through test systems. Similarly, amphioxus (Branchiostoma caribaeum) were tested with fenvalerate, TCB, and TBTO. The LC50 and no-effect and 100% mortality concentrations are reported from 96-hr and 10-day tests. The toxicity of contaminated sediments could be explained by chemical partitioning into overlying or interstitial water. Amphioxus is not recommended as a routine test species because of (1) difficulty in distinguishing severely affected from dead individuals, (2) inability to determine the status of burrowed animals without disrupting sediment, (3) their relative lack of sensitivity in acute exposures to toxic chemicals, and (4) difficulty in routine collection of sufficient numbers of animals. Grass shrimp, however, are useful as an epibenthic test species for waterborne and sediment-source toxicants.

  6. Studies of cadmium tolerance in two population of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Weis, J.S.; D'Andrea, L.

    1988-01-01

    Several investigators demonstrated that tolerance to pollutants can be increased by previous exposure to low sublethal concentrations. Acquired tolerance to metal can result from increased synthesis of metallothioneins. Metallothioneins are small (6000-7000 daltons), sulphydryl-rich, metal binding proteins, whose free thiol groups readily bind the heavy metals. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment with low doses of cadmium chloride (Cd) and mercuric chloride (Hg) on tolerance to higher levels of cadmium to two populations of grass shrimp, Palaemonentes pugio. One was from Piles Creek (PC), a tributary of the Arthur Kill in heavily industrialized Linden, New Jerseys. The other populations was from Big Sheepshead Creek (BSC), a relatively pristine system near non-industrialized Tuckerton, New Jersey. Piles Creek sediment metal concentrations have been reported to be 11.2, 5.9, 623.4, and 627.9 ug/g of Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn, respectively; whereas BSC sediment contained 0.054, 0.13, 12.9, and 7.7 ug/g of Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn respectively.

  7. Acute toxicity of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, terbufos and trichlorfon to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp. ) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as affected by salinity and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Brecken-Folse, J.A. . Environmental Protection Agency) Mayer, F.L. . Environmental Protection Agency); Pedigo, L.E. ); Marking, L.L. . National Fisheries Research Center)

    1994-01-01

    The toxicities of two industrial chemicals (4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and two organophosphate insecticides (terbufos and trichlorfon) to juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were determined by static, 96-h toxicity tests in a factorial design with 12 combinations of salinity and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30 ppt [times] 17, 22, 27 C). Concentrations of the toxicants, including bioconcentration, were determined as appropriate by gas or liquid chromatography and the use of [sup 14]C-labeled compounds. The 96-h LC50s for 4-nitrophenol ranged from 12 to 31 mg/L and for 2,4-dinitrophenol from 13 to 50 mg/L. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 4-nitrophenol and both test organisms. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows, but toxicity to grass shrimp increased as salinity increased. Toxicity decreased with increased temperature for grass shrimp exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows exposed to 4-nitrophenol, increased with temperature for sheepshead minnows exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol, and no change was observed for grass shrimp exposed to 4-nitrophenol. Bioconcentration of phenols in both test organisms increased as concentration increased. The 96-h LC50s for terbufos ranged from 3.4 to 6.6 [mu]g/L and for trichlorfon from 6.3 to 19,300 [mu]g/L. Terbufos and trichlorfon toxicity to grass shrimp and sheepshead minnows increased with increased temperature. BCFs for terbufos were greater in sheepshead minnows than grass shrimp, but were reversed for trichlorfon.

  8. Acute toxicity of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, terbufos and trichlorfon to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as affected by salinity and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brecken-Folse, J. A.; Mayer, F.L.; Pedigo, L.E.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The toxicities of two industrial chemicals (4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and two organophosphate insecticides (terbufos and trichlorfon) to juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon vanegatus) were determined by static, 96-h toxicity tests in a factorial design with 12 combinations of salinity and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30ppt x 17, 22, 27°C). Concentrations of the toxicants, including bioconcentradon, were determined as appropriate by gas or liquid chromatography and the use of 14C-labeled compounds. The 96-h LC50s for 4-nitrophenol ranged from 12 to 31 mg/L and for 2,4-dinitrophenol from 13 to 50 mg/L. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 4-nitrophenol and both test organisms. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows, but toxicity to grass shrimp increased as salinity increased. Toxicity decreased with increased temperature for grass shrimp exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows exposed to 4-nitrophenol, increased with temperature for sheepshead minnows exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol, and no change was observed for grass shrimp exposed to 4-nitrophenol. Bioconcentration of phenols in both test organisms increased as concentration increased. The 96-h LC50s for terbufos ranged from 3.4 to 6.6 μg/L and for trichlorfon from 6.3 to 19,300 μg/L. Terbufos and trichlorfon toxicity to grass shrimp and sheepshead minnows increased with increased temperature. BCFs for terbufos were greater in sheepshead minnows than grass shrimp, but were reversed for trichlorfon.

  9. Developmental toxicity of copper chloride, methylene chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide to embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.R.; Fisher, W.S.

    1999-05-01

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide, three known teratogenic chemicals. Two exposure periods were used, 4 d and 12 d, and both periods extended through hatching. The average 4-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.071% v/v, 1.82 mg/L, and 0.21 mg/ml, respectively. The average 12-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.031% v/v, 1.44 mg/L, and 0.057 mg/ml, respectively. Eye malformations were observed with embryos exposed to concentrations greater than 3 mg/L copper chloride or greater than 0.07% v/v methylene chloride. Very few abnormalities were observed in embryos exposed to 6-aminonicotinamide. Abnormal larval development was found with exposure to copper chloride at concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The sensitivity and low variability found here further supports the development of these relatively simple methods using grass shrimp embryos. Establishment of sublethal developmental endpoints warrants further investigation because of their potential correspondence to mechanisms of toxic action.

  10. Simple test for toxicity of number 2 fuel oil and oil dispersants to embryos of grass shrimp, palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.S.; Foss, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    A simple test, using embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, was employed to determine the toxicity of two commercial oil dispersants (Corexit 7664 and Corexit 9527) and toxicity of the water soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil (WSF oil) prepared with and without the addition of the dispersants. Tests revealed P. pugio embryos were similar to previously measured life stages in their sensitivity to WSF oil prepared without dispersants. They were approximately ten times more sensitive to water soluble fractions of dispersed oil, which may have been due to the approximately ten-fold increases in total hydrocarbons measured analytically. Both temperatures and salinity of the sea water affected toxicity of WSF prepared with dispersants, the most obvious effect being earlier onset of mortalities at higher temperatures. (Copyright (c) 1993 Pergamon Press Ltd.)

  11. Characterization of Intestinal Bacteria in Wild and Domesticated Adult Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

  12. The Effect of Temperature on Synchronization of Brood Development of the Bopyrid Isopod Parasite Probopyrus pandalicola with Molting of Its Host, the Daggerblade Grass Shrimp Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Brigette A; Curran, Mary Carla

    2015-08-01

    The bopyrid isopod Probopyrus pandalicola is a hematophagous ectoparasite that sexually sterilizes some palaemonid shrimps, including female daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. The reproduction of parasitic isopods is thought to occur synchronously with host molting because the brood would be unsuccessful if molting occurred before the larvae were free swimming. Temperature affects the length of the molting cycle of shrimp, and therefore may also affect the incubation time of isopod broods. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of temperature on brood development of the parasite and on the degree of synchronization with the molting of its host. Parasitized P. pugio were monitored daily at 2 experimental temperatures, 23 and 15 C, in temperature-controlled chambers for the duration of a full parasite reproductive cycle. Developmental stage was determined by the visible coloration of the brood through the exoskeleton of the host, and was designated as egg, embryo I, embryo II, or epicaridium larvae. Temperature significantly affected median brood incubation time, which was only 11 days at 23 C, as compared to 35 days at 15 C. The final developmental stage (epicaridium larvae) was 3 times shorter at 23 C (median 3 days; n = 45) than at 15 C (median 9 days; n = 15). Temperature significantly affected the intermolt period of parasitized shrimp, which was shorter at 23 C (median 12 days) than at 15 C (median 37 days). A smaller percentage of the intermolt period elapsed between larval release and shrimp molting at 23 C (0.0%) than at 15 C (3.1%), indicating closer synchronization between host molting and parasite reproduction at the warmer temperature. At 15 C, the isopods utilized a smaller proportion of the time that was available for brood incubation during the intermolt period of their host. Brood size ranged from 391 to 4,596 young and was positively correlated with parasite and host size. Because development progressed more rapidly

  13. Comparative toxicity of two dimilin formulations to the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.E.H.; Costlow, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    The benzoylphenyl ureas, which exhibit activity against larval stages of several insect species by interfering with the moulting process, were first introduced in 1972. Dimilin (common name diflubenzuron) is an example of this class of insecticide. There are two major formulations of diflubenzuron, the technical grade (TG) and the wettable powder (WP-25). The difference between TG and WP-25 is that the former which contains pure form of diflubenzuron (DFB) is very insoluble in water and the latter contains additives which enhance the solubility or dispersion of DFB in water. Apart from solubility, TG and WP-25 DFB differ in the mean particle size of the active materials. The particle size of the active ingredient in a DFB formulation has a considerable influence on the biological activity. The present investigation was designed to assess the toxicity of TG and WP-25 diflubenzuron to laboratory-reared larvae of the estuarine shrimp Palaemonetes pugio.

  14. Parasite distribution, prevalence, and assemblages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, in Southwestern Alabama, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheehan, Kate L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; O'Brien, Jack; Cebrian, Just

    2011-01-01

    The grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, harbors a number of symbionts within its North American range. Here, we document the distribution and seasonality of 4 taxonomic groups that use P. pugio as a host in coastal Alabama. We conducted a regional survey of 4 symbionts of P. pugio over 3 seasons and compared assemblages across space and time. The most common parasite was the metacercarial stage of the microphallid trematode Microphallus turgidus, which remained consistently prevalent over the 3 seasons surveyed. We also monitored the prevalence of M. turgidus at 2 sites monthly. Prevalence fluctuated significantly among seasons at these sites, but spatial heterogeneity appears to have a stronger influence on regional parasite prevalence. Distributions of 3 of 4 symbionts overlapped in a single geographic area (Mon Louis Island, Alabama, U.S.A.); however, multispecies infections of individual hosts were normally distributed within host populations. Sites surrounding Mon Louis Island had substantially higher parasite prevalence, particularly in the summer months. This area had a high quantity of Spartina marsh habitat, which we found influenced parasite prevalence, suggesting a role for wetland habitat in structuring parasite communities for this host.

  15. INFLUENCE OF AN INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR ON THE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF AN ESTUARINE SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of methoprene, an insect growth regulator used in mosquito control, on larval development of the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was examined in the laboratory. o grass shrimp larvae successfully completed metamorphosis when continuously exposed to 1000 ...

  16. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  17. ``Cleaner'' shrimps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotte, Stephen

    1998-03-01

    In the western North Atlantic, some shrimps of the genus Periclimenes interact with fishes. Accoring to prevailing wisdom, these shrimps “clean” the fishes (i.e. they remove parasites, diseased tissue, or detritus from their exposed surfaces). With one exception, the numerous literature entries recite anecdotal evidence. The only report based on empirical studies has dismissed the notion that “cleaner” shrimps perform the services attributed to them, leaving the nature of the relationship unresolved.

  18. Two follistatin-like 1 homologs are differentially expressed in adult tissues and during embryogenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Wen; Li, Fu-Gui; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) peptides play important roles in inhibiting myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Here, we characterized and examined the expression patterns of fstl1a and -b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). These genes encode 314 aa and 310 aa peptides, respectively, sharing a sequence identity of 83%. Except for the existence of the follistatin-N-terminal (FOLN) and Kazal-type 2 serine protease inhibitor (Kazal 2) domains, grass carp Fstl1a and -b do not share amino acid sequence similarity with Fst1 and -b. Both fstl1a and -b mRNAs were widely expressed in adult tissues. During embryogenesis, grass carp fstl1a and -b mRNA was detected in the presomitic mesoderm and somites at 12h post fertilization (hpf). At 24hpf, fstl1a mRNA was expressed in the hindbrain, somites, notochord and tailbud, while fstl1b mRNA was only detected in the tailbud. At 36hpf, fstl1a mRNA was detected in the hindbrain and notochord, and fstl1b was also expressed in the notochord. Furthermore, fstl1a and -b were downregulated in brain and liver tissue following injection with 10 or 50μg hGH, while fstl1b was significantly up-regulated in muscle tissue after 10μg hGH treatment. Both fstl1a and -b were significantly up-regulated at 2, 4 or 6days of nutrient restriction, and fstl1a was still highly expressed in the liver and muscle after 3days of refeeding, as was fstl1b in the brain and muscle. The expression of these genes returned to near control levels following 6days of refeeding. Our findings suggest that the two fstls play important but divergent roles in embryonic development and tissue growth regulation in grass carp. PMID:26439673

  19. Sublingual Immunotherapy with a Five-Grass Pollen Tablet in Adult Patients with Allergic Rhinitis: An Open, Prospective, Noninterventional, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Pfaar, Oliver; Richter, Heinz-Gerd; Klimek, Ludger; Sieber, Jochen; Hadler, Meike; Karagiannis, Efstrathios

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although the safety and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with a five-grass pollen tablet have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), these outcomes must always be evaluated in real-life medical practice. Methods. In a prospective, open-label, noninterventional, “real-life” study in Germany, we evaluated the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of SLIT with a five-grass pollen tablet in adults with grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Results. 808 adults were enrolled between September 2008 and December 2009. 35.3% of the participants experienced at least one adverse drug reaction (ADR), the most common of which were mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. Serious ADRs considered causally related to SLIT treatment occurred in four patients. Overall, the five-grass pollen tablet was considered to have good or very good tolerability by most investigators and patients. Treatment was associated with the relief of nasal, ocular, and bronchial symptoms and decreased symptomatic medication use. However, interpretation of clinical improvements was limited by lower atmospheric grass pollen levels during the study season (relative to the preceding season). Conclusions. In a large population of patients treated in real-life medical practice, SLIT with a five-grass pollen tablet was safe and well tolerated. The patient-reported symptom relief suggests that SLIT was associated with clinical benefits. PMID:26351635

  20. Immunocytochemical localization of V-H(+) -ATPase, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase in gill lamellae of adult freshwater euryhaline shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Maraschi, Anieli Cristina; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2015-08-01

    Physiological (organismal), biochemical, and molecular biological contributions to the knowledge of the osmoregulatory plasticity of palaemonid freshwater shrimps has provided a fairly complete model of transporter localization in their branchial epithelium. Direct immunological demonstration of the main enzymes in the gill epithelia of adult palaemonids is, however, still incipient. The diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus was exposed to increased salinity (25‰ for 24 hr), and its responses at the systemic level were evaluated through the assays of hemolymph osmolality and muscle hydration, and at cellular and subcellular levels through the activity and localization of the V-H(+) -ATPase, the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and the carbonic anhydrase. Results showed an increase in hemolymph osmolality (629 ± 5.3 mOsm/kg H2 O) and a decrease in muscle hydration (73.8 ± 0.5%), comparing values after 24 hr in 25‰ with control shrimps in freshwater (respectively 409.5 ± 15.8 mOsm/kg H2 O and 77.5 ± 0.4%). V-H(+) -ATPase was localized in pillar cells, whereas Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in the septal cells. The main novelty of this study was that carbonic anhydrase was localized in the whole branchial tissue, in pillar and septal cells. Exposure to high salinity for 24 hr led to no detectable changes in their localization or in vitro activity. Immunolocalization data corroborated the literature and current models of palaemonid gill ion transport. The absence of changes reinforces the need for the constant expression of these enzymes to account for the euryhalinity of these shrimps. PMID:26036663

  1. Immunolocalization and expression of Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase in embryos, early larval stages and adults of the freshwater shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Ituarte, Romina Belén; Lignot, Jehan-Hervé; Charmantier, Guy; Spivak, Eduardo; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    The euryhaline shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus exemplifies an evolutionary transition from brackish to freshwater habitats that requires adequate osmoregulatory capacities. Hyperosmoregulation is functional at hatching and it likely begins during the embryonic phase allowing this species to develop entirely in fresh water. Here, we investigated the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit gene (nka-α) expression using quantitative real-time PCR and localized Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in ion-transporting epithelia through immunofluorescence microscopy. We reared shrimps from spawning to juvenile stages at two salinities (1, 15 ‰) and maintained adults for 3 weeks at three salinity treatments (1, 15, 25 ‰). nka-α gene expression was measured in: (1) embryos at an early (SI), intermediate (SII) and late (SIII) stage of embryonic development; (2) newly hatched larvae (Zoea I, ZI); and (3) isolated gill tissue of adults. The nka-α expression was low in SI and SII embryos and reached maximum levels prior to hatching (SIII), which were similar to expression levels detected in the ZI. The nka-α expression in SIII and ZI was highest at 15 ‰, whereas salinity did not affect expression in earlier embryos. In SIII, in ZI and in a later zoeal stage ZIV, NKA was localized in epithelial cells of pleurae, in the inner-side epithelium of branchiostegite and in the antennal glands. Gills appeared in the ZIV but NKA immunolabeling of the cells of the gill shaft occurred in a subsequent developmental larval stage, the decapodid. Extrabranchial organs constitute the main site of osmoregulation in early ontogenetic stages of this freshwater shrimp. PMID:26796205

  2. Effect of dietary lysine on growth, intestinal enzymes activities and antioxidant status of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Yin; Tang, Ling; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Chen, Gang-Fu; Li, Shu-Hong; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The dietary lysine requirement of sub-adult grass carp (460 ± 1.5 g) was assessed by feeding diets supplemented with grade levels of lysine (6.6, 8.5, 10.8, 12.9, 15.0 and 16.7 g kg(-1) diet) for 56 days. The test diets (28% CP) contained fish meal, casein and gelatin as sources of intact protein, supplemented with crystalline amino acids. Weight gain (WG), feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly improved with increasing levels of lysine up to 12.9 g kg(-1) diet and thereafter declined (P < 0.05). Quadratic regression analysis of WG at 95% maximum response indicated lysine requirement was 10.9 g kg(-1) diet. Activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in intestine, creatine kinase activity in proximal and mid-intestine responded similar to WG (P < 0.05). In addition, lipid and protein oxidation decreased with increasing levels of lysine up to certain values and increased thereafter (P < 0.05); the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity, dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione content were increased with increasing dietary lysine levels up to certain values in the detected tissues, except for hepatopancreatic GST. Requirement estimated on the basis of malondialdehyde content in intestine and hepatopancreas was 10.6 and 9.53 g lysine kg(-1) diet, respectively. PMID:24174167

  3. Grass allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Although the grass itself may not be harmful, fertilizers, insecticides , and herbicides applied to the grass can ... with a chemical of any sort such as fertilizer, insecticide, or herbicide, find out the product name ...

  4. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE SHRIMPS, 'PENAEUS DUORARUM', 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' AND 'PALAEMONETES VULGARIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from this experiment show that grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris, were acutely and chronically more sensitive to cadmium than the pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum. Bioaccumulation of cadmium from water occurred at concentrations as low as 2 micrograms/l in P. duorarum and 7.9...

  5. SHRIMPS (ARTHROPODA: CRUSTACEA: PENAEIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pollution ecology of penaeid shrimps involving industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, petroleum, heavy metals, biological agents, and interactions of the above is discussed. Penaeid shrimps, within their geographic distribution, can serve as valid indicators of the presenc...

  6. Distribution of mercury in adult penaeid shrimps from Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoon (SE Gulf of California).

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; García-Rosales, S B; Páez-Osuna, F

    2004-12-01

    The Altata-Ensenada del Pabellon lagoon system is located in the central part of Sinaloa state, NW Mexico. The major sources of pollution are represented by the waste effluents from the intensive agriculture and the urban sewage from the cities of Culiacán (population of 750000) and Navolato (population of 50000). In this lagoon system diverse penaeid shrimps occur; the crystal shrimp Farfantepenaeus brevirostris, the brown shrimp F. californiensis, the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, the white shrimp L. vannamei and the Pacific seabob Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. With the purpose of knowing distribution and relative concentrations of Hg in the main tissues of penaeid shrimps, levels of Hg in five species from Altata-Enesenada del Pabellón lagoon on the SE Gulf of California were determined. Analysis were carried out by reducing mercury compounds after acid digestion reduction with SnCl(2) and detection by cold vapour atomic absorption. In general, hepatopancreas was the tissue where Hg was mostly accumulated, followed by muscle and exoskeleton. The sequence of Hg concentrations in the five species studied here for every tissue was: hepatopancreas L. vannamei>F. californiensis>L. stylirostris>F. brevirostris>X. kroyeri; muscle L. stylirostris>F. brevirostris>L. vannamei>F. californiensis=X. kroyeri and exoskeleton F. brevirostris>F. californiensis>L. vannamei>L. stylirostris>X. kroyeri. PMID:15519411

  7. Shrimp Farming in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Lovelle

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER CHLORIDE, METHYLENE CHLORIDE,AND 6-AMINONICOTINAMIDE TO EMBRYOS OF THE GRASS SHRIMPPALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, cop...

  9. Underutilized Grasses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial warm-season grasses have been recognized for having several properties, such as high rates of net photosynthesis, energy and labor savings, and reduced soil and nutrient losses that make them better suited for biofuel production than many annual crops. Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinat...

  10. Protocol for a double-blind randomised controlled trial of low dose intradermal grass pollen immunotherapy versus a histamine control on symptoms and medication use in adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis (PollenLITE)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous immunotherapy with high dose grass pollen (typically microgram quantities) was first described over 100 years ago. This treatment suppresses allergen-induced cutaneous late responses, with lesser effects on early responses. We previously reported that repeated 2-weekly intradermal injections of grass pollen - containing approximately 7 ng of major allergen Phl p 5 – led to a progressive suppression of the allergen-induced cutaneous response, and that by the sixth injection, this was inhibited by over 90%. The purpose of this trial is to investigate the clinical efficacy of intradermal desensitisation with low doses (i.e. nanogram quantities) of grass pollen allergen for seasonal allergic rhinitis. Methods/design The Pollen Low dose Intradermal therapy Evaluation (PollenLITE) is a single centre double-blind randomised parallel group controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of intradermal grass pollen injections plus standard treatment, versus histamine injections plus standard treatment, in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis (‘summer hay fever’). A minimum of ninety adults with a history of moderate-severe persistent allergic rhinitis during the UK grass pollen season will be randomised into two equal groups to receive 7 or 8 intradermal injections of grass pollen extract (containing approximately 7 ng of major allergen Phl p 5) or histamine, before the grass pollen season. In the summer, participants will score their symptoms, medication requirements, visual analogue scores, and complete EuroQOL (EQ-5D-5 L) and mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaires. Global assessments will also be recorded at the end of the pollen season. Blood samples will be collected from all participants for mechanistic immune assays. Skin punch biopsies will also be collected in 40 participants selected at random from intradermal injection sites after the grass pollen season for mechanistic assays. Finally

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF SHRIMP BACULOVIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research undertaken involved the partial characterization of a baculovirus of the pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum. The significance of the study is related to the fact that the shrimp baculovirus is morphologically similar to insect vaculoviruses which were considered unique to...

  12. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  13. Grass Lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  14. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2016-09-01

    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, P<0.05). Intestinal α-amylase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities rose along with increasing dietary CM level. The structure of the mid-intestinal tissues and the ultrastructure of the enterocyte microvilli were normal when dietary CM was <36.6% (60% protein replacement). Increasing dietary CM content increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels but decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin ( P<0.05).

  15. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, P<0.05). Intestinal α-amylase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities rose along with increasing dietary CM level. The structure of the mid-intestinal tissues and the ultrastructure of the enterocyte microvilli were normal when dietary CM was <36.6% (60% protein replacement). Increasing dietary CM content increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels but decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin (P<0.05).

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

  17. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  18. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  19. Interactions of alternate hosts, post-emergence grass control, and rootworm-resistant transgenic corn on western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage and adult emergence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to determine the effects of grassy weeds, post-emergence grass control, transgenic rootworm-resistant corn expressing the Cry3Bb1 endotoxin and glyphosate herbicide tolerance (Bt corn), and the interactions of these factors on western corn rootworm, Diab...

  20. COMPARATIVE EMBRYONIC AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENTAL RESPONSES OF AN ESTUARINE SHRIMP (PALAEMONETES PUGIO) TO THE JUVENILE HORMONE AGONIST, FENOXYCARB.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were reared separately through both embryonic and total larval development during exposure to fenoxycarb at measured concentrations of <2.2 to 888 ug L-1. A fenoxycarb concentration of 888 ug L-1significantly (p<0.05) inhibited embryonic developm...

  1. A homologue gene of β-catenin participates in the development of shrimps and immune response to bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ya-Kai; Ding, Ding; Wang, Hui-Min; Kang, Cui-Jie

    2015-11-01

    β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein that is involved in many physiological processes, including development, cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. However, the function of β-Catenin in crustacean is unknown. In this study, the first shrimp homologous gene of β-catenin in Marsupenaeus japonicus (i.e., Mjβ-catenin) was identified and characterized. The full-length of the complementary DNA of Mjβ-catenin is 3130 bp, including a 2463 bp open reading frame that encodes 821 amino acid. Multiple alignment of β-Catenin proteins suggested that the Armadillo/β-Catenin-like repeat domains were conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that β-Catenin from shrimp was clustered into one group with invertebrate β-Catenin. The transcription of β-catenin in various development stages of shrimp was detected and persistently increased as the shrimp matured. In adult shrimp, β-catenin was widely distributed in detected tissues and has the relatively high expression level in gills, hemocytes, testes, and ovaries. The transcripts of β-catenin in tissues of adult shrimp were significantly up-regulated at various time points after infecting with Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio anguillarum, and white-spot syndrome virus. Furthermore, knockdown of β-catenin resulted in impaired bacterial clearance ability and increased virus copy in shrimp in vivo. Therefore, β-Catenin in shrimp participates in the development and immune response of shrimps. PMID:26334791

  2. Project GRADS (Grass Roots Alternative Diploma Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Harold S.; Lucas, Geoffrey S.

    A project to develop grass roots alternative diploma study (Project GRADS) was undertaken for the purpose of formulating and implementing a multimodal, systems approach to preparing rural adults to pass the General Educational Development (GED) Tests. During the year-long, countywide program, GED programming was developed and delivered via the…

  3. Pests in Ornamental Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  4. Grass Rooting the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  5. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  6. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Port Valdez Shrimp and Sediment.

    PubMed

    Carls, Mark G; Holland, Larry; Pihl, Erik; Zaleski, Marilyn A; Moran, John; Rice, Stanley D

    2016-07-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil were present in some shrimp from Port Valdez, site of a ballast water treatment facility at the Alyeska Alaska Marine Terminal (AMT). Low-level petrogenic PAH concentrations were generally restricted to shrimp eggs in the vicinity of the AMT and extended along the southern shore of Port Valdez to Anderson Bay. Eggs had greater lipid content than other tissues and thus were the most vulnerable biological compartment to hydrocarbon accumulation. Petrogenic hydrocarbons were not observed in shrimp muscle and cephalothoraxes; thus, these tissues do not pose a human health risk. Risk for children older than age 2 years and adults consuming eggs also was low except for two unusual samples (of 32), collected about 17 km west of the treatment facility. In general, PAH loads were consistent with local time series data in other species. We infer that the accumulation mechanism was dissolved uptake from water, consistent with passive sampler observations completed more than a decade earlier. Hydrocarbon levels in the majority of samples were below toxic thresholds. Total PAH accumulation was substantially greater in some pink shrimp than in other species, thus differences in habitat utilization (muddy vs. rocky substrate) are potentially important. PMID:27033098

  7. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  8. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). White shrimp. [Penaeus setiferus

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, is the second most abundant species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable fishery in the United States. It serves as food for many fishes and is sold in the bait industry. Spawning occurs in at least 27 ppt salinity at water depths of 8 to 31 m, from April through September. Postlarvae move on flood tides into inshore estuarine nursery areas; peak abundances are in June and September. Juvenile white shrimp move farther inland than do brown shrimp and prefer shallow water with soft substrate. Growth of 1.6 mm per day occurs at water temperatures above 20/sup 0/C before the shrimp move offshore when inshore waters begin to cool in fall. Juveniles and adults return inshore when water temperatures increase in fall or the following spring. Survival at 8/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/C was related to temperature and salinities. Juvenile and adult white shrimp are omnivorous, selective-particulate, benthic feeders. Population abundance has been correlated with coastal marshes and freshwater inflows. Maintaining suitable nursery grounds will decide the future of Gulf Coast white shrimp resources. 71 refs. 2 figs.

  9. Polarization signals in mantis shrimps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Roberts, Nicholas; Marshall, Justin

    2009-08-01

    While color signals are well known as a form of animal communication, a number of animals communicate using signals based on patterns of polarized light reflected from specialized body parts or structures. Mantis shrimps, a group of marine crustaceans, have evolved a great diversity of such signals, several of which are based on photonic structures. These include resonant scattering devices, structures based on layered dichroic molecules, and structures that use birefringent layers to produce circular polarization. Such biological polarizers operate in different spectral regions ranging from the near-UV to medium wavelengths of visible light. In addition to the structures that are specialized for signal production, the eyes of many species of mantis shrimp are adapted to detect linearly polarized light in the ultraviolet and in the green, using specialized sets of photoreceptors with oriented, dichroic visual pigments. Finally, a few mantis shrimp species produce biophotonic retarders within their photoreceptors that permit the detection of circularly polarized light and are thus the only animals known to sense this form of polarization. Mantis shrimps use polarized light in species-specific signals related to mating and territorial defense, and their means of manipulating light's polarization can inspire designs for artificial polarizers and achromatic retarders.

  10. Opportunities for training in shrimp diseases.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V; Redman, R M

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities for formal training in shrimp diseases were not available 30 years ago. This was because the shrimp farming industry was in its infancy with few significant disease issues and even fewer shrimp disease specialists investigating the causes of production losses. In 2006, more than two million metric tons of the marine penaeid shrimp were farmed, accounting for more than half of the world's supply. With most of the world's shrimp fisheries at maximum sustainable yields, the ratio of farmed to fished shrimp appears likely to continue to increase. The remarkable growth of sustainable shrimp farming was made possible through the development of methods to diagnose and manage disease in the world's shrimp farms. This occurred as the result of the development of training opportunities in shrimp disease diagnosis and control methods and the application of that knowledge, by an ever increasing number of shrimp diseases specialists, to disease management at shrimp farms. The first type of formal training to become generally available to the industry was in the form of special short courses and workshops. The first of these, which was open to international participants, was given at the University of Arizona in 1989. Since that first course several dozen more special short courses and workshops on shrimp diseases have been given by the University of Arizona. Dozens more special courses and workshops on shrimp diseases have been given by other groups, including other universities, industry cooperatives, governments and international aid agencies, in a wide range of countries (and languages) where shrimp farming constitutes an important industry. In parallel, graduate study programs leading to post graduate degrees, with shrimp disease as the research topic, have developed while formal courses in shrimp diseases have not become widely available in veterinary or fisheries college curricula in the USA and Europe, such courses are appearing in university programs

  11. LIGNIN ACYLATION IN GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acylation of lignin during growth and development is a commonly found among some plant species. Grasses form unique acylated lignins involving p-coumarate (pCA). In corn rind tissue, it is exclusively attached to the gamma-carbon of lignin monomers, with a strong preference (over 90%) for attachment...

  12. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  13. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Olayan, A.H.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Cadmium resistance in an oligochaete and its effect on cadmium trophic transfer to an omnivorous shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, W.G.; Lopez, G.R.; Levinton, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the deposit-feeding oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri inhabiting Foundry Cove (FC), a severely cadmium (Cd)-contaminated cove located on the Hudson River, New York, USA, has evolved resistance to Cd. In this study we investigate how this resistance influences Cd trophic transfer from this oligochaete to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. Cadmium-resistant worms collected from FC and nonresistant worms collected from an adjacent unpolluted site were investigated for differences in Cd tolerance, accumulation, subcellular distribution and bioavailability to shrimp. FC worms were more tolerant of Cd, surviving twice as long as worms from the unpolluted site during a toxicity bioassay. The 7 d concentration factor of Cd-resistant worms was 4 times greater than that of nonresistant worms (2020 vs 577). There were also differences between worm populations with respect to subcellular Cd distributions. Cd-resistant worms produced metallothionein-like proteins (MT) as well as metal-rich granules (MRG) for Cd storage and detoxification; nonresistant worms only produced MT. These differences in subcellular Cd distributions led to large differences in Cd bioavailability to shrimp; shrimp fed Cd-resistant worms absorbed 21% of the ingested Cd, while those fed nonresistant worms absorbed roughly 4 times that amount (~75%). These absorption efficiencies were in good agreement with the proportions of Cd bound to the worm's most biologically available subcellular fractions (i.e. the cytosol and organelles). Although Cd-resistant worms predominantly stored the toxic metal in biologically unavailable MRG, their increased accumulation of Cd would still result in substantial trophic transfer to shrimp because of the storage of Cd in the biologically available fractions. This work demonstrates that the evolution of Cd resistance can have profound implications for Cd bioavailability and cycling within aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Characterization of the shrimp eyestalk cDNA encoding a novel fushi tarazu-factor 1 (FTZ-F1).

    PubMed

    Chan, S M; Chan, K M

    1999-07-01

    To study the role of ecdysone and the ecdysone inducible gene in the regulation of molting and development in crustaceans, we have cloned a cDNA encoding an orphan nuclear receptor family member from the eyestalk of the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis. The size of the cDNA is 4.3 kb with the longest open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 545 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the shrimp cDNA consists of regions that are characteristic of those of the nuclear hormone receptors. It shows a high degree of amino acid sequence identity in the DNA binding domain, ligand binding domain and the FTZ box as compared to those of invertebrates and vertebrates. Unlike the insects Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori, an AF2 transactivation domain was present in the shrimp FTZ-F1. Northern blot analysis using total RNA indicated that the FTZ-F1 mRNA could also be detected in the mature ovary. Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR analysis showed that the shrimp FTZ-F1 transcripts could be detected in the ovary, newly hatched nauplius, testis, eyestalk and epidermis of the adult shrimp. Although the cDNA clone was isolated from the eyestalk library, the shrimp FTZ-F1 appeared to express most abundantly in the mature oocytes. The presence of abundant FTZ-F1 specific maternal message in the late vitellogenic ovary and early nauplius indicates that it may be important for the early embryonic and larval development of the shrimp. Interestingly, shrimp FTZ-F1 can also be found in testis of the male shrimp. The presence of FTZ-F1 in other tissues such as epidermis suggests that it may also be involved in other physiological processes such as molting. PMID:10413106

  16. Molecular mechanisms of the shrimp clotting system.

    PubMed

    Maningas, Mary Beth B; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

    2013-04-01

    Shrimp, like other invertebrates, relies solely on its innate immune system, to combat invading pathogens. The invertebrate immune system has ancient origins that involve cellular and humoral responses. The clotting system of the humoral immune response is the first line of defense against pathogens and also serves to prevent blood loss during injury and wound healing. Tranglutaminase and clotting protein are molecules involved in the blood clotting system of crayfish and shrimp. Studies have shown that the shrimp clotting system is linked with the activation of antimicrobial peptides, similar to that of the horseshoe crab. Unlike the horseshoe crab and crayfish blood coagulation which are well studied systems, blood clotting in shrimp remains poorly understood. Here we review the shrimp clotting system and its involvement in innate immunity. PMID:23044383

  17. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  18. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  19. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  20. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  1. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  2. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  3. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  4. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  5. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  6. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one... food tests not less than 50 percent of shrimp material as determined by the method prescribed...

  7. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements (Gulf of Mexico): Brown Shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lassuy, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, is the major species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable $302 million in 1980) commercial fishery in the United States. It is heavily preyed on by many fishes. Spawning occurs offshore from about September to May and most postlarvae move into estuaries from February through April. Within the estuary they occupy shallow water near marshes with soft substrate. Juveniles emigrate from estuaries to offshore areas from May through August. They grow as fast as 3.3 mm per day in estuaries. Adults concentrate around the 55-m contour offshore. Postlarval and juvenile shrimp are normal1y taken in water temperatures above 10?C and rapid growth occurs above 18?C. Few shrimp are collected below 5 ppt salinity. Brown shrimp are benthic feeders and prefer soft substrates. High populatiorls are associated with coastal marshes.

  8. Species profiles - life histories and environmental requirements (Gulf of Mexico): brown shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Lassuy, D.R.

    1983-02-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, is the major species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable ($302 million in 1980) commercial fishery in the United States. It is heavily preyed on by many fishes. Spawning occurs offshore from about September to May and most postlarvae move into estuaries from February through April. Within the estuary they occupy shallow water near marshes with soft substrate. Juveniles emigrate from estuaries to offshore areas from May through August. They grow as fast as 3.3 mm per day in estuaries. Adults concentrate around the 55-m contour offshore. Postlarval and juvenile shrimp are normally taken in water temperatures above 10/sup 0/C and rapid growth occurs above 18/sup 0/C. Few shrimp are collected below 5 ppt salinity. Brown shrimp are benthic feeders and prefer soft substrates. High populations are associated with coastal marshes.

  9. PERENNIAL WARM-SEASON GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season grasses and can be used to augment the forage supply for grazing livestock operations in the northeastern U.S. Much of what is known about warm season grass production and management in the northeastern US was obtained from a soil conservation or wildlife habitat perspective. Warm-seas...

  10. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  11. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  12. Oxygen consumption in the shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, exposed to fluctuating temperatures and food contaminated with the diaromatic petroleum hydrocarbon, dimethylnaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, T. M.

    1983-04-01

    Oxygen consumption rates ( V˙o 2) in the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were determined after a 32 day exposure to fluctuating temperatures (FT) (18-22°C) and/or dimethylnaphthalene (DMN)-contaminated food (0·24 μg DMN g wet wt -1) and again after a 16 day recovery period of stable temperatures (20°C) and uncontaminated food. Ingestion of DMN-contaminated food for 32 days resulted in elevated V˙>o 2 in shrimp exposed to declining oxygen concentrations. After the 32 day exposure period, FT had no significant effect on V˙o 2 at 15, 20 and 25°C, tissue V˙o 2 and V˙o 2 in declining oxygen. Hemolymph copper concentrations were significantly depressed in shrimp exposed to DMN-contaminated food. After the 16 day recovery period, shrimp from the FT regime exhibited depressed V˙o 2 when exposed to 25°C but not to 15°C. These depressed respiratory rates were offset by the stimulatory effect of DMN-contaminated food. These respiration studies were generally unproductive in explaining the previously reported effects of FT and DMN-contaminated food on the survival of P. pugio under hypoxic conditions.

  13. Function of shrimp STAT during WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-06-01

    JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays key roles in the antiviral immunity of mammals, fish and insect. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp although virus disease has caused severe mortality in shrimp aquaculture. In order to understand the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp, dsRNA interfering technique was used to silence the expression of STAT gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, and the mortality of shrimp was detected after WSSV infection. Furthermore, the expressions of some potential target genes regulated by STAT or genes related to RNA interfering pathway were detected in STAT silenced shrimp during WSSV infection. The WSSV copy number in STAT silenced shrimp was 10(2)-10(3) copies/ng DNA which was much lower than that in the control. The mortality in STAT silenced shrimp caused by WSSV infection decreased very significantly compared to their controls. The function of STAT was verified in vitro cultured cells of hematopoietic tissue of crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by adding specific inhibitor of STAT3(S3I-201), and the cultured cells treated with S3I-201 showed much less WSSV copy number than their controls, which further suggested that STAT might be helpful for the replication of WSSV. Expression analysis on the potential STAT target genes and genes in RNA interfering pathway provide important information for understanding the functional mechanism of STAT in antiviral immunity of shrimp. PMID:24727196

  14. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  15. Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment by a sex-changing shrimp in selective-fishing environments.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Susumu; Yoshino, Kenji; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Kawajiri, Toshifumi; Goshima, Seiji

    2013-05-01

    1. Selective harvesting is acknowledged as a serious concern in efforts to conserve wild animal populations. In fisheries, most studies have focused on gradual and directional changes in the life-history traits of target species. While such changes represent the ultimate response of harvested animals, it is also well known that the life history of target species plastically alters with harvesting. However, research on the adaptive significance of these types of condition-dependent changes has been limited. 2. We explored the adaptive significance of annual changes in the age at sex-change of the protandrous (male-first) hermaphroditic shrimp and examined how selective harvesting affects life-history variation, by conducting field observations across 13 years and a controlled laboratory experiment. In addition, we considered whether plastic responses by the shrimp would be favourable, negligible or negative with respect to the conservation of fishery resources. 3. The age at sex-change and the population structure of the shrimp fluctuated between years during the study period. The results of the field observations and laboratory experiment both indicated that the shrimp could plastically change the timing of sex-change in accordance with the age structure of the population. These findings provide the first concrete evidence of adult sex ratio adjustment by pandalid shrimp, a group that has been treated as a model in the sex allocation theory. 4. The sex ratio adjustment by the shrimp did not always seem to be sufficient, however, as the supplement of females is restricted by their annual somatic growth rate. In addition, adjusted sex ratios are further skewed by the unintentional female-selectivity of fishing activity prior to the breeding season, indicating that the occurrence of males that have postponed sex-change causes sex ratio adjustment to become unfavourable. 5. We conclude that the plastic responses of harvested animals in selective fishing environments

  16. Preference for C4 shade grasses increases hatchling performance in the butterfly, Bicyclus safitza.

    PubMed

    Nokelainen, Ossi; Ripley, Brad S; van Bergen, Erik; Osborne, Colin P; Brakefield, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    The Miocene radiation of C4 grasses under high-temperature and low ambient CO 2 levels occurred alongside the transformation of a largely forested landscape into savanna. This inevitably changed the host plant regime of herbivores, and the simultaneous diversification of many consumer lineages, including Bicyclus butterflies in Africa, suggests that the radiations of grasses and grazers may be evolutionary linked. We examined mechanisms for this plant-herbivore interaction with the grass-feeding Bicyclus safitza in South Africa. In a controlled environment, we tested oviposition preference and hatchling performance on local grasses with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways that grow either in open or shaded habitats. We predicted preference for C3 plants due to a hypothesized lower processing cost and higher palatability to herbivores. In contrast, we found that females preferred C4 shade grasses rather than either C4 grasses from open habitats or C3 grasses. The oviposition preference broadly followed hatchling performance, although hatchling survival was equally good on C4 or C3 shade grasses. This finding was explained by leaf toughness; shade grasses were softer than grasses from open habitats. Field monitoring revealed a preference of adults for shaded habitats, and stable isotope analysis of field-sampled individuals confirmed their preference for C4 grasses as host plants. Our findings suggest that plant-herbivore interactions can influence the direction of selection in a grass-feeding butterfly. Based on this work, we postulate future research to test whether these interactions more generally contribute to radiations in herbivorous insects via expansions into new, unexploited ecological niches. PMID:27551380

  17. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  18. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  19. Shrimp Farms and Mangroves, Gulf of Fonseca

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For decades, astronauts on space missions have documented land use changes around the world. In this pair of images, astronauts track the development of shrimp farming along the Honduran coastline of the Gulf of Fonseca between 1989 and 2001. Mariculture, primarily shrimp farming, has become a leading agricultural effort in Honduras. The regional transformation of large tracts of coastal swamps into shrimp farms blossomed throughout the 1990s. The top image was taken with color infrared film in 1989. Dense vegetation, like the coastal mangrove swamps and the forested slopes of Volcan Cosiguina show up as dark red. The bottom image, taken with color visible film by the crew of the most recent Space Shuttle mission in December 2001 shows that hundreds of square kilometers of coastal swamp, primarily in Honduras, have been converted to shrimp ponds. These appear as the light-colored, rectilinear land use pattern. The Honduras shrimp farms were hit hard by flooding after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a devastating virus in 1999-2000. It is not known how many of the ponds in this view are still functional. A vigorous debate continues about the sustainability of the shrimp farms and the impacts to the environment and coastal ecosystem due to mangrove clearing and mariculture waste production. Apart from the shrimp farms, the other prominent feature on these images is the impressive volcano Cosiguina, which erupted explosively in 1859 (the largest recorded eruption in the Western Hemisphere). Photograph STS-108-717-85 was taken in the December 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. Photograph STS030-93-15 was taken in May 1989 using a Hasselblad camera and color infrared film. Both images are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  20. Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L

    2013-05-21

    An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested. PMID:23621086

  1. Identification of co-occurring Branchinecta fairy shrimp species from encysted embryos using multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Wood, D.A.; Simovich, M.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Morphological identification of many fairy shrimp species is difficult because distinguishing characters are restricted to adults. We developed two multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays that differentiate among three Branchinecta fairy shrimp with distributional overlap in southern California vernal pools. Two of the species are federally listed as threatened. Molecular identification of Branchinecta from cysts allows for species surveys to be conducted during the dry season, expanding the timeframe for population assessment and providing a less intrusive method of sampling sensitive vernal pool habitats. ?? Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

  3. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  4. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  5. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  6. Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Raj

    2009-07-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation. PMID:19396482

  7. The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum, its symbionts and helminths as bioindicators of chemical pollution in Campeche Sound, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Del Rio-Rodríguez, R; Gold-Bouchot, G; Rendón-von Osten, J; Miranda-Rosas, G A

    2006-06-01

    The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum may acquire pollutants, helminths and symbionts from their environment. Statistical associations were studied between the symbionts and helminths of F. duorarum and pollutants in sediments, water and shrimps in Campeche Sound, Mexico. The study area spatially overlapped between offshore oil platforms and natural shrimp mating grounds. Spatial autocorrelation of data was controlled with spatial analysis using distance indices (SADIE) which identifies parasite or pollutant patches (high levels) and gaps (low levels), expressing them as clustering indices compared at each point to produce a measure of spatial association. Symbionts included the peritrich ciliates Epistylis sp. and Zoothamnium penaei and all symbionts were pooled. Helminths included Hysterothylacium sp., Opecoeloides fimbriatus, Prochristianella penaei and an unidentified cestode. Thirty-five pollutants were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and heavy metals. The PAHs (2-3 ring) in water, unresolved complex mixture (UCM), Ni and V in sediments, and Zn, Cr and heptachlor in shrimps were significantly clustered. The remaining pollutants were randomly distributed in the study area. Juvenile shrimps acquired pesticides, PAHs (2-3 rings) and Zn, while adults acquired PAHs (4-5 rings), Cu and V. Results suggest natural PAH spillovers, and continental runoff of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), PCBs and PAHs (2-3 ring). There were no significant associations between pollutants and helminths. However, there were significant negative associations of pesticides, UCM and PCBs with symbiont numbers after controlling shrimp size and spatial autocorrelation. Shrimps and their symbionts appear to be promising bioindicators of organic chemical pollution in Campeche Sound. PMID:16768859

  8. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  9. Microbial quality of shrimp products of export trade produced from aquacultured shrimp.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Hatha, A A; Maqbool, T K; Suresh Kumar, S

    2003-05-15

    Bacteriological quality of individually quick frozen (IQF) shrimp products produced from aquacultured tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has been analysed in terms of aerobic plate count (APC), coliforms, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes. Eight hundred forty-six samples of raw, peeled, and deveined tail-on (RPTO), 928 samples of cooked, peeled, and deveined tail-on (CPTO), 295 samples of headless, undeveined shell-on (HLSO), and 141 samples of raw, peeled, and deveined tail-off (RPND) shrimps were analysed for the above bacteriological parameters. Salmonella was isolated in only one sample of raw, peeled tail-on. Serotyping of the strain revealed that it was S. typhimurium. While none of the cooked, peeled tail-on shrimp samples exceeded the aerobic plate count (APC) of 10(5) colony forming units per gram (cfu/g), 2.5% of raw, peeled, tail-on, 6.4% of raw, peeled tail-off, and 7.5% of headless shell-on shrimp samples exceeded that level. Coliforms were detected in all the products, though at a low level. Prevalence of coliforms was higher in headless shell-on (26%) shrimps followed by raw, peeled, and deveined tail-off (19%), raw, peeled tail-on (10%), and cooked, peeled tail-on (3.8%) shrimps. While none of the cooked, peeled tail-on shrimp samples were positive for coagulase-positive staphylococci and E. coli, 0.6-1.3% of the raw, peeled tail-on were positive for staphylococci and E. coli, respectively. Prevalence of staphylococci was highest in raw, peeled tail-off (5%) shrimps and the highest prevalence of E. coli (4.8%) was noticed in headless shell-on shrimps. L. monocytogenes was not detected in any of the cooked, peeled tail-on shrimps. Overall results revealed that the plant under investigation had exerted good process control in order to maintain superior bacteriological quality of their products. PMID:12593924

  10. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Northern Gulf of Mexico Brown Shrimp and White Shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Robert Eugene; Brody, Michael S.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop estuarine habitat models for brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. VARIABILITY OF GRASS LIGNIN ACYLATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are being championed as biomass sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermentation to ethanol, conversion to oils via pyrolysis, or direct conversion to energy through combustion. In the latter case, increasing lignin content would enha...

  13. [Research advances in behavioral ecology of penaeid shrimp II. Effects of environmental factors on behavior of penaeid shrimps].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Jian

    2006-02-01

    Animal has an extrinsic response to the changes of internal and external environments. To ensure the stabilization of internal environment, animal should adjust its behavior to conform the changes of external environmental factors. This paper reviewed the research advances at home and abroad on the effects of environmental factors on the behavior of penaeid shrimps, with the focus on the effects of light, current and tide, dissolved oxygen, substrate, and water temperature on the feeding, locomotion, spawning, moulting, burrowing and emergence of penaeid shrimps. The behavioral adjustment of penaeid shrimps to the changes of environmental factors was also summarized. The existing problems and future research directions in the behavioral ecology of penaeid shrimps, e.g., the relationships between penaeid shrimps behavior and disease spread, effects of penaeid shrimps behavior on aquaculture ecosystem, and effects of environmental factors on penaeid shrimps behavior in intensive and high-density culture, were put forward. PMID:16706066

  14. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Ghost shrimp and blue mud shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Horning, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The profiles are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessments. The ghost shrimp (Callianassa californiensis) and blue mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis) are common residents of intertidal mudflats of the Pacific Northwest, as well as of the entire West Coast of the contiguous United States. These species are decapod crustaceans, but not true shrimp. They are harvested as bait by recreational and commercial oyster-growing operations. Ghost shrimp larvae develop in summer in nearshore coastal waters and settle to the substrate surface, where they rapidly metamorphose; the life cycle of the blue mud shrimp is presumed to be similar. Both species spend their lives in burrows in the mudflat, where the ghost shrimp is primarily a deposit feeder and the blue mud shrimp is a suspension feeder.

  15. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  16. COBALT-60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Nancy L. B.

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

  17. Pacific white shrimp culture in inland ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a tropical species grown throughout Latin America and now introduced into Asia, adapts to and grows well in low-salinity water. Pond culture of L. vannamei has expanded to inland regions across the southern US where low-salinity ground water is availa...

  18. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

  19. Phylogenetics reveals the crustacean order Amphionidacea to be larval shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    De Grave, Sammy; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chu, Ka Hou; Yang, Chien-Hui; Landeira, José M.

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that the single representative of the crustacean order Amphionidacea is a decapod shrimp and not a distinct order. After reviewing available morphological evidence, it is concluded that Amphionides is a larval form, but with an as yet unknown parentage. Although the most likely adult form is in the family Pandalidae, the limited molecular data available cannot fully resolve its affinity. We therefore propose to treat Amphionides reynaudii as incertae sedis within Caridea, rather than a separate family. In view of the large scale, tropical and subtropical distribution of the taxon, the possibility is discussed that Amphionides is more likely to be a composite taxon at generic level, rather than larvae of a single shrimp species. PMID:26642937

  20. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  1. UV induced visual cues in grasses

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji; Lukose, Sujith; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Koshy, Konnath Chacko

    2013-01-01

    Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflict heavy losses to cereals and millets during their growth, maturation and storage. The actual factors guiding insects and predators to grass flowers, fruits and seeds are not clear. Here, we report attractive blue fluorescence emissions on grass floral parts such as glumes, lemma, palea, lodicules, staminal filaments, pollens and fruits in ultraviolet (UV) 366 nm, whereas the stigmatic portions were not blue, but red fluorescent. We characterized the blue fluorescent constituent in grass reproductive structures as ferulic acid (FA). Fluorescence spectra of blue-emitting grass floral, seed extracts and isolated FA on excitation at 366 nm showed their emissions at 420–460 nm. We propose these FA-based blue fluorescence emissions in grass reproductive structures as visual cues that attract pollinators, predators and even pests towards them. PMID:24061408

  2. Lipid Adaptation of Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata in Hydrothermal Vent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Jilin

    2015-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is the most abundant species in hydrothermal vents. Lipids, the component of membranes, play an important role in maintaining their function normally in such extreme environments. In order to understand the lipid adaptation of R. exoculata (HV shrimp) to hydrothermal vents, we compared its lipid profile with the coastal shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (EZ shrimp) which lives in the euphotic zone, using ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As a result, the following lipid adaptation can be observed. (1) The proportion of 16:1 and 18:1, and non-methylene interrupted fatty acid (48.9 and 6.2 %) in HV shrimp was higher than that in EZ shrimp (12.7 and 0 %). While highly-unsaturated fatty acids were only present in the EZ shrimp. (2) Ceramide and sphingomyelin in the HV shrimp were enriched in d14:1 long chain base (96.5 and 100 %) and unsaturated fatty acids (67.1 and 57.7 %). While in the EZ shrimp, ceramide and sphingomyelin had the tendency to contain d16:1 long chain base (68.7 and 75 %) and saturated fatty acids (100 and 100 %). (3) Triacylglycerol content (1.998 ± 0.005 nmol/mg) in the HV shrimp was higher than that in the EZ shrimp (0.092 ± 0.005 nmol/mg). (4) Phosphatidylinositol and diacylglycerol containing highly-unsaturated fatty acids were absent from the HV shrimp. (5) Lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine were rarely detected in the HV shrimp. A possible reason for such differences was the result of food resources and inhabiting environments. Therefore, these lipid classes mentioned above may be the biomarkers to compare the organisms from different environments, which will be benefit for the further exploitation of the hydrothermal environment. PMID:26475295

  3. Differentiation of plant age in grasses using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; Groen, Thomas A.; de Boer, Willem F.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Kohi, Edward; Peel, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development. Spectra of grasses of different ages were collected from a greenhouse study. These were used to determine if NDVI, NDWI, CAI, EVI, EVI2 and the newly proposed PhIX index could sequentially discriminate grasses of different ages, and subsequently classify grasses into their respective age category. The PhIX index was defined as: (AVNIRn+log(ASWIR2n))/(AVNIRn-log(ASWIR2n)), where AVNIRn and ASWIR2n are the respective normalised areas under the continuum removed reflectance curve within the VNIR (500-800 nm) and SWIR2 (2000-2210 nm) regions. The PhIX index was found to produce the highest phenological classification accuracy (Overall Accuracy: 79%, and Kappa Accuracy: 75%) and similar to the NDVI, EVI and EVI2 indices it statistically sequentially separates out the developmental age classes. Discrimination between seedling and dormant age classes and the adult and flowering classes was problematic for most of the tested indices. Combining information from the visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared region (SWIR) region into a single phenological index captures the phenological changes associated with plant pigments and the ligno-cellulose absorption feature, providing a robust method to discriminate the age classes of grasses. This work provides a valuable contribution into mapping spatial variation and monitoring plant growth across savanna and grassland ecosystems.

  4. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  5. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health. PMID:21426366

  6. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  7. Do brine shrimp diagnose cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Hodes, M E; Thomas, J; Morgan, S; Merritt, A D

    1975-11-01

    The nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are dependent upon the function of their salt gland to maintain osmotic pressure within narrow limits. A number of drugs interfere with this function and are lethal to the nauplii. Saliva and serum from normal persons, patients with cystic fibrosis, and obligate heterozygotes were tested for lethal effect against brine shrimp nauplii. At salt concentrations between 100 mM and 2.5 no difference was found among the phenotypes. At lower concentrations a difference was noted occasionally between some normal subjects and some individuals carrying one or two genes for cystic fibrosis. Data from an independent series of experiments indicate that the naupliar deaths result from distorted ratios of Na+/K+ and not from a specific gene product. No difference was noted in the O2 uptake of nauplii treated with saliva or serum obtained from normal subjects, patients with cystic fibrosis, or obligate heterozygotes. PMID:1187245

  8. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent. PMID:11933129

  9. Dead Shrimp Blues: A Global Assessment of Extinction Risk in Freshwater Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  10. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  11. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  12. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    PubMed

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

  13. Vortex Formation with a Snapping Shrimp Claw

    PubMed Central

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

  14. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Varela-Romero, Alejandro; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Vega-Heredia, Sarahí; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis E; De la Rosa-Vélez, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2009-03-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in many cellular processes. Description of penaeid shrimp genes, including mitochondrial genomes are fairly recent and some are focusing on commercially important shrimp as the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that is being used for aquaculture not only in America, but also in Asia. Much less is known about other Pacific shrimp such as the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. We report the complete mitogenomes from these last two Pacific shrimp species. Long DNA fragments were obtained by PCR and then used to get internal fragments for sequencing. The complete F. californiensis and L. stylirostris mtDNAs are 15,975 and 15,988 bp long, containing the 37 common sequences and a control region of 990 and 999 bp, respectively. The gene order is identical to that of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Secondary structures for the 22 tRNAs are proposed and phylogenetic relationships for selected complete crustacean mitogenomes are included. Phylogenomic relationships among five shrimp show strong statistical support for the monophyly of the genus across the analysis. Litopenaeus species define a clade, with close relationship to Farfantepenaeus, and both clade with the sister group of Penaeus and Fenneropenaeus. PMID:20403743

  15. Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

  16. L-band radar scattering from grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  17. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. PMID:24751195

  18. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  19. Chronic toxicity of arsenic to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Cardwell, Rick D; Adams, William J

    2003-02-01

    We determined the chronic toxicity of arsenic (sodium arsenate) to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Chronic toxicity was determined by measuring the adverse effects of arsenic on brine shrimp growth, survival, and reproduction under intermittent flow-through conditions. The study commenced with <24-h-old nauplii, continued through reproduction of the parental generation, and ended after 28 days of exposure. The concentrations tested were 4, 8, 15, 31, and 56mg/L dissolved arsenic. The test was conducted using water from the Great Salt Lake, Utah as the dilution water. Adult survival was the most sensitive biological endpoint, with growth and reproduction somewhat less sensitive than survival. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for survival was 8mg/L, and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 15mg/L dissolved arsenic. The LOEC for growth and reproduction was greater than the highest concentration tested, 56mg/L. Based on survival, the final chronic value (geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC) was 11mg/L dissolved arsenic. The F(1) generation appeared to acclimate to the prior arsenic exposure of the parental generation and was significantly less sensitive than the parental generation. For example, survival for the F(1) generation through day 12 was 100% in 56mg/L dissolved arsenic, compared to 26% for the parental generation. Growth of the F(1) generation was significantly less than that of the parental generation across all concentrations including the control, indicating a generational difference in brine shrimp growth rather than an arsenic effect. This study represents one of the few full life cycle toxicity tests conducted with brine shrimp. PMID:12550094

  20. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  1. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  2. Re-Learning the Traditional Art of Inuit Grass Basket-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an adult learning project to revitalise the traditional Inuit art of weaving grass baskets. The participants involved in the project, all older women who speak an indigenous first language (Inuktitut) and who have limited experience with formal education, largely on their own initiative, undertook the process of successfully…

  3. Bacterial dynamics in intestines of the black tiger shrimp and the Pacific white shrimp during Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota play important roles in health of their host, contributing to maintaining the balance and resilience against pathogen. To investigate effects of pathogen to intestinal microbiota, the bacterial dynamics upon a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, exposures were determined in two economically important shrimp species; the black tiger shrimp (BT) and the Pacific white shrimp (PW). Both shrimp species were reared under the same diet and environmental conditions. Shrimp survival rates after the V. harveyi exposure revealed that the PW shrimp had a higher resistance to the pathogen than the BT shrimp. The intestinal bacterial profiles were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA sequences under no pathogen challenge control and under pathogenic V. harveyi challenge. The DGGE profiles showed that the presence of V. harveyi altered the intestinal bacterial patterns in comparison to the control in BT and PW intestines. This implies that bacterial balance in shrimp intestines was disrupted in the presence of V. harveyi. The barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed the similar bacterial community structures in intestines of BT and PW shrimp under a normal condition. However, during the time course exposure to V. harveyi, the relative abundance of bacteria belong to Vibrio genus was higher in the BT intestines at 12h after the exposure, whereas relative abundance of vibrios was more stable in PW intestines. The principle coordinates analysis based on weighted-UniFrac analysis showed that intestinal bacterial population in the BT shrimp lost their ability to restore their bacterial balance during the 72-h period of exposure to the pathogen, while the PW shrimp were able to reestablish their bacterial population to resemble those seen in the unexposed control group. This observation of bacterial disruption might correlate to different mortality rates observed between the two shrimp species

  4. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test. 797.1930 Section 797.1930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Aquatic Guidelines § 797.1930 Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. 102.55 Section 102.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a)...

  6. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  7. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  8. Characterization of Sterol Oxidation Products in Two Breaded Shrimp Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two breaded shrimp products were examined for the changes in cholesterol, phytosterols, and fatty acids that occurred during cooking. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in the raw, baked, and fried states after separation into breading and shrimp components. Cholesterol, campest...

  9. Shrimp monitor/locator for conservation of fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration project of a new type Shrimp Detector/Monitor has been completed. The test project proved the efficiency of the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in detecting shrimp, in identifying the number and size, in real time, but indicated that improvement could be effected which would enhance the operation. Data obtained from the test cruises indicate significant savings in diesel fuel will occur for those trawlers using the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in place of the usual trynet operation; 25% savings for the series model number 400, (the prototype tested) and expected 35%+ if the advanced series model number 500 were used. Fabrication and operational costs for the Shrimp Monitor/Detector are reasonable and well within the financial abilities of the usual large offshore trawler. Research and testing during this program resulted in the design of an advanced model incorporating significant improvements, and fabrication was commenced but the extra cost involved beyond the set value of this contract made the further experiments non-viable. Recommendations have been submitted for an extended program to fabricate and test the advanced model series number 500 which may be of more value and interest, market use, to the operating offshore shrimp trawlers. A marketing/sales program will be instituted to place the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in the commercial area serving the shrimp fleet.

  10. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  11. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Mark; Karnjanakesorn, Choomjet

    1995-01-01

    Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. The conversion of near-shore areas to shrimp culture, however, is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. This paper reviews the development of Thailand's marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts that are emerging. It then discusses the implications these have for rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry.

  12. Exploiting the Potential Differences in Pasture Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate grasses grown for pasture in Wisconsin exhibit a range of chemical and physical characteristics that influence their utilization by grazing cattle. Potential intake of all grasses declines with maturity due to decreasing cell wall digestiblity, but the leaves and stems of orchardgrass and...

  13. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G. ); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  14. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.; Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D.

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  15. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  16. Unique aspects of the grass cell wall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are amongst the most important crops worldwide, and the composition of their cell walls is critical for uses as food, feed, and energy crops. Grass cell walls differ dramatically from dicot cell walls in terms of the major structural polysaccharides present, how those polysaccharides are lin...

  17. The Endophytic Niche and Grass Defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much research has been done on the interactive nature of the tall fescue grass and its fungal partner. This research has established that this very valuable forage, turf and conservation grass, which occupies 30 million plus acres in the south-eastern USA, is toxic to most livestock and wild animal...

  18. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  19. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  20. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  1. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  2. 78 FR 40436 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages the shrimp fishery in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico under the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and...

  3. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  4. 77 FR 36998 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages the shrimp fishery in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico under the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and...

  5. CO-OCCURRENCE OF WHITE SHRIMP, PENAEUS VANNAMEI, MORTALITIES AND MICROCYSTIN TOXIN IN A SOUTHEASTERN USA SHRIMP FACILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various freshwater and marine algal toxins are known to affect plants, fishes, mammals, and invertebrates. During recent mortality events in Texas white shrimp aquaculture ponds, water and shrimp tissue samples were analyzed for cyanobacterial toxins and found to contain microcystin-LR. Cyanoprokar...

  6. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  7. Controls over native perennial grass exclusion and persistence in California grasslands invaded by annuals.

    PubMed

    Mordecai, Erin A; Molinari, Nicole A; Stahlheber, Karen A; Gross, Kevin; D'Antonio, Carla

    2015-10-01

    Despite obvious impacts of nonnative species in many ecosystems, the long-term outcome of competition between native and exotic species often remains unclear. Demographic models can resolve the outcome of competition between native and exotic species and provide insight into conditions favoring exclusion vs. coexistence. California grasslands are one of the most heavily invaded ecosystems in North America. Although California native perennial bunchgrasses are thought to be restricted to a fraction of their original abundance, the eventual outcome of competition with invasive European annual grasses at a local scale (competitive exclusion, stable persistence, or priority effects) remains unresolved. Here, we used a two-species discrete time population growth model to predict the outcome of competition between exotic annual and native perennial grasses in California, and to determine the demographic traits responsible for the outcome. The model is parameterized with empirical data from several field experiments. We found that, once introduced, annual grasses persist stably with little uncertainty. Although perennial grasses are competitively excluded on average, the most likely range of model predictions also includes stable coexistence with annual grasses. As for many other perennial plants, native bunchgrass population growth is highly sensitive to the survival of adults. Management interventions that improve perennial adult survival are likely to be more effective than those that reduce exotic annual seed production or establishment, reduce competition, or increase perennial seedling establishment. Further empirical data on summer survival of bunchgrass adults and competitive effects of annuals on perennials would most improve model predictions because they contribute most to the uncertainty in the predicted outcome for the perennial grass. This work demonstrates how demographic approaches can clarify the outcome of competition between native and exotic species

  8. Comparative studies on nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhen-Xiong; Li, De-Shang; Zhang, Man-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2001-09-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% 83.9% of the total input nitrogen 3.2% 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9% respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% 60.8% of the total, input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% 6. 2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% 8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging rates for all the studied polyculture systems ranged from 3.0% to 6. 0% of total input nitrogen.

  9. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (<10 log CFU/g) during refrigerated (4°C) storage of cooked shrimp for 2 days. The redness, yellowness, and lightness were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the cooked shrimp than for the uncooked shrimp on all days tested. The standard deviation for redness in the cooked shrimp was large, indicating a wide range of pink coloration on all days tested. The results suggest that boiling shrimp until they float will significantly reduce Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good

  10. Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömberg, Caroline A. E.

    2011-05-01

    The evolution and subsequent ecological expansion of grasses (Poaceae) since the Late Cretaceous have resulted in the establishment of one of Earth's dominant biomes, the temperate and tropical grasslands, at the expense of forests. In the past decades, several new approaches have been applied to the fossil record of grasses to elucidate the patterns and processes of this ecosystem transformation. The data indicate that the development of grassland ecosystems on most continents was a multistage process involving the Paleogene appearance of (C3 and C4) open-habitat grasses, the mid-late Cenozoic spread of C3 grass-dominated habitats, and, finally, the Late Neogene expansion of C4 grasses at tropical-subtropical latitudes. The evolution of herbivores adapted to grasslands did not necessarily coincide with the spread of open-habitat grasses. In addition, the timing of these evolutionary and ecological events varied between regions. Consequently, region-by-region investigations using both direct (plant fossils) and indirect (e.g., stable carbon isotopes, faunas) evidence are required for a full understanding of the tempo and mode of grass and grassland evolution.

  11. Tropical grasses as a renewable energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.; Alexander, A.G.; Rios, C.; Garcia, M.

    1983-01-01

    Agronomists, evaluating tropical grasses from Saccharum and allied genera as potential renewable energy sources for boiler fuel and alcohol, emphasized (1) maximizing sugar cane's total biomass rather than sucrose production, (2) utilizing alternative tropical grasses during sugar cane's offseason for year-round fuel production, and (3) mechanizing production technologies for fibrous, thin-stemmed tropical grasses that are to be managed as solar-dried fuels and feedstocks. Based on the time required to maximize their dry matter yields, three categories of grasses have emerged as potential energy crops: short rotation (2-3 months) with Sordan 70A (a sorghum/sudan grass hybrid), intermediate rotation (4-6 months) with napier grass, and long rotation (12-18 months) with sugar cane. Total oven-dried matter is 50 tons/acre-yr (114 metric tons /hectare-yr) for sugar cane, 33 tons (74 metric tons) from napier grass harvested at 6-month intervals, and 21 tons (47 metric tons) from Sordan 70A harvested every 14 weeks.

  12. Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision.

    PubMed

    Pan, Peng-min; Li, Jian-ping; Lv, Gu-lai; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Song-ming; Lou, Jian-zhong

    2009-08-01

    The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled shrimp was proposed, which contains binary image thinning, branch recognition and elimination, and length reconstruction, while its width was calculated during the process of length extracting. The model was further validated with another set of images from 30 shelled shrimps. For a comparison purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) was used for the shrimp weight predication. The ANN model resulted in a better prediction accuracy (with the average relative error at 2.67%), but took a tenfold increase in calculation time compared with the weight-area-perimeter (WAP) model (with the average relative error at 3.02%). We thus conclude that the WAP model is a better method for the prediction of the weight of shelled red shrimp. PMID:19650197

  13. Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Peng-min; Li, Jian-ping; Lv, Gu-lai; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Song-ming; Lou, Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled shrimp was proposed, which contains binary image thinning, branch recognition and elimination, and length reconstruction, while its width was calculated during the process of length extracting. The model was further validated with another set of images from 30 shelled shrimps. For a comparison purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) was used for the shrimp weight predication. The ANN model resulted in a better prediction accuracy (with the average relative error at 2.67%), but took a tenfold increase in calculation time compared with the weight-area-perimeter (WAP) model (with the average relative error at 3.02%). We thus conclude that the WAP model is a better method for the prediction of the weight of shelled red shrimp. PMID:19650197

  14. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  15. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production, based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurements of shoreline length and area of marsh having more than 5.0 km shoreline/sq km for the coast of Louisiana, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield. The mathematical model relating these parameters and the shrimp production is consistent with an energy flow model describing the interaction of detritus producing marshlands with shrimp nursery grounds and inshore shrimping areas. The analysis supports the basic hypothesis and further raises the possibility of applications to coastal zone management requirements.

  16. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  17. Improved methodology for the estimation of sulfur dioxide in shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, B.J. III

    1987-01-01

    A large portion of the shrimp harvested in the Gulf of Mexico are treated with sodium bisulfite to prevent melanosis. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the need for this additive and regards a one minute dip in a 1.2% sodium bisulfite solution as current good manufacturing practice. Recently, sulfites have come under close scrutiny by regulatory authorities because they have been implicated as causing severe reaction in asthmatics. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, efficient method for determining SO/sub 2/ in shrimp and to determine the stability of SO/sub 2/ in shrimp during frozen storage.

  18. Critical appraisal of Timothy grass pollen extract GRAZAX® in the management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Scaparrotta, Alessandra; Attanasi, Marina; Petrosino, Marianna I; Di Filippo, Paola; Di Pillo, Sabrina; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common diseases of adult and pediatric age, associated with grass pollen (GP) allergy in >50% cases, with a consistent impact on quality of life of affected patients. A grass allergen tablet, containing standardized extract derived from Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen and ~15 μg major allergen P. pratense (rPhl p 5), may be the future of allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) for GP allergy. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the role of Timothy GP extract IT for the management of allergic rhinitis. For this purpose, we have tried to analyze potential mechanisms of action at the basis of Timothy GP extract, we have reviewed efficacy studies to establish potential benefits and clinical response, and we have also evaluated safety and tolerability profiles and patient focus perspective, such as quality of life, satisfaction and acceptability, and compliance to this IT. PMID:26604688

  19. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  20. The draft genome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) provides insights into its evolution and vegetarian adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Yong; Ning, Zemin; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Lu, Hengyun; Huang, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqin; Feng, Qi; Liang, Xufang; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Li, Wenjun; Wen, Ziruo; Zhou, Congcong; Tian, Qilin; Kang, Xiaojun; Shi, Mijuan; Zhang, Wanting; Jang, Songhun; Du, Fukuan; He, Shan; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Gui, Bin; He, Huihui; Ning, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; He, Libo; Luo, Lifei; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qiong; Liu, Xiaochun; Li, Shuisheng; Huang, Wen; Xiao, Ling; Lin, Haoran; Han, Bin; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2015-06-01

    The grass carp is an important farmed fish, accounting for ∼16% of global freshwater aquaculture, and has a vegetarian diet. Here we report a 0.9-Gb draft genome of a gynogenetic female adult and a 1.07-Gb genome of a wild male adult. Genome annotation identified 27,263 protein-coding gene models in the female genome. A total of 114 scaffolds consisting of 573 Mb are anchored on 24 linkage groups. Divergence between grass carp and zebrafish is estimated to have occurred 49-54 million years ago. We identify a chromosome fusion in grass carp relative to zebrafish and report frequent crossovers between the grass carp X and Y chromosomes. We find that transcriptional activation of the mevalonate pathway and steroid biosynthesis in liver is associated with the grass carp's adaptation from a carnivorous to an herbivorous diet. We believe that the grass carp genome could serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality fish using a genomic approach. PMID:25938946

  1. Relationship between condition and recruitment success of red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) in the Balearic Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ana; Lloret, Josep; Demestre, Montserrat

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluates the reproductive potential and condition of the red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) population inhabiting the waters around the Balearic Islands (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), between 1991 and 2004. Red shrimp is one of the most valuable exploited demersal fishery resources in the western Mediterranean. To assess the condition of this species, we use two indices based on weight and length data, one including the gonad weight and another excluding it. Different biological parameters of the population dynamics and reproductive biology, such as sex-ratio, maturity, gonadosomatic index and presence of the spermatophore in females have also been analysed. A negative relationship was found between the gonadosomatic index and the condition of red shrimp, indicating that energy reserves are transferred from the body to the gonad during the reproductive period. The condition of adults reached minimum values during the maturation and spawning period after mating, when the gonadosomatic index, the spermatophore presence in females and the proportion of females in the population were highest. The relationship between the condition of adults during the months prior to spawning and the number of recruits in the following year was significant and positive. This relationship was stronger when only male condition was considered, suggesting that males have an important role on the reproductive potential of this species. Overall, our results suggest that condition of red shrimp, particularly males, is an important aspect for the reproductive and recruitment success of this species. The observed decreasing trend in male condition over years may raise concern on the future reproductive potential of that population.

  2. Watching Grass Grow: Biology Explorations Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puttick, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    Describes an online biology course for science teachers in a master's degree program that focuses on the adaptation and natural selection of grass under environmental challenges. Provides experience with how biologists use questioning and investigation in their research. (YDS)

  3. New Developments in Grasses for Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New forage varieties with improved traits are an essential component of best management practices for livestock agriculture. This paper discusses new varieties of several cool-season forage grasses used for pasture production....

  4. Temperate grass response to timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management has a significant impact on pasture growth. We determined how timing of grazing influences grass productivity, yield distribution, and persistence. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould...

  5. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  6. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  7. DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION TREATMENT OF GULF SHRIMP CANNERY WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coagulants investigation inc...

  8. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

  9. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

  10. MAPPING BURROWING SHRIMP AND SEAGRASS IN YAQUINA ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp and seagrasses create extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats within Pacific NW estuaries. Maps of their populations are useful to inform estuarine managers of locations that deserve special consideration for conservation, and to inform oyster farmers...

  11. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W. Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M.; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P.; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O.; Kimeu, John M.; Luke, W. R. Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  12. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O; Kimeu, John M; Luke, W R Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H Peter

    2016-01-27

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  13. Molecular control of grass inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The grass family is one of the largest families in angiosperms and has evolved a characteristic inflorescence morphology, with complex branches and specialized spikelets. The origin and development of the highly divergent inflorescence architecture in grasses have recently received much attention. Increasing evidence has revealed that numerous factors, such as transcription factors and plant hormones, play key roles in determining reproductive meristem fate and inflorescence patterning in grasses. Moreover, some molecular switches that have been implicated in specifying inflorescence shapes contribute significantly to grain yields in cereals. Here, we review key genetic and molecular switches recently identified from two model grass species, rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), that regulate inflorescence morphology specification, including meristem identity, meristem size and maintenance, initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems, and organogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize emerging networks of genes and pathways in grass inflorescence morphogenesis and emphasize their evolutionary divergence in comparison with the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss the agricultural application of genes controlling grass inflorescence development. PMID:24471834

  14. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Kari; Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds) transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1) and F(2) generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1) genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2) these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars. PMID:20614034

  15. Detection of virus in shrimp using digital color correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

    1999-07-01

    Detection of virus in shrimp tissue using digital color correlation is presented. Phase filters in three channels (red, green and blue) were used in order to detect HPV virus like target. These first results obtained showed that is possible to detect virus in shrimp tissue. More research must be made with color correlation in order to consider natural morphology of the virus, color, scale and rotation and noise in the samples.

  16. Decline and Local Extinction of Caribbean Eusocial Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, J. Emmett; Macdonald III, Kenneth S.; Hultgren, Kristin M.; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

  17. Decline and local extinction of Caribbean eusocial shrimp.

    PubMed

    Duffy, J Emmett; Macdonald, Kenneth S; Hultgren, Kristin M; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2013-01-01

    The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

  18. Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.F.

    1981-06-01

    An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico. The data recorded included port number, vessel name, official vessel number, shrimp dealer number, date of landing, area fished, depth of capture, days fished, and pounds of shrimp caught by species and size categories.

  19. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of (137)Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 μSv y(-1) and 0.04 μSv y(-1),while that to an adult were 0.39 μSv y(-1) and 0.05 μSv y(-1), respectively. PMID:23685702

  20. Protection of blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) against the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) when injected with shrimp lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Mai, Wei-jun; Wang, Wei-na

    2010-04-01

    In this study we found that a blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) lysozyme gene (Lslzm) was up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimp, suggesting that lysozyme is involved in the innate response of shrimp to this virus. Shrimp were intramuscularly injected with Lslzm protein to identify how this recombinant protein protects L. stylirostris from WSSV infection and to determine how this protein influences nonspecific cellular and humoral defense mechanisms. Higher survival rates and a lower viral load (compared with controls) were reported for shrimps that were first injected with the Lslzm protein and then infected with WSSV. In addition, the Lslzm expression level and the immunological parameters (including THC, phagocytic activity, respiratory burst activity, phenoloxidase activity and lysozyme activity) were all significantly higher in the WSSV-infected shrimp treated with the Lslzm protein, compared with the controls. These results indicate that lysozyme is effective at blocking WSSV infection in L. stylirostris and that lysozyme modulates the cellular and humoral defense mechanisms after they are suppressed by the WSSV virus. PMID:20074645

  1. Phylogenetic niche conservatism in C4 grasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Edwards, Erika J; Freckleton, Robert P; Osborne, Colin P

    2012-11-01

    Photosynthetic pathway is used widely to discriminate plant functional types in studies of global change. However, independent evolutionary lineages of C(4) grasses with different variants of C(4) photosynthesis show different biogeographical relationships with mean annual precipitation, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC). To investigate how phylogeny and photosynthetic type differentiate C(4) grasses, we compiled a dataset of morphological and habitat information of 185 genera belonging to two monophyletic subfamilies, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae, which together account for 90 % of the world's C(4) grass species. We evaluated evolutionary variance and covariance of morphological and habitat traits. Strong phylogenetic signals were found in both morphological and habitat traits, arising mainly from the divergence of the two subfamilies. Genera in Chloridoideae had significantly smaller culm heights, leaf widths, 1,000-seed weights and stomata; they also appeared more in dry, open or saline habitats than those of Panicoideae. Controlling for phylogenetic structure showed significant covariation among morphological traits, supporting the hypothesis of phylogenetically independent scaling effects. However, associations between morphological and habitat traits showed limited phylogenetic covariance. Subfamily was a better explanation than photosynthetic type for the variance in most morphological traits. Morphology, habitat water availability, shading, and productivity are therefore all involved in the PNC of C(4) grass lineages. This study emphasized the importance of phylogenetic history in the ecology and biogeography of C(4) grasses, suggesting that divergent lineages need to be considered to fully understand the impacts of global change on plant distributions. PMID:22569558

  2. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  3. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... connection with the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR 50383... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  4. MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

  5. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations, 78 FR 5416 (January 25, 2013) (Initiation Notice...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia,...

  6. ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY POPULATIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...

  7. Stress indices of Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884) change in response to Monogenean parasites pollution, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    PubMed

    Tekmedash, Fatemeh Shojaei; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was study of stress indices in response to Monogenean infection in Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some stress indices were measured in two adult groups of Grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of cortisol and glucose and lactate were significantly higher in infected fishes than healthy individuals. Elevation of cortisol and glucose demonstrated the existence of stressful condition caused by parasitic infection and demands for energy for adaptation. In conclusion, our results showed that Monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. affects health condition of Grass carp through alternation of stress components. PMID:27605835

  8. Southern Florida's River of Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida's Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002. Each image covers an area measuring 191 kilometers x 205 kilometers. The data were captured during Terra orbit 11072.

    On the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's nadir camera. A portion of Lake Okeechobee is visible at the top, to the right of image center. South of the lake, whose name derives from the Seminole word for 'big water,' an extensive region of farmland known as the Everglades Agricultural Area is recognizable by its many clustered squares. Over half of the sugar produced in United States is grown here. Urban areas along the east coast and in the northern part of the image extend to the boundaries of Big Cypress Swamp, situated north of Everglades National Park.

    The image on the right combines red-band data from the 46-degree backward, nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing camera angles to create a red, green, blue false-color composite. One of the interesting uses of the composite image is for detecting surface water. Wet surfaces appear blue in this rendition because sun glitter produces a greater signal at the forward camera's view angle. Wetlands visible in these images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades in times of drought. In parts of the Everglades, these levees and extensive systems such as the Miami and Tamiami Canals have altered the natural cycles of water flow. For example, the water volume of the Shark River Slough, a natural wetland which feeds Everglades National Park, is influenced by the Tamiami Canal. The unique and intrinsic value of the Everglades is now widely recognized, and efforts to restore

  9. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.

    PubMed

    Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management

  10. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    PubMed

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT. PMID:26973122

  11. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines. PMID:25237628

  12. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    The concept of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) has received wide public recognition and acceptance. An ACoA is defined as any adult who, as a child, was reared by one or two alcoholic parents. To date research has not sufficiently addressed the many questions generated by the grass roots movement, such as whether or not adult children of…

  13. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Review, 72 FR 52065 (Sept. 12, 2007). The period of review (POR) is August 4, 2004, through January 31... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  14. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Shipper Review, 75 FR 60730 (October 1, 2010). The preliminary results of this review are currently due no... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review...

  15. 75 FR 20563 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., 75 FR 3446 (January 21, 2010) (``Preliminary Rescission''). The final results of this review are... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers...

  16. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order''). Pursuant to section 751... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  17. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... from fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a `dusting' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  18. 75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). On February 3, 2010... shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been... of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 70 FR...

  19. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622.208 Section 622.208 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end of a rock shrimp trawl net in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia and Florida is 17/8 inches (4.8...

  20. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  1. 77 FR 31062 - Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... governing the incidental capture of sea turtles in its commercial shrimp fishery comparable to the program... regulatory program in their commercial shrimp trawl fishery. The Department also certified 26 shrimp... are: the Bahamas, Belize, China, the Dominican Republic, Fiji, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Oman, Peru,...

  2. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  4. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 78 FR 39824 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION: Notice of... Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB Control Number: 1405-0095 Type of Request... imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public Law...

  7. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  8. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 75 FR 10338 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB Control... of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB Control Number: 1405-0095... collection: The Form DS-203 is necessary to document imports of shrimp pursuant to the State...

  10. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 78 FR 15800 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION: Notice of... menardmm@state.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Importer's.... Abstract of proposed collection: The Form DS-2031 is necessary to document imports of shrimp pursuant...

  12. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  13. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  15. 75 FR 33375 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB Control... Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration. OMB... document imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public...

  16. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 70997 (December 8... Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005) (China Amended Final... Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004)...

  17. 76 FR 18157 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Administrative Review, 72 FR 52055, (Sept. 12, 2007) ] (2004-2006 Indian Shrimp Final Results). Initiation of..., 74 FR 9991, 9994 (Mar. 9, 2009) (2007-2008 Indian Shrimp Preliminary Results) unchanged in Certain... Administrative Review, 74 FR 33409 (July 13, 2009) (2007-2008 Indian Shrimp Final Results). Absent information...

  18. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  19. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  20. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  1. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.

    PubMed

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-02-12

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  2. Toxic factors of Vibrio strains pathogenic to shrimp.

    PubMed

    Goarant, C; Herlin, J; Brizard, R; Marteau, A L; Martin, C; Martin, B

    2000-03-14

    Vibriosis is a major disease problem in shrimp aquaculture. 'Syndrome 93' is a seasonal juvenile vibriosis caused by Vibrio penaeicida which affects Litopenaeus stylirostris in grow-out ponds in New Caledonia. This study assessed the toxic activities of extracellular products (ECPs) from V. penaeicida, V. alginolyticus and V. nigripulchritudo using in vivo injections in healthy juvenile L. stylirostris (= Penaeus stylirostris) and in vitro assays on shrimp primary cell cultures and the fish cell line epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC). Toxic effects of ECPs were demonstrated for all pathogenic Vibrio strains tested both in vivo and in vitro, but for shrimp only; no effect was observed on the fish cell line. ECP toxicity for New Caledonian V. penaeicida was found only after cultivation at low temperature (20 degrees C) and not at higher temperature (30 degrees C). This points to the fact that 'Syndrome 93' episodes are triggered by temperature drops. The assays used here demonstrate the usefulness of primary shrimp cell cultures to study virulence mechanisms of shrimp pathogenic bacteria. PMID:10782343

  3. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  4. Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kasornchandra, J; Khongpradit, R; Ekpanithanpong, U; Boonyaratpalin, S

    1999-01-01

    Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g/L NaCl, 15% shrimp meat extract. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 +/- 10 mmol/kg, a temperature range of 25--28 degrees C and incubation in a normal atmosphere. However, basal medium supplemented with 0.01% cholesterol could enhance good growth and cells performance initiated from lymphoid organ. Both epithelial-like and fibroblastic- like cells were observed from those organs within 2 days incubation. Within 3 days, 80% confluent monolayers were obtained from the lymphoid organ while cultures from other tissues required 5 days. Cultures were maintained for at least 43 days. Only cells from lymphoid organ could be subcultured and confluent monolayers achieved within 10 days post-spilt. Healthy cultures of the lymphoid cells did not persist beyond the third passage. Application of these primary shrimp cell cultures for studying pathogenic viruses of shrimp in vitro will be discussed. PMID:10627677

  5. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  6. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  7. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, J. Antonio; Simpson, Lunden; Ambrosio, Louis J.; Guéron, Rodrigo; Mora, Nathalia

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size) than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males. PMID:26934109

  8. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Baeza, J Antonio; Simpson, Lunden; Ambrosio, Louis J; Guéron, Rodrigo; Mora, Nathalia

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size) than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males. PMID:26934109

  9. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  10. Bagasse-assisted bioremediation of ammonia from shrimp farm wastewater.

    PubMed

    Krishnani, Kishore K; Parimala, V; Gupta, B P; Azad, I S; Meng, Xiaoguang; Abraham, M

    2006-09-01

    Development of new economically feasible ecofriendly products from agricultural wastes or byproducts for shrimp farm wastewater treatment is the objective of our continued research. Ammonia is a nitrogenous toxicant, which is commonly found in wastewater from shrimp farms. In the present study, we explored the possibility of the use of simply and inexpensively prepared bagasse products so that this abundant crop byproduct could be used to remove ammonia from shrimp farm wastewater. Bagasse, a natural highly fibrous lignocellulosic byproduct of sugarcane, was converted into five different products. Experimental results have shown that ammonia is efficiently removed from wastewater by four bagasse products with a dose of 1 to 6 g/L within 24 hours. The effect of bagasse products on other water quality parameters and growth kinetics of biofilm bacteria onto bagasse fiber have also been studied. Efficacies of products were compared by using statistical analysis. Products developed from bagasse are useful and economical. PMID:17120454

  11. The recreation of a unique shrimp's mechanically induced cavitation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ryan; Dougherty, Christopher; Eliasson, Veronica; Khanolkar, Gauri

    2014-11-01

    The Alpheus heterochaelis, appropriately nicknamed the ``pistol shrimp,'' possesses an oversized claw that creates a cavitation bubble upon rapid closure. The implosion of this bubble results in a shock wave that can stun or even kill the shrimp's prey (Versluis et al., 2000). Additionally, the implosion is so violent that sonoluminescence may occur. This light implies extreme temperatures, which have been recorded to reach as high as 10,000 K (Roach, 2001). By developing an analogous mechanism to the oversized claw, the goal of this experiment is to verify that cavitation can be produced similar to that of the pistol shrimp in nature as well as to analyze the resulting shock wave and sonoluminescence. High-speed schlieren imaging was used to observe the shock dynamics. Furthermore, results on cavitation collapse and light emission will be presented. USC Provost Undergraduate Research Fellowship/Rose Hills Undergraduate Research Fellowship.

  12. The functional property of Bacillus for shrimp feeds.

    PubMed

    Leonel Ochoa-Solano, J; Olmos-Soto, Jorge

    2006-09-01

    In shrimp cultures, feed represents the most expensive production cost. The quantity and quality of diets are primary factors influencing shrimp growth, nitrogen loading of the culture system and disease proliferation. For these reasons there is an interest in developing 'environmentally friendly' feeds for optimal growth. In this study, Bacillus strains were isolated from marine environments. The isolates were qualitatively assayed for proteases, carbohydrolases and lipases using selective media. The selected strains (9b, 31 and 33) were molecularly identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium and B. megaterium, respectively. Subsequently the strains were grown in an inexpensive culture medium (soybean mineral medium (MMS)). The information generated from the present investigation may contribute towards better feed formulations for shrimp at low cost, including bacterial strains as probiotics. PMID:16943046

  13. Environmental regulation through trade: the case of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darren; Hite, Diane; Jaffar, Abdul; Kari, Fatimah

    2003-07-01

    The implications of a potential ban on shrimp imports by the US from countries that do not utilize the Turtle Excluder Device on commercial shrimp nets is explored in this paper. A Linear Expenditure System (LES) was used to determine the own-price elasticities of demand for shrimp imports. The system of estimated equations was then solved for quantity levels under assumptions made about the trade restrictions, resulting in a set of prices for those import levels. These estimated prices were then used to estimate the compensating variation impact of the trade restrictions. Findings suggest that the environmental regulation would have a negative impact on US consumers, but the magnitude of that effect depends on assumptions made regarding the distribution of US imports after the trade restriction is imposed. PMID:12837252

  14. New High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled Mass Spectrometry Method for the Detection of Lobster and Shrimp Allergens in Food Samples via Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Multiple Reaction Monitoring Cubed.

    PubMed

    Korte, Robin; Monneuse, Jean-Marc; Gemrot, Elodie; Metton, Isabelle; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2016-08-10

    Crustacean shellfish allergy ranks among the most frequent and severe food allergies for adults, demanding rugged and sensitive analytical routine methods. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a mass spectrometric approach for the detection of contamination with shrimp and lobster, two economically important types of crustaceans, in complex food matrices. Following a biomarker approach, we identified proteotypic peptides and developed a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method allowing for the identification and differentiation of shrimp and lobster in the food matrix at concentrations down to 0.1%. To further enhance sensitivity, we employed the MRM-cubed (MRM(3)) mode, which allowed us to detect crustaceans down to concentrations of 25 μg/g (crustacean/food, 0.0025%). We hereby present the first mass spectrometric method for the detection of shrimp and lobster in food matrices. PMID:27391354

  15. Isotopic signatures of vegetation change on northern mixed grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National analyses have shown invasion of northern mixed-grass prairie by nonnative grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Invasion of native prairie by nonnative grasses may compromise ecosystem function and limit potential ecosystem services. Recent data from a long-term (100 year) ...

  16. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  17. Native Warm Season Grasses in the National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) warm-season grass collection which is maintained in Griffin, Georgia currently has over 7300 accessions of which less than ten percent of the collection can be classified as native grass material. This native grass material has been collected from dif...

  18. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  19. Brine shrimp development in space: ground-based data to shuttle flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; DeBell, L.; Hawkins, L.; Metcalf, J.; Guikema, J. A.; Rosowski, J.

    1992-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been used as a model system to assess microgravity effects on developing organisms. Following fertilization and early development, the egg can arrest in early gastrula as a dehydrated cyst stage that is stable to harsh environments over long time periods. When salt water is added, the cysts can reactivate, with embryonic development and egg hatching occurring in about 24 h. A series of larval molts or instars, over about a 2 week period, results in the adult crustacean. We have assessed these developmental events in a closed syringe system, a bioprocessing module, in ground-based studies, and have conducted preliminary in-orbit experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the flights of STS-37 and STS-43. Although the in-flight data are limited, spectacular degrees of development have been achieved.

  20. Optimized DNA extraction methods for encysted embryos of the endangered fairy shrimp, Branchinecta sandiegonensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, A.N.; Simovich, M.A.; Pepino, D.; Schroeder, K.M.; Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The San Diego fairy shrimp Branchinecta sandiegonensis is a federally endangered species endemic to vernal pools in southern California, USA. Filling events in these habitats are highly variable, with some pools failing to hold water long enough for reproduction over many successive years. Studies of this species are thus hindered by the relatively rare appearance of aquatically active life history phases. Because diapausing cysts are abundant and present at all times, they provide an underutilized opportunity for both species identification and genetic studies. However, methods for extracting DNA from cysts are technically challenging because of their structure and size. Here we present a protocol for extracting DNA from B. sandiegonensis cysts in sufficient quantities for "DNA Barcoding", microsatellite analysis and other genotyping and sequencing applications. The technique will aid in population genetic studies and species identification (since taxonomic keys only distinguish among adults), and will be applicable to other crustaceans with similar diapausing cysts. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  1. Grassroots e-floras in the Poaceae: growing GrassBase and GrassWorld

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, Maria S.; Clayton, Derek; Simon, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract GrassBase and GrassWorld are the largest structured descriptive datasets in plants, publishing descriptions of 11,290 species in the DELTA format. Twenty nine years of data compilation and maintenance have created a dataset which now underpins much of the Poaceae bioinformatics. GrassBase and GrassWorld can continue to grow productively if the proliferation of alternative classifications and datasets can be brought together into a consensus system. If the datasets are reconciled instead of diverging further apart a long term cumulative process can bring knowledge together for great future utility. This paper presents the Poaceae as the first and largest model system for e-taxonomy and the study of classification development in plants. The origin, development, and content of both datasets is described and key contributors are noted. The challenges of alternative classifications, data divergence, collaborative contribution mechanisms, and software are outlined. PMID:25941449

  2. Wheatgrass and Wildrye Grasses (Triticeae) (Book Chapter)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheatgrass and wildrye grasses are valued throughout the temperature regions of the world as forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife as well as for other qualities relating to aesthetics, soil stabilization, weed control, and watershed management in semiarid environments. These perennial gras...

  3. Grasses and Legumes: Genetics and Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have been breeding forage and turf species for over 100 years. This chapter explores the progress that has been made in improving grasses and legumes for human benefit and the evolution of breeding and selection systems that have brought about those changes....

  4. INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...

  5. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  6. Common Ground for Managing Invasive Annual Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses often reach their full biological potential in ecosystems of the western United States. This suggests that crucial ecosystem "checks and balances" are not functioning. In other words, invasion occurs because ecosystems have lost resistance to invasion, and invasive plants a...

  7. Challenging Cancer at the Grass Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute created the Appalachia Leadership Initiative on Cancer, composed of four similar projects that focus on increasing screening for cervical and breast cancer among low-income, older women. The program relies on community coalitions that develop innovative grass roots methods to spread the message about the importance of…

  8. Annual grass as supplements for beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown when limit grazing cool-season annual grasses as a supplement in a complementary forage system, energy and CP supplementation are not required and hay requirements are reduced 23% for gestating beef cows. To further improve the sustainability of complementary forage systems, repla...

  9. Grass Woman Stories. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground, Mary

    During her lifetime Mary Ground, whose Indian name is Grass Woman, has experienced extreme changes in the life of Blackfeet Indians. Born in 1883, she remembers the travois and teepee days as well as the change to reservation life when the reservation was a fenced compound patrolled by the U.S. military. She has seen the decline in the use of…

  10. Grass roots of soil carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils rooted with perennial grasses have high organic matter content, and therefore, can contribute to an agricultural future with high soil quality; a condition that can help to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through soil carbon sequestration and improve a multitude of other ecosystem responses,...

  11. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    PubMed

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp. PMID:27158895

  12. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp. PMID:27158895

  13. Biomechanics: deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Korff, W L; Caldwell, R L

    2004-04-22

    Stomatopods (mantis shrimp) are well known for the feeding appendages they use to smash shells and impale fish. Here we show that the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) generates an extremely fast strike that requires major energy storage and release, which we explain in terms of a saddle-shaped exoskeletal spring mechanism. High-speed images reveal the formation and collapse of vapour bubbles next to the prey due to swift movement of the appendage towards it, indicating that O. scyllarus may use destructive cavitation forces to damage its prey. PMID:15103366

  14. Issues, Impacts, and Implications of Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand

    PubMed

    Dierberg; Kiattisimkul

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination.The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32 % of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993

  15. Thunderstorm asthma due to grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C

    1998-08-01

    It is widely known and accepted that grass pollen is a major outdoor cause of hay fever. Moreover, grass pollen is also responsible for triggering allergic asthma, gaining impetus as a result of the 1987/1989 Melbourne and 1994 London thunderstorm-associated asthma epidemics. However, grass pollen is too large to gain access into the lower airways to trigger the asthmatic response and micronic particles <5 micro m are required to trigger the response. We have successfully shown that ryegrass pollen ruptures upon contact with water, releasing about 700 starch granules which not only contain the major allergen Lol p 5, but have been shown to trigger both in vitro and in vivo IgE-mediated responses. Furthermore, starch granules have been isolated from the Melbourne atmosphere with 50-fold increase following rainfall. Free grass pollen allergen molecules have been recently shown to interact with other particles including diesel exhaust carbon particles, providing a further transport mechanism for allergens to gain access into lower airways. In this review, implication and evidence for grass pollen as a trigger of thunderstorm-associated asthma is presented. Such information is critical and mandatory for patient education and training in their allergen avoidance programs. More importantly, patients with serum IgE to group 5 allergens are at high risk of allergic asthma, especially those not protected by medication. Therefore, a system to determine the total atmospheric allergen load and devising of an effective asthma risk forecast is urgently needed and is subject to current investigation. PMID:9693274

  16. [The use of shrimp and turkey buzzard flour and milk whey in food for shrimp under controlled laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Arosemena, G

    1990-01-01

    Two diets were prepared for the shrimp's development in the tanks, based on fish meals, shrimp's head meals, "gallinaza" and milk whey. The diets had a protein concentration of 37.8% and 45%, using as control a commercial diet with 35% of protein. Twelve juvenile shrimps with average weights of 2.30 gr. to 3.09 gr were used in each of the six-40 liter aquariums under laboratory controlled conditions for a 28 days period. The growth increments were low in spite of the high protein concentration, due to a deficiency in some essential aminoacid and were not successful in supplementing it with the protein sources used. The aquarium areas turned out to be limiting and growth was affected by density. The statistic analysis showed no significant differences in the treatments used. PMID:2330427

  17. Summary of studies on closed-polyculture of penaeid shrimp with fishes and moluscans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Shang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2000-03-01

    Closed-polyculture of Chinese penaeid shrimp, Taiwan red tilapia, and molluscans(constricted tagelus and bay scallop) was studied from 1995 to 1997 with the enclosure-experiment method, on a shrimp farm in Haiyang County, Shandong Province. Four structure-optimized closed-polyculture systems, i. e., the “shrimp-tagelus” system, the “shrimp-scallop” system, the “shrimp-tilapia” system and the “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system, were worked out. All these polyculture systems were superior to shrimp monoculture system in economic and ecological efficiencies. The order of these polyculture systems in efficiencies was “shrimptilapia-tagelus” > “shrimp-tagelus”>“shrimp-tilapia”>“shrimp-scallop”. The “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system raised the production by 28% and the utilization efficiency of input nitrogen by 85%. These closed-polyculture systems reduced the nitrogen discharge ratio to 6% 8%, instead of 40% 90% in the usual open culture systems. The ecological features of the systems were also investigated and many meaningful results have been obtained. The mechanism enhancing the efficiencies of these systems, the ways to enhance the efficiencies further and those to reuse the sedimented materials are disscussed.

  18. Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J.L.W.

    1983-01-01

    White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

  19. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  20. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  1. Involvement of penaeidins in defense reactions of the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris to a pathogenic vibrio.

    PubMed

    Munoz, M; Vandenbulcke, F; Garnier, J; Gueguen, Y; Bulet, P; Saulnier, D; Bachère, E

    2004-04-01

    The present study reports for the first time the involvement of an antimicrobial peptide in the defense reactions of a shrimp infected by a pathogenic Vibrio, Vibrio penaeicida. New members of the penaeidin family were characterized in the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR from hemocyte total RNAs, and by mass spectrometry detection and immunolocalization of mature peptides in shrimp hemocytes. In infected shrimps, bacteria and penaeidin distribution colocalized in the gills and the lymphoid organ that represented the main infected sites. Moreover, the shrimp immune response to infection involved massive hemocyte recruitment to infection sites where released penaeidin may participate in the isolation and elimination of the bacteria, We show that the ability of the shrimps to circumvent shrimp infections is closely related to a recovery phase based on the hematopoietic process. PMID:15095016

  2. COMPARATIVE EMBRYONIC AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENTAL RESPONSES OF THE ESTUARINE GRASS SHRIMP (PALAEMONETES PUGIO) TO THE JUVENILE HORMONE AGONIST FENOXYCARB

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work was undertaken in order to develop a sensitive bioassay which indicates adverse effects of estuarine-applied insecticides on nontarget species. Newly developed 'third generation' insecticides are designed to act as hormone agonists and bind to endogenous insect hormone...

  3. EFFECTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND FIPRONIL ON ENDOCRINE-RELATED ENDPOINTS IN FEMALE GRASS SHRIMP (PALAEMONETES PUGIO). (R827397)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. ENDOCRINE-MEDIATED EFFECTS OF UV-A IRRADIATION ON GRASS SHRIMP (PALAEMONETES PUGIO) REPRODUCTION. (R827397)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhan, Chenyang; Huang, Bingru

    2011-01-01

    The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes the structure and function of major HSPs, recent research progress on the association of HSPs with grass tolerance to heat stress, and incorporation of HSPs in heat-tolerant grass breeding. PMID:22084689

  6. Acute toxicity of Roundup® herbicide to three life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup®, are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These herbicides ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. Despite their widespread use, no water quality guideline exists to protect indigenous South African freshwater organisms from the toxic effects of these herbicides. The toxicity of the herbicide Roundup® was assessed using three different life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica, a prevalent species in South African freshwater ecosystems. Neonate (<7 days post hatching (dph)), juvenile (>7 dph and <20 dph) and adult (>40 dph) shrimps were exposed to varying concentrations (1.5-50 mg/L acid equivalence (a.e.)) of the herbicide in 48 and 96 h acute toxicity tests in order to determine the most sensitive life-stage. The results showed neonates to be more sensitive to Roundup® than both juveniles and adults with mean 96 h LC 50 values of 2.5, 7.0 and 25.3 mg/L a.e. respectively. The estimated 96 h LC 50 of neonates is much lower than the application rate (20-30 mg/L a.e.), although the application’s impact will depend on the dilution rate of the applied concentration in the environment. All three life-stages of unexposed animals exhibited active and coordinated movement but exposed shrimps were erratic and slow in their movements, with neonates showing most of these behavioral irregularities. This study shows that low levels of the herbicide Roundup® may adversely affect C. nilotica health and survival. Thus, the herbicide should be carefully managed to minimize any negative impact on non-target freshwater organisms.

  7. Phylogeny and evolution of Indo-Pacific shrimp-associated gobies (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Thacker, Christine E; Thompson, Andrew R; Roje, Dawn M

    2011-04-01

    Despite the ubiquity of obligate mutualisms on coral reef ecosystems, little is known about the evolution of many participating species. The shrimp gobies, known primarily from the coral reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific, are small benthic fishes that participate in a remarkable mutualism with alpheid shrimp. In this mutualism, the shrimp build and maintain a burrow that is guarded by the goby, and the shrimp and goby engage in an intricate tactile communication system. The mutualism is obligate for most shrimp gobies as participating species are highly vulnerable to predation when separated from a shrimp partner. We use phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer evolutionary relationships among shrimp gobies, and between shrimp gobies and their non-mutualistic gobiid relatives. We show that the mutualist shrimp association has arisen twice among gobies, once in a clade composed of Amblyeleotris, Ctenogobiops, and Vanderhorstia, and a second time in a clade including Cryptocentrus, Mahidolia, Tomiamichthys and Stonogobiops. We then compare the evolution of traits within each shrimp goby clade and consider their intrarelationships. We document cryptic diversity among shrimp gobies, with three distinct clades delineated among Mahidolia mysticina specimens captured at the same locality, paired with the same shrimp species. Mahidolia is placed as sister to the Cryptocentrus species Cryptocentrus cinctus; both exhibit pronounced dichromatism, occurring in both brown and yellow (xanthic) forms. We additionally clarify species identities within Amblyeleotris, confirming that widespread similar species Amblyeleotris fasciata, Amblyeleotris steinitzi and Amblyeleotris wheeleri are all distinct. We hypothesize that the flexibility of gobiid gobies and alpheid shrimp to interact with mutualist partners, as well as the apparently highly beneficial nature of mutualism between them, has contributed to the dual evolution of shrimp

  8. Molecular identification of microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research on the microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, has mainly been limited to culture-based identification techniques or feeding studies for aquaculture. Our objective was to identify bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia adults and encysted embryos to understand the role of microbes in the Artemia life cycle and, therefore, their importance in a hypersaline food chain. Results We used small subunit (SSU) 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to identify bacteria and archaea associated with adults and encysted Artemia embryos from one of their natural environments – Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA. We found that bacterial sequences most closely related to the genera Halomonas and Vibrio were commonly extracted from GSL adult Artemia, while bacterial sequences most similar to the genera Halomonas, Psychroflexus and Alkalilimnicola dominate in GSL water. Encysted embryos (cysts) yielded bacterial sequences from the genera Idiomarina and Salinivibrio, which were absent from adults and water. Common archaeal sequences in adults were most closely related to the genera Haloterrigena and Haloarcula, while all of the archaeal sequences from GSL water were most similar to the genus Halogeometricum. Cyst derived archaeal sequences were most closely related to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Conclusions In addition to identifying microbial rRNA sequences that are specific to different stages of the Artemia life cycle, we observed striking differences in the sequences associated with the adult Artemia population in samples collected from GSL at different times and locations. While our study was limited in scope and the sample was small, our findings provide a foundation for future research into how the bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia influence the Artemia life cycle, and GSL food web. PMID:23497541

  9. Changes of haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella exposed to monogenean parasites, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    PubMed

    Restiannasab, Abulhasan; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein; Saljoghi, Zoheir Shokouh

    2016-09-01

    The present was carried out to investigate the effects of monogenean infection on haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some haematological indices were measured in two adult groups of grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) decreased significantly in infected fishes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the white blood cells (WBCs) values increased significantly in infected fishes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the WBC values increased significantly in infected fishes. In conclusion, our results showed that monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. can affects health condition of grass carp through alternation of haematology. PMID:27605756

  10. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  11. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism of a marine grass.

    PubMed

    Benedict, C R; Scott, J R

    1976-06-01

    The delta(13)C value of a tropical marine grass Thalassia testudinum is -9.04 per thousand. This value is similar to the delta(13)C value of terrestrial tropical grasses. The delta(13)C values of the organic acid fraction, the amino acid fraction, the sugar fraction, malic acid, and glucose are: -11.2 per thousand, -13.1 per thousand, -10.1 per thousand, -11.1 per thousand, and -11.5 per thousand, respectively. The delta(13)C values of malic acid and glucose of Thalassia are similar to the delta(13)C values of these intermediates in sorghum leaves and attest to the presence of the photosynthetic C(4)-dicarboxylic acid pathway in this marine grass. The inorganic HCO(3) (-) for the growth of the grass fluctuates between -6.7 to -2.7 per thousand during the day. If CO(2) fixation in Thalassia is catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (which would result in a -3 per thousand fractionation between HCO(3) (-) and malic acid), the predicted delta(13)C value for Thalassia would be -9.7 to -5.7 per thousand. This range is close to the observed range of -12.6 to -7.8 per thousand for Thalassia and agree with the operation of the C(4)-dicarboxylic acid pathway in this plant. The early products of the fixation of HCO(3) (-) in the leaf sections are malic acid and aspartic acid which are similar to the early products of CO(2) fixation in C(4) terrestrial plants.Electron microscopy of the leaves of Thalassia reveal thick walled epidermal cells exceedingly rich in mitochondria and C(3)-type chloroplasts. The mesophyll cells have many different shapes and surround air lacunae which contain O(2) and CO(2). The mesophyll cells are highly vacuolated and the parietal cytoplasm contains an occasional chloroplast. This chloroplast contains grana but the lamellar system is not as developed as the system in epidermal chloroplasts. Extensive phloem tissue is present but the xylem elements are reduced in this aquatic grass. The vascular tissue is not surrounded by bundle sheath cells

  12. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  13. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. 102.55 Section 102.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION COMMON OR USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS Requirements for Specific Nonstandardized Foods §...

  14. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  15. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interval shall be calculated. (d) Test conditions—(1) Test species—(i) Selection. (A) The mysid shrimp... with netting material of appropriate mesh size. (iv) Dilution water. (A) Natural or artificial seawater.... (C) Artificial seawater can be prepared by adding commercially available formulations or by...

  16. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ten species of caridean shrimps, representing nine genera in five families, have been found in exposures of the marine water table at 28 islands from Hawaii to the western Indian Ocean. Synthesis of literature information and personal observations indicate that, as a group, these shrimps are characterized by red body pigment, reduced but pigmented eyes, euryhalinity, a proclivity for interstitial seawater in limestone or lava rock, generalized food requirements, and probable pre-Pleistocene origins. The shrimps have not been found in waters cooler than about 20°C.Species are often solitary, but as many as five are known to coexist. Six of the species have widely scattered populations, some as far apart as Hawaii and the Red Sea. Passive oceanic dispersal is endorsed as a general explanation for such apparently disjunct distributions. On the basis of an assumed primary habitat requirement of interstitial marine water, which could include that in shallow submerged rock as well as that in emergent (insular) rock, I hypothesize a much more cosmopolitan distribution of these shrimps in the Indo-Pacific Tropical Zone.

  17. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  18. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  19. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower. PMID:19569323

  20. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  1. Susceptibility of the brine shrimp Artemia and its pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus to chlorine dioxide in contaminated sea-water.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Vega-Villasante, F; Holguin, G; Bashan, Y

    1992-12-01

    Adults and nauplii of the brine shrimp, Artemia, together with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, were placed in sewage-contaminated sea-water which had been treated with chlorine dioxide (Hallox E-100TM) to test its potential as a disinfectant for salt water aquaculture. The nauplii were very susceptible to low concentrations of chlorine dioxide (47 micrograms/l Cl-), but the adults were slightly more resistant. Sterile sea-water treated with lower concentrations of chlorine dioxide (less than 47 micrograms/l Cl-) had no effect on the shrimp, but inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. In sewage-contaminated sea-water, chlorine dioxide levels of 285-2850 micrograms/l, necessary for the inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and any native bacteria, destroyed the Artemia culture. Hallox E-100TM persisted in sea-water for 18 h, but later decayed. We conclude that: (i) Artemia nauplii are a sensitive and convenient test-organism to determine low concentrations of chlorine dioxide in sea-water; (ii) chlorine dioxide is efficient for controlling V. parahaemolyticus in sea-water; and (iii) chlorine dioxide should be further evaluated as a potential disinfectant for aquaculture, but, for higher organisms than Artemia. PMID:1490907

  2. Density and distribution of water boatmen and brine shrimp at a major shorebird wintering area in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, K.J.; Collazo, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cabo Rojo salt flats are an important wintering area for migratory shorebirds. Their quality is intimately related to prey availability, as prey are needed to meet energetic requirements. Understanding prey dynamics is, therefore, a key element of shorebird conservation plans. To this end, we monitored the density and distribution of water-boatmen (Trichocorixa spp.) and brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) in relation to water salinity from September to November of 1994 and 1995. Salinity ranged from 4 to 292 ppt, and gradients were related to hydrological alterations (e.g., salt extraction) and connection to the ocean. Brine shrimp were restricted to areas of highest salinity (??? 106 ppt), whereas water-boatmen to areas of lowest salinity ( 100 ppt. Lowering water salinity did not result in osmolal related mortality. Results underscored the sensitivity of water boatmen to high salinity, particularly when the difference in salinity between the 'source' and 'destination' localities widened. Water boatmen density increased in one lagoon as salinity decreased from 65 to 47 ppt. On the basis of our experiments, local adult survivorship improved and immigration and subsequent survival of adults, if any, was not hindered. The density of nymphs also suggested that hatching occurred concurrently. The foraging value of the salt flats can be enhanced by maintaining salinity at < 65 ppt in selected management units and minimizing differences in salinity concentrations among them.

  3. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993

  4. Fish and opossum shrimp entrainment in the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.

  5. Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

    2013-09-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are heterogeneous ecosystems comprising numerous microhabitats. A typical European CWC reef provides various biogenic microhabitats (within, on and surrounding colonies of coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, or formed by their remains after death). These microhabitats may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic microhabitats (soft sediment, hard ground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across CWC reefs have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC microhabitat categories at the Røst Reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled in June 2007. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with microhabitat. Shrimp abundances at the Røst Reef were on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef microhabitats than in non-biogenic microhabitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea microhabitat (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis microhabitat (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa microhabitat (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic microhabitat, shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. CWC reef microhabitats appear to support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic microhabitats at the Røst Reef, at least at the time of survey.

  6. Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

    2013-02-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are highly heterogeneous ecosystems comprising of a range of diverse microhabitats. In a typical European cold-water coral reef various biogenic habitats (live colonies of locally common coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, dead coral structure, coral rubble) may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic habitats (soft sediment, hardground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across these microhabitats have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC habitat categories at the Røst reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with habitat. We found shrimp abundances at the Røst reef to be on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef habitats than in non-biogenic habitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea habitats (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis habitats (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa habitats (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic habitats shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. We conclude that CWC reef habitats clearly support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic habitats on the Norwegian margin.

  7. Detection of shrimp-derived components in food by real-time fluorescent PCR.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jijuan; Yu, Bing; Ma, Lidan; Zheng, Qiuyue; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Junyi

    2011-10-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs and their products are important allergens in food, and allergic reactions due to the consumption of shrimp and crabs are frequently reported. However, the chemical properties of shrimp-derived allergens, except for Pen a I, are still unclear. Therefore, it is important to establish a more sensitive and specific method for detecting the composition of foods containing shrimp. In the present study, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR to identify the specific shrimp-derived components in food. The primers and TaqMan probes for real-time fluorescent PCR were designed based on 16S rRNA genes through comparing a large number of nucleic acid sequences from different species of shrimp that have been published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. In total, 56 kinds of samples, including different kinds of shrimp, crab, fish, shellfish, and octopus, were subjected to detection by real-time PCR. The results indicated that real-time fluorescent PCR could successfully identify the shrimp-derived components. In order to explore the effect of food processing on detection sensitivity, fish powder containing shrimp powder was treated by heating at 133°C for 30 min. The limit of detection of shrimp-derived components in fish powder was 0.05% (wt/wt). PMID:22004830

  8. Attenuation of foot pressure during running on four different surfaces: asphalt, concrete, rubber, and natural grass.

    PubMed

    Tessutti, Vitor; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Trombini-Souza, Francis; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2012-01-01

    The practice of running has consistently increased worldwide, and with it, related lower limb injuries. The type of running surface has been associated with running injury etiology, in addition other factors, such as the relationship between the amount and intensity of training. There is still controversy in the literature regarding the biomechanical effects of different types of running surfaces on foot-floor interaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of running on asphalt, concrete, natural grass, and rubber on in-shoe pressure patterns in adult recreational runners. Forty-seven adult recreational runners ran twice for 40 m on all four different surfaces at 12 ± 5% km · h(-1). Peak pressure, pressure-time integral, and contact time were recorded by Pedar X insoles. Asphalt and concrete were similar for all plantar variables and pressure zones. Running on grass produced peak pressures 9.3% to 16.6% lower (P < 0.001) than the other surfaces in the rearfoot and 4.7% to 12.3% (P < 0.05) lower in the forefoot. The contact time on rubber was greater than on concrete for the rearfoot and midfoot. The behaviour of rubber was similar to that obtained for the rigid surfaces - concrete and asphalt - possibly because of its time of usage (five years). Running on natural grass attenuates in-shoe plantar pressures in recreational runners. If a runner controls the amount and intensity of practice, running on grass may reduce the total stress on the musculoskeletal system compared with the total musculoskeletal stress when running on more rigid surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete. PMID:22897427

  9. Transfer of Cs-137 from grass and wilted grass silage to milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vreman, K; van der Struijs, T D; van den Hoek, J; Berende, P L; Goedhart, P W

    1989-09-01

    Deposition of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Netherlands made it possible to collect contaminated fresh grass and first cut wilted grass silage. These contaminated roughages were used in transfer experiments with lactating dairy cows to determine transfer coefficients and half-lives for Cs-137 in milk. The experimental design was based on three consecutive periods: a preliminary period to determine the background concentration of the isotope in milk, a contamination period to determine the magnitude of accumulation and finally a depletion period to measure the rate at which the activity concentration of Cs-137 in milk declined after continuous feeding. The average transfer coefficient (Fmilk) for cows fed on contaminated dried grass under steady-state conditions was 0.002 d/kg and for cows fed on slightly contaminated second cut fresh grass 0.006 d/kg. The highest transfer coefficients were obtained for cows fed on contaminated grass silage for 119 days, which also included the dry period of about two months. For the first five days after calving the Fmilk values varied from 0.0066 to 0.0091 d/kg. There were no significant differences in transfer coefficients between cows in early lactation (third month of lactation), cows in late lactation (the last month of the lactation period) and cows fed on both contaminated grass silage and uncontaminated maize silage simultaneously. Half-life values for the rate of decline of the isotope in milk during the depletion period were estimated on the basis of a mathematical model with two exponential components. These components were characterized by half-lives of 0.5 to 3.5 days and 10 to 46 days. PMID:2814441

  10. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-06-10

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the

  11. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. PMID:24836884

  12. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  13. Hydrogen Sulfide Production by Pseudomonas putrefaciens in Shrimp Experimentally Packed in Nitrogen1

    PubMed Central

    Lapin, R. M.; Koburger, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Shrimp refrigerated in a nitrogen atmosphere develop off-odors not typical of normal spoilage. Investigations of this phenomenon showed that hydrogen sulfide developed in the headspace gas, and a large percentage of the microbial population present on the shrimp stored in nitrogen was capable of hydrogen sulfide production, in contrast to the flora on shrimp stored in air. The predominant hydrogen sulfide-producing organism, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, was present in low numbers on fresh shrimp but usually reached high numbers by day 8 of nitrogen storage. Further studies revealed that cysteine and cystine were the probable substrates in shrimp utilized by this organism for hydrogen sulfide production. When shrimp sterilized by irradiation were inoculated with P. putrefaciens and incubated in an atmosphere of nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and the characteristic off-odors developed. PMID:4596748

  14. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  15. Effects of low molecular weight chitosan (LMC-1) on shrimp preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guang-Li; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Shu-Qing; Tian, Xue-Lin

    1996-06-01

    This study on the effects of low molecular weight chitosan (LMC-1) and shrimp preserving agents such as phytic acid (PA), sodium bisulfite (SB), and crustacean preservative (CP) on the preservation of shrimp ( Trachypenaeus curvirostris) and the bacteriostasis of LMC-1 showed that: (1) Different LMC-1 concentration has different bacteriostasis on E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureau; (2) LMC-1 and CP are better than PA and SB for preserving the freshness of shrimp stored at 4 °C.

  16. Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils

    1994-09-01

    Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

  17. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production. PMID:24386621

  18. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Camara, Paulo E. A. S.; Rudall, Paula J.; Ladd, Philip; Malcomber, Simon T.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Doust, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear “front” and “back;” this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern. PMID:23898335

  19. Microwave Scattering Model for Grass Blade Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, James M.; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic scattering solution for a grass blade with complex cross-section geometry is considered. It is assumed that the blade cross section is electrically small, but its length is large compared to the incident wavelength. In a recent study it has been shown that the scattering solution for such problems, in the form of a polarizability tensor, can be obtained using the low-frequency approximation in conjunction with the method of moments. In addition, the study shows that the relationship between the polarizability tensor of a dielectric cylinder and its dielectric constant can be approximated by a simple algebraic expression. The results of this study are used to show that this algebraic approximation is valid also for cylinders with cross sections the shape of grass blades, providing that proper values am selected for each of three constants appearing in the expression. These constants are dependent on cylinder shape, and if the relationship between the constants and the three parameters describing a grass blade shape can be determined, an algebraic approximation relating polarizability tensor to blade shape, as well as dielectric constant, can be formed. Since the elements of the polarizability tensor are dependent on only these parameters, this algebraic approximation can replace the cumbersome method of moments model. A conjugate gradient method is then implemented to correctly determine the three constants of the algebraic approximation for each blade shape. A third-order polynomial fit to the data is then determined for each constant, thus providing a complete analytic replacement to the numerical (moment method) scattering model. Comparisons of this approximation to the numerical model show an average error of less than 3%.

  20. Seasonal population characteristics of the opossum shrimp, Mysis relicta, in southeastern Lake Michigan, 1970-71

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, James B.; DeGraeve, G.M.

    1972-01-01

    This study of depth distribution, abundance, growth, reproduction and standing crop of the opossum shrimp, Mysis relicta, in southeastern Lake Michigan was based on monthly samples collected from August 1970 through July 1971 (except February and March). Population density was usually low at 10-20 fathoms, moderate at 25-30 fathoms and relatively high at 35 fathoms and deeper. Abundance was highest in midsummer and lowest in December. Free-living mysids were 3-25 mm long. Average growth rate was 1 mm per month. At maximum lengths, females were longer than males. Weight increased as approximately the cube of the length. The population consisted mostly of juveniles during summer and autumn and subadults and adults in winter and spring. Sizable numbers of adults apparently moved to relatively shallow water (10-35 fathoms) in winter, where they bred and released their young. In deeper water (40 fathoms or more), some reproduction occurred throughout the year. Most recruitment was in April and May. Standing crop ranged as high as 50 kg per hectare. Mysis apparently has a one-year life cycle in southeastern Lake Michigan.

  1. Perennial grass dominance: creating a resilient plant community in an exotic annual grass invaded rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of hectares of western rangelands have been invaded by the exotic and invasive annual grass, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Cheatgrass provides a fine-textured, early maturing fuel that has increased the chance, rate, spread and season of wildfire to public and private lands throughout the ...

  2. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  3. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  4. Bundling of bovine and brine shrimp (Artemia) microtubules in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacRae, T H

    1984-06-01

    Cell-free extracts from embryos of the brine shrimp (Artemia) induced bundling of bovine microtubules assembled in the presence of glycerol and Mg++. Sedimentation of microtubules through sucrose cushions and subsequent electrophoresis revealed that bundling occurred independently of accessory proteins tightly bound to the microtubules. Bovine microtubules containing microtubule-associated proteins (MAPS) or assembled with taxol did not bundle. The unusual polymerization properties of homogeneous Artemia tubulin, bundling in the absence of added factors and the small number of microtubules assembled in crude embryo extracts upon addition of taxol precluded a complete comparative study of Artemia and bovine microtubule bundling. Interesting properties of the in vitro assembly of Artemia microtubules were, however, elaborated and putative Artemia MAPs were observed as a consequence of the work with brine shrimp embryos. PMID:6744423

  5. Evolution of neural computations: Mantis shrimp and human color decoding

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Qasim; Marshall, Justin; Thoen, Hanne; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hierarchy. Despite these differences, we report a fascinating parallel between the computational strategies at the color-decoding stage in the brains of stomatopods and primates. Both species appear to use narrowly tuned cells that support interval decoding color identification. PMID:26034560

  6. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe-Miroslava; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. PMID:24135910

  7. Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone. PMID:23364944

  8. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of uraniferous opals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemchin, A.A.; Neymark, L.A.; Simons, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb and U-series analyses of four U-rich opal samples using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) demonstrate the potential of this technique for the dating of opals with ages ranging from several tens of thousand years to millions of years. The major advantages of the technique, compared to the conventional thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), are the high spatial resolution (???20 ??m), the ability to analyse in situ all isotopes required to determine both U-Pb and U-series ages, and a relatively short analysis time which allows obtaining a growth rate of opal as a result of a single SHRIMP session. There are two major limitations to this method, determined by both current level of development of ion probes and understanding of ion sputtering processes. First, sufficient secondary ion beam intensities can only be obtained for opal samples with U concentrations in excess of ???20 ??g/g. However, this restriction still permits dating of a large variety of opals. Second, U-Pb ratios in all analyses drifted with time and were only weakly correlated with changes in other ratios (such as U/UO). This drift, which is difficult to correct for, remains the main factor currently limiting the precision and accuracy of the U-Pb SHRIMP opal ages. Nevertheless, an assumption of similar behaviour of standard and unknown opals under similar analytical conditions allowed successful determination of ages with precisions of ???10% for the samples investigated in this study. SHRIMP-based U-series and U-Pb ages are consistent with TIMS dating results of the same materials and known geological timeframes. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tidal and seasonal effects on transport of pink shrimp postlarvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Transport simulations were conducted to investigate a large seasonal peak in postlarvae of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum that occurs every summer on the northwestern border of Florida Bay. Daily vertical migration, a known behavior in pink shrimp postlarvae, was assumed in all scenarios investigated. A Lagrangian trajectory model was developed using a current field derived from a 3 yr ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) time series. To fit the estimated planktonic development time of pink shrimp, the model simulated larvae traveling at night over a 30 d period. We investigated 2 types of effects: (1) the effect of mismatch periodicity between tidal constituents and daily migration, and (2) the effect of seasonal changes in night length. The maximum eastward displacement with the semidiurnal lunar tidal constituent (M2) was 4 km, with periods of enhanced transport in both summer and winter. In contrast, eastward displacement with the semidiurnal solar tidal constituent (S2) and the lunisolar diurnal K1 was 65 km and the period of maximum distance occurred in summer every year. Because the periods of S2 and K1 are so close to the 24 h vertical migration period, and the eastward current (flood) of these constituents matches the diel cycle over extended intervals, they can induce strong horizontal transport during summer. Thus, diel vertical migration can interact with the S2 and the K1 tidal constituents and with the annual cycle of night length to produce a distinct annual cycle that may enhance transport of pink shrimp and other coastal species during summer in shallow areas of the Gulf of Mexico. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  10. A Circo-Like Virus Isolated from Penaeus monodon Shrimps.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hanh T; Yu, Qian; Boisvert, Maude; Van, Hanh T; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A virus with a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genome (PmCV-1) was isolated from Penaeus monodon shrimps in Vietnam. The gene structure of the 1,777-nucleotide (nt) genome was similar to that of circoviruses and cycloviruses, but the nucleic acid and protein sequence identities to these viruses were very low. PMID:24435870

  11. Water Diagnosis in Shrimp Aquaculture based on Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal Hernández, J. J.; Sánchez Fernández, L. P.

    2007-05-01

    In many countries, the shrimp aquaculture has not advanced computational systems to supervise the artificial habitat of the farms and laboratories. A computational system of this type helps significantly to improve the environmental conditions and to elevate the production and its quality. The main idea of this study is the creation of a system using an artificial neural network (ANN), which can help to recognize patterns of problems and their evolution in shrimp aquaculture, and thus to respond with greater rapidity against the negative effects. Bad control on the shrimp artificial habitat produces organisms with high stress and as consequence losses in their defenses. It generate low nutrition, low reproduction or worse still, they prearrange to acquire lethal diseases. The proposed system helps to control this problem. Environmental variables as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have an important effect in the suitable growth of the shrimps and influence in their health. However, the exact mathematical model of this relationship is unspecified; an ANN is useful for establishing a relationship between these variables and to classify a status that describes a problem into the farm. The data classification is made to recognize and to quantify two states within the pool: a) Normal: Everything is well. b) Risk: One, some or all environmental variables are outside of the allowed interval, which generates problems. The neural network will have to recognize the state and to quantify it, in others words, how normal or risky it is, which allows finding trend of the water quality. A study was developed for designing a software tool that allows recognizing the status of the water quality and control problems for the environment into the pond.

  12. Effects of an invasive grass on the demography of the Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis: Implications for cacti conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2012-05-01

    The impact of exotic species around the world is among the primary threats to the conservation and management of rare and endangered species. In this work we asked whether or not the presence of the African grass Megathyrsus maximus on Mona Island was associated with negative impacts on the demography of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis. To address this question we performed field observations where we compared demographic data collected at un-manipulated areas invaded by Megathyrsus with un-manipulated areas non-invaded by this exotic grass. Additionally, demographic data were also collected in areas in which we removed the exotic grass biomass using two alternative treatments: complete and partial grass removal. Results demonstrated that the presence of Megathyrsus has negative effects on demographic parameters of Harrisia at various stages throughout its life cycle. In general, the survival, growth, and reproduction of Harrisia plants were depressed under the presence of Megathyrsus. Growth and survival of seedlings and juveniles of Harrisia were more impacted by the presence of Megathyrsus than adult performance and seedling recruitment only occurred in areas with grass absence. Our combined results suggest that modifications of the micro-environment by the presence of Megathyrsus may add an additional level of vulnerability to the persistence of Harrisia, and as such this factor must be considered when designing conservation strategies for this endangered species. This study highlights the need for a greater emphasis on understanding the interactions between invasive grass species and native cacti, and the importance of such information in designing conservation strategies for cacti species elsewhere.

  13. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30-35 ind m(-2) and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m(3) kg(-1) cycle(-1)), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha(-1) shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  14. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  15. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N J; Land, M F; Cronin, T W

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a 'primate-like' awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  16. Predation by native brown shrimp on invasive Pacific oyster spat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerman, E. J.; Eriksson, B. K.; Olff, H.; van der Heide, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) increased dramatically in the Wadden Sea. One of the driving mechanisms for the success of the Pacific oyster could be a relatively low predation pressure by epibenthic predators and shore birds on oyster spat. Nevertheless, observations and experiments on predation rates on early life-stages of the Pacific oyster are rare. Therefore, we examined predation rates of brown shrimps on Pacific oyster spat in a number of laboratory experiments. Our results demonstrate that spat of Pacific oysters are most susceptible to predation by brown shrimps (Crangon crangon) in the first days after settlement, when attachment to the substrate (unglazed tiles in our study) is still absent or weak. At this stage the shell length of oyster spat is around ~ 300 μm, and around 50% of the individuals in the experiment were consumed in the two hour trials. Predation rates decreased rapidly as the spat grew larger and reached zero within 10 days after settlement of the spat (shell length > 700 μm). Additional experiments revealed that the attachment of oysters is probably limiting predation by brown shrimps rather than the size of the spat. This indicates that Pacific oyster spat may limit predation loss faster compared to native bivalves, which commonly depend on size to reduce predation rates. Overall, our results suggest that the invasive success of Pacific oysters may in part be explained by relatively low predation rates throughout their life stages.

  17. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, N. J.; Land, M. F.; Cronin, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a ‘primate-like’ awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  18. Effect of Shrimp Chitin and Shrimp Chitin Hydrolysate on the Freeze-Induced Denaturation, and on the Amount of Unfreezable Water of Wanieso Lizardfish Myofibrillar Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somjit, Kingduean; Kongpun, Orawan; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji; Nozaki, Yukinori

    In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.

  19. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  20. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  1. DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE-SCALE NITROGEN DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  2. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  3. 78 FR 14069 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... overfished and overfishing status determination criteria for pink shrimp. DATES: Written comments must be... closure. Overfished and Overfishing Status Determination Criteria for Pink Shrimp Amendment 9 would update the overfished and overfishing status determination criteria (biomass at maximum sustainable yield...

  4. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  5. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-01

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil. PMID:26393239

  6. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  7. Abundance and Size of Gulf Shrimp in Louisiana's Coastal Estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    van der Ham, Joris L.; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  8. Virus diseases of farmed shrimp in the Western Hemisphere (the Americas): a review.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V

    2011-01-01

    Penaeid shrimp aquaculture is an important industry in the Americas, and the industry is based almost entirely on the culture of the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Western Hemisphere shrimp farmers in 14 countries in 2004 produced more than 200,000 metric tons of shrimp, generated more than $2 billion in revenue, and employed more than 500,000 people. Disease has had a major impact on shrimp aquaculture in the Americas since it became a significant commercial entity in the 1970s. Diseases due to viruses, rickettsial-like bacteria, true bacteria, protozoa, and fungi have emerged as major diseases of farmed shrimp in the region. Many of the bacterial, fungal and protozoan caused diseases are managed using improved culture practices, routine sanitation, and the use of chemotherapeutics. However, the virus diseases have been far more problematic to manage and they have been responsible for the most costly epizootics. Examples include the Taura syndrome pandemic that began in 1991-1992 when the disease emerged in Ecuador, and the subsequent White Spot Disease pandemic that followed its introduction to Central America from Asia in 1999. Because of their socioeconomic significance to shrimp farming, seven of the nine crustacean diseases listed by the World Animal Organization (OIE) are virus diseases of shrimp. Of the seven virus diseases of penaeid shrimp, five are native to the Americas or have become enzootic following their introduction. The shrimp virus diseases in the Americas are increasingly being managed by exclusion using a combination of biosecurity and the practice of culturing domesticated specific pathogen-free (SPF) stocks or specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) stocks. Despite the significant challenges posed by disease, the shrimp farming industry of the Americas has responded to the challenges posed by disease and it has developed methods to manage its diseases and mature into a sustainable industry. PMID:21215359

  9. These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps

    PubMed Central

    Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Horká, Ivona; Juračka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation. PMID:21814564

  10. Changes in grass plant populations and temporal soil seed bank dynamics in a semi-arid African savanna: Implications for restoration.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Zewdu K; de Boer, Willem F; Prins, Herbert H T

    2016-11-01

    The re-colonization or recovery of grass species after disappearance due to heavy grazing depends on the presence of persistent soil seed banks that might be accumulated over time from the aboveground vegetation. Moreover, successful plant recruitment is a function of seed production, seed germination and seedling survival, which can be mechanistically understood through studying the life cycle processes of grass species populations under field conditions. Therefore, we studied the number of germinable seeds, species richness and life-forms in the soil seed banks under light and heavy grazing conditions, and the changes in grass species populations in a semi-arid savanna of Ethiopia. Accordingly, a total of 103 species (15 perennial and 29 annual grasses, 6 legumes, 52 forbs and 1 woody species) emerged from the soil samples collected. Lightly grazed sites had a higher seed density compared with heavily grazed sites. The seed density increased over the first three months of soil sampling and decreased thereafter. Perennial grasses dominated the light grazing sites, whereas annual species dominated the heavily grazed sites, indicating that perennial grasses were replaced by annual species in the soil seed bank through grazing. The mean mortality rate from the seedling stage to adult plants was 65%. The seed-to-seedling stage was found to be the most critical transitional stage for grass survival. High seedling mortality in the aboveground vegetation and depletion of seeds in the soil seed banks as a result of sustained heavy grazing can lead to local extinction and disappearance of perennial grasses in semi-arid Ethiopian savannas. PMID:27472053

  11. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage but soil degradation or tree injury can result from these practices. Grasses that suppress wee...

  12. Evaluating Pasture Grasses: Fescues and Other Freaks of Nature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) has excellent potential for grazing-based dairy and beef systems in Wisconsin, but producer awareness of this temperate grass is lacking. Previous research established that its intake potential is comparable or superior to other pasture grasses, and winter-ha...

  13. Regional collaborative research on cold tolerance of exotic biofuel grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold tolerance is a selectable trait for many exotic grasses, even those of tropical or subtropical origin. We are conducting cold tolerance assessments on an array of perennial biofuel grasses at Booneville, AR. In study one (published), we reported that two sugarcane clones (US84-1028 and US84-1...

  14. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome...

  15. Field drying rate differences among three cool-season grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserving cool-season grasses as silage or hay remains a challenge due to the time required for curing and the unpredictability of weather. We compared the drying rates of three grasses with differing yield potential, morphology, and physical characteristics. Inflorescence-stage meadow fescue, orch...

  16. Narrow grass hedge effects on nutrient transport following compost application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of stiff-stemmed grass hedges can be a valuable soil conservation measure. A study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge, planted on the contour along the hillslope, in reducing runoff nutrient transport from plots with a range of soil nutrient values. Composted ...

  17. Two-dimensional flow patterns near contour grass hedges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass hedges are narrow strips of stiff-stemmed vegetation used to control erosion and sediment delivery. When planted on the contour, the hydraulic resistance of the vegetation slows runoff, creates ponding, and promotes sediment deposition. In addition, when tillage is performed between grass he...

  18. Cellulosic ethanol production from warm-season perennial grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season (C4) perennial grasses are able to produce large quantities of biomass, and will play a key role in bioenergy production, particularly in areas with long warm growing seasons. Several different grass species have been studied as candidate bioenergy crops for the Southeast USA, and each ...

  19. Molecular understandings on 'the never thirsty' and apomictic Cenchrus grass.

    PubMed

    Syamaladevi, Divya P; Meena, S S; Nagar, R P

    2016-03-01

    The genus Cenchrus comprises around 25 species of 'bristle clade' grasses. Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel grass) is a hardy, perennial range grass that survives in poor sandy soils and limiting soil moisture conditions and, due to the very same reasons, this grass is one of the most prevalent fodder grasses of the arid and semi-arid regions. Most of the germplasms of Cenchrus produce seeds asexually through the process of apomeiosis. Therefore, the lack of sufficient sexual lines has hindered the crop improvement efforts in Cenchrus being confined to simple selection methods. Many attempts have been initiated in buffel grass to investigate the various molecular aspects such as genomic signatures of different species and genotypes, molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance and reproductive performance. Even though it is an important fodder crop, molecular investigations in Cenchrus lack focus and the molecular information available on this grass is scanty. Cenchrus is a very good gene source for abiotic stress tolerance and apomixis studies. Biotechnological interventions in Cenchrus can help in crop improvement in Cenchrus as well as other crops through transgenic technology or marker assisted selection. To date no consolidated review on biotechnological interventions in Cenchrus grass has been published. Therefore we provide a thorough and in depth review on molecular research in Cenchrus focusing on molecular signatures of evolution, tolerance to abiotic stress and apomictic reproductive mechanism. PMID:26601981

  20. Grazing invasive annual grasses: the green and brown guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of rangeland by annual grasses has become one of the most serious and catastrophic problems in the western United States. Annual grasses displace desired plants and create monocultures that do not provide adequate plant cover for the entire year. Using the ecologically-based invasive plant ...

  1. GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

  2. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage, but soil degradation or tree injury can result. Grass that is managed to suppress...

  3. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Model Grass Brachypodium Distachyon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the compl...

  4. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G; Parr, Patricia Dreyer; Cohen, Kari

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  5. 75 FR 53947 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (``Brazil Final Determination... Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (``Ecuador Final Determination''); Notice of Final...: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From India, 69 FR 76916 (December 23, 2004) (``India...

  6. 76 FR 23277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004); Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23... of Critical Circumstances: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From India, 69 FR...

  7. 75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order... Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances Review, 75 FR... ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; 3) with the...

  8. Inactivation of natural microflora and Listeria innocua on raw whole shrimp by ozonated water, antimicrobial coatings, and cryogenic freezing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp have been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. A survey was conducted to investigate the microbiological safety and quality of frozen raw whole shrimp in local US markets. Results from 32 brands of raw whole shrimp samples available in local retail markets representing 9 countries of ...

  9. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  10. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  11. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  12. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  13. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  14. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  15. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  16. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  18. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  19. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  20. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  1. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  2. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  3. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  4. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  5. Grass Lignin Acylation: p-Coumaroyl Transferase Activity and Cell Wall Characteristics of C3 and C4 Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses have always been a predominate source of nutritional energy for livestock systems around the world. Species belonging to the C3 and C4 grass types have recently been championed as feedstock sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermenta...

  6. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam (70 FR 5143-5156).\\2\\ The Commission is... affirmative determinations on frozen warmwater shrimp from India and Thailand. 70 FR 23384 (May 5, 2005). In... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this...

  7. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 1078, January 8, 2010) were adequate for each order under... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand,...

  8. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  9. Changes in intestinal bacterial communities are closely associated with shrimp disease severity.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; Wang, Kai; Wu, Jinfeng; Qiuqian, Linglin; Yang, Kunjie; Qian, Yunxia; Zhang, Demin

    2015-08-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed a close association between intestinal bacterial communities and human health. However, given that host phylogeny shapes the composition of intestinal microbiota, it is unclear whether changes in intestinal microbiota structure in relation to shrimp health status. In this study, we collected shrimp and seawater samples from ponds with healthy and diseased shrimps to understand variations in bacterial communities among habitats (water and intestine) and/or health status. The bacterial communities were clustered according to the original habitat and health status. Habitat and health status constrained 14.6 and 7.7 % of the variation in bacterial communities, respectively. Changes in shrimp intestinal bacterial communities occurred in parallel with changes in disease severity, reflecting the transition from a healthy to a diseased state. This pattern was further evidenced by 38 bacterial families that were significantly different in abundance between healthy and diseased shrimps; moderate changes were observed in shrimps with sub-optimal health. In addition, within a given bacterial family, the patterns of enrichment or decrease were consistent with the known functions of those bacteria. Furthermore, the identified 119 indicator taxa exhibited a discriminative pattern similar to the variation in the community as a whole. Overall, this study suggests that changes in intestinal bacterial communities are closely associated with the severity of shrimp disease and that indicator taxa can be used to evaluate shrimp health status. PMID:25947250

  10. 75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the...

  11. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The preliminary results of the... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers...

  12. 76 FR 50718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Administrative Reviews, Requests for Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the...

  13. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... notice in the Federal Register of January 4, 2013 (76 FR 764). The conference was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21.10...

  14. 76 FR 12025 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). On February 1, 2010... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (Feb. 1, 2010). In..., 75 FR 17693 (Apr. 7, 2010) (Initiation Notice). In the Initiation Notice, the Department...

  15. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from India. The period of investigation is April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012. Pursuant to section 705(a)(1) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act), the final determination will be issued......

  16. 78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33350 (June 4, 2013... ``dusting'' ' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the...

  17. 78 FR 33345 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Malaysia. The period of investigation (POI) is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. Pursuant to section 705(a)(1) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act), the final determination......

  18. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR...-frozen) and peeled shrimp; 2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent... provided evidence of changed circumstances sufficient to warrant a review. See Initiation Notice, 75 FR...

  19. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of investigation (POI) is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. Pursuant to section 705(a)(1) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the......

  20. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review, 75 FR 13492 (Mar... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005). On January 25... Initiation, 75 FR at 13493. In April, June, and July 2010, we requested further information and...

  1. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). The period of investigation is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. Pursuant to section 705(a)(1) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the......

  2. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Thailand. The period of investigation is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. Pursuant to section 705(a)(1) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act), the final determination will......

  3. 75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order...; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been... of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 70 FR...

  4. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order''). \\2\\ See VN Shrimp Order; see also... Rescission of Antidumping Administrative Review, 73 FR 52273 (September 9, 2008). \\3\\ See Certain Frozen... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 47771 (August 9, 2010). On December 13, 2011, C. P....

  5. 78 FR 33349 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Indonesia: Negative Preliminary Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that countervailable subsidies are not being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Indonesia. The period of investigation is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. Pursuant to section 705(a)(1) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act), the final determination......

  6. 77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India, 77 FR 64953 (Oct. 24, 2012) (Initiation and... Results, 77 FR at 64955. In the Initiation and Preliminary Results, we provided all interested parties... fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat...

  7. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... off Georgia and Florida. 622.19 Section 622.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... off Georgia and Florida. (a) Initial applicability. (1) The measures in paragraph (a) of this section... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  8. [Shrimp community structure and its influential factors in the Jiaojiang River estuary during spring and autumn].

    PubMed

    Qi, Hai-Ming; Sun, Yue; Xu, Zhao-Li; Sun, Lu-Feng; Gao, Qian; Que, Jiang-Long; Tian, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Based on the data from two oceanographic surveys during April and October 2010, the spatial and seasonal variations in composition, dominance, and diversity of shrimp communities, as well as the influential factors in the Jiaojiang River estuary were analyzed. A total of 16 species of shrimp were found, which belonged to 12 families under 8 genera. 14 species of shrimp were found in spring (April) and 12 species in autumn (October). With the employment of index of relative importance (IRI), in spring 6 dominant species were identified, as Acetes chinensis, Alpheus distinguendus, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii, Leptochela gracilis, Alpheus juponicus and Palaemon gravieri, and in autumn 3 dominant species were found as Solenocera crassicornis, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii and Metapenaeus joyneri. Eurythermal and eurysaline shrimp community prevailed in the Jiaojiang River estuary, followed by eurythermal and hyposaline shrimp community. Margalef index (D), Shannon index (H) and Pielou's evenness index were used to evaluate the diversity of shrimp community in the studied area. The stations with higher value of D and H were mainly located in the west of the Dachen Island, whereas the Pielou's evenness index was stable all across the Jiaojiang River estuary. By hierarchical cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) method, the results indicated that shrimp communities had significant seasonal and spatial variations. Depth was the most important factor that affected variations in the shrimp community structure in the Jiaojiang River estuary. PMID:24697077

  9. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF LESIONS IN GILLS OF A MARINE SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathologic black gills of pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, exposed to 763 micrograms/l of cadmium chloride for 15 days were studied with transmission electron microscopy and were compared with normal gills of control pink shrimp. Local as well as extensive areas of cell death and n...

  10. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Brown shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Bozeman, E.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account for about one-third of the commercial shrimp harvest in the South Atlantic Region; the landing were worth $20 million in 1982. In the South Atlantic Region, commercially importance brown shrimp fishing grounds extend from Fort Pierce, Florida, to Pamlico Sound and Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina. Most of the commercial harvest is taken inside the 10-fathom contour. Brown shrimp are omnivorous and eat food items ranging from detritus to small invertebrates and fishes. Many predators, including fishes and crustaceans, feed on brown shrimp. Brown shrimp survival is reduced by adverse temperature or salinities. Intertidal vegetation is an important characteristic of brown shrimp nursery areas. The suitability of some estuaries as nursery areas may be reduced by bulkheading, ditching, disposal of dredged materials, and drainage from agricultural and silvicultural areas. Existing estuarine areas must be preserved to ensure the continued production of brown shrimp. 57 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. 50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Figs. 19 Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223—Chauvin Shrimp...

  12. Characterization of the Taura syndrome virus isolate originating from the 2004 Texas Epizootic in cultured shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major viral pathogen of penaeid shrimp worldwide. A comprehensive investigation of the Texas isolate of TSV that caused epizootics in shrimp farms in Texas in 2004 (Us04Pv1) revealed that the virus was highly virulent in laboratory bioassays causing severe symptom dev...

  13. Probabilities of low nighttime temperatures during stocking and harvest seasons for inland shrimp culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is cultured in earthen ponds at inland sites across the southern US. The growing season in ponds is limited to periods when water temperatures permit shrimp survival and growth. Low nighttime air temperatures associated with cold f...

  14. 75 FR 12175 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 6013... Reviews, 74 FR 15699 (Apr. 7, 2009) (Initiation Notice). In the Initiation Notice, we indicated that...

  15. Effect of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps for decontamination of pathogenic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Rashid, Harun Or; Sangthong, Naruemon; Adulyatham, Pitaya; Rattagool, Pongpen; Ishigaki, Isao

    1993-07-01

    Twelve samples of imported frozen shrimps were used in this study. The total aerobic bacteria were at 2 × 10 4 to 6 × 10 6 per gram. A few of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from many samples. However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. After exposure to 4-5 kGy of gamma-rays, the total aerobic bacteria in frozen shrimps were reduced by approximately 2-3 log cycles. The dose necessary to reduce the vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila at a level of below 10 -4 per gram was about 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas about 3.5 kGy was required for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the non-frozen shrimps irradiated at 2.5 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy irradiation. No remarkable changes of peroxide values were also obtained up to 9 kGy of irradiation in the frozen shrimps. However peroxide values of non-frozen shrimps were clearly increased even irradiated at 4 kGy. Trimethylamine content was not changed at doses below 10 kGy in both of frozen and non-frozen shrimps. Shelf-life of defrosted shrimps were extended ca. 2 times under non-frozen market conditions.

  16. 77 FR 19612 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Duty Proceedings: Electronic Filing Procedures; Administrative Protective Order Procedures, 76 FR 39263... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 9991, 9994 (Mar. 9, 2009) (2007-2008 Indian Shrimp Preliminary... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 33409 (July 13, 2009) (2007-2008 Indian Shrimp Final...

  17. 76 FR 12033 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand, 70 FR 5145 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). On February 1..., or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (Feb. 1, 2010... Reviews, 75 FR 17693 (Apr. 7, 2010) (Initiation Notice).\\2\\ \\2\\ In the Initiation Notice, the...

  18. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  19. FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

  20. 77 FR 13275 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). \\2\\ See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 76...

  1. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24 Section 654.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab...

  2. Native Perennial Grasses Show Evolutionary Response to Bromus tectorum (Cheatgrass) Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Goergen, Erin M.; Leger, Elizabeth A.; Espeland, Erin K.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species can change selective pressures on native plants by altering biotic and abiotic conditions in invaded habitats. Although invasions can lead to native species extirpation, they may also induce rapid evolutionary changes in remnant native plants. We investigated whether adult plants of five native perennial grasses exhibited trait shifts consistent with evolution in response to invasion by the introduced annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass), and asked how much variation there was among species and populations in the ability to grow successfully with the invader. Three hundred and twenty adult plants were collected from invaded and uninvaded communities from four locations near Reno, Nevada, USA. Each plant was divided in two and transplanted into the greenhouse. One clone was grown with B. tectorum while the other was grown alone, and we measured tolerance (ability to maintain size) and the ability to reduce size of B. tectorum for each plant. Plants from invaded populations consistently had earlier phenology than those from uninvaded populations, and in two out of four sites, invaded populations were more tolerant of B. tectorum competition than uninvaded populations. Poa secunda and one population of E. multisetus had the strongest suppressive effect on B. tectorum, and these two species were the only ones that flowered in competition with B. tectorum. Our study indicates that response to B. tectorum is a function of both location and species identity, with some, but not all, populations of native grasses showing trait shifts consistent with evolution in response to B. tectorum invasion within the Great Basin. PMID:21479185

  3. Effect of peach gum polysaccharides on quality changes of white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xing-Cun; Chang, Cheng-Fei; Wu, Sheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) have both antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, the retardation effect of the PGPs on the quality changes of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage was investigated. Shrimp samples were untreated with different concentrations of the PGPs solution and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions for 10 days. During refrigerated storage, shrimp samples were taken periodically and their total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score were evaluated. Compared to the control, treatment of the PGPs solution effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH changes, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results indicate that treatment of PGPs could be a promising means to preserve white shrimp (P. vannamei). PMID:25450827

  4. Shrimp aquaculture development and the environment in the Gulf of California ecoregion.

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, F; Gracia, A; Flores-Verdugo, F; Lyle-Fritch, L P; Alonso-Rodríguez, R; Roque, A; Ruiz-Fernández, A C

    2003-07-01

    Beginning in the middle of the 1980s, the Gulf of California ecoregion experienced a boom in shrimp aquaculture and became the second largest producer in the western hemisphere. The moderated, but continual development of shrimp farming, in conjunction with municipal and agriculture effluents has been accompanied by concern about: (a) depletion of fishing stocks, (b) reduction of mangrove forest, (c) frequent harmful algal blooms in coastal waters and shrimp ponds, and (d) water quality deterioration. We demonstrate that environmental degradation resulted from a conjunction of factors including agriculture, untreated municipal effluents, shrimp aquaculture, increasing number of fishermen, and an absence of an effective regulatory program. We recommend the immediate implementation of an integrated coastal management program to protect the integrity of the coastal ecosystems and operate upon the principle of environmental sustainability for the different economic activities including shrimp aquaculture. PMID:12837298

  5. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  6. Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

  7. Resolution of grass canopy biomass classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of variance methods has been applied to in situ grassland spectral reflectance data in order to determine the classes or levels of total wet biomass that can be resolved spectrally by a single narrow band measurement. Ground-truth clipping of blue grama grass plots was performed immediately following spectral reflectance measurements at 91 wavelength intervals which were 0.005 microns apart over the spectral range from 0.350 to 0.800 microns. It was found that the photographic infrared region of 0.750 to 0.800 microns could be used to distinguish three classes or levels of total wet biomass. Four or five classes, particularly at higher biomass levels, could not be distinguished by this technique.

  8. Summer Dormancy in Perennial Temperate Grasses

    PubMed Central

    VOLAIRE, FLORENCE; NORTON, MARK

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Dormancy has been extensively studied in plants which experience severe winter conditions but much less so in perennial herbaceous plants that must survive summer drought. This paper reviews the current knowledge on summer dormancy in both native and cultivated perennial temperate grasses originating from the Mediterranean Basin, and presents a unified terminology to describe this trait. • Scope Under severe drought, it is difficult to separate the responses by which plants avoid and tolerate dehydration from those associated with the expression of summer dormancy. Consequently, this type of endogenous (endo-) dormancy can be tested only in plants that are not subjected to moisture deficit. Summer dormancy can be defined by four criteria, one of which is considered optional: (1) reduction or cessation of leaf production and expansion; (2) senescence of mature foliage; (3) dehydration of surviving organs; and (4, optional) formation of resting organs. The proposed terminology recognizes two levels of summer dormancy: (a) complete dormancy, when cessation of growth is associated with full senescence of foliage and induced dehydration of leaf bases; and (b) incomplete dormancy, when leaf growth is partially inhibited and is associated with moderate levels of foliage senescence. Summer dormancy is expressed under increasing photoperiod and temperature. It is under hormonal control and usually associated with flowering and a reduction in metabolic activity in meristematic tissues. Dehydration tolerance and dormancy are independent phenomena and differ from the adaptations of resurrection plants. • Conclusions Summer dormancy has been correlated with superior survival after severe and repeated summer drought in a large range of perennial grasses. In the face of increasing aridity, this trait could be used in the development of cultivars that are able to meet agronomic and environmental goals. It is therefore important to have a better

  9. Gramene, a tool for grass genomics.

    PubMed

    Ware, Doreen H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ni, Junjian; Yap, Immanuel V; Pan, Xioakang; Clark, Ken Y; Teytelman, Leonid; Schmidt, Steven C; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Kuan; Cartinhour, Sam; Stein, Lincoln D; McCouch, Susan R

    2002-12-01

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a comparative genome mapping database for grasses and a community resource for rice (Oryza sativa). It combines a semi-automatically generated database of cereal genomic and expressed sequence tag sequences, genetic maps, map relations, and publications, with a curated database of rice mutants (genes and alleles), molecular markers, and proteins. Gramene curators read and extract detailed information from published sources, summarize that information in a structured format, and establish links to related objects both inside and outside the database, providing seamless connections between independent sources of information. Genetic, physical, and sequence-based maps of rice serve as the fundamental organizing units and provide a common denominator for moving across species and genera within the grass family. Comparative maps of rice, maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and oat (Avena sativa) are anchored by a set of curated correspondences. In addition to sequence-based mappings found in comparative maps and rice genome displays, Gramene makes extensive use of controlled vocabularies to describe specific biological attributes in ways that permit users to query those domains and make comparisons across taxonomic groups. Proteins are annotated for functional significance using gene ontology terms that have been adopted by numerous model species databases. Genetic variants including phenotypes are annotated using plant ontology terms common to all plants and trait ontology terms that are specific to rice. In this paper, we present a brief overview of the search tools available to the plant research community in Gramene. PMID:12481044

  10. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems. PMID:20943254

  11. Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Ekasari, Julie; Hanif Azhar, Muhammad; Surawidjaja, Enang H; Nuryati, Sri; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ratio of 15 and a control system without any organic carbon addition. Each biofloc system was stocked with Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles that were reared for 49 days. The use of tapioca-by-product resulted in a higher survival (93%) of the shrimp as compared to the other carbon sources and the control. The highest yield and protein assimilation was observed when tapioca was used as the carbon source. After 49 days, phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the shrimp grown in all biofloc systems was higher than that of the shrimp from the control system. Following a challenge test by injection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), the levels of PO and respiratory burst (RB) activity in the shrimp of all biofloc treatments were higher than that of the challenged shrimp from the control treatment. An increased immunity was also suggested by the survival of the challenged shrimp from the experimental biofloc groups that was significantly higher as compared to the challenged shrimp from the control treatment, regardless of the organic carbon source used to grow the bioflocs. Overall, this study demonstrated that the application of biofloc technology may contribute to the robustness of cultured shrimp by immunostimulation and that this effect is independent of the type of carbon source used to grow the flocs. PMID:25218685

  12. Bioturbating shrimp alter the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in coastal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Laverock, Bonnie; Smith, Cindy J; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve; Gilbert, Jack A

    2010-12-01

    Bioturbation is a key process in coastal sediments, influencing microbially driven cycling of nutrients as well as the physical characteristics of the sediment. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and function of the microbial communities that inhabit the burrows of infaunal macroorganisms. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to investigate variation in the structure of bacterial communities in sediment bioturbated by the burrowing shrimp Upogebia deltaura or Callianassa subterranea. Analyses of 229 sediment samples revealed significant differences between bacterial communities inhabiting shrimp burrows and those inhabiting ambient surface and subsurface sediments. Bacterial communities in burrows from both shrimp species were more similar to those in surface-ambient than subsurface-ambient sediment (R=0.258, P<0.001). The presence of shrimp was also associated with changes in bacterial community structure in surrounding surface sediment, when compared with sediments uninhabited by shrimp. Bacterial community structure varied with burrow depth, and also between individual burrows, suggesting that the shrimp's burrow construction, irrigation and maintenance behaviour affect the distribution of bacteria within shrimp burrows. Subsequent sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from surface sediments revealed differences in the relative abundance of bacterial taxa between shrimp-inhabited and uninhabited sediments; shrimp-inhabited sediment contained a higher proportion of proteobacterial sequences, including in particular a twofold increase in Gammaproteobacteria. Chao1 and ACE diversity estimates showed that taxon richness within surface bacterial communities in shrimp-inhabited sediment was at least threefold higher than that in uninhabited sediment. This study shows that bioturbation can result in significant structural and compositional changes in sediment bacterial communities, increasing

  13. Seasonal appearance of grass pollen allergen in natural, pauci-micronic aerosol of various size fractions. Relationship with airborne grass pollen concentration.

    PubMed

    Spieksma, F T; Nikkels, B H; Dijkman, J H

    1995-03-01

    In a study during the 1993 grass pollen season at Leiden, the relationship between atmospheric pollen allergen carried by five size fractions of pauci-micronic (few microns) particles and the grass pollen count was investigated. Sampling was carried out on dry days, and atmospheric pollen allergen in the particle fractions was assessed by a RAST-inhibition assay while grass pollen quantities were measured with a volumetric pollen trap. It appears that the atmospheric presence of grass pollen allergen in all size fractions is restricted mainly to the period of presence of grass pollen grains. Before and after the grass pollen season atmospheric grass pollen allergen quantities are generally very low. It is concluded that a routinely performed grass pollen count is a reliable measurement for the estimation of the amount of atmospheric grass pollen allergen, also in the pauci-micronic particle fraction. PMID:7788570

  14. Stability theory for the synchronized waving of marine grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ravi; Mahadevan, Amala; Mandre, Shreyas; Mahadevan, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Synchronized waving of grass blades in the presence of fluid flow has been observed in cases such as wheat field in wind, marine grass in tidal currents. The synchronous motion can have important environmental and ecological impact via mixing of fluid due to waving. When the hydrodynamic and elastic time scales are well separated, this waving is thought to be due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting from an inflection point in the flow profile. We find that the inflection point is located near the tip of grass canopy. We extend the Orr-Sommerfeld equation for the stability of a shear flow to include a continuum mean-field approximation for the vegetation, thus capturing the essential ingredients for flow instability leading to coherent waving. Our linear stability analysis shows that the flow in presence of grass become unstable not only through a mechanism of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability but also through shear instability of flow above grass. We also find that flow with low submergence ratio of grass becomes unstable due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability whereas flow high submergence ratio becomes unstable due to shear instability of flow above the grass. Numerical results demonstrating these instability mechanism will also be presented.

  15. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement. PMID:27249195

  16. Studies on the immunomodulatory effect of extract of Cyanodon dactylon in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its efficacy to protect the shrimp from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, G; Sarathi, M; Venkatesan, C; Thomas, John; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2008-12-01

    The present study investigates the protection of shrimp Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using antiviral plant extract derived from Cyanodon dactylon and the modulation of the shrimp non-specific immunity. To determine the antiviral activity, the shrimp were treated by both in vitro (intramuscular injection) and in vivo (orally with feed) methods at the concentration of 2mg per animal and 2% of the plant extract incorporated with commercially available artificial pellet feed, respectively. The antiviral activity of C. dactylon plant extract was confirmed by PCR, bioassay and Western blot analysis. In the present study, anti-WSSV activity of C. dactylon plant extract by in vivo and in vitro methods showed strong antiviral activity and the immunological parameters such as proPO, O(2)(-), NO, THC and clotting time were all significantly (P<0.05) higher in the WSSV-infected shrimp treated with plant extract when compared to control groups. These results strongly indicate that in vivo and in vitro administration of C. dactylon plant extract enhances immunity of the shrimp. Based on the present data and the advantages of plant extract available at low price, we believe that oral administration of C. dactylon plant extract along with the pellet feed is a potential prophylactic agent against WSSV infection of shrimp. PMID:18834943

  17. Micrometeorology of a Shrimp Farm: a Case Study in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jose Luis

    A low cost micrometeorological data acquisition system (less than 10,000) was devised and deployed at a Shrimp Farm located along the coast of Ecuador in order to monitor environmental parameters important for the management of such ponds. The Surface Boundary Layer conditions on the Shrimp Farm were found to be more dependent on the size and density distribution of the ponds rather than on the climatic characteristics of the region. Fluxes and other micrometeorological quantities in the Surface Boundary Layer were estimated with an error of up to 25%, although this error is considerable larger than what is possible to obtain with state of the art sensors now commercially available, nevertheless it is accurate enough to be used as inputs to help predict the physical and chemical characteristics of the water in the pond and thus be used as a tool for improving the management of aquacultural sites. The Planetary Boundary Layer over the Shrimp Farm was found to be almost always under unstable conditions; Surface Energy Balance calculations indicated that the turbulent losses to the atmosphere were more as latent rather than sensible heat, with a day-time Bowen Ratio having an average value between 0.4 and 0.5. The development and evolution of Internal Boundary Layers due to changes in surface conditions in going from water to ground during the day was found to be more dependent to the step change in temperature, while at night the step change in surface roughness was found to be of equal importance.

  18. Polysaccharides as Alternative Moisture Retention Agents for Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Torti, Michael J; Sims, Charles A; Adams, Charles M; Sarnoski, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Phosphates are used as moisture retention agents (MRAs) by the shrimp industry. Although they are effective, phosphates are expensive, need to be listed on a food label, and overuse can often lead to a higher product cost for consumers. Polysaccharides were researched as alternative MRAs. Polysaccharides are usually inexpensive, are considered natural, and can have nutritional benefits. Research was conducted to determine whether polysaccharides yielded similar functional impacts as phosphates. Treatments included a 0.5% fibercolloid solution isolated from citrus peel, an 8% pectin solution, a 0.5% xanthan gum (XG) solution, a 1% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, and conventionally used 4% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). Experimental treatments were compared to a distilled water control to gauge effectiveness. Freezing, boiling, and oven drying studies were performed to determine how moisture retention in shrimp differed using these different treatments. Water activity was measured to determine any potential differences in shelf life. Solution uptake was also determined to understand how well the treatments enhanced water binding. For moisture loss by freezing, 4% STP and the 0.5% fibercolloid solution functioned the best. The 4% STP treated shrimp lost the least amount of moisture during boiling. The 0.5% fibercolloid and 0.5% XG treatment outperformed phosphates in respect to moisture uptake ability. None of the treatments had a major effect on water activity. All treatments were rated similar in consumer sensory acceptability tests except for pectin, which was rated lower by the sensory panel. Overall, polysaccharides were found to be viable alternatives to phosphates. PMID:26849189

  19. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    PubMed

    deVries, Maya S; Del Rio, Carlos Martínez; Tunstall, Tate S; Dawson, Todd E

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively). Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days) was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days). In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively). We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals. PMID:25835953

  20. Genomic Sequence and Experimental Tractability of a New Decapod Shrimp Model, Neocaridina denticulata

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Nathan J.; Sin, Yung Wa; Shen, Xin; Zhe, Qu; Wang, Wei; Chan, Ting Fung; Tobe, Stephen S.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.; Chu, Ka Hou; Hui, Jerome H. L.

    2014-01-01

    The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10−6). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods. PMID:24619275

  1. [Exploitation of the shrimp trawl fishery in the period 1991-1999 at the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In Costa Rica, the Gulf of Nicoya shrimp fishery originated in 1952 and represented one of the most important economic activities in the region. Nevertheless, overfishery reduced the captured volumes to levels that prevent this commercial activity. I analyzed official fishery statistics between 1991 and 1999. These species involved are: two species of white shrimp, (Litopenaeus occidentalis and L. stylirostris), the "titi" shrimp (Xiphopenaeus riveti), the brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis), the "pinki" shrimp (F. brevirostris) and the "fidel" shrimp (Solenocera agassizi). All the species reached the Maximum Sustainable Yield in the decades of 1970 and 1980 and are now found at over-exploitation levels. I recommend that this shrimp trawl fishery be completely closed down. PMID:18457129

  2. Effects of process parameters on quality changes of shrimp during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer.

    PubMed

    Niamnuy, C; Devahastin, S; Soponronnarit, S

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of various parameters, that is, concentration of salt solution (2%, 3%, 4%[w/v]), boiling time (3, 5, 7 min), drying air temperature (80, 100, 120 degrees C), and size of shrimp, on the kinetics of drying and various quality attributes of shrimp, namely, shrinkage, rehydration ability, texture, colors, and microstructure, during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer. In addition, the effects of these processing parameters on the sensory attributes of dried shrimp were also investigated. Small shrimp (350 to 360 shrimp/kg) and large shrimp (150 to 160 shrimp/kg) were boiled and then dried until their moisture content was around 25% (d.b.). It was found that the degree of color changes, toughness, and shrinkage of shrimp increased while the rehydration ability decreased with an increase in the concentration of salt solution and boiling time. Size of shrimp and drying temperature significantly affected all quality attributes of dried shrimp. The conditions that gave the highest hedonic scores of sensory evaluation for small dried shrimp are the concentration of salt solution of 2% (w/v), boiling time of 7 min, and drying air temperature of 120 degrees C. On the other hand, the conditions that gave the highest hedonic scores of sensory evaluation for large dried shrimp are the concentration of salt solution of 4% (w/v), boiling time of 7 min, and drying air temperature of 100 degrees C. The quality attributes of dried shrimp measured by instruments correlated well with the sensory attributes, especially the color of dried shrimp. PMID:18034725

  3. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

    2012-03-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 μg kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk. PMID:22154339

  4. The role of shrimp miR-965 in virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shu, Le; Li, Changrun; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-07-01

    RNAi, mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs), has attracted increasing attention for its important role in cross-talk between host and virus. However, the role of host miRNA in the virus infection in vivo has not been intensively investigated. In this study, the effects of a shrimp miRNA (miR-965) on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection were characterized. The results indicated that the expression of miR-965 was significantly upregulated in shrimp in response to the WSSV challenge, suggesting its involvement in the virus infection. The miR-965 silencing led to significant increases of WSSV copies and virus-infected shrimp mortality, while the miR-965 overexpression resulted in the decreased WSSV copies and virus-infected shrimp mortality, indicating that miR-965 played a negative role in the WSSV infection. The further data revealed that miR-965 inhibited the virus infection by targeting the viral wsv240 gene, an important gene required for the WSSV infection in shrimp. The results demonstrated that miR-965 could promote the shrimp phagocytosis against virus infection by targeting the shrimp ATG5 (autophagy related 5) gene. Therefore, our findings presented novel evidence to better understand the anfractuous host-virus interactions in vivo. PMID:27134077

  5. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp. PMID:26396412

  6. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  7. Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    2010-02-11

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops. PMID:20148030

  8. Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Kalluri, Udaya C; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2010-01-01

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops.

  9. Mineral transfer in a legume/grass association

    SciTech Connect

    Habben, J.E.; Blevins, D.G.

    1986-04-01

    Previous pasture research has indicated that in a legume/grass association the grass has a higher concentration of specific minerals than grass grown alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if a deeply rooted legume could transfer minerals to an associated shallow rooted grass plant via their root systems. A greenhouse study was conducted using alfalfa and maize plants grown in a double tube design. Plants were established such that the top tube contained both alfalfa and maize roots while the bottom tube contained only the alfalfa roots. Alfalfa roots in the lower tube were exposed to 1 mCi of one of three different isotopes (/sup 32/P, /sup 86/Rb and /sup 45/Ca) over a 40 day period. Under these conditions, radioactive analysis of maize tissue showed a significant transfer of /sup 86/Rb and /sup 32/P.

  10. Microwave backscattering and emission model for grass canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Lang, Roger H.; Levine, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-layer model is developed that treats the grass canopy as a collection of randomly oriented elliptical dielectric discs over a layer of thatch with underlying soil surface. The distorted Born approximation in conjunction with the Peake formulation is used to calculate the backscattering coefficient and the emissivity from the canopy. Two particular features of this model which are unique for grass canopies are the variation of the canopy structure and the presence of the thatch layer. The basic parameters in the model such as the size and orientation of grass blades, dielectric constant of soil and vegetation, and thickness and water content of the thatch layer have been obtained from ground truth data. To interpret the available experimental observations of grasslands, numerical results from both passive and active models at L-band (1.4 GHz) are generated and various scattering and emission properties of the grass canopies are discussed.

  11. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  12. Gravity Perception and Response in Shoots of Cereal Grasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, P. B.; Song, I.; Bluncson, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two components of the gravitropic curvature response in cereal grass pulvini are studied. These two components are gravity perception and mechanism of response following the transduction phase. The effects of gravity, time lag, protein synthesis and enzyme production are included.

  13. Foreword to farming with grass: Achieving sustainable mixed agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Farming with Grass conference was developed to bring together diverse stakeholders in grassland environments to (a) help assess the current condition of agriculture, (b) consider alternative production scenarios for grassland agricultural ecosystems, (c) identify key issues hindering the develop...

  14. 6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, WATER MILFOIL, AND OTHER AQUATIC PLANTS FOR TRANSPLANTING FROM A COULEE SIX MILES AWAY FROM THE REFUGE - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  15. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  16. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomšíčková, Jana; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kateřina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes. PMID:20946912

  17. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  18. Contests with deadly weapons: telson sparring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Green, P. A.; Patek, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Mantis shrimp strike with extreme impact forces that are deadly to prey. They also strike conspecifics during territorial contests, yet theoretical and empirical findings in aggressive behaviour research suggest competitors should resolve conflicts using signals before escalating to dangerous combat. We tested how Neogonodactylus bredini uses two ritualized behaviours to resolve size-matched contests: meral spread visual displays and telson (tailplate) strikes. We predicted that (i) most contests would be resolved by meral spreads, (ii) meral spreads would reliably signal strike force and (iii) strike force would predict contest success. The results were unexpected for each prediction. Contests were not resolved by meral spreads, instead escalating to striking in 33 of 34 experiments. The size of meral spread components did not strongly correlate with strike force. Strike force did not predict contest success; instead, winners delivered more strikes. Size-matched N. bredini avoid deadly combat not by visual displays, but by ritualistically and repeatedly striking each other's telsons until the loser retreats. We term this behaviour ‘telson sparring', analogous to sparring in other weapon systems. We present an alternative framework for mantis shrimp contests in which the fight itself is the signal, serving as a non-lethal indicator of aggressive persistence or endurance. PMID:26399976

  19. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador. PMID:26555534

  20. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp. PMID:27368541

  1. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  2. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  3. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  4. Architectural Evolution and its Implications for Domestication in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Doust, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background The cereal crops domesticated from grasses provide a large percentage of the calories consumed by humans. Domestication and breeding in individual cereals has historically occurred in isolation, although this is rapidly changing with comparative genomics of the sequenced or soon-to-be sequenced genomes of rice, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium. Genetic information transferred through genomic comparisons is helping our understanding of genetically less tractable crops such as the hexaploid wheats and polyploid sugarcane, as well as the approx. 10 000 species of wild grasses. In turn, phylogenetic analysis helps put our knowledge of the morphology of cereal crops into an evolutionary context. Grass Architecture Domestication often involves a change in the pattern and timing of branching, which affects both vegetative and inflorescence architecture, and ultimately yield. Cereal grasses exhibit two main forms of vegetative architecture: the pooid and erhartoid cereals such as wheat and rice have multiple basal tillers, while panicoid cereals such as maize, sorghum and the millets have few tillers or even only a single main stem. These differences are reflected in the differences between the wild species of pooid and some erhartoid grasses, which emphasize basal branching over axillary branching, and the panicoid grasses, where axillary branching is more frequently found. A combination of phylogenetic and genomic analysis is beginning to reveal the similarities and differences between different cereal crops, and relate these to the diversity of wild grasses to which they are related. Recent work on genes controlling branching emphasizes that developmental genetics needs to be viewed in both an evolutionary and ecological framework, if it is to be useful in understanding how morphology evolves. Increasingly, exploring the phylogenetic context of the crop grasses will suggest new ways to identify and create combinations of morphological traits that will best

  5. Sonoran Desert ecosystem transformation by a C4 grass without the grass/fire cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with

  6. Variations in Km(CO2) of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase among Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the Km(CO2) values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from 60 grass species shows that enzyme from C3 grasses consistently exhibits lower Km(CO2) than does that from C4 grasses. Systematically ordered variation in Km(CO2) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases from C3 and C4 grasses is also apparent and, among C4 grasses, this shows some correlation with C4 types. PMID:16661586

  7. Physiological responses of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (Milne Edwards 1837) (Decapoda: Thalassinidea) to oxygen availability and recovery after severe environmental hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Félix P; Urbina, Mauricio A; Cumillaf, Juan Pablo; Gebauer, Paulina; Paschke, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Hypoxia is a common and widespread phenomenon in aquatic ecosystems, imposing a significant challenge for the animals that inhabit such waters. In different habitats, however, the characteristics of these hypoxic events may differ, therefore imposing different challenges. We investigated the tolerance of adult ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (an intertidal mudflat dweller) to different partial pressures of oxygen (pO2), severe hypoxia (2 kPa) and recovery from hypoxia after different exposure times, mimicking the natural tidal cycle (6 h and 12 h). We calculated critical oxygen tension and categorize the adult ghost shrimps as oxyregulators (R value=75.27%). All physiological measurements (metabolic rate, oxyhemocyanin, hemolymph protein and lactate concentrations) were affected by exposure to low partial pressures of oxygen, but most of them recovered (with exception of metabolic rate) control values (21 kPa) after 6h under normoxic conditions. Low metabolic rate, high release of hemolymphatic proteins and anaerobic metabolism are suggested as response mechanisms to overcome hypoxic events during low tide. PMID:26212148

  8. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Stricker, J.A.; Anderson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  9. One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Miquel; Ramírez-Hernández, Jessica Yesemite; Mártinez-Ibarra, César; Pacheco, Neith; García-Arrazola, Roeb; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

    2007-12-12

    Free astaxanthin one-solvent extractions with ethanol, acetone, and liquid 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from raw and lactic acid fermented (ensilaged) shrimp residues were investigated. The total carotenoid recovery from ensilaged shrimp wastes was higher than that from non-ensilaged ones as assessed by HPLC analyses. Acetone gave the highest extraction yields of free astaxanthin with up to 115 microg/g of material. Moreover, liquid tetrafluoroethane is reported for the first time in a successful one-solvent extraction of carotenoids from shrimp. PMID:18020413

  10. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on preservation of white shrimp during partially frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are preservatives with proven antibacterial activity, while glutathione has antioxidant activity. This study investigated the effects of chitosan coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione (0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% chitosan) on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Chitosan-based coating treatments effectively inhibited bacterial growth, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen and malondialdehyde, and basically maintained the sensory properties of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Therefore, chitosan-based edible coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione could be a promising antimicrobial and oxidant method to prevent metamorphism of white shrimp with extended shelf life. PMID:24491494

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp Paraglypturus tonganus (Crustacea, Axiidea, Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jonguk; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Ju, Se-Jong; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps are burrowing decapods that serve as bioturbators and habitat providers in seafloor environments. The hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp, Paraglypturus tonganus, was collected from a hydrothermal vent in the Tonga Arc. This species has a mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of 15,924 bp in length with an AT content of 66.1%. The mitogenome was identical to the typical gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity of the infraorder Axiidea. Paraglypturus tonganus showed 65.3-70.1% nucleotide similarity with the known mitogenomes of other axiid shrimps. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Axiidea within the decapods. PMID:24963774

  12. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  13. Differential expression of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and their response to grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Ju, C S; He, L B; Pei, Y Y; Jiang, Y; Huang, R; Li, Y M; Liao, L J; Jang, S H; Wang, Y P

    2016-02-01

    The cDNAs of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, galactose-binding lectin (galbl) and mannose-binding lectin (mbl), were cloned and analysed in this study. Both of them exhibited the highest expression level in liver, whereas their expression pattern differed in early phase of embryonic development. Following exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the mRNA expression level of galbl and mbl was significantly up-regulated in liver and intestine. PMID:26643267

  14. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 80°C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26±0.89GPa at 25°C that reduces to 7.61±0.65GPa at 80°C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38±2.3GPa at 25°C to 24.58±1.71GPa at 80°C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. PMID:25686945

  15. Retention and tissue damage of PSP and NSP toxins in shrimp: Is cultured shrimp a potential vector of toxins to human population?

    PubMed

    Pérez Linares, Jesús; Ochoa, José Luis; Gago Martínez, Ana

    2009-02-01

    Toxic microalgae outbreaks have caused significant economic losses in the Mexican aquaculture industry. Blooms that involve PSP and NSP phycotoxins are two of the most dangerous, causing harmful effects to the environment, economy and public health. The exact metabolic mechanism of these toxins in shrimp still remains unknown. Because shrimp consume microalgae their edible tissues are clearly possible vectors for human toxic syndrome. This study examined and verified the toxicological effects for white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to different cell densities of Gymnodinium catenatum and Karenia brevis. Acute assays demonstrated good survival rates of shrimp at low densities of dinoflagellates (10(3) cell/L), while mortality and abnormal behavior were observed with higher densities (>10(4) cell/L). Chronic assays showed significant differences in survival rates, percentage of feed and weight gain of organisms exposed to the dinoflagellates with respect to controls. Furthermore, PSP and NSP toxins were detected in all the edible tissues. Gastric glands and muscle retained toxins for a longer period of time compared to other tissues, even after a depuration period. Histology damages were observed in the heart, gastric gland and brain. This study strongly supports that shrimp represent a potential risk for humans as unconventional vectors of phycotoxins. PMID:19028514

  16. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management

  17. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end...), stretched mesh. This minimum mesh size is required in at least the last 40 meshes forward of the cod...

  18. Genetic characterization of the burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) in Washington and Oregon estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ghost shrimp, (Neotrypaea californiensis) are burrowers, which have a wide demographic distribution along the United States Pacific Coast. Our study used genetic analysis to estimate the source populations of larvae recruiting into estuaries to allow a greater understanding ...

  19. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ..., or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (February 1... and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 17693 (April 7, 2010) (Initiation... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission...

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio nigripulchritudo, a pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Goarant, Cyrille; Reynaud, Yann; Ansquer, Dominique; de Decker, Sophie; Saulnier, Denis; le Roux, Frédérique

    2006-11-01

    A collection of 57 isolates of Vibrio nigripulchritudo from either diseased or healthy shrimp and from shrimp farms environment was studied in order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, notably isolated from two distinct shrimp disease complexes. Molecular typing using two different techniques, arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), studied together with experimental pathology data allowed a relevant epidemiological insight into this possibly emerging pathogen. Additionally, results obtained with the two molecular typing techniques were congruent and allowed discriminating the strains associated with the "Summer Syndrome" from strains isolated from other contexts, especially the other shrimp vibriosis "Syndrome 93". These results highlight that the "Summer Syndrome" is most probably caused by an emergent clonal pathogen that therefore deserves surveillance and that AP-PCR can satisfactorily be used for that purpose. PMID:16413158

  1. 75 FR 42070 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ..., 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010) (``Initiation''). On July 6, 2010, the Ad Hoc Shrimp Trade Action... petitioner in the underlying investigation. The members of AHSTAC are: Nancy Edens; Papa Rod, Inc.,...

  2. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa; Minh Phu, Tran; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars. PMID:26222547

  3. Effects of different diets on the dietary attractability and selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoqiang; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Fang

    2005-01-01

    Attractabilities of different diets and dietary selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis were studied through behavior observation and feeding experiment, respectively. The five diets used in the experiment are: Fish Flesh (FF), Shrimp Flesh (SF), Clam Foot (CF), Polychaete Worm (PW), and Formulated Diet (FD). No significant differences of attractability exist between any two different diets when every two natural diets or all five diets are provided simultaneously. On the other hand, significant differences of attractability exist between FD and every single natural diet when they are provided simultaneously. Results of behavioral observation indicate that natural diets are more attractive than FD. In feeding experiment, Chinese shrimp has distinct selectivity on different diets. It positively selects CF and PW, negatively selects FF and SF, and excludes FD absolutely. The results of the present studies indicate that the dietary selectivity of shrimp was based not only on the attractabilities of the diets, but also on the responses such as growth and food conversion.

  4. The potential of Yucca schidigera extract to reduce the ammonia pollution from shrimp farming.

    PubMed

    Santacruz-Reyes, Roberto A; Chien, Yew-Hu

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using Yucca schidigera extract (YUPE) to reduce ammonia pollution resulting from shrimp farming. YUPE was added at ratios of 18, 36, and 72 mg L(-1) to effluent from an experimental shrimp culture system containing total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) of 0.592, 0.672, and 0.718 mg L(-1). TAN reduction increased with an increase in YUPE, and at 18 mg L(-1) reduced TAN by 71-72% and 86-87% at 6 and 24h, respectively. Shrimp feed containing YUPE at 300, 600, and 1200 mg kg(-1) was submerged, allowing the ammonia to leach out. The addition of YUPE in feed reduced TAN leaching by 50-83% compared with the control. The application of YUPE in water or feed could considerably reduce the accumulation of ammonia in waste water discharge during shrimp production, thereby providing a feasible solution to ammonia pollution in coastal environments. PMID:22440573

  5. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  6. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  7. The occurrence of semicarbazide in the meat and shell of Bangladeshi fresh-water shrimp.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Robert; Hanna, Bob; Ennis, David; Cantley, Lynne; Faulkner, Dermot; Kennedy, D Glenn

    2013-02-15

    There is evidence that semicarbazide (SEM), a marker for the banned nitrofuran nitrofurazone, can arise from other, unrelated sources. Recently, Belgium rejected 54 consignments of Bangladeshi freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), following a laboratory decision to test meat and exoskeleton combined. To study the possible natural occurrence of SEM in wild shrimp, samples were collected and analysed from 29 sites across Bangladesh. SEM (<1.0 μg/kg) was detected in ∼65% of meat samples. However, SEM concentrations were approximately 100 times higher in the exoskeleton, and were unrelated to sampling location, strongly suggesting natural occurrence. In meat, most SEM was surface-associated. When the shrimp was shelled, some of the epidermal layer (which synthesises new exoskeleton) remained with the shell and some remained with the meat--leading to differing levels of natural SEM on the shrimp surface. This has implications for the use of SEM and the analytical strategy used to control nitrofuran use. PMID:23194563

  8. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

    2013-11-15

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations. PMID:24103095

  9. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33344 (June 4, 2013...) from India. For information on the estimated subsidy rates, see the ``Suspension of Liquidation... ``all others'' rate includes export subsidies. We determine the total estimated net...

  10. Dynamics of phytoplankton communities in eutrophying tropical shrimp ponds affected by vibriosis.

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, Hugues; Lantoine, François; Courties, Claude; Guillebault, Delphine; Nézan, Elizabeth; Chomérat, Nicolas; Escoubeyrou, Karine; Galinié, Christian; Blockmans, Bernard; Laugier, Thierry

    2016-09-15

    Tropical shrimp aquaculture systems in New Caledonia regularly face major crises resulting from outbreaks of Vibrio infections. Ponds are highly dynamic and challenging environments and display a wide range of trophic conditions. In farms affected by vibriosis, phytoplankton biomass and composition are highly variable. These conditions may promote the development of harmful algae increasing shrimp susceptibility to bacterial infections. Phytoplankton compartment before and during mortality outbreaks was monitored at a shrimp farm that has been regularly and highly impacted by these diseases. Combining information from flow cytometry, microscopy, pigment and phylogenetic analysis, the presence of Picocyanobacteria, Prasinophyceae and Diatomophyceae were detected as dominant phytoplankton groups and Cryptophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae and Dinophyceae as minor components. At the onset of the first shrimp mortalities, Bacillariophyceae increased while Cyanobacteria, Prymnesiophyceae and Dinophyceae decreased in the water column, followed by proliferation of Prasinophyceae. Several taxa were identified as potential harmful algae (Cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and Phaeocystis). PMID:27334725

  11. Transboundary movement of shrimp viruses in crustaceans and their products: a special risk?

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Shrimp and shrimp products form the most valuable internationally traded fisheries commodity, and the volumes are huge, estimated to be about 3.6 million tonnes. However, despite the existence under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and the activities of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), viral shrimp epizootics have spread and continue to spread, affecting world production. Though most attention has focussed on the movement of live shrimp product, the spread of new and emerging diseases through other crustaceans and their nonviable products is of increasing concern. The risks associated with the unrestricted movement of nonviable product will be outlined and measures that can be taken to mitigate the risk are discussed. Ultimately, for crustacean diseases, the paradigm under which the OIE has operated for the past 80 years needs to change. PMID:22434004

  12. Mycorrhizal fungi affect root stele tissue in grasses.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Environmental Research; Northern Iowa Univ.; Kansas State Univ.

    1997-01-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was initially believed to have little or no impact on root morphology, we now recognize that subtle changes do occur and that these changes may be of considerable consequence to host growth and nutrition, as well as functional growth strategy. In examining the stele and root diameters of C3 and C4 grasses, C4 grasses were demonstrated to have a significantly larger proportion of their fibrous roots occupied by stele tissue than do C3 grasses. In fact, functional growth strategy (C3 versus C4) was observed to be a relatively good predictor of stele area. Mycorrhizal fungi also influenced the amount of stele tissue, but the effect was not the same for both C3 and C4 grasses. The stele area of all C4 grasses except for Sorghastrum nutans was greater in the presence of mycorrhizal colonization. Among the C3 grasses, only Bromus inermis showed a significant increase, although Elymus cinereus and Lolium perenne displayed significant decreases in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Changes in the stele area of the plant species were closely related to their responsiveness to mycorrhizal symbiosis and might in part explain both beneficial and detrimental responses of plants to mycorrhizae. An increase in stele circumference induced by mycorrhizae would allow for greater uptake and passage of water and nutrients to the vascular cylinder, and growth depressions could be a direct outcome of reduced stele circumference. Thus, differences in stele circumference represent a possible mechanism for mycorrhizal impacts on host plants. These findings indicate that structural differences among grasses are related to different functional capabilities and further emphasize the need for better integration of comparative anatomy and morphology procedures in the study of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  13. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    PubMed

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  14. Recruitment of shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) in the Barents Sea related to spawning stock and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschan, Michaela; Ingvaldsen, Randi

    2009-10-01

    The shrimp spawn in autumn, and the females carry their eggs as out roe until spring when the larvae hatch. Within a period of 2 months the shrimp larvae settle to the bottom. It has been claimed that the year-class strength probably is determined during the larval phase. Today's assessment and forecast of the shrimp stock productivity and potential fishing yields are weak. This is partly due to poor knowledge on population dynamics from hatching until the shrimp are caught in the fishery at the age of 3 or 4 years. We, therefore, here identify the most important abiotic and biotic factors that affect recruitment in addition to spawning stock biomass. Since 1995, a net attached to the underbelly of the survey trawl used at the annual cruise in the Barents Sea has caught juvenile shrimp. The abundance of settled shrimp larvae varies in time and space. The recruitment to the fishery has been quite stable with the exception of the 1996 year-class, which was observed as 1-year-olds but has not been registered since. The temporal pattern of the three youngest year-classes is studied in relation to abiotic factors such as sea temperature, ice index and North Atlantic Oscillation, as well as biotic factors such as spawning stock biomass and presence of copepods, euphausiids and predating cod. Recruitment indices and factors identified by the Spearmann correlation to be significantly correlated with recruitment were used as input in a principal component analysis (PCA) and a generalized additive model (GAM) was applied. Abundance of 1-year-old shrimp is positively correlated to spawning stock biomass the previous year and to temperature of the previous winter, and negatively correlated with the number of 1-year-old cod. Two-year-old shrimp show significant correlation with temperature, whereas there is a strong negative correlation with euphausiids. Three-year-old shrimp are significantly correlated with the number of 2-year-old shrimp the previous year but negatively

  15. Effect of Morphological Traits on Intake Characteristics of Four Grass Species Found in Temperate Biodiverse Pasture Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four grass species (meadow fescue (MF), Festuca pratensis; orchard grass (ORG), Dactylis glomerata, L.; quack grass (QG), Agropyron repens; and reed canary grass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea) were sown in micro-sward boxes (79 cm x 47 cm x 11.5 cm) to investigate intake characteristics of four grass ...

  16. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    PubMed

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity. PMID:26747903

  17. Do omnivorous shrimp influence mayfly nymph life history traits in a tropical island stream?

    PubMed

    Macías, Nicholas A; Colón-Gaud, Checo; Duggins, Jonathan W; Ramírez, Alonso

    2014-04-01

    Interspecific interactions can play an important role in determining habitat selection and resource use between competing species. We examined interactions between an omnivorous shrimp and a grazing mayfly, two co-dominant taxa found in Puerto Rican headwater streams, to assess how predator presence may influence mayfly resource use and instantaneous growth in a tropical rainforest ecosystem. We conducted a series of behavioral and growth experiments to determine the effects of the freshwater shrimp, Xiphocaris elongata, on the growth rate and resource selection of mayfly nymphs in the family Leptophlebiidae. For resource choice assessments, we conducted a series of five day laboratory experiments where mayflies were given access to two resource substrate choices (cobble vs. leaves) in the presence or absence of shrimp. To assess for the effects of shrimp on mayfly fitness, we measured mayfly growth in laboratory aquaria after five days using four treatments (cobble, leaves, cobble + leaves, no resource) in the presence or absence of shrimp. In resource choice experiments, mayflies showed preference for cobble over leaf substrata (p < 0.05) regardless of the presence of shrimps, however, the preference for cobble was significantly greater when shrimp were present in the leaf habitat. In growth experiments, there were no statistical differences in mayfly growth in the presence or absence of shrimp (p = 0.07). However, we measured increased mayfly nymph growth in the absence of predators and when both cobble and leaves were available. Our results suggest that interspecific interactions between these taxa could potentially influence organic matter resource dynamics (e.g., leaf litter processing and export) in Puerto Rican streams. PMID:25189068

  18. Systematics, phylogeny, and taphonomy of ghost shrimps (Decapoda): a perspective from the fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps of Callianassidae and Ctenochelidae are soft-bodied, usually heterochelous decapods representing major bioturbators of muddy and sandy (sub)marine substrates. Ghost shrimps have a robust fossil record spanning from the Early Cretaceous (~ 133 Ma) to the Holocene and their remains are present in most assemblages of Cenozoic decapod crustaceans. Their taxonomic interpretation is in flux, mainly because the generic assignment is hindered by their insufficient preservation and disagreement in the biological classification. Furthermore, numerous taxa are incorrectly classified within the catch-all taxon Callianassa. To show the historical patterns in describing fossil ghost shrimps and to evaluate taphonomic aspects influencing the attribution of ghost shrimp remains to higher level taxa, a database of all fossil species treated at some time as belonging to the group has been compiled: 250 / 274 species are considered valid ghost shrimp taxa herein. More than half of these taxa (160 species, 58.4%) are known only from distal cheliped elements, i.e., dactylus and / or propodus, due to the more calcified cuticle locally. Rarely, ghost shrimps are preserved in situ in burrows or in direct association with them, and several previously unpublished occurrences are reported herein. For generic assignment, fossil material should be compared to living species because many of them have modern relatives. Heterochely, intraspecific variation, ontogenetic changes and sexual dimorphism are all factors that have to be taken into account when working with fossil ghost shrimps. Distal elements are usually more variable than proximal ones. Preliminary results suggest that the ghost shrimp clade emerged not before the Hauterivian (~ 133 Ma). The divergence of Ctenochelidae and Paracalliacinae is estimated to occur within the interval of Hauterivian to Albian (133–100 Ma). Callichirinae and Eucalliacinae likely diverged later during the Late Cretaceous (100–66 Ma

  19. Application of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to improve survival of the black tiger shrimp after Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates an effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as feed supplement to improve immunity of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). LPS was coated to commercial feed pellets and given to the shrimp once or twice a day for 10 days before an exposure with shrimp pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi. The growth rates, percent weight gains, total hemocyte and granulocyte counts and survival rates of shrimp between the LPS-coated pellet fed groups and a control group where shrimp fed with commercial feed pellets were compared. After 10 days of the feeding trials, growth rates were not significantly different in all groups, suggesting no toxicity from LPS supplement. To determine beneficial effect of LPS diets, each group was subsequently exposed to V. harveyi by immersion method and the survival rates were recorded for seven days after the immersion. Regardless of the dosages of LPS, the shrimp groups fed with LPS-coated pellets showed higher survival rates than the control group. There was no significant difference in survival rates between the two LPS dosages groups. In addition to survival under pathogen challenge, we also determine effect of LPS on immune-related genes after 10-day feeding trial. Gene expression analysis in the P. monodon intestines revealed that antilipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALF3), C-type lectin, and mucine-like peritrophin (mucin-like PM) were expressed significantly higher in a group fed with LPS supplemental diet once or twice a day than in a control group. The transcript levels of C-type lectin and mucin-like PM had increased significantly when LPS was given once a day, while significant induction of ALF3 transcripts was observed when shrimp were fed with LPS twice a day. The up-regulation of the immune gene levels in intestines and higher resistance to V. harveyi of the shrimp fed with LPS provide the evidence for potential application of LPS as an immunostimulant in P. monodon farming. PMID:23751331

  20. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866. PMID:27395620