Science.gov

Sample records for adult holstein cows

  1. The noxious effects of electroimmobilization in adult Holstein cows: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, P J; McDonell, W N

    1986-01-01

    Ten adult Holstein cows were used in an experiment to determine whether the induction of electroimmobilization was a noxious event. The cows were halter trained and accustomed to being led into a set of stocks. The time taken for the cattle to walk the last ten metres into the stocks was recorded. The heart rate of the cow was recorded for a three minute period prior to a ten second exposure to a high pitched sound (the conditioning stimulus). Measurements were collected for three repetitions and then the cows were assigned to two groups of five. One group was immobilized for 30 seconds using a commercial electroimmobilizer, the other group was not treated. This procedure was repeated ten times over a period of eight days. The cows were then exposed to the conditioning stimulus and their response observed. The treated group took significantly (P less than 0.05) longer to get into the stocks and the regression slopes for heart rate were significantly different from the control group. The treated cows responded to the conditioning stimulus at five and nine months after the end of the conditioning period. Adult Holstein cows regarded electroimmobilization as a noxious event and were very strongly conditioned to this stimulus. PMID:3756681

  2. Manure Nutrient Excretion by Jersey and Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate feces, urine, and nitrogen (N) excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed two experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. H...

  3. Hormone release and behavior during suckling and milking in Gir, Gir x Holstein, and Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Negrão, J A

    2008-03-01

    There are several different milking management systems in Latin America, because Gir cattle are reputed to be easily stressed and not well adapted to machine-milking. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of hormone release and behavior during suckling and milking in Gir cows and their cross-bred offspring. Several experiments were performed to study oxytocin release during exclusive suckling or exclusive hand- and machine-milking, oxytocin, and prolactin release during a mixed suckling-milking system and oxytocin release after weaning. Cortisol concentrations and behavior were also examined. Concentration of oxytocin, released during suckling, and both types of milking were high, but the maximum concentration measured during suckling was significantly greater than that observed during exclusive milking. In the mixed suckling-milking system, the greatest oxytocin and prolactin releases were measured during suckling. Cortisol concentrations measured before, during, and after milking demonstrated that Gir x Holstein and Holstein cows were not stressed. On the other hand, although Gir had greater concentrations of cortisol, the percentage of residual milk for Gir cows was less than for dairy cows exposed to different stressful situations. In general, Gir cows and their crossbred offspring adapted to machine-milking, although these breeds can react negatively to milkers. Gir, Gir x Holstein, and Holstein cows all had similar cortisol levels during and after milking. PMID:17878278

  4. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  5. Repeatability and heritability of response to superovulation in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Tonhati, H; Lôbo, R B; Oliveira, H N

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative effects of genetic and phenotypic factors on the efficacy and efficiency of superovulation for Holstein-Friesian cows reared in Brazil. A database, established by the Associacao Brasileira de Criadores de Bovinos da Raca Holandesa, consisting of a total of 5387 superovulations of 2941 cows distributed over 473 herds and sired by 690 bulls was used for the analysis. The records were analyzed by MTDFREML (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood), using a repeatability animal model. The fixed effects included in the model were contemporaneous group (veterinarian, herd, year and season of the superovulation); number of semen doses; cow age; and superovulation order. The estimated repeatability of the number of the transferable embryos was low (0.13), and the estimated heritability was 0.03. These results indicate that environmental factors play a critical role in the response of a cow to a superovulation treatment. There is little evidence that future responses to superovulation by individual females can be predicted by previous treatment(s) or that superovulation response is an heritable trait. PMID:10729033

  6. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  7. Genetic regulation of prepartum dry matter intake in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shonka, B N; Tao, S; Dahl, G E; Spurlock, D M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI) in prepartum nonlactating and in lactating Holstein cows. Measurements were recorded on cows from Iowa State University (ISU) and the University of Florida (UF) dairy herds. Individual feed intake data were recorded daily at ISU from approximately 30 d prepartum through 150 d in milk (DIM). Individual intakes from cows at UF were recorded for approximately 42 d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum DMI traits were defined as DMI on d -15 (multiparous) or d -8 (primiparous) relative to calving date (DRYDMI), DMI on d -1 before parturition (CALVEDMI), and the negative of the slope of a regression line fitted through the last 14 (multiparous) or 7 (primiparous) days before calving (DEC). Lactation DMI traits were defined as DMI at 30 DIM (DMI30) and 100 DIM (DMI100; ISU data only). The final data set included 245 primiparous and 221 multiparous cows from ISU, and 125 multiparous cows from UF. Heritability estimates were 0.43, 0.64, 0.32, and 0.62 for DRYDMI, CALVEDMI, DEC, and DMI30, respectively. The estimate of heritability for DMI100 (ISU only) was 0.52. The genetic correlation between DRYDMI and DMI30 was 0.97. Thus, DMI prepartum is a moderately heritable trait that is highly correlated with intake during early lactation. Genetic correlations between DEC and DMI during lactation were lower and similar to standard error estimates (-0.24 ± 0.22 for DEC and DMI30 for combined data, and -0.13 ± 0.27 for DEC and DMI100 in ISU data). Thus, selection for altered DMI during lactation may not dramatically affect the depression in intake that occurs before parturition. PMID:26319760

  8. Estimates of heat stress relief needs for Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2005-06-01

    Estimates of environmental heat stress are required for heat stress relief measures in cattle. Heat stress is commonly assessed by the temperature-humidity index (THI), the sum of dry and wet bulb temperatures. The THI does not include an interaction between temperature and humidity, although evaporative heat loss increases with rising air temperature. Coat, air velocity, and radiation effects also are not accounted for in the THI. The Holstein dairy cow is the primary target of heat stress relief, followed by feedlot cattle. Heat stress may be estimated for a variety of conditions by thermal balance models. The models consist of animal-specific data (BW, metabolic heat production, tissue and coat insulation, skin water loss, coat depth, and minimal and maximal tidal volumes) and of general heat exchange equations. A thermal balance simulation model was modified to adapt it for Holstein cows by using Holstein data for the animal characteristics in the model, and was validated by comparing its outputs to experimental data. Model outputs include radiant, convective, skin evaporative, respiratory heat loss and rate of change of body temperature. Effects of milk production (35 and 45 kg/d), hair coat depth (3 and 6 mm), air temperature (20 to 45 degrees C), air velocity (0.2 to 2.0 m/s), air humidity (0.8 to 3.9 kPa), and exposed body surface (100, 75, and 50%) on thermal balance outputs were examined. Environmental conditions at which respiratory heat loss attained approximately 50% of its maximal value were defined as thresholds for intermediate heat stress. Air velocity increased and humidity significantly decreased threshold temperatures, particularly at higher coat depth. The effect of air velocity was amplified at high humidity. Increasing milk production from 35 to 45 kg/d decreased threshold temperature by 5 degrees C. In the lying cow, the lower air velocity in the proximity of body surface and the smaller exposed surface markedly decrease threshold

  9. Reproductive status of Holstein and Jersey cows in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive information from USDA’s national dairy database since 1996 was used to provide yearly means in 8 traits in the Holstein and Jersey breeds. Respectively, data for Holsteins and Jerseys were from 20,746 and 1963 herds, 3,645,987 and 184,398 cows, 7,107,057 and 387,441 lactations, and 15,...

  10. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F

    2016-05-01

    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  11. USE OF CUBIC SPLINES FOR ESTIMATING LACTATION CURVES OF HOLSTEIN COWS TREATED WITH BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cubic splines can be used to model fixed and random effects of lactation curves. A total of 64,138 test-day observations for first lactation Holstein cows recorded as treated with bovine somatotropin (bST) and 138,008 test-day observations for untreated cows were obtained from Dairy Records Manageme...

  12. NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION AND ENERGY STATUS IN HOLSTEIN COWS WITH UTERINE HEALTH DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil (PMN) function, energy status, and uterine health in periparturient dairy cows. Data were collected from 83 multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples for PMN function determination were collected w...

  13. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further

  14. Milk yield and reproductive performance of brucellosis-vaccinated but seropositive Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Garcia, Angel M; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Diaz-Aparicio, Efren; Garcia, Jose E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study if seropositivity for brucellosis in vaccinated cows against this disease hampers reproductive performance and milk production in high-yielding Holstein cows. For this purpose 1,026 healthy cows and 372 cows seropositive for brucellosis were enrolled in this study. Cows positive to card test and subsequently to the rivanol test were further subjected to the radial immunodiffusion (RID) test. It was found that only 11% of the presumably infected cows by brucellosis screening tests were really infected with this disease. The reproductive performance of the group of cows with 11% Brucella-infected animals was not impaired; overall pregnancy rate did not differ between seropositive and healthy cows (30.9 vs. 29.6%). The abortion rates were similar between seropositive cows (5.3%) and seronegative animals (6.9%). Cows in the herd with 11% Brucella-infected animals produced significantly more milk than unaffected cows over a 305-day lactation (10,684 ± 1,720 vs. 10,345 ± 1,736; mean ± SD; P < 0.05). It was concluded that in dairy herds vaccinated against brucellosis with both 19 and RB51 strains, supplemental tests such as RID need to be conducted on all reactors in order to maintain diagnostic accuracy. These results also indicate that 11% animal prevalence of brucellosis did not exert a detrimental effect on 305-day milk yield and reproductive performance in high milk-yielding Holstein cows. PMID:24254418

  15. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in a maternal lineage of Holstein cows.

    PubMed Central

    Hauswirth, W W; Laipis, P J

    1982-01-01

    Two mitochondrial genotypes are shown to exist within one Holstein cow maternal lineage. They were detected by the appearance of an extra Hae III recognition site in one genotype. The nucleotide sequence of this region has been determined and the genotypes are distinguished by an adenine/guanine base transition which creates the new Hae III site. This point mutation occurs within an open reading frame at the third position of a glycine codon and therefore does not alter the amino acid sequence. The present pattern of genotypes within the lineage demands that multiple shifts between genotypes must have occurred within the past 20 years with the most rapid shift taking place in no more than 4 years and indicates that mitochondrial DNA polymorphism can occur between maternally related mammals. The process that gave rise to different genotypes in one lineage is clearly of fundamental importance in understanding intraspecific mitochondrial polymorphism and evolution in mammals. Several potential mechanisms for rapid mitochondrial DNA variation are discussed in light of these results. Images PMID:6289312

  16. The prediction of methane production of Holstein cows by several equations.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    1995-11-01

    Ruminants are one of many sources contributing to atmospheric methane. The accuracy of seven published equations for methane prediction was evaluated using a data file consisting of 16 experiments (602 observations). Methane energy emissions ranged from .89 to 7.21 Mcal/d for Holstein cows. The DMI ranged from 9.7 to 28.7 kg/d for lactating cows and 4.0 to 12.9 kg/d for nonlactating cows. Mean dietary concentrations of ADF, CP, and ether extract were similar for lactating and nonlactating cows (20.9, 16.5, and 3.0% for lactating cows versus 21.2, 15.7, and 2.9% for nonlactating cows, respectively). Milk production ranged from 2.7 to 55.9 kg/d. Prediction equations were ranked by correlation coefficients and error of prediction. Prediction of methane energy loss from lactating and nonlactating Holstein cows with equations based on the daily total intake or intake of digested cellulose, hemicellulose, and nonfiber carbohydrates (OM - NDF - CP - ether extract) provided the highest correlation coefficients for reproducibility and the lowest errors of prediction. Predictions were poor for lactating cows when a quadratic function of DMI was used. In general, equations estimated methane production more accurately and precisely for nonlactating than for lactating cows. PMID:8747332

  17. Attempts to identify Clostridium botulinum toxin in milk from three experimentally intoxicated Holstein cows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moeller, R.B., Jr.; Puschner, B.; Walker, R.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Cullor, J.S.; Ardans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Three adult lactating Holstein cows were injected in the subcutaneous abdominal vein with 175 ng/kg of body weight of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin (451 cow median toxic doses) to determine if this botulinum toxin crosses the blood-milk barrier. Whole blood (in sodium heparin) and clotted blood serum samples were taken at 0 min, 10 min, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 h postinoculation. Milk samples were taken at 0 min and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h postinoculation. All samples were tested for the presence of the toxin using the mouse bioassay and immunostick ELISA test. The immunostick ELISA identified the toxin in whole blood and the mouse bioassay identified the toxin in serum at all times examined in all 3 animals. Toxin was not identified by either detection method in milk samples collected from the 3 animals. From these results, it appears that Clostridium botulinum type C toxin does not cross from the blood to the milk in detectable concentrations. ?? American Dairy Science Association, 2009.

  18. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross holstein x jersey cows and their holstein contemporaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals ...

  19. Hyperplastic goiter in two adult dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chee Bing; Herdt, Thomas H; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Iodine excess and resultant hyperplastic goiter are well documented in neonatal ruminants, but little is reported on iodine excess in adult ruminants and associated histological changes of the thyroid gland. Two adult Holstein cows from a Michigan dairy herd that had lost several other animals had nonspecific clinical signs of illness and were submitted for necropsy. Thyroid glands of one of these 2 animals were grossly and markedly enlarged, and histologically, thyroid glands from both animals had regions of cystic nodular hyperplasia and follicular atrophy. Thyroid glands from both animals had markedly elevated iodine concentrations. Investigation into the potential source of excessive iodine on the farm revealed multiple sources of supplemental dietary iodine and probable uneven feed and mineral mixing. Based on the findings of this investigation, adult cattle could be susceptible to excessive doses of iodine. Possibility of previous iodine deficiency before supplementation period, with subsequent development and persistence of thyroid hyperplasia and cystic change, cannot be completely excluded. Current findings suggested that iodine excess in adult cattle can result in nodular hyperplastic goiter. Use of iodized salt in mineral supplements in adult dairy herds is common practice, and accidental excessive iodine supplement may be more common than reported. Recognizing gross and histological thyroid gland changes, consisting of concurrent cystic follicular hyperplasia, atrophy, and fibrosis should raise suspicion of iodine excess and/or prior deficiency in a cattle herd, and ancillary tests such as serum iodine measurements should be part of the diagnostic workup in suspected cases. PMID:25292195

  20. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  1. Effect of milk yield genotype on response to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to lactating Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows (n = 12/genotype) from unselected (stable milk yield since 1964, UH) and contemporary (CH) Holsteins that differed by more than 4,500 kg milk/305 d were fed the same diet ad lib and housed together for more than 4 months before being blocked (2/genotype) by DIM and randomly assigned within geno...

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes related to daughter pregnancy rate in Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT: Previously, a candidate gene approach identified 40 SNPs associated with daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) in dairy bulls. We evaluated 39 of these SNPs for relationship to DPR in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped on their predicted transmitting ability for DPR: <= -1 (n=1266) a...

  3. A colon-associated cystic mass occurring in conjunction with cecal dilatation in a Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Edgar F.; Singh, Kuldeep

    2012-01-01

    A 7-year-old Holstein cow was presented for reduced appetite and decreased milk production. Based on physical examination, cecal dilatation was the primary differential diagnosis and was confirmed at surgery. However, in addition to the dilated cecum, 2 large cystic masses were found firmly attached to the proximal loop of the ascending colon. PMID:23729831

  4. Dynamics of culling for Jersey, Holstein, and Jersey × Holstein crossbred cows in large multibreed dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Daniels, A; Shumaker, J; De Vries, A

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this observational study was to describe and compare the dynamics of reason-specific culling risk for the genetic groups Jerseys (JE), Holsteins (HO), and Jersey × Holstein crossbreds (JH), considering parity, stage of lactation, and milk yield, among other variables, in large multibreed dairy herds in Texas. The secondary objective was to analyze the association between survival and management factors, such as breeding and replacement policies, type of facilities, and use of cooling systems. After edits, available data included 202,384 lactations in 16 herds, ranging from 407 to 8,773 cows calving per year during the study period from 2007 to 2011. The distribution of lactation records by genetic group was 58, 36, and 6% for HO, JE, and JH crosses, respectively. Overall culling rates across breeds were 30.1, 32.1, and 35.0% for JH, JE, and HO, respectively. The dynamics of reason-specific culling were dependent on genetic group, parity, stage of lactation, milk yield, and herd characteristics. Early lactation was a critical period for "died" and "injury-sick" culling. The risk increased with days after calving for "breeding" and, in the case of HO, "low production" culling. Open cows had a 3.5 to 4.6 times greater risk for overall culling compared with pregnant cows. The odds of culling with reason "died" within the first 60 d in milk (DIM) were not significantly associated with genetic group. However, both JE and JH crosses had lower odds of live culling within the first 60 DIM compared with HO cows (OR=0.72 and 0.82, respectively). Other cow variables significantly associated with the risk of dying within the first 60 DIM were cow relative 305-d mature equivalent (305ME) milk yield, parity, and season of calving. Significant herd-related variables for death included herd size and origin of replacements. In addition to genetic group, the risk of live culling within 60 DIM was associated with cow-relative 305ME milk yield, parity, and season of

  5. Endometrial expression of selected transcripts in postpartum of primiparous Holstein cows with clinical and subclinical endometritis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Howard; Torres, Cristian G; Carvallo, Francisco; Duchens, Mario; Peralta, Oscar A

    2015-05-01

    Postpartum endometritis compromises milk production and fertility in high-producing dairy cows. Infection of the endometrium induces an inflammatory response with secretion of cytokines that lead to polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) influx and bacterial clearance. Considering that only a portion of cows with endometritis is eligible for clinical diagnosis, there is an increasing effort for developing reliable tools and protocols for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis. Recent reports have indicated that primiparous cows are at greater risk of uterine infection and primiparous cows with subclinical endometritis produce less milk compared to healthy cows. In the present study, gene expression profiles were compared for selected cytokine and hormone endometrial transcripts in the postpartum of primiparous Holstein cows with clinical and subclinical endometritis. Cows were classified as healthy (no signs of clinical endometritis), cows with subclinical endometritis (PMN<5% in the cytological sample) and cows with clinical endometritis (PMN>5%). Although, cows with clinical endometritis had greater (P<0.05) relative amounts of mRNA for the IL1A, IL6, IL17A, TNFα, PGES and PGHS2 genes compared to healthy cows; no significant differences were detected between clinical and subclinical endometritis groups. Spearman correlation coefficients were positive between relative amounts of gene expression as indicated by amount of these transcripts and PMN percentages and ranged from 0.74 to 0.93 (P<0.05). Relative amounts of cytokine mRNA suggest similar inflammatory response in the endometrium of cows with subclinical and clinical endometritis. Moreover, differential relative amounts of hormone transcripts suggest dysregulation of the luteolytic mechanism and PG synthases but not ERα in cows with endometritis. PMID:25746855

  6. CARD15 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Chinese Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Tu, Wenji; Li, Wengui; Dong, Guodong; Xu, Cong; Qin, Bo; Liu, Kaihua; Yang, Jie; Chai, Jun; Shi, Xianwei; Zhang, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a significant veterinary and financial problem in many parts of the world. Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to mycobacterial infections, such as tuberculosis, have been reported in several species. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the relationship of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CARD15 gene with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. DNA samples from 201 Chinese Holstein cows (103 cases and 98 controls) were collected from Kunming City, Yuxi City, and Dali City in China. SNPs in the CARD15 gene were assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Case-control association testing and statistical analysis identified six SNPs associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. The frequency of genotypes C/T, A/G, A/G, A/G, C/T, and A/G in E4 (-37), 208, 1644, 1648, 1799, and E10 (+107), respectively, was significantly higher in cases than in controls, and also the alleles C, A, A, G, T, and A, respectively, were associated with a greater relative risk in cases than in controls. The distribution of two haplotypes, TGGACA and CAGACA, was significantly different between cases and controls. Overall, this case-control study suggested that E4 (-37)(C/T), 208(A/G), 1644(A/G), 1648(A/G), 1799(C/T), and E10 (+107)(A/G) in the CARD15 gene were significantly associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows and that haplotypes TGGACA and CAGACA could be used as genetic markers in marker-assisted breeding programs for breeding cows with high resistance to BTB. PMID:26244859

  7. CARD15 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Chinese Holstein Cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youtao; Wang, Shengkui; Liu, Tong; Tu, Wenji; Li, Wengui; Dong, Guodong; Xu, Cong; Qin, Bo; Liu, Kaihua; Yang, Jie; Chai, Jun; Shi, Xianwei; Zhang, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a significant veterinary and financial problem in many parts of the world. Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to mycobacterial infections, such as tuberculosis, have been reported in several species. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the relationship of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CARD15 gene with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. DNA samples from 201 Chinese Holstein cows (103 cases and 98 controls) were collected from Kunming City, Yuxi City, and Dali City in China. SNPs in the CARD15 gene were assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Case-control association testing and statistical analysis identified six SNPs associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. The frequency of genotypes C/T, A/G, A/G, A/G, C/T, and A/G in E4 (-37), 208, 1644, 1648, 1799, and E10 (+107), respectively, was significantly higher in cases than in controls, and also the alleles C, A, A, G, T, and A, respectively, were associated with a greater relative risk in cases than in controls. The distribution of two haplotypes, TGGACA and CAGACA, was significantly different between cases and controls. Overall, this case-control study suggested that E4 (-37)(C/T), 208(A/G), 1644(A/G), 1648(A/G), 1799(C/T), and E10 (+107)(A/G) in the CARD15 gene were significantly associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows and that haplotypes TGGACA and CAGACA could be used as genetic markers in marker-assisted breeding programs for breeding cows with high resistance to BTB. PMID:26244859

  8. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 105 vs. 2.18 × 105 mL-1 of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  9. Cow Adjustments for Genomic Predictions of Holstein and Jersey Bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations are calculated by using values that have been deregressed from traditional PTAs estimating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects. Previous research indicates that including cow genomic data to calculate SNP effects does not increase reliabilities of genomic evaluations of ...

  10. Milk yield and reproductive performance of Holstein cows testing positive for bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Reséndiz, Dulce; Martínez, Angel Mario; de Santiago, Maria Angeles; Véliz, Francisco Gerardo; García, Jose Eduardo

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if high milk-yielding Holstein cows testing positive for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) are affected in their reproductive performance and milk yield. For this purpose, 1044 healthy cows and 105 bTB reactor cows were used. Tuberculosis reactor cows were from four large commercial dairy operations from the same region which were transferred from their barns to an isolated dairy facility. Cows free from this disease were placed in the same barn as the bTB reactor cows but in an isolated division and served as control animals. The analysis of variance with a general linear model for binary data showed that the reproductive performance of bTB reactors was impaired; overall pregnancy per artificial insemination differed (P < 0.05) between bTB reactor and non-reactor cows (16.9 vs. 20.7%). Cows that were TB reactors required 4.7 ± 2.9 services per pregnancy compared with 4.3 ± 2.8 for control cows (P > 0.05). The intervals between calving and conception were similar between bTB reactors (154 ± 78 days) and control animals (150 ± 80 days). Control cows tended (P = 0.08) to produce more milk than bTB reactors over a 305-day lactation (10,684 ± 1720 vs. 10,345 ± 1736; mean ± SD). Serum metabolites indicative of nutritional stress did not differ between bTB reactor and non-reactor cows. It was concluded that both reproductive performance and milk yield decreased marginally in bTB reactor cows, which explains the reluctance of milk producers to get rid of these animals. PMID:25894823

  11. Relationship between blood calcium level and ST peak interval of electrocardiographic variables in peripartum Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Megumi; Sakurai, Yoshie; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The association between blood calcium levels and electrocardiographic variables was compared in 137 normal parturient and 36 peripartum recumbent Holstein cows to determine whether hypocalcemia in peripartum dairy cows can be rapidly diagnosed using electrocardiograph. Inverse of STc (ST peak interval/SS interval(0.5)) and blood ionized calcium or serum calcium concentrations were strongly correlated, and both correlation coefficients were 0.81 (P<0.001). The 95% prediction interval indicated that cows with STc >0.385 ± 0.001 sec are very likely to be hypocalcemic (blood ionized or serum calcium concentrations of <0.9 mmol/l or <7.5 mg/dl, respectively). These findings indicate that hypocalcemia in parturient cows can be non-invasively estimated using the STc. PMID:26118411

  12. Relationship between blood calcium level and ST peak interval of electrocardiographic variables in peripartum Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    ITOH, Megumi; SAKURAI, Yoshie; NAKAJIMA, Yasuhiro; KAWAMOTO, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The association between blood calcium levels and electrocardiographic variables was compared in 137 normal parturient and 36 peripartum recumbent Holstein cows to determine whether hypocalcemia in peripartum dairy cows can be rapidly diagnosed using electrocardiograph. Inverse of STc (ST peak interval/SS interval0.5) and blood ionized calcium or serum calcium concentrations were strongly correlated, and both correlation coefficients were 0.81 (P<0.001). The 95% prediction interval indicated that cows with STc >0.385 ± 0.001 sec are very likely to be hypocalcemic (blood ionized or serum calcium concentrations of <0.9 mmol/l or <7.5 mg/dl, respectively). These findings indicate that hypocalcemia in parturient cows can be non-invasively estimated using the STc. PMID:26118411

  13. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Atashi, Hadi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza; Dadpasand, Mohammad; Asaadi, Anise

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05). Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05). Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05). Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI) = 1.1(1.08–1.11). Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23), 3.16 (0.80) and 6.52 (1.01) kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05). PMID:25049584

  14. Effect of grazing and fat supplementation on production and reproduction of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Boken, S L; Staples, C R; Sollenberger, L E; Jenkins, T C; Thatcher, W W

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this trial was to investigate the effects of feeding a soybean oil refining by-product (SORB), made up mainly of sodium salts of long-chain fatty acids, on reproductive performance and productivity of 36 early lactation Holstein cows managed in a free-stall barn or on annual rye-ryegrass pasture. In this 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, cows consumed 0 or 0.5 kg/d of SORB as part of a total mixed ration for barn cows or as part of a grain supplement fed to cows on intensively, rotationally stocked pasture. Blood was sampled 3 times weekly and plasma was measured for progesterone to assess ovarian activity. Estrus activity was recorded using the HeatWatch estrus detection system. Although average 14-wk milk production (37.2 kg/d) was not different among treatments, barn cows had more persistent lactations than did grazing cows. Cows housed in the barn lost less body weight and returned to initial body weight sooner and had lower mean concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (464 vs. 261 mEq/L) than those managed on pasture. The milk fat of cows on pasture contained greater proportions of conjugated linoleic acid and linolenic acid but a corresponding 0.22 percentage unit decrease in milk fat concentration (3.39 vs. 3.16%). Cows managed on pasture had greater peak concentrations of plasma progesterone during the first estrous cycle. Cows managed on pasture and fed SORB had the greatest accumulation of plasma progesterone over the 14 wk of the study (SORB x housing interaction). These cows experienced the most mounts during their first estrus (9.3) and pregnancy rate was also greatest for this treatment (62.5%). Feeding SORB did not affect production of milk, fat, or protein. Loss of body condition was less in cows fed SORB. Ruminal fluid concentration of propionate increased and ruminal pH decreased in cows fed SORB. A lower proportion of fatty acids less than 18 carbons in length was found in the milk fat of cows fed SORB, thus

  15. Leptin genotype is associated with lactation performance and health of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Chebel, R C; Susca, F; Santos, J E P

    2008-07-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the associations among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the R4C locus in exon 2 of the leptin gene and the lactational performance and health of Holstein cows. Eight hundred and fourteen lactating dairy cows had their DNA sequenced in exon 2 of the leptin gene to determine the presence of SNP in the R4C locus. Cows were milked 3 times daily, and yields of milk and milk components were recorded monthly individually during the first 305 d of lactation. Cows were examined daily by herd personnel for diagnosis of health events such as retained fetal membranes, displacement of abomasum, lameness, and mastitis. Resulting genotypes were CC (34.6%), CT (48.2%), and TT (17.2%). Cows bearing the CT genotype had lower body condition (2.98 +/- 0.02) during the first 62 d in milk (DIM) than cows homozygous for the C (3.02 +/- 0.02) and T (3.04 +/- 0.03) alleles. Leptin genotype was associated with yields of milk and milk components, and cows homozygous for the C allele were less productive than those carrying the CT and TT genotypes. The 305-d yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk true protein were less in CC compared with CT cows by 258, 12, and 10.7 kg, respectively. Cows carrying the TT genotype had increased incidence of displacement of abomasum (4.3%), but genotype did not affect the incidence of retained fetal membranes, clinical and subclinical mastitis, or lameness. Risk of developing at least one clinical health disorder was influenced by leptin genotype, and cows carrying the CT genotype had the lowest risk for developing any disease (19.6%). Mating decisions to increase the frequency of cows heterozygous in the R4C locus may improve productivity and health. PMID:18565947

  16. [Survival analysis of German Holstein cows after an abomasal displacement].

    PubMed

    Ricken, M; Hamann, H; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2005-02-01

    From 1996 to 2002 5159 cattle with abomasal displacement was treated in the Clinic for Cattle, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover. An analysis of systematic effects on influences on the length of survival following surgical correction of the abomasal displacement could be performed for 1411 cows. These animals were under the official milk recording scheme. Significant influences on lifetime after an abomasal displacement were interval between calving and diagnosis of disease, lactation number, type of abomasal displacement, inbreeding coefficient, calving difficulties, region of origin and sire of the calf. The lifetime after an abomasal displacement significantly differed between several months of calving and some sires of the cow. The individual milk yield in lactations before and after abomasal displacement of the cow was significant for the length of lifetime. The heritability estimate for length of lifetime after abomasal displacement using residual maximum likelihood (REML) in a linear animal model was h2 = 0.01-0.03. PMID:15787315

  17. Fluctuation of neutrophil counts around parturition in Holstein dairy cows with and without retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Cantoni, Andrea; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    Retained placenta (RP) is often diagnosed in high-yielding dairy cows and can negatively affect reproductive performances. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hematological and biochemical profile of cows with RP before and immediately after parturition, with particular emphasis on neutrophil counts, since a previous study demonstrated the presence of peripheral neutropenia in dairy cows with RP sampled a few days after parturition. Results from 12 Holstein cows affected by RP and from 17 clinically healthy controls sampled one week pre-partum, within 12h after calving and between 48 and 72h after parturition were compared between groups and over time. Compared with controls, cows with RP had lower lymphocyte counts before parturition, lower leukocyte and neutrophil counts at parturition, lower monocyte counts at all times, and higher β-hydroxybutyrate before and after parturition. Erythroid and biochemical parameters were similar over time in both groups, whereas RP cows did not show the increase of neutrophil counts that occurs in controls at parturition. Hence, the finding of a lower neutrophil count in a routinely hemogram performed at parturition could be used as an alarm signal suggesting to monitor the affected animals. Moreover, although the underlying pathogenetic mechanism should be better investigated, the present study describes for the first time the association between altered blood leukocyte concentrations at parturition in RP compared to control cows. PMID:27473997

  18. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy. PMID:19436447

  19. Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management

    PubMed Central

    Safa, S.; Soleimani, A.; Heravi Moussavi, A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13) and DP-20 (n = 12) dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA) compared with cows in DP-20 (p≤0.05). Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25049832

  20. Peptidomic profile of milk of Holstein cows at peak lactation

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan A.; Garay, Luis A.; Bhandari, Aashish; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Barile, Daniela; German, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk is known to contain naturally occurring peptides, but relatively few of their sequences have been determined. Human milk contains hundreds of endogenous peptides and the ensemble has been documented for antimicrobial actions. Naturally occurring peptides from bovine milk were sequenced and compared with human milk peptides. Bovine milk samples from six cows in second stage peak lactation at 78–121 days post- partum revealed 159 peptides. Most peptides (73%) were found in all six cows sampled, demonstrating the similarity of the intra-mammary peptide degradation across these cows. One peptide sequence, ALPIIQKLEPQIA from bovine perilipin 2 was identical to another found in human milk. Most peptides derived from β-casein, αs1-casein and αs2- casein. No peptides derived from abundant bovine milk proteins like lactoferrin, β- lactoglobulin and secretory immunoglobulin A. The enzymatic cleavage analysis revealed that milk proteins were degraded by plasmin, cathepsins B and D and elastase in all samples. PMID:24344900

  1. Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; Gallardo, M R; Maciel, M; Giordano, J M; Conti, G A; Gaggiotti, M C; Quaino, O; Gianni, C; Hartnell, G F

    2004-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition from feeding rations that contained different sources of genetically modified whole cottonseed to Argentinean Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating multiparous Argentinean Holstein dairy cows were used in 2 experiments with a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design, with cows averaging 565 kg body weight and 53 d in milk at the beginning of the experiments. Treatments in Experiment 1 were: Bollgard cotton containing the cry1Ac gene, Bollgard II cotton containing cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes, Roundup Ready cotton containing the cp4 epsps gene, and a control nongenetically modified but genetically similar cottonseed. In Experiment 2, two commercial sources, a parental control line, and the transgenic cotton containing both cry1Ac and cp4 epsps genes were used as treatments. All cows received the same total mixed ration but with different whole cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide 2.50 kg per cow daily (dry matter [DM] basis) or about 10% of the total diet DM. The ingredient composition of the total mixed ration was 32% alfalfa hay, 28% corn silage, 22% corn grain, 17% soybean meal, and 2% minerals and vitamins. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from a subset of milk samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern blot hybridization for small fragments of the cry1Ac transgene and an endogenous cotton gene, acp1. No sample was positive for transgenic or plant DNA fragments at the limits of detection for the assays following detailed data evaluation criteria. The DMI, milk yield, milk composition, body weight, and body condition score did not differ among treatments. Cottonseed from genetically modified varieties used in these studies yielded similar performance in lactating dairy cows when compared to non-transgenic control and reference cottonseed. PMID:15453492

  2. [Influences on the occurrence of abomasal displacements in German Holstein cows].

    PubMed

    Wolf, V; Hamann, H; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2001-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyse risk factors for the prevalence of abomasal displacement in German Holstein cows. In the period from 02/01/1999 to 01/31/2000 five veterinary surgeons in Northern Lower Saxony registered all cases of abomasal displacement in German Holstein cows being under the official milk recording scheme. In total, the investigation included 160 farms and 9315 cows. An abomasal displacement was registered in 151 German Holstein cows, corresponding to a frequency of 1.6%. More than 75% of the abomasal displacements appeared during the first 30 days after calving. The left abomasal displacement (74.8%) was recorded more often than the right abomasal displacement (25.2%). Milk recording and pedigree data were supplied by the VIT (Vereinigte Informationssystem Tierhaltung), Verden, and merged with the own recordings. The influences of the calving month, the lactation number, the age at calving, the inbreeding coefficient, calving performance, duration of pregnancy, breed of calf sire, calf sire and the breeding values for the milk performance did not explain a significant part of the variation of the frequency of the abomasal displacement. Significant effects of the sire, birth of twins or even more calves and the herd were obtained for the leftsided abomasal displacement. For the rightsided abomasal displacement and for all abomasal displacements the herd effect was not significant. Heritability estimates using bivariate linear REML models were h2 = 0.043 +/- 0.012 for the leftsided abomasal displacement, and h2 = 0.007 +/- 0.004 for the rightsided abomasal displacement, respectively. Using the threshold model the heritabilities yielded estimates of h2 = 0.51 for the left abomasal displacement, and for the right abomasal displacement of h2 = 0.19, respectively. PMID:11721586

  3. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P < 0.05 and P < 0.001 respectively) during summer. Proliferation of PBMC, the colostral concentration of Ig fractions and serum levels of IgG in their respective offspring did not differ between spring and summer cows. Results indicated that moderate heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  4. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  5. Plasma and milk kinetics of eprinomectin following topical or oral administration to lactating Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huiqiang; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Yuwan; Wang, Fangfei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ming

    2010-11-24

    Chinese Holstein, bred by mating the Holstein-Friesian to Chinese Yellow Cattle, is a major dairy cattle breed in China. Eprinomectin is widely used in the treatment of nematode and ectoparasite infections in lactating cattle. The pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in the plasma and milk were determined in Chinese Holstein cows following topical (at 0.5 mg kg(-1)) or oral (at 0.2 mg kg(-1)) administration. For topical administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin in plasma reached peak values (C(max)) of 16.16 ± 6.02 ng ml(-1) at 3.20 ± 1.30 days (T(max)). In milk, the C(max) values of 2.28 ± 0.85 ng ml(-1) were obtained at 3.48 ± 0.65 days. The MRT values were 5.00 ± 0.96 days for plasma and 4.65 ± 0.60 days for milk. The AUC values were 91.00 ± 25.32 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.53 ± 1.55 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.124 ± 0.041. Significant differences were found in C(max) and AUC of eprinomectin in plasma between Chinese Holstein and Prim Holstein following topical administration. It was probably due to the lower storage of body fat in Chinese Holstein than in Prim Holstein. For oral administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin reach peak values of 30.02 ± 5.73 ng ml(-1) at 1.60 ± 0.55 days in plasma and 3.14 ± 0.88 ng ml(-1) at 1.40 ± 0.27 days in milk. The MRT values for plasma and milk were 3.00 ± 0.46 and 3.18 ± 0.55 days, respectively. The AUC values were 98.46 ± 24.75 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.42 ± 4.22 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.104 ± 0.022. Compared with the topical administration, a significantly shorter MRT of eprinomectin in plasma was obtained following oral administration, which would shorten residue time of this compound in faeces and reduce its ecotoxicological effect. The low exposure of eprinomectin in milk would favor the use of eprinomectin in lactating Chinese Holstein for topical or oral administration. PMID:20851527

  6. The energy expenditure of 2 Holstein cow strains in an organic grazing system.

    PubMed

    Thanner, S; Dohme-Meier, F; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Bruckmaier, R M; Schori, F

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, measurements of energy expenditure (EE; herein defined as heat production) in respiration chambers did not account for the extra energy requirements of grazing dairy cows on pasture. As energy is first limiting in most pasture-based milk production systems, its efficient use is important. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare EE, which can be affected by differences in body weight (BW), body composition, grazing behavior, physical activity, and milk production level, in 2 Holstein cow strains. Twelve Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH; 616 kg of BW) and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ; 570 kg of BW) cows in the third stage of lactation were paired according to their stage of lactation and kept in a rotational, full-time grazing system without concentrate supplementation. After adaption, the daily milk yield, grass intake using the alkane double-indicator technique, nutrient digestibility, physical activity, and grazing behavior recorded by an automatic jaw movement recorder were investigated over 7d. Using the (13)C bicarbonate dilution technique in combination with an automatic blood sampling system, EE based on measured carbon dioxide production was determined in 1 cow pair per day between 0800 to 1400 h. The HCH were heavier and had a lower body condition score compared with HNZ, but the difference in BW was smaller compared with former studies. Milk production, grass intake, and nutrient digestibility did not differ between the 2 cow strains, but HCH grazed for a longer time during the 6-h measurement period and performed more grazing mastication compared with the HNZ. No difference was found between the 2 cow strains with regard to EE (291 ± 15.6 kJ) per kilogram of metabolic BW, mainly due to a high between-animal variation in EE. As efficiency and energy use are important in sustainable, pasture-based, organic milk production systems, the determining factors for EE, such as methodology, genetics, physical activity, grazing

  7. Short communication: Association of disease incidence and adaptive immune response in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, K A; Hine, B; Quinton, M; Miglior, F; Mallard, B A

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use previously calculated estimated breeding values for cell- (CMIR) and antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) to determine associations between immune response (IR) and economically important diseases of dairy cattle. In total, 699 Holsteins were classified as high, average, or low for CMIR, AMIR, and overall IR (combined CMIR and AMIR), and associations with mastitis, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasums, and retained fetal membranes were determined. The incidence of mastitis was higher among average cows as compared with cows classified as high AMIR [odds ratio (OR)=2.5], high CMIR (OR=1.8), or high IR (OR=1.8). Low-CMIR cows had a higher incidence of metritis (OR=11.3) and low-IR cows had a higher incidence of displaced abomasum (OR=4.1) and retained fetal membrane (OR=2.8) than did average responders. Results of this study show that cows classified as high immune responders have lower occurrence of disease, suggesting that breeding cattle for enhanced IR may be a feasible approach to decrease the incidence of infectious and metabolic diseases in the dairy industry. PMID:22720943

  8. [Sporadic cutaneous lymphosarcoma of T-cell origin with involvement of lymph nodes and internal organs in a Holstein cow].

    PubMed

    Freick, M; Lapko, L; Neubert, M; Hardt, M; Behn, H; Passarge, O; Schöniger, S

    2016-02-16

    Sporadic lymphosarcomas in adult cattle are rare entities with an unknown etiology. This case report describes the course of the disease in a 3.5-year-old cow of the breed German Holstein, which was presented to the veterinarian due to multifocal nodular skin lesions. Several superficial lymph nodes (Lymphonodi mandibulares, parotidei and mammariae) were enlarged, had a tight-elastic consistency and were freely movable. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of skin biopsies showed the presence of multifocal cutaneous T-cell lymphosarcomas consistent with a skin leukosis. Bovine leukemia virus infection was excluded by serological investigation of a milk sample and virological examination of a tissue sample, respectively. Seven weeks after the first clinical examination, the cow deteriorated rapidly and was euthanized. A post mortem examination revealed the presence of neoplastic cells within lymph nodes (all superficial lymph nodes of the carcass and Lymphonodi pulmonales), kidney and lungs as well as a liver rupture. Additionally, an overview of the case reports of sporadic bovine cutaneous lymphosarcomas published during the previous 15 years will be provided. The legal background for a further utilization of affected animals for milk and meat production will be discussed. This case report illustrates that sporadic bovine leukosis represents an important differential diagnosis for viral-, bacterial- and parasitic-induced skin lesions and enlargement of lymph nodes in adult cattle. PMID:26763070

  9. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  10. Experimental assessment of bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maetani, Ayami; Itoh, Megumi; Nishihara, Kahori; Aoki, Takahiro; Ohtani, Masayuki; Shibano, Kenichi; Kayano, Mitsunori; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), comparing the relationships of BMD between QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and between QCT and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) in the metacarpal bone of Holstein dairy cows (n=27). A significant positive correlation was found between QCT and DXA measurements (r=0.70, P<0.01), and a significant correlation was found between QCT and RA measurements (r=0.50, P<0.01). We conclude that QCT provides quantitative evaluation of BMD in dairy cows, because BMD measured by QCT showed positive correlations with BMD measured by the two conventional methods: DXA and RA. PMID:27075115

  11. Management and production factors influencing immunoglobulin G1 concentration in colostrum from Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Besser, T E; Hancock, D D

    1991-07-01

    Immunoglobulin G1 concentration was measured in 919 first milking colostrums from Holstein cows during a 4-yr period on a commercial dairy farm. Sources of variation analyzed for effect on colostral IgG1 concentration were season of calving, lactation number, dry period length, intercalving interval, complete lactation milk and fat production, weight of first milking colostrum, and time from calving to first milking. Weight of first milking colostrum was the variable most highly correlated (negatively) with colostral IgG1 concentration (r = -.29). Weight of first milking colostrum and lactation number of the cow were the most significant discriminators between colostrum of low and high IgG1 concentration. The implications of these results for colostrum feeding management are discussed. PMID:1894821

  12. Experimental assessment of bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    MAETANI, Ayami; ITOH, Megumi; NISHIHARA, Kahori; AOKI, Takahiro; OHTANI, Masayuki; SHIBANO, Kenichi; KAYANO, Mitsunori; YAMADA, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), comparing the relationships of BMD between QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and between QCT and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) in the metacarpal bone of Holstein dairy cows (n=27). A significant positive correlation was found between QCT and DXA measurements (r=0.70, P<0.01), and a significant correlation was found between QCT and RA measurements (r=0.50, P<0.01). We conclude that QCT provides quantitative evaluation of BMD in dairy cows, because BMD measured by QCT showed positive correlations with BMD measured by the two conventional methods: DXA and RA. PMID:27075115

  13. Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in colostrum composition of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows collected at calving, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h and after 14 days of parturition were studied. Total solids, total protein, whey proteins, fat, lactose and ash contents were determined. Macro- and micro-elements, IgG, IgM, IGF-1, lactoferrin and vitamins (A and E) were also estimated. Results At calving, the total protein and whey proteins concentration did not differ between buffalo and cow colostrum, while total solids, fat, lactose and ash concentrations were higher in buffalo than in cow colostrum. All components decreased gradually as the transition period advanced except lactose which conversely increased. On the fifth day post-partum, concentration of total protein, whey proteins, fat, ash and total solids decreased by 69.39, 91.53, 36.91, 45.58 and 43.85% for buffalo and by 75.99, 94.12, 53.36, 33.59 and 52.26% for cow colostrum. However, lactose concentration increased by 42.45% for buffalo and 57.39% for cow colostrum. The macro-and micro-elements concentration of both colostrums tended to decline slightly toward normality on the fifth day of parturition. Buffalo colostrum had a higher concentration of vitamin E than cow colostrum during the experimental period. At calving, the concentration of vitamin A in buffalo colostrum was found to be approximately 1.50 times lower than in cow colostrum. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, IGF-1 and lactoferrin decreased by 97.90, 97.50, 96.25 and 96.70% for buffalo and 76.96, 74.92, 76.00 and 77.44% for cow colostrum, respectively after five days of parturition. Conclusions There is a dramatic change in buffalo and cow colostrum composition from the first milking until the fifth day of parturition. There are differences between buffalo and cow colostrum composition during the five days after calving. The composition of both colostrums approaches to those of normal milk within five days after parturition. PMID:22390895

  14. Associations between lying behavior and lameness in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    PubMed

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Orsel, K

    2016-03-01

    Lying behavior is an important measure of comfort and well-being in dairy cattle, and changes in lying behavior are potential indicators and predictors of lameness. Our objectives were to determine individual and herd-level risk factors associated with measures of lying behavior, and to evaluate whether automated measures of lying behavior can be used to detect lameness. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Alberta, Ontario, and Québec. Lying behavior of 5,135 cows between 10 and 120 d in milk was automatically and continuously recorded using accelerometers over 4 d. Data on factors hypothesized to influence lying behavior were collected, including information on individual cows, management practices, and facility design. Associations between predictor variables and measures of lying behavior were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, including farm and province as random and fixed effects, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether lying behavior was associated with lameness. At the cow-level, daily lying time increased with increasing days in milk, but this effect interacted with parity; primiparous cows had more frequent but shorter lying bouts in early lactation, changing to mature-cow patterns of lying behavior (fewer and longer lying bouts) in late lactation. In barns with stall curbs >22 cm high, the use of sand or >2 cm of bedding was associated with an increased average daily lying time of 1.44 and 0.06 h/d, respectively. Feed alleys ≥ 350 cm wide or stalls ≥ 114 cm wide were associated with increased daily lying time of 0.39 and 0.33 h/d, respectively, whereas rubber flooring in the feed alley was associated with 0.47 h/d lower average lying time. Lame cows had longer lying times, with fewer, longer, and more variable duration of bouts compared with nonlame cows. In that regard, cows with lying time ≥ 14 h/d, ≤ 5 lying bouts per day, bout duration ≥ 110 min

  15. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow

    PubMed Central

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized. PMID:24489391

  16. A Modified Catheterization Procedure to Reduce Bladder Damage when Collecting Urine Samples from Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Tetsuo; NAKAMURA, Hiroshi; SATO, Say; SEKI, Makoto; NISHIKI, Hideto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), SB catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of SB catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection. PMID:24561376

  17. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Umar Nazir; Randhawa, Swaran Singh; Hussain, Syed Ashaq; Randhawa, Sarnarinder Singh; Dua, Kirti

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF) crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3) and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle. PMID:25133012

  18. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on nonreturn rate of Italian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Biffani, S; Bernabucci, U; Vitali, A; Lacetera, N; Nardone, A

    2016-07-01

    The data set consisted of 1,016,856 inseminations of 191,012 first, second, and third parity Holstein cows from 484 farms. Data were collected from year 2001 through 2007 and included meteorological data from 35 weather stations. Nonreturn rate at 56 d after first insemination (NR56) was considered. A logit model was used to estimate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) on reproduction across parities. Then, least squares means were used to detect the THI breakpoints using a 2-phase linear regression procedure. Finally, a multiple-trait threshold model was used to estimate variance components for NR56 in first and second parity cows. A dummy regression variable (t) was used to estimate NR56 decline due to heat stress. The NR56, both for first and second parity cows, was significantly (unfavorable) affected by THI from 4 d before 5 d after the insemination date. Additive genetic variances for NR56 increased from first to second parity both for general and heat stress effect. Genetic correlations between general and heat stress effects were -0.31 for first parity and -0.45 for second parity cows. PMID:27108174

  19. Sensible and latent heat loss from the body surface of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, A. S. C.; Dasilva, R. G.; Battiston Loureiro, C. M.

    2005-09-01

    The general principles of the mechanisms of heat transfer are well known, but knowledge of the transition between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss by Holstein cows in field conditions must be improved, especially for low-latitude environments. With this aim 15 Holstein cows managed in open pasture were observed in a tropical region. The latent heat loss from the body surface of the animals was measured by means of a ventilated capsule, while convective heat transfer was estimated by the theory of convection from a horizontal cylinder and by the long-wave radiation exchange based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. When the air temperature was between 10 and 36°C the sensible heat transfer varied from 160 to -30 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by cutaneous evaporation increased from 30 to 350 W m-2. Heat loss by cutaneous evaporation accounted for 20-30% of the total heat loss when air temperatures ranged from 10 to 20°C. At air temperatures >30°C cutaneous evaporation becomes the main avenue of heat loss, accounting for approximately 85% of the total heat loss, while the rest is lost by respiratory evaporation.

  20. Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Song, D. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Wang, J. Q.; Peng, H.; Bu, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance. PMID:25049979

  1. Effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on probability of conception in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM), occurring in different weekly intervals before or after artificial insemination (AI), on the probability of conception in Holstein cows. Clinical mastitis occurring in weekly intervals from 6 wk before until 6 wk after AI was modeled. The first 4 AI in a cow's lactation were included. The following categories of pathogens were studied: Streptococcus spp. (comprising Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and other Streptococcus spp.); Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level that can be detected from our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); and other pathogens [including Citrobacter, yeasts, Trueperella pyogenes, gram-negative bacilli (i.e., gram-negative organisms other than E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter, and Citrobacter), Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium spp., Pasteurella, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, and others]. Other factors included in the model were parity (1, 2, 3, 4 and higher), season of AI (winter, spring, summer, autumn), day in lactation of first AI, farm, and other non-CM diseases (retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Data from 90,271 AI in 39,361 lactations in 20,328 cows collected from 2003/2004 to 2011 from 5 New York State dairy farms were analyzed in a generalized linear mixed model with a Poisson distribution. The largest reductions in probability of conception were associated with CM occurring in the week before AI or in the 2 wk following AI. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. had the greatest adverse effects on probability of conception. The probability of conception for a cow with any combination of characteristics may be calculated based on the parameter estimates. These

  2. Relationships between lactational incidence of displaced abomasum and milk production traits in German Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hamann, H; Wolf, V; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the heritabilitiy of the lactational incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) and the relationships of DA with milk production traits in German Holstein cows. Data were recorded between February 1999 and January 2000 in cooperation with five veterinary practitioners. Their veterinary practices were located in the northern part of Lower Saxony. The investigation included 160 dairy farms under the official milk-recording scheme with 9,315 cows. The lactational incidence of the left abomasal displacement amounted to 1.21%, and of the right abomasal displacement to 0.41%, respectively. The linear heritability estimates for the lactational incidences of left and right DA were h(2) = 0.05 +/- 0.012 and h(2) = 0.004 +/- 0.005, respectively. Using the Dempster-Lerner-transformation the corresponding heritabilities were h(2) = 0.53 and 0.09, respectively. Milk losses for the lactation when DA was diagnosed were significant and reached 1016 kg milk, 41 kg fat, 36 kg protein and 0.07% protein. Fat content significantly increased by 0.18%. The analysis could not show significant differences between cows diagnosed with DA and cows not diagnosed with DA in the 305-day milk production traits of the lactation preceding the diagnosis of DA. There was also no indication for an unequal distribution of breeding values for milk performance traits between cows with and without DA. The additive genetic correlations between 305-day milk performance and left DA were low. The results indicated that cows with a high milk production and superior breeding values for milk performance were not exposed to an increased risk for DA. PMID:15265178

  3. Multivariate analysis to evaluate genetic groups and production traits of crossbred Holstein × Zebu cows.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Angelina Bossi; de Lima Silva, Fabiane; Hongyu, Kuang; Da Silva Santos, Darlim; Murphy, Thomas Wayne; Lopes, Fernando Brito

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research was to try to unveil the relationship between production traits and genotypic proportions of crossbred dairy cattle using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The herd consists of crossbred animals of Holstein (H) and Zebu (Z) (Gir and Guzerat) in different genotypic proportions; the composition of which varies from 12.5 to 100.0 % of the genetic group H. For this study, 834 milk production records from 257 cows from the years 1997 to 2014 were analyzed. The animals were all managed at a farm located in northeastern Brazil. The variables in the PCA were total milk yield per lactation (MY), milk yield adjusted to 305 days (MY305), lactation length (LL), and proportion of H and Z breeding. This analysis reduced the size of the sample space from the original five variables to two principal components (PCs) that together explained 89.4 % of the total variation. MY, MY305, LL, and genotypic proportion of H all contributed positively to PC1. The genotypic proportion of Z contributed negatively, which established a contrast between H and Z. Further cluster analysis identified two distinct groups when considering production performance and genotype of the animals. The high-performance group was predominantly Holstein breeding, while the lower performing group consisted mostly of Zebu. Under the environmental and management conditions in which this research was conducted, the best performances for the traits considered were achieved from cows whose genotypic proportion was between 38.0 and 94.0 % Holstein breeding. PMID:26719296

  4. Influence of corn silage hybrid type on lactation performance by Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Shaver, R D

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed nutridense (ND), dual-purpose (DP), or brown midrib (BM) corn silage hybrids at the same concentration in the diets. A secondary objective was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed NutriDense corn silage at a higher concentration in the diet. One hundred twenty-eight Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows (105 ± 38 d in milk) were stratified by breed and parity and randomly assigned to 16 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Three treatment total mixed rations (TMR; DP40, BM40, and ND40) contained 40% of dry matter (DM) from the respective corn silage hybrid and 20% of DM from alfalfa silage. The fourth treatment TMR had ND corn silage as the sole forage at 65% of DM (ND65). A 2-wk covariate adjustment period preceded the treatment period, with all pens receiving a TMR with equal proportions of DP40, BM40, and ND40. Following the covariate period, cows were fed their assigned treatment diets for 11 wk. nutridense corn silage had greater starch and lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content than DP or BM, resulting in ND40 having greater energy content (73.2% of total digestible nutrients, TDN) than DP40 or BM40 (71.9 and 71.4% TDN, respectively). Cows fed BM40 had greater milk yield than DP40, whereas ND40 tended to have greater milk yield and had greater protein and lactose yields compared with DP40. No differences in intake, component-corrected milk yields, or feed efficiency were detected between DP40, BM40, and ND40. Milk yield differences may be due to increased starch intake for ND40 and increased digestible NDF intake for BM40 compared with DP40. Intake and milk yield and composition were similar for ND40 compared with BM40, possibly due to counteracting effects of higher starch intake for ND40 and higher digestible NDF intake for BM40. Feeding ND65 reduced intake, and thus milk and component yields, compared with

  5. Effective embryo production from Holstein cows treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yasuhiro; Yu, Guang-Min; Hidaka, Takemasa; Matzushige, Tadami; Maeda, Teruo

    2016-10-01

    The low efficiency of embryo production in Holstein cows during early lactation presents many challenges for animal production. To improve its efficiency, the outcomes of single GnRH injections 48 hours before each of three cycles of ovum pick up (OPU; weeks 2, 4, and 6) were compared with three cycles of unstimulated OPU (controls; weeks 1, 3, and 5) in 35 Holstein cows during 6 weeks of early lactation (40-80 days postpartum). More total follicle numbers (19.5 vs. 16.0; P < 0.05) but fewer dominant follicles (0.5 vs. 1.4; P < 0.01) were observed by ultrasound, and more cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected in a single OPU in the treatment cycles compared with controls (15.3 vs. 11.5; P < 0.05). The numbers of morphologically "good" cumulus-oocyte complexes graded A and B in the stimulated OPUs were significantly greater than in controls (2.8 vs. 1.7 and 5.8 vs. 4.2, respectively; P < 0.05). Significantly, more oocytes stained positively with brilliant cresyl blue after GnRH treatment compared with the control cycles (13.7 vs. 9.6; P < 0.05). After in vitro fertilization, embryos in the treatment cycles had improved development (P < 0.01) during each developmental stage compared with the controls (9.0 vs. 6.2 two-cell embryos; 4.7 vs. 3.0 four-cell embryos; 3.3 vs. 2.0 morulae; and 3.0 vs. 1.7 blastocysts, respectively). Moreover, there was no significant difference in pregnancy rate of the recipient cows after embryo transfer (57.1% vs. 42.1%; P > 0.05) no matter if the embryos came from the GnRH-treated cycles or not. Thus, GnRH-stimulated OPUs improved the efficiency of embryo production in Holstein cows during early lactation. This novel method for in vitro embryo production should benefit the dairy industry. PMID:27260509

  6. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

  7. Estimates of genetic parameters for Holstein cows for test-day yield traits with a random regression cubic spline model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters were estimated with REML for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields and SCS with a random regression cubic spline model. Test-day records of Holstein cows that calved from 1994 through early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems in Raleigh, North Car...

  8. Effect of direct-fed microbials on performance, diet digestibility, and rumen characteristics of Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding bacterial direct fed microbial (DFM) products containing Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and Propionibacteria freudenreichii (PF) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation of Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactati...

  9. ESTIMATES OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR FIRST LACTATION TEST-DAY YIELDS OF HOLSTEIN COWS WITH A CUBIC SPLINE MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields with a cubic spline model. A total of 196,687 test-day records in the first 305-d of 38,172 first lactation Holstein cows that calved between 1994 and early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Ma...

  10. Parturition invokes Changes in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Populations in Holstein Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-one multiparous and two primiparous Holstein cows were grouped according to infection status with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative microorganism for Johne’s disease (JD). The effect of parturition and infection on the percentages of CD4+, CD8+, and T-cells, B-...

  11. Comparison of efficiency of energy use in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows offered diets containing reduce fat distillers grains (RFDDGS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-six energy balances were completed with eight Holstein (H) and eight Jersey (J) multiparous lactating cows to examine the effect of breed on the efficiency of milk production and energy use. Two dietary treatments were fed in a repeated switch back design to compare breeds. Dietary treatments ...

  12. Effects of ruminal dosing of Holstein cows with Megasphaera elsdenii on milk fat production, ruminal chemistry, and bacterial strain persistence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megasphaera elsdenii (Me) is a lactate-utilizing bacterium whose ruminal abundance has been shown to be greatly elevated during milk fat depression (MFD). To further examine this association, a total of 25 cannulated multiparous Holstein cows were examined in three studies in which strains of Me wer...

  13. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intak...

  14. Impact of thermal stress on the efficiency of ovulation synchronization protocols in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; El-Tarabany, Akram A

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on the efficiency of three different protocols to synchronize time of ovulation in purebred Holstein cows under subtropical Egyptian conditions. The influence of temperature humidity index (THI) on the conception, pregnancy, embryonic loss and early abortion rates were investigated. Conception and pregnancy rates using the CIDRsynch and Presynch (37.5% and 33.9%; 29.5 and 29. 6%, respectively) were significantly greater than that for cows expressing spontaneous estrus (SE) and with use of the Ovsynch (28.5% and 24.3%; 21.6% and 24.6%, respectively) treatment regimen. Conception and pregnancy rates using the Ovsynch protocol were significantly decreased from 31.6% and 26.3% at the lesser THI to 11.5% and 9.9%, respectively than at the greater THI [crude odds ratio (COR) = 0.28 and 0.32; P = 0.001 and 0.004, respectively]. However, conception (P/AI at 28 days) and pregnancy (P/AI at 75 days) rates using the Presynch protocol were significantly reduced at either the lesser or greater THI (COR = 0.47 and 0.42; 0.48 and 0.34, respectively). Embryonic loss rate with the Presynch group was significantly increased from 11.5% at the lesser THI to 22.2% at the greater THI (COR = 2.28; P = 0.039). In contrast, conception, pregnancy and embryonic loss rates did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) with the CIDRsynch protocol at the different THI. Results from the present study indicate that use of the CIDRsynch protocol may provide consistent and satisfactory conception and pregnancy rates in Holstein cows under subtropical environmental conditions. PMID:26297623

  15. Genetic parameters for dry matter intake in primiparous Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey cows in the first half of lactation.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Løvendahl, P; Mäntysaari, P; Berglund, B

    2016-09-01

    Dry matter intake (DMI) is a key component of feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters of DMI over the first 24 lactation weeks in 3 dairy cattle breeds: Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey. In total, 1,656 primiparous cows (717 Holstein, 663 Nordic Red, and 276 Jersey) from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden were studied. For each breed, variance components, heritability, and repeatability for weekly DMI were estimated in 6 consecutive periods of the first 24 lactation weeks based on a repeatability animal model. Genetic correlations for DMI between different lactation periods were estimated using bivariate models. Based on our results, Holstein and Nordic Red cows had similar DMI at the beginning of lactation, but later in lactation Holstein cows had a slightly higher DMI than Nordic Red cows. In comparison, Jersey cows had a significantly lower DMI than the other 2 breeds within the first 24 lactation weeks. Heritability estimates for DMI ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 in Holsteins, 0.25 to 0.41 in Nordic Red, and 0.17 to 0.42 in Jerseys within the first 24 lactation weeks. Genetic and phenotypic variances for DMI varied along lactation within each breed and tended to be higher in the middle of lactation than at the beginning of the lactation. High genetic correlations were noted for DMI in lactation wk 5 to 24 in all 3 breeds, whereas DMI at early lactation (lactation wk 1 to 4) tended to be genetically different from DMI in the middle of lactation. The 3 breeds in this study might differ in their genetic variances for DMI, but the differences were not statistically significant in most of the studied periods. Breed differences for the genetic variance tended to be more obvious than for heritability. The potential breed differences in genetic variation for DMI should be considered in a future study using feed intake information from multiple breeds. PMID:27372581

  16. Effect of sex-sorted sperm dosage on conception rates in Holstein heifers and lactating cows.

    PubMed

    DeJarnette, J M; Nebel, R L; Marshall, C E; Moreno, J F; McCleary, C R; Lenz, R W

    2008-05-01

    Ejaculates were collected by artificial vagina from 3 Holstein sires and sorted to 90% purity for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa (range 88 to 93%) using flow cytometry. Sorted sperm were diluted to 2.1, 3.5, or 5.0 x 10(6) sperm per dose in an egg yolk (20%), Tris, glycerol (7%) extender. Collections were repeated until >600 straws per sperm dose per sire were obtained. Each sperm dose was loaded into color-coded 0.25-mL French straws, with alternate colors used to define treatments across sires. Within sires, straws were packaged at 9 per cane (3 of each color) and strategically allocated to 75 Holstein herds with targets for 50% use in heifers and 50% in lactating cows. Straw color was recorded in the on-farm record-keeping system at the time of insemination. Data were analyzed separately for cows and heifers. Among heifers, a total of 2,125 usable records were retrieved from 51 herds (238 +/- 5.5 services/ sperm dose per sire, range: 218 to 263). Conception rates in heifers were influenced by the sire x sperm dosage interaction. Within sire A, conception rates of heifers were greater for the 5 x 10(6) (59.5%) than for the 2.1 x 10(6) (46.4%) sperm dose and intermediate for the 3.5 x 10(6) sperm dose (52.2%). However, across sires, sperm dosage had no effect on heifer conception rates (46.7, 51.2, and 52.5% for the 2.1, 3.5, and 5.0 x 10(6) sperm dosages, respectively). Among cows, a total of 2,369 services were retrieved from 56 herds (263 +/- 8.8 services/sperm dose per sire, range: 233 to 303). Conception rates of cows (29.4%) were not affected by sire or sperm dosage (27.0, 29.1, and 30.3% for the 2.1, 3.5, and 5.0 x 10(6) sperm dosages, respectively). In conclusion, these data indicate that an increased sperm dosage may enhance virgin heifer conception rates for some (but not all) sires, whereas neither sire nor sexed-sperm dosage affected conception rates of lactating cows. Additional studies of sexed-sperm dosage across a larger sampling of bulls are

  17. Effect of type traits on functional longevity of Czech Holstein cows estimated from a Cox proportional hazards model.

    PubMed

    Zavadilová, L; Němcová, E; Stípková, M

    2011-08-01

    Relationships between conformation traits and functional longevity in Holstein cows were evaluated using survival analysis. Functional longevity was defined as the number of days between the first calving and culling; that is, length of productive life. The data set consisted of 116,369 Holstein cows that first calved from 2003 to 2008. All cows used in the analysis were scored for conformation between d 30 and d 210 of their first lactation. The data included 48% censored records. Analyses were done separately for 20 linear descriptive type traits, 6 composite traits, and height at sacrum measured in centimeters. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to analyze data. The hazard function was described as the product of a baseline hazard function and the time-independent effects of age at first calving and sire (random), and the time-dependent effects of stage of lactation and lactation number, herd, year and season, herd size, and 305-d milk production. The strongest relationship between a composite trait and functional longevity was for dairy form, followed by udder and final score. Among the descriptive type traits, the strongest relationships with longevity were found for body condition score, angularity, traits related to udder attachment, and udder depth. Foot and leg traits showed substantially lower effect on functional longevity, and the effect of foot angle was minimal. Functional longevity declined with decreased body condition score of cows. Cows with deep udders had significantly lower functional survival compared with cows with shallow udders. In addition, weak central ligament was associated with significant reduction of cow longevity. For dairy form and angularity, cows classified as very good were the worst with respect to longevity, whereas cows classified as poor were the best. An intermediate optimum was evident for rear legs rear view and rear legs set (side view), whereas cows with sickled legs had lower longevity than cows with straighter

  18. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in content of milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P < 0.01). These results imply that conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein. PMID:27386352

  19. Short communication: Effects of pregnancy on milk yield, composition traits, and coagulation properties of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Penasa, M; De Marchi, M; Cassandro, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pregnancy stage on milk yield, composition traits, and milk coagulation properties in Italian Holstein cattle. The data set included 25,729 records from 3,995 first-parity cows calving between August 2010 and August 2013 in 167 herds. The traits analyzed were milk yield (kg/d), fat (%), protein (%), casein (%), and lactose (%) contents, pH, somatic cell score, rennet coagulation time (min), and curd firmness (mm). To better understand the effect of gestation on the aforementioned traits, each record was assigned to one of the following classes of pregnancy stage: (1) nonpregnant, (2) pregnant from 1 to 120d, (3) pregnant from 121 to 210d, and (4) pregnant from 211 to 310d. Gestation stage significantly influenced all studied traits with the exception of somatic cell score. Milk production decreased and milk quality improved from the fourth month of pregnancy onward. For all traits, nonpregnant cows performed very similarly to cows in the first period of gestation. Rennet coagulation time and curd firmness were influenced by pregnancy stage, especially in the last weeks of gestation when milk had better coagulation characteristics; this information should be accounted for to adjust test-day records in genetic evaluation of milk coagulation properties. PMID:27060832

  20. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  1. Comparison of peripartum metabolic status and postpartum health of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, L G D; Abade, C C; da Silva, E M; Litherland, N B; Hansen, L B; Hansen, W P; Chebel, R C

    2014-02-01

    Objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate plasma concentrations of metabolites and haptoglobin peripartum, uterine health and involution, and follicle growth and resumption of cyclicity of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred cows. Cows (52 HO and 52 crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45 d before expected calving date. Cows had body weight and body condition score recorded on d -45, -14, 0, 1, 28, and 56 relative to calving. Dry matter intake was calculated for a subgroup of cows (25 HO and 38 crossbred) from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving. Blood was sampled weekly from d -14 to 56 relative to calving for determination of glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations; from d -7 to 21 relative to calving for determination of haptoglobin concentration; and from d 14 to 56 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Cows were examined at calving and on d 4, 7, 10, and 14 postpartum for diagnosis of postparturient diseases, on d 24 postpartum for diagnosis of purulent vaginal discharge, and on d 42 postpartum for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis. Uteri and ovaries were examined by ultrasonography every 3 d from d 14 to 41 postpartum. Milk yield and composition were measured monthly and yield of milk, fat, protein, and energy-corrected milk were recorded for the first 90 d postpartum. Body weight was not different between Holstein and crossbred cows, but HO cows had reduced body condition score compared with crossbred cows. Even though DMI from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving tended to be greater for HO cows (16.8 ± 0.7 vs. 15.3 ± 0.5 kg/d), HO cows tended to have more pronounced decline in dry matter intake, expressed in percentage of body weight from d -15 to 0 relative to calving. Energy-corrected milk and nonesterified fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were not different between breeds. No differences were observed in incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, and

  2. Immune and oxidative response to linseed in the diet of periparturient Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Đidara, M; Poljičak-Milas, N; Milinković-Tur, S; Mašek, T; Šuran, J; Pavić, M; Kardum, M; Šperanda, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the influence of dietary replacement of n-6 with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cellular immunity and oxidative stress in the transition period dairy cows. The experiment was conducted on 20 dairy Holstein cows from 3 ± 1 weeks before parturition until the 6th week of lactation. Both groups were fed an iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diet. Soybean meal from control (C) group was replaced with linseed in the experimental (LS) group. Cellular immunity and oxidative stress were measured on days -10, 1, 21 and 42 relative to parturition. During the entire experimental period, the proportion of CD45+ cells was lower (P<0.05) in LS group compared with the C group. The phagocytosis ability and phagocytosis index of cows fed with n-3 fatty acids were significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared with the group of cows fed with n-6 fatty acids. The most severe decrease in phagocytosis ability was on day -10 and 1 relative to parturition. The activity of superoxide dismutase (P<0.05) and plasma glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05) increased around calving, although activities were not influenced by dietary treatment. Increased malondialdehyde concentration (P<0.05) was influenced by dietary n-3 fatty acids and the time relative to parturition. The immune suppression was most pronounced during periparturient period. In that matter we can conclude that not only dietary n-3 fatty acids but also oxidative stress, which reached peak at time of parturition, contributed to the reduced cellular immunity during the periparturient period. PMID:25786897

  3. Effects of rumen-protected methionine and choline supplementation on the preimplantation embryo in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Acosta, D A V; Denicol, A C; Tribulo, P; Rivelli, M I; Skenandore, C; Zhou, Z; Luchini, D; Corrêa, M N; Hansen, P J; Cardoso, F C

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of supplementing methionine and choline during the prepartum and postpartum periods on preimplantation embryos of Holstein cows. Multiparous cows were assigned in a randomized complete-block design into four treatments from 21 days before calving to 30 days in milk (DIM). Treatments (TRT) were MET (n = 9, fed the basal diet + rumen-protected methionine at a rate of 0.08% [w:w] of the dry matter [DM], Smartamine M), CHO (n = 8, fed the basal diet + choline 60 g/d, Reashure), MIX (n = 11, fed the basal diet + Smartamine M and 60 g/d Reashure), and CON (n = 8, no supplementation, fed the close-up and fresh cow diets). Cows were randomly reassigned to two new groups (GRP) to receive the following diets from 31 to 72 DIM; control (CNT, n = 16, fed a basal diet) and SMT (n = 20, fed the basal diet + 0.08% [w:w] of the dry matter intake as methionine). An progesterone intravaginal insert (CIDR) device was inserted in all cows after follicular aspiration (60 DIM) and superovulation began at Day 61.5 using FSH in eight decreasing doses at 12-hour intervals over a 4-day period. On Days 63 and 64, all cows received two injections of PGF2α, and CIDR was removed on Day 65. Twenty-four hours after CIDR removal, ovulation was induced with GnRH. Cows received artificial insemination at 12 hours and 24 hours after GnRH. Embryos were flushed 6.5 days after artificial insemination. Global methylation of the embryos was assessed by immunofluorescent labeling of 5-methylcytosine, whereas lipid content was assessed by staining with Nile red. Nuclear staining was used to count the total number of cells per embryo. There was no difference between TRT, GRP, or their interaction (P > 0.05) for embryo recovery, embryos recovered, embryo quality, embryo stage, or cells per embryo. Methylation of the DNA had a TRT by GRP interaction (P = 0.01). Embryos from cows in CON-CNT had greater (P = 0.04) methylation (0.87

  4. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

    . Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the S/F and KK groups in both Holstein and Brown Swiss cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P < 0.05) in the KK group than in the S/F and C groups, while cortisol levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the C group than in S/F and KK. There was no significant difference in the hormonal response of the two breeds. These results demonstrate that both cooling systems may be used increase the comfort of Holstein and Brown Swiss cows during summer in hot, dry climates.

  5. Identification of alleles and genotypes of beta-casein with DNA sequencing analysis in Chinese Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ronghua; Fang, Yu; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Shuyun; Ding, Jinmei; Xu, Ke; Yang, Lingyu; He, Chuan; Ding, Fangmei; Meng, He

    2016-08-01

    The study reported in this Regional Research Communication aimed to analyse the genetic polymorphisms of β-casein in Chinese Holstein cows. β-casein has received considerable research interest in the dairy industry and animal breeding in recent years as a source not only of high quality protein, but also of bioactive peptides that may be linked to health effects. Morever, the polymorphic nature of β-casein and its association with milk production traits, composition, and quality also attracted several efforts in evaluating the allelic distribution of β-casein locus as a potential dairy trait marker. However, few data on beta-casein variants are available for the Chinese Holstein cow. In the present paper, one hundred and thirty three Holstein cows were included in the analysis. Results revealed the presence of 5 variants (A1, A2, A3, B and I), preponderance of the genotype A1A2 (0·353) and superiorities of A1/A2 alleles (0·432 and 0·459, respectively) in the population. Sequence analysis of β-casein gene in the cows showed four nucleotide changes in exon 7. Our study can provide reference and guidance for selection for superior milk for industrial applications and crossbreeding and genetic improvement programmes. PMID:27600965

  6. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of

  7. Effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance of Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance, nine lactating Holstein dairy cows (day in milk= 100±21 d; body weight=645.7 ± 26.5 kg) were allotted to a 3 × 3 Latin square design at three 23-d periods. The three treatments included 34.91% (B), 18.87% (BC), and 18.86% (BB) barley that in treatment B was partially replaced with only corn or corn plus beet pulp in treatments BC and BB, respectively. The concentration of starch and neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate varied (22.2, 20.2, and 14.5; 13.6, 15.9, and 20.1% of DM in treatments B, BC, and BB, respectively). Cows in treatment BB showed a higher DMI and improved digestibility of DM, NDF, and EE compared with treatments B or BC. Ruminal pH was higher in cows fed on BB (6.83) compared with those that received B or BC treatments (6.62 and 6.73, respectively). A lower proportion of propionate accompanied the higher pH in the BB group; however, a greater proportion of acetate and acetate: propionate ratio was observed compared with cows fed either on the B or BC diet. Moreover, cows fed on the BB diet showed the lowest ruminal passage rate and longest ruminal and total retention time. Eating time did not differ among treatments, rumination time was greater among cows fed on the BB diet compared with the others, whereas total chewing activity was greater than those fed on BC, but similar to those fed on B. The treatments showed no effect on milk yield. Partially replacing barley with corn or beet pulp resulted in an increase in milk fat and a lower protein concentration. Changing dietary NFC with that of a different degradability thus altered intake, chewing activity, ruminal environment, retention time or passage rate, and lactation performance. The results of this study showed that beet pulp with a higher NDF and a detergent-soluble carbohydrate or pectin established a more consistent ruminal mat than barley and corn, thus resulting in

  8. Inbreeding and crossbreeding parameters for production and fertility traits in Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Normande cows.

    PubMed

    Dezetter, C; Leclerc, H; Mattalia, S; Barbat, A; Boichard, D; Ducrocq, V

    2015-07-01

    Breed differences and nonadditive genetic effects for milk production traits, somatic cell score (SCS), conception rate (CR), and days to first service (DFS) were estimated for Holstein × Montbéliarde and Holstein × Normande crossbreds, using an animal model adapted from the French genetic evaluation and extended to across-breed analysis. Inbreeding and breed differences were estimated from all purebred recorded cows. Only records from 1,137 herds with Holstein × Montbéliarde crossbred cows and from 1,033 herds with Holstein × Normande crossbred cows were used to estimate crossbreeding parameters. In these herds, crossbred cows represented about 13% of the total number of recorded animals compared with <1% when all herds were considered. Compared with the Montbéliarde and Normande breeds, the Holstein breed was genetically superior for production [+951kg and +2,444kg for 305-d mature-equivalent (305ME) milk, +40kg and +102kg for 305ME fat, +17kg and +54kg for 305ME protein, respectively] and inferior for fertility traits (-12 and -9% for CR, respectively). Inbreeding depression caused loss of yield for production traits (from -32 to -41kg of 305ME milk, -1.4 to -1.7kg of 305ME fat, and -1.1 to -1.3kg of 305ME protein per inbreeding percentage), a small increase in SCS (+0.001 to 0.006) and DFS (+0.12d), and a decrease in CR (-0.27 to -0.44%). Favorable heterosis effects were found for all traits (+494 to 524kg of 305ME milk, +21 to 22kg of 305ME fat, +15 to 16kg of 305ME protein, -0.05 to -0.04 SCS, +2 to 3% for CR, and -3 to 6d of DFS), to such a point that F1 crossbreds could compete with Holstein cows for milk production while having a better fertility. However, recombination losses suggested that some F1 heterosis was lost for backcross cows. PMID:25981069

  9. Rumen Bacterial Community Composition in Holstein and Jersey Cows Is Different under Same Dietary Condition and Is Not Affected by Sampling Method.

    PubMed

    Paz, Henry A; Anderson, Christopher L; Muller, Makala J; Kononoff, Paul J; Fernando, Samodha C

    2016-01-01

    The rumen microbial community in dairy cows plays a critical role in efficient milk production. However, there is a lack of data comparing the composition of the rumen bacterial community of the main dairy breeds. This study utilizes 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the rumen bacterial community composition in Holstein and Jersey cows fed the same diet by sampling the rumen microbiota via the rumen cannula (Holstein cows) or esophageal tubing (both Holstein and Jersey cows). After collection of the rumen sample via esophageal tubing, particles attached to the strainer were added to the sample to ensure representative sampling of both the liquid and solid fraction of the rumen contents. Alpha diversity metrics, Chao1 and observed OTUs estimates, displayed higher (P = 0.02) bacterial richness in Holstein compared to Jersey cows and no difference (P > 0.70) in bacterial community richness due to sampling method. The principal coordinate analysis displayed distinct clustering of bacterial communities by breed suggesting that Holstein and Jersey cows harbor different rumen bacterial communities. Family level classification of most abundant (>1%) differential OTUs displayed that OTUs from the bacterial families Lachnospiraceae and p-2534-18B5 to be predominant in Holstein cows compared to Jersey cows. Additionally, OTUs belonging to family Prevotellaceae were differentially abundant in the two breeds. Overall, the results from this study suggest that the bacterial community between Holstein and Jersey cows differ and that esophageal tubing with collection of feed particles associated with the strainer provides a representative rumen sample similar to a sample collected via the rumen cannula. Thus, in future studies esophageal tubing with addition of retained particles can be used to collect rumen samples reducing the cost of cannulation and increasing the number of animals used in microbiome investigations, thus increasing the statistical power of rumen microbial

  10. Rumen Bacterial Community Composition in Holstein and Jersey Cows Is Different under Same Dietary Condition and Is Not Affected by Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Henry A.; Anderson, Christopher L.; Muller, Makala J.; Kononoff, Paul J.; Fernando, Samodha C.

    2016-01-01

    The rumen microbial community in dairy cows plays a critical role in efficient milk production. However, there is a lack of data comparing the composition of the rumen bacterial community of the main dairy breeds. This study utilizes 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the rumen bacterial community composition in Holstein and Jersey cows fed the same diet by sampling the rumen microbiota via the rumen cannula (Holstein cows) or esophageal tubing (both Holstein and Jersey cows). After collection of the rumen sample via esophageal tubing, particles attached to the strainer were added to the sample to ensure representative sampling of both the liquid and solid fraction of the rumen contents. Alpha diversity metrics, Chao1 and observed OTUs estimates, displayed higher (P = 0.02) bacterial richness in Holstein compared to Jersey cows and no difference (P > 0.70) in bacterial community richness due to sampling method. The principal coordinate analysis displayed distinct clustering of bacterial communities by breed suggesting that Holstein and Jersey cows harbor different rumen bacterial communities. Family level classification of most abundant (>1%) differential OTUs displayed that OTUs from the bacterial families Lachnospiraceae and p-2534-18B5 to be predominant in Holstein cows compared to Jersey cows. Additionally, OTUs belonging to family Prevotellaceae were differentially abundant in the two breeds. Overall, the results from this study suggest that the bacterial community between Holstein and Jersey cows differ and that esophageal tubing with collection of feed particles associated with the strainer provides a representative rumen sample similar to a sample collected via the rumen cannula. Thus, in future studies esophageal tubing with addition of retained particles can be used to collect rumen samples reducing the cost of cannulation and increasing the number of animals used in microbiome investigations, thus increasing the statistical power of rumen microbial

  11. Increased risk of conception failure in German Holstein Friesian cows with chronic endometritis.

    PubMed

    Tsousis, G; Sharifi, A R; Hoedemaker, M

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this retrospective field study was to evaluate the effect of chronic clinical endometritis (CCE) on days open in German Holstein Friesian cows. Two hundred and sixty-four cows diagnosed with CCE from day 14 to 42 postpartum were included in this study. A Cox’s proportional hazards regression model with stepwise forward selection for days open was used and the variables type of vaginal discharge, ovarian cysts and a marked loss of body condition score proved to be significant with hazard ratios of 1.5, 2.0 and 1.9 respectively. Although not remaining in the model, a weak positive effect of treatment for CCE and a negative effect of high milk production could also be found in the univariate analysis. These results suggest that the suppression of fertility of animals diagnosed with CCE varies according to the different symptoms, which could be used to support decisions regarding treatment. Management factors such as a marked loss in body condition and high milk production prolonged the number of days open of animals with CCE. PMID:19694984

  12. In Vitro Culture and Characterization of a Mammary Epithelial Cell Line from Chinese Holstein Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Han; Wang, Jiaqi; Bu, Dengpan; Wei, Hongyang; Zhou, Linyun; Li, Fadi; Loor, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. Methodology Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition) was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. Principal Findings The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n = 60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing β-casein (CSN2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACACA) and butyrophilin (BTN1A1). An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. Conclusions The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs). PMID:19888476

  13. Administration of estradiol benzoate before insemination could skew secondary sex ratio toward males in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Emadi, S R; Rezaei, A; Bolourchi, M; Hovareshti, P; Akbarinejad, V

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate administration before insemination on secondary sex ratio (proportion of male calves at birth) in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n = 1,647) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups by parity over a 1-yr period. Cows in the control group (n = 827; 232 primiparous and 595 multiparous cows) received 2 administrations of PGF2α (500 μg) 14 d apart, started at 30 to 35 d postpartum. Twelve d after the second PGF2α injection, cows received GnRH (100 μg), followed by administration of PGF2α 7 d later. Cows in the treatment group (n = 820; 238 primiparous and 582 multiparous cows) received the same hormonal administrations as the cows in the control group. Additionally, cows in the treatment group received estradiol benzoate (1 mg) 1 d after the third PGF2α injection. Estrus detection by visual observation was started 1 d after the third PGF2α injection and after estradiol administration in the control (for 6 d) and treatment (for 36 h) groups, respectively. Artificial insemination was carried out 12 h after observation of standing estrus. Exposure of cows to heat stress at conception was determined based on temperature-humidity index. Estrus detection rate was lower in primiparous than in multiparous cows (P < 0.05), but conception rate was higher in primiparous vs multiparous cows (P < 0.05). Estradiol administration improved estrus detection rate and fertility (P < 0.05); moreover, it increased secondary sex ratio (adjusted odds ratio: 1.645; P = 0.017). Exposure to heat stress diminished heat detection rate and fertility (P < 0.05), and altered secondary sex ratio toward males (adjusted odds ratio: 2.863; P = 0.012). In conclusion, the present study revealed that estradiol administration before insemination could improve fertility and increase the probability of calves being male in Holstein dairy cows. Moreover, the results showed that cows exposed to heat stress around

  14. Effects of day of gestation and feeding regimen in Holstein × Gyr cows: III. Placental adaptations and placentome gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rotta, P P; Valadares Filho, S C; Gionbelli, T R S; Costa E Silva, L F; Engle, T E; Marcondes, M I; Guimarães, S E F; Nascimento, C S; Carvalho, B C; Silva, F A S; Oliveira, J R S

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of day of gestation (DG) and feeding regimens (FR) on the expression of genes responsible for placenta development, nutrient transfer, and angiogenic factors in Holstein × Gyr cows. Forty pregnant multiparous Holstein × Gyr cows with an average initial body weight of 482±10.8kg and an initial age of 5±0.8 yr were allocated to 1 of 2 FR: ad libitum (AL; n=20) or maintenance level (ML; n=20). Maintenance level was considered to be 1.15% of body weight (dry matter basis) and met 100% of the net energy requirements and AL provided 190% of the total net energy requirements. Cows were slaughtered at 4 DG: 139, 199, 241, and 268d. After the cows were slaughtered, the placenta and uterus were separated and weighed. Caruncles and cotyledons were individually separated, counted, and weighed. Placenta expressed as kilograms and grams per kilogram of empty body weight (EBW) was heavier in ML- than in AL-fed cows at 268d of gestation. Placenta expressed as kilograms and grams per kilogram of EBW was the lightest at 139d of gestation, and the greatest mass was observed at 268d in ML-fed cows. However, in AL-fed cows, the heaviest placenta expressed as grams per kilogram of EBW was observed from 199d of gestation. Placentomes expressed as grams per kilogram of EBW were heavier in ML-fed cows during gestation, and the number of placentomes was greater in ML-fed cows at 268d of gestation. We observed that IGFR1 and IGFR2 were involved in placenta adaptations when ML was provided, as their expression in placentome cells was greater in ML-fed cows at 268d of gestation. The genes responsible for angiogenesis were also greater in ML-fed cows: VEGFA, GUCY1B3, HIFA, FGF2, and NOS3 were altered by FR and DG interaction and they were greater in ML-fed cows at 268d of gestation. In addition, VEGFB and ANGPT2 did not show interactions between FR and DG, but they were greater in ML-fed cows. Thus, we suggest that the placenta from an ML-fed cow

  15. Evaluation of lower-starch diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dann, H M; Tucker, H A; Cotanch, K W; Krawczel, P D; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J; Eguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure ruminal and lactational responses of Holstein dairy cows fed diets containing 3 different starch levels: 17.7 (low; LS), 21.0 (medium; MS), or 24.6% (high; HS). Twelve multiparous cows (118 ± 5 d in milk) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. All diets were fed as total mixed rations and contained approximately 30.2% corn silage, 18.5% grass silage, and 5.0% chopped alfalfa hay. Dietary starch content was manipulated by increasing dry ground corn inclusion (% of dry matter) from 3.4 (LS) to 10.1 (MS) and 16.9 (HS) and decreasing inclusion of beet pulp and wheat middlings from 6.7 and 13.4 (LS) to 3.4 and 10.1 (MS) or 0 and 6.8 (HS). In vitro 6-h starch digestibility of the diet increased as nonforage sources of fiber replaced corn grain (% of dry matter; 73.6, HS; 77.3, MS; 82.5, LS) resulting in rumen-fermentable starch content by 14.6, 16.2, and 18.1% for the LS, MS, and HS diets, respectively. Diets had similar neutral detergent fiber from forage and particle size distributions. Dry matter intake, solids-corrected milk yield, and efficiency of solids-corrected milk production were unaffected by diet, averaging 26.5 ± 0.8, 40.8 ± 1.6, and 1.54 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively. Reducing dietary starch did not affect chewing time (815 ± 23 min/d), mean ruminal pH over 24h (6.06 ± 0.12), acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.4 ± 0.3), or microbial N synthesized in the rumen (585 ± 24 g/d). Total tract organic matter digestibility was higher for HS compared with MS and LS diets (69.2, 67.3, and 67.0%, respectively), but crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch digestibilities were unaffected. As dietary starch content decreased, in vitro ruminal starch fermentability increased and, consequently, the range between HS and LS in rumen-fermentable starch (3.5 percentage units) was less than the range in starch content (6.9 percentage units

  16. Transcriptional Profiling of Ileocecal Valve of Holstein Dairy Cows Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Randy J.; Bannantine, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Johne’s disease is a chronic infection of the small intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), an intracellular bacterium. The events of pathogen survival within the host cell(s), chronic inflammation and the progression from asymptomatic subclinical stage to an advanced clinical stage of infection, are poorly understood. This study examines gene expression in the ileocecal valve (ICV) of Holstein dairy cows at different stages of MAP infection. The ICV is known to be a primary site of MAP colonization and provides an ideal location to identify genes that are relevant to the progression of this disease. RNA was prepared from ICV tissues and RNA-Seq was used to compare gene transcription between clinical, subclinical, and uninfected control animals. Interpretation of the gene expression data was performed using pathway analysis and gene ontology categories containing multiple differentially expressed genes. Results demonstrated that many of the pathways that had strong differential gene expression between uninfected control and clinical cows were related to the immune system, such as the T- and B-cell receptor signaling, apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling, and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways. In contrast, the comparison of gene transcription between control and subclinical cows identified pathways that were primarily involved in metabolism. The results from the comparison between clinical and subclinical animals indicate recruitment of neutrophils, up regulation of lysosomal peptidases, increase in immune cell transendothelial migration, and modifications of the extracelluar matrix. This study provides important insight into how cattle respond to a natural MAP infection at the gene transcription level within a key target tissue for infection. PMID:27093613

  17. Genome-wide association study for host response to bovine leukemia virus in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Brym, P; Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Oleński, K; Hering, D M; Ruść, A; Kaczmarczyk, E; Kamiński, S

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and the processes underlying the phenomenon of differential host response to BLV infection still remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to screen the entire cattle genome to identify markers and candidate genes that might be involved in host response to bovine leukemia virus infection. A genome-wide association study was performed using Holstein cows naturally infected by BLV. A data set included 43 cows (BLV positive) and 30 cows (BLV negative) genotyped for 54,609 SNP markers (Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip). The BLV status of cows was determined by serum ELISA, nested-PCR and hematological counts. Linear Regression Analysis with a False Discovery Rate and kinship matrix (computed on the autosomal SNPs) was calculated to find out which SNP markers significantly differentiate BLV-positive and BLV-negative cows. Nine markers reached genome-wide significance. The most significant SNPs were located on chromosomes 23 (rs41583098), 3 (rs109405425, rs110785500) and 8 (rs43564499) in close vicinity of a patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1 (PNPLA1); adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit (AP4B1); tripartite motif-containing 45 (TRIM45) and cell division cycle associated 2 (CDCA2) genes, respectively. Furthermore, a list of 41 candidate genes was composed based on their proximity to significant markers (within a distance of ca. 1 Mb) and functional involvement in processes potentially underlying BLV-induced pathogenesis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that host response to BLV infection involves nine sub-regions of the cattle genome (represented by 9 SNP markers), containing many genes which, based on the literature, could be involved to enzootic bovine leukemia progression. New group of promising candidate genes associated with the host response to BLV infection were identified and could therefore be a target for future studies. The functions of candidate genes

  18. Effects of biotin supplementation on serum biotin levels and physical properties of samples of solar horn of Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Effects of dietary biotin supplementation on serum biotin levels and physical properties of sole horn of 40 Holstein cows were evaluated. The mean serum biotin level in biotin-supplemented cows after 10 mo of biotin supplementation (1163.2 ± 76.2 pg/mL) was significantly higher (P = 0.007) than that in control cows (382.0 ± 76.2 pg/mL). The sole horn of biotin-supplemented cows was significantly harder (P = 0.026) and had a significantly lower moisture content (P = 0.021) than that of control cows. No morphologic differences in horn tubules or intertubular horn were found between the biotin-supplemented and control cows. The total lipid content of sole horn was significantly higher (P = 0.030) in the biotin-supplemented cows than in the control cows. These results suggest that dietary biotin supplementation causes increases in serum biotin levels and changes in physical properties and fat content of sole horn. PMID:15188952

  19. Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, G. T.; Lima, L. S.; Schogor, A. L. B.; Romero, J. V.; De Marchi, F. E.; Grande, P. A.; Santos, N. W.; Santos, F. S.; Kazama, R.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk. PMID:25083104

  20. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds) silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h), after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h) while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds). Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P < 0.05). Cows with restricted access to silage had a higher percentage of difficult calvings (11 vs 7%, P < 0.001) and stillbirths (7 vs 5%, P < 0.05) compared to cows in the control group. The percentage of calvings at night was lower (13%) when access to silage was restricted for 10 h compared to 2, 4 or 6 h (22, 18, 25%, respectively) (P < 0.001). Calf sire breed, calf gender or cow parity did not influence time of calving. In conclusion, offering silage to pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows in the evening, after a period of restricted access, reduced the incidence of nighttime calvings, but increased the incidence of dystocia and stillbirth. PMID:21851689

  1. Effects of day of gestation and feeding regimen in Holstein × Gyr cows: II. Maternal and fetal visceral organ mass.

    PubMed

    Rotta, P P; Filho, S C Valadares; Gionbelli, T R S; Costa E Silva, L F; Engle, T E; Marcondes, M I; Campos, M M; Menezes, A C B; Lobo, A A G

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of day of gestation (DG) and feeding regimens (FR) on maternal and fetal visceral organ mass in Holstein × Gyr cows. Forty-four pregnant multiparous Holstein × Gyr cows with an average initial body weight of 480±10.1 kg and an average initial age of 5±0.5 yr were allocated to 1 of 2 FR: ad libitum (AL; n=20) or maintenance level (ML; n=24). Maintenance level was considered to be 1.15% of body weight (dry matter basis) and met 100% of the energy requirements; AL provided 190% of the total net energy requirements. Cows were individually fed a corn silage and concentrate-based diet composed of 93% roughage and 7% concentrate (dry matter basis) as a total mixed ration twice daily. Pregnant cows were slaughtered at 4 DG: 139 (n=11), 199 (n=11), 241 (n=11), and 268 (n=11) d, which was followed by necropsy. Mass of heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract was heavier in AL- than in ML-fed cows. Mammary gland mass was heavier in AL- than in ML-fed cows, and the heaviest mass was observed at 268 d of gestation. Feeding regimen did not influence fetal body weight in this study. The majority of the visceral organ masses were similar in fetuses from cows fed AL or ML. These data indicate that maternal feed restriction does not affect the development of most fetal organs or fetal development; however, some maternal organs are affected by the FR provided. Moreover, the negative effect on mammary gland mass caused by ML feeding will probably not affect the subsequent lactation because the crude protein concentration in the mammary gland increased with ML feeding. However, we suggest that the AL diet in pregnant dry cows should be provided with caution because the amount of fat in the mammary gland increased at 268 d of gestation. PMID:25726105

  2. Cerebellar Disease in an Adult Cow

    PubMed Central

    Oz, H. H.; Nicholson, S. S.; Al-Bagdadi, F. K.; Zeman, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    This is the report of clinical signs and lesions of a cerebellar disorder in an adult four year old Limousin cow grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The most striking histopathological lesion was a marked paucity of Purkinje cells throughout the cerebellum. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422607

  3. Fitting mathematical models to lactation curves from Holstein cows in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Abílio G T; Henrique, Douglas S; Vieira, Ricardo A M; Maeda, Emilyn M; Valotto, Altair A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH)". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six), and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100%) corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood) whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott). The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana. PMID:25806994

  4. Associations between lameness and production, feeding and milking attendance of Holstein cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Dinarés, Martí; Devant, Maria; Carré, Xavier

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-5) by the same observer. Individual eating behaviour and individual feed consumption at each cow visit to the feed troughs, individual milk production, the time of milking, and the number of milkings for each cow were recorded for the day of locomotion scoring and the day before and after. Dependent variables, such as milk yield, DMI, etc. were modelled using a mixed-effects model with parity, LCS, days in milk (DIM), the exponential of -0.05 DIM, and the interaction between parity and LCS, as fixed effects and random intercepts and random slopes for the linear and the exponential of -0.05DIM effects within cow. LCS did not affect time of attendance at feed troughs, but affected the location that cows occupied in the feed troughs. The time devoted to eating and DMI decreased with increasing LCS. Milk production decreased with LCS>3. The number of daily visits to the AMS also decreased with increasing LCS. The cows with high LCS were fetched more often than the cows with low LCS. Overall, PP cows were more sensitive to the effects of increasing LCS than were MP cows. The decrease in milk production observed with increasing LCS seemed to be affected similarly by the decrease in DMI and by the decrease in number of daily visits to the AMS. A further economic loss generated by lame cows with AMS will be associated with the additional labour needed to fetch them. PMID:16978436

  5. Evaluation of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune responses of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established...

  6. Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with daughter pregnancy rate for prediction of genetic merit for reproduction in Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated 69 SNPs in genes previously related to fertility and production traits for relationship to daughter pregnancy rate (DPR), cow conception rate (CCR) and heifer conception rate (HCR) in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped according to their predicted transmitting ability for DP...

  7. Accuracy of direct genomic values in Holstein bulls and cows using subsets of SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background At the current price, the use of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping assays in genomic selection of dairy cattle is limited to applications involving elite sires and dams. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of low-density assays to predict direct genomic value (DGV) on five milk production traits, an overall conformation trait, a survival index, and two profit index traits (APR, ASI). Methods Dense SNP genotypes were available for 42,576 SNP for 2,114 Holstein bulls and 510 cows. A subset of 1,847 bulls born between 1955 and 2004 was used as a training set to fit models with various sets of pre-selected SNP. A group of 297 bulls born between 2001 and 2004 and all cows born between 1992 and 2004 were used to evaluate the accuracy of DGV prediction. Ridge regression (RR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were used to derive prediction equations and to rank SNP based on the absolute value of the regression coefficients. Four alternative strategies were applied to select subset of SNP, namely: subsets of the highest ranked SNP for each individual trait, or a single subset of evenly spaced SNP, where SNP were selected based on their rank for ASI, APR or minor allele frequency within intervals of approximately equal length. Results RR and PLSR performed very similarly to predict DGV, with PLSR performing better for low-density assays and RR for higher-density SNP sets. When using all SNP, DGV predictions for production traits, which have a higher heritability, were more accurate (0.52-0.64) than for survival (0.19-0.20), which has a low heritability. The gain in accuracy using subsets that included the highest ranked SNP for each trait was marginal (5-6%) over a common set of evenly spaced SNP when at least 3,000 SNP were used. Subsets containing 3,000 SNP provided more than 90% of the accuracy that could be achieved with a high-density assay for cows, and 80% of the high-density assay for young bulls

  8. Wheat grain as a prepartal cereal choice to ease metabolic transition from gestation into lactation in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Amanlou, H; Zahmatkesh, D; Nikkhah, A

    2008-10-01

    Wheat grain (WG) is a unique cereal rich in easily fermentable starch and low in cation-anion difference (e.g. 5.3 mEq/100 g). The controlled prepartal dietary inclusion of WG, thus, has the potential to ease adapting the rumen microbes and papillae to the high-starch lactation diets, stimulate feed intake, reduce hypocalcaemia by reducing extracellular alkalinity and a moderate induction of bone resorption, and improve milk yield in periparturient cows. The primary objective was to determine the effects of prepartal feeding of WG compared to barley grain plus wheat bran on metabolic and productive criteria in periparturient Holstein cows. Twenty-four dry cows and 16 pregnant heifers were blocked based on parity and projected calving date and fed a prepartal diet containing either (i) ground WG (18% on a dry matter basis) or (ii) a conventional diet with ground barley grain and wheat bran or control diet, from 28-day prepartum until parturition. All cows were fed the control diet during 21-day postpartum. Prepartal dietary inclusion of WG increased prepartum feed intake, elevated blood glucose and attenuated hypocalcaemia at 7-day prepartum and 1-day postpartum, reduced urine pH, and increased milk fat percent and yield. Blood proteins at 7-day prepartum were higher and placenta tended to be expelled sooner in WG-fed cows than in other cows. Treatments did not affect milk protein, changes in body condition score; total time spent eating, ruminating and chewing; blood levels of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, and phosphorous, fecal pH, and calving difficulty. Therefore, the prepartal dietary use of WG proved effective in the simultaneous improvement of calcium and energy states, and thereby, in easing the metabolic transition from gestation into lactation in Holstein cows. PMID:19012605

  9. Associations of selected bedding types with incidence rates of subclinical and clinical mastitis in primiparous Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this observational study was to determine the association of exposure to selected bedding types with incidence of subclinical (SM) and clinical mastitis (CM) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows housed in identical pens at a single facility. At parturition, primiparous cows were randomly assigned to pens containing freestalls with 1 of 4 bedding materials: (1) deep-bedded new sand (NES, n=27 cows), (2) deep-bedded recycled sand (RS, n=25 cows), (3) deep-bedded manure solids (DBMS, n=31 cows), and (4) shallow-bedded manure solids over foam-core mattresses (SBMS, n=26 cows). For 12mo, somatic cell counts of quarter milk samples were determined every 28d and duplicate quarter milk samples were collected for microbiological analysis from all quarters with SM (defined as somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL). During this period, duplicate quarter milk samples were also collected for microbial analysis from all cases of CM. For an additional 16mo, cases of CM were recorded; however, no samples were collected. Quarter days at risk (62,980) were distributed among bedding types and most quarters were enrolled for >150d. Of 135 cases of SM, 63% resulted in nonsignificant growth and 87% of recovered pathogens (n=33) were identified as coagulase-negative staphylococci. The distribution of etiologies of pathogens recovered from cases of SM was associated with bedding type. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were recovered from 12, 38, 11, and 46% of quarters with SM from cows in pens containing NES, RS, DBMS, and SBMS, respectively. A result of nonsignificant growth was obtained for 81, 59, 89, and 46% of quarters with SM from cows in pens containing NES, RS, DBMS, and SBMS, respectively. Quarters of primiparous cows bedded with NES tended to have greater survival time to incidence of CM than quarters of primiparous cows bedded with RS or DBMS. PMID:27060828

  10. Comparison of maintenance energy requirement and energetic efficiency between lactating Holstein-Friesian and other groups of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Yan, T; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of cow group on energy expenditure and utilization efficiency. Data used were collated from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken from 1992 to 2010, with 823 observations from lactating Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and 112 observations from other groups of lactating cows including Norwegian (n=50), Jersey × HF (n=46), and Norwegian × HF (n=16) cows. The metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) for individual cows was calculated from heat production (HP) minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention, and pregnancy. The efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. The effects of cow groups were first evaluated using Norwegian cows against HF crossbred cows (F1 hybrid, Jersey × HF and Norwegian × HF). The results indicated no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ per kg of metabolic body weight, MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl. Consequently, their data were combined (categorized as non-HF cows) and used to compare with those of HF cows. Again, we detected no significant difference in energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl between non-HF and HF cows. The effects were further evaluated using linear regression to examine whether any significant differences existed between HF and non-HF cows in terms of relationships between ME intake and energetic parameters. With a common constant, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups of cows in coefficients in each set of relationships between ME intake (MJ/kg(0.75)) and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), El(0) (MJ/kg(0.75)), HP (MJ/kg(0.75)), MEm:ME intake, El(0):ME intake, or HP:ME intake. However, MEm values (MJ/kg(0.75)) were positively related to ME

  11. Prepartum dietary energy intake affects metabolism and health during the periparturient period in primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Janovick, N A; Boisclair, Y R; Drackley, J K

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of prepartum plane of energy intake on metabolic profiles related to lipid metabolism and health in blood and liver. Primiparous (n=24) and multiparous (n=23) Holsteins were randomly assigned by expected date of parturition to 1 of 3 prepartum energy intakes. A high energy diet [1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE(L))/kg; 15% crude protein] was fed for either ad libitum intake or restricted intake to supply 150% (OVR) or 80% (RES) of energy requirements for dry cows in late gestation. To limit energy intake to 100% of National Research Council requirements at ad libitum intake, chopped wheat straw was included as 31.8% of dry matter for a control diet (CON; 1.21 Mcal of NE(L)/kg of dry matter; 14.2% crude protein). Regardless of parity group, OVR cows had greater concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in blood prepartum compared with either CON or RES cows; however, dietary effects did not carry over to the postpartum period. Prepartum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were lower in OVR cows compared with either CON or RES cows. Postpartum, however, OVR cows had evidence of greater mobilization of triacylglycerol (TAG) from adipose tissue as NEFA were higher than in CON or RES cows, especially within the first 10 d postpartum. Prepartum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was not affected by diet before parturition; however, within the first 10 d postpartum, OVR cows had greater BHBA than CON or RES cows. Prepartum diet did not affect liver composition prepartum; however, OVR cows had greater total lipid and TAG concentrations and lower glycogen postpartum than CON or RES cows. Frequency of ketosis and displaced abomasum was greater for OVR cows compared with CON or RES cows postpartum. Controlling or restricting prepartum energy intake yielded metabolic results that were strikingly similar both prepartum and postpartum, independent of parity group. The use of a bulky diet controlled prepartum energy intake in

  12. Supplementing Holstein cows with low doses of bovine somatotropin prepartum and postpartum reduces calving-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Gulay, M S; Liboni, M; Hayen, M J; Head, H H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether supplementing Holstein cows with bovine somatotropin (bST; 142.8 mg/14 d), beginning at 21 d (+/-3 d) before expected calving and continuing through 42 d in milk (+/-3 d), affected the incidence rates of retained fetal membranes (RFM), metritis (MET), clinical mastitis (MAS), digestive problems (DIG), ketosis (KET), milk fever (MF), displaced abomasum (DA, left or right), lameness (LAM), or number of sick cows during the first 60 d in milk. Data for multiparous Holstein cows from 3 separate trials were merged for analyses (n = 437). Cows in the bST-supplemented group (n = 162) received biweekly subcutaneous injections of Posilac, whereas control cows (n = 166) and a group of cohorts (n = 109) were not supplemented. Incidences of disease were collected from the herd health records. Across all treatment groups, the incidence rates (number of diseased cows divided by the total number of cows) for RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM were 8.47, 18.31, 16.02, 4.35, 4.35, 3.66, 3.20, and 3.66%, respectively. The incidence rates of RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM for cows in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 6.79, 7.83, and 11.93%; 16.05, 7.47, and 22.94%; 10.49, 18.07, and 21.10%; 1.23, 5.42, and 7.34%; 1.23, 6.02, and 6.42%; 2.47, 4.22, and 4.59%; 2.47, 3.61, and 3.67%; and 3.70, 3.61, and 3.67%, respectively. The percentages of sick cows (number of cows having one or more cases of disease divided by the total number of cows) in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 33.95, 43.37, and 49.54%, respectively. Significant chi-squared values were detected between the bST-supplemented and control groups for MAS, DIG, and KET, with a greater number of healthy cows in the bST-supplemented group. No differences in incidences of diseases or sick cows were detected between the control and cohort groups. Results indicated that a low dose of bST supplemented to Holstein cows for 3 wk

  13. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  14. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  15. Isolation and biochemical characterization of two lipases from a metagenomic library of China Holstein cow rumen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kailang; Wang, Jiaqi; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Shengguo; McSweeney, Chris; Yu, Ping; Li, Dan

    2009-08-01

    Two novel lipase genes RlipE1 and RlipE2 which encoded 361- and 265-amino acid peptides, respectively, were recovered from a metagenomic library of the rumen microbiota of Chinese Holstein cows. A BLAST search revealed a high similarity (90%) between RlipE2 and a carboxylesterase from Thermosinus carboxydivorans Nor1, while there was a low similarity (below 50%) between RlipE1 and other lipases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that RlipE2 clustered with the lipolytic enzymes from family V while RlipE1 clustered with six other putative bacterial lipases which might constitute a new subfamily. The recombinant lipases were thermally unstable and retained 60% activity over a pH range of 6.5-8.5. Substrate specificity assay indicated that both enzymes had higher hydrolytic activity toward laurate (C(12)), palmitate (C(16)) and stearate (C(18)). The novel phylogenetic affiliation and high specificity of both enzymes for long-chain fatty acid make them interesting targets for manipulation of rumen lipid metabolism. PMID:19486892

  16. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: II. Ovarian follicular and corpus luteum dynamics, reproductive hormones, and estrus behavior.

    PubMed

    Cummins, S B; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Butler, S T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the estrous cycle of cows with similar proportions of Holstein genetics, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but with good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits. In total, 37 lactating cows were enrolled on a protocol to synchronize estrus. Nineteen Fert+ and 12 Fert- cows that successfully ovulated a dominant follicle and established a corpus luteum underwent daily transrectal ultrasonography. Blood sampling was carried out at 8-h intervals from d 0 to 6 and from d 15 to ovulation, and once daily from d 7 to 15. Blood samples were analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Estrus behavior was recorded using neck activity collars and mounting pads. The Fert+ cows tended to have fewer follicular waves (2.2 vs. 2.7) and had a shorter estrous cycle (21.0 vs. 25.1 d) than Fert- cows. We observed no effect of genotype on day of first-wave emergence or day of first-wave dominant follicle peak diameter, but the peak diameter of the first-wave dominant follicle tended to be larger in Fert- cows. During the first 13 d of the cycle, Fert+ cows developed a corpus luteum that was 16% larger than that in Fert- cows. Circulating progesterone concentrations were 34% greater in Fert+ than in Fert- cows (5.15 vs. 3.84ng/mL, respectively) from d 5 to 13. During the final follicular wave, the interval from preovulatory follicle emergence to ovulation and the interval from preovulatory follicle dominance to ovulation were similar in both genotypes. Maximum preovulatory follicle diameter was larger in Fert+ than Fert- cows (17.9 vs. 16.8mm, respectively); however, circulating concentrations of estradiol were not different between genotypes. A greater proportion of Fert- cows ovulated to a silent heat than Fert+ cows (22 vs. 2%, respectively). Of cows that showed behavioral estrus, Fert+ cows had 41% greater mean activity count; however, no difference was

  17. Fingerprinting of gelatinase subtypes for different topographic regions on non-retaining placenta of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Piamya, P; Tiantong, A; Chen, S-E; Liu, W-B; Yu, C; Nagahata, H; Chang, C-J

    2015-03-01

    The contribution of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) to timely discharge of the placenta from bovine uterus at parturition is yet inconclusive, partly because of the presence of multiple MMP forms in situ. In the current study, the expression of different gelatinase subtypes on non-retaining placentas of Holstein cows was fingerprinted by using gelatin zymography. Different topographic regions on the placenta were measured separately, including the placentome-like structure and the fetal and maternal sides of interplacentomal placenta, all sampled from the central and peripheral areas of the placenta, respectively. The spontaneously ruptured umbilical cords were cross-sectioned as fetus end, middle and placenta end also for separate measurement. Body fluids including blood samples from the parturient cows, their neonatal calves and umbilical cord, as well as fetal fluids and the first colostrum were measured concomitantly. Results showed multiple forms of gelatinases subtypes in the placenta tissues and body fluids, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)-MMP-9 complex, both the latent and active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9; of them, the latent forms were much more abundantly and frequently expressed than the active forms. NGAL-MMP-9 complex was more prevalently present in the body fluids than in the placenta tissues. No distinguishable pattern of the expression of any gelatinase subtype was observed among the placentome-like structure, interplacentomal placenta and umbilical cord, or between fetal and maternal sides. Nonetheless, for interplacentomal placenta, proMMP-9 expression was higher in the central than in the peripheral area. In addition, proMMP-2 expression was higher in the rupture end (fetus end) than the placenta end of the umbilical cord. In conclusion, the current validated gelatin zymography detected a gradient proMMP-9 expression on the non-retaining placenta of cows in reverse to the proximity to the umbilical insertion point, and

  18. Fertility in Holstein x Gyr cows in a subtropical environment after insemination with Gyr sex-sorted semen.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Coronel, Francisco; Estrada, Alfredo; Ríos, Francisco G

    2010-10-01

    Breeding records, including 649 inseminations during fall and winter at a dairy farm in a subtropical area of Western Mexico (24 masculine N; 24 degrees C, mean annual temperature 24 degrees C) were analyzed to document effects of sex-sorted semen from commercial Gyr bullls, estrus synchronization protocol, inseminator, sire and environmental conditions on fertility of crossbred cows (Holstein x Gyr). Percentage of services resulting in pregnancies decreased sharply when sex-sorted semen was used (22.7 vs. 37.7%; P < 0.01). Although statistically not significant (P = 0.31), cows whose first insemination was in November experienced a numerically greater reduction (21 percentage points) in pregnancy rate compared to cows whose first insemination occurred in December. Substantial increases in services per pregnancy (4.71 +/- 1.35 vs. 2.13-2.43; P < 0.01) were associated with the warmer month of the study period, November, compared to other winter months. Pregnancy rates of cows regardless of semen category (33%) were not affected by sire, temperature-humidity index and estrus synchronization protocol. Cows inseminated by one inseminator had higher pregnancy rates (P < 0.01) than cows inseminated by other two technicians. The sorted sperm produced 91% (142/156) female offspring. It was concluded that, under the field conditions of the present study, pregnancy rate with sexed semen was 15 percentage points lower than pregnancy rates using conventional semen, with 91% of female calves derived from sexed sperm. PMID:20407825

  19. Differences in the Rumen Methanogen Populations of Lactating Jersey and Holstein Dairy Cows under the Same Diet Regimen▿†

    PubMed Central

    King, Erin E.; Smith, Rachel P.; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2011-01-01

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

  20. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  1. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  2. Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55 d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90 d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination

  3. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  4. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. PMID:27132092

  5. Associations of subclinical hypocalcemia at calving with milk yield, and feeding, drinking, and standing behaviors around parturition in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jawor, P E; Huzzey, J M; LeBlanc, S J; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations of subclinical hypocalcemia with milk yield, and feeding, drinking, and resting behavior during the period around calving. Blood was sampled within 24h of calving and analyzed for serum total calcium. Fifteen Holstein dairy cows were classified as having subclinical hypocalcemia (serum calcium concentration ≤ 1.8 mmol/L, without clinical milk fever) and were matched with 15 control cows (serum calcium concentration >1.8 mmol/L) based on parity and presence of other diseases. Daily feeding and drinking behavior were monitored using an electronic feeding system (Insentec, BV, Marknesse, the Netherlands) and summarized by week relative to calving (wk -3, -2, -1, +1, +2, and +3). Standing behavior was monitored from 7 d before until 7 d after calving using dataloggers. Daily milk yields were obtained for all cows up to 280 d in milk (DIM). These data were summarized by week for the first 4 wk of lactation to assess short-term differences in milk yield, and were summarized into 4-wk periods to assess long-term (280 DIM) differences in milk yield between groups. Cows with subclinical hypocalcemia produced, on average, 5.7 kg/d more milk during wk 2, 3, and 4 compared with control cows; however, only subclinically hypocalcemic cows in their third lactation sustained greater milk yields throughout 280 DIM. Despite greater milk yield during the weeks following calving, cows with subclinical hypocalcemia did not consume more water after calving and tended to have greater dry matter intake only during wk 2. However, these animals made fewer visits to the water bins during the first 2 wk after calving and tended to make fewer visits to the feed bins during wk 1 and 3, suggesting that they used these resources more efficiently. Dry matter intake was, on average, 1.7 kg/d greater during wk -2 and -1 among cows subsequently diagnosed with subclinical hypocalcemia compared with control cows but neither group was

  6. Immune responses in lactating Holstein cows supplemented with Cu, Mn, and Zn as sulfates or methionine hydroxy analogue chelates.

    PubMed

    Nemec, L M; Richards, J D; Atwell, C A; Diaz, D E; Zanton, G I; Gressley, T F

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare effects of inorganic sulfate versus chelated forms of supplemental Cu, Mn, and Zn on milk production, plasma and milk mineral concentrations, neutrophil activity, and antibody titer response to a model vaccination. Holstein cows (n=25) were assigned in 2 cohorts based on calving date to a 12-wk randomized complete block design study. The first cohort consisted of 17 cows that had greater days in milk (DIM; mean of 77 DIM at the start of the trial) than the second cohort of 8 cows (32 DIM at the start of the trial). Diets were formulated to supplement 100% of National Research Council requirements of Cu, Mn, and Zn by either inorganic trace minerals (ITM) in sulfate forms or chelated trace minerals (CTM) supplied as metal methionine hydroxy analog chelates, without accounting for trace mineral contribution from other dietary ingredients. Intake and milk production were recorded daily. Milk composition was measured weekly, and milk Cu, Mn, and Zn were determined at wk 0 and 8. Plasma Cu and Zn concentrations and neutrophil activity were measured at wk 0, 4, 8, and 12. Neutrophil activity was measured by in vitro assays of chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species production. A rabies vaccination was administered at wk 8, and vaccine titer response at wk 12 was measured by both rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and ELISA. Analyzed dietary Cu was 21 and 23mg/kg, Mn was 42 and 46mg/kg, and Zn was 73 and 94mg/kg for the ITM and CTM diets, respectively. No effect of treatment was observed on milk production, milk composition, or plasma minerals. Dry matter intake was reduced for CTM compared with ITM cows, but this was largely explained by differences in body weight between treatments. Milk Cu concentration was greater for CTM than ITM cows, but this effect was limited to the earlier DIM cohort of cows and was most pronounced for multiparous compared with primiparous cows. Measures of neutrophil function were

  7. Effects of chelated Zn/Cu/Mn on redox status, immune responses and hoof health in lactating Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue-Jun; Li, Zhong-Peng; Wang, Jun-Hong; Xing, Xiang-Ming; Wang, Zhen-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of chelated Zn/Cu/Mn on redox status, immune responses and hoof health in lactating Holstein cows, 48 head in early lactation were divided into healthy or lame groups according to their gait score. Cows were fed the same amount of Zn/Cu/Mn as sulfate salts or in chelated forms for 180 days, and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine was injected at day 90. The results showed that lame cows had lower antioxidant function, serum Zn/Mn levels, hair Cu levels, and hoof hardness. Moreover, increased antioxidant status, FMD antibody titers, serum and hair levels of Zn/Cu/Mn, and hoof hardness and decreased milk fat percent and arthritis biomarkers were observed in cows fed chelated Zn/Cu/Mn. In summary, supplementation with chelated Zn/Cu/Mn improved antioxidant status and immune responses, reduced arthritis biomarkers, and increased accumulation of Zn/Cu/Mn in the body and hoof hardness in dairy cows. PMID:26040614

  8. Investigating associations between milk metabolite profiles and milk traits of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Melzer, N; Wittenburg, D; Hartwig, S; Jakubowski, S; Kesting, U; Willmitzer, L; Lisec, J; Reinsch, N; Repsilber, D

    2013-03-01

    In the field of dairy cattle research, it is of great interest to improve the detection and prevention of diseases (e.g., mastitis and ketosis) and monitor specific traits related to the state of health and management. During the standard milk performance test, traditional milk traits are monitored, and quality and quantity are screened. In addition to the standard test, it is also now possible to analyze milk metabolites in a high-throughput manner and to consider them in connection with milk traits to identify functionally important metabolites that can also serve as biomarker candidates. We present a study in which 190 milk metabolites and 14 milk traits of 1,305 Holstein cows on 18 commercial farms were investigated to characterize interrelations of milk metabolites between each other, to milk traits from the milk standard performance test, and to influencing factors such as farm and sire effect (half-sib structure). The effect of influencing factors (e.g., farm) varied among metabolites and traditional milk traits. The investigations of associations between metabolites and milk traits revealed groups of metabolites that show, for example, positive correlations to protein and casein, and negative correlations to lactose and pH. On the other hand, groups of metabolites jointly associated with the investigated milk traits can be identified and functionally discussed. To enable a multivariate investigation, 2 machine learning methods were applied to detect important metabolites that are highly correlated with the investigated traditional milk traits. For somatic cell score, uracil, lactic acid, and 9 other important metabolites were detected. Lactic acid has already been proposed as a biomarker candidate for mastitis in the recent literature. In conclusion, we found sets of metabolites eligible to predict milk traits, enabling the analysis of milk traits from a metabolic perspective and discussion of the possible functional background for some of the detected

  9. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05). The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05). The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP) (r=0.37, p < 0.05) and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry. PMID:25653772

  10. Ventral laparoscopic abomasopexy on adult cows

    PubMed Central

    Desrochers, André; Bouré, Ludovic; Hélie, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Displacement of the abomasum is frequently diagnosed by veterinarians in bovine practice and numerous surgical techniques have been developed to treat and prevent this condition. Complications secondary to those techniques are related to their degree of invasiveness and the development of postoperative wound infections. The objectives of this study were to describe a safe and reliable abomasopexy technique by laparoscopy and to assess postoperative adhesion formation. A ventral laparoscopic abomasopexy was performed on 10 adult dry cows. The abomasum was fixed with 4 simple interrupted sutures using USP 2 polydioxanone suture material. No major complications were encountered during the surgery. Abomasal adhesions were visually evaluated by laparoscopy 3 mo postoperatively. This technique proved to be simple and safe, and it provided adequate abomasum fixation in healthy dry cows. It could be used to surgically correct left displaced abomasum. PMID:16642872

  11. Ventral laparoscopic abomasopexy on adult cows.

    PubMed

    Babkine, Marie; Desrochers, André; Bouré, Ludovic; Hélie, Pierre

    2006-04-01

    Displacement of the abomasum is frequently diagnosed by veterinarians in bovine practice and numerous surgical techniques have been developed to treat and prevent this condition. Complications secondary to those techniques are related to their degree of invasiveness and the development of postoperative wound infections. The objectives of this study were to describe a safe and reliable abomasopexy technique by laparoscopy and to assess postoperative adhesion formation. A ventral laparoscopic abomasopexy was performed on 10 adult dry cows. The abomasum was fixed with 4 simple interrupted sutures using USP 2 polydioxanone suture material. No major complications were encountered during the surgery. Abomasal adhesions were visually evaluated by laparoscopy 3 mo postoperatively. This technique proved to be simple and safe, and it provided adequate abomasum fixation in healthy dry cows. It could be used to surgically correct left displaced abomasum. PMID:16642872

  12. Relationships between conception rate in Holstein heifers and cows and milk yield at various stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, K; Terawaki, Y; Yamazaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Itoh, F; Yamaguchi, S; Abe, H; Gotoh, Y; Kawahara, T; Masuda, Y; Suzuki, M

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, -0.121 to -0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period. PMID:23597286

  13. Behavioral observations of adolescent Holstein heifers cloned from adult somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Savage, Amy F; Maull, John; Tian, X Cindy; Taneja, Maneesh; Katz, Larry; Darre, Michael; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-10-01

    Cloning using somatic cells offers many potential applications in biomedicine and basic research. The objective of this study was to test whether clones from the same genotype can be used as models to study the genetic influences of behavior. Specifically, several aspects of the behavior of four prepubertal heifers cloned from somatic cells of a 13-year-old Holstein cow along with age-matched control heifers were compared to determine whether juvenile clones from an aged adult behave similarly to their age-matched controls, and whether clones with identical genetic makeup exhibit any behavioral trends. Behavioral observations or behavior challenge tests were conducted to compare the following traits: vocalization, play behavior, movement frequencies, grooming, curiosity, and companion preference, as well as dominance and aggressiveness. From play behavior, movements and vocalization, we observed that these four juvenile clones of an aged genetic donor did not show behavioral indications of aging and were similar to their counterparts of comparable chronological age except that they tended to play less than controls. Behavioral trends were also observed in the clones that indicated that they exhibited higher levels of curiosity, more grooming activities and were more aggressive and dominant than controls. Furthermore, these four clones preferred each other or the donor as companions, which may indicate genetic kin recognition. PMID:12935849

  14. Repeated pericardiocentesis as palliative treatment for tamponade associated with cardiac lymphoma in a Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Buczinski, Sébastien; Boulay, Guillaume; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining a good quality of life for cows with cardiac manifestation of lymphoma may be valuable, especially in high-producing cows. This report describes the medical management of cardiac lymphoma in a cow by means of repeated pericardiocentesis. The cow survived for 34 days and was productive. PMID:22131585

  15. Climatic conditions, twining and frequency of milking as factors affecting the risk of fetal losses in high-yielding Holstein cows in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; López, Ricardo; de Santiago, Ángeles; Veliz, Francisco G; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; García, José Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of risk factors for fetal losses was carried out on 62,403 high-yielding Holstein cows in 29 large highly technified dairy herds in northern Mexico (25° N; 23.5 °C mean annual temperature). Multivariate multiple-group response model indicated that fetal losses between 43 and 260 days of pregnancy were 23 %. Heat-stressed cows at conception (temperature-humidity index, THI >82) were 14 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than not heat-stressed cows (27 vs. 18 %). Heat-stressed cows at 60 days of pregnancy (THI >82) were 4.5 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than cows suffering heat stress in early gestation (29.1 vs. 17.7 %). The proportion of cows experiencing fetal loss was lower for multiparous than primiparous cows (odds ratio; OR = 0.7). Cows with twin pregnancies had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows with a single fetus (33.6 vs. 20.7 %; P < 0.01). Cows with three milkings per day were 30 % more likely (P < 0.01) to lose their fetuses than cows milked twice daily. Cows calving in winter and spring had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows calving in summer and fall (30-35 vs. 4-5 %; P < 0.01). It was concluded that, in this particular environment, heat stress exert a great influence on fetal losses in high producing Holstein cows. PMID:27225752

  16. Effect of condensed corn distillers solubles concentration on lactation performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M E; Forbes, S; Moreira, V R; Blouin, D C; Han, K J

    2015-03-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows (32 multiparous and 16 primiparous) in mid to late lactation averaging 219±71 days in milk and 30.5±6.6 kg/d of 3.5% fat-corrected milk were used in a 56-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) inclusion in high-fiber total mixed rations (TMR). Inclusion rates evaluated were 0, 6.6, 13.2, and 19.8% CCDS as a percentage of dry matter (DM). Distiller solubles substituted for soybean meal, corn grain, and whole cottonseed such that diets were similar in protein (16.6%) and fat (4.50%). Water was added to 0, 6.6, and 13.2% CCDS treatments so that final TMR DM concentrations (47.8%) were similar across diets. The forage portion of the diet was kept constant at 19.6% annual ryegrass hay and 26.0% sorghum baleage. Diet in vitro true digestibility tended to increase as CCDS addition increased, but neutral detergent fiber digestibility trended lower in CCDS diets. Percent P (0.39, 0.55, 0.69, and 0.73%) and S (0.32, 0.35, 0.39, and 0.42%) in TMR increased as CCDS concentration increased. Milk yield (23.5, 24.7, 25.5, and 24.8 kg/d of 3.5% fat-corrected milk) was similar for control and CCDS diets. Milk fat (3.88, 3.73, 3.78, and 3.68%), protein (3.28, 3.27, 3.31, and 3.31%), and lactose (4.61, 4.66, 4.69, and 4.77) percentages were similar across diets. Milk urea nitrogen (16.60, 15.58, 15.43, and 14.75 mg/dL) declined with increasing CCDS addition. Animal activity, body weight, body condition scores, and locomotion scores were not influenced by CCDS. Day 28 poststudy locomotion scores were similar across diets. Ruminal acetate concentrations did not differ among diets, but propionate and butyrate concentrations were elevated in rumen fluid of cows receiving 19.6% CCDS. Although rumen fluid pH values were similar (6.5, 6.4, 6.3, and 6.2), the two highest CCDS diets exhibited depressed acetate:propionate ratios relative to controls. The results from this study indicate that CCDS may be

  17. Genomic signatures of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection in Holstein cattle has achieved tremendous phenotypic changes over the past 40 years. However, it is unknown how selection has changed the Holstein genome and how those genome signatures of selection are associated with the phenotypic changes. To categorize genome regions either affected o...

  18. The SLICK Locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to Intensively-Managed lactating Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SLICK haplotype in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally, identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine whether lactating Holsteins with the slick phenotype have superior ability for ...

  19. Effects of ruminal dosing of Holstein cows with Megasphaera elsdenii on milk fat production, ruminal chemistry, and bacterial strain persistence.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Da Silva Cabral, L; Cacite, F

    2015-11-01

    Megasphaera elsdenii is a lactate-utilizing bacterium whose ruminal abundance has been shown to be greatly elevated during milk fat depression (MFD). To further examine this association, a total of 23 cannulated multiparous Holstein cows were examined in 3 experiments in which strains of M. elsdenii were directly dosed into the rumen (~2 × 10(12) cells/dose); control cows were dosed with sterile lactate-free culture medium. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (292 g of starch/kg of dry matter) that contained primarily corn silage, alfalfa silage, finely ground high-moisture corn, supplemental protein, and corn oil (3 g/kg of dry matter). Experiments differed in stage of lactation of the cows (early or late), dosing events (single dose, or 4 doses over a 5-d period), timing of dose (prefeed or 4 h postfeed), and M. elsdenii strain (laboratory strain YI9 or 3 strains isolated from cows in the same herd). Dry matter intake and milk yield and composition were measured from 5 to 0 d before dosing and 1 to 7d after first dosing, plus later time points that varied by experiment. Milk yield and composition were not affected by dosing. Megasphaera elsdenii was quantified in the liquid phase of ruminal contents by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, or by PCR with relative quantification (M. elsdenii 16S rRNA gene copy number as a percentage of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies). Neither the M. elsdenii-dosed or control cows displayed MFD after dosing, and in almost all cases M. elsdenii populations returned to low baseline levels (<0.02% of 16S rRNA gene copy number) within 24 h of dosing. This rapid decline in M. elsdenii also occurred in several cows that were dosed with a strain of M. elsdenii that had been isolated from that particular cow during a previous bout of MFD. Ruminal pH and total millimolar volatile fatty acids and lactate did not differ between dosed and control cows, although acetate-to-propionate ratio declined in both groups and butyrate

  20. Effect of feeding calcareous marine algae to Holstein cows prepartum or postpartum on serum metabolites and performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Bernard, J K; Taylor, S J

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows and 12 springing heifers were used in a 9-wk randomized design trial to determine the response of cows fed calcareous marine algae (CMA) beginning 3wk prepartum or after parturition through 6wk postpartum on dry matter intake (DMI), blood and urine metabolites, and milk yield and composition. Within parity and expected calving date, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments with a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Prepartum diets were supplemented with calcium carbonate (CON) or 50g/d of CMA with a resulting dietary cation-anion difference of -5.17 and -3.99mEq/100g, respectively. Postpartum diets were formulated to provide either 317g/d of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate (NBC) or 100g/d of CMA, providing a dietary cation-anion difference of 35.58 and 15.64mEq/100g, based on 25kg/d of DMI, respectively. No differences were observed in prepartum DMI or postpartum DMI, milk yield, percentage of milk fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not fat among treatments. Milk protein yield was higher for cows fed CMA prepartum compared with CON. Interactions of prepartum treatment and week were observed for yield of milk fat and energy-corrected milk because of higher yields for cows fed CMA during wk 2 and 6 compared with CON. Serum Na concentrations were greater for cows fed CON prepartum or NBC postpartum compared with CMA. Postpartum urinary concentrations of Na exhibited an interaction among treatments and were higher for CON-NBC and CMA-NBC compared with CON-CMA and CMA-CMA. Similar interactions of treatments were also observed for serum urea N and creatinine postpartum. Postpartum urinary K concentrations were higher for cows fed CMA postpartum compared with NBC. Results of this trial indicate that feeding cows CMA prepartum does not affect DMI or serum metabolites prepartum, but does support higher milk protein yield. Performance and serum metabolite concentrations of cows fed CMA postpartum were comparable with that of cows

  1. Effect of summer conditions and shade on the production and metabolism of Holstein dairy cows on pasture in temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Moons, C P H; Vandaele, L

    2015-09-01

    For dairy cattle on pasture in temperate regions, it is largely unknown to what degree hot summer conditions impact energy metabolism, milk yield and milk composition and how effective shade is in reducing these negative effects. During the summer of 2012, a herd of Holstein cows was kept on pasture without access to shade (treatment NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013, the herd was divided into a group with (treatment S) and a group without (treatment NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees combined with shade cloths (80% reduction in solar radiation). A weather station registered the local climatic conditions on open pasture, from which we calculated daily average Heat Load Index (HLI) values. The effects of HLI and shade on rectal temperature (RT), blood plasma indicators of hyperventilation and metabolic changes due to heat stress, milk yield and milk composition were investigated. RT increased with increasing HLI, but was less for S cows than for NS cows (by 0.02°C and 0.03°C increase per unit increase of HLI, respectively). Hyperchloraemia (an increased blood plasma concentration of Cl-), a sign of hyperventilation, increased for NS cows but not for S cows. The plasma concentration of alkaline phosphatase, a regulator of energy metabolism in the liver, decreased with increasing HLI for NS cows only. Access to shade, thus, reduced the effect of HLI on RT, hyperchloraemia and the regulation of metabolism by the liver. As HLI increased, the plasma concentration of cholesterol decreased (indicating increased lipolysis) and the plasma concentration of creatinine increased (indicating increased protein catabolism). These effects did not differ between S and NS cows. For NS cows, after a lag-time of 2 days, the milk yield decreased with increasing HLI. For S cows, the milk yield was unaffected by HLI and its quadratic factor. The milk concentrations of lactose, protein and fat decreased as HLI increased, but only the effect on milk protein

  2. The effect of calving in the summer on the hepatic transcriptome of Holstein cows during the peripartal period.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, K; Akbar, H; Vailati-Riboni, M; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nardone, A; Bernabucci, U; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    The liver is the main metabolic organ coordinating the adaptations that take place during the peripartal period of dairy cows. A successful transition into lactation, rather than management practices alone, depends on environmental factors such as temperature, season of parturition, and photoperiod. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of calving season on the hepatic transcriptome of dairy cows during the transition period. A total of 12 Holstein dairy cows were assigned into 2 groups based on calving season (6 cows March-April, spring; 6 cows June-July, summer, SU). The RNA was extracted from liver samples obtained at -30, 3, and 35 DIM via percutaneous biopsy and hybridized to the Agilent 44K Bovine (V2) Gene Expression Microarray (Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA). A quantitative PCR on 22 target genes was performed to verify and expand the analyses. A total of 4,307 differentially expressed genes were detected (false discovery rate ≤0.05) in SU compared with spring. Furthermore, 73 unique differentially expressed genes were detected in SU compared with spring cows after applying a fold-change threshold ≥3 and ≤-3. For Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways analysis of differentially expressed genes, we used the dynamic impact approach. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software was used to analyze upstream transcription regulators and perform gene network analysis. Among metabolic pathways, energy metabolism from lipids, carbohydrates, and amino acids was strongly affected by calving in SU, with a reduced level of fatty acid synthesis, oxidation, re-esterification, and synthesis of lipoproteins, leading to hepatic lipidosis. Glycan-synthesis was downregulated in SU cows probably as a mechanism to counteract the progression of this lipidosis. In contrast, calving in the SU resulted in upregulation of gluconeogenesis but also greater use of glucose as an energy source. Among nonmetabolic pathways, the heat-shock response was obviously activated

  3. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites.

    PubMed

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam C; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Mogens; Larsen, Torben

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned to ruminal dosing of 500 g/d tap water (CON, n = 4) or 500 g/d PG (PPG, n = 5). The PG was given with the morning feeding week 1-4 postpartum (treatment period) and cows were further followed during week 5-8 postpartum (follow-up period). All cows were fed the same postpartum diet. Milk samples were obtained at each milking (3 times/d) in the treatment period, and at morning milking during the follow-up period. Weekly blood samples were obtained from -4 to +8 weeks relative to calving and daily blood samples from -7 until +7 d relative to calving. The main effect of PG allocation was an increased glucogenic status, e.g. visualised by a prompt marked increase in blood fructosamine. During the treatment period, milk concentration of free glucose tended to be greater, whereas milk concentrations of isocitrate and BHBA were lower for PPG compared with CON. It is proposed that the ratio between free glucose and isocitrate in milk may be a potential biomarker for glucogenic status in the vulnerable early postpartum period. We will pursue this issue in the future. PMID:27032705

  4. Regulation of lipid droplet-associated proteins following growth hormone administration and feed restriction in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Faylon, M P; Koltes, D E; Spurlock, D M

    2014-05-01

    Lipid metabolism plays a crucial role in the adaptation of dairy cows to periods of energy insufficiency. The objective of the current study was to determine if lipolytic proteins are consistently regulated when energy mobilization is stimulated by different factors. We evaluated 2 models of altered energy balance in mid-lactation Holstein cows, including feed restriction (FR) and administration of bovine growth hormone (GH), by quantifying the abundance and (or) phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), perilipin (PLIN), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). For GH administration, adipose tissue and blood samples were collected 4d before and 3 and 7d after administration of GH (n=20 cows). Similarly, adipose and blood samples were obtained 6d before and 1 and 4d after initiation of FR (n=18 cows). Estimated net energy balance decreased and nonesterified fatty acid concentration increased in both experimental models. Decreased ATGL and PLIN protein abundance was observed with GH administration and FR. Additionally, the abundance of phosphorylated HSLSer565 decreased in both models. Decreased abundance of phosphorylated PLIN was observed with GH administration, but not FR. Decreased ATGL protein abundance appears to be a consistent response to energy insufficiency in lactating cows, as this response was also described with negative energy balance at the onset of lactation. In contrast, the abundance of PLIN protein and phosphorylation of HSL using antibodies targeting serine residue 565 of HSL (HSLSer565) were altered in the current research, but not at the onset of lactation. Our findings demonstrate that lipolysis is altered through the regulation of multiple proteins, and that this regulation differs according to physiological state in lactating cows. PMID:24630665

  5. Serotonin receptor expression is dynamic in the liver during the transition period in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Hernandez, L L

    2015-04-01

    Nonneuronal serotonin (5-HT) participates in glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the actions of 5-HT in the liver during the transition period in dairy cattle. Here, we explore circulating patterns of 5-HT and characterize the hepatic 5-HT receptor and glucose transporter profiles around calving in multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 6, average lactation = 4 ± 1.9). Concentrations of serum 5-HT decreased on day -3 compared with -5 and -7 precalving (167.7 ± 80 vs 1511.1 ± 602 ng/mL). 5-HT nadir was on day -1 precalving and remained low postcalving (481.4 ± 49 ng/mL). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased precalving (P = 0.008) and were positively correlated with 5-HT during the precalving period (r = 0.55, P = 0.043). On day 1, postcalving hepatic messenger RNA expression of 5-HT1D, 2B, 3C, 6, and 7 receptors were decreased compared with day -7 (P < 0.048). The 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B decreased on day 7. The 5-HT2A increased on days 1 and 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05). The 5-HT1F and 5-HT1A receptors were increased 2.5- and 3.8-fold on day 7, respectively, compared with days -7 and 1 (P < 0.046). The 5-HT5A was not detected, and 5-HT4 was detected on days -7 and 1 only. Expression of Glut-2,-5 and SGLT1 were decreased on days 1 and 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05), whereas Glut-1 was increased on day 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that 5-HT could be important for liver glucose homeostasis possibly through receptor mediated signaling at specific times. Additional research is needed to further explore the functional role of these receptors in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. PMID:25528206

  6. X Chromosome SNPs Were Heavily Involved In Epistasis Effects Of Net Merit Component Traits In Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pairwise epistasis effects of net merit and its eight component traits were tested in 1654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows using the BovineSNP50 (45,878 SNPs). A large number of epistasis effects exceeded the genome-wide significance of 5% type-I error with the Bonferroni correction and a QTL map of...

  7. High Resolution QTL Map Of Body Conformation Traits From Genome-Wide Association Analysis In Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A QTL map of 1,005 SNP markers affecting 18 body conformation traits (top 100 effects per trait) was constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with the BovineSNP50 (45,878 SNPs). The top 100 effects for each trait explained 38-56% of t...

  8. Estimates of correlations among yield traits and somatic cell score with different models to adjust for bovine somatotropin effects on Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of Holstein cows from the Dairy Records Processing Center at Raleigh, NC were edited to obtain three data sets: 65,720 first, 50,694 second, and 65,445 later lactations. Correlations among yield traits (preadjusted to 305 days of lactation, mature equivalent, and twice a day milking) and som...

  9. High Resolution QTL Map Of Net Merit Component Traits And Calving Traits From Genome-Wide Association Analysis In Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A QTL map of 725 SNPs affecting 13 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait) was constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 13 traits were net merit (NM$), its 8 component traits and 4 calving traits. The top 100 ef...

  10. Effects of body condition score at calving on indicators of fat and protein mobilization of periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Pires, J A A; Delavaud, C; Faulconnier, Y; Pomiès, D; Chilliard, Y

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to study the effects of body condition score (BCS) at calving on dairy performance, indicators of fat and protein mobilization, and metabolic and hormonal profiles during the periparturient period of Holstein-Friesian cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows were classed according to their BCS (0 to 5 scale) before calving as low (BCS ≤ 2.5; n=9), medium (2.75 ≤ BCS ≤ 3.5; n=10), and high (BCS ≥ 3.75; n=9), corresponding to a mean of 2.33, 3.13, and 4.17 points of BCS, and preceding calving intervals of 362, 433, and 640 d, respectively. Cows received the same diets based on preserved grass to allow ad libitum feed intake throughout the study, and lactation diet contained 30% of concentrate (dry-matter basis). Measurements and sampling were performed between wk -4 and 7 relative to calving. No significant effects were observed of BCS group on dry matter intake (kg/d), milk yield, BCS loss, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. The high-BCS group had the lowest postpartum energy balance and the greatest plasma concentrations of leptin prepartum, nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum, insulin-like growth factor 1, and milk fat content. Milk fat yield was greater for the high- than the low-BCS group (1,681 vs. 1,417 g/d). Low-BCS cows had the greatest concentration of medium-chain fatty acids (e.g., sum of 10:0 to 15:0, and 16:0), and the lowest concentration and secretion of preformed fatty acids (e.g., cis-9 18:1) in milk fat. Milk protein secretion was lowest in the low-BCS group, averaging 924, 1,051, and 1,009 g/d for low-, medium-, and high-BCS groups, respectively. Plasma 3-methylhistidine was greater in wk 1 and 2 postpartum compared with other time points, indicating mobilization of muscle protein. Plasma creatinine tended to be lower and the 3-methylhistidine: creatinine ratio was greater in low- compared with medium- and high-BCS cows, suggesting less muscle mass but more intense mobilization of muscle

  11. Genetic parameters for digital dermatitis and correlations with locomotion, production, fertility traits, and longevity in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Onyiro, O M; Andrews, L J; Brotherstone, S

    2008-10-01

    Heritability of digital dermatitis (DD) and correlations between DD and type traits related to legs and feet were estimated from a linear animal model. Data comprised 93,391 national type evaluation records of pedigreed first-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows that calved from 2002 through 2006. At the time of classification, cows were housed in different housing systems (i.e., cubicles, straw yards, slatted or loafing yards) and on pasture. The type traits evaluated were locomotion score (LOCO), rear legs side view (RLS), foot angle (FA), bone quality and leg and feet composite (L&F). In addition, cows were examined for DD lesions at classification. The relationships among these type traits, lifespan (LS), production (milk and fat), fertility (calving interval and 56-d nonreturn) and DD were examined by estimating the approximate genetic correlations from sire estimated breeding values. The study also evaluated the association between DD and the housing systems as well as the general conditions of the farm flooring where classification took place. In general, cows on pasture were less susceptible to DD than cows in other housing systems, whereas the association between DD and the flooring conditions was counterintuitive. Heritability estimate for DD was 0.011 on the 0/1 scale, which is equivalent to 0.029 on the assumed underlying normally distributed scale. Bone quality, LOCO, and L&F had moderate to high negative genetic correlations with DD, indicating that flatter, more refined bones, higher LOCO, and better L&F were associated with less incidence of DD. The genetic correlations between DD, RLS, and FA were not significantly different from zero. Digital dermatitis had moderate but negative genetic correlations with LS and milk and fat, suggesting that breeding for resistance to DD will result in an increase in both longevity and production. Cows affected with DD had a slightly shorter calving interval than healthy cows, an association found to be mediated

  12. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  13. Liver condition of Holstein cows affects mitochondrial function and fertilization ability of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Hiroshi; TAKEO, Shun; ABE, Takahito; KIN, Airi; SHIRASUNA, Koumei; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; IWATA, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the fertilization ability and mitochondrial function of oocytes derived from cows with or without liver damage. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of cows with damaged livers (DL) and those of cows with healthy livers (HL), subjected to in vitro maturation, and fertilized in vitro. A significantly high abnormal fertilization rate was observed for oocytes from DL cows compared to oocytes from HL cows. The time to dissolve the zona pellucida by protease before fertilization was similar between the two liver conditions, whereas after fertilization treatment this time was shorter for DL cows than for HL cows. The percentage of oocytes with equivalent cortical granule distributions underneath the membrane was greater for in vitro matured oocytes from HL cows, whereas an immature distribution pattern was observed for oocytes from DL cows. In addition, a greater percentage of oocytes derived from HL cows released cortical granules following fertilization compared with oocytes from DL cows. Mitochondrial function determined by ATP content and membrane potential were similar at the germinal vesicle stage, but post-in vitro maturation, the oocytes derived from HL cows showed higher values than DL cows. The mitochondrial DNA copy number in oocytes was similar between the two liver conditions for both the germinal vesicle and post-in vitro maturation oocytes. In conclusion, liver damage induces low fertilization, likely because of incomplete cortical granule distribution and release, and the maturation of oocytes from DL cows contain low-functioning mitochondria compared to their HL counterparts. PMID:26832309

  14. Liver condition of Holstein cows affects mitochondrial function and fertilization ability of oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takeo, Shun; Abe, Takahito; Kin, Airi; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to examine the fertilization ability and mitochondrial function of oocytes derived from cows with or without liver damage. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of cows with damaged livers (DL) and those of cows with healthy livers (HL), subjected to in vitro maturation, and fertilized in vitro. A significantly high abnormal fertilization rate was observed for oocytes from DL cows compared to oocytes from HL cows. The time to dissolve the zona pellucida by protease before fertilization was similar between the two liver conditions, whereas after fertilization treatment this time was shorter for DL cows than for HL cows. The percentage of oocytes with equivalent cortical granule distributions underneath the membrane was greater for in vitro matured oocytes from HL cows, whereas an immature distribution pattern was observed for oocytes from DL cows. In addition, a greater percentage of oocytes derived from HL cows released cortical granules following fertilization compared with oocytes from DL cows. Mitochondrial function determined by ATP content and membrane potential were similar at the germinal vesicle stage, but post-in vitro maturation, the oocytes derived from HL cows showed higher values than DL cows. The mitochondrial DNA copy number in oocytes was similar between the two liver conditions for both the germinal vesicle and post-in vitro maturation oocytes. In conclusion, liver damage induces low fertilization, likely because of incomplete cortical granule distribution and release, and the maturation of oocytes from DL cows contain low-functioning mitochondria compared to their HL counterparts. PMID:26832309

  15. Associations between the clinical signs of chronic endometritis with ovarian cysts and body condition loss in German Holstein Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Tsousis, Georgios; Sharifi, Reza; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this retrospective field study was to associate the type and smell of discharge, the size of the uterus, the ovarian and treatment status, and the time to diagnosis of animals with chronic clinical endometritis (CCE) with the incidence of ovarian cysts and with a marked loss in body condition in German Holstein Friesian cows. Two hundred and sixty-four cows diagnosed with CCE from day 14 to day 42 postpartum participated in this study. In addition, 100 days milk production and the parity of the animals were included in the analysis. With the use of logistic regression, a purulent vaginal discharge (>/= 50% pus), the decision not to treat the animals for CCE and a high 100 days milk production proved to be significant factors for the incidence of ovarian cysts. Additionally, the type of discharge showed interactions with the parity and the smell of the discharge, as more animals with fetid and purulent discharge and more animals in the first lactation with a purulent discharge developed ovarian cysts. A high milk production and the parity showed associations with an excessive body condition score loss. Additionally, more animals with a diagnosis of an oversized uterus in comparison to cows with an early involution experienced a considerable reduction in their nutritional condition. PMID:19934600

  16. Associations between the clinical signs of chronic endometritis with ovarian cysts and body condition loss in German Holstein Friesian cows

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Reza; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective field study was to associate the type and smell of discharge, the size of the uterus, the ovarian and treatment status, and the time to diagnosis of animals with chronic clinical endometritis (CCE) with the incidence of ovarian cysts and with a marked loss in body condition in German Holstein Friesian cows. Two hundred and sixty-four cows diagnosed with CCE from day 14 to day 42 postpartum participated in this study. In addition, 100 days milk production and the parity of the animals were included in the analysis. With the use of logistic regression, a purulent vaginal discharge (≥ 50% pus), the decision not to treat the animals for CCE and a high 100 days milk production proved to be significant factors for the incidence of ovarian cysts. Additionally, the type of discharge showed interactions with the parity and the smell of the discharge, as more animals with fetid and purulent discharge and more animals in the first lactation with a purulent discharge developed ovarian cysts. A high milk production and the parity showed associations with an excessive body condition score loss. Additionally, more animals with a diagnosis of an oversized uterus in comparison to cows with an early involution experienced a considerable reduction in their nutritional condition. PMID:19934600

  17. Efficacy of extended intramammary ceftiofur therapy against mild to moderate clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cows: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Truchetti, Geoffrey; Bouchard, Émile; DesCôteaux, Luc; Scholl, Daniel; Roy, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the efficacy of extended ceftiofur therapy and none have focused on extended therapy for naturally occurring clinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of extended intramammary ceftiofur therapy of 8 d duration with a standard 2-day regimen for the treatment of naturally occurring mild to moderate clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. Holstein cows from 22 dairy herds (n = 241) were randomly allocated to the 2 treatment groups. For each case of mastitis, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered intramammary once a day for 2 or 8 d. Clinical cure, 21 d after the last treatment, was 89% (98/110) in each group. Bacteriological cure 21 d after the last treatment for the 2- and 8-day regimens were 32% (15/47) and 61% (25/41), respectively, for all bacteria (P = 0.007), 64% (9/14) and 82% (9/11), respectively, for streptococci (P = 0.50), and 0% (0/20) and 47% (9/19), respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus (P = 0.0004). There were no statistical differences between groups for new intramammary infections. Overall, ceftiofur extended therapy increased cure when compared to a 2-day regimen for the treatment of naturally occurring mild to moderate clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. PMID:24396178

  18. Effects of blade tenderization, aging method and aging time on meat quality characteristics of Longissimus lumborum steaks from cull Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Obuz, Ersel; Akkaya, Levent; Gök, Veli; Dikeman, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    The effects of blade tenderization (BT), two aging methods (dry (D) and wet (W)), and aging time (2 and 23 d) on tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum muscles from 12 cull Holstein cows were evaluated. Dry-aged loins had higher combined trim and aging losses than control (C) for both D- and W-aging, mostly because of excess trim losses. BT steaks had WBSF of 33.13 N while C steaks had WBSF of 41.46 N (P=0.09). Aging decreased WBSF. Blade tenderized steaks had higher cook loss than C steaks. Aging, W-aging, and BT×W-aging improved myofibrillar (sensory) tenderness scores. Aging and/or BT improves sensory panel tenderness cull cow Longissimus lumborum steaks. Aging and blade tenderization combined can increase tenderness and value of Longissimus steaks from cull Holstein cows. PMID:24334044

  19. Rumen bacterial communities shift across a lactation in Holstein, Jersey and Holstein × Jersey dairy cows and correlate to rumen function, bacterial fatty acid composition and production parameters.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Rumen bacteria form a dynamic, complex, symbiotic relationship with their host, degrading forages to provide volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other substrates as energy to the animal. The objectives were to characterize rumen bacteria in three genetic lines of primiparous dairy cattle, Holstein (HO,n= 7), Jersey (JE,n= 8), and HO × JE crossbreeds (CB,n= 7) across a lactation [3, 93, 183 and 273 days in milk (DIM)] and correlate these factors with VFA, bacterial cell membrane fatty acids (FA), and animal production (i.e. milk yield). This study employed Illumina MiSeq (v. 3) to investigate rumen bacterial communities and gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy to identify bacterial membrane FA. Lactation stage had a prominent effect on rumen bacterial communities, whereas genetics had a lesser effect on rumen bacteria. The FA composition of bacterial cell membranes was affected by both lactation stage and genetics. Few correlations existed between VFA and bacterial communities; however, moderate correlations occurred between milk yield, protein percentage, fat yield and rumen bacterial communities. Positive correlations were found between branched-chain FA (BCFA) in bacterial cell membranes and bacterial genera. In conclusion, bacterial communities and their FA compositions are more affected by stage of lactation than by genetics of dairy cow. PMID:26985012

  20. Genetic parameters of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium serum concentrations during the first 8 days after calving in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Tsiamadis, V; Banos, G; Panousis, N; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Arsenos, G; Valergakis, G E

    2016-07-01

    Calcium, Mg, P, and K are of great importance for the health and productivity of dairy cows after calving. So far genetic studies have focused on clinical hypocalcemia, leaving the genetic parameters of these macroelements unstudied. Our objective was to estimate the genetic parameters of Ca, Mg, P, and K serum concentrations and their changes during the first 8d after calving. The study was conducted in 9 herds located in northern Greece, with 1,021 Holstein cows enrolled from November 2010 until November 2012. No herd used any kind of preventive measures for hypocalcemia. Pedigree information for all cows was available. A total of 35 cows were diagnosed and treated for periparturient paresis and, therefore, excluded from the study. The remaining 986 cows were included in genetic analysis. The distribution of cows across parities was 459 (parity 1), 234 (parity 2), 158 (parity 3), and 135 (parity ≥4). A sample of blood was taken from each cow on d1, 2, 4, and 8 after calving and serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, and K were measured in each sample. A final data set of 15,390 biochemical records was created consisting of 3,903 Ca, 3,902 P, 3,903Mg, and 3,682K measurements. Moreover, changes of these concentrations between d1 and 4 as well as 1 and 8 after calving were calculated and treated as different traits. Random regression models were used to analyze the data. Results showed that daily heritabilities of Ca, P, and Mg concentrations traits were moderate to high (0.20-0.43), whereas those of K were low to moderate (0.12-0.23). Regarding concentration changes, only Mg change between d1 and 8 after calving had a significant heritability of 0.18. Genetic correlations between Ca, P, Mg, and K concentrations and their concentration changes from d1 to 4 and 1 to 8 after calving were not significantly different from zero. Most phenotypic correlations among Ca, P, Mg, and K concentrations were positive and low (0.09-0.16), whereas the correlation between P and Mg was

  1. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P < 0.05) in cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P < 0.10) to be lower in AM + PM relative to the AM and C groups. The AM + PM group had higher ( P < 0.05) milk production than C (18.70 vs. 17.43 kg, respectively), and AM + PM cows had a trend ( P < 0.10) to increased milk energy output vs. the C and AM groups (13.75 vs. 13.18 and 13.15 Mcal, respectively). Protein and fat in milk, body condition score, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and triiodothyronine were similar among the groups. Four hours of cooling with spray and fans during severe summer temperatures only modestly improved milk yield of lactating Holstein cows.

  2. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  3. Effects of corn-based reduced-starch diets using alternative carbohydrate sources on performance of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Dann, H M; Fredin, S M; Cotanch, K W; Grant, R J; Kokko, C; Ji, P; Fujita, K

    2015-06-01

    Increases in grain prices have led to renewed interest in feeding reduced-starch diets to lactating dairy cows. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of altering carbohydrate sources and reducing dietary starch on lactational performance, feeding behavior, and ruminal measures of Holstein dairy cows. Fifteen multiparous cows (6 ruminally cannulated) were blocked and assigned to 1 of 5 squares and used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a control diet containing 20% brown midrib corn silage, 20% conventional corn silage, and 10% hay crop silage (CON); a reduced-starch high-forage diet containing 53% brown midrib corn silage and 10% hay crop silage (HFOR); and a reduced-starch diet containing the same forages as CON with partial replacement of corn meal by nonforage fiber sources (HNFFS). The CON diet contained (% of dry matter) 26.0% starch and 34.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), whereas the HFOR and HNFFS diets contained 21.4 or 21.3% starch and 38.3 or 38.0% NDF, respectively. Dry matter intake tended to be greater for cows fed the CON diet (28.2 kg/d) compared with those fed the HFOR diet (27.2 kg/d). Dry matter intake for cows fed the HNFFS diet was intermediate (27.7 kg/d). Milk yield was greater for cows fed the CON diet (51.6 kg/d) compared with those fed the HFOR diet (48.4 kg/d), but milk fat content tended to increase for cows fed the HFOR diet (3.98%) compared with those fed the CON diet (3.66%). Consequently, fat-corrected and solids-corrected milk yields were unaffected by dietary treatments. Total chewing, eating, and rumination times were similar across all dietary treatments. Rumination time per kilogram of DM was greatest for the HFOR diet, intermediate for the HNFFS diet, and least for the CON diet, whereas rumination time per kilogram of NDF was greatest for the CON diet and least for the HNFFS diet. Mean ruminal pH, NH3-N (mg/dL), and total volatile fatty acid

  4. The effect of manual and mechanical stimulation on oxytocin release and milking characteristics in Holstein cows milked 3 times daily.

    PubMed

    Watters, Rick D; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Crawford, Heather M; Schuring, Norm; Schukken, Ynte H; Galton, David M

    2015-03-01

    Prestimulation administered to a cow before attachment of the milking unit has historically been performed manually. Development of innovative milking technology has allowed manual stimulation to be replaced by mechanical forms of stimulation. Holstein cows (n=30) were enrolled in a crossover design to determine the effect of manual stimulation (forestripping and drying) and high-vibration pulsation on oxytocin profiles, milk yield, milk flow rates, incidence of delayed milk ejection causing bimodal milk flow curves, and residual milk in Holstein cows milked 3 times daily (3×). All cows were subjected to all treatments. Cows received manual (forestripping and drying) or mechanical (high-vibration pulsation) stimulation along with lag times of 0, 30, or 90 s for 21 consecutive milkings. Forestripping involved the manual removal of 2 streams of milk from each teat and drying of the teats. High-vibration pulsation involved increasing the pulsation cycles from 60 to 300 pulses/min and reducing the vacuum in the pulsation chamber to 20 kPa. The 5 treatments were (1) immediate attachment of the milking machine under normal pulsation (T0); (2) dip plus forestrip and drying with 30-s lag time (FD30); (3) dip plus forestrip and drying with 90-s lag time (FD90); (4) high-vibration pulsation for 30 s (HV30); and (5) high-vibration pulsation for 90 s (HV90). Milk yield per milking averaged 14.0 kg and was significantly different among treatments; however, the maximum difference detected among treatments was 0.8 kg/milking. Milking unit on-time, which represents the time when the milking unit is under normal pulsation and harvesting milk (excluding the high-vibration pulsation time of 30 or 90 s), was shortest (245 s) for cows subjected to 90 s of high-vibration pulsation (HV90) and ranged from 256 to 261 s for all other treatments. Milk harvest may have begun during high-vibration pulsation; however, only 0.13 and 0.32 kg of milk was harvested during high-vibration pulsation

  5. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. PMID:26779989

  6. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D

    2016-04-01

    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production. PMID:26700882

  7. The effect of dry period duration and dietary energy density on milk production, bioenergetic status, and postpartum ovarian function in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Feu, M A; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2009-12-01

    Following parturition, it is typical for dairy cows to enter a period of negative energy balance and body condition loss to support mammary milk synthesis; this is associated with compromised reproductive performance. Alternative management strategies during the prepartum (dry) and early postpartum periods may ameliorate this loss. Forty mature Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 2 dry period treatments [standard 8-wk dry period (SDP) or no planned dry period (NDP)] and 1 of 2 dietary energy density treatments [standard TMR (STMR) or high-quality TMR (HTMR)]. Milk yield during wk 1 to 12 postpartum was reduced in cows assigned to the NDP treatment. Energy balance and body condition score (BCS) during wk 1 to 4 postpartum were increased in cows assigned to the NDP treatment compared with the cows assigned to the SDP treatment, and BCS increased from wk 5 to 12 postpartum in the NDP cows compared with the SDP cows. During the first 12 wk postpartum, cows assigned to the HTMR diet had greater milk yield and reduced milk fat concentration compared with the cows assigned the STMR diet. The BCS was greater from wk 5 to 12 postpartum in HTMR cows compared with STMR cows. During the period from wk -3 to +3 relative to parturition, circulating concentrations of insulin, glucose, and IGF-I were greater in cows in the NDP treatment compared with cows in the SDP treatment. Cows assigned to the HTMR diet had greater circulating insulin and glucose concentrations compared with the STMR cows from wk -3 to +3 relative to parturition. The first postpartum ovulation occurred earlier for cows in the NDP treatment compared with cows in the SDP treatment (16.9 vs. 24.8 d postpartum. Cows assigned to the STMR diet tended to have a higher conception rate to first service compared with cows assigned to the HTMR diet. Energy balance and metabolic status can be improved by either eliminating the dry period or by feeding a higher energy diet, but effects on the reproductive axis

  8. Genetic Parameters for Linear Type Traits and Milk, Fat, and Protein Production in Holstein Cows in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Rafael Viegas; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (−0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd. PMID:25656190

  9. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. I. Technique, histological criteria and results.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Miller, R B; Etherington, W G; Martin, S W; Johnson, W H

    1991-01-01

    Endometrial biopsies were taken for histological assessment from 97 cows which calved in a commercial dairy herd between April and August 1984. Sixty-two cows were biopsied at both day 26 and 40 postpartum, 23 cows at only day 26, and 12 at day 40 only. Subjective and quantitative histological criteria were assessed. Ninety-five percent of biopsies were adequate for at least subjective assessment. The distribution of criteria within each horn-day category, as well as combined readings by day and by gravid or nongravid horn were computed and significant differences noted. There was more severe inflammation and more segmented cells at day 26 than 40 postpartum, and in the gravid compared to the nongravid horn. The distribution patterns for the criteria examined provide an overview of histological characteristics in this group of postpartum cows. PMID:1884295

  10. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone treatment of Holstein cows with follicular cysts monitored by skim milk progesterone determination.

    PubMed

    Eissa, H M; el-Belely, M S

    1996-01-01

    Progesterone was assayed in skim milk fraction of 38 cystic cows, 26 (68.4%) of which had basal ( < 0.5 ng/ml) progesterone concentrations and were diagnosed as having follicular cysts. These cows were allotted at random to one of 3 treatments: (1) a sham injection of sterile water in 7 cows as controls; (2) a single injection (1 mg) of GnRH analog in 8 cows; (3) double injections (1 mg) of GnRH analog at 7-day interval in 11 cows. According to rectal palpation confirmed by skim milk progesterone determination, the double injection group responded well (P < 0.05) compared with the single injection and control groups (81.8% vs 62.5 vs 42.9%). The interval calving to 1st insemination, interval treatment to conception and interval calving to conception were significantly (P < 0.01) shorter in the double injection group than in the other 2 groups. Also, the conception rate to first insemination was significantly (P < 0.05) higher (63.6% vs 37.5% vs 42.9%). The data provide evidence for reduction in infertility and reproductive disorders in cystic cows given double injections of GnRH. PMID:8619276

  11. Genetic analysis of locomotion and associated conformation traits of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows managed in different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Onyiro, O M; Brotherstone, S

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of housing on lameness-related linear and composite traits, and to estimate heritabilities of the traits and correlations among them. Data comprised 156,770 national type evaluation records of pedigreed first-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows that calved from 2000 through 2006 and were classified in different housing systems--cubicles, straw yards, slatted or loafing yards, and on pasture. Locomotion score (LOCO), rear leg, side view (RLS), foot angle (FA), bone quality (BO-NEQ), legs and feet (L&F), and mammary composite (MAMM) were the traits measured. Data were analyzed by REML, using an animal model. In general, cows in grazing systems had better locomotion, straighter RLS, steeper FA, flat and more refined bones, better L&F, and better mammary systems compared with cows housed in other systems. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.11 for LOCO to 0.31 for MAMM. Bone quality had the highest heritability (0.23) of the traits associated with L&F. Genetic associations between BO-NEQ and LOCO, L&F, and MAMM were moderate to high (0.30 to 0.50), but estimates between BONEQ and RLS and FA were not significantly different from zero. Locomotion score had a very high genetic (0.98) and phenotypic (0.78) correlation with L&F, indicating that both traits are genetically the same. On the basis of the genetic parameters, including BONEQ in a selection index as a predictor of longevity is promising, but further information on its association with longevity is required. PMID:18096954

  12. The use of simple physiological and environmental measures to estimate the latent heat transfer in crossbred Holstein cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Severino Guilherme Caetano Gonçalves dos; Saraiva, Edilson Paes; Pimenta Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti; Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Fonsêca, Vinicus França Carvalho; Pinheiro, Antônio da Costa; Almeida, Maria Elivania Vieira; de Amorim, Mikael Leal Cabral Menezes

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the heat transfer through cutaneous and respiratory evaporation of dairy cows raised in tropical ambient conditions using simple environmental and physiological measures. Twenty-six lactating crossbred cows (7/8 Holstein-Gir) were used, 8 predominantly white and 18 predominantly black. The environmental variables air temperature, relative humidity, black globe temperature, and wind speed were measured. Respiratory rate and coat surface temperature were measured at 0700, 0900, 1100, 1300, and 1500 h. The environmental and physiological data were used to estimate heat loss by respiratory (ER) and cutaneous evaporation (EC). Results showed that there was variation (P < 0.01) for respiratory rate depending on the times of the day. The highest values were recorded at 1100, 1300, and 1500 h, corresponding to 66.85 ± 10.20, 66.98 ± 7.80, and 65.65 ± 6.50 breaths/min, respectively. Thus, the amount of heat transferred via respiration ranged from 19.21 to 29.42 W/m2. There was a variation from 31.6 to 38.8 °C for coat surface temperature; these values reflected a range of 55.52 to 566.83 W/m2 for heat transfer via cutaneous evaporation. However, throughout the day, the dissipation of thermal energy through the coat surface accounted for 87.9 % total loss of latent heat, and the remainder (12.1 %) was via the respiratory tract. In conclusion, the predictive models based on respiratory rate and coat surface temperature may be used to estimate the latent heat loss in dairy cows kept confined in tropical ambient conditions.

  13. Effects of amounts and degradability of dietary protein on lactation, nitrogen utilization, and excretion in early lactation Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Davidson, S; Hopkins, B A; Diaz, D E; Bolt, S M; Brownie, C; Fellner, V; Whitlow, L W

    2003-05-01

    Five treatment diets varying in crude protein (CP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Diets were fed as a total mixed ration to 65 Holstein cows that were either primiparous (n = 28) or multiparous (n = 37) from 21 to 120 d in milk to determine effects on lactation and nitrogen utilization. Crude protein % and calculated RUP (% of CP) of diets [on a dry matter (DM) basis] were: 1) 19.4, 40 (HPMU), 2) 16.5, 34 (LPLU), 3) 16.8, 40 (LPMU), 4) 16.8, 46 (LPHU), 5) 17.2, 43 (LPHU + UREA), which is the result of adding 0.4% of the diet DM as urea to LPHU. The corn silage-based treatment diets contained an average of 24% acid detergent fiber and 1.6 Mcal/kg net energy of lactation. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentrations and body weights (BW) were used to calculate predicted amounts of urinary nitrogen (N) using the relationship: urinary N (g/d) = 0.0259 x BW (kg) x MUN (mg/dl). Cows fed HPMU had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, rumen ammonia, MUN, and predicted urinary N. Milk yield, fat yield, fat percent, protein yield, and protein percent were not significantly different among treatments. Parity primarily affected parameters that were related to body size and not measurements of N utilization. The interaction of treatment and parity was not significant for any measurements taken. In this study, cows fed LPHU had significantly lower MUN and predicted urinary N without limiting production. These results demonstrate the potential to optimize milk production while minimizing N excretion in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:12778579

  14. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  15. Effect of fixed-time embryo transfer on reproductive efficiency in high-producing repeat-breeder Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, C A; Teixeira, A A; Ferreira, R M; Ayres, H; Mancilha, R F; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare a synchronization of time of ovulation protocol for fixed-timed embryo transfer (FTET) with the usual administration of a single dose of prostaglandin associated with detection of estrus. Also, the effect of the presence of CL at the beginning of FTET protocol was evaluated. Lactating Holstein cows (n=651) with three previous artificial inseminations were classified according to presence or absence of a corpus luteum (CL). Cows with a CL were randomly assigned to two additional treatments and submitted to embryo transfer after detection of estrus (PGF-Estrus) or FTET (FTET-CL). Cows without CL were allocated to the FTET-NoCL treatment. On a random day of the estrous cycle (Day 0), cows in the PGF-Estrus treatment (n=229) were treated with 150 microg d-cloprostenol (PGF) i.m. followed by detection of estrus from Day 1 through Day 5 after PGF. Embryos were transferred 6-8 days after estrus detection. Cows in the FTET-CL (n=208; presence of CL) and FTET-NoCL (n=214; absence of CL) treatments received a norgestomet ear implant plus 2mg estradiol benzoate (EB) and 50mg progesterone i.m. on Day 0. On Day 8, the implant was removed and 400 IUeCG, 150 microg d-cloprostenol and 1mg estradiol cypionate i.m. were administered. No detection of estrus was performed and Day 10 was arbitrarily considered as the estrus day. Ultrasonographic exams were performed in all recipients and only cows with a single CL> or =15 mm or multiple CL received a fresh or frozen-thawed embryo on Day 17. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 30 and 60 days of pregnancy. When FTET and PGF-Estrus were compared, the proportion of cows receiving an embryo (recipients transferred-to-treated rate) was greater in the FTET-CL (75.0% (156/208) than in PGF-Estrus (34.5%, 79/229; P<0.0001) treatment. Pregnancy rate (60 days) was also greater in FTET-CL (29.3%, 61/208) when compared to PGF-Estrus (16.2%, 37/229; P=0.001). However, no differences were found in

  16. Evaluation of calving indicators measured by automated monitoring devices to predict the onset of calving in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, V; Vasseur, E; Heuwieser, W; Burfeind, O; Maldague, X; Charbonneau, É

    2016-02-01

    Dystocias are common in dairy cows and often adversely affect production, reproduction, animal welfare, labor, and economics within the dairy industry. An automated device that accurately predicts the onset of calving could potentially minimize the effect of dystocias by enabling producers to intervene early. Although many well-documented indicators can detect the imminence of calving, research is limited on their effectiveness to predict calving when measured by automated devices. The objective of this experiment was to determine if a decrease in vaginal temperature (VT), rumination (RT), and lying time (LT), or an increase in lying bouts (LB), as measured by 3 automated devices, could accurately predict the onset of calving within 24, 12, and 6 h. The combination of these 4 calving indicators was also evaluated. Forty-two multiparous Holstein cows housed in tie-stalls were fitted with a temperature logger inserted in the vaginal cavity 7±2 d before their expected calving date; VT was recorded at 1-min intervals. An ear-attached sensor recorded rumination time every hour based on ear movement while an accelerometer fitted to the right hind leg recorded cow position at 1-min intervals. On average, VT were 0.3±0.03°C lower, and RT and LT were 41±17 and 52±28 min lower, respectively, on the calving day compared with the previous 4 d. Cows had 2±1 more LB on the calving day. Of the 4 indicators, a decrease in VT≥0.1°C was best able to predict calving within the next 24 h with a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 74%, positive and negative predictive values of 51 and 89%, and area under the curve of 0.80. Combining the indicators enhanced the performance to predict calving within the next 24, 12, and 6 h with best overall results obtained by combining the 3 devices for prediction within the next 24 h (sensitivity: 77%, specificity: 77%, positive and negative predictive values: 56 and 90%, area under the curve: 0.82). These results indicate that a device that

  17. Ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profiles, and productive performance of Holstein dairy cows fed 2 different safflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Noviandi, C T; Eun, J-S; Fellner, V; Young, A J; Zobell, D R; Israelsen, C E

    2011-10-01

    A lactation trial was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing whole safflower seeds (SS) on ruminal fermentation, lactational performance, and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (days in milk = 110 ± 20) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d, with 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data collection. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 3 dietary treatments as follows: cottonseed total mixed ration (TMR; CST), conventional SS (variety S-208) TMR (CSST), and NutraSaff SS (Safflower Technologies International, Sidney, MT) TMR (NSST). Diets contained approximately 63% forage (36% alfalfa hay, 4% grass hay, and 23% corn silage) and 37% concentrate supplemented with 2% cottonseed to the CST and 3% conventional or NutraSaff SS to the CSST or the NSST, respectively. Intake of dry matter (DM) averaged 21.8 kg/d and did not differ across diets, but feeding the NSST decreased intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) due to lower dietary concentration of NDF in the NSST. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were similar among treatments. No differences in yields of milk or milk components were observed in response to supplementing SS. Dietary treatments did not affect ruminal pH, total or molar proportions of ruminal volatile FA, and ammonia-N. However, cows fed SS had a higher molar proportion of isobutyrate than those fed the CST diet. Ruminal C16:0 FA concentration increased with the CST, whereas C18:1 cis-9 and C18:2 n-6 tended to increase with SS supplementation, indicating that conventional and NutraSaff SS were partially protected from microbial biohydrogenation. Supplementing SS decreased milk C16:0 concentration, whereas it increased C18:1 cis-9 and C18:1 trans-9. Milk FA C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid increased and tended to increase with feeding the NSST, respectively, but not the CSST diet. In conclusion, supplementing diets with whole SS at 3

  18. Inflammation- and lipid metabolism-related gene network expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of energy overfeeding on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a controlled energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or moderate energy-overfed group (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lactate signaling, hepatokine signaling, lipolysis, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and adipose depot was not significant for any gene analyzed except LPL, which indicated a consistent response to diet. Expression of ACACA and FASN was greater in SAT than MAT, whereas expression of SCD and ADFP were greatest in SAT, intermediate in OAT, and lowest in MAT. However, the 2 visceral depots had greater expression of THRSP, ACLY, LPL, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1 compared with SAT. The transcription factor SREBF1 was more highly expressed in MAT and SAT than in OAT. The expression of PNPLA2 was greater in visceral AT sites than in SAT, but other lipolysis-related genes were not differentially expressed among AT depots. Visceral AT depots had greater expression of LEP, ADIPOQ, and SAA3 compared with SAT. Moreover, MAT had greater expression than SAT of proinflammatory cytokines (IL1B and IL6), IL6 receptor (IL6R), and chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5). However, TNF expression was greatest in SAT, lowest in OAT, and intermediate in MAT. Overall, results indicated that visceral AT might be more active in uptake of preformed long-chain fatty acids than SAT, whereas de novo fatty acid synthesis could make a greater contribution to the intracellular pool of fatty acids in SAT than in visceral AT. The visceral AT compared

  19. Associations between variants of FADS genes and omega-3 and omega-6 milk fatty acids of Canadian Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and 2 (FADS2) genes code respectively for the enzymes delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases which are rate limiting enzymes in the synthesis of polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (FAs). Omega-3 and-6 FAs as well as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are present in bovine milk and have demonstrated positive health effects in humans. Studies in humans have shown significant relationships between genetic variants in FADS1 and 2 genes with plasma and tissue concentrations of omega-3 and-6 FAs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of sequence variations within these two genes in Canadian Holstein cows as well as the association between sequence variants and health promoting FAs in milk. Results Thirty three SNPs were detected within the studied regions of genes including a synonymous mutation (FADS1-07, rs42187261, 306Tyr > Tyr) in exon 8 of FADS1, a non-synonymous mutation (FADS2-14, rs211580559, 294Ala > Val) within FADS2 exon 7, a splice site SNP (FADS2-05, rs211263660), a 3′UTR SNP (FADS2-23, rs109772589), and another 3′UTR SNP with an effect on a microRNA binding site within FADS2 gene (FADS2-19, rs210169303). Association analyses showed significant relations between three out of seven tested SNPs and several FAs. Significant associations (FDR P < 0.05) were recorded between FADS2-23 (rs109772589) and two omega-6 FAs (dihomogamma linolenic acid [C20:3n6] and arachidonic acid [C20:4n6]), FADS1-07 (rs42187261) and one omega-3 FA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5n3) and tricosanoic acid (C23:0), and one intronic SNP, FADS1-01 (rs136261927) and C20:3n6. Conclusion Our study has demonstrated positive associations between three SNPs within FADS1 and FADS2 genes (a SNP within the 3’UTR, a synonymous SNP and an intronic SNP), with three milk PUFAs of Canadian Holstein cows thus suggesting possible involvement of synonymous and non-coding region variants in FA synthesis. These SNPs may serve as

  20. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  1. The Effects of Increased Milking Frequency on Metabolism and Mammary Cell Proliferation in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of previous studies have shown that increased milking frequency (IMF) during early lactation results in increased milk yield not only during the period of IMF but also after cows have returned to a decreased milking frequency. The cellular mechanisms underpinning this increased milk yield a...

  2. Changes in rumen bacterial communities and rumen chemistry in primiparous Holstein cows during the periparturient period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to study the changes in: 1) rumen bacterial community composition (BCC) and fermentation as influenced by feeding regimen and period; and 2) pH and VFA profiles among selected cows with minimum (stable) and maximum variation (unstable) between pre- and post-parturie...

  3. Skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin signaling is maintained in heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Xie, G; Cole, L C; Zhao, L D; Skrzypek, M V; Sanders, S R; Rhoads, M L; Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P

    2016-05-01

    Multiparous cows (n=12; parity=2; 136±8 d in milk, 560±32kg of body weight) housed in climate-controlled chambers were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) consisting primarily of alfalfa hay and steam-flaked corn. During the first experimental period (P1), all 12 cows were housed in thermoneutral conditions (18°C, 20% humidity) with ad libitum intake for 9 d. During the second experimental period (P2), half of the cows were fed for ad libitum intake and subjected to heat-stress conditions [WFHS, n=6; cyclical temperature 31.1 to 38.9°C, 20% humidity: minimum temperature humidity index (THI)=73, maximum THI=80.5], and half of the cows were pair-fed to match the intake of WFHS cows in thermal neutral conditions (TNPF, n=6) for 9 d. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured thrice daily at 0430, 1200, and 1630 h. To evaluate muscle and liver insulin responsiveness, biopsies were obtained immediately before and after an insulin tolerance test on the last day of each period. Insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), AKT/protein kinase B (AKT), and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) were measured by Western blot analyses for both tissues. During P2, WFHS increased rectal temperature and respiration rate by 1.48°C and 2.4-fold, respectively. Heat stress reduced dry matter intake by 8kg/d and, by design, TNPF cows had similar intake reductions. Milk yield was decreased similarly (30%) in WFHS and TNPF cows, and both groups entered into a similar (-4.5 Mcal/d) calculated negative energy balance during P2. Insulin infusion caused a less rapid glucose disposal in P2 compared with P1, but glucose clearance did not differ between environments in P2. In liver, insulin increased p-AKT protein content in each period. Phosphorylation ratio of AKT increased 120% in each period after insulin infusion. In skeletal muscle, protein abundance of the IR, IRS, and AKT remained stable between periods and environment. Insulin increased skeletal muscle p-AKT in each

  4. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from Holstein dairy cows fed various forage sources.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Benchaar, C; Gervais, R

    2016-02-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) profile has been previously used as a predictor of enteric CH4 output in dairy cows fed diets supplemented with plant oils, which can potentially impact ruminal fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between milk FA and enteric CH4 emissions in lactating dairy cows fed different types of forages in the context of commonly fed diets. A total of 81 observations from three separate 3×3 Latin square design (32-day periods) experiments including a total of 27 lactating cows (96±27 days in milk; mean±SD) were used. Dietary forages were included at 60% of ration dry matter and were as follows: (1) 100% corn silage, (2) 100% alfalfa silage, (3) 100% barley silage, (4) 100% timothy silage, (5) 50:50 mix of corn and alfalfa silages, (6) 50:50 mix of barley and corn silages and (7) 50:50 mix of timothy and alfalfa silages. Enteric CH4 output was measured using respiration chambers during 3 consecutive days. Milk was sampled during the last 7 days of each period and analyzed for components and FA profile. Test variables included dry matter intake (DMI; kg/day), NDF (%), ether extract (%), milk yield (kg/day), milk components (%) and individual milk FA (% of total FA). Candidate multivariate models were obtained using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator and Least-Angle Regression methods based on the Schwarz Bayesian Criterion. Data were then fitted into a random regression using the MIXED procedure including the random effects of cow, period and study. A positive correlation was observed between CH4 and DMI (r=0.59, P0.19). Milk FA profile and DMI can be used to predict CH4 emissions in dairy cows across a wide range of dietary forage sources. PMID:26399308

  5. Fertilizability of oocytes derived from Holstein cows having different antral follicle counts in ovaries.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuhisa; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2015-12-01

    In this study, to clarify the relationship between ovarian reserve and oocyte quality, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected repeatedly by ovum pick-up (OPU) from cows with high and low antral follicle counts (AFCs) at short (3-4 days) and long (7 days) intervals, and COC morphologies and oocyte fertilizability were examined. The relationship between AFC and follicular growth after OPU was also investigated. Cows showing AFC of ≥30 in at least one OPU session were grouped into the high-AFC group. At a short interval, follicular sizes and COC morphologies were similar between the different AFC groups. However, the normal fertilization rate was higher in the high-AFC group than in the low one, although total penetration rates were similar. At a long interval, the percentage of COCs with poor morphology in the high-AFC group was higher and the normal fertilization rate was lower than in the low one. In the low-AFC group, normal fertilization rates at short and long intervals were similar, and mean follicular size became larger at a long than at a short interval. However, mean follicular sizes at short- and long-interval OPU were similar in the high-AFC group. In conclusion, it is suggested that oocytes derived from cows with high AFC had higher fertilizability than those from cows with low AFC when OPUs were performed at a short (3-4 days) interval. However, oocyte quality in high-AFC cows was impaired by long-interval (7 days) OPU, possibly due to the degradation of follicles. PMID:26588889

  6. The effect of strain of Holstein-Friesian cow on size of ovarian structures, periovulatory circulating steroid concentrations, and embryo quality following superovulation.

    PubMed

    de Feu, M A; Patton, J; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2008-10-15

    When managed under grass-based systems of production, the New Zealand (NZ) strain of Holstein-Friesian cow has superior reproductive performance compared to the North American (NA) strain despite having similar solids-corrected milk (SCM) yields. This study compared the ontogeny of early pregnancy events in NZ and NA cows. Ten NZ and 10 NA cows were submitted to a superovulation protocol on three occasions. Blood samples were collected daily from every cow from days -3 to +7 relative to a synchronized oestrus during each superovulation protocol. Pre-ovulatory oestradiol concentrations, follicle diameter, post-ovulatory progesterone concentrations, corpus luteum (CL) diameter, and circulating insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations did not differ between the two strains. Uteri were non-surgically flushed 7 days post-AI, embryos were isolated and graded. The proportion of transferable embryos recovered was higher (P<0.01) in the NZ cows compared with the NA cows. A greater (P=0.01) proportion of the recovered structures were at the blastocyst stage in the NZ cows. Peak SCM yield and body condition score (BCS) at the time of peak SCM yield were not different between strains. However, during the experimental period the NA cows maintained significantly higher daily SCM yields, whereas the NZ cows replenished significantly greater levels of BCS. The results indicate that differences in periovulatory steroid concentrations and size of ovarian structures do not explain the differences in embryo quality between the two strains. However, strain differences in nutrient partitioning from the time of peak SCM yield through late lactation may provide the key signals responsible for superior embryo quality in NZ cows. PMID:18672283

  7. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p < 0.0001) and corpora lutea (CL) (p = 0.02) compared with the control cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post

  8. Effects of day of gestation and feeding regimen in Holstein × Gyr cows: I. Apparent total-tract digestibility, nitrogen balance, and fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Rotta, P P; Filho, S C Valadares; Gionbelli, T R S; Costa E Silva, L F; Engle, T E; Marcondes, M I; Machado, F S; Villadiego, F A C; Silva, L H R

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated how feeding regimen (FR) alters apparent total-tract digestibility, performance, N balance, excretion of purine derivatives, and fat deposition in Holstein × Gyr cows at different days of gestation (DG). Forty-four pregnant multiparous Holstein × Gyr cows with an average initial body weight of 480±10.1 kg and an initial age of 5±0.5 yr old were allocated to 1 of 2 FR: ad libitum (AL; n=20) and maintenance level (ML; n=24). Maintenance level was considered to be 1.15% of body weight on a dry matter (DM) basis and met 100% of the energy requirements, whereas AL provided 190% of total net energy requirements. Data for hot and cold carcass dressing, fat deposition, average daily gain, empty body gain, and average daily gain without the gravid uterus were analyzed as a 4×2 factorial design. Intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, N balance, urinary concentration of urea, and purine derivatives data were analyzed as repeated measurements taken over the 28-d period (122, 150, 178, 206, 234, and 262 d of gestation). Cows were individually fed a corn silage-concentrate based diet composed of 93% roughage and 7% concentrate (DM basis) as a total mixed ration. Pregnant cows were slaughtered on 4 different DG: 139 (n=11), 199 (n=11), 241 (n=11), and 268 d (n=11). Overall, DM intake decreased as DG increased. This decrease observed in DM intake may be associated with the reduction in ruminal volume caused by the rapid increase in fetal size during late gestation. We observed an interaction for DM and organic matter apparent total-tract digestibility between FR and DG; at 150, 178, and 206 d of gestation, ML-fed cows had greater DM and organic matter apparent total-tract digestibility values than AL-fed cows. Rib fat thickness, mesentery, and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were greater in AL-fed than in ML-fed cows at all DG, with the exception of rib fat thickness on d 139. Ad libitum-fed cows excreted more N in their feces and urine compared

  9. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26651949

  10. Transcriptional profiling of mammary gland in Holstein cows with extremely different milk protein and fat percentage using RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has rapidly emerged as a major transcriptome profiling system. Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland transcriptome by RNA-seq is essential for identifying candidate genes that contribute to milk composition traits in dairy cattle. Results We used massive, parallel, high-throughput, RNA-seq to generate the bovine transcriptome from the mammary glands of four lactating Holstein cows with extremely high and low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. In total, we obtained 48,967,376–75,572,578 uniquely mapped reads that covered 82.25% of the current annotated transcripts, which represented 15549 mRNA transcripts, across all the four mammary gland samples. Among them, 31 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, false discovery rate q < 0.05) between the high and low groups of cows were revealed. Gene ontology and pathway analysis demonstrated that the 31 differently expressed genes were enriched in specific biological processes with regard to protein metabolism, fat metabolism, and mammary gland development (p < 0.05). Integrated analysis of differential gene expression, previously reported quantitative trait loci, and genome-wide association studies indicated that TRIB3, SAA (SAA1, SAA3, and M-SAA3.2), VEGFA, PTHLH, and RPL23A were the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein and fat percentage. Conclusions This study investigated the complexity of the mammary gland transcriptome in dairy cattle using RNA-seq. Integrated analysis of differential gene expression and the reported quantitative trait loci and genome-wide association study data permitted the identification of candidate key genes for milk composition traits. PMID:24655368

  11. Short communication: The effect of feeding high protein distillers dried grains on milk production of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, K J; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Kelzer, J M; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG) on rumen degradability, dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (12 multiparous and 4 primiparous) averaging 80 +/- 14 d in milk were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 crossover design. A portion of forage and all soy-based protein in the control diet were replaced by HPDDG (20% dry matter). Milk production and dry matter intake were recorded daily and averaged for d 19 to 21 of each 21-d period. Milk samples were collected on d 20 to 21 of each period. Milk yield increased with the inclusion of HPDDG (33.4 vs. 31.6 +/- 2.13 kg/d), and 3.5% FCM was higher for the ration containing HPDDG (36.3 vs. 33.1 +/- 2.24 kg/d). Percentage protein was not affected by treatment (average 3.04 +/- 0.08%), but protein yield increased with inclusion of HPDDG (0.95 to 1.00 +/- 0.05 kg/d). Milk fat concentration was not different between treatments (average 3.95 +/- 0.20%), but fat yield increased for the ration containing HPDDG (1.35 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.09 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected and averaged 21.9 +/- 0.80 kg across treatments. Because of greater milk production, feed conversion was improved by the inclusion of HPDDG (1.47 to 1.73 +/- 0.09). Milk urea N was greater for the HPDDG ration than the control (14.5 vs. 12.8 +/- 0.67 mg/dL). This research suggests that HPDDG may effectively replace soy-based protein in lactating dairy cow diets. PMID:19448023

  12. EFFECTS OF FEEDING EASTERN GAMAGRASS WITH OR WITHOUT CORN SUPPLEMENTATION ON LACTATION PERFORMANCE OF HOLSTEIN COWS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactating cows fed gamagrass hay(GH) or silage(GS) produced similar daily milk yields(27.3 vs 29.5 kg/d). Including supplemental corn with GS at 12.6 % of the diet did not increase daily milk production(29.5 vs 32.4 kg/d), but when corn supplementation was increased to 27.8 and 54.6 % of the diet i...

  13. The influence of casein haplotype on quality, coagulation, and yield traits of milk from Italian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Gambacorta, Emilio; Simonetti, Amalia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (CSN1S1, CSN2, and CSN3) on quality, coagulation, and yield traits of milk from Italian Holstein cows. The casein haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing; milk clotting properties were determined by using a mechanical lacto-dynamographic instrument; and the yields of pressed and pasta filata cheeses were expressed as kilograms of cheese per 100kg of milk processed. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the casein haplotype. In particular, BB-A(1)A(1)-AA milk showed the highest fat content (4.01g/100g), whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB milk had a higher protein content, the best coagulation characteristics, and the highest yields in pressed and pasta filata cheeses, and, consequently, better ability to retain fat and protein in the curd. The results of this study suggest that knowledge of milk protein polymorphisms not only allows the production of milk with specific qualitative and quantitative characteristics, but it could also be used as a specific marker within a breed to identify milk suitable for cheesemaking, which confers an economical advantage for dairy producers. PMID:26947288

  14. Predictive variables for the occurrence of early clinical mastitis in primiparous Holstein cows under field conditions in France.

    PubMed Central

    Barnouin, J; Chassagne, M

    2001-01-01

    Holstein heifers from 47 dairy herds in France were enrolled in a field study to determine predictors for clinical mastitis within the first month of lactation. Precalving and calving variables (biochemical, hematological, hygienic, and disease indicators) were collected. Early clinical mastitis (ECM) predictive variables were analyzed by using a multiple logistic regression model (99 cows with ECM vs. 571 without clinical mastitis throughout the first lactation). Two variables were associated with a higher risk of ECM: a) difficult calving and b) medium and high white blood cell (WBC) counts in late gestation. Two prepartum indicators were associated with a lower ECM risk: a) medium and high serum concentrations of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and b) high percentage of eosinophils among white blood cells. Calving difficulty and certain biological blood parameters (IgG1, eosinophils) could represent predictors that would merit further experimental studies, with the aim of designing programs for reducing the risk of clinical mastitis in the first lactation. PMID:11195522

  15. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Geha, Makram J.; Keown, Jeffrey F.; Van Vleck, L. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield) of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β0 + β1X + e), quadratic regression, (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + e) cubic regression (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + β3X3 +e) and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc). The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as “traditional”, AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used. PMID:21931517

  16. Integrating Milk Metabolite Profile Information for the Prediction of Traditional Milk Traits Based on SNP Information for Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Nina; Wittenburg, Dörte; Repsilber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In this study the benefit of metabolome level analysis for the prediction of genetic value of three traditional milk traits was investigated. Our proposed approach consists of three steps: First, milk metabolite profiles are used to predict three traditional milk traits of 1,305 Holstein cows. Two regression methods, both enabling variable selection, are applied to identify important milk metabolites in this step. Second, the prediction of these important milk metabolite from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) enables the detection of SNPs with significant genetic effects. Finally, these SNPs are used to predict milk traits. The observed precision of predicted genetic values was compared to the results observed for the classical genotype-phenotype prediction using all SNPs or a reduced SNP subset (reduced classical approach). To enable a comparison between SNP subsets, a special invariable evaluation design was implemented. SNPs close to or within known quantitative trait loci (QTL) were determined. This enabled us to determine if detected important SNP subsets were enriched in these regions. The results show that our approach can lead to genetic value prediction, but requires less than 1% of the total amount of (40,317) SNPs., significantly more important SNPs in known QTL regions were detected using our approach compared to the reduced classical approach. Concluding, our approach allows a deeper insight into the associations between the different levels of the genotype-phenotype map (genotype-metabolome, metabolome-phenotype, genotype-phenotype). PMID:23990900

  17. [Genetic analysis of the prevalence of abomasal displacement and its relationship to milk output characteristics in German Holstein cows].

    PubMed

    Ricken, M; Hamann, H; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2004-09-01

    Genetic parameters for the prevalence of abomasal displacement and for milk yield traits were estimated using a data set of 3578 cows. The animals originated from 50 farms near Hanover being under the official milk recording scheme. At these farms all cases of abomasal displacement in German Holsteins were registered from July 2001 to January 2003. Using REML heritability estimates in linear animal models were h2 = 0.034 +/- 0.014, h2 = 0.017 +/- 0.013 and h2 = 0.029 +/- 0.011 for all cases of abomasal displacement, leftsided abomasal displacement and rightsided abomasal displacement, respectively. Additive genetic correlations between all cases of abomasal displacement and milk yield traits were small, ranging from rg = -0.20 (fat content) to rg = 0.08 (milk kg). However, there was a highly positive additive genetic correlation between leftsided abomasal displacement and milk yield of rg = 0.683 +/- 0.227. Leftsided abomasal displacement was correlated additive genetically to fat and protein yield, fat and protein content with rg = 0.595 +/- 0.297, r9 = 0.653 +/- 0.250, rg = -0.768 +/- 0.3280 und rg = -0.643 +/- 0.354, respectively. The additive genetic correlation to the ratio between fat and protein content was rg = -0.585 +/- 0.470. For rightsided abomasal displacement, additive genetic correlations were of similar size but with reversed signs. The estimates obtained for the residual correlations were negligibly small throughout. PMID:15503538

  18. Effect of parity on lymphocytes in peripheral blood and colostrum of healthy Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Terasawa, Sakiko; Watanabe, Chika; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Mukai, Machiko; Ando, Takaaki; Petrovski, Kiro R.; Morris, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of the bovine systemic and mammary gland immune cells at calving might provide crucial information about the susceptibility of the mammary gland to infection. This study investigated the leukocyte population and cytokine mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and colostrum mononuclear cells (CCs) obtained from healthy cows soon after calving. Fifty dairy cows that did not show clinical diseases were divided into 4 groups on the basis of parity: heifer (group 1, n = 10), 2nd calving (group 2, n = 11), 3rd calving (group 3, n = 14), and more than 3rd calving (group 4, n = 15). In the peripheral blood the numbers of CD3+TcR1-N12+, CD3+, CD4+, and major histocompatibility complex class II+CD14− lymphocytes were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 4, whereas in the colostrum the percentages of CD4+ and CD4+CD26+ lymphocytes and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 4. There were no significant differences in the cytokine mRNA levels of PBMCs among the 4 groups; however, in the CCs the ratio of interferon gamma to interleukin 4 was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 3. These results suggest that the cellular immune function of PBMCs is lower, whereas mammary gland immune cells are more active, in cows with higher parity compared with heifers at calving. PMID:20592843

  19. Prediction of water intake and excretion flows in Holstein dairy cows under thermoneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Boudon, A; Maxin, G; Faverdin, P

    2012-10-01

    The increase in the worldwide demand for dairy products, associated with global warming, will emphasize the issue of water use efficiency in dairy systems. The evaluation of environmental issues related to the management of animal dejections will also require precise biotechnical models that can predict effluent management in farms. In this study, equations were developed and evaluated for predicting the main water flows at the dairy cow level, based on parameters related to cow productive performance and diet under thermoneutral conditions. Two datasets were gathered. The first one comprised 342 individual measurements of water balance in dairy cows obtained during 18 trials at the experimental farm of Méjussaume (INRA, France). Predictive equations of water intake, urine and fecal water excretion were developed by multiple regression using a stepwise selection of regressors from a list of seven candidate parameters, which were milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), body weight, diet dry matter content (DM), proportion of concentrate (CONC) and content of crude protein (CP) ingested with forage and concentrate (CPf and CPc, g/kg DM). The second dataset was used for external validation of the developed equations and comprised 196 water flow measurements on experimental lots obtained from 43 published papers related to water balance or digestibility measurements in dairy cows. Although DMI was the first predictor of the total water intake (TWI), with a partial r(2) of 0.51, DM was the first predictive parameter of free water intake (FWI), with a partial r(2) of 0.57, likely due to the large variability of DM in the first dataset (from 11.5 to 91.4 g/100 g). This confirmed the compensation between water drunk and ingested with diet when DM changes. The variability of urine volume was explained mainly by the CPf associated with DMI (r.s.d. 5.4 kg/day for an average flow of 24.0 kg/day) and that of fecal water was explained by the proportion of CONC in the diet and DMI

  20. Effect of manipulating progesterone before timed artificial insemination on reproductive and endocrine parameters in seasonal-calving, pasture-based Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Fricke, P M; Carvalho, P D; Lucy, M C; Curran, F; Herlihy, M M; Waters, S M; Larkin, J A; Crowe, M A; Butler, S T

    2016-08-01

    Fertility to timed AI (TAI) is profoundly affected by progesterone (P4) levels during hormonal synchronization protocols. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows managed in a seasonal-calving, pasture-based production system were randomly assigned to 2 treatments to manipulate P4 before TAI during growth of the preovulatory follicle. Cows in the first treatment (High P4; n=30) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol {Pre-Ovsynch [GnRH; 7 d, PGF2α; 3 d, GnRH] followed 7 d later by Breeding-Ovsynch [GnRH (G1); 7 d PGF2α; 24 h, PGF2α; 32 h, GnRH (G2); 16 h, TAI]}. Cows in the second treatment (n=30; Low P4) received the same Double-Ovsynch protocol but with an additional PGF2α treatment 24 h after G1. Overall, synchronization rate did not differ between treatments and was 92% (55/60). Unexpectedly, 37% of Low P4 cows were detected in estrus ~24 h before scheduled TAI and were inseminated ~16 h before scheduled TAI. Overall, P4 did not differ between treatments at G1, whereas High P4 cows had greater P4 concentrations at PGF2α and G2 than Low P4 cows. High P4 cows had the smallest mean follicle diameter at G2, whereas Low P4 cows with no estrus before TAI had intermediate mean follicle diameter at G2, and Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had the largest mean follicle diameter. Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had larger corpora lutea 15 d after TAI than Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI or High P4 cows. In accordance with corpus luteum size on d 15, High P4 cows and Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI had lower P4 from 4 to 46 d after TAI than Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI. Relative mRNA levels of the interferon-stimulated genes ISG15, MX1, MX2, and OAS1 were greater for Low P4 than for High P4 cows, whereas relative mRNA levels of RTP4 were greater for High P4 than for Low P4 cows 18 d after TAI. Treatment did not affect plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations after TAI; however, pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations were

  1. Feeding, production, and efficiency of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and mixed-breed lactating dairy cows in commercial Danish herds.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Jensen, C; Østergaard, S; Weisbjerg, M R; Aaes, O; Nielsen, N I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare efficiency measures, milk production, and feed intake for lactating cows in commercial herds using different breeds and production and milking systems. To accomplish this, we used all feed evaluations made by the Danish extension service during the period November 2012 to April 2013 for 779 herds, of which 508 were Holstein-Friesian (HOL); 100 were Jersey (JER); and 171 herds were a mixture of these 2 breeds, other dairy breeds, and crossbreeds (OTH). The annually recorded, herd-average energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was 8,716kg (JER) and 9,606kg (HOL); and average herd size was 197 cows (HOL) and 224 cows (JER). All cows were fed a total mixed or partial mixed ration supplemented with concentrate from feeding stations, housed in loose housing systems with a slatted floor, and milked in either a parlor milking unit or an automatic milking system. Energy efficiency was calculated as net energy efficiency defined as total energy demand as a percentage of energy intake and as residual feed intake defined as energy intake (net energy for lactation; NEL) minus energy requirement. Production efficiency was expressed as kilograms of ECM per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI), kilograms of ECM per 10 MJ of net energy intake (NEL), kilograms of ECM per 100kg of BW, and kilograms of DMI per 100kg of BW. Environmental efficiency was expressed by the nitrogen efficiency calculated as N in milk and meat as a percentage of N in intake, and as enteric emission of methane expressed as kilograms of ECM per megajoule of CH4. Mean milk yield for lactating cows was 30.4kg of ECM in HOL and 3kg less in JER, with OTH herds in between. Mean NEL intake was 122 MJ in JER, increasing to 147 MJ in HOL, whereas ration energy density between breeds did not differ (6.4-6.5 MJ of NEL per kg of DMI). The NEL intake and DMI explained 56 and 47%, respectively, of variation in production (ECM) for HOL herds but only 44 and 27% for JER. Jersey had a

  2. Hepatic metabolic response of Holstein cows in early and mid lactation is altered by nutrient supply and lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Bequette, B J; Moyes, K M

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic response of the liver during periods of inflammation is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of nutrient supply and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on hepatic intermediate metabolism of early- and mid-lactation cows by employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with stable isotope tracer. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in early (n = 6; 12 ± 4.2 d in milk) and mid (n = 6; 115 ± 13.5 d in milk) lactation were used for this study. Liver biopsies were performed on all cows. Liver slices (40-60 mg) were incubated in a 37°C water bath for 2 h with either control (phosphate buffered saline), pyruvate (PYR; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate and 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate), pyruvate + propionate (PYR+PRO; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate, 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate, and 2mM sodium propionate), or pyruvate + AA (PYR+AA; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate, 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate, and 2mM AA solution), and LPS (0.0 or 0.2 μg/mL) was added to flasks per treatment. Enrichment of isotopomers in metabolic equilibrium with Krebs cycle intermediates was assessed. Pyruvate fluxes and the enzymatic activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) versus pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were calculated. Media were analyzed for concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), glucose, and haptoglobin. Data were analyzed as randomized block (stage of lactation) design in a factorial arrangement of nutrient treatments by LPS dose. Challenge with LPS increased the mRNA abundance of TNF-α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A 2, and the concentration of TNF-α in media. Challenge with LPS increased mRNA abundance of PC but reduced the enrichment of (13)C1[M1] and (13)C2[M2]alanine and tended to reduce the enzymatic activity of PEPCK. Incubation with PYR+PRO and PYR+AA increased the flux of pyruvate to acetyl CoA. However, only PYR+PRO increased the enzymatic activity of PEPCK and PDH versus PC and decreased the mRNA abundance

  3. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. II. Correlations between histological criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Miller, R B; Martin, S W; Etherington, W G; Buckrell, B C

    1991-01-01

    Endometrial biopsies were taken for histological assessment from 97 cows which calved in a commercial dairy herd between April and August 1984. The main objectives of this study were to analyze the interrelationships among histological criteria and to identify a shortlist of histological parameters to be included in subsequent analysis of associations with results of bacteriological culture, clinical findings and reproductive performance. Epithelial height and segmented cell counts were highly correlated within biopsy, between horns and between days. Subjective assessment of inflammation in the epithelium and/or stratum compactum generally identified biopsies which had any inflammation present. Cows which had inflammation in a biopsy from day 26 were likely to show inflammatory changes at day 40. Quantitative and subjective assessments of gland number, dilation and fibrosis were highly correlated. There was a positive association between the number of cross sections and the diameter of glands, and both of these criteria were negatively correlated with fibrosis and inflammatory changes. There may be different functional significance of the same histological finding at a different number of days postpartum. PMID:1884296

  4. The effect of left displacement of abomasum corrected by toggle-pin suture on lactation, reproduction, and health of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Raizman, E A; Santos, J E P; Thurmond, M C

    2002-05-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effect of left displacement of abomasum (LDA) after correction by toggle-pin suture (TPS) on lactation performance, reproduction and health in Holstein dairy cows in a commercial dairy farm. Cows diagnosed with LDA and corrected by the TPS procedure (188 cows) during the first 70 d postpartum were matched with control herd-mates (186 controls) according to lactation number, calving date, and previous lactation 305-d mature equivalent milk yield. Cows were grouped according to parity and days in milk and fed the same total mixed ration throughout a 321-d lactation. Data collected included yields of milk and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM), concentration and yields of milk fat, somatic cell count, incidence of mastitis, abortion, death and culling, in addition to reproductive measures. Cows affected with LDA corrected by the TPS procedure produced less milk and tended to produce less 3.5% FCM than control cows, but the decrease in production occurred only during the first 4 mo of lactation. Left displacement of abomasum did not affect the interval from calving to conception and conception rates, but it extended the period from calving to first postpartum artificial insemination. Incidences of abortions and mastitis were not influenced by LDA. Cows affected with LDA remained in the study for a shorter period than their control herdmates, and higher proportions of cows with LDA were sold or died. Death and culling were more pronounced immediately after the diagnosis of LDA and the TPS procedure. PMID:12086051

  5. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine lactoferrin gene influence milk somatic cell score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yongjiang; Zhu, Xiaorui; Xing, Shiyu; Zhang, Meirong; Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Xiaolong; Karrow, Niel; Yang, Liguo; Yang, Zhangping

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in cow's milk that plays an important role in preventing mastitis caused by intramammary infection. In this study, 20 Chinese Holstein cows were selected randomly for PCR amplification and sequencing of the bovine lactoferrin gene promoter region and used for SNP discovery in the region between nucleotide positions -461 to -132. Three SNPs (-270T>C, -190G>A and -156A>G) were identified in bovine lactoferrin, then Chinese Holstein cows (n=866) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA) based on the previous SNP information in this study, and the associations between SNPs or haplotype and milk somatic cell score (SCS) and production traits were analyzed by the least squares method in the GLM procedure of SAS. SNPs -270T>C and -156A>G showed close linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.76). The SNP -190G>A showed a significant association with SCS, and individuals with genotype GG had higher SCS than genotypes AG and AA. Associations were found between the SNPs -270T>C and -190G>A with SCS and the milk composition. The software MatInspector revealed that these SNPs were located within several potential transcription factor binding sites, including NF-κB p50, KLF7 and SP1, and may alter gene expression, but further investigation will be required to elucidate the biological and practical relevance of these SNPs. PMID:26679804

  6. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in adult dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of G. duodenalis genotypes was determined in adult dairy cows. Fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centr...

  7. Short communication: Effect of estrogen supplemented at dry-off on temporal changes in concentrations of lactose in blood plasma of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Gulay, M S; Hayen, M J; Head, H H; Bachman, K C

    2009-08-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplemental estrogen (estradiol cypionate, ECP) at dry-off on temporal changes in concentrations of lactose in blood plasma of Holstein cows as an indicator of rate of mammary involution. Thirty-two Holstein cows (8/group) were assigned randomly to 4 treatment groups: 30-d dry, 30-d dry + ECP, 60-d dry, and 60-d dry + ECP. A single injection (7.5 mL) of cottonseed oil (30- and 60-d dry) or ECP (15 mg) in oil (30- and 60-d dry + ECP) was administered intramuscularly at dry-off. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein of all cows 24 h before dry-off and at dry-off, and then 8 samples were collected throughout the subsequent 48 h to monitor concentrations of lactose in blood plasma. No significant effects of ECP on the overall mean concentrations of lactose were detected. Concentrations of lactose increased and were greatest in blood collected 20 h (520.4 +/- 54.1, 268.1 +/- 48.2, 345.0 +/- 52.3, 418.4 +/- 49.8 microM, for the 4 treatment groups respective to the order listed above) after supplemental ECP and final milk removal. At 40 h, concentrations approached those observed 24 h before dry-off (140.5 +/- 52.1, 57.6 +/- 47.1, 90.1 +/- 51.4, 61.2 +/- 48.4 microM, respectively). Concentrations of lactose at 20 h were positively correlated with milk yield of cows at dry-off. Similar temporal profiles of lactose in blood plasma of cows supplemented or not with ECP indicated that ECP at dry-off did not markedly alter the course of tight junction leakage that typically occurs in mammary epithelial tissue during progressive early involution when milk removal is discontinued. PMID:19620664

  8. Screening for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, complex vertebral malformation, bovine citrullinaemia, and factor XI deficiency in Holstein cows reared in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine citrullinaemia (BC) and factor XI deficiency (FXID) are autosomal recessive hereditary disorders, which have had significant economic impact on dairy cattle breeding worldwide. In this study, 350 Holstein cows reared in Turkey were screened for BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID genotypes to obtain an indication on the importance of these defects in Turkish Holsteins. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from blood and the amplicons of BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID were obtained by using PCR. PCR products were digested with TaqI, AvaI and AvaII restriction enzymes for BLAD, DUMPS, and BC, respectively. These digested products and PCR product of FXID were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. CVM genotypes were detected by DNA sequencing. Additionally, all genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine whether there was a mutant allele or not. Results Fourteen BLAD, twelve CVM and four FXID carriers were found among the 350 Holstein cows examined, while carriers of DUMPS and BC were not detected. The mutant allele frequencies were calculated as 0.02, 0.017, and 0.006 for BLAD, CVM and FXID, respectively with corresponding carrier prevalence of 4.0% (BLAD), 3.4% (CVM) and 1.2% (FXID). Conclusion This study demonstrates that carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are present in the Turkish Holstein population, although at a low frequency. The actual number of clinical cases is unknown, but sporadic cases may appear. As artificial insemination is widely used in dairy cattle breeding, carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are likely present within the population of breeding sires. It is recommended to screen breeding sires for these defective genes in order to avoid an unwanted spread within the population. PMID:20929557

  9. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. III. Bacteriological analysis and correlations with histological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Martin, S W; Gannon, V P; Miller, R B; Etherington, W G

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the results of bacterial culture from 159 endometrial biopsy samples from 97 commercial dairy cows and correlations between bacteriological and histological findings. Bacteria were isolated from approximately 80% of biopsies taken at day 26 and day 40 postpartum. Eleven percent of biopsies were positive for both aerobic and anaerobic culture. Streptococci, Escherichia coli and Actinomyces pyogenes were the most common isolates. Isolation of A. pyogenes from a biopsy at day 26 was positively correlated with isolation of anaerobic bacteria and segmented cell inflammation in the same biopsy, and with subsequent isolation of A. pyogenes at day 40. There was a strong association between isolation of A. pyogenes and anaerobes at day 26 with increased uterine lesions at day 40. Isolation of alpha hemolytic streptococci (AHS) was negatively correlated with isolation of A. pyogenes and with inflammation. Actinomyces pyogenes and AHS showed opposite associations with mononuclear cell inflammation and lymphocytic foci. PMID:1884297

  10. The effect of polymorphism in gene of insulin-like growth factor-I on the serum periparturient concentration in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, A; Sharifiyazdi, H; Ahmadi, MR; Ararooti, T; Ghasrodashti, A Rowshan; Kadivar, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between polymorphism within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of IGF-I gene and its periparturient concentration in Iranian Holstein dairy cows. Methods Blood samples (5 mL, n = 37) were collected by caudal venipuncture from each animal into sample tubes containing the EDTA and DNA was extracted from blood. In order to measure IGF-I concentration the collection of blood samples (n = 111) was also done at 14 d before calving (prepartum), 25 and 45 d postpartum. Results We found evidence for a significant effect of C to T mutation in position 512 of IGF-I gene on its serum concentration in dairy cows in Iran. Cows with CC genotype had significantly higher concentration (Mean±SD) of IGF-I at 14 d prepartum (91.8±18.1) µg/L compared to those with TT genotype (73.3±14.4) µg/L (P=0.04). A significant trend (quadratic) was found for IGF-I concentration, as higher in CC cows compared to ones with TT genotype, during the 14 d before calving to 45 d postpartum (P=0.01). Conclusions We concluded that C/T transition in the promoter region of IGF-I gene can influence the serum concentration of IGF-I in periparturient dairy cows. PMID:23569844

  11. Determination of anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations in blood as a tool to select Holstein donor cows for embryo production: from the laboratory to the farm.

    PubMed

    Rico, Charlène; Drouilhet, Laurence; Salvetti, Pascal; Dalbiès-Tran, Rozenn; Jarrier, Peggy; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Pillet, Elodie; Ponsart, Claire; Fabre, Stéphane; Monniaux, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    High between-animal variability in the number of embryos produced by multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and ovum pick-up and in vitro production (OPU-IVP) methods remains a major limit to the development of embryo biotechnologies in cattle. The measurement of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) endocrine concentrations in cows can help to predict their follicular and ovulatory responses to gonadotrophin treatment. The present study aimed to provide practical information for a simple prognostic method based on AMH measurement in Holstein cows. Accurate AMH concentrations could be measured with ELISA in blood or plasma. In cows undergoing repeated OPU protocols over 1 year, the AMH concentrations measured in plasma samples collected before each gonadotrophin treatment were found to be highly repeatable and were tightly correlated with follicular responses. From data obtained at both an experimental station and farm settings, it was possible to propose AMH cut-off values to identify low-responding cows. Gonadotrophin-stimulated cows producing fewer than 15 large follicles at oestrus and fewer than 10 embryos in MOET protocols could be discarded efficiently with plasma AMH concentrations below 87 and 74 pg mL(-1), respectively. In conclusion, we propose a prognostic method based on a single AMH measurement to improve the results of embryo biotechnologies. PMID:22935154

  12. Comparison of several methods of sires evaluation for total milk yield in a herd of Holstein cows in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samarai, F.R.; Abdulrahman, Y.K.; Mohammed, F.A.; Al-Zaidi, F.H.; Al-Anbari, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 956 lactation records of Holstein cows kept at Kaa Albon station, Imuran Governorate, Yemen during the period from 1991 to 2003 were used to investigate the effect of some genetic and non-genetic factors (Sire, parity, season of calving, year of calving and age at first calving as covariate) on the Total Milk Yield (TMY), Lactation Length (LL), and Dry Period (DP). Components of variance for the random effects (mixed model) were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) methodology. Sires were evaluated for the TMY by three methods, Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) using Harvey program, Transmitting Ability (TA) according to the Least Square Means of sire progeny (TALSM) and according to Means (TAM). Results showed that TMY and DP were affected significantly (P < 0.01) by all factors except season of calving and age at first calving, while LL was affected significantly (P< 0.01) only by year of calving and parity. The averages of the TMY, LL, and DP were 3919.66 kg, 298.28 days, and 114.13 days respectively. The corresponding estimates of heritability (h2) were 0.35, 0.06, and 0.14 respectively. The highest and lowest BLUP values of sires for the TMY were – 542.44 kg and 402.14 kg, while the corresponding estimates for TALSM and TAM were – 470.38, 380.88 kg and – 370.12, 388.50 kg respectively. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients among BLUP, TALSM and TAM ranged from 0.81 to 0.67. These results provide evidence that the selection of sires will improve the TMY in this herd because of the wide differences in genetic poetical among sires, and a moderate estimation of heritability. PMID:26623356

  13. Effects of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on physical and biochemical properties of the claw horn of Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kurumado, Hisatoshi; Mori, Maya; Degawa, Aiko; Fujisawa, Hideyo; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on the physical and biochemical properties of the claw horn of Holstein cows were evaluated. Significant (P < 0.05, 0.01) decreases in hardness and elasticity were found in claw horns soaked in ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) solutions compared with those that were soaked in water for 12, 24, and 48 h. Water absorption rate, as a indicator of permeability barrier function, increased significantly (P < 0.05) over time during the soaking period and was found to be dependent on the concentrations of NH3 and H2S in the solutions. The contents of ceramide, the main lipid component for the permeability barrier system of the stratum corneum, were significantly decreased in claw horns soaked in NH3 and H2S solutions compared with the values before soaking. Quantities of eluted protein released from claw horns treated with NH3 and H2S solutions were approximately 20 times and 30 to 40 times greater than those released from claw horns treated with water alone. Interestingly, the quantities of cytokeratin 10, the main cytoskeletal protein of the stratum corneum, eluted from claw horns treated with NH3 and H2S solutions were markedly greater than the quantity released from horns soaked in water. Our results suggest that abnormal changes in the physical property of claw horn caused by NH3 and H2S treatment are due to disruption of the biochemical property of the claw horn induced by these chemical agents derived from slurry. PMID:19337390

  14. Supplemental fish oil does not alter immune competence or the pathophysiological response to an intramammary infusion of endotoxin in peri-partum multiparous Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Michael A; Gomes, Rodrigo C; DePeters, Edward J

    2009-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of supplementing the diet with fish oil during the peri-partum period on the immune competence and the pathophysiological response to a lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis challenge. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=30) were completely randomized to one of two treatments at 3 weeks pre-partum. Treatments differed only in the source of supplemental lipid and included either Energy Booster or fish oil. Treatment diets were fed from -21 d relative to expected date of parturition until 10 d post partum. Treatments were fed as a bolus prior to the a.m. feeding. The dose of lipid during the pre-partum period was 250 g/d, whereas the amount of lipid supplemented post partum was adjusted to the level of intake, approximately 0.92% of the previous day's dry matter intake. Ex-vivo analyses of immune competence were measured including the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans as well as the production of interferon-gamma by peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. At 7 days in milk cows were infused with 100 microg of Esch. coli lipopolysaccharide into one rear quarter. Supplementing fish oil increased plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, but had no affect on the proportions of arachidonic acid at calving. Fish oil did not influence the production of interferon-gamma or the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against any of the microorganisms. Furthermore, fish oil had no ameliorative effect on either the local or the systemic acute phase response following an intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge in early lactating Holstein cows. Supplementing fish oil in the diet of peri-partum cows will not protect them from deleterious effects of an excessive acute phase response. PMID:19121237

  15. Effects of eCG and FSH on ovarian response, recovery rate and number and quality of oocytes obtained by ovum pick-up in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Sendag, Sait; Cetin, Yunus; Alan, Muhammet; Hadeler, Klaus-Gerd; Niemann, Heiner

    2008-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the ovarian response, oocyte yields per animal, and the morphological quality of oocytes collected by ultrasound guided follicular aspiration from Holstein cows treated either with FSH or eCG. Twenty four normal cyclic, German Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups. Fourteen cows received 3000 IU eCG on day-4 prior to ovum pick-up (OPU) (day 0), 2 days later (day-2), 625 microg cloprostenol was administered. On day-1 GnRH was administered i.m. and 24h later OPU (day 0) was performed. In ten cows a total dose of 500 IU follicle stimulating hormone (Pluset) was administered intramuscularly in a constant dosage for 4 days with intervals of 12h, starting on day-5. Luteolysis was induced by application of 625 microg cloprostenol on day-2. On day-1 (24h after the last FSH treatment) GnRH was administered i.m. and 24h later OPU (day 0) was performed. Ovarian follicles were visualized on the ultrasound monitor, counted and recorded. All visible antral follicles were punctured. Recovered oocytes were graded morphologically based on the cumulus investment. Average follicle number in ovaries was higher in FSH group than eCG group (p<0.05). Oocyte yields per animal did not differ between FSH and eCG groups. The proportion of grade A oocytes was higher in the FSH group in the than eCG group (p<0.05). Likewise, rate of grade C oocytes in FSH group were lower than eCG group (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that ovarian response, follicle number in ovaries and oocyte quality are affected by the type of gonadotropin and FSH is better alternative than eCG for OPU treatment. PMID:18294785

  16. A SNP in the 3'-untranslated region of AMPKγ1 may associate with serum ketone body and milk production of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Zargaran, Amir; Amini, Hamid-Reza; Assadi, Assad; Vajdi Hokmabad, Reza; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2015-12-10

    AMPK is the key switch for providing the energy balance between cellular anabolic and catabolic processes. In this study, we aimed to screen the PRKAG1 (AMPKγ1) gene in high, moderate, and low producing Holstein dairy cows. A sample of 100 pregnant dairy cows, comprising 41 high, 33 moderate, and 26 low milk yields were selected from three large dairy herds in Isfahan province of Iran. Body condition score (BCS) was estimated before parturition while beta hydroxyl butyric acid (BHBA) as a measure of ketone bodies was measured at the fifth day postpartum. In addition, using three primer pairs covering exons 2-11 and 3'-UTR of the PRKAG1 gene, a random sample of 10 high milk yield dairy cows were amplified and sequenced. The sequencing results showed the presence of a T12571C mutation in intron 6 and a T14280C mutation in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the PRKAG1 gene. Following a PCR reaction for amplification of the 3'-UTR amplicons, single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay was implemented for discrimination of the mutation in the studied population. Then, we evaluated if the mutation associates with the BCS, serum BHBA level, and production traits. The experimental analysis showed that the mutated allele significantly increased the BHBA level, BCS, as well as milk and protein yield. Bioinformatic study revealed that this 3'-UTR mutation distorts the target site of mir-423-5p microRNA which is one of the most highly expressed microRNAs in the bovine mammary gland, liver, and kidney. Given the role of AMPK in energy metabolism, the newly identified 3'-UTR mutation highlights the importance of AMPK and suggests a role of miRNAs for regulation of cellular metabolism, metabolism disorders, and production traits in Holstein dairy cows. PMID:26226224

  17. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P < 0.05 was significant. The calving difficulty score (1-5) was greater in heifers (median, 3.0) than in cows (median, 1.0). Median intrapelvic area immediately before parturition was smaller in heifers (268 cm(2)) than in cows (332 cm(2)), whereas front hoof circumference and birth weight of the calf were similar in both groups. The calving difficulty score was positively associated with calf birth weight in heifers (rs = 0.39) and cows (rs = 0.24). Binary logistic regression using both dam and calf data indicated that the ratio of front hoof circumference of the calf to the maternal intrapelvic area provided the best predictor of dystocia (calving difficulty score = 4 or 5), with sensitivity = 0.50 and specificity = 0.93 at the optimal cutpoint for the ratio (>0.068 cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle. PMID:26474687

  18. Rear shape in 3 dimensions summarized by principal component analysis is a good predictor of body condition score in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A; Luginbühl, T; Delattre, L; Delouard, J M; Faverdin, P

    2015-07-01

    Body condition is an indirect estimation of the level of body reserves, and its variation reflects cumulative variation in energy balance. It interacts with reproductive and health performance, which are important to consider in dairy production but not easy to monitor. The commonly used body condition score (BCS) is time consuming, subjective, and not very sensitive. The aim was therefore to develop and validate a method assessing BCS with 3-dimensional (3D) surfaces of the cow's rear. A camera captured 3D shapes 2 m from the floor in a weigh station at the milking parlor exit. The BCS was scored by 3 experts on the same day as 3D imaging. Four anatomical landmarks had to be identified manually on each 3D surface to define a space centered on the cow's rear. A set of 57 3D surfaces from 56 Holstein dairy cows was selected to cover a large BCS range (from 0.5 to 4.75 on a 0 to 5 scale) to calibrate 3D surfaces on BCS. After performing a principal component analysis on this data set, multiple linear regression was fitted on the coordinates of these surfaces in the principal components' space to assess BCS. The validation was performed on 2 external data sets: one with cows used for calibration, but at a different lactation stage, and one with cows not used for calibration. Additionally, 6 cows were scanned once and their surfaces processed 8 times each for repeatability and then these cows were scanned 8 times each the same day for reproducibility. The selected model showed perfect calibration and a good but weaker validation (root mean square error=0.31 for the data set with cows used for calibration; 0.32 for the data set with cows not used for calibration). Assessing BCS with 3D surfaces was 3 times more repeatable (standard error=0.075 versus 0.210 for BCS) and 2.8 times more reproducible than manually scored BCS (standard error=0.103 versus 0.280 for BCS). The prediction error was similar for both validation data sets, indicating that the method is not less

  19. Effect of summer season on milk protein fractions in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bernabucci, U; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Dipasquale, D; Vitali, A; Piccioli Cappelli, F; Calamari, L

    2015-03-01

    Milk characteristics are affected by heat stress, but very little information is available on changes of milk protein fractions and their relationship with cheesemaking properties of milk. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot season on milk protein fractions and cheesemaking properties of milk for Grana Padano cheese production. The study was carried out in a dairy farm with a cheese factory for transforming the milk to Grana Padano cheese. The study was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013. Temperature and relative humidity of the inside barn were recorded daily during the study period using 8 electronic data loggers programmed to record every 30 min. Constant managerial conditions were maintained during the experimental periods. During the experimental period, feed and diet characteristics, milk yield, and milk characteristics were recorded in summer (from June 29 to July 27, 2012), winter (from January 25 to March 8, 2013), and spring (from May 17 to May 31, 2013). Milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were taken from 25 cows selected in each season during the p.m. milking. Content of fat, proteins, caseins (CN), lactose and somatic cell count (SCC), titratable acidity, and milk rennet coagulation properties were determined on fresh samples. Milk protein fraction concentrations were determined by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Data were tested for nonnormality by the Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of nonnormality, parameters were normalized by log or exponential transformation. The data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA using a mixed model procedure. For all the main milk components (fat, protein, total solids, and solids-not-fat), the lowest values were observed in the summer and the greatest values were observed in the winter. Casein fractions, with the exception of γ-CN, showed the lowest values in the summer and the greatest values in the winter. The content of IgG and serum albumin was greater in summer

  20. The relationship between growth hormone polymorphism and growth hormone receptor genes with milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Z; Atashi, H; Dadpasand, M; Derakhshandeh, A; Ghahramani Seno, M. M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between growth hormone GH/AluI and growth hormone receptor GHR/AluI polymorphisms with milk yield and reproductive performances in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. Blood samples of 150 Holstein cows were collected and their genomic DNA was extracted using Gene-Fanavaran DNA extracting kit. Fragments of the 428 bp of exon 5 growth hormone (GH) gene and the 342 bp of exon 10 growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. PCR products were digested by the AluI restriction enzyme and electrophoresed on 3% agarose gel. Continuous and categorical data were analyzed using linear mixed models through Proc MIXED and logistic regression models through Proc GENMOD of SAS software, respectively. The results showed no relationship between the examined traits and GH/AluI or GHR/AluI genes. A significant relationship was found between GH/AluI polymorphism and dystocia, but the presence of the GH-L allele reduced the incidence of dystocia. The results suggest that the GH-LL genotype reduces dystocia probably by affecting the release of growth hormone; nevertheless, further studies will be needed to examine the relationship between dystocia and GH genotypes. PMID:27175183

  1. Peripartum back fat thickness of multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with displacement of the abomasum or ketosis.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Takahiro; Matsui, Motozumi; Yamada, Kazutaka; Ishii, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    To establish a method to predict postpartum diseases using prepartum back fat thickness (BFT), the peripartum BFTs of 54 healthy multiparous cows before calving, which were diagnosed with postpartum displacement of the abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis or subclinical ketosis were compared with those of healthy cows from 8 weeks before the expected calving date to 8 weeks after calving. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with DA or clinical ketosis were significantly higher than those of healthy cows. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with subclinical ketosis were not significantly higher than those of the healthy cows. PMID:22185774

  2. Short communication: reference values for blood parameters in Holstein dairy cows: effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season of production.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, G; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Moro, L; Brscic, M; Dalvit, P

    2011-08-01

    Confidence intervals for blood parameters used for nutritional and metabolic profile testing in cattle were calculated for clinically normal lactating Holstein cows, taking into account the effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season. Blood samples were collected from 740 cows in 33 Italian dairy herds according to a predefined protocol. Herds were visited during summer and the following winter, sampling 12 lactating cows at each visit (4 primiparous and 8 multiparous). Six cows were selected from the early-lactation group (days in milk: 10 to 89) and the other 6 were selected from the mid-lactation group (days in milk: 90 to 215). Cow selection criteria excluded animals clinically exposed to periparturient diseases as well as animals not considered in good health by a veterinary clinical examination. For each blood variable, outliers were identified and discarded. Data were then analyzed for their Gaussian distribution and variables with not normal distribution were log-transformed to adjust for lack of normality. Herd mean values were calculated for each blood parameter according to 3 main classification factors: parity (primiparous vs. multiparous), stage of lactation (early vs. mid) and season of production (summer vs. winter). The resulting data set was statistically analyzed using a mixed model with the fixed effects of these factors, their interactions, and the random effect of herd. General 95% confidence intervals were calculated for blood variables that showed a relevant herd variance component such as albumin, triglycerides, aspartate, urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct and total bilirubin, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. For the remaining parameters, specific confidence intervals were calculated for each level of the significant main factors. Parity affected blood concentration of total protein, globulin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatinine kinase, and phosphorus. Blood

  3. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    PubMed Central

    Li, X. Z.; Park, B. K.; Yan, C. G.; Choi, J. G.; Ahn, J. S.; Shin, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  4. Effect of reducing dietary forage in lower starch diets on performance, ruminal characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Farmer, E R; Tucker, H A; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Mooney, C S; Lock, A L; Yagi, K; Grant, R J

    2014-09-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of feeding a lower starch diet (21% of dry matter) with different amounts of forage (52, 47, 43, and 39% of dry matter) on lactational performance, chewing activity, ruminal fermentation and turnover, microbial N yield, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. Dietary forage consisted of a mixture of corn and haycrop silages, and as dietary forage content was reduced, chopped wheat straw (0-10% of dry matter) was added in an effort to maintain chewing activity. Dietary concentrate was adjusted (corn meal, nonforage fiber sources, and protein sources) to maintain similar amounts of starch and other carbohydrate and protein fractions among the diets. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Dry matter intake increased while physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF1.18) intake was reduced as forage content decreased from 52 to 39%. However, reducing dietary forage did not influence milk yield or composition, although we observed changes in dry matter intake. Time spent chewing, eating, and ruminating (expressed as minutes per day or as minutes per kilogram of NDF intake) were not affected by reducing dietary forage. However, addition of chopped wheat straw to the diets resulted in greater time spent chewing and eating per kilogram of peNDF1.18 consumed. Reducing dietary forage from 52 to 39% did not affect ruminal pH, ruminal digesta volume and mass, ruminal pool size of NDF or starch, ruminal digesta mat consistency, or microbial N yield. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio was reduced, ruminal turnover rates of NDF and starch were greater, and total-tract digestibility of fiber diminished as dietary forage content decreased. Reducing the dietary forage content from 52 to 39% of dry matter, while increasing wheat straw inclusion to maintain chewing and rumen function, resulted in similar milk yield and composition although feed intake increased. With the lower starch

  5. Tissue protein nitration and peripheral blood endotoxin activity are indicative of the severity of systemic organ compromise in naturally-occurring clinical cases of bacterial mastitis in Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this survey study was to determine a relationship between the intensity of tissue protein tyrosine nitration measured in samples of mammary gland, liver, pancreas and lung compared to estimated blood endotoxin (LPS) activity. Blood was collected from nine multiparous Holstein cows...

  6. Effects of α-linolenic acid-enriched diets on gene expression of key inflammatory mediators in immune and milk cells obtained from Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rezamand, Pedram; Hatch, Brent P; Carnahan, Kevin G; McGuire, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Immune system and inflammatory responses are affected by α-linolenic acid (αLA: 18:3 ω-3). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of αLA-enriched rations on gene expression of systemic (blood) and local (mammary gland) inflammatory markers in Holstein dairy cattle. Further, the effect of dietary treatments was evaluated on the concentration of αLA in serum phospholipids. Camelina (Camelina sativa) meal (containing 24·2% αLA) was fed at 0, 3, 6, and 9% (dry matter basis) replacing canola meal (rich in 18:1 ω-9) to provide rations with incremental concentrations of αLA. Lactating primiparous Holstein cows (n = 18) were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 16 d and milk and blood samples were collected during the final 2 d of each period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and milk cells (MC) were harvested, and RNA extracted and converted to complementary DNA for quantitative real time PCR analysis. The effect of dietary treatments (αLA) on the relative abundance of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in the PBMC and MC was tested by the MIXED procedure of SAS. Expression of pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in MC was linearly reduced (up to 40%) as dietary αLA increased. Expression of pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α was reduced (29, 20, and 27%, respectively) in PBMC isolated from cows fed 6% camelina meal ration as compared with cows fed 0% (control). Expression of IL-6 was, however, increased with inclusion of camelina meal. Greater dietary αLA linearly increased serum phospholipids αLA contents, and when fed up to 6% DM down-regulated expression of some of the local (milk) and systemic (blood) pro-inflammatory markers in vivo. PMID:26869108

  7. Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with daughter pregnancy rate for prediction of genetic merit for reproduction in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M S; Denicol, A C; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated 69 SNPs in genes previously related to fertility and production traits for their relationship to daughter pregnancy rate (DPR), cow conception rate (CCR) and heifer conception rate (HCR) in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped according to their predicted transmitting ability (PTA) [≤-1 (n = 1287) and ≥1.5 (n = 1036)] for DPR. Genotyping was performed using Sequenom MassARRAY(®) . There were a total of 39 SNPs associated with the three fertility traits. The SNPs that explained the greater proportion of the genetic variation for DPR were COQ9 (3.2%), EPAS1 (1.0%), CAST (1.0%), C7H19orf60 (1.0%) and MRPL48 (1.0%); for CCR were GOLGA4 (2.4%), COQ9 (1.8%), EPAS1 (1.1%) and MRPL48 (0.8%); and for HCR were HSD17B7 (1.0%), AP3B1 (0.8%), HSD17B12 (0.7%) and CACNA1D (0.6%). Inclusion of 39 SNPs previously associated with DPR in the genetic evaluation system increased the reliability of PTA for DPR by 0.20%. Many of the genes represented by SNPs associated with fertility are involved in steroidogenesis or are regulated by steroids. A large proportion of SNPs previously associated with genetic merit for fertility in Holstein bulls maintained their association in a separate population of cows. The inclusion of these genes in genetic evaluation can improve reliabilities of genomic estimates for fertility. PMID:26923315

  8. An examination of two concentrate allocation strategies which are based on the early lactation milk yield of autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of two concentrate feeding strategies offered with a grass silage and maize silage diet on the dry matter (DM) intake, milk production (MP) and estimated energy balance of autumn calved dairy cows. Over a 2-year period, 180 autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows were examined. Within year, cows were blocked into three MP sub-groups (n=9) (high (HMP), medium (MMP) and low (LMP)) based on the average MP data from weeks 3 and 4 of lactation. Within a block cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=54), flat rate (FR) concentrate feeding or feed to yield (FY) based on MP sub-group. Cows on the FR treatment were offered a fixed rate of concentrate (5.5 kg DM/cow per day) irrespective of MP sub-group. In the FY treatment HMP, MMP and LMP cows were allocated 7.3, 5.5 and 3.7 kg DM of concentrate, respectively. The mean concentrate offered to the FR and FY treatments was the same. On the FR treatment there was no significant difference in total dry matter intake (TDMI, 17.3 kg) between MP sub-groups. In the FY treatment, however, the TDMI of HMP-FY was 2.2 kg greater than MMP-FY, and 4.5 kg greater than LMP-FY (15.2 kg DM). The milk yield of LMP-FR was 3.5 kg less than the mean of the HMP-FR and MMP-FR treatments (24.5 kg). The milk yield of the HMP-FY treatment was 3.6 and 7.9 kg greater than the MMP-FY and LMP-FY treatments, respectively. The difference in MP between the HMP sub-groups was 2.6 kg, which translates to a response of 1.4 kg of milk per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered. There was no significant difference in MP between the two LMP sub-groups; however, MP increased 0.8 kg per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered between cows on the LMP-FR and LMP-FY treatments. The estimated energy balance was positive for cows on the LMP-FR treatment, but negative for cows on the other treatments. The experiment highlights the variation within a herd in MP response to concentrate, as cows with a

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CXCR1 gene and its association with clinical mastitis incidence in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Pokorska, J; Dusza, M; Kułaj, D; Żukowski, K; Makulska, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine chemokine receptor (CXCR1) gene and the resistance or susceptibility of cows to mastitis. The analysis of the CXCR1 polymorphism was carried out using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for six SNP mutations (c.+291C>T, c.+365T>C, c.+816C>A, c.+819G>A, +1093C>T, and +1373C>A), of which four were located within the coding region and two in the 3'UTR region of the CXCR1 gene. Genetic material from 146 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows was analyzed after dividing into two groups depending on the incidence of clinical mastitis. Identified polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium and formed two linkage groups. Three haplotypes (CCCATA, TTAGCC, CTCGCC), forming six haplotype combinations, were detected. The logistic regression showed a significant association between the CC genotype at c.+365T>C and susceptibility of cows to clinical mastitis (P = 0.047). The frequency of haplotype combination 1/1 (CCCATA/CCCATA) was not significantly higher in cows susceptible to mastitis (P = 0.062). Of the identified SNP mutations, only c.+365T>C is a nonsynonymous mutation that induces a change in the coded protein [GCC (Ala) to GTC (Val) at the 122nd amino acid]. This amino acid change can result in changes in receptor function, which may be a reason for the increased mastitis incidence observed in cows with polymorphism at this site. PMID:27173275

  10. Effect of linseed feeding on blood metabolites, incidence of cystic follicles, and productive and reproductive performance in fresh Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Mahjoubi, E; Dirandeh, E

    2015-03-01

    This study was done to investigate the effect of feeding linseed on blood metabolites, incidence of cystic follicles, resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, pregnancy rate, milk production, and composition in fresh Holstein dairy cows. A total of 399 dairy cows were assigned randomly to 2 diets. Diets contained either protected palm oil (CON) or extruded linseed (LIN) and were fed from calving to d 40 postpartum. Ovaries of each cow were examined on d 10, 20, 30, and 40 after parturition (parturition=d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development, ovarian disorders, and cyclicity. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals for 6 wk starting on the day of parturition to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and blood urea N (BUN). Results showed plasma glucose concentration was affected by the diets and was greater in the LIN treatment, but BHBA, NEFA, and BUN concentrations were similar among treatments. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on milk production and composition except milk fat percentage that significantly decreased in cows fed LIN (3.55%) compared with those fed with CON (4.17%). Plasma progesterone concentrations were greater in LIN treatment than CON treatment (1.31±0.09 vs. 0.87±0.09) at early postpartum. The resumption of cyclicity and onset of estrus were influenced by treatments and reduced by 7 d in LIN treatment compared with CON treatment. Cows fed diets enriched in LIN fatty acids had a lesser incidence of cystic follicles. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the number of days open, number of services per pregnancy, and pregnancy rate. In conclusion, feeding linseed immediately after parturition decreased milk fat and incidence of cystic follicles, increased progesterone concentrations early postpartum, and caused earlier resumption of cyclicity but did not affect pregnancy rate. PMID:25547310

  11. Influence of energy and nutrient supply pre and post partum on performance of multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gruber, L; Urdl, M; Obritzhauser, W; Schauer, A; Häusler, J; Steiner, B

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pre partum (PRE) and post partum (POST) dietary energy and nutrient supply (E) and their interactions on feed intake, performance and energy status in dairy cows of three breeds. In this experiment, the effects of three energy and nutrient supply levels (low (L), medium (M), high (H)), both pre-calving and post-calving, were investigated, using a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. In both phases (84 days pre- and 105 days post-calving) E levels applied to a total of 81 multiparous cows of breeds Simmental (SI), Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF; n=27 for each breed), were 75%, 100% and 125% of recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology (GfE). Dry matter intake (DMI) was restricted, if energy intake exceeded target values. Pre partum DMI and energy intake were different as designed, liveweight and body condition score (BCS) of SI cows were higher, but EB was lower, compared to BS and HF cows. Milk yield and composition were influenced by all three main experimental factors (EPRE, EPOST, breed). Energy-corrected milk yield was 25.6, 28.6 and 30.1 kg/day for LPRE, MPRE and HPRE as well as 21.5, 30.1 and 32.6 kg/day for LPOST, MPOST and HPOST, respectively. Numerically, only for milk protein content the interactions EPRE×EPOST and EPRE×breed reached significance. Impact of energy supply pre-calving was more pronounced when cows had lower energy supply post-calving and vice versa. On the other hand, milk yield response of cows to energy supply above requirements was greater for cows that were fed on a low energy level pre partum. Impact of energy level pre partum was higher for HF cows, showing that their milk production relies to a greater extent on mobilization of body reserves. Increasing energy supply pre partum led to a more negative energy balance post partum, mainly by increasing milk yield and content, whereas feed intake was slightly reduced. Increasing energy supply post

  12. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS <3.0; n=10) or overweight (BCS >4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as

  13. Milk yield and estrous behavior during eight consecutive estruses in Holstein cows fed standardized or high energy diets and grouped according to live weight changes in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Barbu, H; Sørensen, M T; Sehested, J; Callesen, H; Vestergaard, M

    2016-04-01

    Cows managed for extended lactation go through several estruses before rebreeding. The aims of this study were (1) to quantify the effect of the first 8 estruses after calving on milk yield, milking frequency, and estrous behavioral activity, and (2) to determine the effects of early lactation live weight gain (LWG) as an indication of energy balance on milk yield, plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentration, estrous behavioral activity, interval from calving to first estrus, between-estrus intervals, and pregnancy risk. Milk yield, live weight, and estrous behavioral activity were measured daily in 62 Holstein cows, 17 primiparous and 45 multiparous, managed for an 18-mo calving interval. Blood plasma obtained at wk 3, 5, 12, and 24 after calving was analyzed for IGF-1. Estrus was detected by use of milk progesterone profiles combined with visual observations (i.e., mounting behavior and other). The cows were divided into 2 groups: the cows having a negative LWG in each of the first 5wk postpartum and the cows having a positive LWG in at least 1 of the first 5wk after calving. The results indicate a similar decrease of 0.56kg of milk per day of estrus during each of the 8 consecutive estruses. The activity level was 17±1 movements per hour higher during the 8 estruses compared with the basic activity level. More cows expressed mounting behavior at estrus 8 than at estrus 2 (63.3 and 45.9%, respectively). The negative LWG cows had lower IGF-1 and higher milk production than the positive LWG cows. Both LWG groups had similar interval from calving to first estrus, on average 55 d. To conclude, the decrease in milk yield during estrus is marginal and similar in consecutive estruses. Moreover, estrous behavior is more highly expressed in the later estruses compared with the earlier estruses. Reproductive parameters (frequency of mounting, pregnancy risk, interval to first estrus, and between-estrus intervals) were not influenced by the live weight change

  14. Effects of month of breeding on reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows and heifers inseminated with sex-sorted or conventional semen in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Sepulveda, Edgar; Macias-Cruz, Ulises; Avendaño, Leonel; Garcia, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; Rodríguez, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of month of breeding on reproduction performance of Holstein heifers and cows inseminated with sex-sorted or conventional semen in a hot environment. Pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI; 64,666 services over an 8-year period) both in heifers (n = 22,313) and cows (n = 42,353) from a large dairy herd in northern Mexico (26°N) were evaluated with the GENMOD procedure of SAS, with respect to month of AI. Overall, P/AI with sex-sorted semen was greater (P < 0.01) in heifers (41.6 %) than cows (17.3 %). P/AI for cows serviced with conventional semen was 10 % points higher (P < 0.01) in January and December (31 vs. 21 %) than cows serviced with sex-sorted semen. While there was no difference in P/AI between the sex-sorted sperm and conventional semen in cows inseminated in July (16 and 18 %, respectively), P/AI plummeted for both groups of cows during the summer and fall (more severe heat stress). P/AI was not different between heifers serviced with sex-sorted or conventional semen during the hottest months of the year (July to October). However, during the coldest month of the year (January and February), P/AI was 10 percentage points greater (P < 0.01) in heifers serviced with conventional than sex-sorted semen. It was concluded that in this hot climate cow and heifer fertility declined in the summer and fall when inseminated with conventional semen. However, the use of sex-sorted semen during summer and fall did not compromise the breeding success in heifers. Thus, this data suggest that sex-sorted semen promotes some embryonic thermoprotective mechanism, which leads to a marginal summer and fall fertility depression with this type of semen in this particular hot environment. PMID:24048822

  15. Effects of 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages on conception rates of Holstein cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    DeJarnette, J M; McCleary, C R; Leach, M A; Moreno, J F; Nebel, R L; Marshall, C E

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to compare conceptions rates of Holstein cows and heifers after artificial insemination (AI) with 2.1 or 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm or 15x10(6) conventional sperm. Ejaculates collected from 7 Holstein sires were cryopreserved conventionally at 15x10(6) sperm per dose or sorted to 90% purity for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa using flow cytometry and cryopreserved at either 2.1 or 3.5x10(6) sperm per dose. All treatments were processed in an egg-yolk (20%), Tris, glycerol (7%) extender and packaged in color-coded 0.25-mL French straws. Straws (n=700 straws/dosage per sire) were packaged and distributed in aliquots of 12 (4 straws/sperm dosage) to 69 Holstein herds with an across-herd goal of achieving approximately 50% use in heifers and cows. Straw color was recorded in the on-farm recordkeeping system at the time of AI and retrieved by electronic download. Data for cows and heifers were analyzed separately. Among heifers, 6,268 services were retrieved from 45 herds (298+/-4.2 services/sperm dose per sire; range: 244 to 344). Conception rate of heifers was influenced by the sire by treatment interaction. Conception rate of the 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages were comparable in 6 of 7 sires. Conception rate of both sex-sorted dosages were less than those of conventional semen for 6 of 7 sires. Across sires, heifer conception rates for 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages and 15x10(6) conventional dosages were 44, 46, and 61%, respectively. Among cows, 5,466 services were retrieved from 52 herds (260+/-3.3 services/sperm dose per sire; range: 236 to 289). Conception rates of cows were influenced by herd, sire, and sperm dosage. Conception rates of the 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were comparable for all 7 sires. Conception rates of 2.1x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were less than those of conventional semen for 4 of 7 sires and conception rates of the 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were less than those of

  16. Pregnancy success of lactating Holstein cows after a single administration of a sustained-release formulation of recombinant bovine somatotropin

    PubMed Central

    Bell, A; Rodríguez, OA; de Castro e Paula, LA; Padua, MB; Hernández-Cerón, J; Gutiérrez, CG; De Vries, A; Hansen, PJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Results regarding the use of bovine somatotropin for enhancing fertility in dairy cattle are variable. Here, the hypothesis was tested that a single injection of a sustained-release preparation of bovine somatotropin (bST) during the preovulatory period would improve pregnancy success of lactating dairy cows at first service. Results The first experiment was conducted in a temperate region of Mexico. Cows inseminated following natural estrus or timed artificial insemination were given a single injection of bST or a placebo injection at insemination (n = 100 cows per group). There was no significant difference between bST and control groups in the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant (29 vs 31% pregnant). The second experiment was performed during heat stress in Florida. Cows were subjected to an ovulation synchronization regimen for first insemination. Cows treated with bST received a single injection at 3 days before insemination. Controls received no additional treatment. As expected, bST did not increase vaginal temperature. Treatment with bST did not significantly increase the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant although it was numerically greater for the bST group (24.2% vs 17.8%, 124–132 cows per group). There was a tendency (p = 0.10) for a smaller percent of control cows to have high plasma progesterone concentrations (≥ 1 ng/ml) at Day 7 after insemination than for bST-treated cows (72.6 vs 81.1%). When only cows that were successfully synchronized were considered, the magnitude of the absolute difference in the percentage of inseminated cows that were diagnosed pregnant between bST and control cows was reduced (24.8 vs 22.4% pregnant for bST and control). Conclusion Results failed to indicate a beneficial effect of bST treatment on fertility of lactating dairy cows. PMID:18582389

  17. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  18. The effect of timing of the induction of ovulation on embryo production in superstimulated lactating Holstein cows undergoing fixed-time artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M; Rodrigues, C A; Vieira, L M; Mapletoft, R J; Bó, G A; Sá Filho, M F; Baruselli, P S

    2012-09-15

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of timing of the induction of ovulation in superstimulated lactating Holstein donor cows that were fixed-time artificially inseminated. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of the timing of progesterone (P4) device removal (Experiment 1) or the addition of a second norgestomet implant (Experiment 2) during superstimulation. In Experiment 1, 12 cows were allocated to one of four treatment groups with the timing of P4 device removal (24 or 36 h) and pLH treatment (48 or 60 h), after the first PGF as main factors, in a Latin Square (cross-over) design. There was an interaction (P = 0.03) between time of P4 device removal and time of pLH treatment. Mean (± SEM) numbers of transferable embryos were higher when the P4 device was removed at 36 h and pLH was administered at 60 h after the first PGF (P36LH60 =6.3 ± 1.4) compared to other treatments (P24LH60 =3.7 ± 1.1; P24LH48 =2.4 ± 0.8; or P36LH48 =2.2 ± 0.7). In Experiment 2, 40 cows were randomly allocated into one of four treatments with the number of norgestomet implants (one or two) and the time of induction of ovulation with GnRH relative to the first PGF (48 vs. 60 h) as main effects. The mean number of transferable embryos was higher (P = 0.02) when GnRH was administered at 60 h (4.2 ± 1.3) compared to at 48 h (2.7 ± 0.8), and the number of freezable embryos was increased (P = 0.01) in cows receiving two (3.0 ± 1.0) rather than one norgestomet implant (1.5 ± 0.5). In summary, embryo production in lactating Holstein cows was increased when the ovulatory stimulus (pLH or GnRH) was given 60 h after the first PGF, particularly when the P4 device was removed 36 h after the first PGF and when two norgestomet ear implants were used during the superstimulation protocol. PMID:22819286

  19. Performance, bioenergetic status, and indicators of oxidative stress of environmentally heat-loaded Holstein cows in response to diets inducing milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Kargar, S; Ghorbani, G R; Fievez, V; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-07-01

    Effects of grain type and dietary oil supplement on production performance, energy balance, metabolic heat production, and markers of liver function of heat-loaded lactating dairy cows were evaluated using 8 multiparous Holstein cows (77.0d in milk) in a duplicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Experimental diets contained either ground barley or ground corn supplemented with either fish oil or soybean oil at 2% of dietary dry matter. Mean daily maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and maximum temperature-humidity index were 35.3°C, 11.3%, and 77.0, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect rectal temperature (38.9°C), but respiration rate tended to decrease in cows fed fish oil versus soybean oil. Dry matter intake decreased for the fish oil-supplemented diets (21.1 vs. 24.3kg/d), which was negatively correlated with plasma concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (r=-0.45; n=32) and malondialdehyde (r=-0.26; n=32). Actual milk yield (41.9kg/d) and energy-corrected milk yield (36.6kg/d) were not affected by grain type, whereas feeding fish oil decreased milk yield as compared with soybean oil (40.4 vs. 43.4kg/d). Milk fat depression occurred in all dietary treatments, especially when cows were fed fish oil because of the presence of polyunsaturated FA in the diets. trans-10 C18:1 was negatively correlated with milk fat yield (r=-0.38; n=32). Daily milk cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 secretion was 29.6% less in cows fed barley- versus corn-based diets but 31.8% greater in cows fed fish oil as compared with cows fed soybean oil. Because of a lower dry matter intake, metabolic heat production was decreased in cows fed fish oil relative to cows fed soybean oil. Although feeding fish oil versus soybean oil decreased net energy for both maintenance and lactation, net energy balance remained unchanged across treatments. In vivo plasma lipoperoxidation was greater in cows fed fish oil versus soybean oil, which

  20. Large-Scale Glycomics of Livestock: Discovery of Highly Sensitive Serum Biomarkers Indicating an Environmental Stress Affecting Immune Responses and Productivity of Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Ibrahim F; Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Amano, Maho; Hinou, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Tetsu; Kondo, Seiji; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Because various stresses strongly influence the food productivity of livestock, biomarkers to indicate unmeasurable environmental stress in domestic animals are of increasing importance. Thermal comfort is one of the basic principles of dairy cow welfare that enhances productivity. To discover sensitive biomarkers that monitor such environmental stresses in dairy cows, we herein performed, for the first time, large-scale glycomics on 336 lactating Holstein cow serum samples over 9 months between February and October. Glycoblotting combined with MALDI-TOF/MS and DMB/HPLC allowed for comprehensive glycomics of whole serum glycoproteins. The results obtained revealed seasonal alterations in serum N-glycan levels and their structural characteristics, such as an increase in high-mannose type N-glycans in spring, the occurrence of di/triantennary complex type N-glycans terminating with two or three Neu5Gc residues in summer and autumn, and N-glycans in winter dominantly displaying Neu5Ac. A multivariate analysis revealed a correlation between the serum expression levels of these season-specific glycoforms and productivity. PMID:26595672

  1. Genome-wide association analysis of thirty one production, health, reproduction and body conformation traits in contemporary U.S. Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association analysis is a powerful tool for annotating phenotypic effects on the genome and knowledge of genes and chromosomal regions associated with dairy phenotypes is useful for genome and gene-based selection. Here, we report results of a genome-wide analysis of predicted transmitting ability (PTA) of 31 production, health, reproduction and body conformation traits in contemporary Holstein cows. Results Genome-wide association analysis identified a number of candidate genes and chromosome regions associated with 31 dairy traits in contemporary U.S. Holstein cows. Highly significant genes and chromosome regions include: BTA13's GNAS region for milk, fat and protein yields; BTA7's INSR region and BTAX's LOC520057 and GRIA3 for daughter pregnancy rate, somatic cell score and productive life; BTA2's LRP1B for somatic cell score; BTA14's DGAT1-NIBP region for fat percentage; BTA1's FKBP2 for protein yields and percentage, BTA26's MGMT and BTA6's PDGFRA for protein percentage; BTA18's 53.9-58.7 Mb region for service-sire and daughter calving ease and service-sire stillbirth; BTA18's PGLYRP1-IGFL1 region for a large number of traits; BTA18's LOC787057 for service-sire stillbirth and daughter calving ease; BTA15's CD82, BTA23's DST and the MOCS1-LRFN2 region for daughter stillbirth; and BTAX's LOC520057 and GRIA3 for daughter pregnancy rate. For body conformation traits, BTA11, BTAX, BTA10, BTA5, and BTA26 had the largest concentrations of SNP effects, and PHKA2 of BTAX and REN of BTA16 had the most significant effects for body size traits. For body shape traits, BTAX, BTA19 and BTA3 were most significant. Udder traits were affected by BTA16, BTA22, BTAX, BTA2, BTA10, BTA11, BTA20, BTA22 and BTA25, teat traits were affected by BTA6, BTA7, BTA9, BTA16, BTA11, BTA26 and BTA17, and feet/legs traits were affected by BTA11, BTA13, BTA18, BTA20, and BTA26. Conclusions Genome-wide association analysis identified a number of genes and chromosome regions

  2. The induction of a secondary corpus luteum on day 12 post-ovulation can delay the time of luteolysis in high-producing Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, M; Legendre, A-C; Driancourt, M-A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2014-12-01

    Luteolysis before the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy is one cause of low fertility in high-producing dairy cows. The objective of this study was to assess whether induction of a secondary corpus luteum (CL) late in the luteal phase would delay the time of luteolysis. Twenty high-producing Holstein cows were synchronized to ovulation (Day 0) with the Ovsynch protocol and received hCG (1500 IU im) on Day 12. Corpora lutea formation (as evaluated by ultrasonography) and plasma P4 concentrations were monitored from Days 4 to 36. hCG treatment induced the formation of one secondary CL (CL2) in 11 of 20 cows (55%) from the dominant follicle (mean diameter: 14.2 ± 0.9 mm) of two-wave (3/11) and three-wave (8/11) cycles. The maximal diameter of the CL2 (23.3 ± 1.9 mm) was reached approximately 6 days after hCG treatment and was correlated with its structural lifespan (p < 0.01). Cows that formed a CL2 after hCG had higher mean plasma P4 concentrations on Day 14 (+4.5 ng/ml) and Day 18 (+3.0 ng/ml) compared with cows without CL2 (p < 0.05). The structural regression of CL2 begun approximately 8 days after that of the CL1, and the median time at which the first drop in circulating P4 levels occurred was later in cows that formed a CL2 than in those that did not (Day 26 vs Day 18; p < 0.01). Thus, the induction of a CL2 by hCG on Day 12 might reduce the risk of premature luteolysis in high-producing dairy cows after insemination. PMID:25219366

  3. Effects of buserelin injection and deslorelin (GnRH-agonist) implants on plasma progesterone, LH, accessory CL formation, follicle and corpus luteum dynamics in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Rajamahendran, R; Ambrose, J D; Schmitt, E J; Thatcher, M J; Thatcher, W W

    1998-11-01

    The influence of Buserelin injection and Deslorelin (a GnRH analogue) implants administered on Day 5 of the estrous cycle on plasma concentrations of LH and progesterone (P4), accessory CL formation, and follicle and CL dynamics was examined in nonlactating Holstein cows. On Day 5 (Day 1 = ovulation) following a synchronized estrus, 24 cows were assigned randomly (n = 4 per group) to receive 2 mL saline, i.m. (control), 8 micrograms, i.m. Buserelin or a subcutaneous Deslorelin (DES) implant in concentrations of 75 micrograms, 150 micrograms, 700 micrograms or 2100 micrograms. Blood samples were collected (for LH assay) at 30-min intervals for 2 h before and 12 h after GnRH-treatment from cows assigned to Buserelin, DES-700 micrograms and DES-2100 micrograms treatments and thereafter at 4-h intervals for 48 h. Beginning 24 h after treatment, ovaries were examined by ultrasound at 2-h intervals until ovulation was confirmed. Thereafter, ultrasonography and blood sampling (for P4 assay) was performed daily until a spontaneous ovulation before Day 45. A greater release of LH occurred in response to Deslorelin implants than to Buserelin injection (P < 0.01). Basal levels of LH between 12 and 48 h were higher in DES-700 micrograms group than in DES-2100 micrograms and Buserelin (P < 0.05). The first wave dominant follicle ovulated in all cows following GnRH treatment. Days to CL regression did not differ between treatments, but return to estrus was delayed (44.2 vs 27.2 d; P < 0.01) in cows of DES-2100 micrograms group. All GnRH treatments elevated plasma P4 concentrations, and the highest P4 responses were observed in the DES-700 micrograms and DES-2100 micrograms groups. The second follicular wave emerged earlier in GnRH-treated than in control cows (9.9 vs 12.8 d; P < 0.01). However, emergence of the third dominant follicle was delayed in cows of DES-2100 micrograms treatment (37.0 d) compared with DES-700 micrograms (22.2 d), Buserelin (17.8 d) or control (19.0 d

  4. Associations of peripartum markers of stress and inflammation with milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Huzzey, Juliana M; Mann, Sabine; Nydam, Daryl V; Grant, Richard J; Overton, Thomas R

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the association of peripartum concentrations of fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostane; 11,17-DOA), plasma cortisol and haptoglobin (Hp), as well as two markers of negative energy balance, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), with milk yield and reproductive performance. Blood and fecal samples were collected weekly from 412 Holstein dairy cows from wk -3 through wk +1 relative to calving. Pregnancies by 150 days in milk (DIM) and projected 305-d mature equivalent (305ME) milk yield based on the 3rd Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) test day (mean±SD; 102±17 DIM) were measured. Multivariable linear regression models were used to describe the associations of metabolites with 305ME milk yield. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to describe associations of the same metabolites with risk of conception by 150 DIM. Negative associations with milk yield were found for prepartum Hp in wk -2, -1, and +1 relative to calving (estimate±SE: 490±251, 564±259, and 464±136kg lower yield for every increase in Hp concentration by 1g/L, respectively) as well as with NEFA concentration in wk -2 (estimate±SE: 1465±541kg lower milk yield for an increase in NEFA concentration by 1mEq/L). Postpartum associations of NEFA with milk yield depended on parity; NEFA was associated with an increase in milk yield in primiparous animals only (estimate±SE: 1548±510kg increase for an increase in NEFA concentration by 1mEq/L). An increase in plasma cortisol concentration by 1μg/dL in wk +1 relative to calving was associated with an increase in milk yield (estimate±SE: 580±176kg). Prepartum 11,17-DOA was associated in all three prepartum sampling weeks with a reduced hazard ratio (HR) of conception (HR [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.67-0.97], 0.85 [0.72-0.99], and 0.85 [0.75-0.97] for every increase in concentration by 1mg/g fecal dry matter (DM) in wk -3, -2, and -1 relative to calving, respectively

  5. Genotype by environment interaction for production, somatic cell score, workability, and conformation traits in Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows between farms with or without grazing.

    PubMed

    van der Laak, M; van Pelt, M L; de Jong, G; Mulder, H A

    2016-06-01

    In this study, genotype by environment interaction was investigated for production traits, somatic cell score (SCS), workability traits, and conformation traits for Holstein-Friesian cows producing on farms with or without grazing in the Netherlands. Additionally, heritabilities and repeatabilities were estimated in both farm systems. Data were available for 1,019 Dutch farms, and farm type was known for those farms, 142 farms without grazing and 877 farms with grazing. The data set consisted of 428,600 test-day records for production from 49,412 cows, and from this data set a subset for SCS was created, consisting of 374,734 test-day records from 45,955 cows. For workability and conformation traits, the data set consisted of 30,180 cows. Bivariate mixed models with multiple fixed effects and random sire and random permanent environment effects were applied. The majority of sires had daughters in both farm types. The heritabilities for milk yield (0.27), fat yield (0.19), and protein yield (0.20) were higher in farms with grazing than in farms without grazing with heritabilities of 0.24 for milk yield, 0.18 for fat yield, and 0.18 for protein yield. Repeatability was lower in the grazing farms for milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield, probably because of alternating quality of dry matter intake during grazing. Genetic correlations between grazing and no grazing were 0.99, 0.98, 0.97, and 1.00 for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and SCS, respectively. Genetic correlations for workability traits and conformation traits between grazing and no grazing varied between 0.93 and 1.00. For all traits, genetic correlations were close to unity, indicating no genotype by environment interaction between farms with or without grazing for production traits, SCS, workability traits, and conformation traits in Dutch Holstein-Friesians. Therefore, the same sires can be used for farms both with and without grazing. PMID:27040792

  6. Genotype by environment interaction for the interval from calving to first insemination with regard to calving month and geographic location in Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Ahmed; Strandberg, Erling; Berglund, Britt; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate genotype by environment interaction effects, with environments defined as calving month and geographic location, on the interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) of Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden. The data set included 811,285 records on CFI for first-parity cows from January 2010 to January 2014 housed in 7,458 herds. The longest mean CFI was 84.7 d for cows calving in April and the shortest was 76.3 d for cows calving in September. The longest mean CFI of 87.1 d was recorded at the northernmost location (LOC-8), whereas the shortest mean CFI of 73.5 d was recorded at the southernmost location (LOC-1). The multiple trait approach, in which CFI values in different calving months and different geographic locations were treated as different traits, was used to estimate the variance components and genetic correlations for CFI by using the average information (AI)-REML procedure in a bivariate sire model. Estimates of genetic variance and heritability were highest for January calvings and 3 times smaller for June calvings. Location 2 had the highest heritability and LOC-8 the lowest, with heritability estimates decreasing from LOC-2 to LOC-8. Genetic correlations of CFI between calving months were weakest between cold months (December and January) and warm months (June, August, and September); the lowest estimate was found between January and September calvings. Genetic correlations of CFI between the different geographic locations were generally strong, and the weakest correlation was between LOC-3 and LOC-8. These results indicate a genotype by environment interaction for CFI primarily regarding seasons described by calving months. The effect of geographic location was less important, mostly producing a scaling effect of CFI in different locations. We concluded that CFI is more sensitive to seasonal effects than geographic locations in Denmark and Sweden. PMID:27085411

  7. A polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene is associated with postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Holstein-Friesian cows under grazing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene is considered as a promising candidate for the identification of polymorphisms affecting cattle performance. The objectives of the current study were to determine the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IGF-1/SnaBI with fertility, milk production and body condition traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows under grazing conditions. Methods Seventy multiparous cows from a commercial herd were genotyped for the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Fertility measures evaluated were: interval to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), calving to first service (CFS) and calving to conception (CC) intervals. Milk production and body condition score were also evaluated. The study period extended from 3 wk before calving to the fourth month of lactation. Results and discussion Frequencies of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI alleles A and B were 0.59 and 0.41, respectively. Genotype frequencies were 0.31, 0.54 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Cows with the AA genotype presented an early CLA and were more likely to resume ovarian cyclicity in the early postpartum than AB and BB ones. No effect of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI genotype was evidenced on body condition change over the experimental period, suggesting that energy balance is not responsible for the outcome of postpartum ovarian resumption in this study. Traditional fertility measures were not affected by the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report describing an association of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI with an endocrine fertility measure like CLA in cattle. Results herein remark the important role of the IGF-1gene in the fertility of dairy cows on early lactation and make the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI an interesting candidate marker for genetic improvement of fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23409757

  8. Replacement of grass and maize silages with lucerne silage: effects on performance, milk fatty acid profile and digestibility in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, L A; Edwards, R; Errington, K A; Holdcroft, A M; Wright, M

    2015-12-01

    In total, 20 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received one of four diets in each of four periods of 28-day duration in a Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the inclusion of lucerne in the ration of high-yielding dairy cows would improve animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. All dietary treatments contained 0.55 : 0.45 forage to concentrates (dry matter (DM) basis), and within the forage component the proportion of lucerne (Medicago sativa), grass (Lolium perenne) and maize silage (Zea mays) was varied (DM basis): control (C)=0.4 : 0.6 grass : maize silage; L20=0.2 : 0.2 : 0.6 lucerne : grass : maize silage; L40=0.4 : 0.6 lucerne : maize silage; and L60=0.6 : 0.4 lucerne : maize silage. Diets were formulated to contain a similar CP and metabolisable protein content, with the reduction of soya bean meal and feed grade urea with increasing content of lucerne. Intake averaged 24.3 kg DM/day and was lowest in cows when fed L60 (P0.05) by dietary treatment. Digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP and fibre decreased (P<0.01) with increasing content of lucerne in the diet, although fibre digestibility was similar in L40 and L60. It is concluded that first cut grass silage can be replaced with first cut lucerne silage without any detrimental effect on performance and an improvement in the milk FA profile, although intake and digestibility was lowest and plasma urea concentrations highest in cows when fed the highest level of inclusion of lucerne. PMID:26242305

  9. The relationship among vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin A, progesterone and oestradiol 17-beta concentrations in plasma and cyst fluid of Holstein cows with ovarian cyst.

    PubMed

    Haliloglu, S; Erdem, H; Serpek, B; Tekeli, T; Bulut, Z

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of the progesterone, oestradiol-17-beta, vitamin A, C and beta-carotene in plasma and cyst fluid and to relate these values with cystic diameter and membrane thickness of Holstein cattle with ovarian luteal cyst. 1650 Holstein cows were examined for the presence of the ovarian cyst and luteal and follicular cystic ovaries were obtained following slaughtering in personal slaughterhouse in Konya-Turkey. 15 Luteal and 15 follicular cystic ovaries were distinguished by rectal palpation and by post mortem ultrasonographic examination. Plasma and cyst fluid, hormone and vitamin analyses were carried out by EIA method and spectrophotometric measurement respectively. Although there was no relationship between beta-carotene and vitamin A in plasma and cyst fluid of both cyst type and hormone concentrations, the vitamin C concentration of cyst fluid was found significantly higher in luteal cyst than in follicular cyst. Moreover, there is a positive correlation among values of the vitamin C concentrations of cyst fluid and cystic membrane thickness, plasma and the cyst fluid progesterone concentrations, but there is a negative correlation among the vitamin C concentrations of cystic fluid and oestradiol 17beta levels of plasma and cyst fluid. In conclusion, vitamin C concentration of cyst fluid supported ultrasonographic and endocrinologic findings. Also, it can be postulated that vitamin C is probably effective on progesterone synthesis in the luteal tissue of cyst. PMID:18363607

  10. Effects of parturition and dexamethasone on DNA methylation patterns of IFN-γ and IL-4 promoters in CD4+ T-lymphocytes of Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Paibomesai, Marlene; Hussey, Brendan; Nino-Soto, Maria; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated epigenetic mechanisms by which DNA methylation affects the function of bovine adaptive immune system cells, particularly during the peripartum period, when shifts in type 1 and type 2 immune response (IR) biases are thought to occur. Stimulation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes isolated from 5 Holstein dairy cows before and after parturition with concanavalin A (ConA) and stimulation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes isolated from 3 Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation with ConA alone or ConA plus dexamethasone (Dex) had significant effects on production of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ, type 1) and interleukin 4 (IL-4, type 2) that were consistent with DNA methylation profiles of the IFN-γ gene promoter region but not consistent for the IL-4 promoter region. ConA stimulation increased the production of both cytokines before and after parturition. It decreased DNA methylation in the IFN-γ promoter region but increased for IL-4 promoter region. Parturition was associated with an increase in IFN-γ production in ConA-stimulated cells that approached significance. Overall, DNA methylation in both promoter regions increased between the prepartum and postpartum periods, although this did not correlate with secreted cytokine concentrations. Dexamethasone treated cells acted in a manner consistent with the glucocorticoid’s immunosuppressive activity, which mimicked the change at the IFN-γ promoter region observed during parturition. These results support pregnancy as type 2 IR biased, with increases of IFN-γ occurring after parturition and an increase in IL-4 production before calving. It is likely that these changes may be epigenetically controlled. PMID:23814356

  11. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: IV. Transition period, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity.

    PubMed

    Moore, S G; Fair, T; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the dry matter intake (DMI), metabolic status, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity in cows with similar genetic merit for milk production traits but with either good (Fert+) or poor genetic merit (Fert-) for fertility traits. Twenty-six cows were enrolled in the study and data are reported for 15 Fert+ and 10 Fert- cows that completed the study. All cows received a total mixed ration diet during early lactation and were turned out to pasture in late spring. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from wk -2 to 5 relative to parturition. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones were measured from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Milk production, body condition score, and body weight until wk 35 of lactation are reported. To monitor uterine health, vaginal mucus was scored weekly on a scale of 0 (no pus) to 3 (≥ 50% pus) from parturition to wk 8 and uterine polymorphonuclear neutrophil count was measured at wk 3 and 6 postpartum. Prepartum DMI was similar between genotypes, but Fert+ cows had significantly greater DMI than Fert- cows (19.7 vs. 16.8 kg of dry matter/d) during the postpartum period. Energy balance at wk 1 was significantly greater in Fert+ cows than in Fert- cows [2.3 vs. -1.12 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d]. The Fert+ cows had significantly greater daily milk solids production (1.89 vs. 1.74 kg/d) and tended to have greater daily milk yield (24.2 vs. 22.3 kg/d). The Fert+ cows had significantly greater mean circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (102.62 vs. 56.85 ng/mL) and tended to have greater mean circulating insulin (3.25 vs. 2.62 μIU/mL) compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Mean circulating glucose (3.40 vs. 3.01 mmol/L) concentrations were significantly greater in Fert+ cows compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 3 relative to parturition. The Fert+ cows maintained significantly greater mean body condition score throughout lactation compared with Fert- cows

  12. Elevated plasma haptoglobin concentrations following parturition are associated with elevated leukocyte responses and decreased subsequent reproductive efficiency in multiparous Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Cameron R; Sellers, Matthew D; Ballou, Michael A

    2015-03-15

    The objectives were to describe the relationship between the intensity of the acute phase response and the metabolic status and leukocyte responses of early postpartum, multiparous cows and determine if subsequent reproductive performance was impaired in cows with a greater acute phase response. Peripheral blood was collected from 240 Holstein cows, 2-8 days in milk and 2nd-8th parity from 8 dairies in Western TX and Eastern NM across 5 days (n=6 cows/dairy/day). Plasma concentrations of haptoglobin were measured and cows were classified as Low (1st quartile), Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), or High (4th quartile) responders. Metabolic measurements included: plasma glucose, urea nitrogen, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Leukocyte response measurements included: total leukocyte counts and differentials, neutrophil surface expression of L-selectin, neutrophil oxidative burst capacity when co-cultured with an environmental Escherichia coli, as well as the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ when diluted whole blood were co-cultured with lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-P, respectively. All data are reported as Low, Moderate, and High haptoglobin responders. Plasma haptoglobin concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to 8.4 μg/mL, 8.5 to 458 μg/mL, and 459 to 1757 μg/mL. The High cows had more severe neutropenia (3.45, 3.31, and 2.23 ± 0.31 × 10(6)cells/mL; P=0.013) Additionally, the innate leukocyte responses of the High cows were stimulated as evident by increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (568, 565, and 730 ± 73.4 pg/mL; P=0.003), surface expression of L-selectin on neutrophils (70.8, 71.9, and 119.8 ± 7.9 geometric mean fluorescence intensity; P=0.001), and greater neutrophil oxidative burst capacity (37.9, 40.4, and 47.9 ± 0.31 geometric mean fluorescence intensity; P=0.002). In contrast, the secretion of the T-lymphocyte derived cytokine, interferon-γ, was

  13. Development of a programmable piggyback syringe pump and four-times-a-day injection regimen for superovulation in non-lactating Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    IRSHAD, Abdul Razaq; SASAKI, Taihei; KUBO, Tomoaki; ODASHIMA, Naoyuki; KATANO, Keiji; OSAWA, Takeshi; TAKAHASHI, Toru; IZAIKE, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop a programmable piggyback syringe pump for bovine superovulation and to evaluate the effects of a four-times-a-day injection regimen using the pump. Non-lactating Holstein cows were treated with a total of 30 armour units of porcine FSH by injection four times a day with the pump (study, n = 9) or injection twice a day manually (control, n = 9) for four consecutive days from D10 of the estrous cycle. The pump-driven program successfully induced superovulation in all cows tested. The numbers of small (3– < 5 mm in diameter) and large (≥ 10 mm in diameter) follicles were greater in the study group on D11-13 and D14, respectively. There were fewer unovulated follicles detected on D21 (7 days after estrus) in the study group than in the control group (1.2 ± 0.4 and 3.2 ± 0.6, respectively). PMID:26052155

  14. Effects of Supplementing Brown Seaweed By-products in the Diet of Holstein Cows during Transition on Ruminal Fermentation, Growth Performance and Endocrine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Z. S.; Kim, E. J.; Jin, Y. C.; Lee, J. S.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, H. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of supplementing brown seaweed by-products (BSB) in the diet of ruminants on ruminal fermentation characteristics, growth performance, endocrine response, and milk production in Holstein cows. In Experiment 1, the effects of different levels (0%, 2%, and 4% of basal diet as Control, 2% BSB, 4% BSB, respectively) of BSB were evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h in vitro batch culture rumen fermentation. The pH tended to be higher for the higher level of BSB supplementation, with the pH at 12 h being significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the control. The concentration of ammonia nitrogen was lower at 3, 9, 12, and 24 h incubation (p<0.05) compared with the control, and tended to be low at other incubation times. Volatile fatty acid concentration appeared to be minimally changed while lower values were observed with 4% BSB treatment at 24 h (p<0.05). In Experiment 2, effects of levels (0%, 2%, and 4%) of BSB on growth performance, endocrine responses and milk production were studied with Holstein dairy cows during transition. Dry matter intake, daily gain and feed efficiency were not affected by BSB supplementation. The concentration of plasma estrogen for the control, 2% BSB and 4% BSB after three months of pregnancy were 55.7, 94.1, and 72.3 pg/mL, respectively (p = 0.08). Although the differences of progesterone levels between BSB treatments and the control were minimal, the concentration in 4% BSB treatment increased to 157.7% compared with the initial level of the study. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels were also higher after both three months and eight months of pregnancy than the initial level at the beginning of the study. In addition, BSB treatments during one month after delivery did not affect daily milk yield and composition. In conclusion, the present results indicate that supplementation of BSB did not compromise ruminal fermentation, and animal performance at lower levels and hence may have

  15. Short communication: Reference limits for blood analytes in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows: Effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season.

    PubMed

    Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Lora, I; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F

    2015-11-01

    Reference limits for metabolic profiles in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows were determined considering the effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season. Blood samples were collected from 104 pregnant heifers and 186 dry cows (68 primiparous and 118 pluriparous) from 60 to 10 d before the expected calving date in 31 dairy farms in northeastern Italy. Sampling was performed during summer (182 samples) and the following winter (108 samples). All the animals were judged as clinically healthy at a veterinary visit before sampling. Outliers were removed from data of each blood analyte, and variables that were not normally distributed were log transformed. A mixed model was used to test the fixed effects of parity (late-pregnant heifers, primiparous or pluriparous dry cows), class of days relative to calving (60-41 d, 40-21 d, 20-10 d), season (summer or winter), and the interactions between parity and class of days relative to calving and between parity and season, with farm as random effect. Single general reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for analytes that did not vary according to fixed effects. Whenever a fixed effect included in the model significantly affected a given analyte, specific reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for each of its levels. Albumin, urea, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, conjugated bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, chloride, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were not influenced by any of the fixed effects. Total protein, globulins, creatinine, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium plasma concentrations were affected by parity. The class of days relative to calving had a significant effect on the concentrations of total protein, globulins, fatty acids, cholesterol, total bilirubin, and sodium. Season affected plasma concentrations of

  16. Metabolic parameters and their relationship to energy balance in multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in the periparturient period as influenced by energy supply pre- and post-calving.

    PubMed

    Urdl, M; Gruber, L; Obritzhauser, W; Schauer, A

    2015-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three energy supply (E) levels [low (L), medium (M), high (H)], both pre-partum (PRE) and post-partum (POST), and their interactions on metabolic parameters and energy balance (EB) in dairy cows of three breeds. In both phases, E levels applied to a total of 81 multiparous cows of breeds Simmental (SI), Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF; n = 27 for each breed) were 75%, 100% and 125% of recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. During the pre-calving period, serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher for L(PRE) cows, and glucose concentrations were elevated for H(PRE) cows. During the lactation period, NEFA concentrations were greatest for treatment L(POST). Mean concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were highest for cows of the L(POST) treatment, intermediate for M(POST) and lowest for H(POST). Glucose concentrations were lower for L(POST) cows. SI cows had lower BHB concentrations both pre- and post-calving and higher glucose concentrations during early lactation than the other breeds. BHB concentration POST was highest for BS cows. Restricted feeding PRE resulted in a better energy status of cows fed above energy requirements POST (E(PRE) × E(POST) interaction). HF cows had a higher EB pre-calving, whereas SI cows had a less negative EB during early lactation, compared with the other breeds respectively. Correlations of serum NEFA, BHB and glucose concentrations with EB were strongest during the transition period. Results suggest that controlling energy intake during the dry period might be advantageous for the energy status of dairy cows after calving, whereas energy restriction in early lactation leads to metabolic stress. Evidence is provided of a clear relationship between EB and the blood metabolites NEFA and BHB, especially in the transition period. PMID:24605925

  17. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 ± 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 ± 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 ± 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 ± 0.6%) than AL (3.1 ± 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 ± 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 ± 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 ± 0.4% and 75.2 ± 0.4%) than 36H

  18. Ration formulations containing reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles and their effect on lactation performance, rumen fermentation, and intestinal flow of microbial nitrogen in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lopez, E; Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Klopfenstein, T J; Hostetler, D; Karges, K; Fernando, S C; Kononoff, P J

    2014-03-01

    Sixteen multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 2 experiments to evaluate the effects of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (RFDG) on milk production, rumen fermentation, intestinal microbial N flow, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. In experiment 1, RFDG was fed at 0, 10, 20, or 30% of diet dry matter (DM) to 12 noncannulated Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation: 89 ± 11 d in milk and 674 ± 68.2 kg of body weight) to determine effects on milk production. In experiment 2, the same diets were fed to 4 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 41 d in milk; 590 ± 61.14 kg of body weight) to evaluate the effects on rumen fermentation, intestinal flow of microbial N, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. In both experiments, cows were randomly assigned to 4 × 4 Latin squares over 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were (1) control (0% RFDG), (2) 10% RFDG, (3) 20% RFDG, and (4) 30% RFDG. Feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily. In both experiments, milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of milk components. In experiment 2, ruminal pH was measured; samples of rumen fluid, duodenal digesta, and feces were collected on d 18 to 21. Microbial N was estimated by using purines and DNA as microbial markers. Milk yield was not affected by treatment and averaged 34.0 ± 1.29 kg/d and 31.4 ± 2.81 kg/d in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Percentage of milk protein tended to increase in experiment 1; estimates were 3.08, 3.18, 3.15, and 3.19 ± 0.06% when RFDG increased from 0 to 30% in the diets. However, milk protein concentration was not affected in experiment 2 and averaged 3.02 ± 0.07%. Percentage of milk fat was not affected and averaged 3.66 ± 0.05% and 3.25 ± 0.14% in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Total ruminal volatile fatty acids and ammonia concentrations were not affected by treatment and averaged 135.18 ± 6.45 mM and 18.66 ± 2.32 mg

  19. Associations of prepartum plasma cortisol, haptoglobin, fecal cortisol metabolites, and nonesterified fatty acids with postpartum health status in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Huzzey, J M; Nydam, D V; Grant, R J; Overton, T R

    2011-12-01

    The association between negative energy balance and health has led to the testing of blood analytes such as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) to identify opportunities for improving the management of transition dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether prepartum analytes associated with stress (cortisol) or inflammation (haptoglobin) could also identify dairy cattle at increased risk for health complications after calving. Prepartum blood and fecal samples were collected once weekly from 412 Holstein dairy cows on 2 commercial dairy farms (at wk -3, -2, and -1 relative to calving) and analyzed for concentrations of NEFA, haptoglobin (Hp), and cortisol in plasma and cortisol metabolites in feces. Retained placenta (RP), displaced abomasum (DA), subclinical ketosis (SCK), high Hp concentration (HiHp), and death were recorded up to 30 d in milk (DIM), and animals were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) no disorder of interest (NDI); (2) one disorder (RP, DA, SCK, or HiHp); or (3) more than one disorder (RP, DA, SCK, HiHp) or death. With the exception of prepartum NEFA, no associations were detected between prepartum concentrations of our analytes of interest and the occurrence of one disorder (RP, DA, SCK, or HiHP) by 30 DIM. Haptoglobin concentration tended to be greater during wk -2 and -1 in cows that developed more than one disorder or that died by 30 DIM; however, when calving assistance was included as a covariate in the analysis prepartum, Hp was no longer a significant risk factor for this postpartum health outcome. Primiparous cows with plasma cortisol concentrations >22.2 nmol/L during wk -2 had reduced odds [odds ratio (OR) 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.98] of developing more than one disorder or death by 30 DIM, whereas multiparous cows with plasma cortisol >34.1 nmol/L during wk -2 tended to have greater odds (OR 2.53; 95% CI 0.87-7.37) of developing more than one disorder or death by 30 DIM. Individual

  20. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transition cow performance when brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS; Mycogen F2F444) was included in the diet during the transition period, and to determine if any production response occurring during the first 3 wk of lactation would persist from wk 4 to 15 when a common diet was fed. Seventy Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity (either second or third and greater) and calving date and randomly assigned to the CCS (a mixture of varieties of conventional corn silage) or BMRCS treatment. Diets were formulated with the objective of keeping all ration parameters the same, with the exception of neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility values (30 h) for CCS and BMRCS averaged 56.8 and 73.8%, respectively. Prepartum rations contained 47% corn silage, 18% wheat straw, 7% alfalfa haylage, and 28% concentrate, and averaged 45% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Postpartum rations contained 40% corn silage, 15% alfalfa haylage, 1% straw, and 44% concentrate. Milk weights (3×/d) and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and milk composition was measured weekly. Cows fed BMRCS had higher dry matter intake during the 2-wk period before calving (14.3 vs. 13.2 kg/d) and the 3-wk period after calving (20.1 vs. 18.1 kg/d) than did cows fed CCS. Yields of milk, solids, and lactose were increased, whereas a trend was observed for a reduction in somatic cell counts and linear scores in the postpartum period for cows receiving BMRCS during the transition. A significant carryover effect of BMRCS was observed on production from wk 4 to 15 when the common diet was fed, with yields of protein (1.36 vs. 1.30 kg/d), lactose (2.24 vs. 2.12 kg/d), and solids (5.82 vs. 5.51 kg/d) increasing significantly, and yields of fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat tending to increase during this period for cows that had been fed BMRCS. The increased intakes during the last 2 wk of the prepartum period in

  1. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm

    PubMed Central

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production. PMID:20592844

  2. Effects of stage of pregnancy on variance components, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield in Holstein cows, as estimated by using a test-day model.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Hagiya, K; Takeda, H; Osawa, T; Yamaguchi, S; Nagamine, Y

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (P<0.05) greater than that after the first calving. Therefore, we conclude that differences between the negative effects of early pregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open

  3. Effect of different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on follicular and luteal dynamics and P/AI of high-producing Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R M; Ayres, H; Sales, J N S; Souza, A H; Rodrigues, C A; Baruselli, P S

    2013-07-01

    The hypotheses of this study were (1) that the administration of 400IU eCG in a TAI protocol would increase ovarian follicular growth and diameter of the largest follicle (LF), volume of the CL, and produce an earlier rise on serum concentration of progesterone (P4) to ultimately improve P/AI compared to non-treated high-producing Holstein cows; and (2) that 600IU of eCG could enhance any potential effects of a greater gonadotropin treatment upon follicular and luteal size and function, improving P/AI. Cows were subjected to a protocol of synchronization of ovulation for timed artificial insemination (TAI): D0-P4 device insert and estradiol benzoate, D8-P4 device removal and PGF2α; Experiment 1, D10PM - GnRH plus TAI; and Experiment 2, D10AM - GnRH, D10PM - TAI. In Experiment 1, at P4 device removal, cows were assigned to one of the two treatments to receive none (n=232) or 400IU (n=232) of eCG. In Experiment 2, again at P4 device removal, cows were assigned to one of the three treatments to receive no eCG, (n=166) 400 (n=145) or 600IU (n=145) of eCG. Pregnancy was diagnosed 35 days after TAI. Ultrasonographic examination of both ovaries was done in a subset of cows in Experiments 1 [no eCG (n=27) and 400IU eCG (n=14)], and 2 [no eCG (n=15), 400IU eCG (n=14) and 600IU eCG (n=11)]. Exams were conducted at device removal (D8) and TAI (D10) to measure the diameter of the LF; then twice daily from D10 to 13, to determine time to ovulation and the maximum diameter of the LF; and then 3 (D14), 6 (D17), 9 (D20) and 12 (D23) days after presumed ovulation, concurrent with blood sampling, to measure the volume of the CL and serum concentration of P4. In both studies, eCG (400 or 600IU)-treated cows had similar diameter of the LF on D8 and D10, growth rate of the LF from Days 8 to 10, ovulation rate, time to ovulation, volume of the CL, serum concentration of P4 and P/AI as compared to control animals. Thus, adding either 400 or 600IU eCG to TAI protocols was inefficient to

  4. Age at calving in heifers and level of milk production during gestation in cows are associated with the birth size of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Depreester, E; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate environmental and dam factors associated with birth size of Holstein calves. Data of 1,594 births from dairy herds in Belgium and Germany were analyzed in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Immediately after birth, the birth weight of the calves was measured. On the next day, the heart girth (HG), withers height, and diagonal length of the dams and calves were measured. Parity, body condition score, gestation length (GL), and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open, lactation length, length of the dry period, and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation that took place during gestation was quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. After descriptive analyses, mixed models were used to identify factors that are significantly associated with the birth weight (most consistent measure of size at birth) of the calves born to both heifers and cows. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in heifers (n=540), calf sex, season of calving, GL, HG, withers height, diagonal length, and age at calving were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to heifers was estimated to be 41.3±1.01kg. In comparison to calves born to old (25.5 to 37.3mo; n=99) heifers, the birth weight was estimated to be 2.75, 3.29, and 2.35kg heavier when the calves were born to very young (20.3 to <22mo; n=98), young (22 to <23.5mo; n=145), and standard aged (23.5 to <25.5mo; n=198) heifers, respectively. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in cows (n=1,054), calf sex, season of calving, GL, parity, dry period, and MGEST were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to cows was estimated to be 44.1±0.99kg. For cows having an identical HG, the birth weight of the calves was estimated to

  5. The effect of sire predicted transmitting ability for production traits on fertility, survivability, and health of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho; Foditsch, Carla; Gilbert, Rob; Oikonomou, Georgios

    2014-01-15

    The major objective of this study was to evaluate, using survival analysis and multivariable regression models, the relationship of sire predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for production traits with their daughters' milk production, fat, and protein percentage (PROPCT), reproductive performance, postpartum disease incidence, and survivability. Data were collected from six large commercial dairy farms, and data analysis included 22,205 cows. Information regarding each sire's genetic evaluation included the following: PTA for fat yield (FAT), fat percentage (FATPCT), milk yield (MILK), protein yield, and PROPCT. Sire PTA was categorized into quartiles to facilitate data analysis and interpretation. Retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and clinical mastitis were diagnosed and treated by farm personnel. The overall average daily milk production, milk fat and PROPCT during the first 10 months of lactation was higher for the cows in the highest quartile of sire PTA, and cows in the lowest quartile had lower averages. There was no significant association between sire PTA for production traits and first test day fat to protein ratio or the incidence of postpartum disease. Sire PTA for MILK, FATPCT, and PROPCT were significantly associated with the hazard of pregnancy. The median days from calving to conception were 159, 155, 170, and 181 days for cows in the sire PTA for MILK quartiles 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Sire PTA for PROPCT and FATPCT were also significantly associated with the hazard of pregnancy. The median days from calving to conception were 175, 189, 152, and 145 for cows in the sire PTA for PROPCT groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Additionally, cows in the highest quartile for sire PTA for FATPCT had the lowest median days from calving to conception (144 days) and cows in lowest quartile had the highest median interval (177 days). Sire PTA for FAT was the only sire PTA significantly associated with the hazard of death/culling. When

  6. Effect of shortening or omitting the dry period of Holstein-Friesian cows on casein composition of milk.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Ruben; van Knegsel, Ariëtte; Johansson, Monika; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Holtenius, Kjell; Hettinga, Kasper

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows on milk casein composition. For this study, we analyzed milk samples of 90 cows with a dry period of 0, 30, or 60d and either a glucogenic or a lipogenic ration in early lactation. Milk was sampled at 6 and 2wk prepartum and at 2, 6, and 12wk postpartum. Milk was analyzed for casein (CN) composition by capillary zone electrophoresis, and isoforms of κ-CN were measured by reversed phase-HPLC. Shortening the dry period from 60 to 30d reduced the αS1-CN fraction by 3.8% and increased the αS2-CN fraction by 5.5%. In milk from cows with a 0-d dry period, the glycosylated κ-CN fraction in late lactation increased from 8 to 12% between 6 and 2wk prepartum. After calving, the glycosylated κ-CN fraction in milk was higher for cows with a 0-d dry period (6.7%) compared with cows with a 60-d dry period (5.2%). The glycosylated κ-CN fraction at 2wk postpartum was negatively correlated with milk yield, suggesting that glycosylation was related to reduced productivity of mammary epithelial cells. In early lactation, the β-CN fraction was reduced in milk of cows with a 0-d dry period. A lowered β-CN fraction was associated with high somatic cell count and greater parity, indicating that it was the result of proteolytic activity. In conclusion, casein composition changes that result from shortening the dry period from 60 to 30d are not expected to affect processing characteristics of milk. Applying a 0-d dry period may affect processability of milk because of a higher glycosylated κ-CN fraction, and possibly because of higher proteolytic activity compared with a 60-d dry period. PMID:26454294

  7. A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Findings Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 105/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF) for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism). The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Conclusions Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be helpful for

  8. Diagnosis of uterine and vaginal disorders by different methodologies is affected by concentration of estradiol in plasma from lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Silper, B F; Madureira, A M L; Burnett, T A; Fernandes, A C C; Abreu, F M; Veira, D M; Vasconcelos, J L M; Cerri, R L A

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between plasma estradiol concentration at time of examination and prevalence of uterine disorders, agreement among methods, and associations of diagnosis with pregnancy hazard and milk yield was studied in 268 Holstein cows examined at 30±3 (exam 1) and 44±3 d in milk (DIM; exam 2). Purulent vaginal discharge was sampled using 2 methods: gloved hand and Metricheck (Simcro, Hamilton, New Zealand; PVD; score ≥3). Percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was determined by endometrial cytology (CYTO; exam 1: ≥18%, exam 2: ≥10%); diameter of uterine horns (UTH; >20 mm), diameter of the inner layer of the cervix (CVX; >20.5 mm), presence of fluid in the uterine lumen (FL), and ovarian structures were evaluated by ultrasonography. A blood sample was collected at each exam for estradiol analysis. Prevalence at exams 1 and 2 was, respectively, 14.2 and 18.5% (PVD), 21.4 and 10.1% (FL), and 40.6 and 50.2% (CYTO). Prevalence of PVD at exam 1 was greater among cows with estradiol ≥2 pg/mL (19.4 vs. 8.2%). Agreement of all methods with CYTO was poor, the greatest being between CYTO and FL (exam 1; kappa=0.19). Agreement between CYTO and PVD, and between CYTO and FL (exam 1; kappa=0.15 and 0.35, respectively) was higher among cows with estradiol ≥2 pg/mL. Likelihood of PVD at exam 1 was greater if cows were positive for CVX [odds ratio (OR)=3.0], FL (OR=2.6) or had estradiol ≥2 pg/mL (OR=2.7). Likelihood of CYTO increased with dystocia (OR=2.3) and FL (OR=2.5). Estradiol did not influence diagnosis at exam 2. Positive FL or CYTO at exam 1 was associated with reductions in milk yield of 59 to 180 kg by 45 DIM. Pregnancy hazard until 250 DIM was reduced by CYTO at exam 1 (hazard ratio=0.74) and by PVD (hazard ratio=0.68) at exam 2. However, FL and CYTO reduced pregnancy hazard only when estradiol was ≥2 pg/mL (exam 1), whereas PVD reduced pregnancy hazard when diagnosed at exam 2 with estradiol <2 pg/mL. Overall, agreement was poor and effects of

  9. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P < 0.05). The LD group consumed 1.3 kg/d (DM) more diet compared with HD group in the last 24 h before calving. The milk yield and the postpartum DMI were increased by the reduced energy density diet prepartum (P < 0.05). The changes in BCS and BW prepartum and postpartum were not affected by prepartum diets. HD group had higher milk fat content and lower lactose content compared with LD group during the first 3 wk of lactation (P < 0.05). The energy consumption for HD, MD and LD groups were 149.8%, 126.2% and 101.1% of their calculated energy requirements prepartum (P < 0.05), and 72.7%, 73.1% and 75.2% during the first 4 wk postpartum, respectively. In conclusion, the low energy density prepartum diet was effective in controlling NEL intake prepartum, and was beneficial in increasing DMI and milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum. PMID:24976969

  10. Effect of feeding alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with or without a cellulase enzyme on performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J K; Castro, J J; Mullis, N A; Adesogan, A T; West, J W; Morantes, G

    2010-11-01

    Forty-four lactating Holstein cows (173±30 DIM, 42.5±6.8 kg of milk, 4.03±0.69% fat, 674±78 kg of body weight) were used in an 8-wk, completely randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of forage source and supplemental cellulase enzyme on performance. Treatments included 2 forage combinations (corn silage plus 12.2% dry matter, DM, from either alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage) with or without a commercial cellulase enzyme applied to the total mixed ration at the rate of 4 g/head per day (Promote N.E.T.-L, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Experimental diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of protein (16.5% of DM), energy (1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM), and neutral detergent fiber (41.7% of DM) and were fed once daily as a total mixed ration behind Calan doors for ad libitum intake. The cellulase enzyme provided 1,200 cellulase units of activity/g of product and was applied to the total mixed ration and allowed to mix for 5min before feeding. Before beginning the trial, all cows were trained to use Calan (American Calan, Northwood, NH) doors and then fed the alfalfa hay-based diet for 2 wk. Data collected during wk 2 were used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. At the beginning of the 6-wk experimental period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of the 4 experimental diets. No interactions were observed between forage and enzyme for any measures. Daily DM intake; milk yield; concentrations of milk fat, true protein, lactose, and solids not fat; energy-corrected milk yield; and dairy efficiency were not different among alfalfa or Tifton 85 bermudagrass rations with or without cellulase enzyme supplementation. The results of this trial indicate that Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage can replace alfalfa hay in diets fed to high-producing, lactating dairy cows without depressing DM intake or milk yield when rations are balanced for NDF. Although

  11. The effects of increased milking frequency during early lactation on metabolism and mammary cell proliferation in Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Primiparous (n=30) and multiparous (n=30) cows were assigned randomly at calving to one of 2 treatments to evaluate metabolic and mammary cell responses to increased milking frequency (IMF). Controls were milked twice daily (2X) for 119 d and the IMF group was milked four times daily (4X) from d 2 u...

  12. Comparison of Holstein service-sire fertility for heifer and cow breedings with conventional and sexed semen.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a service-sire fertility evaluation implemented in August 2008, is based on up to 7 conventional-semen breedings for parities 1 through 5 (Ccow). The same procedure was used to derive SCR for other types of breedings: sexed semen for cows (Scow) and conventional semen and...

  13. Twin pregnancy diagnosis in Holstein cows: discriminatory powers and accuracy of diagnosis by transrectal palpation and outcome of twin pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    Day, J D; Weaver, L D; Franti, C E

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive value of twin pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation and to examine fetal survival, culling rates, and gestational lengths of cows diagnosed with twins. In this prospective study, 5309 cows on 14 farms in California were followed from pregnancy diagnosis to subsequent abortion or calving. The average sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive value of twin pregnancy diagnosis were 49.3%, 99.4%, 96.0%, and 86.1%, respectively. The abortion rate for single pregnancies of 12.0% differed significantly from those for bicornual twin pregnancies and unicornual twin pregnancies of 26.2% and 32.4%, respectively (P < 0.05). The early calf mortality between cows calving with singles (3.2%) and twins (15.7%) were significantly different (P < 0.005). The difference in fetal survival between single pregnancies and all twin pregnancies resulted in 0.42 and 0.29 viable heifers per pregnancy, respectively. The average gestation for single, bicornual, and unicornual pregnancies that did not abort before drying-off was 278, 272, and 270 days, respectively. Results of this study show that there is an increased fetal wastage associated with twin pregnancies and suggest a need for further research exploring management strategies for cows carrying twins. PMID:7728734

  14. Individual animal variability in ruminal bacterial communities and ruminal acidosis in primiparous Holstein cows during the periparturient period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variability among individual cows for their susceptibility to ruminal acidosis (RA) pre- and postpartum, and determine whether this variability was related to differences in their ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC). Variability in susceptibilit...

  15. Parturition Invokes Changes in Peripheral blood Mononuclear Cell Populations in Holstein Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is estimated to infect more than 22% of US dairy herds. Once infected, cows may remain in the asymptomatic subclinical state until a period of stress, such as parturition. Parturition has a major impact on the number of ...

  16. Random regression models to account for the effect of genotype by environment interaction due to heat stress on the milk yield of Holstein cows under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mário L; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; El Faro, Lenira

    2016-02-01

    The present study had the following objectives: to compare random regression models (RRM) considering the time-dependent (days in milk, DIM) and/or temperature × humidity-dependent (THI) covariate for genetic evaluation; to identify the effect of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) due to heat stress on milk yield; and to quantify the loss of milk yield due to heat stress across lactation of cows under tropical conditions. A total of 937,771 test-day records from 3603 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows obtained between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. An important reduction in milk yield due to heat stress was observed for THI values above 66 (-0.23 kg/day/THI). Three phases of milk yield loss were identified during lactation, the most damaging one at the end of lactation (-0.27 kg/day/THI). Using the most complex RRM, the additive genetic variance could be altered simultaneously as a function of both DIM and THI values. This model could be recommended for the genetic evaluation taking into account the effect of G×E. The response to selection in the comfort zone (THI ≤ 66) is expected to be higher than that obtained in the heat stress zone (THI > 66) of the animals. The genetic correlations between milk yield in the comfort and heat stress zones were less than unity at opposite extremes of the environmental gradient. Thus, the best animals for milk yield in the comfort zone are not necessarily the best in the zone of heat stress and, therefore, G×E due to heat stress should not be neglected in the genetic evaluation. PMID:26155774

  17. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Akbar, Haji; Hosseini, Afshin; Bichi Ruspoli Forteguerri, Elena; Osorio, Johan S; Loor, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON) or high-energy (OVE) diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE) only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation. PMID:27441691

  18. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Akbar, Haji; Hosseini, Afshin; Bichi Ruspoli Forteguerri, Elena; Osorio, Johan S.

    2016-01-01

    The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON) or high-energy (OVE) diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE) only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation. PMID:27441691

  19. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  20. Rapeseed or linseed in grass-based diets: effects on conjugated linoleic and conjugated linolenic acid isomers in milk fat from Holstein cows over 2 consecutive lactations.

    PubMed

    Lerch, S; Shingfield, K J; Ferlay, A; Vanhatalo, A; Chilliard, Y

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the distribution of conjugated linoleic (CLA) and conjugated linolenic (CLnA) acid isomers in milk from Holstein cows in response to 4 different oilseed supplements rich in either cis-9 18:1 or 18:3n-3 were determined over 2 consecutive lactations in 58 and 35 cows during the first and second years, respectively. For the first 5 wk of the first lactation, all cows were fed the same diet. Thereafter, cows received 1 of 5 treatments for 2 consecutive lactations, including the prepartum period. Treatments comprised the basal diet with no additional lipid, or supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), extruded rapeseeds (ER), cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal, or whole unprocessed rapeseeds to provide 2.5 to 3.0% of additional oil in diet dry matter. During indoor periods, cows were housed and received a mixture (3:1, wt/wt) of grass silage and hay, whereas cows were at pasture during outdoor periods. Over the entire study, EL resulted in the enrichment of ∆11,13 CLA, ∆12,14 CLA, trans-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-13,trans-15 CLA, ∆9,11,15 CLnA, and cis-9,trans-11,trans-13 CLnA (identified for the first time in bovine milk fat) in milk fat, whereas ER and cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal in particular, increased milk fat trans-7,cis-9 CLA concentration. With the exception of the first indoor period, whole unprocessed rapeseeds decreased cis-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and trans-10,trans-12 CLA abundance. During the second indoor period, EL increased milk trans-9,cis-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentrations, but the increases in cis-9,trans-11 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA, trans-11,cis-13 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 CLnA concentrations to EL and ER were lower for the second than first indoor period. In contrast to the indoor periods, EL and ER decreased milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentrations at pasture. The extent of changes in the relative distribution and abundance of CLA and CLnA isomers in milk fat

  1. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Røjen, B A; Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH(3) absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used in an unbalanced crossover design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of water or 1,500 g/d of oligofructose. The same basal diet was fed with both treatments. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and ruminal vein blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 h after feeding. It was hypothesized that an increased supply of fermentable substrate to the hindgut would increase the uptake of urea-N from blood to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake to the forestomach. The study showed that abomasal oligofructose infusion decreased the total amount of urea-N transferred from the blood to the gut, NH(3) absorption, and arterial blood urea-N concentration. Subsequently, hepatic NH(3) uptake and urea-N production also decreased with oligofructose infusion. Additionally, urea-N concentration in milk and urinary N excretion decreased with oligofructose treatment. The oligofructose infusion did not affect ruminal NH(3) concentrations or any other ruminal variables, nor did it affect ruminal venous - arterial concentration differences for urea-N and NH(3). The oligofructose treatment did not affect milk yield, but did decrease apparent digestibility of OM, N, and starch. Nitrogen excreted in the feces was greater with the oligofructose infusion. In conclusion, the present data suggest that increased hindgut fermentation did not upregulate urea-N transfer to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake by the rumen, and the observed reduction

  2. Determination of steroid hormones in bovine milk by LC-MS/MS and their levels in Swiss Holstein cow milk.

    PubMed

    Goyon, Alexandre; Cai, Julia Zhenzhen; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Hartmann, Christoph; Shao, Bing; Mottier, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic and natural steroid hormones have attracted some attention in recent years as endocrine active substances (EAS) that interact or interfere with the endocrine system. Endogenous hormones occur naturally in food of animal origin, among which bovine milk represents an important source. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of steroid hormones (oestrogens, androgens, progestogens and glucocorticoids) in cow's milk samples from three farms in Switzerland. An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of 12 hormones in milk. Some hormonal levels from individual cows showed large variations. The average levels of the hormones analysed (17α-estradiol = 31 ng kg(-)(1), 17β-estradiol = 6 ng kg(-)(1), estrone = 159 ng kg(-)(1), 4-androstenedione = 684 ng kg(-)(1), progesterone = 15486 ng kg(-)(1), 17-hydroxyprogesterone = 214 ng kg(-)(1), cortisone = 112 ng kg(-)(1), and cortisol = 235 ng kg(-)(1)) were comparable with literature data. Estriol, testosterone and androstenediols were not detected at their respective limit of quantification. No significant differences of hormonal content among milk from cows at different lactation/calving numbers were evidenced, except for progesterone and 4-androstenedione. Due to confounding parameters linked to the physiological stage of the animal, like pregnancy and gestational stage (pregnancy trimester), the causal correlation between the variation of the levels for these two hormones and the lactation/calving number could not be unambiguously demonstrated. PMID:27055356

  3. Adding a second prostaglandin F2α treatment to but not reducing the duration of a PRID-Synch protocol increases fertility after resynchronization of ovulation in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Santos, V G; Carvalho, P D; Maia, C; Carneiro, B; Valenza, A; Crump, P M; Fricke, P M

    2016-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a second PGF2α treatment and duration of an Ovsynch protocol that included a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) on progesterone (P4) concentrations and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) after resynchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination (TAI). Lactating Holstein cows (n=821) were assigned randomly at a nonpregnancy diagnosis (d 0) to 3 resynchronization protocols: (1) GnRH, d 0; PGF2α, d 7; GnRH, d 9.5 (7D1PGF); (2) GnRH, d 0; PGF2α, d 7; PGF2α, d 8; GnRH, d 9.5); (7D2PGF); or (3) GnRH, d 2; PGF2α, d 7; PGF2α, d 8; GnRH, d 9.5 (5D2PGF). All cows received a PRID at the first GnRH treatment of the resynchronization protocol, which was removed at the first PGF2α treatment, and all cows received TAI approximately 16h after the second GnRH treatment. Blood samples were collected from a subgroup of cows at each treatment of the resynchronization protocols. At 32 d after TAI, cows receiving a second PGF2α treatment (7D2PGF + 5D2PGF cows) had more P/AI (42.6 vs. 35.7%) than cows receiving a single PGF2α treatment (7D1PGF cows). For cows treated with a second PGF2α treatment, decreasing the duration of the protocol did not increase P/AI (41.4 vs. 43.8% for 7D2PGF vs. 5D2PGF cows). At 60 d after TAI, P/AI did not differ between cows treated with the 1 PGF2α (7D1PGF cows) or 2 PGF2α (7D2PGF + 5D1PGF cows) treatments (32.5 vs. 37.9%, respectively). In addition, reducing the duration of the protocol did not increase P/AI at 60 d after TAI (37.8 vs. 38.5% for 7D2PGF vs. 5D2PGF cows). Pregnancy loss from 32 to 60 d after TAI was not affected by the number of PGF2α treatments (8.5 vs. 10.6%, for 7D1PGF vs. 7D2PGF + 5D2PGF cows) or the duration of the protocol (9.1 vs. 12.1%, for 7D2PGF vs. 5D2PGF cows). The percentage of cows with incomplete luteal regression at the second GnRH treatment tended to differ among treatments and was lowest for 7D2PGF cows, intermediate for 5D2PGF

  4. A Genome-Wide Association Study for Clinical Mastitis in First Parity US Holstein Cows Using Single-Step Approach and Genomic Matrix Re-Weighting Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Tiezzi, Francesco; Parker-Gaddis, Kristen L.; Cole, John B.; Clay, John S.; Maltecca, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the health disorders with large impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CM in first-lactation Holstein. Producer-recorded mastitis event information for 103,585 first-lactation cows were used, together with genotype information on 1,361 bulls from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Single-step genomic-BLUP methodology was used to incorporate genomic data into a threshold-liability model. Association analysis confirmed that CM follows a highly polygenic mode of inheritance. However, 10-adjacent-SNP windows showed that regions on chromosomes 2, 14 and 20 have impacts on genetic variation for CM. Some of the genes located on chromosome 14 (LY6K, LY6D, LYNX1, LYPD2, SLURP1, PSCA) are part of the lymphocyte-antigen-6 complex (LY6) known for its neutrophil regulation function linked to the major histocompatibility complex. Other genes on chromosome 2 were also involved in regulating immune response (IFIH1, LY75, and DPP4), or are themselves regulated in the presence of specific pathogens (ITGB6, NR4A2). Other genes annotated on chromosome 20 are involved in mammary gland metabolism (GHR, OXCT1), antibody production and phagocytosis of bacterial cells (C6, C7, C9, C1QTNF3), tumor suppression (DAB2), involution of mammary epithelium (OSMR) and cytokine regulation (PRLR). DAVID enrichment analysis revealed 5 KEGG pathways. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway (cell proliferation and apoptosis) and the ‘Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction’ (cytokine and interleukines response to infectious agents) are co-regulated and linked to the ‘ABC transporters’ pathway also found here. Gene network analysis performed using GeneMania revealed a co-expression network where 665 interactions existed among 145 of the genes reported above. Clinical mastitis is a complex trait and the different genes regulating immune response are known to be pathogen

  5. A study relating the composition of follicular fluid and blood plasma from individual Holstein dairy cows to the in vitro developmental competence of pooled abattoir-derived oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L; Yelland, Robert; MacMillan, Keith L; Robker, Rebecca L; Thompson, Jeremy G

    2014-07-01

    The fertility of high-performance (high milk yield) dairy breeds such as the Holstein within the Australian dairy herd has been on the decline for the past two decades. The 12-month calving interval for pasture-based farming practices results in oocyte maturation coinciding with peak lactation, periods of negative energy balance, and energy partitioning for lactation, causing energy deficiency in some organ systems, including the reproductive system. Oocyte developmental competence (the ability to undergo successful fertilization, embryo development, and establishment of pregnancy) is intrinsically linked with the composition of follicular fluid (FF). The aim of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between the fat and carbohydrate levels in plasma and FF and the ability to support in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM). Plasma and FF were collected in vivo from eight Holstein cows between 52 and 151 days post-partum. Plasma glucose trended (P = 0.072) higher and triglyceride levels were significantly higher than in FF (P < 0.05), but there were no relationships between FF and plasma composition. Glucose FF concentration was negatively related to follicular lactate and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and days post-partum. Conversely, FF triglyceride concentrations were positively related to FF NEFA levels and negatively related to milk fat and protein composition. Abattoir-derived cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in either 50% FF (FF-IVM) or 50% plasma (plasma-IVM), with on-time embryo development then assessed. Although there were no differences between animals, the blastocyst rates after FF-IVM were negatively related to plasma glucose and days post-partum and positively related to body condition score and plasma NEFA levels. In comparison to the previous studies, total NEFA levels in FF were not related to animal parameters and did not influence oocyte developmental competence in vitro. Results from this study suggest that days

  6. Mapping quantitative trait Loci for left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mömke, S; Scholz, H; Doll, K; Rehage, J; Distl, O

    2008-11-01

    A whole-genome scan using an affected paternal half-sib design was utilized to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for left-sided displaced abomasum (LDA) in German Holsteins. A total of 360 animals from 14 paternal half-sib families were genotyped, for a total of 306 polymorphic microsatellites. For a whole-genome scan, 221 markers were equally distributed over all 29 bovine autosomes, with an average distance of 13.7 cM. For fine-mapping, a total of 85 additional microsatellites were used. We identified genome-wide significant QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 1 (54.6 to 58.3 cM) and on BTA3 (5.9 cM). Furthermore, 3 chromosome-wide significant QTL were located on bovine chromosomes 21, 23, and 24. In addition, we found 11 QTL that cosegregated in grandsire families but that were not significant in the across-family analysis. These QTL were located on BTA5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, 23, and 26. This study is the first report on QTL for LDA and is a first step toward identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms for LDA-QTL. PMID:18946144

  7. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  8. Effect of time duration of ruminal urea infusions on ruminal ammonia concentrations and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea-N in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Røjen, B A; Kristensen, N B

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a 6 versus 24h ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in N on ruminal ammonia concentration, arterial urea-N concentration, net portal-drained viscera (PDV) urea-N flux, arterial urea-N extraction across the PDV, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Three Danish Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were randomly allocated to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were ventral ruminal infusion of water for 24h (water INF), 24-h infusion of 15 g of urea/kg of dry matter intake (DMI; 24-h INF), and 6-h infusion of 15 g of urea/kg of DMI (6-h INF). The 6-h INF was initiated 0.5h after the afternoon feeding, and ran until 2230 h. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, and hepatic blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5h after feeding (i.e., 9 to 15.5h after the 6h infusion was terminated). A substantial decrease in DMI for 6-h INF compared with 24-h INF and water INF was observed, and it has to be recognized that DMI may have confounding effects. However, the experimental setting plan was met (i.e., to cause changes in the daily pattern of ruminal ammonia and blood urea-N concentrations). The arterial urea-N concentration for 24-h INF and 6-h INF were greater than the arterial urea-N concentration with water INF throughout the sampling window. However, the arterial urea-N concentration for 6-h INF decreased steadily with sampling time reflecting a carryover effect from the ruminal urea infusion. The ruminal ammonia concentration and net portal flux of ammonia for 6-h INF were not different from water INF; hence, no carryover effect on ruminal ammonia concentration was observed. The portal flux of urea-N was not affected by treatment (i.e., even the combination of low ruminal ammonia and high arterial urea-N concentration with 6-h INF was

  9. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  10. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  11. Benchmarking cow comfort on North American freestall dairies: lameness, leg injuries, lying time, facility design, and management for high-producing Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    von Keyserlingk, M A G; Barrientos, A; Ito, K; Galo, E; Weary, D M

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel approach to corporate involvement in on-farm assessment, driven by the desire to provide a service for dairy producers and to create a vehicle for engagement on issues of dairy cow welfare. This program provides producers with feedback on animal-based (including gait score, leg injuries, and lying time) and facility-based (including freestall design, bedding practices, feed bunk design and management, and stocking density) measures that can be used to better address their management goals. The aim of this paper is to describe variation in the prevalence of lameness and leg injuries, lying behavior, facility design, and management practices for high-producing cows on freestall dairy farms in 3 regions of North America: British Columbia (BC; n=42); California (CA; n=39); and the northeastern United States (NE-US; n=40). Prevalence of clinical lameness averaged (mean ± SD) 27.9±14.1% in BC, 30.8±15.5% in CA, and 54.8±16.7% in NE-US; prevalence of severe lameness averaged 7.1±5.4% in BC, 3.6±4.2% in CA, and 8.2±5.6% in NE-US. Overall prevalence of hock injuries was 42.3±26.2% in BC, 56.2±21.6% in CA, and 81.2±22.5% in NE-US; prevalence of severe injuries was 3.7±5.2% in BC, 1.8±3.1% in CA, 5.4±5.9% in NE-US. Prevalence of swollen knees was minimal in CA (0.3±0.6%) but high (23.1±16.3%) in NE-US (not scored in BC). Lying times were similar across regions (11.0±0.7h/d in BC, 10.4±0.8h/d in CA, 10.6±0.9h/d in NE-US), but individual lying times among cows assessed varied (4.2 to 19.5h/d, 3.7 to 17.5h/d, and 2.8 to 20.5h/d in BC, CA, and NE-US, respectively). These results showed considerable variation in lameness and leg injury prevalence as well as facility design and management among freestall farms in North America. Each of the 3 regions had farms with a very low prevalence of lameness and injuries, suggesting great opportunities for improvement on other farms within the region. PMID:23063152

  12. Climatic effects on milk production traits and somatic cell score in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Sanker, C; Gauly, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on milk production traits and somatic cell score (SCS) of dairy cows raised in 4 different housing systems: (1) warm loose housing with access to grazing (WG), (2) warm loose housing without access to grazing (WI), (3) cold loose housing with access to grazing (CG), and (4) cold loose housing without access to grazing (CI). For each of the 4 housing systems, 5 farms with a herd size of 70 to 200 lactating cows in Lower Saxony, Germany, were studied. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly in each barn to calculate THI. Milk production data included 21,546 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yield, and SCS. These data were associated with the average THI of the 3 d preceding the respective measurement, which was divided into 6 classes (<45, ≥45 to <50, ≥50 to <55, ≥55 to <60, ≥60 to <65, and ≥65). Furthermore, bulk milk samples including the fat and protein percentage, and SCS taken 4 to 6 times per month were associated with the average and maximum THI of the 3 d before sampling. Data were recorded from April 2010 to March 2011. In each of the housing systems, monthly THI values above 60, indicating heat stress, were recorded between June and September, with higher values in WI and WG. In all systems, fat-corrected milk, fat, and protein yields of the test-day records decreased in tendency from 60 ≤ THI<65 to THI >65. In WI and CI, values for SCS were greater in the class THI > 65 than in 60 ≤ THI<65, whereas no difference between any of the THI classes was found in WG and CG. The fat and protein percentage of the bulk milk samples decreased with increasing 3-d maximum THI in all 4 systems, whereas the SCS increased with increasing 3-d average THI. In conclusion, negative effects of heat stress conditions under a temperate climate on milk production traits and SCS were found, although a housing system being superior to the other

  13. Short communication: Variation in production parameters among Canadian Holstein cows classified as high, average, and low immune responders.

    PubMed

    Stoop, C L; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Cartwright, S L; Mallard, B A

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle evaluated for immune responses and identified as high responders are known to have a lower occurrence of economically important diseases, including mastitis, metritis, ketosis, and retained placenta. These high immune responders have also been shown to make more antibody following vaccination and to have improved milk and colostrum quality. Therefore, breeding for improved immune response is expected to have several benefits in the dairy industry. However, a concern of such an approach to improve animal health is the potential cost of lost production due to an allocation of host resources to mount a robust immune response. The objective of this study was to evaluate early- and late-lactation production parameters in cattle classified as having high, average, or low estimated breeding values (EBV) for cell-mediated (CMIR), antibody-mediated (AMIR), and overall immune responses. A total of 561 cows from 6 herds were phenotyped for immune response and ranked based on EBV for CMIR and AMIR. A linear animal model was used to evaluate differences in milk, fat, and protein yields among immune response groups, and a regression analysis was conducted based on immune response EBV. Overall, no difference in production parameters was found based on immune response rank; however, some positive relationships with immune response EBV were found, suggesting that breeding for enhanced immune responsiveness as a prophylactic approach to improve animal health would not come at the cost of lost production. PMID:27060821

  14. Effect of superovulation on uterine and serum biochemical parameters and its potential association with transferable embryos in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, Hasina Santatriniaina; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Lefebvre, Réjean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation (SOV) on serum and uterine biochemical parameters, uterine bacteriology and cytology and number of transferable embryos (TE). Dairy cows were placed on a Presynch/CIDR Synch protocol. The SOV group was superovulated, induced in estrus, and inseminated, whereas the control group was induced in estrus and inseminated without SOV. Uterine bacteriology and cytology and uterine and serum biochemical parameters were measured at day 7 of the estrous cycle to start the SOV protocol, as well as on the day of embryo recovery (DER). The SOV group produced 7.5 ± 6.7 oocytes/embryos, of which 3.4 ± 4.7 were TE. Serum urea and E2 and uterine Glu, CK, LDH, TP, P4 and PGFM in the control group and serum P4 and PGFM and uterine LDH and PGFM in the SOV group were significantly higher (p < 0.01) at DER than day 7. At DER, uterine urea, LDH, PGFM and TP and serum urea, LDH, PGFM, and P4 concentrations were higher (p < 0.01) in the SOV group than the control. There was no significant variation in uterine bacteriology or cytology. Overall, these results infer that SOV affects both serum profile and uterine secretions, and that these changes may influence the number of TE. PMID:24675828

  15. Pharmacokinetics and milk secretion of gabapentin and meloxicam co-administered orally in Holstein-Friesian cows

    PubMed Central

    Malreddy, Pradeep R.; Coetzee, Johann F.; KuKanich, Butch; Gehring, Ronette

    2012-01-01

    Management of neuropathic pain in dairy cattle could be achieved by combination therapy of gabapentin, a GABA analog and meloxicam, an NSAID. This study was designed to determine specifically the depletion of these drugs into milk. Six animals received meloxicam at 1 mg/kg and gabapentin at 10 mg/kg while another group (n=6) received meloxicam at 1 mg/kg and gabapentin at 20 mg/kg. Plasma and milk drug concentrations were determined over 7 days post-administration by HPLC/MS followed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses. The mean (± SD) plasma Cmax and Tmax for meloxicam (2.89 ± 0.48 μg/ml and 11.33 ± 4.12 hours) were not much different from gabapentin at 10 mg/kg (2.87 ± 0.2 μg/ml and 8 hours). The mean (± SD) milk Cmax for meloxicam (0.41 ± 0.16 μg/ml) were comparable to gabapentin at 10 mg/kg (0.63 ± 0.13 μg/ml and 12 ± 6.69 hours). The mean plasma and milk Cmax for gabapentin at 20 mg/kg P.O. were almost double the values at 10 mg/kg. The mean (± SD) milk to plasma ratio for meloxicam (0.14 ± 0.04) was lower than for gabapentin (0.23 ± 0.06). The results of this study suggest that milk from treated cows will have low drug residue concentration soon after plasma drug concentrations have fallen below effective levels. PMID:22372845

  16. Milk quality, coagulation properties, and curd firmness modeling of purebred Holsteins and first- and second-generation crossbred cows from Swedish Red, Montbéliarde, and Brown Swiss bulls.

    PubMed

    Malchiodi, F; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how the crossbreeding of Holstein (HO) cows with bulls from Nordic and Alpine European breeds affect milk quality traits, traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), and curd firmness modeling obtained from individual milk samples. A total of 506 individual milk samples were collected from evening milking at 3 commercial farms located in Northern Italy. Over the past decade, the 3 farms have followed crossbreeding programs in part of their herds, whereas the remainder of the animals consisted of purebred HO. The basic scheme was a 3-breed rotation based on the use of Swedish Red (SR) semen on HO cows (SR × HO), the use of Montbéliarde (MO) semen on first-cross cows [MO × (SR × HO)], and the use of HO semen in the third cross. In all herds, a smaller proportion of purebred HO were mated to M and Brown Swiss (BS) bulls, and these first crosses were mated to SR and MO bulls, respectively. Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and MCP, and parameters for curd firmness were modeled. Compared with purebred HO, crossbred cows produced less milk with lower lactose content, higher fat and protein content, and a tendency for higher casein content. Crossbred cows generally produced milk with a more favorable curd-firming rate (k₂₀) and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition, among traditional MCP, and better trends of curd firmness measures as shown by model parameters: estimated rennet coagulation time, asymptotical potential value of curd firmness, and curd-firming instant rate constant. Among crossbred cows, SR × HO presented longer rennet coagulation time compared with MO × HO and BS × HO cows, and MO × HO showed shorter k₂₀ compared with BS × HO cows. Among second-generation cows, those sired by SR bulls showed a lower incidence of noncoagulated samples, higher curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition and asymptotical potential value of curd firmness, and faster curd-firming instant

  17. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows Grazing in Dry-summer Subtropical Climatic Conditions: Effect of Heat Stress and Heat Shock on Meiotic Competence and In vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Pavani, Krishna; Carvalhais, Isabel; Faheem, Marwa; Chaveiro, Antonio; Reis, Francisco Vieira; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate how environmental factors in a dry-summer subtropical climate in Terceira-Azores (situated in the North Atlantic Ocean: 38° 43′ N 27° 12′ W) can affect dairy cow (Holstein) fertility, as well as seasonal influence on in vitro oocytes maturation and embryos development. Impact of heat shock (HS) effects on in vitro oocyte’s maturation and further embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was also evaluated. For such purpose the result of the first artificial insemination (AI) performed 60 to 90 days after calving of 6,300 cows were recorded for one year. In parallel, climatic data was obtained at different elevation points (n = 5) from 0 to 1,000 m and grazing points from 0 to 500 m, in Terceira island, and the temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated. For in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 706) were collected weekly during all year, for meiotic maturation and IVF. Further, to evaluate HS effect, 891 oocytes were collected in the cold moths (December, January, February and March) and divided in three groups treated to HS for 24 h during in vitro maturation at: C (Control = 38.5°C), HS1 (39.5°C) and HS2 (40.5°C). Oocytes from each group were used for meiotic assessment and IVF. Cleavage, morula and blastocyst development were evaluated respectively on day 2, 6, and 9 after IVF. A negative correlation between cow’s conception rate (CR) and THI in grazing points (−91.3%; p<0.001) was observed. Mean THI in warmer months (June, July, August and September) was 71.7±0.7 and the CR (40.2±1.5%) while in cold months THI was 62.8±0.2 and CR was 63.8±0.4%. A similar impact was obtained with in vitro results in which nuclear maturation rate (NMR) ranged from 78.4% (±8.0) to 44.3% (±8.1), while embryos development ranged from 53.8% (±5.8) to 36.3% (±3.3) in cold and warmer months respectively. In vitro HS results showed a significant decline (p<0.05) on NMR of oocytes for every 1°C rising

  18. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  19. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  20. Effects of supplemental feeding interval on adult cows in western Texas.

    PubMed

    Huston, J E; Lippke, H; Forbes, T D; Holloway, J W; Machen, R V

    1999-11-01

    indicate that feeding as infrequently as one time per week can be effective nutrition management for adult cows grazing native range. PMID:10568478

  1. Effect of intramammary injection of rboGM-CSF on milk levels of chemiluminescence activity, somatic cell count, and Staphylococcus aureus count in Holstein cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The effect of intramammary injection of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rboGM-CSF, 400 μg/10 mL) on quarter milk levels of chemiluminescence (CL) activity, and somatic cell count (SCC) and shedding pattern of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Ten Holstein cows, naturally infected with S. aureus were used, with either early-stage or late-stage subclinical mastitis. Injection of rboGM-CSF caused a remarkable increase in milk CL activity with a peak at 6 h after the cytokine injection in the early- and late-stage groups. In the early-stage group, milk SCC stayed around preinjection level at 6 h, rose significantly on days 1 and 2, and was followed by a smooth and significant decline to an under preinjection level (below 200 000 cells/mL) on day 7 postinjection. Alternatively, in the late-stage group, milk SCC rose significantly at 6 h after the cytokine injection and maintained high levels thereafter. The milk S. aureus count decreased drastically by the cytokine injection in the early-stage group. The bacterial count was moderately decreased in the late-stage group, but increased back to preinoculation levels on day 7 after the cytokine injection. The results suggest that the rboGM-CSF has a potential as a therapeutic agent for S. aureus infection causing subclinical mastitis of dairy cows, if the cytokine is applied at the initial stage of infection. PMID:15352542

  2. An evaluation of the effect of altering nutrition and nutritional strategies in early lactation on reproductive performance and estrous behavior of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, H S; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Wylie, A R G; Law, R A; Kilpatrick, D J; Elliott, C T; Mayne, C S

    2011-07-01

    Reproductive performance in the high-yielding dairy cow has severely decreased in the last 40 yr. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 4 nutritional strategies in improving the reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy cows. It was hypothesized that offering cows a high-starch ration in early lactation would enhance the onset of luteal activity, and that decreasing the severity of negative energy balance in the early postcalving period would improve reproductive parameters. Nutritional regimens aimed at improving fertility were applied to 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals. Upon calving, animals were allocated in a balanced manner to one of 4 dietary treatments. Primiparous animals were balanced according to live weight, body condition score and calving date. Multiparous animals were balanced according to parity, previous lactation milk yield, liveweight, body condition score and calving date. Treatment 1 was based on an industry best practice diet (control) to contain 170 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter. Treatment 2 was an individual cow feeding strategy, whereby the energy balance (EB) of individual animals was managed so as to achieve a predetermined target daily EB profile (±10 MJ/d). Treatment 3 was a high-starch/high-fat combination treatment, whereby an insulinogenic (high-starch) diet was offered in early lactation to encourage cyclicity and followed by a lipogenic (low-starch, high-fat) diet to promote embryo development. Treatment 4 was a low-protein diet, containing 140 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter, supplemented with protected methionine at an inclusion level of 40 g per animal per day. The nutritional strategies implemented in this study had no statistically significant effects on cow fertility measures, which included the onset of luteal activity, conception rate, in-calf rate, and the incidence of atypical cycles. The individual cow feeding strategy improved EB in early lactation but had no benefit on conception

  3. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    PubMed

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  4. Effects of grain source and marginal change in lucerne hay particle size on feed sorting, eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Yang, W Z

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of grain source and lucerne hay (LH) particle length on eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein dairy cows (175 ± 21 days in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-days periods. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with barley grain alone or equal blend of barley and maize grains combined with short (15 mm) and long (30 mm) LH. Diets were fed ad libitum as total mixed ration with a concentrate to forage ratio of 60:40. Interactions between grain source and LH particle length on feed particle distributions, sorting index, chewing activity, and milk production were minimal. Partially replacing barley grain with maize in the diet overall did not change diurnal distributions of particles retained on the sieves of Penn State Particle Separator but reduced the proportion of particles on 1.18-sieve and increased that of particles on pan (p < 0.05). Grain source did not affect sorting index and chewing activity. However, feeding long LH increased (p < 0.01) intakes of long particles retained on 19- and 8-mm of sieve, prolonged (p < 0.05) eating time, and lowered eating rate (p < 0.05). Interestingly, cows fed with long LH ate more coarse particle during critical-early time post feeding (i. e. 1.5 h), where eating time increased and eating rate decreased (p < 0.05). Increasing particle length of dietary LH tended to increase milk fat-to-protein ratio (p = 0.08). The results suggested that the increased eating time and decreased eating rate as a result of marginally increasing LH particle length would be beneficial to alleviate reduction of ruminal pH and milk fat percentage following the ingestion of highly fermentable diets. PMID:24661569

  5. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  6. Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, A.; Aliarabi, H.; Tabatabaei, M. M.; Saki, A. A.; Valizadeh, R.; Zamani, P.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing −100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed −100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows. PMID:25049589

  7. Thyroid Hormones Concentrations during the Mid-Dry Period: An Early Indicator of Fatty Liver in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Šamanc, Horea; Stojić, Velibor; Kirovski, Danijela; Jovanović, Milijan; Cernescu, Horia; Vujanac, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Relationship between postpartal fatty liver and thyroid gland activity during the peripartal and mid dry periods was studied. Twenty one dry cows were chosen. Blood samples were obtained on days −30, −2, and +12 related to calving and analized for thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). A T3/T4 ratio was calculated. Liver tissue samples were taken 12 d after calving and tested for the lipid content. Cows were divided into three groups: mild (<20% fat), moderate (20 to 30%), or severe fatty liver (>30%). Cows, that were affected with severe fatty liver, were hypothyroid prior to development of the condition due to lower T4 concentrations, and had significantly lower concentration of T3 and higher T3/T4 ratios than cows with mild and moderate fatty liver. Thus, hypothyroid state during mid-dry period may be an early indicator of postpartal fatty liver and may provoke T3/T4 ratio increase in this group of cows. PMID:21048844

  8. The association between occurrence and severity of subclinical and clinical mastitis on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, M J; Fricke, P M; Ruegg, P L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine associations between occurrence and severity of clinical (CM) and subclinical mastitis (SM) during a defined breeding risk period (BRP, 3d before to 32d after artificial insemination) on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service (P/AI1). Dairy cows (n=3,144) from 4 Wisconsin herds were categorized based on the occurrence of one or more CM or SM events during and before the BRP: (1) healthy, (2) mastitis before BRP, (3) SM during BRP, (4) chronic SM, (5) CM during BRP, or (6) chronic CM. Clinical mastitis cases were categorized based on etiology (gram-negative, gram-positive, and no growth) and severity (mild, moderate, or severe). Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.56, 0.67, and 0.75 for cows experiencing chronic CM, CM, or SM during the BRP, respectively. The occurrence of chronic SM was not associated with reduced probability of P/AI1. Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.71 and 0.54 for cows experiencing mild or moderate-severe cases of CM during the BRP, respectively. The odds of pregnancy for cows experiencing CM caused by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria during the BRP were 0.47 and 0.59, respectively. The occurrence of CM that resulted in no growth of bacteria in cultured milk samples was not associated with reductions in P/AI1. Regardless of etiology, microbiologically positive cases of CM with moderate or severe symptoms were associated with substantial reductions in P/AI1. Etiology, severity, and timing of CM were associated with decreases in the probability of pregnancy at first artificial insemination. Severity of the case was more important than etiology; however, regardless of severity, microbiologically negative cases were not associated with reduced probability of pregnancy. PMID:25795486

  9. Overfeeding energy upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-controlled adipogenic and lipolytic gene networks but does not affect proinflammatory markers in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of overfeeding energy on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a low energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or high energy (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lipolysis, lactate signaling, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and AT depot was only significant for LPL, which indicated a consistent response among the 3 sites. The expression of key genes related to de novo fatty acid synthesis (FASN) and desaturation (SCD) was upregulated by HE compared with LE. Other genes associated with those processes, such as ACLY, ACACA, ELOVL6, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1, were numerically upregulated by HE. The expression of lipolytic (PNPLA2 and ABHD5) genes was upregulated and the antilypolytic lactate receptor HCAR1 was downregulated with HE compared with LE. The putative transcription regulator THRSP was upregulated and the transcription regulator PPARG tended to be upregulated by HE, whereas SREBF1 was downregulated. Among adipocytokines, HE tended to upregulate the expression of CCL2, whereas IL6R was downregulated. Overall, results indicated that overfeeding energy may increase AT mass at least in part by stimulating transcription of the network encompassing key genes associated with de novo synthesis. In response to energy overfeeding, the expression of PPARG rather than SREBF1 was closely associated with most adipogenic or lipogenic genes. However, the transcriptional activity of these regulators needs to be verified to confirm their role in the regulation of adipogenesis or lipogenesis in bovine

  10. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high- and low- yielding dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, Afshin; Nasser Mohebi, Abdonnaser; Heidari Soreshjani, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00%) compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%). The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%), wandering pacemaker (22.45 %), bradycardia (18.37%), tachycardia (10.20%), atrial premature beat (2.04%), sinoatrial block (2.04%), atrial fibrillation (8.16%) and atrial tachycardia (2.04%). The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95%) and wandering pacemaker (13.05%). Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows. PMID:25568685

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of an Escherichia coli O8:H19 Sequence Type 708 Strain Isolated from a Holstein Dairy Cow with Metritis.

    PubMed

    Ginn, Amber; Ma, Zhengxin; Galvao, Klibs N; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    We present here the genome sequence ofEscherichia coliO8:H19 strain KCJ852, belonging to multilocus sequence type (MLST) 708, isolated from the uterus of a cow with a bovine postpartum uterine infection known as metritis. Genomic investigation of KCJ852 will help us understand its virulence potential. PMID:27056235

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of an Escherichia coli O8:H19 Sequence Type 708 Strain Isolated from a Holstein Dairy Cow with Metritis

    PubMed Central

    Ginn, Amber; Ma, Zhengxin; Galvao, Klibs N.

    2016-01-01

    We present here the genome sequence of Escherichia coli O8:H19 strain KCJ852, belonging to multilocus sequence type (MLST) 708, isolated from the uterus of a cow with a bovine postpartum uterine infection known as metritis. Genomic investigation of KCJ852 will help us understand its virulence potential. PMID:27056235

  13. Alterations in Hepatic FGF21, Co-Regulated Genes, and Upstream Metabolic Genes in Response to Nutrition, Ketosis and Inflammation in Peripartal Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Haji; Batistel, Fernanda; Drackley, James K.; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as a key metabolic regulator produced by liver. To gather preliminary data on the potential importance of FGF1, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression in response to nutrition and inflammation in dairy cows. In experiment 1, induction of ketosis through feed restriction on d 5 postpartum upregulated FGF21, its co-receptor KLB, and PPARA but only elicited a numerical increase in serum FGF21 concentration. In experiment 2, cows in control (CON) or receiving 50 g/d of L-carnitine (C50) from -14 through 21 d had increased FGF21, PPARA, and NFIL3 on d 10 compared with d 2 postpartum. In contrast, compared with CON and C50, 100 g/d L-carnitine (C100) resulted in lower FGF21, KLB, ANGPTL4, and ARNTL expression on d 10. In experiment 3, cows were fed during the dry period either a higher-energy (OVE; 1.62 Mcal/kg DM) or lower-energy (CON; 1.34 Mcal/kg DM) diet and received 0 (OVE:N, CON:N) or 200 μg of LPS (OVE:Y, CON:Y) into the mammary gland at d 7 postpartum. For FGF21 mRNA expression in CON, the LPS challenge (CON:Y) prevented a decrease in expression between d 7 and 14 postpartum such that cows in CON:N had a 4-fold lower expression on d 14 compared with d 7. The inflammatory stimulus induced by LPS in CON:Y resulted in upregulation of PPARA on d 14 to a similar level as cows in OVE:N. In OVE:Y, expression of PPARA was lower than CON:N on d 7 and remained unchanged on d 14. On d 7, LPS led to a 4-fold greater serum FGF21 only in OVE but not in CON cows. In fact, OVE:Y reached the same serum FGF21 concentration as CON:N, suggesting a carryover effect of dietary energy level on signaling mechanisms within liver. Overall, results indicate that nutrition, ketosis, and inflammation during the peripartal period can alter hepatic FGF21, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes to various extents. The functional outcome of these changes merits further study

  14. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O.

    2014-01-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature. PMID:24790232

  15. Short communication: Effect of casein haplotype on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (αS1, β, and κ) on antioxidative and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes. The antioxidant capacity was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, whereas ACE inhibition was determined by ACE-inhibitory assay. The ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein increased during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Casein haplotype significantly influenced the antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory capacities of digested casein. In particular, BB-A(2)A(1)-AA casein and BB-A(1)A(1)-AA casein showed the highest ACE-inhibitory capacity, BB-A(2)A(2)-AA casein showed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB casein showed the lowest biological capacity. To date, few studies have been done on the effect of casein haplotype on biological capacity of milk casein, thus the present study sets the basis for a new knowledge that could lead to the production of milk with better nutraceutical properties. PMID:27289148

  16. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  17. Survival, lifetime production, and profitability of Normande × Holstein, Montbéliarde × Holstein, and Scandinavian Red × Holstein crossbreds versus pure Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; De Vries, A

    2012-02-01

    Pure Holstein (HO) cows (n=416) were compared with Normande (NO) × HO (n=251), Montbéliarde (MO) × HO (n=503), and Scandinavian Red (SR) × HO (n=321) crossbred cows for survival, lifetime production, and profitability in 6 commercial herds in California. The SR crossbred cows were sired by both Swedish Red and Norwegian Red bulls. Cows calved from June 2002 to January 2009. For analysis of survival to subsequent calvings, lifetime production, and profitability, data were restricted to 3 of 6 herds because they had at least 20 cows in each of the breed groups. All cows had the opportunity to calve at least 4 times. Best prediction, which is used by USDA for national genetic evaluations in the United States, was used to determine lifetime production to 4 yr (1,461 d) in the herd after first calving from test-day observations. Production and survival were estimated after 4 yr to calculate lifetime profit. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for milk, fat, protein, and other solids production; somatic cell count; reproduction; feed intake; calf value; salvage value; dead cow disposal; and fixed cost. The NO × HO (1.2%), MO × HO (2.0%), and SR × HO cows (1.6%) had significantly fewer deaths than did pure HO cows (5.3%) during the first 305 d of first lactation. All crossbred groups had significantly more cows that calved a second, third, and fourth time, and had mean survival that was 300 to 400 d longer than did pure HO cows. The NO × HO, MO × HO, and SR × HO cows had significantly higher lifetime fat plus protein production than did pure HO cows up to 1,461 d after first calving. For profitability (ignoring possible differences in health costs), NO × HO cows had 26% greater projected lifetime profit per cow, but 6.7% less profit per cow-day, than did pure HO cows. On the other hand, MO × HO and SR × HO cows had 50 to 44%, respectively, more projected lifetime profit per cow and 5.3 to 3.6%, respectively, more projected profit

  18. Effects of 2 commercially-available 9-way killed vaccines on milk production and rectal temperature in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H M; Atkins, G; Willows, B; McGregor, R

    2001-01-01

    Veterinarians and farmers employing multivalent killed vaccines in lactating dairy cows have reported transient losses in milk production. Few studies have quantified this loss. In this report, effects of 2 commercially available 9-way vaccines on milk production and rectal temperature are examined. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to compare changes in milk production and rectal temperature over time between treatment groups. There was a significant (P < 0.01) interaction among treatment and time when comparing vaccine- and placebo-treated animals. When pretreatment milk production (or days in milk) and pretreatment rectal temperature were considered, respectively, as covariates, a significant (P < 0.05) depression of milk production and a significant (P < 0.05) increase in rectal temperature were observed one day following injection. These effects were small and short-lived. The stage of lactation, level of milk production, and choice of product may be used as decision-making tools to decrease milk production losses in vaccine-candidate cows. PMID:11665428

  19. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and

  20. The influence of casein haplotype on morphometric characteristics of fat globules and fatty acid composition of milk in Italian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotypes (αS1-, β-, and κ-caseins) on morphometric characteristics of fat globules and fatty acid composition of Italian Holstein milk. Casein haplotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing; milk fat globule size was measured by using a fluorescence microscope; and fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography. Casein haplotype significantly affected the fat globule size, the percentage incidence of each globule size class on total measured milk fat globules, and fatty acid composition. A higher incidence of smaller milk fat globules was associated with the BB-A(2)A(2)-BB genotype (αS1-, β-, and κ-casein haplotypes, respectively), whereas small globules were not detected in BB-A(2)A(1)-AA milk, but that milk had the highest percentage of large globules. A higher content of monounsaturated fatty acids was associated with the BB-A(2)A(2)-AB genotype, whereas higher contents of conjugated linoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were detected in BB-A(1)A(1)-AA milk. Our results indicate that casein haplotype could affect fat characteristics and, therefore, the nutritional and technological quality of milk. PMID:26874415

  1. Subcutaneous immunization with inactivated bacterial components and purified protein of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes prevents puerperal metritis in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, Vinícius Silva; Bicalho, Marcela Luccas de Souza; Meira Junior, Enoch Brandão de Souza; Rossi, Rodolfo; Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo; Lima, Svetlana; Santos, Thiago; Kussler, Arieli; Foditsch, Carla; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Oikonomou, Georgios; Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert Owen; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the efficacy of five vaccine formulations containing different combinations of proteins (FimH; leukotoxin, LKT; and pyolysin, PLO) and/or inactivated whole cells (Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Trueperella pyogenes) in preventing postpartum uterine diseases. Inactivated whole cells were produced using two genetically distinct strains of each bacterial species (E. coli, F. necrophorum, and T. pyogenes). FimH and PLO subunits were produced using recombinant protein expression, and LKT was recovered from culturing a wild F. necrophorum strain. Three subcutaneous vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 1 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; Vaccine 2 was composed of proteins only; and Vaccine 3 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells only. Two intravaginal vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 4 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; and Vaccine 5 was composed of PLO and LKT. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, a randomized clinical trial was conducted at a commercial dairy farm; 371 spring heifers were allocated randomly into one of six different treatments groups: control, Vaccine 1, Vaccine 2, Vaccine 3, Vaccine 4 and Vaccine 5. Late pregnant heifers assigned to one of the vaccine groups were each vaccinated twice: at 230 and 260 days of pregnancy. When vaccines were evaluated grouped as subcutaneous and intravaginal, the subcutaneous ones were found to significantly reduce the incidence of puerperal metritis. Additionally, subcutaneous vaccination significantly reduced rectal temperature at 6±1 days in milk. Reproduction was improved for cows that received subcutaneous vaccines. In general, vaccination induced a significant increase in serum IgG titers against all antigens, with subcutaneous vaccination again being more effective. In conclusion, subcutaneous vaccination with inactivated bacterial components and/or protein subunits of E. coli, F. necrophorum and T. pyogenes

  2. Subcutaneous Immunization with Inactivated Bacterial Components and Purified Protein of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes Prevents Puerperal Metritis in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Vinícius Silva; Bicalho, Marcela Luccas de Souza; Meira Junior, Enoch Brandão de Souza; Rossi, Rodolfo; Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo; Lima, Svetlana; Santos, Thiago; Kussler, Arieli; Foditsch, Carla; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Oikonomou, Georgios; Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert Owen; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the efficacy of five vaccine formulations containing different combinations of proteins (FimH; leukotoxin, LKT; and pyolysin, PLO) and/or inactivated whole cells (Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Trueperella pyogenes) in preventing postpartum uterine diseases. Inactivated whole cells were produced using two genetically distinct strains of each bacterial species (E. coli, F. necrophorum, and T. pyogenes). FimH and PLO subunits were produced using recombinant protein expression, and LKT was recovered from culturing a wild F. necrophorum strain. Three subcutaneous vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 1 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; Vaccine 2 was composed of proteins only; and Vaccine 3 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells only. Two intravaginal vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 4 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; and Vaccine 5 was composed of PLO and LKT. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, a randomized clinical trial was conducted at a commercial dairy farm; 371 spring heifers were allocated randomly into one of six different treatments groups: control, Vaccine 1, Vaccine 2, Vaccine 3, Vaccine 4 and Vaccine 5. Late pregnant heifers assigned to one of the vaccine groups were each vaccinated twice: at 230 and 260 days of pregnancy. When vaccines were evaluated grouped as subcutaneous and intravaginal, the subcutaneous ones were found to significantly reduce the incidence of puerperal metritis. Additionally, subcutaneous vaccination significantly reduced rectal temperature at 6±1 days in milk. Reproduction was improved for cows that received subcutaneous vaccines. In general, vaccination induced a significant increase in serum IgG titers against all antigens, with subcutaneous vaccination again being more effective. In conclusion, subcutaneous vaccination with inactivated bacterial components and/or protein subunits of E. coli, F. necrophorum and T. pyogenes

  3. Dominance and parent-of-origin effects of coding and non-coding alleles at the acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene on milk production traits in German Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Christa; Edel, Christian; Weikard, Rosemarie; Thaller, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substantial gene substitution effects on milk production traits have formerly been reported for alleles at the K232A and the promoter VNTR loci in the bovine acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene by using data sets including sires with accumulated phenotypic observations of daughters (breeding values, daughter yield deviations). However, these data sets prevented analyses with respect to dominance or parent-of-origin effects, although an increasing number of reports in the literature outlined the relevance of non-additive gene effects on quantitative traits. Results Based on a data set comprising German Holstein cows with direct trait measurements, we first confirmed the previously reported association of DGAT1 promoter VNTR alleles with milk production traits. We detected a dominant mode of effects for the DGAT1 K232A and promoter VNTR alleles. Namely, the contrasts between the effects of heterozygous individuals at the DGAT1 loci differed significantly from the midpoint between the effects for the two homozygous genotypes for several milk production traits, thus indicating the presence of dominance. Furthermore, we identified differences in the magnitude of effects between paternally and maternally inherited DGAT1 promoter VNTR – K232A haplotypes indicating parent-of-origin effects on milk production traits. Conclusion Non-additive effects like those identified at the bovine DGAT1 locus have to be accounted for in more specific QTL detection models as well as in marker assisted selection schemes. The DGAT1 alleles in cattle will be a useful model for further investigations on the biological background of non-additive effects in mammals due to the magnitude and consistency of their effects on milk production traits. PMID:17892573

  4. Relationship between blood urea, protein, creatinine, triglycerides and macro-mineral concentrations with the quality and quantity of milk in dairy Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Moghadam, Gholamali; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Babapour, Azadeh; Ramin, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Seventy six high and low producer cows were selected to determine the composition of the blood and milk parameters, and their interrelationships to determine the indices which could be useful to improve the milk yield. The highest mean blood concentrations were found in high producer cows. Mean values for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum protein (SPtn), creatinine, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) were 25.10 mg dL-1, 10.15 g dL-1, 0.81, 62.30, 177.10 and 0.16 mmol L-1, and for macro-minerals including SCa, SMg, serum in-organic phosphorus (SIP), SNa and SK were 3.85, 2.66, 4.63, 108.00 and 4.34 mmol L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations for milk parameters, were observed in the high producers, and were significant only for MCa, MIP and MMg. Mean values for milk urea nitrogen (MUN), milk protein (MPtn) and lactose were 19.90 mg dL-1, 0.39 g dL-1, and 4.12% and for macro-minerals, 13.24, 3.88, 11.03, 73.30 and 16.90 mmol L-1, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between the blood and milk parameters except for creatinine/BHB, TGs/cholesterol and MNa/MK which were not significant. The correlations between the blood parameters were greater than in the milk parameters. Creatinine and SPtn, MUN and MPtn were the main parameters in that the relationships between MPtn with BUN, SPtn and creatinine were more noticeable than others. The regression analysis showed that BUN with the SIP and creatinine, MPtn with the BUN and creatinine and MUN with the SIP and SMg were the appropriate parameters in improvement studies related to the milk yield. In conclusion, BUN, SPtn, MUN and MPtn concentrations are the most effective indices for predicting the preferred milk yield. PMID:25653747

  5. Differentially Expressed Genes in Endometrium and Corpus Luteum of Holstein Cows Selected for High and Low Fertility Are Enriched for Sequence Variants Associated with Fertility.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen G; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Ben J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Kemper, Kathryn E; Berry, Donagh P; McCabe, Matt; Cormican, Paul; Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Butler, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of fertility in humans and livestock, there has been little success dissecting the genetic basis of fertility. Our hypothesis was that genes differentially expressed in the endometrium and corpus luteum on Day 13 of the estrous cycle between cows with either good or poor genetic merit for fertility would be enriched for genetic variants associated with fertility. We combined a unique genetic model of fertility (cattle that have been selected for high and low fertility and show substantial difference in fertility) with gene expression data from these cattle and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results in ∼20,000 cattle to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions and sequence variants associated with genetic variation in fertility. Two hundred and forty-five QTL regions and 17 sequence variants associated primarily with prostaglandin F2alpha, steroidogenesis, mRNA processing, energy status, and immune-related processes were identified. Ninety-three of the QTL regions were validated by two independent GWAS, with signals for fertility detected primarily on chromosomes 18, 5, 7, 8, and 29. Plausible causative mutations were identified, including one missense variant significantly associated with fertility and predicted to affect the protein function of EIF4EBP3. The results of this study enhance our understanding of 1) the contribution of the endometrium and corpus luteum transcriptome to phenotypic fertility differences and 2) the genetic architecture of fertility in dairy cattle. Including these variants in predictions of genomic breeding values may improve the rate of genetic gain for this critical trait. PMID:26607721

  6. Age at First Calving in Holstein Cattle in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifer rearing costs account for 15 to 20% of the total expense of milk production, and the decline in fertility of U.S. Holsteins is well documented. Earlier age at first calving (AFC) may improve profitability and fertility. Records for 400,000 U.S Holstein cows born on or after January 1, 1997 we...

  7. Effect on Production of Replacing Dietary Starch With Sucrose in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacing dietary starch with sugar has been reported to improve production in dairy cows. Two sets of 24 Holstein cows averaging 41 kg/d of milk were fed a covariate diet and then blocked by DIM and randomly assigned in two phases to four groups of 6 cows each. Cows were fed experimental diets cont...

  8. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  9. Comparison of Holstein and Jersey Innate Immune Responses to Escherichia coli Intramammary Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a higher prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense...

  10. A genome-wide association study for clinical mastitis in first parity US Holstein cows using a single-step approach and a genomic matrix re-weighting procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the health disorders with largest impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. Previous studies have consistently shown that CM is under genetic control but knowledge about regions of the genome associated with resistance to CM in US Holstein is lacking...

  11. Low Incidence of an Altered Endometrial Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Profile in Repeat Breeder Holstein Heifers and Differential Effect of Parity on the EGF Profile Between Fertile Holstein (Dairy) and Japanese Black (Beef) Cattle

    PubMed Central

    KATAGIRI, Seiji; MORIYOSHI, Masaharu; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A high incidence (about 70%) of alteration in endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile, i.e., loss of 2 peaks on days 2–4 and 13–14, has been linked to a reduced fertility in multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows. However, the EGF profile in Holstein heifers and other breeds (types) of cattle has not been investigated. In study 1, EGF concentrations were determined using endometrial tissues obtained by biopsy on days 3, 7 and 14 from 84 fertile Holstein heifers to obtain a normal range and 53 repeat breeder Holstein heifers to estimate incidence of alterations in the EGF profile. In repeat breeder heifers, EGF concentrations were similar to fertile controls on 3 days and five animals (9.4%) had an altered EGF profile with EGF concentrations below the normal range on days 3 and 14. In study 2, EGF concentrations on day 3 were repeatedly examined from the nulliparous period to the third postpartum period in 28 Holstein (dairy) and 47 Japanese Black (beef) cattle. The effect of parity on EGF concentrations on day 3 was different between Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. In Japanese Black cows, the EGF concentrations were consistently high throughout the study period, while in Holstein cows, the EGF concentrations decreased after the second calving. In conclusion, unlike multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows, an altered EGF profile may not be a major cause of repeat breeding in Holstein heifers, and the peak EGF concentrations around day 3 may decrease even in fertile populations of multiparous dairy cows, but not in beef cows. PMID:24064789

  12. THE EFFECT OF SOLANUM GLAUCOPHYLLUM ON CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION IN LACTATING COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the study was to determine if Solanum glaucophyllum (Sg) could serve as a source of 1,25(OH)2D3 to increase calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) utilization and, therefore, decrease fecal Ca and P excretion in lactating cows. Ten primiparous, lactating Holstein cows were used. Four cows ...

  13. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN ON REPRODUCTION AND CALVING EASE IN COMMERCIAL HOLSTEIN HERDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records involving 134 Holstein herds, having both bovine somatotropin (BST) treated and non treated cows, totaling approximately 100,000 cows in their second, third and fourth lactations from 1994 to 2002, were used to analyze the effect of BST on reproduction and calving ease. Using SAS MIXED and G...

  14. Elevation of circulating serotonin improves calcium dynamics in the peripartum dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Samantha R; Prichard, Austin P; Endres, Elizabeth L; Newhouse, Stefanie A; Peters, Tonia L; Crump, Peter M; Akins, Matthew S; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2016-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a metabolic disorder that affects dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 days prepartum with either saline or 1.0mg/kg bodyweight of the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, 5hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP). On infusion days, blood was collected before, after, and at 2, 4, and 8h postinfusion. Blood and urine were collected daily before the infusion period, for 14 days postpartum and on day 30 postpartum. Milk was collected daily during the postpartum period. Feed intake and milk yield were unaffected by 5-HTP infusion postpartum. Cows infused with 5-HTP had elevated circulating serotonin concentrations prepartum. Infusion with 5-HTP induced a transient hypocalcemia in Jersey cows prepartum, but not in any other treatment. Holstein cows infused with saline had the highest milk calcium on the day of and day after parturition. Postpartum, circulating total calcium tended to be elevated, and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) concentrations were elevated in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP. Overall, Jerseys had higher urine DPD concentrations postpartum when compared with Holsteins. Taken together, these data warrant further investigation of the potential therapeutic benefit of 5-HTP administration prepartum for prevention of hypocalcemia. Further research should focus on delineation of mechanisms associated with 5-HTP infusion that control calcium homeostasis during the peripartum period in Holstein and Jersey cows. PMID:27390301

  15. Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, S.; Martins, L.; Pontes, E.; Hansen, P. J.

    2009-07-01

    We compared diurnal patterns of vaginal temperature in lactating cows under grazing conditions to evaluate genotype effects on body temperature regulation. Genotypes evaluated were Holstein, Jersey, Jersey × Holstein and Swedish Red × Holstein. The comparison of Holstein and Jersey versus Jersey × Holstein provided a test of whether heterosis effects body temperature regulation. Cows were fitted with intravaginal temperature recording devices that measured vaginal temperature every 15 min for 7 days. Vaginal temperature was affected by time of day ( P < 0.0001) and genotype × time ( P < 0.0001) regardless of whether days in milk and milk yield were used as covariates. Additional analyses indicated that the Swedish Red × Holstein had a different pattern of vaginal temperatures than the other three genotypes (Swedish Red × Holstein vs others × time; P < 0.0001) and that Holstein and Jersey had a different pattern than Jersey × Holstein [(Holstein + Jersey vs Jersey × Holstein) × time, P < 0.0001]. However, Holstein had a similar pattern to Jersey [(Holstein vs Jersey) × time, P > 0.10]. These genotype × time interactions reflect two effects. First, Swedish Red × Holstein had higher vaginal temperatures than the other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon but not after the evening milking. Secondly, Jersey × Holstein had lower vaginal temperatures than other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon and again in the late night and early morning. Results point out that there are effects of specific genotypes and evidence for heterosis on regulation of body temperature of lactating cows maintained under grazing conditions and suggest that genetic improvement for thermotolerance through breed choice or genetic selection is possible.

  16. Application of a posteriori granddaughter and modified granddaughter designs to determine Holstein haplotype effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A posteriori and modified granddaughter designs were applied to determine haplotype effects for Holstein bulls and cows with BovineSNP50 genotypes. The a posteriori granddaughter design was applied to 52 sire families, each with >100 genotyped sons with genetic evaluations based on progeny tests. Fo...

  17. Application of a posteriori granddaughter and modified granddaughter designs to determine Holstein haplotype effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A posteriori and modified granddaughter designs were applied to determine haplotype effects for Holstein bulls and cows with BovineSNP50 genotypes. The a posteriori granddaughter design was applied to 52 sire families, each with '100 genotyped sons with genetic evaluations based on progeny tests. Fo...

  18. Retrofitting genetic-economic indexes to demonstrate responses to selection across 2 generations of Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three U.S. genetic-economic indexes for dairy cattle were retrofitted to demonstrate the progress that would have been made for currently evaluated traits if selection had been based on those indexes across 2 generations. Holstein bulls were categorized by quintile for each index, and 25 cow groups ...

  19. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  20. Relationship of reason for lactation termination with genetic merit of Holsteins in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons that producers report to 4 dairy records processing centers for why individual cows exit the herd (lactation termination codes) were examined for 6.2 million US Holsteins with lactation records that ended in 2007 and 2008 to determine their relationship to genetic merit. The most frequent t...

  1. Grazing behaviour, physical activity and metabolic profile of two Holstein strains in an organic grazing system.

    PubMed

    Thanner, S; Schori, F; Bruckmaier, R M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2014-12-01

    The challenge for sustainable organic dairy farming is identification of cows that are well adapted to forage-based production systems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the grazing behaviour, physical activity and metabolic profile of two different Holstein strains kept in an organic grazing system without concentrate supplementation. Twelve Swiss (HCH ; 566 kg body weight (BW) and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ ; 530 kg BW) cows in mid-lactation were kept in a rotational grazing system. After an adaptation period, the milk yield, nutrient intake, physical activity and grazing behaviour were recorded for each cow for 7 days. On three consecutive days, blood was sampled at 07:00, 12:00 and 17:00 h from each cow by jugular vein puncture. Data were analysed using linear mixed models. No differences were found in milk yield, but milk fat (3.69 vs. 4.05%, P = 0.05) and milk protein percentage (2.92 vs. 3.20%, P < 0.01) were lower in HCH than in HNZ cows. Herbage intake did not differ between strains, but organic matter digestibility was greater (P = 0.01) in HCH compared to HNZ cows. The HCH cows spent less (P = 0.04) time ruminating (439 vs. 469 min/day) and had a lower (P = 0.02) number of ruminating boli when compared to the HNZ cows. The time spent eating and physical activity did not differ between strains. Concentrations of IGF-1 and T3 were lower (P ≤ 0.05) in HCH than HNZ cows. In conclusion, HCH cows were not able to increase dry matter intake in order to express their full genetic potential for milk production when kept in an organic grazing system without concentrate supplementation. On the other hand, HNZ cows seem to compensate for the reduced nutrient availability better than HCH cows but could not use that advantage for increased production efficiency. PMID:24548047

  2. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration. PMID:11352170

  3. Sudden death syndrome in adult cows associated with Clostridium perfringens type E.

    PubMed

    Redondo, L M; Farber, M; Venzano, A; Jost, B H; Parma, Y R; Fernandez-Miyakawa, M E

    2013-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens type E is considered a rare toxinotype and an infrequent cause of enterotoxemia of lambs, calves, and rabbits. Until now, only cases of young animal of C. perfringens type E bovine enterotoxemia, characterized by hemorrhagic enteritis and sudden death, have been reported. The present report details the genotypic characterization of C. perfringens type E isolates obtained from intestinal samples of adult cattle during an outbreak of enterotoxemia in Argentina. The sequences of several housekeeping genes of these isolates were analyzed and compared with those obtained from calves in North America showing a clonal unique lineage. PMID:23354004

  4. Radiographic detection of thoracic lesions in adult cows: A retrospective study of 42 cases (1995–2002)

    PubMed Central

    Masseau, Isabelle; Fecteau, Gilles; Breton, Luc; Hélie, Pierre; Beauregard, Guy; Blond, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Medical records of 42 cows that underwent both thoracic radiographic and postmortem examinations within a period of 7 days were reviewed to develop an evaluation grid to interpret bovine thoracic radiographs and to determine the sensitivity and the specificity of thoracic radiographs for detection of thoracic lesions, based on postmortem examination. Most cows (64%) had clinical signs of respiratory disease, whereas 19% showed signs of cardiac problems. The sensitivity and specificity of radiographs for identifying cows with thoracic lesions were 94% and 50%, respectively. In this study, with a prevalence of thoracic lesions of 86%, the positive- and negative-predictive values were 92% and 57%, respectively. This study provides an evaluation grid that allows standardization of the reading of bovine thoracic radiographs and the identification of most thoracic lesions. Bovine thoracic radiographs are useful in detecting thoracic lesions in cows. PMID:18390098

  5. Effect of Dietary Forage to Concentrate Ratio on Lactation Performance and Methane Emission from Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and methane (CH4) emission from lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (means ± standard deviation: 620 ± 38 kg of body weight (BW); 41 ± 34 days in milk (DIM)) ...

  6. Feeding Behaviors of Transition Dairy Cows Fed Glycerol as a Replacement for Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed sorting is a natural behavior of dairy cows that can result in inconsistencies in nutritive value of a TMR. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing high moisture corn with glycerol on feed sorting and feeding behavior of transition dairy cows. Twenty-six Holstein ...

  7. EFFECTS OF VARYING DIETARY PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVELS ON THE PRODUCTION OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-five multiparous and 18 primiparous Holstein cows averaging 41 kg/d of milk were fed three levels of crude protein (CP), each at three levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), to identify optimal dietary CP and energy. Cows were blocked by lactation and days in milk into seven groups of nine a...

  8. Energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Byproducts of ethanol production have become an important source of nutrients for dairy cows in recent years but accurate energy values have yet to be determined. Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of redu...

  9. Organophosphate poisoning in a group of replacement heifers and dry cows.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, O

    2001-01-01

    Terbufos ingestion caused acute organophosphate poisoning in 67 Holstein heifers and dry cows, 7 months to 5 years old. Overall mortality was 31%, with attack rates of 4% and 48% for the dry cows and heifers, respectively. Less severely affected animals were treated with atropine sulfate for 7 days. PMID:11467187

  10. FEED A POUND OF FAT STRATEGY TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY OF DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of increasing the forage in the diet, while maintaining the energy level through supplemental fat, on production, health and reproductive efficiency of dairy cows. Forty-five Holstein cows were blocked according to expected due date and milk...

  11. Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Varying Levels of Total Mixed Ration and Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two, 8–week experiments, each with 30 lactating Holstein cows, were conducted to examine performance of animals offered combinations of total mixed ration (TMR) and high–quality pasture. Experiment 1 was initiated in mid October 2004 and Experiment 2 was initiated in late March 2005. Cows were assig...

  12. pH Dynamics and Bacterial Community Composition in the Rumen of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pH dynamics on ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) was studied in 8 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows fitted with indwelling electrodes that recorded pH at 10-min intervals over a 2.4-d period. Cows were fed a silage-based TMR supplemented with monensin. Ruminal samples wer...

  13. pH Dynamics and Bacterial Community Composition in the Rumen of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of pH dynamics on ruminal bacterial community composition was studied in 8 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows fitted with indwelling electrodes that recorded pH at 10-min intervals over a 3-d period. Cows were fed a silage-based TMR supplemented with monensin. Ruminal samples were col...

  14. Assessment of heifer grazing experience on short-term adaptation to pasture and performance as lactating cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-yr study evaluated the carryover effects of dairy heifer grazing experience on behavior and first lactation performance as dairy cows. Forty-one Holstein and 23 Holstein-Jersey crossbred calves born between January and April 2008 were randomly assigned to one of four treatments (PP, PC, CP and C...

  15. Analgesic and motor effects of a high-volume intercoccygeal epidural injection of 0.125% or 0.0625% bupivacaine in adult cows

    PubMed Central

    Rioja, Eva; Rubio-Martínez, Luis M.; Monteith, Gabrielle; Kerr, Carolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the analgesic and motor effects of a high-volume intercoccygeal epidural injection of bupivacaine at 2 concentrations in cows. A prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover trial was conducted on 6 adult cows. An indwelling epidural catheter was placed in the first intercoccygeal space and advanced 10 cm cranially. All the cows received 3 treatments with a washout period of 48 h: saline (control), 0.125% bupivacaine (high dose), or 0.0625% bupivacaine (low dose), at a final volume of 0.15 mL per kilogram of body weight, infused manually into the epidural space over a period of 15 min. The anal and tail tone and motor deficits of the pelvic limbs were evaluated in 5 of the cows with use of a numerical rating scale and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Sensory block was assessed in 4 of the cows by the response to needle pricks in different regions with the use of a VAS. Measurements were obtained before and at different time points after injection, up to 360 min. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and post-hoc Tukey’s and Dunnett’s tests were used. Differences were considered significant when the P-value was ≤ 0.05. One cow became recumbent 6 h after injection. Anal and tail tones were significantly decreased and motor deficits of the pelvic limbs were significantly increased after bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment. The overall mean VASpain scores ± standard deviation were 66 ± 8 after control treatment, 52 ± 5 after low-dose bupivacaine treatment, and 43 ± 5 after high-dose bupivacaine treatment. The pain scores were significantly lower in caudal regions up to the saphenous nerve after high-dose bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment and significantly lower in the anus, vulva, and tail after low-dose bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment. Thus, analgesia with moderate motor deficits of the pelvic limbs may be obtained with 0.125% bupivacaine administered

  16. Crossbreeding: implications for dairy cow fertility and survival.

    PubMed

    Buckley, F; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Heins, B J

    2014-05-01

    In pasture-based seasonal calving systems, failure to become pregnant during the breeding season results in important economic losses as maximum profit is attained by minimising costs and increasing the proportion of grass in the diet of the lactating dairy cow. In the United States, dairy producers primarily strive to maximise production potential but are becoming increasingly aware of the economic consequences of sub-optimal cow fertility and survival. For this reason, interest in crossbreeding is emerging. The objective of this paper is to review the fertility and survival outcomes reported from recent research studies and data analyses in Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. Research conducted in Ireland during the early 2000s concluded that of three 'alternative' dairy breeds the Norwegian Red was most suited to seasonal grass-based production. A key finding was favourable fertility and survival. A follow-up study confirmed a fertility advantage with Norwegian Red×Holstein-Friesian compared with Holstein-Friesian: proportion pregnant to first service; +0.08 and in-calf after 6 weeks breeding; +0.11. Another study found higher fertility with Jersey crossbreds: pregnant to first service; +0.21, and in-calf after 6 weeks breeding; +0.19. Studies conducted in Northern Ireland also found superior fertility performance with Jersey crossbred cows offered low and moderate concentrate diets. In New Zealand, crossbred dairy cattle (primarily Jersey×Friesian) are achieving similar rates of genetic gain for farm profit as the purebred populations, but creating additional gain derived from economic heterosis. In the United States, analysis of commercial data from California showed higher first-service conception rates for Scandinavian Red×Holstein (+6 percentage units) and Montbeliarde×Holstein (+10 percentage units) compared with Holstein (23%). They also exhibited fewer days open and greater survival. At Penn State University, Brown Swiss×Holstein cows had 17

  17. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  18. Serum osteocalcin in dairy cows: age-related changes and periparturient variation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Reiichiro; Onda, Ken; Ochiai, Hideharu; Iriki, Tsunenori; Yamazaki, Yukio; Wada, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated age-related changes in serum osteocalcin concentrations in non-periparturient cows and variations in serum osteocalcin concentration in periparturient primiparous and multiparous cows. The serum osteocalcin levels were evaluated in 144 non-periparturient Holstein dairy cows aged 11 days to 10 years; these levels were the highest in the youngest cows, appeared to steadily decrease with age until the time of the first calving, and were subsequently maintained at low levels. Between 14 days before calving and 21 days after calving, the serum osteocalcin levels were significantly higher in the primiparous cows than in the multiparous cows. A comparison between age-matched non-periparturient and periparturient cows showed that serum osteocalcin levels were significantly lowered during late gestation in both primiparous and multiparous cows. These results suggest that serum osteocalcin measurement might be useful for the detection of mineral imbalances at the time of parturition in cows. PMID:21300389

  19. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  20. Short communication: Improving accuracy of predicting breeding values in Brazilian Holstein population by adding data from Nordic and French Holstein populations.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Lund, M S; Zhang, Q; Costa, C N; Ducrocq, V; Su, G

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the improvement of prediction reliabilities for 3 production traits in Brazilian Holsteins that had no genotype information by adding information from Nordic and French Holstein bulls that had genotypes. The estimated across-country genetic correlations (ranging from 0.604 to 0.726) indicated that an important genotype by environment interaction exists between Brazilian and Nordic (or Nordic and French) populations. Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian genotyped bulls were greatly increased by including data of Nordic and French bulls, and a 2-trait single-step genomic BLUP performed much better than the corresponding pedigree-based BLUP. However, only a minor improvement in prediction reliabilities was observed in nongenotyped Brazilian cows. The results indicate that although there is a large genotype by environment interaction, inclusion of a foreign reference population can improve accuracy of genetic evaluation for the Brazilian Holstein population. However, a Brazilian reference population is necessary to obtain a more accurate genomic evaluation. PMID:27040784

  1. Relationships of survival time, productivity and cause of death with telomere lengths of cows produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Kazuyuki; Yonai, Miharu; Kaneyama, Kanako; Ito, Satoshi; Matsuda, Hideo; Yoshioka, Hajime; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei

    2011-10-01

    The reproductive ability, milk-producing capacity, survival time and relationships of these parameters with telomere length were investigated in 4 groups of cows produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Each group was produced using the same donor cells (6 Holstein (1H), 3 Holstein (2H), 4 Jersey (1J) and 5 Japanese Black (1B) cows). As controls, 47 Holstein cows produced by artificial insemination were used. The SCNT cows were artificially inseminated, and multiple deliveries were performed after successive rounds of breeding and conception. No correlation was observed between the telomere length and survival time in the SCNT cows. Causes of death of SCNT cows included accidents, accident-associated infections, inappropriate management, acute mastitis and hypocalcemia. The lifetime productivity of SCNT cows was superior to those of the controls and cell donor cows. All SCNT beef cows with a relatively light burden of lactation remained alive and showed significantly prolonged survival time compared with the cows in the SCNT dairy breeds. These results suggest that the lifetime productivity of SCNT cows was favorable, and their survival time was more strongly influenced by environmental burdens, such as pregnancy, delivery, lactation and feeding management, than by the telomere length. PMID:21666348

  2. Consequences and economics of metritis in Iranian Holstein dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Mahnani, A; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Cabrera, V E

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the risk factors, incidence, and productive and reproductive consequences of metritis in dairy cows, and (2) to estimate the financial losses associated with metritis using data gathered from 4 Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan, Iran. Calving records from March 2008 to December 2013, comprising 43,488 calvings, were included in the data set. The effects of metritis on productive and reproductive performance were analyzed using a mixed linear model for primiparous and multiparous cows separately and in an overall data set (all cows combined), whereas risk factors on metritis incidence were examined using a multivariable logistical regression model for the overall data set. The incidence of metritis per cow per year was 13.2% on average and ranged from 9.0 to 15.8%. Results of logistic regression analysis demonstrated that calving year, parity number, calving season, twinning, dystocia, and retained placenta were significantly associated with the occurrence of metritis, whereas previous metritis incidence did not show an association. Greatest odds of metritis occurred in first-parity cows that calved in winter and had retained placenta, twinning, and dystocia in recent years. A case of metritis significantly reduced the 305-d milk yield in primiparous and multiparous cows and overall, but had no significant effects on 305-d fat and protein percentages in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Overall, a case of metritis reduced 305-d milk yield by 129.8±41.5kg/cow per lactation. The negative reproductive effects due to metritis were smaller and nonsignificant for primiparous cows compared with multiparous cows. Overall, a case of metritis increased days open and number of insemination per conception by 16.4±1.2 and 0.1±0.0 per cow per lactation, respectively. Among the individual farms, metritis costs ranged from $146.4 to $175.7 with a mean of $162.3/case. The model to calculate metritis costs proposed here could

  3. Evaluation of the risk of paratuberculosis in adult cows fed Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis DNA-positive or -negative colostrum as calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective - Estimate the risk of MAP infection in Holstein calves associated with ingestion of MAP DNA positive (vs negative) colostrum at birth. Animals - 205 Holstein heifer calves born in 12 commercial dairy herds. Procedure - Every calf born was separated from its dam within 30 to 60 minutes ...

  4. Factors affecting pregnancy rates after ovum pick up-derived embryo transfer in lactating Holstein recipients under tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High milk production, heat, physiological status and management impair reproduction in Holstein cows. The use of in vivo-produced embryos has been reported as an alternative to enhance pregnancy outcome in the tropics; however there are several limitations for its production, especially from variati...

  5. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  6. EFFECT OF ALFALFA SILAGE STORAGE STRUCTURE AND ROASTING CORN ON PRODUCTION AND RUMINAL METABOLISM OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows (6 fitted with ruminal cannulas) ...

  7. The Effect of Dietary Alfalfa Silage to Corn Silage Ratios on Cow Performance and Ammonia Nitrogen Emission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effect of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in a 55:45 forage:concentrate ratio (% DM) total mixed ration on performance of lactating cows and ammonia N emission. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by DIM and randomly assigned to bal...

  8. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  9. Evaluation of a lysostaphin-fusion protein as a dry-cow therapy for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a lysostaphin-fusion protein (Lyso-PTD) as a dry-cow therapy for the treatment of experimentally-induced chronic, subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Twenty-two Holstein dairy cows were experimentally infected with Staph. aureus in a single pair of diago...

  10. Effect of dietary crude protein and forage contents on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from dairy cows simultaneously

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study aimed to examine, simultaneously, the effects of changing dietary forage and crude protein (CP) contents on methane (CH4) emissions and nitrogen (N) excretion from lactating dairy cows. Twelve post-peak lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 4 treatments from a 2×2 factorial arr...

  11. Ruminal bacterial community composition in dairy cows is dynamic over the course of two lactations and correlates with feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A group of 14 Holstein cows of similar age were followed through the course of their first two lactation cycles. During each lactation cycle, ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples and production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during Early (76-82 days in milk, DIM), Mi...

  12. EFFECT OF ALFALFA SILAGE STORAGE STRUCTURE AND ROASTING CORN ON PRODUCTION AND RUMINAL METABOLISM OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows, including 6 fitted with ruminal cannulas, ...

  13. The Effect of Dietary Alfalfa Silage to Corn Silage Ratio on Lactating Cow Performance and Methane Emission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratios in a total mixed ration on performance of lactating cows and methane (CH4) emission. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (mean±SD; 77±35 days in milk and 640±84 kg body weight) housed in a...

  14. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical agent to suppress ruminal protozoa (RP), and to assess the effects of RP suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In experiment 1, six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in ...

  15. Evaluation of alfalfa inter-seeding effect on bahiagrass baleage fermentation and lactating Holstein performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research indicates that bahiagrass may be successfully conserved as baleage, but nutritive value is typically low for lactating dairy cows. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding modest amounts of alfalfa forage (22%), achieved by inter-seeding alfalfa into an existing bahiagrass pasture, on baleage nutritive value and lactation performance of Holstein cows. Forage treatments employed were monoculture bahiagrass baleage (MBB; negative control), bahiagrass-alfalfa mixture baleage (BAB) and conventional corn silage (CCS; positive control). Thirty six mid lactation Holstein cows [34.8 ± 5.8 kg 3.5% fat-corrected milk and 112 ± 19 d in milk (DIM)] were stratified according to milk yield and DIM and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 forage treatments. Cows were trained to Calan feeding gates and were offered a common CCS-based TMR in a 10-d covariance period followed by a 42-d treatment feeding period. Results The BAB contained more protein and less NDF than MBB (12.6 vs 10.3% CP and 71.8 vs 76.6% NDF). Diet DMI was similar for MBB and BAB (19.5 vs 21.6 kg/hd/d), but cows consumed more of the CCS diet (25.5 kg/hd/d) than either baleage-based diet. Cows offered BAB tended to produce more milk than cows offered MBB based TMR (28.4 vs 26.1 kg/hd/d), but both baleage diets generated less milk than CCS-based diets (33.1 kg/hd/d). Milk composition was similar across diets except for milk protein concentrations which were higher for CCS than either MBB or BAB diets; however, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was lowest for cows fed CCS diets. Cow BW gain was higher for BAB than MBB implying that a portion of the higher energy contributed by the alfalfa was being used to replenish weight on these mid lactation cows. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that alfalfa inter-seeded in bahiagrass sod that produces BAB with as little as 22% alfalfa may improve nutritive value compared to monoculture bahiagrass baleage and marginally

  16. Reproductive performance of backcross Holstein × Brown Swiss and their Holstein contemporaries under subtropical environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; El-Bayoumi, Khairy M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of the Holstein (HO) and their backcross HO × Brown Swiss (BS) under Egyptian subtropical conditions. The backcrosses were HBH (HO sires crossed with F1 BS × HO cows) and HHB (HO sires crossed with F1 HO × BS cows). Several reproductive indices and health traits for different genotypes were measured, and the effect of temperature-humidity index level (THI) on reproductive performance was investigated. Reproductive indices of the HHB backcross were better than those of the HO. The conception (30.1%) and pregnancy (28.9%) rates of the HHB backcross were significantly higher than those of the HO (28.1% and 22.6%, respectively). The calving interval and the days open of the HHB backcross were significantly shorter than those of the HO. The fertility of the HHB backcross was not affected by the level of the THI. The conception and the pregnancy rate of the HO decreased from 35.8% and 29.4%, respectively, at low THI to 16.1% and 12.1%, respectively, at high THI. The HHB backcross had the significant lowest incidence of retained placenta and metritis (9.6 and 16.9, respectively). In conclusion, despite their high milk production efficiency, pure HO had retarded reproductive performance and adaptability. On the other hand, the HHB backcross had a better adaptability and fertility under Egyptian conditions. PMID:25459027

  17. Intramammary infections in primiparous Holsteins: heritabilities and comparisons of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency carriers and noncarriers.

    PubMed

    Wanner, J M; Rogers, G W; Kehrli, M E; Cooper, J B

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency on intramammary infection (IMI) in Holstein cows at first calving. Quarter milk samples were collected between 3 d prepartum and 4 d postpartum from 756 Holstein cows in first lactation. These samples were frozen and subsequently cultured using National Mastitis Council recommendations. Sixty-eight carriers of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency were identified (9.0% of cows) from an additional milk sampling collected in early lactation. Binary variables (infected or uninfected) for each quarter were defined as dependent variables to evaluate IMI incidence from all bacterial species and major species groups: coliforms, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae. The model included herd-season of calving, days in milk when samples were collected, age at calving, quarter, cow (random effect), and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Sire was included as a random effect (instead of cow), and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency was dropped from the model to estimate heritabilities. Heritabilities for IMI incidence from the various groups of organisms ranged from 0.02 to 0.66 (0.21 from all bacterial species). No differences were observed between carriers of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency and homozygous normal noncarriers for IMI from coliform, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae, or all bacterial species combined. PMID:9891275

  18. Atrial Fibrillation in Ten Cows

    PubMed Central

    Brightling, P.; Townsend, H. G. G.

    1983-01-01

    An irregular cardiac rhythm was identified in ten adult cows during auscultation of the heart and was subsequently characterized as atrial fibrillation by electrocardiography. The occurrence of the arrhythmia was associated with primary, organic disease of the heart in two animals which had valvular endocarditis. In seven of the other cows secondary or “functional” atrial fibrillation occurred in association with disorders of abdominal origin, six gastrointestinal disorders and one uterine torsion. Spontaneous conversion to normal sinus rhythm occurred in six cows after elimination of the primary disease. ImagesFigure 1b.Figure 3a.Figure 3b. PMID:17422324

  19. PCR screening for carriers of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) and uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) in Argentine Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Poli, M A; Dewey, R; Semorile, L; Lozano, M E; Albariño, C G; Romanowski, V; Grau, O

    1996-05-01

    BLAD (Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency) and DUMPS (Deficiency of Uridine Monophosphate Synthase) are monogenic autosomal, recessive inherited diseases of Holstein cattle. Single nucleotide changes (point mutations) responsible for the genetic disorders were detected by polymerase chain reaction coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism assays (PCR-RFLP). Using oligonucleotide primers, DNA fragments of predicted sizes were amplified, and the products' specificity was assessed by nucleotide sequencing. Mutations were detected in DNA samples from bovine blood and semen by the presence or absence of restriction sites within the PCR amplification products (Taq I, Hae III for BLAD, Ava I for DUMPS). The test included 104 bulls and 950 cows of Argentinean Holstein breed. Defective alleles frequencies were as follows: 2.88% BLAD in bulls used in artificial insemination, 1.79% in cows; 0.96% DUMPS in bulls and 0.11% in cows. PMID:8693839

  20. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-09-01

    Using behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort, that is, shade seeking, panting scores (PS) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium). During the summer of 2012, both herds were kept on pasture without access to shade (NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013 each herd was divided into one group with (S) and one without (NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees with shade cloth (80% reduction in solar radiation) hung between them. For S cows, we investigated how shade use was related to hot conditions as quantified by six climatic indices. The heat load index (HLI), which incorporates air temperature and humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, was the best predictor of the six indices tested. In 2011, there was a relatively high threshold for use of shade. When HLI=90, shade use probability reached 17% for dairy cows and 27% for beef cows. In 2013, however, at HLI=90, shade use probability reached 48% for dairy cows and 41% for beef cows. For animals from the NS treatment we determined the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS (with 0=no panting and 4.5=extreme panting). In both types of cattle, an increase in black globe temperature was the best predictor for increasing RR and PS. Furthermore, we determined how the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS was affected by the use of shade. Under hot conditions (black globe temperature ⩾ 30°C), >50% of the animals under shade retained normal PS and RR (PS<1 and RR<90 breaths per minute), whereas normal RR and PS were significantly less prevalent for animals outside shade. Our findings suggest that, even in temperate summers, heat can induce thermal discomfort in cattle, as evidenced by increases in shade use, RR and PS, and that shade increases thermal comfort. PMID:25994098

  1. Differences during the first lactation between cows cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer and noncloned cows.

    PubMed

    Montazer-Torbati, F; Boutinaud, M; Brun, N; Richard, C; Neveu, A; Jaffrézic, F; Laloë, D; LeBourhis, D; Nguyen, M; Chadi, S; Jammes, H; Renard, J-P; Chat, S; Boukadiri, A; Devinoy, E

    2016-06-01

    Lactation performance is dependent on both the genetic characteristics and the environmental conditions surrounding lactating cows. However, individual variations can still be observed within a given breed under similar environmental conditions. The role of the environment between birth and lactation could be better appreciated in cloned cows, which are presumed to be genetically identical, but differences in lactation performance between cloned and noncloned cows first need to be clearly evaluated. Conflicting results have been described in the literature, so our aim was to clarify this situation. Nine cloned Prim' Holstein cows were produced by the transfer of nuclei from a single fibroblast cell line after cell fusion with enucleated oocytes. The cloned cows and 9 noncloned counterparts were raised under similar conditions. Milk production and composition were recorded monthly from calving until 200d in milk. At 67d in milk, biopsies were sampled from the rear quarter of the udder, their mammary epithelial cell content was evaluated, and mammary cell renewal, RNA, and DNA were then analyzed in relevant samples. The results showed that milk production did not differ significantly between cloned and noncloned cows, but milk protein and fat contents were less variable in cloned cows. Furthermore, milk fat yield and contents were lower in cloned cows during early lactation. At around 67 DIM, milk fat and protein yields, as well as milk fat, protein, and lactose contents, were also lower in cloned cows. These lower yields could be linked to the higher apoptotic rate observed in cloned cows. Apoptosis is triggered by insulin-like factor growth binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), which both interact with CSN1S2. During our experiments, CSN1S2 transcript levels were lower in the mammary gland of cloned cows. The mammary cell apoptotic rate observed in cloned cows may have been related to the higher levels of DNA (cytosine-5

  2. Effect of lactation number, year, and season of initiation of lactation on milk yield of cows hormonally induced into lactation and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Mellado, M; Antonio-Chirino, E; Meza-Herrera, C; Veliz, F G; Arevalo, J R; Mellado, J; de Santiago, A

    2011-09-01

    Records representing data from 1,500 barren Holstein cows over an 8-yr period from a large commercial dairy farm in northern Mexico were analyzed to determine the effects of lactation number and season and year of initiation of lactation on milk production of cows induced hormonally into lactation and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) throughout lactation. Peak and 305-d milk yields were also assessed as predictors of total milk yield in cows induced into lactation. A significant quadratic relationship was found between 305-d milk yield and number of lactation [7,607±145 and 9,548±181 kg for first- and ≥6-lactation cows, respectively; mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)] with the highest production occurring in the fifth lactation. Total milk yields of cows with ≤2 lactations were approximately 4,500 kg less than milk yields of adult cows (the overall average ± standard milk yield was 13,544±5,491 kg per lactation and the average lactation length was 454±154 d). Moreover, 305-d milk production was depressed in cows induced into lactation in spring (8,804±153 kg; mean ± SEM) and summer (8,724±163 kg) than in fall (9,079±151 kg) and winter (9,085±143 kg). Partial regression coefficients for 305-d milk yield and peak milk yield indicated an increment of 157 kg of milk per lactation per 1-kg increase in peak milk yield (r(2)=0.69). Neither peak milk yield (r(2)=0.18) nor 305-d milk yield (r(2)=0.29) was accurate for predicting total milk yield per lactation. Year, parity, and season effects had significant influence on milk yield of cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout lactation, and peak milk yield can assist in the prediction of 305-d milk yield but not total milk yield. This study also showed that hormonal induction of lactation in barren high-yielding cows is a reliable, practical, and affordable technique in countries where rbST treatment and prolonged steroid administration of dairy cows are legally

  3. Evaluation of the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and detection in colostrum and on teat skin surfaces of dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective—To evaluate the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) by dairy cows in the periparturient period and detection of MAP DNA in colostrum specimens and on teat skin surfaces. Design—Cross-sectional study. Animals—112 Holstein cows. Procedures—...

  4. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio in dairy cow diets on emission of methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia, lactation performance and manure excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein cows housed in a modified tie-stall barn were used to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and emission of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and manure ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). Eight multiparous cows (means ± standard devi...

  5. Cellular composition and expression of potential stem cell markers in mammary tissue of cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and early lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the impact of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late pregnancy on parameters of mammary development in Holstein cows. Cows (N = 16) were fed 10% of their ration as tall fescue seed that was free from (CON) or infected with endophyte (INF) from 90d before expected calving until ...

  6. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in late lactation dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if late lactation cows were susceptible to 1-, 2-, and 3-day changes in forage DM. Forty-four Holstein cows (22 primiparous and 22 multiparous), averaging 155 DIM, 42.5 kg/d of milk, and 597 kg body weight, were used in a study conducted from Jan to Mar 2010. Within ea...

  7. Danish Holsteins Favor Bull Offspring: Biased Milk Production as a Function of Fetal Sex, and Calving Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves is a confounding factor for milk production. However, calving weight was not available in the present data set to test this hypothesis. PMID:25874441

  8. Dairy cows seek isolation at calving and when ill.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-05-01

    Dairy cows are typically gregarious, but isolate themselves in the hours before calving when kept on pasture. Self-isolation is also a common behavior of ill animals. The objectives of this study were to determine if dairy cows would (1) isolate to calve when housed indoors in an individual maternity pen and (2) continue to isolate when ill after calving. We selected individuals from a pool of 79 multiparous Holstein dairy cows based on inclusion criteria created to address each objective. Cows were moved from a group pen to 1 of 10 adjacent maternity pens. Half of these individual pens were partially covered with plywood, creating a secluded corner as well as a window that provided visual access to the group pen. The other individual pens were uncovered on all sides. For our first objective, we selected 39 cows that were moved into the maternity pens >8h before calving (partially covered: n=19; uncovered: n=20). For our second objective, we selected 18 cows housed in the partially covered pens: 9 cows with high rectal temperature after calving and signs of an infectious disease (mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, or some combination), and 9 healthy cows paired with ill cows based on the amount of time they spent in the maternity pen before calving. Ten-minute scan sampling was used to record the location and lying time from 6h before to 72 h after calving. Individual feed intake was measured after calving. Binomial tests were used to determine if cows in both pen types were more likely to calve in the corner or window side of the pen. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to determine if cows used the corner more as calving approached and if ill cows spent more time lying or more time in the corner compared with healthy cows in the 72 h after calving. Cows in the uncovered pens were equally likely to calve on both sides of the pen (10 vs. 10), but 79% of cows in the partially covered pens calved on the corner side of the pen (15 vs. 4). Cows in the partially covered pens

  9. Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mömke, S; Sickinger, M; Lichtner, P; Doll, K; Rehage, J; Distl, O

    2013-06-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is one of the most common disorders of the digestive system in many dairy breeds and particularly in Holstein dairy cows. We performed a genome-wide association study for 854 German Holstein cows, including 225 cases and 629 controls. All cows were genotyped using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After quality control of genotypes, a total of 36,226 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were left for analysis. We used a mixed linear model approach for a genome-wide association study of LDA. In total, 36 SNP located on 17 bovine (Bos taurus) chromosomes (BTA) showed associations with LDA at nominal -log10P-values >3.0. Two of these SNP, located on BTA11 at 46.70 Mb and BTA20 at 16.67 Mb, showed genome-wide significant associations with LDA at -log10P-values >4.6. Pathway analyses indicated genes involved in calcium metabolism and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to be factors in the pathogenesis of LDA in German Holstein cows. PMID:23548285

  10. Clinical mastitis in primiparous Holsteins: comparisons of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency carriers and noncarriers.

    PubMed

    Wanner, J M; Rogers, G W; Kehrli, M E; Cooper, J B

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency on clinical mastitis incidence, severity, and duration in Holstein cows. Genomic DNA from milk of 847 Holstein cows in six Pennsylvania herds was used to determine bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency genotypes (82 or 9.7% carriers). Data on clinical mastitis incidence, severity, duration, and pathogen involved were collected during first lactation for the project cows. One hundred ninety-four cows had one or more clinical mastitis episodes; milk samples from each quarter with clinical mastitis were collected at discovery of the episode and were cultured following National Mastitis Council recommendations. The overall incidence of clinical mastitis was significantly affected by sire and herd-year-season of calving. In addition, incidence of clinical mastitis tended to increase with age at first calving. Severity and duration of clinical mastitis were impacted by the pathogen involved. Incidence of clinical mastitis from all pathogens, from coagulase-negative staphylococci, and from coliform bacteria was not significantly related to bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency status. Carriers tended to have lower rates of mastitis from streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae when compared with noncarriers, but this result should be interpreted with caution because of the low frequency of mastitis from the streptococci. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency status was unrelated to severity or duration of clinical episodes. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency carriers are probably similar to noncarriers in resistance to clinical mastitis. PMID:10575620

  11. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. PMID:27448194

  12. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-01-01

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665

  13. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    PubMed

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-07-15

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665

  14. Use of sexed semen and its effect on conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth of Holsteins in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexed-semen use for breeding Holstein heifers and cows in Dairy Herd Improvement herds was documented by frequency and percentage for parity and service number as well as for herd region, size, and milk yield. Year of breeding accounted for the most variation in the amount of use of sexed semen for ...

  15. Visualization of the transmission of direct genomic values for paternal and maternal chromosomes for 15 traits in U.S. Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable haplotypes are available for 171,420 Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey bulls and cows that received genomic evaluations in April 2012. Differences in least-squares means of direct genomic values (DGV) for paternal and maternal haplotypes of Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 1, 6, 14, and 18 for lif...

  16. A whole genome association analysis identified loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status in U.S. Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection status in US Holsteins using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip whole genome SNP assay. Two hundred forty-five cows from dairies in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont were fo...

  17. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established. PMID:8746959

  18. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. PMID:24359828

  19. Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in a Cow

    PubMed Central

    Fatimah, I.; Butler, D. G.; Physick-Sheard, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    A case report of perforated duodenal ulcer in a ten year old Holstein cow is presented. On three occasions, sudden anorexia and rapidly progressing abdominal fluid distension were associated with metabolic alkalosis, hypochloremia and hypokalemia. Rumen fluid at the time of the second episode was acidic and contained an excessive amount of chloride ion. An abdominal mass dorsal to the abomasum involving the pylorus and several loops of small bowel was identified but not corrected at surgery. Necropsy confirmed a 1.5 cm diameter duodenal ulcer 6 cm distal to the pylorus. PMID:17422146

  20. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. PMID:26010136

  1. The Effects of Calving to First Service Interval on Reproductive Performance in Normal Cows and Cows with Postpartal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, I. R.

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between the calving to first service interval and several measures of reproductive performance were evaluated in 1738 lactation records from cows in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds. Lactation records were divided into three mutually exclusive health categories based on the cows' postpartal disease histories. Relationships between the calving to first service interval and the first service conception rate, number of services per conception and open interval were similar for all three health categories. The first service conception rate was lower and the average number of services per conception higher in cows first bred before 60 days when compared to cows first bred after 60 days. The relationship between the calving to first service interval and the open interval indicated that for each day that breeding was delayed the open interval was extended by 0.86 days. It appeared that overall conception rates may be lower for cows first bred very early or very late, but differences in the overall conception rate were only significant for cows experiencing a reproductive tract infection. Unless very expensive semen is being used, it is suggested that disease free cows be bred at the first heat occurring after 40 days postpartum, and that cows experiencing postpartal disease be bred at the first heat occurring after 60 days postpartum. PMID:17422328

  2. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  3. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5% probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5% probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds. PMID:25702060

  4. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  5. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  6. EFFECTS OF FEEDING DAIRY COWS PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS OF VARYING RUMINAL DEGRADABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five (10 ruminally cannulated) Holstein cows averaging 82 ± 34 days in milk were assigned to 5x5 Latin squares (21-d periods) and fed diets supplemented with one of four different proteins to assess effects on production, ruminal metabolism, omasal flow of N fractions, and degradation rates o...

  7. COMPARISON OF FEEDING CORN SILAGES FROM LEAFY OR CONVENTIONAL CORN HYBRIDS TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three corn hybrids (Pioneer 36F30, Mycogen TMF2450, and Mycogen TMF2404) were compared for yield, plant components, nutrient composition, in vitro digestibility, apparent digestibility, and lactation performance by Holstein cows. The three corn silages were harvested at a target of 33 to 35% dry mat...

  8. Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Milk Production and Nutrient Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous and 8 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 6 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to test the effects of feeding supplemental protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on milk production, nutrient utili...

  9. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  10. Right flank laparotomy and abomasotomy for removal of a phytobezoar in a standing cow.

    PubMed

    Tschuor, Andreas C; Muggli, Evelyne; Braun, Ueli; Gorber, Ulla; Schmid, Tanja

    2010-07-01

    A 4.5-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow underwent surgery because of left abomasal displacement. Intra-operative palpation of the pyloric region revealed a phytobezoar. The abomasum containing the phytobezoar was exteriorized, and an incision was made directly over the mass in the region of the greater curvature of the pyloric part of the abomasum. PMID:20885831

  11. Right flank laparotomy and abomasotomy for removal of a phytobezoar in a standing cow

    PubMed Central

    Tschuor, Andreas C.; Muggli, Evelyne; Braun, Ueli; Gorber, Ulla; Schmid, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    A 4.5-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow underwent surgery because of left abomasal displacement. Intra-operative palpation of the pyloric region revealed a phytobezoar. The abomasum containing the phytobezoar was exteriorized, and an incision was made directly over the mass in the region of the greater curvature of the pyloric part of the abomasum. PMID:20885831

  12. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains and solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  13. Detection of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Turkish native and Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, B; Ertuğrul, O

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study whether the bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) allele is present in native cattle breeds and the Holstein breed in Turkey. Blood samples were obtained from 120 Holstein, 20 Brown Swiss, 20 Anatolian Black, 20 Turkish Grey, 20 South Anatolian Red and 20 East Anatolian Red cattle. The isolated DNA materials were multiplied in PCR using the primer developed by Kriegesmann et al. (1997). In order to determine the area of mutation in PCR products, the PCR products were digested with TaqI endonuclease enzyme. The resulting fragments were analysed on 2% agarose gel for the absence of a TaqI restriction site. It was found that two of the Holstein cattle (a bull and a cow) were heterozygote BLAD carriers. There was no homozygote BLAD animal. The BLAD allele was not found in the other breeds used in the study. The mutant BLAD allele frequency in the 120 Holstein cattle calculations was 0.0084. PMID:16841755

  14. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. PMID:26341422

  15. Effect of dietary phosphorus on performance of lactating dairy cows: milk production and cow health.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H; Kanitz, F D; Moreira, V R; Wiltbank, M C; Satter, L D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure cow response to feeding of two dietary concentrations of P, one of which was close to recent National Research Council requirements, and the other of which was well in excess of the requirement. Diets containing 0.37 or 0.57% P (dry basis) were fed to Holstein cows for the first 165 d of lactation, and occasionally longer until cows were confirmed pregnant approximately 60 d after insemination. At calving, cows were randomly assigned to experimental diets. The number of cows completing a minimum of 165 d of lactation was 123 for the 0.37 and 124 for the 0.57% P groups. Cows were housed in a stanchion barn and fed one of two transition diets, each formulated to contain one of the P treatments for the first 3 wk of lactation, and then cows were moved to a free-stall barn where the experimental diets were group fed. Milk production, milk fat, and milk protein averaged 35.1 kg/d, 3.92%, and 2.90% for the 0.37% P diet, and 34.9 kg/d, 3.98%, and 2.91% for the 0.57% P diet. None of these measures were different between treatments. Blood serum P concentrations on d 50 and 100 of lactation averaged 6.1 and 6.2 mg/dL for the 0.37% P diet, and 6.8 and 6.9 mg/dL for the 0.57% P diet. No treatment differences were detected in milk production, cow health, or body condition score. PMID:14765820

  16. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  17. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  18. Changes in serum copper and zinc levels in peripartum healthy and subclinically hypocalcemic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Baoyu; Liu, Guowen

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of serum copper and zinc in subclinically hypocalcemic peripartum dairy cows in comparison to healthy animals. Blood samples were taken from 219 multiparous Holstein cows near parturition (from 4 weeks prepartum to 4 weeks postpartum) and 51 cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. The results showed that the serum copper concentration increased gradually at 1 week prepartum and remained high for the first 4 weeks postpartum in the healthy periparturient dairy cows. The serum zinc concentration reached a nadir at 1 week postpartum and subsequently increased gradually to baseline. The serum zinc concentration was significantly decreased (P<0.01) in dairy cows with subclinical hypocalcemia compared with healthy cows. There was no significant difference in the serum copper concentration between cows with subclinical hypocalcemia and healthy cows. These data demonstrate that the concentrations of copper and zinc in serum change dramatically during the peripartum period in dairy cows, which is a tremendous challenge for the body and for the maintenance of dairy cow health. The present study further suggests that a decreased serum zinc concentration could be a cause of decreased productive performance and increased susceptibility to other diseases due to immunosuppression in dairy cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. Additionally, this decreased zinc concentration may be involved in the pathogenesis of subclinical hypocalcemia. PMID:24859816

  19. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  20. Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

    2014-02-01

    When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most

  1. Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. E. F.; Horadagoda, A.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Scott, V.; Islam, M. R.; Kaur, R.; Garcia, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS) require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max) with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group) with a 2×2 Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov.) pasture (pasture) or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ≈18 L/cow/d) in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner) exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation) relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation). Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages. PMID:25049970

  2. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Newsome, R.; Dibble, H.; Sturrock, C. J.; Chagunda, M. G. G.; Mason, C. S.; Huxley, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  3. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  4. The Holstein polaron problem revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Amin; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The Holstein Hamiltonian was proposed half a century ago; since then, decades of research have come up empty handed in the pursuit of a closed-form solution. An exact solution to the two-site Holstein model is presented in this paper. The obtained results provide a clear image of the Hamiltonian structure and allow for the investigation of the symmetry, energy level crossings and polaronic characteristics of the system. The main mathematical tool is a three-term recurrence relation between the wave function amplitudes, which was obtained using the properties of a family of orthogonal functions, namely the Poisson–Charlier polynomials. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of basis, the eigenfunctions of the problem naturally fall into two families (parities) associated with the discrete {{{Z}}}2 symmetry of the Hamiltonian. The asymptotic solution to the recurrence relation is found by using the Birkhoff expansion. The asymptotic sets the truncation criterion for the wave function, which ensures the accurate calculation of the energy levels for any strength of electron–phonon interaction. The level crossing of states with different parities is discussed and the exact points of broken symmetry are found analytically. The results are used as the building blocks for studying a four-site system. The inherited symmetries lead to the formation of a sparse matrix that is convenient for numerical calculations.

  5. Influence of breed, milk production, season, and ambient temperature on dairy cow reticulorumen temperature.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Ray, D L; Clark, J D; Bewley, J M

    2013-08-01

    Automatic monitoring of core body temperature in dairy cattle could be useful for identification of illness, heat stress, general physiological stress, and estrus. The SmartBolus (TenXSys Inc., Eagle, ID) system used a reticulorumen bolus to automatically record and transmit dairy cow temperatures. The objective of this research was to characterize the influence of milk yield (MY), time of day, breed, ambient temperature (AT), and season on reticulorumen temperatures (RT) in lactating dairy cows. Continuous RT and AT were collected by SmartBolus transponders every 15 min (96 records per d) from 93 cows (65 Holstein, 18 crossbred, and 10 Jersey) for 615 d. Mean (±SD) daily RT, AT, and MY were 40.14±0.32°C, 12.20±10.61°C, and 33.85±8.67 kg, respectively. The maximum and minimum RT were recorded at 2330 and 1000 h, respectively. Ambient temperature increased RT. Summer RT was significantly greater than spring, fall, or winter RT. The effect of MY on RT varied by breed, season, and AT. Crossbred RT was significantly lower than Holstein RT after adjusting for MY. Crossbred RT responded less to increasing AT than did Holstein RT, potentially indicating improved heat tolerance among these crossbred dairy cows. Reticulorumen temperature increased more dramatically for cows with greater milk yield as AT increased, demonstrating that high-producing cows are more susceptible to heat stress than low-producing cows. These results could be useful in interpretation of automatic temperature system data, heat stress management, and genetic selection of heat-tolerant cows. PMID:23769360

  6. Accuracy of noninvasive breath methane measurements using Fourier transform infrared methods on individual cows.

    PubMed

    Lassen, J; Løvendahl, P; Madsen, J

    2012-02-01

    Individual methane (CH(4)) production was recorded repeatedly on 93 dairy cows during milking in an automatic milking system (AMS), with the aim of estimating individual cow differences in CH(4) production. Methane and CO(2) were measured with a portable air sampler and analyzer unit based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) detection. The cows were 50 Holsteins and 43 Jerseys from mixed parities and at all stages of lactation (mean=156 d in milk). Breath was captured by the FTIR unit inlet nozzle, which was placed in front of the cow's head in each of the 2 AMS as an admixture to normal barn air. The FTIR unit was running continuously for 3 d in each of 2 AMS units, 1 with Holstein and another with Jersey cows. Air was analyzed every 20 s. From each visit of a cow to the AMS, CH(4) and CO(2) records were summarized into the mean, median, 75, and 90% quantiles. Furthermore, the ratio between CH(4) and CO(2) was used as a derived measure with the idea of using CO(2) in breath as a tracer gas to quantify the production of methane. Methane production records were analyzed with a mixed model, containing cow as random effect. Fixed effects of milk yield and daily intake of the total mixed ration and concentrates were also estimated. The repeatability of the CH(4)-to-CO(2) ratio was 0.39 for Holsteins and 0.34 for Jerseys. Both concentrate intake and total mixed ration intake were positively related to CH(4) production, whereas milk production level was not correlated with CH(4) production. In conclusion, the results from this study suggest that the CH(4)-to-CO(2) ratio measured using the noninvasive method is an asset of the individual cow and may be useful in both management and genetic evaluations. PMID:22281353

  7. Selenium and Antioxidant Status in Dairy Cows at Different Stages of Lactation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Xiao, Min

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-five multiparous Holstein cows averaging 550 ± 50 kg of body weight and in 2 to 4 parity were divided into three groups according to lactation stage (group A: nine cows from 4 to 1 weeks prepartum; group B: 11 cows from 1 to 30 days postpartum; group C: 15 cows from 30 to 100 days postpartum). Selenium concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were determined to evaluate selenium and antioxidant status in dairy cows at different stages of lactation. The results showed that mean serum selenium concentration, MDA level, and GSH-Px activity of cows in early lactation increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with cows in the dry period and peak lactation. Conversely, serum TrxR activity and TAS declined during this period (P < 0.05). The increase of serum MDA level during early lactation indicate that the reactive oxygen species, including lipid hydroperoxides, increase in this period, thus placing the cows at a greater risk of oxidative stress. The significant decrease in TrxR activity that is accompanied with a decrease in TAS during early lactation suggests that dairy cows have low antioxidant defense in this period and TrxR may be an important antioxidant defense mechanism in transition dairy cows. PMID:26384688

  8. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea. PMID:21897097

  9. Efficacy of moxibustion after rolling correction in dairy cows with abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Lee, M R; Kim, J H; Han, T S; Kang, S S; Bae, C S; Kim, D H; Kim, G; Choi, S H

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the efficacy of moxibustion after rolling correction in dairy cows with abomasal displacement (AD). The experimental group comprised 86 Holstein cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) and right displacement of the abomasum (RDA), with a mean age of 3.8 with AD during a 2-year period. The cows were rolled for correction of AD. After the rolling procedure, moxibustion was conducted on six acupoints once a day during the course of treatment. After repositioning the abomasums, the bilateral points of BL-20, BL-21 and BL-26 were then stimulated. During the follow-up of 1 week, 67 (93.1%) of 72 LDA and 12 (85.7%) of 14 RDA cows were released as cured after moxibustion. In conclusion, moxibustion effectively treats AD following rolling correction in dairy cows. PMID:17265551

  10. Aquagrams of raw milk for oestrus detection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Takemura, G; Bázár, G; Ikuta, K; Yamaguchi, E; Ishikawa, S; Furukawa, A; Kubota, Y; Kovács, Z; Tsenkova, R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop rapid and cost-effective method for oestrus detection in dairy cows by means of near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics, using raw milk from individual cows. We found that aquaphotomics approach showed consistent specific water spectral pattern of milk at the oestrus periods of the investigated Holstein cows. Characteristic changes were detected especially in foremilk collected at morning milking. They were reflected in calculated aquagrams of milk spectra where distinctive spectral pattern of oestrus showed increased light absorbance of strongly hydrogen-bonded water. Results showed that monitoring of raw milk near infrared spectra provides an opportunity for analysing hormone levels indirectly, through the changes of water spectral pattern caused by complex physiological changes related to fertile periods. PMID:25704193

  11. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    PubMed Central

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  12. Plasma exosome profiles from dairy cows with divergent fertility phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M D; Scholz-Romero, K; Reed, S; Peiris, H N; Koh, Y Q; Meier, S; Walker, C G; Burke, C R; Roche, J R; Rice, G; Salomon, C

    2016-09-01

    Cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions may be influenced by neighboring cells, distant tissues, or local environmental factors. Exosomes are specific subsets of extracellular vesicles that internalize and deliver their content to near and distant sites. Exosomes may play a role in the maternal-embryo crosstalk vital for the recognition and maintenance of a pregnancy; however, their role in dairy cow reproduction has not been established. This study aimed to characterize the exosome profile in the plasma of 2 strains of dairy cow with divergent fertility phenotypes. Plasma was obtained and characterized on the basis of genetic ancestry as fertile (FERT; <23% North American genetics, New Zealand Holstein-Friesian strain, n=8) or subfertile (SUBFERT; >92% North American genetics, North American Holstein-Friesian strain, n=8). Exosomes were isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation and characterized by size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis, NanoSight NS500, NanoSight Ltd., Amesbury, UK), the presence of CD63 (Western blot), and their morphology (electron microscopy). The total number of exosomes was determined by quantifying the immunoreactive CD63 (ExoELISA kit, System Biosciences), and the protein content established by mass spectrometry. Enriched exosome fractions were identified as cup-shape vesicles with diameters around 100 nm and positive for the CD63 marker. The concentration of exosomes was 50% greater in FERT cows. Mass spectrometry identified 104 and 117 proteins in FERT and SUBFERT cows, of which 23 and 36 were unique, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment for proteins involved in immunomodulatory processes and cell-to-cell communication. Although the role of exosomes in dairy cow reproduction remains to be elucidated, their quantification and content in models with divergent fertility phenotypes could provide novel information to support both physiological and genetic

  13. On-farm management decisions to improve beef quality of market dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rogers, C A; Fitzgerald, A C; Carr, M A; Covey, B R; Thomas, J D; Looper, M L

    2004-05-01

    A 3-phase study was conducted to assess on-farm management decisions to reduce antibiotic residue violations and improve carcass characteristics in market (cull) dairy cows. In Phase 1, questionnaires were mailed to dairy producers (n = 142) to determine current on-farm management strategies for reducing antibiotic residues in market dairy cattle. In Phase 2, Holstein market cows (n = 77) were assigned randomly to each of the 3 feeding treatments (0, 30, or 60 d). Average daily gain (ADG), body condition score (BCS), and carcass characteristics were assessed. Phase 3 determined the meat withdrawal time of Holstein cows (n = 62) administered procaine penicillin G. Eighty-six percent of dairy farms responding to the questionnaire had at least one cow condemned annually, and no producer had a designated feeding protocol for market cows prior to selling. In Phase 2, ADG was greater in cows fed for 30 d (1.4+/-0.6 kg/d) than in cows fed for 60 d (0.9+/-0.4 kg/d). Additional feeding did not influence the carcass characteristics studied with the exception of kidney, pelvic and heart fat, which was higher in cows fed for 60 d compared with those fed for 0 and 30 d. In Phase 3, 31% of cows treated with procaine penicillin G exceeded the 10-d label withdrawal recommendation by an average of 3.1+/-1.9 d. Feeding market cows may not influence carcass characteristics, but can increase ADG and may ensure that recommended meat withdrawal times for antibiotics are exceeded. PMID:15291006

  14. Long-term impact of puerperal metritis on the profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes in peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Magata, Fumie; Kitaoka, Ryuji; Morino, Ikumi; Teramura, Makoto; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Shimizu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effects of puerperal metritis on the immune response, changes in the differential peripheral blood leukocyte counts were analyzed during the peripartum period in cows with or without metritis. Multiparous Holstein cows were examined for uterine health disorders and classified into two groups: healthy (n = 11) or metritis (n = 5) cows. The lymphocyte and monocyte counts and the proportion of CD8(+) lymphocytes were higher in cows with metritis compared to healthy cows. Moreover, the effects of puerperal metritis on the lymphocyte counts and CD4(+) /CD8(+) ratio persisted weeks after the uterine inflammation had self-resolved. Taken together, the findings of the present study indicate the possible long-term alterations of systemic immune responses in cows with puerperal uterine inflammation. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:26387573

  15. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  16. Blood plasma magnesium, potassium, glucose, and immunoreactive insulin changes in cows moved abruptly from barn feeding to early spring pasture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Wong, W.O.; Ramsey, N.; Tysinger, C.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1980-07-01

    Cations and immunoreactive insulin in plasma were measured in 35 lactating cows moved abruptly to early spring pasture. After change of cows from grass-clover hay to fescue-bluegrass pasture containing 22 to 31 g potassium/kg dry matter, immunoreactive insulin of 5 Holstein cows increased 30% in 5 days and averaged 45% above prepasture concentrations for 40 days. Magnesium averaged 44% below prepasture content of plasma during this period and was correlated negatively with potassium -.17 and immunoreactive insulin -.37. Thirty Hereford cows were changed from corn silage and grass-clover hay to wheat-rye pasture containing 3.06% potassium in the dry matter. Each day on pasture, 10 cows each were fed 2.3 kg cornmeal, 10 were given 30 g magnesium oxide by capsule, and 10 were given no supplement. After unsupplemented cows were moved to pasture, immunoreactive insulin rose 51% in 8 days and plasma magnesium fell 24%. Both supplements reduced immunoreactive insulin, but magnesium was maintained higher by magnesium oxide than by cornmeal. Injection of two Holstein cows with insulin (2 IU/kg body weight) reduced plasma concentrations of both potassium and mgnesium 20% below that of two cows injected with only physiological saline. Whether elevated plasma insulin may accelerate development of hypomagnesemia in cattle on spring pasture with relatively high potassium content has not been established.

  17. Environmental and cow-related factors affect cow locomotion and can cause misclassification in lameness detection systems.

    PubMed

    Van Nuffel, A; Van De Gucht, T; Saeys, W; Sonck, B; Opsomer, G; Vangeyte, J; Mertens, K C; De Ketelaere, B; Van Weyenberg, S

    2016-09-01

    To tackle the high prevalence of lameness, techniques to monitor cow locomotion are being developed in order to detect changes in cows' locomotion due to lameness. Obviously, in such lameness detection systems, alerts should only respond to locomotion changes that are related to lameness. However, other environmental or cow factors can contribute to locomotion changes not related to lameness and hence, might cause false alerts. In this study the effects of wet surfaces, dark environment, age, production level, lactation and gestation stage on cow locomotion were investigated. Data was collected at Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research research farm (Melle, Belgium) during a 5-month period. The gait variables of 30 non-lame and healthy Holstein cows were automatically measured every day. In dark environments and on wet walking surfaces cows took shorter, more asymmetrical strides with less step overlap. In general, older cows had a more asymmetrical gait and they walked slower with more abduction. Lactation stage or gestation stage also showed significant association with asymmetrical and shorter gait and less step overlap probably due to the heavy calf in the uterus. Next, two lameness detection algorithms were developed to investigate the added value of environmental and cow data into detection models. One algorithm solely used locomotion variables and a second algorithm used the same locomotion variables and additional environmental and cow data. In the latter algorithm only age and lactation stage together with the locomotion variables were withheld during model building. When comparing the sensitivity for the detection of non-lame cows, sensitivity increased by 10% when the cow data was added in the algorithm (sensitivity was 70% and 80% for the first and second algorithm, respectively). Hence, the number of false alerts for lame cows that were actually non-lame, decreased. This pilot study shows that using knowledge on influencing factors on cow

  18. Individual and combined effects of anovulation and cytological endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Neto, A; Gilbert, R O; Butler, W R; Santos, J E P; Ribeiro, E S; Vercouteren, M M; Bruno, R G; Bittar, J H J; Galvão, K N

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the individual and combined effect of anovulation and cytological endometritis (CTE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. A total of 1,569 cows from 3 data sets were used. In data set 1, 403 Holstein cows from 5 dairies in New York were used. In data set 2, 750 Holstein cows from 2 dairies, one in Florida and one in California were used. In data set 3, 416 dairy cows, 165 Holsteins, 36 Jerseys, and 215 Holstein-Jersey crossbreeds from a grazing dairy in Florida were used. Cyclicity and CTE was determined at 35±3 (data set 2) or 49±3 d in milk (data sets 1 and 3). A variable (VarCycCTE) containing all 4 possible permutations between cyclicity (cyclic = Cyc; anovular = Anov) and CTE (present = CTE; absent = Healthy) was created. In the combined data set (sets 1, 2, and 3), pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) diagnosed at 30 to 38 d after first AI was affected by VarCycCTE, with AnovCTE cows having decreased P/AI compared with CycHealthy cows (21.3 vs. 46.7%), whereas AnovHealthy (37.9%) and CycCTE cows (36.0%) had intermediate P/AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination for the individual data sets and for pregnancy diagnosed at 63 to 74 d after artificial insemination followed a similar pattern. Pregnancy loss was not affected by VarCycCTE. Hazard of pregnancy up to 300 d in milk was affected by VarCycCTE in the combined data sets 1 and 2, with AnovCTE [hazard ratio (HR)=0.55], AnovHealthy cows (HR=0.71), and CycCTE (HR=0.8) having decreased hazard of pregnancy compared with CycHealthy cows. Median days open were 200, 159, 145, and 121 for AnovCTE, AnovHealthy, CycCTE, and CycHealthy, respectively. Hazard of pregnancy for the individual data sets followed a similar pattern. In summary, both anovulation and CTE were negatively associated with reproductive performance and, when combined, they had an additive negative effect. PMID:24996269

  19. Effect of Source of Rumen-Degraded Protein on Production and Ruminal Metabolism in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-eight (8 with ruminal cannulas) lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 16-wk, 4 x 4 Latin squares study to examine the effect on production and ruminal metabolism of feeding differing proportions of rumen-degraded protein (RDP) from soybean meal and urea. Diets contained dry matter [(DM) ...

  20. Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Omasal Nutrient Flow and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows that were part of a larger lactation trial were used in 2 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to quantify effects of supplementing protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on omasal nutrient flows and microbial prote...

  1. Effects of feeding different amounts of supplemental glycerol on ruminal environment and digestibility of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing amounts of dietary glycerol on rumen environment, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility. Six rumen cannulated Holstein cows averaging 56 ± 18 DIM and 38.0 ± 8.2 kg/d of milk were used in the study. Experimental design was a replicat...

  2. Effect of Alfalfa Silage Storage Structure and Rumen-Protected Methionine on Production in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether production and nutrient utilization differed when lactating cows were fed diets based on 1 of 3 sources of alfalfa silage (AS) and whether performance was altered by feeding rumen-protected Met (RPM; fed as Mepron). Thirty-six lactating Holstein c...

  3. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  4. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  5. Effects of crossbreeding on endocrine patterns determined in pregnant beef/dairy cows naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    García-Ispierto, I; Serrano-Pérez, B; Almería, S; Martínez-Bello, D; Tchimbou, A F; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; López-Gatius, F

    2015-03-01

    Neospora caninum is an intracellular coccidian parasite causing abortion worldwide in dairy cattle. Studies have shown that N caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns and that beef cows or cows with a crossbreed pregnancy, especially for a greater maternal-paternal genetic distance, show a reduced risk of abortion when naturally infected compared with pure-breed Holstein Friesian (HF) pregnancies. This study examined the effects of crossbreeding on plasma progesterone (P4), pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG)-1 and -2, and prolactin patterns produced during gestation in N caninum-infected beef/dairy cows. We analyzed 74 pregnancies in nonaborting cows carrying a single fetus established in 26 lactating HF cows bred with Holstein bulls (H-H), 13 HF cows bred with Limousin bulls (H-L), 12 HF cows used as recipients of transferred in vivo-produced frozen-thawed Rubia Gallega (beef breed; RG) embryos (H-RG-ET), and 23 RG suckling cows bred with RG bulls (RG-RG). Of the cows, 29 (39%) were seropositive for N caninum. Blood samples for hormone and placental protein determinations were collected on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 of gestation. Procedures of repeated measures analysis of variance throughout gestation revealed higher PAG-1 levels in the H-L and H-RG-ET groups compared with H-H and RG-RG. Higher prolactin levels were detected in RG-RG than in the remaining groups. N caninum seropositivity and fetal genotype had a significant effect on PAG-2 concentrations, such that highest levels of PAG-2 occurred in RG-RG seropositive cows and lowest in H-H seropositive cows, whereas Neospora-seropositive cows showed lower P4 concentrations than their seronegative partners. In conclusion, chronic N caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns of PAG-2 and P4 during pregnancy, whereas PAG-1 and prolactin concentrations are affected by breed and fetal genotype, irrespective of Neospora infection status. PMID:25459029

  6. Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the

  7. Association of rumination time with subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between rumination and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A study was conducted on 4 commercial dairy farms in eastern Ontario, Canada. A total of 339 Holstein dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) were monitored for rumination activity and SCK from 14 d before calving until 28 d after calving. Rumination was recorded daily using an automated monitoring system. A blood sample was taken from the coccygeal vein of each cow for measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) once weekly throughout the 6-wk observation period. Cows with BHB ≥1.2mmol/L in any of the 4 postpartum samples were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were also recorded. Cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy cows (HLT) that had no SCK or any other recorded health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least one health issue other than SCK (HLT+; n=50); cows with SCK (hyperketonemia; HYK) with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or cows (HYK+) that had SCK and one or more other health problems (n=53). Daily rumination time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT and HYK and HYK+. From 2 wk before calving (wk -2) to 4 wk after calving (wk +4), there was no difference in rumination time (409±9.8min/d) among HLT, HYK, and HYK+ cows in their first lactation. Multiparous cows in HLT spent an average of 459±11.3min/d ruminating from wk -2 to wk +4. Multiparous HYK cows ruminated 25±12.8min/d less than HLT cows, whereas HYK+ cows ruminated 44±15.6min/d less than HLT cows. The largest differences in rumination time between HLT and HYK+ cows were seen during wk -1, +1, and +2, when HYK+ cows ruminated 48±17.2, 73±16.0, and 65±19.4min/d less than HLT cows, respectively. In multiparous cows, increased odds of HYK were associated with greater milk yield in the previous lactation, greater loss of

  8. Influence of mechanical processing on utilization of corn silage by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Bal, M A; Wu, Z; Moreira, V R; Shaver, R D; Satter, L D; Shinners, K J; Walgenbach, R P

    2000-11-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the influence of mechanical processing on corn silage utilization by lactating dairy cows. Total mixed rations contained either unprocessed or processed corn silage harvested between 1/4 and 3/4 milk line. In trial 1, 12 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated double switchback design with 21-d periods. Intake of dry matter (DM) was increased 1.2 kg/d by processing, but milk yield was unaffected. Processing did not affect apparent total-tract DM digestibility, but processing tended to lower starch and corn excretion in feces and reduced concentration of sieved corn kernel particles in feces. In trial 2, 42 Holstein cows were used in an 18-wk randomized complete-block design. Intake of DM and milk yield were unaffected by processing, but milk fat percent was increased 0.35 percentage units by processing. Processing tended to increase total-tract digestibility of starch, but reduced organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities. In trial 3, 30 Holstein cows were used in a 15-wk randomized complete block design. There was no influence of mechanical processing on intake or lactation performance in this trial. Despite indications of increased starch digestion in two trials and increased DM intake in one trial, effects of processing corn silage on lactation performance were minimal with corn silage at the maturity and moisture contents used in these trials. PMID:11104271

  9. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry.

    PubMed

    Heppelmann, Maike; Krach, Karoline; Krueger, Lars; Benz, Philipp; Herzog, Kathrin; Piechotta, Marion; Hoedemaker, Martina; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then every other day until Day 28. Distances between adjacent crystals were expressed in relation to reference values obtained before calving. The diameter of the formerly pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-Mode sonography starting on Day 10. Cows were retrospectively divided into the following groups: cows without metritis (M-; n = 7), cows with metritis (M+; n = 5), cows with normocalcemia (SH-; Ca > 2.0 mmol/l on Days 1 to 3; n = 5) and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SH+; Ca < 2.0 mmol/l in at least one sample between Days 1 and 3; n = 7). Metritis did not affect (P > 0.05) sonometric measurements, but the diameter of the formerly pregnant horn was larger (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 15 and 21 in M+ cows than in M‒ cows. Reduction in uterine length in hypocalcemic cows was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 8 and 21 compared with normocalcemic cows, but the uterine horn diameter was not related to calcium status. In conclusion, both diseases affected reduction of uterine size until Day 28. Cows with metritis had a larger uterine diameter, possibly attributable to accumulation of lochia, and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia had delayed reduction of uterine length, presumably related to reduction of myometrial contractility. PMID:26400127

  10. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry

    PubMed Central

    HEPPELMANN, Maike; KRACH, Karoline; KRUEGER, Lars; BENZ, Philipp; HERZOG, Kathrin; PIECHOTTA, Marion; HOEDEMAKER, Martina; BOLLWEIN, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then every other day until Day 28. Distances between adjacent crystals were expressed in relation to reference values obtained before calving. The diameter of the formerly pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-Mode sonography starting on Day 10. Cows were retrospectively divided into the following groups: cows without metritis (M–; n = 7), cows with metritis (M+; n = 5), cows with normocalcemia (SH–; Ca > 2.0 mmol/l on Days 1 to 3; n = 5) and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SH+; Ca < 2.0 mmol/l in at least one sample between Days 1 and 3; n = 7). Metritis did not affect (P > 0.05) sonometric measurements, but the diameter of the formerly pregnant horn was larger (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 15 and 21 in M+ cows than in M‒ cows. Reduction in uterine length in hypocalcemic cows was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 8 and 21 compared with normocalcemic cows, but the uterine horn diameter was not related to calcium status. In conclusion, both diseases affected reduction of uterine size until Day 28. Cows with metritis had a larger uterine diameter, possibly attributable to accumulation of lochia, and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia had delayed reduction of uterine length, presumably related to reduction of myometrial contractility. PMID:26400127

  11. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml. PMID:8083433

  12. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-01-01

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil. PMID:26782564

  13. Effect of grain source and exogenous phytase on phosphorus digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, R L; Garikipati, D K; Nennich, T D; Harrison, J H

    2005-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine P digestibility in lactating dairy cows fed corn or barley as grain sources. The first experiment utilized a replicated incomplete 5 x 4 Latin square design with 8 lactating Holstein cows fed diets containing either corn alone or corn in combination with one of 4 barley varieties that differed in chemical composition. Total tract digestibility of P ranged from 11 to 29% for diets containing the barley varieties and was approximately 35% for the corn diet. A second experiment compared P digestibility in cows fed diets containing corn or barley when exogenous phytase was added to the diets. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 16) were arranged in 4 replications of a Latin square with 2 grains (barley or corn), fed separately or with added exogenous phytase (427 phytase units/kg of total mixed ration and 4 periods of 21 d. Phytate P comprised about 50% of the total P (0.46% P) in the total mixed ration. The concentration of serum inorganic P was higher in cows fed diets with exogenous phytase (5.8 vs. 6.5 mg/dL in cows fed barley diets and 5.5 vs 6.0 mg/dL in cows fed corn diets). Using acid detergent lignin as an internal marker, hydrolysis of phytate P was increased by the exogenous phytase, and total P digestibility tended to be increased. In contrast to Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 there was no effect of grain source on P digestibility and total fecal P. Dry matter intake and efficiency of milk production were not affected by exogenous phytase or grain type. Although phytase activity occurs in the rumen, physical properties of the diet and ruminal passage rates may prevent total hydrolysis of phytate in the rumen of lactating cows. Thus, exogenous dietary phytase might improve P digestibility in dairy cows in some dietary situations. PMID:16027204

  14. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    PubMed

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  15. Short communication: Genetic analysis for fertility traits of heifers and cows from smallholder dairy farms in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Buaban, S; Duangjinda, M; Suzuki, M; Masuda, Y; Sanpote, J; Kuchida, K

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for various fertility traits on Holstein upgraded dairy heifers and cows in a smallholder system under tropical conditions using data sets from the Thailand national recording scheme. The investigated traits were age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), days from calving to first service (DTFS), days between first and last service (DFLS), days open (DO), calving interval (CI), number of services per conception (NSPC), and conception at first service (FSC). The data consisted of 68,555, 34,401, and 54,004 records on heifers, primiparous, and multiparous cows, respectively, calving between 1996 and 2011. Gibbs sampling was employed to obtain (co)variance components using both univariate and bivariate analyses with linear and threshold animal models. Virgin heifers had better fertility performance than primiparous and multiparous cows. The reproductive performance in primiparous cows was inferior compared with multiparous cows. Cows with higher Holstein-Friesian blood showed lower reproductive efficiency. Estimated heritabilities for most of the fertility traits were 0.04 or less except for AFS (0.26) and AFC (0.25). The estimated genetic correlations among fertility traits within parity indicated that selection for cows with high conception rate could lead to shortened DO and CI, as well as DTFS. The FSC and NSPC could be used as the best indicators for heifer and cow fertility and could be complemented by other traits, which were genetically considered as different traits such as DTFS and DFLS in terms of a fertility index. This would enable efficient selection for better fertility. Genetic correlations for fertility traits in primiparous and multiparous cows were very high (>0.90), but those between heifers and cows were lower (0.03 to 0.83). The latter results indicated that fertility traits of heifers and cows should be considered as different traits. PMID:25981071

  16. Hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Japan: association with hereditary myopathy of the diaphragmatic muscles.

    PubMed

    Furuoka, H; Yagi, S; Murakami, A; Honma, A; Kobayashi, Y; Matsui, T; Miyahara, K; Taniyama, H

    2001-01-01

    This report deals with the pathology and genetic basis of dilated cardiomyopathy in 10 Holstein-Friesian cows aged 3-6 years, a disease similar to that reported in Simmental-Red Holstein and Holstein-Friesian cattle in several other countries. The main clinical signs were associated with systemic circulatory failure, and at necropsy the animals showed cardiomegaly, severe congestion and fibrosis of the liver, and systemic cardiac oedema. Histologically, hypertrophy and vacuolation of the cardiac muscle fibres and severe fibrosis were noted. Electron microscopically, the sarcoplasm of the hypertrophic fibres was seen to be filled with fine structures of low electron-density, together with thin filamentous material, suggesting myofibrillar lysis. The mitochondria showed increased size, an abnormal cristae pattern and vacuolation due to partial loss of cristae. Pedigree analysis of the affected cattle indicated an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The family line of this cardiomyopathy overlapped with that of hereditary myopathy of the diaphragmatic muscles in Holstein-Friesian cattle, the pathological aspects and inheritance mode of which were reported previously. The available evidence suggested a genetic association between these two pathologically distinct diseases. PMID:11578132

  17. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing fea