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Sample records for adult human body

  1. Sagittal jaw position in relation to body posture in adult humans – a rasterstereographic study

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Carsten; Danesh, Gholamreza; Schilgen, Markus; Drerup, Burkhard; Hackenberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background The correlations between the sagittal jaw position and the cranio – cervical inclination are described in literature. Only few studies focus on the sagittal jaw position and the body posture using valid and objective orthopaedic examination methods. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with malocclusions reveal significant differences in body posture compared to those without (upper thoracic inclination, kyphotic angle, lordotic angle and lower lumbar inclination). Methods Eighty-four healthy adult patients (with a mean age = 25.6 years and ranging from 16.1 to 55.8 years) were examined with informed consent. The orthodontic examination horizontal overjet (distance between upper and lower incisors) was determined by using an orthodontic digital sliding calliper. The subjects were subdivided in respect of the overjet with the following results: 18 revealed a normal overjet (Class I), 38 had an increased overjet (Class II) and 28 had an reversed overjet (Class III). Rasterstereography was used to carry out a three – dimensional back shape analysis. This method is based on photogrammetry. A three-dimensional shape was produced by analysing the distortion of parallel horizontal white light lines projected on the patient's back, followed by mathematical modelling. On the basis of the sagittal profile the upper thoracic inclination, the thoracic angle, the lordotic angle and the pelvic inclination were determined with a reported accuracy of 2.8° and the correlations to the sagittal jaw position were calculated by means of ANOVA, Scheffé and Kruskal-Wallis procedures. Results Between the different overjet groups, no statistically significant differences or correlations regarding the analysed back shape parameters could be obtained. However, comparing males and females there were statistically significant differences in view of the parameters 'lordotic angle' and 'pelvic inclination'. Conclusion No correlations between overjet and

  2. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  3. Magnetic human body communication.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques.

  4. Magnetic human body communication.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques. PMID:26736639

  5. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percentage body fat in a heterogeneous group of adult humans.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Zimmerman, S L; Miller, W C; Hildebrandt, L; Hammer, R L; Fernhall, B

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to compare estimations of percentage body fat (%fat) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a heterogeneous (age and %fat) sample of the population. Of secondary importance was to determine whether there were differences between the two methods among lean (n = 32), average (n = 34) and overweight (n = 29) subsets of this sample. A total of 95 adults (men 27, women 68) ranging in age from 18-52 years volunteered for this study. Test-retest reliability for %fat ADP (n = 16) was 0.99 with a technical error of 0.75%fat and a coefficient of variation of 3.4%fat. Mean body density using ADP [1.048 (SD 0.016) g.ml-1] was not significantly different when compared to HW [1.049 (SD 0.017) g.ml-1], which corresponded to a non-significant difference in %fat [22.5 (SD 7.3)% ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 7.6)% HW]. Regression analysis provided the equation: %fat HW = 0.9121%fat ADP + 1.5123; r = 0.88, SEE = 3.6, which did not differ significantly from the line of identity. Data for the subsets revealed a significant overestimation of %fat ADP [16.4 (SD 4.8)%] compared to HW [14.1 (SD 3.2)%] (P = 0.001) for lean individuals while no difference was found in the average [21.9 (SD 4.4)%fat ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 3.4)%fat HW] or overweight [29.9 (SD 5.5)%fat ADP compared to 30.8 (SD 4.1)%fat HW] subsets. Measuring %fat by ADP is a highly reliable method and valid when compared to HW for a heterogeneous sample of adults. The ADP method requires little expertise to operate, is quick to perform, and may be more accommodating for certain individuals compared to HW. However, in this study ADP was less valid for lean individuals. Further investigation is warranted to determine the bias of this method for subsets of the population which may be outside the average range of %fat (men 15.4%-22.0%, women 18.4%-28.5%).

  6. Neural correlates of human body perception.

    PubMed

    Aleong, Rosanne; Paus, Tomás

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential sex differences in the neural response to human bodies using fMRI carried out in healthy young adults. We presented human bodies in a block-design experiment to identify body-responsive regions of the brain, namely, extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform body area (FBA). In a separate event-related "adaptation" experiment, carried out in the same group of subjects, we presented sets of four human bodies of varying body size and shape. Varying levels of body morphing were introduced to assess the degree of morphing required for adaptation release. Analysis of BOLD signal in the block-design experiment revealed significant Sex x Hemisphere interactions in the EBA and the FBA responses to human bodies. Only women showed greater BOLD response to bodies in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere for both EBA and FBA. The BOLD response in right EBA was higher in women compared with men. In the adaptation experiment, greater right versus left hemisphere response for EBA and FBA was also identified among women but not men. These findings are particularly novel in that they address potential sex differences in the lateralization of EBA and FBA responses to human body images. Although previous studies have found some degree of right hemisphere dominance in body perception, our results suggest that such a functional lateralization may differ between men and women.

  7. In Vivo Transplantation of Neurosphere-Like Bodies Derived from the Human Postnatal and Adult Enteric Nervous System: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hetz, Susan; Acikgoez, Ali; Voss, Ulrike; Nieber, Karen; Holland, Heidrun; Hegewald, Cindy; Till, Holger; Metzger, Roman; Metzger, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the in vitro characterization of human adult enteric neural progenitor cells have opened new possibilities for cell-based therapies in gastrointestinal motility disorders. However, whether these cells are able to integrate within an in vivo gut environment is still unclear. In this study, we transplanted neural progenitor-containing neurosphere-like bodies (NLBs) in a mouse model of hypoganglionosis and analyzed cellular integration of NLB-derived cell types and functional improvement. NLBs were propagated from postnatal and adult human gut tissues. Cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry, quantitative PCR and subtelomere fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For in vivo evaluation, the plexus of murine colon was damaged by the application of cationic surfactant benzalkonium chloride which was followed by the transplantation of NLBs in a fibrin matrix. After 4 weeks, grafted human cells were visualized by combined in situ hybridization (Alu) and immunohistochemistry (PGP9.5, GFAP, SMA). In addition, we determined nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-positive neurons and measured hypertrophic effects in the ENS and musculature. Contractility of treated guts was assessed in organ bath after electrical field stimulation. NLBs could be reproducibly generated without any signs of chromosomal alterations using subtelomere FISH. NLB-derived cells integrated within the host tissue and showed expected differentiated phenotypes i.e. enteric neurons, glia and smooth muscle-like cells following in vivo transplantation. Our data suggest biological effects of the transplanted NLB cells on tissue contractility, although robust statistical results could not be obtained due to the small sample size. Further, it is unclear, which of the NLB cell types including neural progenitors have direct restoring effects or, alternatively may act via ‘bystander’ mechanisms in vivo. Our findings provide further evidence that NLB transplantation can be considered as

  8. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations.

  9. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults.

  10. Adults are intuitive mind-body dualists.

    PubMed

    Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    In the present research, we tested the hypotheses that (a) adults are intuitive mind-body dualists, (b) that this belief can be considered a default, and (c) that it is partially explained by essentialistic reasoning about the nature of the mind. Over 8 studies, using various thought experiment paradigms, participants reliably ascribed to a physically duplicated being a greater retention of physical than of mental properties. This difference was unrelated to whether or not this being was given a proper name (Study 1b) and was only found for entities that were considered to actually possess a mind (Study 1c). Further, we found that an intuitive belief in mind-body dualism may in fact be considered a default: Taxing participants' cognitive resources (Study 2) or priming them with an intuitive (vs. analytical) thinking style (Studies 3a and 3b) both increased dualistic beliefs. In a last set of studies, we found that beliefs in mind-body dualism are indeed related to essentialistic reasoning about the mind. When a living being was reassembled from its original molecules rather than recreated from new molecules, dualistic beliefs were significantly reduced (Studies 4a and 4b). Thus, results of the present research indicate that, despite any acquired scientific knowledge about the neurological origins of mental life, most adults remain "essentialistic mind-body dualists" at heart.

  11. Early childhood predictors of adult body composition.

    PubMed

    Druet, Céline; Ong, Ken K

    2008-06-01

    Intra-uterine life has been identified as a possible critical period for the development of obesity risk in both adults and children; others have highlighted the importance of growth and nutrition in the first few years. It is suggested that fetal growth, as assessed by birth weight, may programme lean body mass later in life. Children who are born small for gestational age also have a predisposition to accumulating fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to their prenatal growth restraint, their rapid postnatal catch-up growth or a combination of both. Recently, genetic and heritable factors have been shown to contribute to both rapid postnatal growth and childhood obesity risk in children and adults. Future studies should explore their timing of action and potential interactions with markers of antenatal growth restraint.

  12. Variability in human body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  13. What determines human body odour?

    PubMed

    Hamada, Kaoru; Haruyama, Sanehito; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kayo; Hiromasa, Kana; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2014-05-01

    Human body odour and earwax type are genetically dependent on a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the ABCC11 gene. So far, it still remains to be clear how SNP in the ABCC11 gene is associated with human malodour. In a recent issue of Experimental Dermatology, Baumann et al. propose one of the underlying molecular pathways. Although one of the amino acid conjugated of the odorants, Cys-Gly-3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexanol (3M3SH), was not taken up by the transporter ABCC11, glutathione conjugate of 3MSH (SG-3MSH) was transported by ABCC11. Moreover, SG-3MSH was processed to 3M3SH by γ-glutamyl-transferase 1 (GGT1), which was abundantly expressed in apocrine sweat glands. These findings may pave a way for the pharmacogenetics of human body odour and the development of innovative deodorant products.

  14. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  15. Electromagnetic analysis of an RF rectangular resonant cavity applicator for hyperthermic treatment using whole-body voxel human model of Japanese adult male.

    PubMed

    Tange, Yutaka; Yabumoto, Kosuke; Kanai, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    The numerical whole-body voxel human model (numerical model) developed by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) was assumed and hyperthemic treatment using radio-frequency wave was investigated. We assumed 51 different human tissues and organs with 2-mm spatial resolution in the numerical model, inserted it into the resonant cavity applicator, and Maxwell's equations were solved by FDTD method with variable mesh. We obtained the realistic energy patterns for a deep-seated tumor as compared to those obtained in our previous studies.

  16. Both developmental and adult vision shape body representations

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Elena; Steiger, Tineke; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Sense of body ownership and body representation are fundamental parts of human consciousness, but the contribution of the visual modality to their development remains unclear. We tested congenitally and late blind adults on a somatosensory version of the rubber hand illusion, and on the Aristotle illusion, in which sighted controls touching a single sphere with crossed fingers commonly report perceiving two. We found that congenitally and late blind individuals did not report subjectively experiencing the rubber hand illusion. However, in an objective measure, the congenitally blind did not show a recalibration of the position of their hand towards the rubber hand while late blind and sighted individuals did. By contrast, all groups experienced the Aristotle illusion. This pattern of results provides evidence for a dissociation of the concepts of body ownership and spatial recalibration and, furthermore, suggests different reference frames for hands (external space) and fingers (anatomical space). PMID:25338780

  17. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  18. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  19. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  20. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  1. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  2. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    ScienceCinema

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2016-07-12

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  3. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2014-09-29

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  4. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    PubMed Central

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  5. Study of electrical properties of meridian on human body surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Uematsu, Haruyuki; Otani, Nobuo

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the study of the subcutaneous electrical impedance on the human body surface. Measurements of the electrical impedance on five adult male subjects were carried out and analyzed for the possible detection of the acupuncture meridian lines of ancient Chinese medicine on the human body. The distribution of electrical impedance measured at 40 points over the volar side of the right upper limb of the subjects. The results show that electrical impedance varies at different locations of the human body surface, and the locations with lower electrical impedance coincide with the locations where the meridian is believed to exist.

  6. Analysis of the Human Adult Urinary Metabolome Variations with Age, Body Mass Index, and Gender by Implementing a Comprehensive Workflow for Univariate and OPLS Statistical Analyses.

    PubMed

    Thévenot, Etienne A; Roux, Aurélie; Xu, Ying; Ezan, Eric; Junot, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Urine metabolomics is widely used for biomarker research in the fields of medicine and toxicology. As a consequence, characterization of the variations of the urine metabolome under basal conditions becomes critical in order to avoid confounding effects in cohort studies. Such physiological information is however very scarce in the literature and in metabolomics databases so far. Here we studied the influence of age, body mass index (BMI), and gender on metabolite concentrations in a large cohort of 183 adults by using liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). We implemented a comprehensive statistical workflow for univariate hypothesis testing and modeling by orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS), which we made available to the metabolomics community within the online Workflow4Metabolomics.org resource. We found 108 urine metabolites displaying concentration variations with either age, BMI, or gender, by integrating the results from univariate p-values and multivariate variable importance in projection (VIP). Several metabolite clusters were further evidenced by correlation analysis, and they allowed stratification of the cohort. In conclusion, our study highlights the impact of gender and age on the urinary metabolome, and thus it indicates that these factors should be taken into account for the design of metabolomics studies.

  7. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  8. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  9. The 3D trajectory of the body centre of mass during adult human walking: evidence for a speed-curvature power law.

    PubMed

    Tesio, Luigi; Rota, Viviana; Perucca, Laura

    2011-02-24

    During straight walking, the body centre of mass (CM) follows a 3D figure-of-eight ("bow-tie") trajectory about 0.2 m long and with sizes around 0.05 m on each orthogonal axis. This was shown in 18 healthy adults walking at 0.3 to 1.4 ms⁻¹ on a force-treadmill (Tesio and Rota, 2008). Double integration of force signals can provide both the changes of mechanical energy of the CM and its 3D displacements (Tesio et al., 2010). In the same subjects, the relationship between the tangential speed of the CM, Vt, the curvature, C, and its inverse--the radius of curvature, r(c), were analyzed. A "power law" (PL) model was applied, i.e. logVt was regressed over logr(c). A PL is known to apply to the most various goal-directed planar movements (e.g. drawing), where the coefficient of logr(c), β, usually takes values around 13. When the PL was fitted to the whole dataset, β was 0.346 and variance explanation, R², was 59.8%. However, when the data were split into low- and high-curvature subsets (LC, HC, arbitrary cut-off of C=0.05 mm⁻¹, r(c)=20mm), β was 0.185 in the LC (R² 0.214) and 0.486 in the HC (R² 0.536) tracts. R² on the whole dataset increased to 0.763 if the LC-HC classification of the forward speed and their interaction entered the model. The β coefficient, the curvature C, and the pendulum-like recovery of mechanical energy were lower during the double foot-ground contact phase, compared to the single contact. Along the CM trajectory, curvature and muscle power output peaked together around the inversions of lateral direction. Non-zero torsion values were randomly distributed along 60% of the trajectory, suggesting that this is not segmented into piecewise planar tracts. It is proposed that the trajectory can be segmented into one tract that is more actively controlled (tie) where a PL fits poorly and another tract which is more ballistic (bow) where a PL fits well. Results need confirmation through more appropriate 3D PL modelling. PMID:21075377

  10. Infant and Adult Perceptions of Possible and Impossible Body Movements: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N = 14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old…

  11. Electric Shock and the Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses electricity's documented effects on the human body, including both the dangers to human health and the medical application of electrical stimulation to heart problems. Discusses the teaching of such physics topics to potential medical students. (TW)

  12. Ketone-body utilization by homogenates of adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Klein, W.

    1982-06-01

    The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of /sup 14/C from (3-/sup 14/C)ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.

  13. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  14. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-09-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 °C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg-1, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  15. Normative aspects of the human body.

    PubMed

    Siep, Ludwig

    2003-04-01

    In cultural history the human body has been the object of a great variety of opposing valuations, ranging from "imago dei" to "the devil's tool". At present, the body is commonly regarded as a mere means to fulfill the wishes of its "owner". According to these wishes it can be technically improved in an unlimited way. Against this view the text argues for a conception of the human body as a valuable "common heritage". The "normal" human body as the result of natural and cultural history is an essential condition of the modern social and legal order. The consequences of its technical alteration should be the subject of public debates and common decisions.

  16. Modeling Forces on the Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  17. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  18. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  19. Dynamic representations of human body movement.

    PubMed

    Kourtzi, Z; Shiffrar, M

    1999-01-01

    Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies suggest that human body motions can be readily recognized. Human bodies are highly articulated and can move in a nonrigid manner. As a result, we perceive highly dissimilar views of the human form in motion. How does the visual system integrate multiple views of a human body in motion so that we can perceive human movement as a continuous event? The results of a set of priming experiments suggest that motion can readily facilitate the linkage of different views of a moving human. Positive priming was found for novel views of a human body that fell within the path of human movement. However, no priming was observed for novel views outside the path of motion. Furthermore, priming was restricted to those views that satisfied the biomechanical constraints of human movement. These results suggest that visual representation of human movement may be based upon the movement limitations of the human body and may reflect a dynamic interaction of motion and object-recognition processes.

  20. Adult Ocular Toxocariasis Mimicking Ciliary Body Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Abiad, Bachir; Boulos, Fouad I.; Alameddine, Ramzi; Maalouf, Fadi C.; Bu Ghannam, Alaa; Hamam, Rola N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To discuss an unusual presentation of ocular toxocariasis. Methods. Case report. Results. A 40-year-old woman presented with decreased vision in the left eye with a long history of recurrent red eye from uveitis. Eosinophilia and positive ELISA titers for Toxocara canis favored the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Over 3 months, an anterior scleral mass had a rapid growth raising the possibility of medulloepithelioma, which rarely can mimic uveitic syndromes. Surgical plan changed from local excision to enucleation. Histopathology demonstrated a large homogeneous mass of chronic inflammatory cells with inflammation of the overlying thinned out sclera, medial rectus insertion, and limbal cornea. The triad of peripheral granuloma, eosinophilia, and positive blood serology established the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Conclusions. Ocular toxocariasis can mimic ocular malignancy such as medulloepithelioma in adults and rarely presents as an anterior scleral mass. PMID:25371681

  1. [Qualification of human body reactions to microgravity].

    PubMed

    Egorov, A D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to qualify developments in the human body during long-term exposure to microgravity in the light of current physiological and pathophysiological postulates. The work is grounded on the analysis of the data about human body reactions to extended stay in microgravity and adopted from the literature. The syndrome of space motion sickness (SMS) evolving at the onset of space flight can be qualified as a temporary reaction to inadequate ambient conditions. In long-term microgravity after mitigation of SMS by dint of appropriate countermeasures, no subjective disturbing symptoms are virtually present. Performance remains on a sufficiently good level, and the body develops stable adaptive reactions and establishes an adequate homeostasis. Back to Earth, the human body undergoes a number of changes which can be qualified as a transient gravity-induced syndrome associated with readaptation of partly deconditioned body to the normal gravity forces. PMID:8991568

  2. New Window into the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  3. [Aluminum and the human body].

    PubMed

    Krízek, M; Senft, V; Motán, J

    1997-09-10

    Aluminium is one of the trace elements in the human organism the presence of which is described as contamination. The authors describe the toxic action in subjects working in an environment contaminated with powdered aluminium or its compounds. Non-professional exposure is observed in subjects with renal failure as aluminium is retained, in particular in case of concurrent antacid therapy on the basis of aluminium salts. Dialyzation encephalopathy may develop, aluminium osteopathy and microcytic anaemia. The most effective prevention is dialysis using a dialyzation solution with a low aluminium content and elimination of aluminium binding phosphates. The results of hitherto accomplished studies call for further research into the action of this element on the human organism. PMID:9441016

  4. Automated fudicial labeling on human body data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewark, Erick A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

    1998-03-01

    The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner generates a high- resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The acquisition of anthropometric data from this data set is important for the development of custom sizing for the apparel industry. Software for locating anthropometric landmarks from a cloud of more than 200,000 three-dimensional data points, captured from a human subject, is presented. The first phase of identification is to locate externally placed fudicials on the human body using luminance information captured at scan time. The fudicials are then autonomously labeled and categorized according to their general position and anthropometric significance in the scan. Once registration of the landmarks is complete, body measurements may be extracted for apparel sizing.

  5. Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Rikowski, A; Grammer, K

    1999-05-01

    Several studies have found body and facial symmetry as well as attractiveness to be human mate choice criteria. These characteristics are presumed to signal developmental stability. Human body odour has been shown to influence female mate choice depending on the immune system, but the question of whether smell could signal general mate quality, as do other cues, was not addressed in previous studies. We compared ratings of body odour, attractiveness, and measurements of facial and body asymmetry of 16 male and 19 female subjects. Subjects wore a T-shirt for three consecutive nights under controlled conditions. Opposite-sex raters judged the odour of the T-shirts and another group evaluated portraits of the subjects for attractiveness. We measured seven bilateral traits of the subject's body to assess body asymmetry. Facial asymmetry was examined by distance measurements of portrait photographs. The results showed a significant positive correlation between facial attractiveness and sexiness of body odour for female subjects. We found positive relationships between body odour and attractiveness and negative ones between smell and body asymmetry for males only if female odour raters were in the most fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. The outcomes are discussed in the light of different male and female reproductive strategies.

  6. Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Rikowski, A; Grammer, K

    1999-01-01

    Several studies have found body and facial symmetry as well as attractiveness to be human mate choice criteria. These characteristics are presumed to signal developmental stability. Human body odour has been shown to influence female mate choice depending on the immune system, but the question of whether smell could signal general mate quality, as do other cues, was not addressed in previous studies. We compared ratings of body odour, attractiveness, and measurements of facial and body asymmetry of 16 male and 19 female subjects. Subjects wore a T-shirt for three consecutive nights under controlled conditions. Opposite-sex raters judged the odour of the T-shirts and another group evaluated portraits of the subjects for attractiveness. We measured seven bilateral traits of the subject's body to assess body asymmetry. Facial asymmetry was examined by distance measurements of portrait photographs. The results showed a significant positive correlation between facial attractiveness and sexiness of body odour for female subjects. We found positive relationships between body odour and attractiveness and negative ones between smell and body asymmetry for males only if female odour raters were in the most fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. The outcomes are discussed in the light of different male and female reproductive strategies. PMID:10380676

  7. Functional neuronal processing of human body odors.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Johan N; Olsson, Mats J

    2010-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life.

  8. Functional Neuronal Processing of Human Body Odors

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Johan N.; Olsson, Mats J.

    2013-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life. PMID:20831940

  9. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    PubMed

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women.

  10. Infant and adult perceptions of possible and impossible body movements: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N=14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old infants and adults spent more time looking at the elbows during impossible compared with possible arm movements, irrespective of the appearance of the actor. These results suggest that by 12 months of age, infants recognize biomechanical constraints on how arms move, and they extend this knowledge to humanoid robots. Adults exhibited more pupil dilation in response to the human's impossible arm movements compared with the possible ones, but 9- and 12-month-old infants showed no differential pupil dilation to the same actions. This finding suggests that the processing of human body movements might still be immature in 12-month-olds, as they did not show an emotional response to biomechanically impossible body movements. We discuss these findings in relation to the hypothesis that perception of others' body movements relies upon the infant's own sensorimotor experience.

  11. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. PMID:21538919

  12. [The solidarity of the human body].

    PubMed

    Bioy, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    The legal and bioethical regulation of the uses of the elements of the human body can be described by means of the concept of solidarity. From the French example, we can so show that the State tries to frame solidarities which already exist, for example between people who share the same genome, in the family, or, on the contrary, tent to impose or to direct the sharing of the human biological resources (organs, tissues, gametes, stem cell...).

  13. Modeling forces on the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-11-01

    Several simulations involving the human body, using the simulation software Interactive Physics™, are used to analyze the forces during both static situations and dynamic collisions. The connection of the simulations with the biological sciences and with sports activities should make them appealing to both high school and college-level physics students.

  14. Thermodynamics of Cooling a (Live) Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Harold

    1980-01-01

    Presents a practical problem to students in a junior-level thermodynamics course in which a human body regulates its own internal temperature. This problem can be utilized as well (with modification) in an introductory physics course for life science majors. (HM)

  15. A prototype for cartographic human body analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Elizabeth; Marcos, Adérito; Santos, Maribel Yasmina; Espregueira-Mendes, João

    2008-01-01

    A cartographic-oriented model uses algebraic map operations to perform spatial analysis of medical data relative to the human body. A prototype system uses 3D visualization techniques to deliver analysis results. A prototype implementation suggests the model might provide the basis for a medical application tool that introduces new information insight.

  16. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  17. Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, S.; Sterne, J.; Montgomery, S.; Azima, H.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Impaired fetal growth may be a risk factor for asthma although evidence in children is conflicting and there are few data in adults. Little is known about risk factors which may influence asthma in late childhood or early adult life. Whilst there are clues that fatness may be important, this has been little studied in young adults. The relations between birth weight and childhood and adult anthropometry and asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema were investigated in a nationally representative sample of young British adults.
METHODS—A total of 8960 individuals from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were studied. They had recently responded to a questionnaire at 26 years of age in which they were asked whether they had suffered from asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema in the previous 12 months. Adult body mass index (BMI) was calculated from reported height and weight.
RESULTS—The prevalence of asthma at 26 years fell with increasing birth weight. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio comparing the lowest birth weight group (<2 kg) with the modal group (3-3.5 kg) was 1.99 (95% CI 0.96 to 4.12). The prevalence of asthma increased with increasing adult BMI. After controlling for birth weight and other confounders, the odds ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile was 1.72 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.29). The association between fatness and asthma was stronger in women; odds ratios comparing overweight women (BMI 25-29.99) and obese women (BMI ⩾30) with those of normal weight (BMI <25) were 1.51 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.06) and 1.84 (95% CI 1.19to 2.84), respectively. The BMI at 10 years was not related to adult asthma. Similar associations with birth weight and adult BMI were present for wheeze but not for hayfever or eczema.
CONCLUSIONS—Impaired fetal growth and adult fatness are risk factors for adult asthma.

 PMID:10212102

  18. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  19. The Dynamics of Human Body Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

  20. Electronic imaging of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Michael W.; Yates, Randall E.; Whitestone, Jennifer J.

    1992-09-01

    The Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory (USAF); the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology; the Washington University School of Medicine; and the Lister-Hill National Center for Biomedical Communication, National Library of Medicine are sponsoring a working group on electronic imaging of the human body. Electronic imaging of the surface of the human body has been pursued and developed by a number of disciplines including radiology, forensics, surgery, engineering, medical education, and anthropometry. The applications range from reconstructive surgery to computer-aided design (CAD) of protective equipment. Although these areas appear unrelated, they have a great deal of commonality. All the organizations working in this area are faced with the challenges of collecting, reducing, and formatting the data in an efficient and standard manner; storing this data in a computerized database to make it readily accessible; and developing software applications that can visualize, manipulate, and analyze the data. This working group is being established to encourage effective use of the resources of all the various groups and disciplines involved in electronic imaging of the human body surface by providing a forum for discussing progress and challenges with these types of data.

  1. Kinematic analysis of human body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yuhei; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Watanabe, Naoki; Yanagi, Shigeru

    1997-03-01

    The knowledge of analyzing a human motion can contribute to the treatment and the prevention of sports injuries or the investigation of welfare equipment. It is important to know the human motion by not only the medical field but the mechanical knowledge. The mechanical knowledge is expected to prevent the sports injuries or to design such as an artificial equipment. Here, we suggest a basic procedure to analyze a human motion from the view of the dynamical knowledge. Although the human body is composed of a lot of element and joint, if the slight movement on the joint such as dislocation and distortion is neglected, the human body can be replaced by a mechanical links system. On this assumption, we analyze an actual simple human motion. We take a picture of a simple arm motion from video cameras. And at the same time, we directly measure the vertical acceleration of the hand by an accelerometer. From the video image, we get the vertical acceleration of the hand with assuming the arm as two-links system. On the process of resolving the vertical acceleration of the hand, we introduce the Fourier series for filtering. Finally, we confirm the propriety of our suggested procedure by comparing the calculated acceleration of hand with the directly measured acceleration.

  2. Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female).

    PubMed

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (ΔTsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ΔTsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ΔTsk by sex (≈1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs.

  3. [An interactive three-dimensional model of the human body].

    PubMed

    Liem, S L

    2009-01-01

    Driven by advanced computer technology, it is now possible to show the human anatomy on a computer. On the internet, the Visible Body programme makes it possible to navigate in all directions through the anatomical structures of the human body, using mouse and keyboard. Visible Body is a wonderful tool to give insight in the human structures, body functions and organs.

  4. Reference values for body proportions and body composition in adult women with Ullrich-Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gravholt, C H; Weis Naeraa, R

    1997-11-12

    This cross sectional study was undertaken to establish reference values for adult women with Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS) verified cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone during childhood and adolescence, with respect to anthropometric and body composition measurements, for future evaluations of growth promoting therapy. All members of the Danish Turner Association were invited, and 79 women with UTS participated. Forty-two had the 45,X karyotype and the other 37 had different karyotypes. Outcome measures were height, sitting height, arm span, length of hand and foot, biacromial and biiliac diameter, and hip, waist, and head circumference. Bioelectrical impedance was performed, and total body water, lean body mass, and fat mass were calculated. Results give a very distinct anthropometric picture of adult women with the UTS, with a mean height of 146.8+/-6.7 cm (mean+/-SD), sitting height of 78.6+/-3.6 cm, arm span measurements of 147.9+/-7.1 cm, being between 3 and 4 standard deviation scores (SDS) below average; with a mean hand length of 17.0+/-1.1 cm and foot length of 22.4+/-1.2 cm, being around 1.5 SDS below average; a mean weight of 56.3+/-12.8 kg, head circumference of 55.3+/-2.0 cm and biacromial diameter of 36.5+/-2.0 cm, being around 0 SDS; and finally, biiliacal diameter of 29.5+/-2.2 cm, being 1.4 SDS above average. The average body mass index (BMI) in the study was 26.3+/-5.3 kg/m2. As a group, females with UTS are overweight when compared with a group of "normal" women, with a higher fat mass, a lower lean body mass, but with a comparable amount of total body water (in %). This study presents the first comprehensive reference data on body proportions in the adult UTS. It shows that adult women with the Ullrich-Turner syndrome has a characteristic anthropometric shape. The data should be of use for future evaluations of growth hormone treatment or other growth promoting therapy in the UTS on anthropometric and body

  5. Small-Bodied Humans from Palau, Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.; De Klerk, Bonita; Quinn, Rhonda L.

    2008-01-01

    Newly discovered fossil assemblages of small bodied Homo sapiens from Palau, Micronesia possess characters thought to be taxonomically primitive for the genus Homo. Background Recent surface collection and test excavation in limestone caves in the rock islands of Palau, Micronesia, has produced a sizeable sample of human skeletal remains dating roughly between 940-2890 cal ybp. Principle Findings Preliminary analysis indicates that this material is important for two reasons. First, individuals from the older time horizons are small in body size even relative to “pygmoid” populations from Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and thus may represent a marked case of human insular dwarfism. Second, while possessing a number of derived features that align them with Homo sapiens, the human remains from Palau also exhibit several skeletal traits that are considered to be primitive for the genus Homo. Significance These features may be previously unrecognized developmental correlates of small body size and, if so, they may have important implications for interpreting the taxonomic affinities of fossil specimens of Homo. PMID:18347737

  6. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate. PMID:24111015

  7. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  8. Human gut microbiome: the second genome of human body.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoli; Wang, Xin; Li, Lanjuan

    2010-08-01

    The human body is actually a super-organism that is composed of 10 times more microbial cells than our body cells. Metagenomic study of the human microbiome has demonstrated that there are 3.3 million unique genes in human gut, 150 times more genes than our own genome, and the bacterial diversity analysis showed that about 1000 bacterial species are living in our gut and a majority of them belongs to the divisions of Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes. In addition, most people share a core microbiota that comprises 50-100 bacterial species when the frequency of abundance at phylotype level is not considered, and a core microbiome harboring more than 6000 functional gene groups is present in the majority of human gut surveyed till now. Gut bacteria are not only critical for regulating gut metabolism, but also important for host immune system as revealed by animal studies.

  9. Post-human body and beauty.

    PubMed

    Russo, Maria Teresa; Di Stefano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The article calls into question the very possibility of a post-human aesthetics, starting from the following premise: rather than post-human, it is more correct to speak of post-natural, indicating by this expression a reality produced through a new type of evolution, which does not simply change human nature, but de-natures it, radically transforming it into an artefact. This post-nature which aspires to be perfect, immortal, invulnerable, is entirely devoid of beauty. In fact, while there may be an aesthetic of the artificial and of the artefact if it is in relation to objects, there is, however, no aesthetic of the post-human body. This is because is configured as a non-body and does not have the characteristics for what is commonly intended as beauty (harmony between matter and form, a reflection of inner life, uniqueness). Also in this case, it is more correct to speak of post-beauty, which in its properties appears to be the mirror image of beauty and ultimately, represents its complete dissolution.

  10. Resourcifying human bodies--Kant and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Michio

    2005-01-01

    This essay roughly sketches two major conceptions of autonomy in contemporary bioethics that promote the resourcification of human body parts: (1) a narrow conception of autonomy as self-determination; and (2) the conception of autonomy as dissociated from human dignity. In this paper I will argue that, on the one hand, these two conceptions are very different from that found in the modern European tradition of philosophical inquiry, because bioethics has concentrated on an external account of patient's self-determination and on dissociating dignity from internal human nature. However, on the other hand, they are consistent with more recent European philosophy. In this more recent tradition, human dignity has gradually been dissociated from contextual values, and human subjectivity has been dissociated from objectivity and absolutized as never to be objectified. In the concluding part, I will give a speculative sketch in which Kant's internal inquiry of maxim of ends, causality and end, and dignity as iirreplaceability is recombined with bioethics' externalized one and used to support an extended human resourcification.

  11. [The human body in Michelangelo's Moses].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    What grips us so powerfully to a work of art is the artist's intention, if he succeeds to express it in his work and we are able to understand it. Michelangelo's Moses established the essential structures of an animate organism and the embodiment of consciousness in the world. Since the body is an expressive unit, it is possible to reconstruct a highly feasible sequence of movements that might have preceded the moment caught in the statue. It is an expression of the highest ideal of mental and spiritual achievement through the controlled tension between action and restraint. The phenomenon of embodiment and feeling the body as own is the basis of concrete human existence.

  12. Human pancreatic polypeptide in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, A; Chalew, S; Kowarski, A A

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of human pancreatic polypeptide may be useful for assessment of gastrointestinal function, integrity of the parasympathetic nervous system or screening for endocrine neoplasia. In adults hPP levels have been reported to increase with age. However hPP levels throughout childhood have not been well characterized in comparison with the adult range. We studied fasting human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) from 45 pediatric patients, from infancy - 15 years, and 18 older adolescents and adults aged 16-45 years. The mean hPP level of children (233 +/- 147 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that (113 +/- 35 pg/ml) of adults (P less than .0001). There was no difference in mean hPP levels of children with normal growth hormone secretion compared to growth hormone deficient patients. There was no effect of gender or body mass index on hPP levels. We conclude that fasting hPP levels must be interpreted with respect to the age of the subject, children particularly, in that preteens may have higher fasting levels than older teenagers and adults.

  13. Human pancreatic polypeptide in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, A; Chalew, S; Kowarski, A A

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of human pancreatic polypeptide may be useful for assessment of gastrointestinal function, integrity of the parasympathetic nervous system or screening for endocrine neoplasia. In adults hPP levels have been reported to increase with age. However hPP levels throughout childhood have not been well characterized in comparison with the adult range. We studied fasting human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) from 45 pediatric patients, from infancy - 15 years, and 18 older adolescents and adults aged 16-45 years. The mean hPP level of children (233 +/- 147 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that (113 +/- 35 pg/ml) of adults (P less than .0001). There was no difference in mean hPP levels of children with normal growth hormone secretion compared to growth hormone deficient patients. There was no effect of gender or body mass index on hPP levels. We conclude that fasting hPP levels must be interpreted with respect to the age of the subject, children particularly, in that preteens may have higher fasting levels than older teenagers and adults. PMID:2307392

  14. The Human Carotid Body Gene Expression and Function in Signaling of Hypoxia and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kåhlin, Jessica; Mkrtchian, Souren; Ebberyd, Anette; Eriksson, Lars I; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson

    2015-01-01

    Although animal carotid body oxygen sensing and signaling has been extensively investigated, the human carotid body remains essentially uncharacterized. Therefore, we aimed to study the human carotid body in terms of morphology, global and specific expression of sensing and signaling genes as well as inflammatory genes. The human carotid body response to brief or prolonged hypoxia was studied in carotid body slices from adult surgical patients and ACh, ATP and cytokine release was analyzed. We demonstrate that the human carotid body expresses key oxygen sensing and signaling genes in similarity with animal carotid bodies with a few diverging data. The human carotid body moreover shows enrichment of genes in the inflammatory response and releases pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to prolonged hypoxia. In response to acute hypoxia the human carotid body releases ACh and ATP and we thus translate previous findings in animal models to human tissue. We conclude that by releasing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during hypoxia the human carotid body displays a structural and functional capacity to participate in sensing and mediating systemic inflammation.

  15. Determination of body composition in conscious adult female Wistar utilising total body electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, K; North, T J; Telford, G; Smith, S; Brammer, R; Jones, R B; Heal, D J

    2001-01-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) is a noninvasive method for estimating fat free mass (FFM) in live animals. In this study, we have evaluated the use of the Em-Scan SA-3000, which is claimed by the manufacturers to perform better than earlier analysers. Previous studies in rats using these earlier versions of the TOBEC analyser have always used anaesthesia to minimise movement artefacts. As repeated anaesthesia also has the potential to induce artefacts by disrupting food intake, for example, we have also attempted to determine if this TOBEC analyser can be used to predict body composition in conscious adult weight-stable female Wistar rats. A simplified cafeteria diet was used to produce large variations in body composition (40-350 g fat/carcass) and a full chemical body composition analysis was performed to generate a TOBEC calibration equation. The TOBEC parameter was more strongly correlated to FFM (r(2)=.785) than it was to body weight (r(2)=.669) or other body composition parameters. Using the TOBEC calibration equation to predict fat mass on these data, there was an excellent correlation with the value obtained by chemical analyses (r(2)=.952, slope=0.958). To determine if the TOBEC calibration equation derived from this calibration study would then be useful for the routine estimation of body composition an additional, validation study was performed. This validation study was performed 6 months later, used an independent group of obese female Wistar rats and was undertaken by different TOBEC operators. This validation study, again, showed a good correlation between the TOBEC- and chemical-derived fat mass (r(2)=.918, slope=1.003) indicating stability of the calibration equation with time and independence from operator. We therefore conclude that it is possible to meaningfully estimate body fat changes in conscious rats using this TOBEC analysis system.

  16. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  17. Isomap transform for segmenting human body shapes.

    PubMed

    Cerveri, P; Sarro, K J; Marchente, M; Barros, R M L

    2011-09-01

    Segmentation of the 3D human body is a very challenging problem in applications exploiting volume capture data. Direct clustering in the Euclidean space is usually complex or even unsolvable. This paper presents an original method based on the Isomap (isometric feature mapping) transform of the volume data-set. The 3D articulated posture is mapped by Isomap in the pose of Da Vinci's Vitruvian man. The limbs are unrolled from each other and separated from the trunk and pelvis, and the topology of the human body shape is recovered. In such a configuration, Hoshen-Kopelman clustering applied to concentric spherical shells is used to automatically group points into the labelled principal curves. Shepard interpolation is utilised to back-map points of the principal curves into the original volume space. The experimental results performed on many different postures have proved the validity of the proposed method. Reliability of less than 2 cm and 3° in the location of the joint centres and direction axes of rotations has been obtained, respectively, which qualifies this procedure as a potential tool for markerless motion analysis.

  18. Perceptions of Body Habitus and Cultural Health Among Hispanic Adults.

    PubMed

    Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Aguirre, Trina

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether perceptions of health and health outcomes are impacted by acculturation level, nativity, and years in the United States (US) for Hispanic adults in the Nebraska Panhandle. Focus groups (n = 10), surveys (demographics, body image silhouettes, and acculturation), and anthropometric measurements were conducted. US-born (n = 36) had higher household incomes, education level, and acculturation scores compared to foreign-born (n = 23). Years in the US was positively correlated with acculturation and anthropometrics. No significant differences were detected between groups for rating infant and adolescent health, indicating mid-sized infants were considered healthy and heavier adolescents had increased health risks. However, qualitative data revealed misconceptions regarding obesity and chronic disease and a cultural preference for heavier infants. Despite differences between groups, qualitative data indicated cultural perceptions of health still persist. Data indicates a need for behavioral modification using culturally appropriate methods and for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.

  19. VIP-Man: An image-based whole-body adult male model constructed from color photographs of the visible human project for multi-particle Monte Carlo calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.G.; Chao, T.C.; Bozkurt, A.

    2000-05-01

    Human anatomical models have been indispensable to radiation protection dosimetry using Monte Carlo calculations. Existing MIRD-based mathematical models are easy to compute and standardize, but they are simplified and crude compared to human anatomy. This article describes the development of an image-based whole-body model, called VIP-Man, using transversal color photographic images obtained from the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project for Monte Carlo organ dose calculations involving photons, electron, neutrons, and protons. As the first of a series of papers on dose calculations based on VIP-Man, this article provides detailed information about how to construct an image-based model, as well as how to adopt it into well-tested Monte Carlo codes, EGS4, MCNP4B, and MCNPX.

  20. Multi-body dynamics modelling of seated human body under exposure to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takuya; Nakai, Kazuma; Tamaoki, Gen

    2005-07-01

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spine such as chronic lumbago or low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column and to make up appropriate guidelines or counter plans. In ISO2631-1 or ISO2631-5 assessment of vibration effects to human in the view of adverse-health effect was already presented. However, it is necessary to carry out further research to understand the effect of vibration to human body to examine their validity and to prepare for the future revision. This paper shows the detail measurement of human response to vibration, and the modelling of the seated human body for the assessment of the vibration risk. The vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and to the head are measured during the exposure to vertical excitation. The modal paramters of seated subject are extracted in order to understand the dominant natural modes. For the evaluation of adverse-health effect the multi-body modelling of the spinal column is introduced. A simplified model having 10 DOFs is counstructed so that the transmissibilities of the model fit to those of experiment. The transient response analysis is illustrated when a half-sine input is applied. The relative displacements of vertebrae are evaluated, which can be a basis for the assessment of vibration risk. It is suggested that the multi-body dynamic model is used to evaluate the vibration effect to the spinal column for seated subjects.

  1. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    PubMed

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  2. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

  3. Determinants of body weight regulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Moehlecke, Milene; Canani, Luis Henrique; Silva, Lucas Oliveira Junqueira E; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Friedman, Rogerio; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2016-04-01

    Body weight is regulated by the ability of hypothalamic neurons to orchestrate behavioral, endocrine and autonomic responses via afferent and efferent pathways to the brainstem and the periphery. Weight maintenance requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although several components that participate in energy homeostasis have been identified, there is a need to know in more detail their actions as well as their interactions with environmental and psychosocial factors in the development of human obesity. In this review, we examine the role of systemic mediators such as leptin, ghrelin and insulin, which act in the central nervous system by activating or inhibiting neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide protein, melanocortin, transcript related to cocaine and amphetamine, and others. As a result, modifications in energy homeostasis occur through regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We also examine compensatory changes in the circulating levels of several peripheral hormones after diet-induced weight loss.

  4. Human body temperature - Its measurement and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Houdas, Y.; Ring, E.F.J.

    1982-01-01

    The terminology used in thermal physiology is examined, and principles of heat transfer are discussed, taking into account heat quantity, heat flux, temperature, pressure, quantities used in physiology, a number of common definitions, the equivalence between different forms of energy, the release of potential energy in living tissues, heat transfer without change of state, and heat transfer with change of state. Temperature and humidity measurement are considered along with man and his environment, the temperature distribution in the systems and tracts of the human body, physiological changes affecting the temperature distribution, problems of temperature regulation, questions of heat loss and conservation, acclimatization to heat and cold, and disorders of thermoregulation. Attention is given to possible thermal imaging applications, causes of temperature irregularities in the head and neck, common causes of increased temperatures of upper limbs, and thermography in disease. 193 references.

  5. Acute normobaric hypoxia reduces body temperature in humans.

    PubMed

    DiPasquale, Dana M; Kolkhorst, Fred W; Buono, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Anapyrexia is the regulated decrease in body temperature during acute exposure to hypoxia. This study examined resting rectal temperature (Trec) in adult humans during acute normobaric hypoxia (NH). Ten subjects breathed air consisting of 21% (NN), 14% (NH14), and 12% oxygen (NH12) for 30 min each in thermoneutral conditions while Trec and blood oxygen saturation (Spo2) were measured. Linear regression indicated that Spo2 was progressively lower in NH14 (p=0.0001) and NH12 (p=0.0001) compared to NN, and that Spo2 in NH14 was different than NH12 (p=0.00001). Trec was progressively lower during NH14 (p=0.014) and in NH12 (p=0.0001) compared to NN. The difference in Trec between NH14 and NH12 was also significant (p=0.0287). Spo2 was a significant predictor of Trec such that for every 1% decrease in Spo2, Trec decreased by 0.15°C (p=0.0001). The present study confirmed that, similar to many other species, human adults respond to acute hypoxia exposure by lowering rectal temperature.

  6. Cell secretion from the adult lamprey supraneural body tissues possesses cytocidal activity against tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yue; Wang, Shiyue; Ba, Wei; Li, Qingwei

    2015-01-01

    The supraneural body was identified in the adult lamprey, and its secretions induced the death of a variety of tumor cells but had no effect on normal cells. The cell secretions from different lamprey tissues were separated, and these secretions killed human tumor cells to varying degrees. The cell secretions induced remarkable cell morphological alterations such as cell blebbing, and the plasma membrane was destroyed by the secretions. In addition, the secretions induced morphological alterations of the mitochondria, cytoskeletal structure, and endoplasmic reticulum, eventually leading to cell death. These observations suggest the presence of a novel protein in the lamprey and the possibility of new applications for the protein in the medical field.

  7. The relationship between social network body size and the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Ginger; Phillips, Erica; Wethington, Elaine; Wells, Martin; Devine, Carol M.; Peterson, Janey; Wansink, Brian; Ramos, Rosio; Charlson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults and the body sizes of their social network members. Methods Egocentric network data were examined for 245 adults recruited from 2012–2013 in New York City. A multivariable regression model was used to examine the relationship between participants' perception of normal body size and the body sizes of their network members adjusted for participant age, education, race/ethnicity and network size. Participants' body size norms were also examined stratified by the following characteristics of obese network members: frequency of contact, living proximity, relationship, and importance of relationship. Results Index participants were 89% female with mean body mass index 33.5 kg/m2. There were 2571 network members identified (31% overweight, 10% obese). In the fully adjusted multivariable model, perception of normal body size increased as the number of network members with obesity increased (p < 0.01). Larger body size norms were associated with increased frequency of contact with obese network members (p = 0.04), and obese members living in the home (p = 0.049). Conclusions These findings support a relationship between the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults and their social network body size. PMID:26705513

  8. Whole-body multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Na; Guo, Heng; Qi, Weizhi; Zhang, Zhiwei; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Zhen; Ge, Wei; Jiang, Huabei; Xi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish, an ideal vertebrate for studying developmental biology and genetics, is increasingly being used to understand human diseases, due to its high similarity to the human genome and its optical transparency during embryonic stages. Once the zebrafish has fully developed, especially wild-type breeds, conventional optical imaging techniques have difficulty in imaging the internal organs and structures with sufficient resolution and penetration depth. Even with established mutant lines that remain transparent throughout their life cycle, it is still challenging for purely optical imaging modalities to visualize the organs of juvenile and adult zebrafish at a micro-scale spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a non-invasive three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging platform with an optimized illumination pattern and a cylindrical-scanning-based data collection system to image entire zebrafish with micro-scale resolutions of 80 μm and 600 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. In addition, we employed a multispectral strategy that utilized excitation wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm to statistically quantify the relative optical absorption spectrum of major organs. PMID:27699119

  9. Whole-body multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Na; Guo, Heng; Qi, Weizhi; Zhang, Zhiwei; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Zhen; Ge, Wei; Jiang, Huabei; Xi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish, an ideal vertebrate for studying developmental biology and genetics, is increasingly being used to understand human diseases, due to its high similarity to the human genome and its optical transparency during embryonic stages. Once the zebrafish has fully developed, especially wild-type breeds, conventional optical imaging techniques have difficulty in imaging the internal organs and structures with sufficient resolution and penetration depth. Even with established mutant lines that remain transparent throughout their life cycle, it is still challenging for purely optical imaging modalities to visualize the organs of juvenile and adult zebrafish at a micro-scale spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a non-invasive three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging platform with an optimized illumination pattern and a cylindrical-scanning-based data collection system to image entire zebrafish with micro-scale resolutions of 80 μm and 600 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. In addition, we employed a multispectral strategy that utilized excitation wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm to statistically quantify the relative optical absorption spectrum of major organs.

  10. Facilitated early cortical processing of nude human bodies.

    PubMed

    Alho, Jussi; Salminen, Nelli; Sams, Mikko; Hietanen, Jari K; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging has identified specialized neural systems supporting human body perception. Responses to nude vs. clothed bodies within this system are amplified. However, it remains unresolved whether nude and clothed bodies are processed by same cerebral networks or whether processing of nude bodies recruits additional affective and arousal processing areas. We recorded simultaneous MEG and EEG while participants viewed photographs of clothed and nude bodies. Global field power revealed a peak ∼145ms after stimulus onset to both clothed and nude bodies, and ∼205ms exclusively to nude bodies. Nude-body-sensitive responses were centered first (100-200ms) in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas, and subsequently (200-300ms) in affective-motivational areas including insula and anterior cingulate cortex. We conclude that visibility of sexual features facilitates early cortical processing of human bodies, the purpose of which is presumably to trigger sexual behavior and ultimately ensure reproduction.

  11. An exploration of adult body shape and limb proportions at Kellis 2, Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bleuze, Michele M; Wheeler, Sandra M; Dupras, Tosha L; Williams, Lana J; El Molto, J

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have shown that the human body generally conforms to the ecogeographical expectations of Bergmann's and Allen's rules; however, recent evidence suggests that these expectations may not hold completely for some populations. Egypt is located at the crossroads of Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, and the Near East, and gene flow among groups in these regions may confound ecogeographical patterning. In this study, we test the fit of the adult physique of a large sample (N = 163) of females and males from the Kellis 2 cemetery (Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt) against ecogeographical predictions. Body shape (i.e., body mass relative to stature) was assessed by the femur head diameter to bicondylar femur length index (FHD/BFL), and brachial and crural indices were calculated to examine intralimb proportions. Body shape in the Kellis 2 sample is not significantly different from high-latitude groups and a Lower Nubian sample, and intralimb proportions are not significantly different from mid-latitude and other low-latitude groups. This study demonstrates the potential uniqueness of body shape and intralimb proportions in an ancient Egyptian sample, and further highlights the complex relationship between ecogeographic patterning and adaptation.

  12. Thiamin requirement of the adult human.

    PubMed

    Sauberlich, H E; Herman, Y F; Stevens, C O; Herman, R H

    1979-11-01

    Young adult male subjects maintained on a metabolic ward were fed diets providing controlled intakes of thiamin and either 2800 or 3600 kcal. The higher level of calories was attained by an increased intake of carbohydrates. Constant weights were maintained by the subjects by adjusting daily activity and exercise schedules. Thiamin requirements were evaluated in terms of erythrocyte transketolase activity and urinary excretion of the vitamin. The results of the study revealed that a relationship exists between thiamin requirement and caloric intake and expenditure. Thus, when the calories being utilized were derived primarily from carbohydrate sources, the minimum adult male requirement for thiamin appeared to be 0.30 mg of thiamin per 1000 kcal. Urinary excretion of thiamin and erythrocyte transketolase activity appear to be reasonably reliable reflections of thiamin intakes and thiamin nutritional status. The use of these measurements in nutrition surveys appears justified. The microbiological assay (Lactobacillus viridescens) for measuring thiamin levels in urine samples appears to be a somewhat more sensitive but valid procedure as an alternate for the thiochrome method. Judged from the results of this study, the recommended intake for the adult human of 0.40 mg of thiamin per 1000 kcal by FAO/WHO and the recommended allowance of 0.5 mg per 1000 kcal by the Food and Nutrition Board of the NAS-NRC appear reasonable and amply allow for biological variations and other factors that may influence the requirement for this vitamin.

  13. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual. PMID:24771443

  14. Cellular properties and chemosensory responses of the human carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Pardal, Ricardo; Levitsky, Konstantin; Villadiego, Javier; Muñoz-Manchado, Ana Belén; Durán, Rocío; Bonilla-Henao, Victoria; Arias-Mayenco, Ignacio; Sobrino, Verónica; Ordóñez, Antonio; Oliver, María; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; López-Barneo, José

    2013-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the major peripheral arterial chemoreceptor in mammals that mediates the acute hyperventilatory response to hypoxia. The CB grows in response to sustained hypoxia and also participates in acclimatisation to chronic hypoxaemia. Knowledge of CB physiology at the cellular level has increased considerably in recent times thanks to studies performed on lower mammals, and rodents in particular. However, the functional characteristics of human CB cells remain practically unknown. Herein, we use tissue slices or enzymatically dispersed cells to determine the characteristics of human CB cells. The adult human CB parenchyma contains clusters of chemosensitive glomus (type I) and sustentacular (type II) cells as well as nestin-positive progenitor cells. This organ also expresses high levels of the dopaminotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We found that GDNF production and the number of progenitor and glomus cells were preserved in the CBs of human subjects of advanced age. Moreover, glomus cells exhibited voltage-dependent Na+, Ca2+ and K+ currents that were qualitatively similar to those reported in lower mammals. These cells responded to hypoxia with an external Ca2+-dependent increase of cytosolic Ca2+ and quantal catecholamine secretion, as reported for other mammalian species. Interestingly, human glomus cells are also responsive to hypoglycaemia and together these two stimuli can potentiate each other's effects. The chemosensory responses of glomus cells are also preserved at an advanced age. These new data on the cellular and molecular physiology of the CB pave the way for future pathophysiological studies involving this organ in humans. PMID:24167224

  15. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  16. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  17. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market.

  18. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market. PMID:25164164

  19. Human body and head characteristics as a communication medium for Body Area Network.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Yonatan; Hun-Seok Kim; Yoo, Jerald

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth investigation of the Body Channel Communication (BCC) under the environment set according to the IEEE 802.15.6 Body Area Network (BAN) standard is conducted to observe and characterize the human body as a communication medium. A thorough measurement of the human head as part of the human channel is also carried out. Human forehead, head to limb, and ear to ear channel is characterized. The channel gain of the human head follows the same bandpass profile of the human torso and limbs with the maximum channel gain occurring at 35MHz. The human body channel gain distribution histogram at given frequencies, while all the other parameters are held constant, exhibits a maximum variation of 2.2dB in the channel gain at the center frequency of the bandpass channel gain profile.

  20. Development of Preferences for the Human Body Shape in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle; Sim, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Two studies investigated development of infants' visual preferences for the human body shape. Results indicated that 18-month-olds had a reliable preference for scrambled body shapes over typical body shapes in line drawings, while 12- and 15-month-olds did not respond differentially. In condition using photographs, only 18-month-olds had reliable…

  1. Specialised structural descriptions for human body parts: Evidence from autotopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, L J; Coslett, H B

    2001-06-01

    Previous accounts of autotopagnosia (e.g., Ogden, 1985; Pick, 1908; Semenza, 1988) propose that the disorder is attributable to deficits in "mental images," visual body schema, or semantic representations. A recent account (Sirigu, Grafman, Bressler, & Sunderland, 1991b) posits deficits in visual structural descriptions of the human body and its parts, in the context of spared semantic and proprioceptivespatio-motor body representations, but provides no evidence bearing on the nature or format of the putatively damaged representation. We report data from a man with autotopagnosia consequent to lefthemisphere brain damage which bear directly on the nature of the representation impaired in the disorder. The subject, GL, is unable to localise body parts on himself or others, whether cued by verbal or visual input. In contrast, he uses body parts precisely in reaching and grasping tasks, correctly matches items of clothing to body parts, and localises the parts of animals and man-made objects without error. We also demonstrate that GL is unable to match pictured or real human body parts across shifts in orientation or changes in visual appearance, but can perform analogous matching tasks with animal body parts and man-made object parts. The data extend the account of Sirigu et al. (1991b) in suggesting that human body part localisation depends upon structural descriptions of human (but not animal) bodies that enable viewpoint-independent body part recognition and participate in the calculation of equivalence between the body parts of self and others across transformations in orientation.

  2. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  3. Body mass index in young adults: Associations with parental body size and education in the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed Central

    Greenlund, K J; Liu, K; Dyer, A R; Kiefe, C I; Burke, G L; Yunis, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Associations of parental education, parental body size, and offspring's education with body mass index and 7-year change in body mass index were examined among participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS: CARDIA is a study of coronary artery disease risk factors in 5115 Black and White persons aged 18 to 30 at baseline. Analyses of covariance were carried out with body mass index and change in body mass index as the dependent variables, and with parental education, parental body size, and participant education as the major independent variables. RESULTS: Father's body size was positively associated with participant's baseline body mass index among Black men, White men, and White women. Mother's body size was positively associated with baseline body mass index among all race-sex groups, and with change in body mass index among White women. Father's education was inversely associated with baseline body mass index among Black men and White women, and with change among White women. CONCLUSIONS: Parental education may influence body mass index and changes in young adulthood, especially among White women. Such associations may be both genetic and environmental and may be important for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:8604777

  4. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature.

  5. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature. PMID:27476147

  6. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  7. Imaging the Human Body: Micro- and Nanostructure of Human Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Müller, Bert

    Computed tomography based on X-rays is known to provide the best spatial resolution of all clinical three-dimensional imaging facilities and currently reaches a fraction of a millimeter. Better spatial and density resolution is obtained by means of micro computed tomography well established in the field of materials science. It is also very supportive imaging human tissues down to the level of individual cells (Lareida et al. J. Microsc. 234:95, 2009). The article demonstrates the power of micro computed tomography for imaging parts of the human body such as teeth, inner ear, cerebellum, tumors, and urethral tissue with conventional X-ray sources and synchrotron radiation facilities in absorption and phase contrast modes. The second part of the chapter relies on scanning X-ray scattering of tooth slices (Müller et al. Eur. J. Clin. Nanomed. 3:30, 2010) to uncover the presence of nanostructures including their anisotropy and orientation. This imaging technique gives unrivalled insights for medical experts, which will have a major influence on fields such as dental and incontinence treatments.

  8. [Effects of radiation exposure on human body].

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kenji; Sasatani, Megumi

    2012-03-01

    There are two types of radiation health effect; acute disorder and late on-set disorder. Acute disorder is a deterministic effect that the symptoms appear by exposure above a threshold. Tissues and cells that compose the human body have different radiation sensitivity respectively, and the symptoms appear in order, from highly radiosensitive tissues. The clinical symptoms of acute disorder begin with a decrease in lymphocytes, and then the symptoms appear such as alopecia, skin erythema, hematopoietic damage, gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system damage with increasing radiation dose. Regarding the late on-set disorder, a predominant health effect is the cancer among the symptoms of such as cancer, non-cancer disease and genetic effect. Cancer and genetic effect are recognized as stochastic effects without the threshold. When radiation dose is equal to or more than 100 mSv, it is observed that the cancer risk by radiation exposure increases linearly with an increase in dose. On the other hand, the risk of developing cancer through low-dose radiation exposure, less 100 mSv, has not yet been clarified scientifically. Although uncertainty still remains regarding low level risk estimation, ICRP propound LNT model and conduct radiation protection in accordance with LNT model in the low-dose and low-dose rate radiation from a position of radiation protection. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radiation damage has been gradually clarified. The initial event of radiation-induced diseases is thought to be the damage to genome such as radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Recently, it is clarified that our cells could recognize genome damage and induce the diverse cell response to maintain genome integrity. This phenomenon is called DNA damage response which induces the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell senescence and so on. These responses act in the direction to maintain genome integrity against genome damage, however, the death of large number of

  9. [BODY AND CORPORALITY IN THE HUMAN BEING: SOME INTERDISCIPLINARY REFLECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Giménez Amaya, JosÉ Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of this contribution is to illustrate some differential aspects between the human and the animal bodies, in order to understand the main distinctive characteristic of the human being: his or her rationality. Thus, we firstly deal with some considerations about the general anthropological framework in which the human body is going to be analysed. Next, we briefly explain the importance of the body for an adequate understanding of the intimacy and the biographical perspectives of the person. Here we show some examples of the altered human corporality to stress the importance of the relation to oneself and others as a key and fundamental aspect to look at our rational corporality.

  10. Rethinking Adult Literacy Programs: A Humanities-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anania, Joanne

    The Roosevelt University Humanities Enrichment Program tries to acknowledge the adult part of adult literacy. Its instructional materials are of interest and value to the adult student and, therefore, provide incentives for reading and discussion instead of serving merely as skill-building exercises. The materials are drawn from literature,…

  11. Intrapersonal characteristics of body-related guilt, shame, pride, and envy in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Brunet, Jennifer; Crocker, Peter R E; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    This study examined differences in body-related shame, guilt, pride, and envy based on intrapersonal characteristics of sex, age, and weight status in 527 Canadian adults. Compared to men, women reported significantly higher shame and guilt contextualized to the body. No sex differences were observed for envy or pride. Middle-aged adults reported higher shame and lower pride compared with young adults, whereas no age differences were observed with body-related guilt. Meanwhile, shame and guilt were highest for individuals who had overweight or obese weight status, and pride was highest in individuals with average weight status. Overall, effect sizes were small and there were no significant interaction effects between sex, age, and weight status across body-related emotions. Further research is needed to capture similarities and differences of body-related self-conscious emotions between intrapersonal characteristics, to aid the development of intervention strategies to manage this important dimension of body image.

  12. Theoretical model of infrared radiation of dressed human body indoors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zonglong; Yang, Kuntao

    2008-02-01

    The human body detecting by infrared thermography plays an important role in the field of medical treatment, scout and rescuing work after disaster occuring. The infrared image theoretical model is a foundation for a human body detecting because it can improve the ability and efficiency. The essence and significance of the information on the temperature field of the human body in indoor environment is systematically discussed on the basis of physical structure and thermoregulation system. The various factors that influence the body temperature are analyzed, then the method for the calculation of temperature distribution of the surface temperature is introduced. On the basis of the infrared radiation theory, a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the radiant flux intensity of the human body. This model can be applied to many fields.

  13. "Scientific peep show": the human body in contemporary science museums.

    PubMed

    Canadelli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on the discourse about the human body developed by contemporary science museums with educational and instructive purposes directed at the general public. These museums aim mostly at mediating concepts such as health and prevention. The current scenario is linked with two examples of past museums: the popular anatomical museums which emerged during the 19th century and the health museums thrived between 1910 and 1940. On the museological path about the human body self-care we went from the emotionally involving anatomical Venuses to the inexpressive Transparent Man, from anatomical specimens of ill organs and deformed subjects to the mechanical and electronic models of the healthy body. Today the body is made transparent by the new medical diagnostics and by the latest discoveries of endoscopy. The way museums and science centers presently display the human body involves computers, 3D animation, digital technologies, hands-on models of large size human parts.

  14. Human body segmentation via data-driven graph cut.

    PubMed

    Li, Shifeng; Lu, Huchuan; Shao, Xingqing

    2014-11-01

    Human body segmentation is a challenging and important problem in computer vision. Existing methods usually entail a time-consuming training phase for prior knowledge learning with complex shape matching for body segmentation. In this paper, we propose a data-driven method that integrates top-down body pose information and bottom-up low-level visual cues for segmenting humans in static images within the graph cut framework. The key idea of our approach is first to exploit human kinematics to search for body part candidates via dynamic programming for high-level evidence. Then, by using the body parts classifiers, obtaining bottom-up cues of human body distribution for low-level evidence. All the evidence collected from top-down and bottom-up procedures are integrated in a graph cut framework for human body segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative experiment results demonstrate the merits of the proposed method in segmenting human bodies with arbitrary poses from cluttered backgrounds.

  15. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    DOE PAGES

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less

  16. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.

  17. Relationships Between Body Image, Body Composition, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women.

  18. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  19. The Body Esteem of Hmong and Caucasian Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzoi, Stephen L.; Chang, Zoua

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated race and gender differences among 73 Hmong American and 80 Caucasian American college students. Racial differences were found only among the women, with Hmong women holding more positive attitudes toward weight concern body items and expressing less interest in changing these body items than Caucasian women. There were no…

  20. Emergency admissions due to swallowed foreign bodies in adults

    PubMed Central

    Erbil, Bülent; Karaca, Mehmet Ali; Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; İbrahimov, Zaur; Kunt, Mehmet Mahir; Akpinar, Erhan; Özmen, Mehmet Mahir

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study a retrospective analysis of patients who presented to the emergency departments (ED) with complaints related to foreign body ingestions. METHODS: Patients older than 16 years of age who presented to the ED between January 1st and December 31st of 2010 with complaints related to swallowed foreign bodies were identified from electronic health records and patient charts. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients presented with a complaint of foreign body ingestion during the study period. Overall, an X-ray was performed on 75 patients, and a fiberoptic evaluation was performed on 45 patients. A foreign body was detected in 46 (46%) patients. The diagnostic yield of the X-ray was 27 (36%) out of 75 patients, while the diagnostic yield of the fiberoptic evaluations was 21 (47%) out of 45 patients. The detected foreign bodies were mostly located in the esophagus (17 out of 46 foreign bodies detected). When the types of ingested foreign bodies were evaluated, 52 (52%) patients reported ingesting food, and 19 (19%) patients reported swallowing pins. An X-ray was performed on 33 patients with accidental food ingestions but yielded a positive result in only two cases. In 12 out of 21 patients with accidental food ingestion who underwent fiberoptic evaluation, the foreign material was detected and removed. CONCLUSION: Plain radiography is helpful in the localization of radiopaque swollen foreign bodies, while fiberoptic methods are useful as both diagnostic and therapeutic tools, regardless of radiopacity. PMID:24151363

  1. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  2. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  3. Body Composition and Anthropometric Correlates of Isokinetic Leg Extension Strength of Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Thorland, William G.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of body size and composition as determinants of differences in isokinetic leg extensor strength in young adult males performing at slow, moderate, and fast speeds. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  4. Globalization and the trade in human body parts.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T

    1999-02-01

    Since the early 1980s, the number and variety of organ transplantations has increased enormously worldwide. Accompanying this increase has been the emergence of a market for human body parts. This paper argues that, while the trade in human body parts is conditioned by technological advances, it must be understood in the broader context of globalization, specifically the extension and intensification of a capitalist mode of exchange. In this regard, it is argued that the trade in human body parts mirrors the "normal" system of unequal exchanges that mark other forms of trade between the developed and undeveloped regions of the world.

  5. Could adult hippocampal neurogenesis be relevant for human behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jason S.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2011-01-01

    Although the function of adult neurogenesis is still unclear, tools for directly studying the behavioral role of new hippocampal neurons now exist in rodents. Since similar studies are impossible to do in humans, it is important to assess whether the role of new neurons in rodents is likely to be similar to that in humans. One feature of adult neurogenesis that varies tremendously across species is the number of neurons that are generated, so a key question is whether there are enough neurons generated in humans to impact function. In this review we examine neuroanatomy and circuit function in the hippocampus to ask how many granule neurons are needed to impact hippocampal function and then discuss what is known about numbers of new neurons produced in adult rats and humans. We conclude that relatively small numbers of neurons could affect hippocampal circuits and that the magnitude of adult neurogenesis in adult rats and humans is probably larger than generally believed. PMID:21736900

  6. Human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzofurans associated with toxicity based on the yusho and yucheng incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.J.; Gasiewicz, T.A.; Brown, J.F. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are one group of man-made toxicants for which reasonably extensive data exist relevant to dose-response relationships in humans. Examination of contaminated food oil consumption from the yusho (Japan) poisoning incident indicates the mean uptake or body burden of 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) equivalents (PEQ) associated with nausea and anorexia to be 4.4 micrograms/kg body wt and that associated with chloracne to be 5.9 micrograms/kg. For the yucheng (Taiwan) poisoning incident, blood measurements for chloracne show a similar body burden of 4.0 micrograms/kg. The latter value is toxicologically equivalent to a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (TEQ) body burden of 2.0 micrograms/kg body wt or about 150 micrograms for an adult person. This corresponds to an adipose tissue level of about 10 micrograms/kg fat, and is comparable to that known to cause chloracne in rhesus monkeys. These body burdens on a TEQ basis are more than 200 times higher than the average current levels of PCDDs/PCDFs found in North American populations and are the first to relate human body burdens of PCDFs with a known effect and to compare them to animal data. Since the effects reported may not be the most sensitive indicator of human toxicity, lower body burdens could be associated with more subtle toxicological events.

  7. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  8. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  9. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  10. In vivo measurement of human body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Price, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The female bed rest study has shown that, the response of women to prolonged recumbency of 2 to 3 weeks duration is very similar to that displayed by men. Some of the key findings in the women after 17 days of continuous recumbency are: (1) a decrease in plasma volume of 12-13 per cent; (2) a small decrease in total body water; (3) a decrease in total body potassium of 3 to 4 per cent; (4) a decrease in plasma potassium concentration of 4 to 5 per cent; (5) a decrease in total circulating plasma protein of 11 to 12 per cent; (6) a decrease in urinary norepinephrine excretion rate of 27 to 28 per cent; (7) a possible increase in urinary magnesium, calcium, and phosphate excretion rates; and (8) a possible increase in urinary citrate excretion rate.

  11. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    PubMed

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  12. Standoff Human Identification Using Body Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Amidan, Brett G.; Boettcher, Evelyn J.; Lochtefeld, Darrell; Webb, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The ability to identify individuals is a key component of maintaining safety and security in public spaces and around critical infrastructure. Monitoring an open space is challenging because individuals must be identified and re-identified from a standoff distance nonintrusively, making methods like fingerprinting and even facial recognition impractical. We propose using body shape features as a means for identification from standoff sensing, either complementing other identifiers or as an alternative. An important challenge in monitoring open spaces is reconstructing identifying features when only a partial observation is available, because of the view-angle limitations and occlusion or subject pose changes. To address this challenge, we investigated the minimum number of features required for a high probability of correct identification, and we developed models for predicting a key body feature—height—from a limited set of observed features. We found that any set of nine randomly selected body measurements was sufficient to correctly identify an individual in a dataset of 4426 subjects. For predicting height, anthropometric measures were investigated for correlation with height. Their correlation coefficients and associated linear models were reported. These results—a sufficient number of features for identification and height prediction from a single feature—contribute to developing systems for standoff identification when views of a subject are limited.

  13. The distance of visual targets affects the spatial magnitude and multifractal scaling of standing body sway in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Munafo, Justin; Curry, Christopher; Wade, Michael G; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2016-09-01

    The spatial magnitude of standing body sway is greater during viewing of more distant targets and reduced when viewing nearby targets. Classical interpretations of this effect are based on the projective geometry of changes in visual stimulation that are brought about by body sway. Such explanations do not motivate predictions about the temporal dynamics of body sway. We asked whether the distance of visible targets would affect both the spatial magnitude and the multifractality of standing body sway. It has been suggested that the multifractality of movement may change with age. Separately, previous research has not addressed the effects of target distance on postural sway in older adults. For these reasons, we crossed our variation in target distance with variation in age. In an open-air setting, we measured standing body sway in younger and older adults while looking at visual targets that were placed at three distances. The distance of visual targets affected the spatial magnitude of body sway in younger adults, replicating past studies. Target distance also affected the spatial magnitude of sway in older adults, confirming that this relation persists despite other age-related changes. Target distance also affected the multifractality of body sway, but this effect was modulated by age. Finally, the width of the multifractal spectrum was greater for older adults than for younger adults, revealing that healthy aging can affect the multifractality of movement. These findings reveal similarities and differences between the spatial magnitude and the multifractality of human movement. PMID:27255223

  14. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-08-09

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed.

  15. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones. PMID:26999159

  16. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones. PMID:26999159

  17. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones.

  18. Gravity and observer's body orientation influence the visual perception of human body postures.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christophe; Bachofner, Christelle; Mercier, Manuel; Blanke, Olaf

    2009-05-04

    Since human behavior and perception have evolved within the Earth's gravitational field, humans possess an internal model of gravity. Although gravity is known to influence the visual perception of moving objects, the evidence is less clear concerning the visual perception of static objects. We investigated whether a visual judgment of the stability of human body postures (static postures of a human standing on a platform and tilted in the roll plane) may also be influenced by gravity and by the participant's orientation. Pictures of human body postures were presented in different orientations with respect to gravity and the participant's body. The participant's body was aligned to gravity (upright) or not (lying on one side). Participants performed stability judgments with respect to the platform, imagining that gravity operates in the direction indicated by the platform (that was or was not concordant with physical gravity). Such visual judgments were influenced by the picture's orientation with respect to physical gravity. When pictures were tilted by 90 degrees with respect to physical gravity, the human postures that were tilted toward physical gravity (down) were perceived as more unstable than similar postures tilted away from physical gravity (up). Stability judgments were also influenced by the picture's orientation with respect to the participant's body. This indicates that gravity and the participant's body position may influence the visual perception of static objects.

  19. Interaction of clothing and body mass index affects validity of air displacement plethysmography in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Examine the effect of alternate clothing schemes on validity of Bod Pod to estimate percent body fat (BF) compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and determine if these effects differ by body mass index (BMI). Design: Cross-sectional Subjects: 132 healthy adults aged 19-81 classifi...

  20. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  1. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  2. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized. PMID:27539355

  3. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed.

  4. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  5. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  6. Whole-body vibration increases upper and lower body muscle activity in older adults: potential use of vibration accessories.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajús, Jose A; Hazell, Tom J; Garatachea, Nuria

    2012-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on upper and lower body muscle activity during static muscle contractions (squat and bicep curls). The use of WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform and a soft surface mat were also evaluated. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles in fourteen healthy older adults (74.8±4.5 years; mean±SD) with a WBV stimulus at an acceleration of 40 m s(-2) (30 Hz High, 2.5 mm or 46 Hz Low, 1.1 mm). WBV increased lower body (VL and MG) sEMG vs baseline (no WBV) though this was decreased with the use of the soft mat. The addition of the bicep curl with hand straps had no effect on lower body sEMG. WBV also increased BB sEMG vs baseline which was further increased when using the hand straps. There was no upper body effect of the soft mat. This study demonstrates WBV increases both lower and upper body muscle activity in healthy older adults. Moreover, WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform or a soft surface mat may be used to alter exercise intensity.

  7. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration.

    PubMed

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-06-01

    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration. PMID:26485354

  8. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration.

    PubMed

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-06-01

    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration.

  9. Adult Human Neurogenesis: From Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of generating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases. PMID:21519376

  10. Three-dimensional surface anthropometry: Applications to the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Peter R. M.; Rioux, Marc

    1997-09-01

    Anthropometry is the study of the measurement of the human body. By tradition this has been carried out taking the measurements from body surface landmarks, such as circumferences and breadths, using simple instruments like tape measures and calipers. Three-dimensional (3D) surface anthropometry enables us to extend the study to 3D geometry and morphology of mainly external human body tissues. It includes the acquisition, indexing, transmission, archiving, retrieval, interrogation and analysis of body size, shape, and surface together with their variability throughout growth and development to adulthood. While 3D surface anthropometry surveying is relatively new, anthropometric surveying using traditional tools, such as calipers and tape measures, is not. Recorded studies of the human form date back to ancient times. Since at least the 17th century 1 investigators have made attempts to measure the human body for physical properties such as weight, size, and centre of mass. Martin documented 'standard' body measurement methods in a handbook in 1928. 2 This paper reviews the past and current literature devoted to the applications of 3D anthropometry because true 3D scanning of the complete human body is fast becoming a reality. We attempt to take readers through different forms of technology which deal with simple forms of projected light to the more complex advanced forms of laser and video technology giving low and/or high resolution 3D data. Information is also given about image capture of size and shape of the whole as well as most component parts of the human body. In particular, the review describes with explanations a multitude of applications, for example, medical, product design, human engineering, anthropometry and ergonomics etc.

  11. Unusual foreign body in the nasal cavity of an adult with repaired cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Nagabhairava; GunaShekhar, M; Prasad, S Raghavendra; Lalitha, N; Raju, P Ramanjaneya; Natesh, Y A

    2015-03-01

    Intranasal foreign bodies arising from dental clinical practice, especially in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) occur rarely and are very scarce in the literature. This article reports an unusual case of a dental impression material presenting as a foreign body in the nasal cavity of an adult with repaired CLP who presented for dental prosthetic rehabilitation. To our knowledge, this is only the second report presenting nasal foreign body in a cleft patient arising due to a dental impression procedure.

  12. Electric Wheelchair Controlled by Human Body Motion Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Sho; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua

    This research studies the possibility of an intuitive interface for an electric wheelchair by using human body except hands. For this purpose, we focused on the human body motion which has relation to actions or behavior. This motion comes from the human stabilization function for holding expectable collapsing caused by voluntary motion. Thus this motion is considered as a kind of characteristics of human motion, and is linked to intentions unconsciously. Therefore, the interface which does not require conscious and complex motion is realized by applying this human body motion to the interface of electric wheelchair. In this paper, first, we did experiment to search a part which vividly shows the pressure change on the seat. As a result, it was confirmed that pressure change of the seat back vividly shows the human body motion. Next, we designed the prototype based on this evidence. Finally, experiment was conducted by using 10 subjects and SD method to evaluate feeling of operation. For this result, it was turned out that all subjects feel that proposed interface was intuitive, or to control at their direction. Therefore it was confirmed that human body motion interface has a possibility to be used for an interface of electric wheelchair.

  13. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, S; Mercuri, M; Anand, S S

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FF-BIA) against the BOD POD, a method of air-displacement plethysmography, and (2) to determine the correlations of simple anthropometric measures, (that is, BMI, body adiposity index (BAI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) against the BOD POD measure of body fat. Methods: Eighty apparently healthy South Asian men and women were recruited from the community, and measurements of height, weight, WC, HC and body composition using Tanita FF-BIA and BOD POD were taken. Results: The mean±s.d. age of participants was 27.78±10.49 years, 42.5% were women, and the mean BMI was 22.68±3.51 kg m−2. The mean body fat (%BF) calculated by FF-BIA and BOD POD was 21.94±7.88% and 26.20±8.47%, respectively. The %BF calculated by FF-BIA was highly correlated with the BOD POD (Pearson's r=0.83, P<0.001), however, FF-BIA underestimated %BF by 4.3%. When anthropometric measures were compared with % BF by BOD POD, the BAI showed the strongest correlation (r=0.74) and the WHR showed the weakest (r=0.33). BAI generally underestimated %BF by 2.6% in comparison with %BF by BOD POD. The correlations of BOD POD with other measures of %BF were much stronger in subjects with a BMI >21 kg m−2 than those with a BMI ⩽21 kg m−2. Conclusion: The FF-BIA and BAI estimates of %BF are highly correlated with that of BOD POD among people of South Asian origin, although both methods somewhat underestimate % BF. Furthermore, their

  14. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed. PMID:27517891

  15. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain-machine interface research. PMID:26582986

  16. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain-machine interface research.

  17. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation.

  18. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  19. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  20. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  1. Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Anna K; DiGennaro, Joe; Lanman, Cynthia; Spangler, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) provides a readily available technique that can be used by both veterinary professionals and owners to assess the body condition of cats, and diagnose overweight or underweight conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a five-point BCS system with half-point delineations using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Four evaluators (a veterinarian, veterinary technician, trained scorer and untrained scorer) assessed 133 neutered adult cats. For all scorers, BCS score was more strongly correlated with percent body fat than with body weight. Percent body fat increased by approximately 7% within each step increase in BCS. The veterinarian had the strongest correlation coefficient between BCS and percent fat (r = 0.80). Mean body fat in cats classified as being in ideal body condition was 12 and 19%, for 3.0 and 3.5 BCS, respectively. Within BCS category, male cats were significantly heavier in body weight than females within the same assigned BCS category. However, DXA-measured percent body fat did not differ significantly between male and female cats within BCS category, as assigned by the veterinarian (P >0.13). Conversely, when assessed by others, mean percent body fat within BCS category was lower in males than females for cats classified as being overweight (BCS >4.0). The results of this study show that using a BCS system that has been validated within a range of normal weight to moderately overweight cats can help to differentiate between lean cats and cats that may not be excessively overweight, but that still carry a higher proportion of body fat.

  2. Gustofacial and olfactofacial responses in human adults.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Romy; Ellgring, Heiner; Macht, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Adults' facial reactions in response to tastes and odors were investigated in order to determine whether differential facial displays observed in newborns remain stable in adults who exhibit a greater voluntary facial control. Twenty-eight healthy nonsmokers (14 females) tasted solutions of PROP (bitter), NaCl (salty), citric acid (sour), sucrose (sweet), and glutamate (umami) differing in concentration (low, medium, and high) and smelled different odors (banana, cinnamon, clove, coffee, fish, and garlic). Their facial reactions were video recorded and analyzed using the Facial Action Coding System. Adults' facial reactions discriminated between stimuli with opponent valences. Unpleasant tastes and odors elicited negative displays (brow lower, upper lip raise, and lip corner depress). The pleasant sweet taste elicited positive displays (lip suck), whereas the pleasant odors did not. Unlike newborns, adults smiled with higher concentrations of some unpleasant tastes that can be regarded as serving communicative functions. Moreover, adults expressed negative displays with higher sweetness. Except for the "social" smile in response to unpleasant tastes, adults' facial reactions elicited by tastes and odors mostly correspond to those found in newborns. In conclusion, adults' facial reactions to tastes and odors appear to remain stable in their basic displays; however, some additional reactions might reflect socialization influences.

  3. [How does music affect the human body?].

    PubMed

    Myskja, A; Lindbaek, M

    2000-04-10

    Music therapy has developed its practice and research approaches within a qualitative framework more related to humanistic traditions than to medical science. Music medicine has therefore developed as a separate discipline, endeavouring to incorporate the legitimate therapeutic use of music within a medical framework. This paper argues that more extensive communication and collaboration between the methods developed within the music therapy community, and research based on medical science, could lead to a better understanding of the place of music as a therapeutic tool, both as regards its efficacy and its limits. Research has shown that music may influence central physiological variables like blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, EEG measurements, body temperature and galvanic skin response. Music influences immune and endocrine function. The existing research literature shows growing knowledge of how music can ameliorate pain, anxiety, nausea, fatigue and depression. There is less research done on how music, and what type of music, is utilized and administered specifically for optimum effect in specific clinical situations.

  4. Human motor adaptation in whole body motion

    PubMed Central

    Babič, Jan; Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The main role of the sensorimotor system of an organism is to increase the survival of the species. Therefore, to understand the adaptation and optimality mechanisms of motor control, it is necessary to study the sensorimotor system in terms of ecological fitness. We designed an experimental paradigm that exposed sensorimotor system to risk of injury. We studied human subjects performing uncon- strained squat-to-stand movements that were systematically subjected to non-trivial perturbation. We found that subjects adapted by actively compensating the perturbations, converging to movements that were different from their normal unperturbed squat-to-stand movements. Furthermore, the adapted movements had clear intrinsic inter-subject differences which could be explained by different adapta- tion strategies employed by the subjects. These results suggest that classical optimality measures of physical energy and task satisfaction should be seen as part of a hierarchical organization of optimality with safety being at the highest level. Therefore, in addition to physical energy and task fulfillment, the risk of injury and other possible costs such as neural computational overhead have to be considered when analyzing human movement. PMID:27608652

  5. Human motor adaptation in whole body motion.

    PubMed

    Babič, Jan; Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The main role of the sensorimotor system of an organism is to increase the survival of the species. Therefore, to understand the adaptation and optimality mechanisms of motor control, it is necessary to study the sensorimotor system in terms of ecological fitness. We designed an experimental paradigm that exposed sensorimotor system to risk of injury. We studied human subjects performing uncon- strained squat-to-stand movements that were systematically subjected to non-trivial perturbation. We found that subjects adapted by actively compensating the perturbations, converging to movements that were different from their normal unperturbed squat-to-stand movements. Furthermore, the adapted movements had clear intrinsic inter-subject differences which could be explained by different adapta- tion strategies employed by the subjects. These results suggest that classical optimality measures of physical energy and task satisfaction should be seen as part of a hierarchical organization of optimality with safety being at the highest level. Therefore, in addition to physical energy and task fulfillment, the risk of injury and other possible costs such as neural computational overhead have to be considered when analyzing human movement. PMID:27608652

  6. Evidence for multiple, distinct representations of the human body.

    PubMed

    Schwoebel, John; Coslett, H Branch

    2005-04-01

    Previous data from single-case and small group studies have suggested distinctions among structural, conceptual, and online sensorimotor representations of the human body. We developed a battery of tasks to further examine the prevalence and anatomic substrates of these body representations. The battery was administered to 70 stroke patients. Fifty-one percent of the patients were impaired relative to controls on at least one body representation measure. Further, principal components analysis of the patient data as well as direct comparisons of patient and control performance suggested a triple dissociation between measures of the 3 putative body representations. Consistent with previous distinctions between the "what" and "how" pathways, lesions of the left temporal lobe were most consistently associated with impaired performance on tasks assessing knowledge of the shape or lexical-semantic information about the body, whereas lesions of the dorsolateral frontal and parietal regions resulted in impaired performance on tasks requiring on-line coding of body posture.

  7. Sys-BodyFluid: a systematical database for human body fluid proteome research.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Jun; Peng, Mao; Li, Hong; Liu, Bo-Shu; Wang, Chuan; Wu, Jia-Rui; Li, Yi-Xue; Zeng, Rong

    2009-01-01

    Recently, body fluids have widely become an important target for proteomic research and proteomic study has produced more and more body fluid related protein data. A database is needed to collect and analyze these proteome data. Thus, we developed this web-based body fluid proteome database Sys-BodyFluid. It contains eleven kinds of body fluid proteomes, including plasma/serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, tear fluid, seminal fluid, human milk and amniotic fluid. Over 10,000 proteins are presented in the Sys-BodyFluid. Sys-BodyFluid provides the detailed protein annotations, including protein description, Gene Ontology, domain information, protein sequence and involved pathways. These proteome data can be retrieved by using protein name, protein accession number and sequence similarity. In addition, users can query between these different body fluids to get the different proteins identification information. Sys-BodyFluid database can facilitate the body fluid proteomics and disease proteomics research as a reference database. It is available at http://www.biosino.org/bodyfluid/.

  8. Natural User Interface Sensors for Human Body Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, J.

    2012-08-01

    The recent push for natural user interfaces (NUI) in the entertainment and gaming industry has ushered in a new era of low cost three-dimensional sensors. While the basic idea of using a three-dimensional sensor for human gesture recognition dates some years back it is not until recently that such sensors became available on the mass market. The current market leader is PrimeSense who provide their technology for the Microsoft Xbox Kinect. Since these sensors are developed to detect and observe human users they should be ideally suited to measure the human body. We describe the technology of a line of NUI sensors and assess their performance in terms of repeatability and accuracy. We demonstrate the implementation of a prototype scanner integrating several NUI sensors to achieve full body coverage. We present the results of the obtained surface model of a human body.

  9. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  10. [Heme-iron in the human body].

    PubMed

    Balla, József; Balla, György; Lakatos, Béla; Jeney, Viktória; Szentmihályi, Klára

    2007-09-01

    Iron is essential for all living organism, although in excess amount it is dangerous via catalyzing the formation of reactive oxygen species. Absorption of iron is strictly controlled resulting in a fine balance of iron-loss and iron-uptake. In countries where the ingestion of heme-iron is significant by meal, great part of iron content in the body originates from heme. Heme derived from food is absorbed by a receptor-mediated manner by enterocytes of small intestine then it is degraded in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. Iron released from the porphyrin ring leaves enterocytes as transferrin associated iron. Prosthetic group of several proteins contains heme, therefore, it is synthesized by all cells. One of the most significant heme proteins is hemoglobin which transports oxygen in the erythrocytes. Hemoglobin released from erythrocyte during intravascular hemolysis binds to haptoglobin and is taken up by cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. Oxidation of hemoglobin (ferro) to methemoglobin (ferri) is inhibited by the structure of hemoglobin although it is not hindered. Superoxide anion is also formed in the reaction that initiates further free radical reactions. In contrast to ferrohemoglobin, methemoglobin readily releases heme, therefore, oxidation of hemoglobin drives the formation of free heme in plasma. Heme binds to a plasma protein, hemopexin, and is internalized by cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage in a receptor-mediated manner, then degraded in reaction catalysed by heme oxygenase. Heme is also taken up by plasma lipoproteins and endothelial cells leading to oxidation of LDL and subsequent endothelial cell damage. The purpose of this work was to summarize the processes related to heme.

  11. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. PMID:26094042

  12. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins.

  13. The Bugs Within Our Body: The Human Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Philpott, D J; Piquette-Miller, M

    2016-06-01

    The human microbiota is the ecological community of microorganisms that live within our bodies. Emerging evidence has revealed that dysregulation of the host-microbe symbiotic relationship contributes to the pathogenesis of a vast number of human diseases and impacts the efficacy and toxicity of therapeutic drugs. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the human microbiota is crucial to the development of therapeutic interventions that target the microbiota and also provides fundamental insights towards understanding intersubject variability in therapeutic outcomes. PMID:27160649

  14. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  15. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. PMID:26467243

  16. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body.

  17. Aggregation of Human Eyelid Adipose-derived Stem Cells by Human Body Fluids.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeonhwa; Yun, Sujin; Yang, Hye Jin; Yoon, A Young; Kim, Haekwon

    2012-12-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most frequently used serum for the cultivation of mammalian cells. However, since animal-derived materials might not be appropriate due to safety issues, allogeneic human serum (HS) has been used to replace FBS, particularly for the culture of human cells. While there has been a debate about the advantages of HS, its precise effect on human adult stem cells have not been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HS on the human eyelid adipose stem cells (HEACs) in vitro. When HEACs were cultivated in a medium containing 10% HS, many cells moved into several spots and aggregated there. The phenomenon was observed as early as 9 days following 10% HS treatment, and 12 days following 5% HS plus 5% FBS treatment. However, the aggregation was never observed when the same cells were cultivated with 10% FBS or bovine serum albumin. To examine whether cell density might affect the aggregation, cells were seeded with different densities on 12-well dish. Until the beginning of aggregation, cells seeded at low densities exhibited the longest culture period of 16 days whereas cells seeded at high densities showed the shortest period of 9 days to form aggregation. The number of cells was 15.1±0.2×10(4) as the least for the low density group, and 29.3±2.8×10(4) as the greatest for the high density group. When human cord blood serum or normal bovine serum was examined for the same effect on HEACs, interestingly, cord blood serum induced the aggregation of cells whereas bovine serum treatment has never induced. When cells were cultivated with 10% HS for 9 days, they were obtained and analyzed by RT-PCR. Compared to FBS-cultivated HEACs, HS-cultivated HEACs did not express VIM, and less expressed GATA4, PALLD. On the other hand, HS-cultivated HEACs expressed MAP2 more than FBS-cultivated HEACs. In conclusion, human adult stem cells could move and form aggregates by the treatment with human body fluids.

  18. Aggregation of Human Eyelid Adipose-derived Stem Cells by Human Body Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeonhwa; Yun, Sujin; Yang, Hye Jin; Yoon, A Young; Kim, Haekwon

    2012-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most frequently used serum for the cultivation of mammalian cells. However, since animal-derived materials might not be appropriate due to safety issues, allogeneic human serum (HS) has been used to replace FBS, particularly for the culture of human cells. While there has been a debate about the advantages of HS, its precise effect on human adult stem cells have not been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HS on the human eyelid adipose stem cells (HEACs) in vitro. When HEACs were cultivated in a medium containing 10% HS, many cells moved into several spots and aggregated there. The phenomenon was observed as early as 9 days following 10% HS treatment, and 12 days following 5% HS plus 5% FBS treatment. However, the aggregation was never observed when the same cells were cultivated with 10% FBS or bovine serum albumin. To examine whether cell density might affect the aggregation, cells were seeded with different densities on 12-well dish. Until the beginning of aggregation, cells seeded at low densities exhibited the longest culture period of 16 days whereas cells seeded at high densities showed the shortest period of 9 days to form aggregation. The number of cells was 15.1±0.2×104 as the least for the low density group, and 29.3±2.8×104 as the greatest for the high density group. When human cord blood serum or normal bovine serum was examined for the same effect on HEACs, interestingly, cord blood serum induced the aggregation of cells whereas bovine serum treatment has never induced. When cells were cultivated with 10% HS for 9 days, they were obtained and analyzed by RT-PCR. Compared to FBS-cultivated HEACs, HS-cultivated HEACs did not express VIM, and less expressed GATA4, PALLD. On the other hand, HS-cultivated HEACs expressed MAP2 more than FBS-cultivated HEACs. In conclusion, human adult stem cells could move and form aggregates by the treatment with human body fluids. PMID:25949109

  19. The commerce of human body parts: an Eastern Orthodox response.

    PubMed

    Reardon, P H

    2000-08-01

    The Orthodox Church teaches that the bodies of those in Christ are to be regarded as sanctified by the hearing of the Word and faithful participation in the Sacraments, most particularly the Holy Eucharist; because of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit the consecrated bodies of Christians do not belong to them but to Christ; with respect to the indwelling Holy Spirit there is no difference between the bodies of Christians before and after death; whether before or after death, the Christian body is also to receive the same veneration; and notwithstanding the physical corruptions that the body endures by reason of death, there remains a strict continuity between the body in which the Christian dies and the body in which the Christian will rise again. That is to say, it is the very same reality that is sown in corruption and will be raised in incorruption. Given such consideration, the notion of "selling" and integral part of a human being is simply outside the realm of rational comprehension. Indeed, it is profoundly repugnant to those Orthodox Christian sentiments that are formed and nourished by the Church's sacramental teaching and liturgical worship. One does not sell or purchase that which has been consecrated in those solemn ways that the Church consecrates the human body.

  20. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  1. Motion capture based identification of the human body inertial parameters.

    PubMed

    Venture, Gentiane; Ayusawa, Ko; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Identification of body inertia, masses and center of mass is an important data to simulate, monitor and understand dynamics of motion, to personalize rehabilitation programs. This paper proposes an original method to identify the inertial parameters of the human body, making use of motion capture data and contact forces measurements. It allows in-vivo painless estimation and monitoring of the inertial parameters. The method is described and then obtained experimental results are presented and discussed.

  2. Localization and regulation of PML bodies in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Hall, Małgorzata H; Magalska, Adriana; Malinowska, Monika; Ruszczycki, Błażej; Czaban, Iwona; Patel, Satyam; Ambrożek-Latecka, Magdalena; Zołocińska, Ewa; Broszkiewicz, Hanna; Parobczak, Kamil; Nair, Rajeevkumar R; Rylski, Marcin; Pawlak, Robert; Bramham, Clive R; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M

    2016-06-01

    PML is a tumor suppressor protein involved in the pathogenesis of promyelocytic leukemia. In non-neuronal cells, PML is a principal component of characteristic nuclear bodies. In the brain, PML has been implicated in the control of embryonic neurogenesis, and in certain physiological and pathological phenomena in the adult brain. Yet, the cellular and subcellular localization of the PML protein in the brain, including its presence in the nuclear bodies, has not been investigated comprehensively. Because the formation of PML bodies appears to be a key aspect in the function of the PML protein, we investigated the presence of these structures and their anatomical distribution, throughout the adult mouse brain. We found that PML is broadly expressed across the gray matter, with the highest levels in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. In the cerebral cortex PML is present exclusively in neurons, in which it forms well-defined nuclear inclusions containing SUMO-1, SUMO 2/3, but not Daxx. At the ultrastructural level, the appearance of neuronal PML bodies differs from the classic one, i.e., the solitary structure with more or less distinctive capsule. Rather, neuronal PML bodies have the form of small PML protein aggregates located in the close vicinity of chromatin threads. The number, size, and signal intensity of neuronal PML bodies are dynamically influenced by immobilization stress and seizures. Our study indicates that PML bodies are broadly involved in activity-dependent nuclear phenomena in adult neurons.

  3. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  4. Gender recognition from unconstrained and articulated human body.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition.

  5. Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

  6. Identification of rheological properties of human body surface tissue.

    PubMed

    Benevicius, Vincas; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Marozas, Vaidotas

    2014-04-11

    According to World Health Organization obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. It has tripled since the 1980s and the numbers of those affected continue to rise at an alarming rate, especially among children. There are number of devices that act as a prevention measure to boost person's motivation for physical activity and its levels. The placement of these devices is not restricted thus the measurement errors that appear because of the body rheology, clothes, etc. cannot be eliminated. The main objective of this work is to introduce a tool that can be applied directly to process measured accelerations so human body surface tissue induced errors can be reduced. Both the modeling and experimental techniques are proposed to identify body tissue rheological properties and prelate them to body mass index. Multi-level computational model composed from measurement device model and human body surface tissue rheological model is developed. Human body surface tissue induced inaccuracies can increase the magnitude of measured accelerations up to 34% when accelerations of the magnitude of up to 27 m/s(2) are measured. Although the timeframe of those disruptions are short - up to 0.2 s - they still result in increased overall measurement error.

  7. More-Realistic Digital Modeling of a Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogge, Renee

    2010-01-01

    A MATLAB computer program has been written to enable improved (relative to an older program) modeling of a human body for purposes of designing space suits and other hardware with which an astronaut must interact. The older program implements a kinematic model based on traditional anthropometric measurements that do provide important volume and surface information. The present program generates a three-dimensional (3D) whole-body model from 3D body-scan data. The program utilizes thin-plate spline theory to reposition the model without need for additional scans.

  8. Analysis of Human Body Bipedal Stability for Neuromotor Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baritz, Mihaela; Cristea, Luciana; Rogozea, Liliana; Cotoros, Diana; Repanovici, Angela

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of different biomechanical aspects of balance and equilibrium is presented in the first part of the paper. We analyzed the posture, balance and stability of human body for a normal person and for a person with loco-motor or neuro-motor disabilities (in the second part). In the third part of the paper we presented the methodology and the experimental setup used to record the human body behavior in postural stability for persons with neuro-motors disabilities. The results and the conclusions are presented in the final part of the paper and also in the future work meant to establish the computer analysis for rehabilitation neuromotor disabilities.

  9. Aptamer-Based Screens of Human Body Fluids for Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Albaba, Dania; Soomro, Sanam; Mohan, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aptamers have come to replace antibodies in high throughput multiplexed experiments. The aptamer-based biomarker screening technology, which kicked off in 2010, is capable of interrogating thousands of proteins in a very small sample volume. With this new technology, researchers hope to find clinically appropriate biomarkers for a myriad of illnesses by screening human body fluids. In this work, we have reviewed a total of eight studies utilizing aptamer-based biomarker screens of human body fluids, and have highlighted novel protein biomarkers discovered. PMID:27600232

  10. Aptamer-Based Screens of Human Body Fluids for Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Albaba, Dania; Soomro, Sanam; Mohan, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aptamers have come to replace antibodies in high throughput multiplexed experiments. The aptamer-based biomarker screening technology, which kicked off in 2010, is capable of interrogating thousands of proteins in a very small sample volume. With this new technology, researchers hope to find clinically appropriate biomarkers for a myriad of illnesses by screening human body fluids. In this work, we have reviewed a total of eight studies utilizing aptamer-based biomarker screens of human body fluids, and have highlighted novel protein biomarkers discovered.

  11. Biostereometric Data Processing In ERGODATA: Choice Of Human Body Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, J. C.; Mollard, R.; Sauvignon, M.; Amphoux, M.

    1983-07-01

    The definition of human body models was elaborated with anthropometric data from ERGODATA. The first model reduces the human body into a series of points and lines. The second model is well adapted to represent volumes of each segmentary element. The third is an original model built from the conventional anatomical points. Each segment is defined in space by a tri-angular plane located with its 3-D coordinates. This new model can answer all the processing possibilities in the field of computer-aided design (C.A.D.) in ergonomy but also biomechanics and orthopaedics.

  12. Ultrasonic assessment of body composition in obese adults: overcoming the limitations of the skinfold caliper.

    PubMed

    Kuczmarski, R J; Fanelli, M T; Koch, G G

    1987-04-01

    Previous research in this laboratory, using relatively lean males, indicated that the skinfold caliper and ultrasound techniques gave similar predictions of body density. The present study compared caliper with ultrasound measurements in predicting body density of 44 white, obese, free-living adult volunteers of both sexes. Subcutaneous-fat thickness was measured at six body sites with a Lange caliper and an ADR 2130 ultrasound scanner. By hydrostatic weighing, mean (+/- SD) body density was 1.01 g/mL (+/- 0.02) and percentage body fat, 41.7% (+/- 7.8). The best predictors of body density were the thigh and biceps sites with ultrasound (r = 0.820) and the triceps site with the calipers (r = 0.633). Further, ultrasound proved to be superior to the caliper technique in measuring subcutaneous fat of obese persons.

  13. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies. PMID:22111011

  14. Body-selective areas in the visual cortex are less active in children than in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Paddy D.; de Gelder, Beatrice; Crabbe, Frances; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6–11) and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS), the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian (MVB) analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age. Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life. PMID:25484863

  15. Neural stem cells in the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    For decades, it was believed that the adult brain was a quiescent organ unable to produce new neurons. At the beginning of the1960's, this dogma was challenged by a small group of neuroscientists. To date, it is well-known that new neurons are generated in the adult brain throughout life. Adult neurogenesis is primary confined to the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus within the hippocampus. In both the human and the rodent brain, the primary progenitor of adult SVZ is a subpopulation of astrocytes that have stem-cell-like features. The human SVZ possesses a peculiar cell composition and displays important organizational differences when compared to the SVZ of other mammals. Some evidence suggests that the human SVZ may be not only an endogenous source of neural precursor cells for brain repair, but also a source of brain tumors. In this review, we described the cytoarchitecture and cellular composition of the SVZ in the adult human brain. We also discussed some clinical implications of SVZ, such as: stem-cell-based therapies against neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a source of malignant cells. Understanding the biology of human SVZ and its neural progenitors is one of the crucial steps to develop novel therapies against neurological diseases in humans. PMID:23181200

  16. A long term model of circulation. [human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative approach to modeling human physiological function, with a view toward ultimate application to long duration space flight experiments, was undertaken. Data was obtained on the effect of weightlessness on certain aspects of human physiological function during 1-3 month periods. Modifications in the Guyton model are reviewed. Design considerations for bilateral interface models are discussed. Construction of a functioning whole body model was studied, as well as the testing of the model versus available data.

  17. Humanities and the Adult Learner in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Dale; Kamholtz, Jonathan

    Humanities courses have often been given little attention in continuing education for adults, possibly because they have been viewed as not "practical" or not "job-oriented" enough in our career-oriented, technologically advanced society. However, the humanities should be an integral part of our culture and of the lives of educated persons--a…

  18. Human and animal sounds influence recognition of body language.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; Grèzes, Julie; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-11-25

    In naturalistic settings emotional events have multiple correlates and are simultaneously perceived by several sensory systems. Recent studies have shown that recognition of facial expressions is biased towards the emotion expressed by a simultaneously presented emotional expression in the voice even if attention is directed to the face only. So far, no study examined whether this phenomenon also applies to whole body expressions, although there is no obvious reason why this crossmodal influence would be specific for faces. Here we investigated whether perception of emotions expressed in whole body movements is influenced by affective information provided by human and by animal vocalizations. Participants were instructed to attend to the action displayed by the body and to categorize the expressed emotion. The results indicate that recognition of body language is biased towards the emotion expressed by the simultaneously presented auditory information, whether it consist of human or of animal sounds. Our results show that a crossmodal influence from auditory to visual emotional information obtains for whole body video images with the facial expression blanked and includes human as well as animal sounds.

  19. BodyMap: a human and mouse gene expression database.

    PubMed

    Hishiki, T; Kawamoto, S; Morishita, S; Okubo, K

    2000-01-01

    BodyMap is a human and mouse gene expression database that has been maintained since 1993. It is based on site-directed 3'-ESTs collected from non-biased cDNA libraries constructed at Osaka University and contains >270 000 sequences from 60 human and 38 mouse tissues. The site-directed nature of the sequence tags allows unequivocal grouping of tags representing the same transcript and provides abundance information for each transcript in different parts of the body. Our collection of ESTs was compared periodically with other public databases for cross referencing. The histological resolution of source tissues and unique cloning strategy that minimized cloning bias enabled BodyMap to support three unique mRNA based experiments in silico. First, the recurrence information for clones in each library provides a rough estimate of the mRNA composition of each source tissue. Second, a user can search the entire data set with nucleotide sequences or keywords to assess expression patterns of particular genes. Third, and most important, BodyMap allows a user to select genes that have a desired expression pattern in humans and mice. BodyMap is accessible through the WWW at http://bodymap.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp PMID:10592203

  20. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Leggett, R; Giussani, A

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on data for pertechnetate TcO(-)(4) the most commonly encountered form of technetium and the form expected to be present in body fluids. The model is intended as a default model for occupational or environmental intake of technetium, i.e. applicable in the absence of form- or site-specific information. Tissues depicted explicitly in the model include thyroid, salivary glands, stomach wall, right colon wall, liver, kidneys, and bone. Compared with the ICRP's current biokinetic model for occupational or environmental intake of technetium (ICRP 1993, 1994), the proposed model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the systemic behaviour of technetium and is based on a broader set of experimental and medical data. For acute input of (99m)Tc (T(1/2) = 6.02 h) to blood, the ratios of cumulative (time-integrated) activity predicted by the current ICRP model to that predicted by the proposed model range from 0.4-7 for systemic regions addressed explicitly in both models. For acute input of (99)Tc (T(1/2) = 2.1 × 10(5) year) to blood, the corresponding ratios range from 0.2-30.

  1. [With reference to the body anthropology: a human being].

    PubMed

    Paluch, A

    1998-01-01

    What does a man consist of? - the query "as old as a world". Does he consist of soul and body being the separate independent entities, or is he a mixture of those elements constituting an inseparable whole? It is a question which scientists of various disciplines are still trying to answer. While belief that those two elements coexist separately was sufficient for dualists, the burden of constant search for the "liaison" between the spiritual and the corporeal lay on the monists. The intellectual change of modern and post-modern times inaugurated the change also in this respect. The anthropological controversy assumes different shapes now: man is seen monisticaly, as a whole, and new directions in seeing the world and cognition are being formed. Phenomenology as well as cultural anthropology has done a lot in this field. While studying human body it also studies a man as a whole (body - subject); human body changes as if inherently according to a biological order but it is also shaped by "history", i.e. events, society, learning, politics, culture. And in those contexts body is studied by anthropology - a new specialization emerges: anthropology of body.

  2. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults. PMID:27085111

  3. Nuclear body formation and PML body remodeling by the human cytomegalovirus protein UL35

    SciTech Connect

    Salsman, Jayme; Wang Xueqi; Frappier, Lori

    2011-06-05

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL35 gene encodes two proteins, UL35 and UL35a. Expression of UL35 in transfected cells results in the formation of UL35 nuclear bodies that associate with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. PML forms the basis for PML nuclear bodies that are important for suppressing viral lytic gene expression. Given the important relationship between PML and viral infection, we have further investigated the association of UL35 with PML bodies. We demonstrate that UL35 bodies form independently of PML and subsequently recruit PML, Sp100 and Daxx. In contrast, UL35a did not form bodies; however, it could bind UL35 and inhibit the formation of UL35 bodies. The HCMV tegument protein pp71 promoted the formation of UL35 bodies and the cytoplasmic localization of UL35a. Similarly, UL35a shifted pp71 to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that the interplay between UL35, UL35a and pp71 affects their subcellular localization and likely their functions throughout infection.

  4. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  5. Medicine could be constructing human bodies in the future.

    PubMed

    Saniotis, Arthur; Henneberg, Maciej

    2011-10-01

    In the 21st century human life has been profoundly changed by developments in sanitation, medical interventions and public health measures. Practically every person born into a developed nation population has a chance to survive throughout entire reproductive life and well beyond. Human body has evolved in the past adaptations to hunting-gathering, and later, agricultural ways of life. In the new situation of practically non-existent premature mortality and technologically developed complex societies medical practice will devote less attention to "saving lives"--preventing premature deaths--and more to enhancing capacities of our biological organisms and providing for maintenance of the bodies beyond their biological limits established by evolution. The role of advances in nanotechnology, information technology, neuroscience and biotechnology is discussed in the context of mind and body enhancements.

  6. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  7. Young Scientists Explore the Human Body. Book 11 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities specifically focus on the human body and encourage a positive self-concept. The theme of the first section is air--the breath of…

  8. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  9. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  10. Scanning 3D full human bodies using Kinects.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Ligang; Pan, Zhigeng; Yan, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Depth camera such as Microsoft Kinect, is much cheaper than conventional 3D scanning devices, and thus it can be acquired for everyday users easily. However, the depth data captured by Kinect over a certain distance is of extreme low quality. In this paper, we present a novel scanning system for capturing 3D full human body models by using multiple Kinects. To avoid the interference phenomena, we use two Kinects to capture the upper part and lower part of a human body respectively without overlapping region. A third Kinect is used to capture the middle part of the human body from the opposite direction. We propose a practical approach for registering the various body parts of different views under non-rigid deformation. First, a rough mesh template is constructed and used to deform successive frames pairwisely. Second, global alignment is performed to distribute errors in the deformation space, which can solve the loop closure problem efficiently. Misalignment caused by complex occlusion can also be handled reasonably by our global alignment algorithm. The experimental results have shown the efficiency and applicability of our system. Our system obtains impressive results in a few minutes with low price devices, thus is practically useful for generating personalized avatars for everyday users. Our system has been used for 3D human animation and virtual try on, and can further facilitate a range of home–oriented virtual reality (VR) applications. PMID:22402692

  11. Mechanism of toppling instability of the human body in floodwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, C. W.; Han, S. S.; Kong, W. N.; Dong, B. L.

    2016-08-01

    Extreme urban flood events occur frequently in China, often leading to heavy casualties. Thus, it is of great importance to study the mechanism of the instability of the human body in floodwaters. The results of such research can provide scientific reference for city flood control standards. In this paper, a formula for the incipient velocity of the human body, during toppling instability in floodwaters, was derived based on mechanical characteristics, instability mechanism, and critical conditions during instability. A series of flume experiments were conducted to investigate the incipient velocity of two 3D printed human body models of different sizes; the resultant experimental data was used to determine parameters in the derived formula. Additionally, grip strength was taken as a standard of a person's ability to withstand floodwaters. Finally, crowd factors were introduced, and based on this study, a criterion for the toppling instability of different subjects in floodwaters was proposed. Compared to the results of previous studies, the proposed formula can better predict the instability of the human body in floodwaters.

  12. Science Teachers' Drawings of What Is inside the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report United States of America (USA) science teachers' understandings of the internal structures of the human body. The 71 science teachers who participated in this study attended a frog/pig, two-hour dissection workshop at the 2004 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conference in Atlanta, Georgia. The…

  13. Of Human Bodies in Scientific Communication and Enculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, SungWon; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    How do students become enculturated and come to enact culture in ways that are new to them? This study probes the dialectical processes of enculturation, the central aspect of which is the role of human bodies in communication. For students, as for any individual, culture exists in terms of action possibilities that presuppose their…

  14. Teaching Human Rights: Grades 7 through Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David A.

    This curriculum resource on human rights is rooted in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and seeks to help students understand the issues involved. Using the rights categories suggested by the Universal Declaration, this book offers new ways of teaching about familiar themes. The book contains activities to encourage students…

  15. [Mechanism of heat transfer in various regions of human body].

    PubMed

    Luchakov, Iu I; Nozdrachev, A D

    2009-01-01

    The processes of heat transfer in a human body were studied with the use of a mathematical model. It has been shown that only conductive or only convective heat transfer may occur in different body areas. The rate of blood-mediated heat transfer in the presence of blood circulation is many times higher than heat transfer due to temperature gradient; therefore, the convective process prevails over the conductive process. The body core contains a variety of blood vessels, and the bulk of blood concentrates there in the norm. Hence, heat transfer in it is mainly convective. In surface tissues, where the rate of blood circulation is lower and the vasculature has certain specific features, heat transfer is mainly conductive. Hence, the core and surface tissues are absolutely different body zones in terms of heat transfer.

  16. Gamma resonance absorption. New approach in human body composition studies.

    PubMed

    Wielopolski, L; Vartsky, D; Pierson, R; Goldberg, M; Heymsfield, S; Yasumura, S; Melnychuk, S T; Sredniawski, J

    2000-05-01

    The main stream of body elemental analysis is based on the delayed, prompt, and inelastic neutron interactions with the main elements found in the human body, and subsequent analysis of the measured delayed or prompt gamma ray spectra. This methodology traditionally was, and still is, applied for whole body analysis and requires relatively high radiation doses. A new method, based on gamma nuclear resonance absorption (GNRA), is being established at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of its body composition program. The method is element specific with a high tomographic spatial-resolution capability, at a small fraction of the radiation dose used in the current system. The new system, with its components and capabilities, is described below. PMID:10865747

  17. Combined Volatolomics for Monitoring of Human Body Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broza, Yoav Y.; Zuri, Liat; Haick, Hossam

    2014-04-01

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising approach for non-invasive, fast and potentially inexpensive diagnostics. Here, we present a new methodology for profiling the body chemistry by using the volatile fraction of molecules in various body fluids. Using mass spectrometry and cross-reactive nanomaterial-based sensors array, we demonstrate that simultaneous VOC detection from breath and skin would provide complementary, non-correlated information of the body's volatile metabolites profile. Eventually with further wide population validation studies, such a methodology could provide more accurate monitoring of pathological changes compared to the information provided by a single body fluid. The qualitative and quantitative methods presented here offers a variety of options for novel mapping of the metabolic properties of complex organisms, including humans.

  18. Combined volatolomics for monitoring of human body chemistry.

    PubMed

    Broza, Yoav Y; Zuri, Liat; Haick, Hossam

    2014-04-09

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising approach for non-invasive, fast and potentially inexpensive diagnostics. Here, we present a new methodology for profiling the body chemistry by using the volatile fraction of molecules in various body fluids. Using mass spectrometry and cross-reactive nanomaterial-based sensors array, we demonstrate that simultaneous VOC detection from breath and skin would provide complementary, non-correlated information of the body's volatile metabolites profile. Eventually with further wide population validation studies, such a methodology could provide more accurate monitoring of pathological changes compared to the information provided by a single body fluid. The qualitative and quantitative methods presented here offers a variety of options for novel mapping of the metabolic properties of complex organisms, including humans.

  19. Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…

  20. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  1. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight.

  2. Colonizing Bodies: Corporate Power and Biotechnology in Young Adult Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The American cultural and political landscape has seen changes on the level of seismic shifts in the past four decades, thanks in part to the two very diverse fields of big business and biotechnology. Linking the two arenas together in the literary landscape is a growing body of young adult science fiction that envisions a future shaped profoundly…

  3. Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults: A European Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Inga; Nieder, Timo O; Cerwenka, Susanne; Briken, Peer; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Cuypere, GrietDe; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    The alteration of sex-specific body features and the establishment of a satisfactory body image are known to be particularly relevant for individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The aim of the study was to first develop new scales and examine the psychometric properties of the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (Appelt & Strauß 1988). For the second part of this study, the satisfaction with different body features in young GD adults before cross-sex treatment were compared to female and male controls. Data collection took place within the context of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) including 135 female-to-male (FtMs) and 115 male-to-female (MtFs) young GD adults and 235 female and 379 male age-adjusted controls. The five female and six male body feature subscales revealed good internal consistency. The ENIGI sample reported less satisfaction with overall appearance (d = 0.30) and with all of their body features than controls, but no subgroup differences for sexual orientation (FtM and MtF) and Age of Onset (FtM) were found. Body dissatisfaction was higher with regard to sex-specific body features (largest effect sizes of d = 3.21 for Genitalia in FtMs and d = 2.85 for Androgen-responsive features and genitalia in MtFs) than with those that appeared less related to the natal sex (d = 0.64 for Facial features in FtMs and d = 0.59 for Body shape in MtFs). Not only medical body modifying interventions, but also psychosocial guidance with regard to body image might be helpful for GD individuals before transitioning. PMID:25836027

  4. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is

  5. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  6. Examining body image discrepancies and perceived weight status in adult Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Smith, April R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    This study examined potential differences and similarities between attitudes about body shape and eating behaviors in Japan versus America. Discrepancies between various body ideals (e.g., own versus ideal; Japanese versus American) and perceived weight status were examined in a sample of adult Japanese women. Forty-five adult Japanese women rated various body ideals using the Stunkard Body Shape Questionnaire. They also answered questions about their perceived body weight and completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). Participants rated the ideal body shape for Japanese women to be significantly thinner than for American women. Body image discrepancy predicted drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms as measured by the EDI-2. Furthermore, there was an interaction between perfectionism and perceived overweight status, such that among participants high on perceived weight status, perfectionism predicted greater bulimic symptomology. The relative importance of the internalization of the Western beauty ideal to the rise of eating disorders in Japan is discussed. Similarities between the findings of this study and studies conducted on American samples are highlighted, and areas for future research are proposed. PMID:18928918

  7. Perception and evaluation of women's bodies in adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Heinrich, Hartmut; Kratz, Oliver; Mai, Sandra; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H

    2015-12-01

    Body image disturbance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been widely studied with regard to the patient's own body, but little is known about perception of or attitude towards other women's bodies in AN. The aim of the present study was to investigate how 20 girls aged 12-18 years and 19 adult women suffering from AN compared to 37 healthy adolescent girls and women estimate weight and attractiveness of women's bodies belonging to different BMI categories (BMI 13.8-61.3 kg/m²). Weight and attractiveness ratings of the participant's own body and information on physical comparisons were obtained, and effects on others' weight and attractiveness ratings investigated. Differential evaluation processes were found: AN patients estimated other women's weight higher than control participants. Patients showed a bias towards assessing extremely underweight women as more attractive and normal weight and overweight women as less attractive than healthy girls and women. These effects were more pronounced in adult than in adolescent AN patients. The tendency to engage in physical comparison with others significantly correlated with weight as well as attractiveness ratings in patients. A logistic regression model encompassing own attractiveness ratings, attractiveness bias towards strongly underweight others' bodies and the interaction of this bias with age as predictors differentiated best between AN patients and controls. Our results indicate that females suffering from AN and healthy girls and women perceive other women's bodies differently. Assessment of others' weight and attractiveness may contribute to the maintenance of dysfunctional physical comparison processes. PMID:25998010

  8. Equivalent dose rate by muons to the human body.

    PubMed

    Băcioiu, I

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the relative sensitivity from different human tissues of the human body, at a ground level, from muon cosmic radiation has been studied. The aim of this paper was to provide information on the equivalent dose rates received from atmospheric muons to human body, at the ground level. The calculated value of the effective dose rate by atmospheric muons plus the radiation levels of the natural annual background radiation dose, at the ground level, in the momentum interval of cosmic ray muon (0.2-120.0 GeV/c) is about 2.106±0.001 mSv/y, which is insignificant in comparison with the values of the doses from the top of the atmosphere.

  9. Ecogeography, genetics, and the evolution of human body form.

    PubMed

    Roseman, Charles C; Auerbach, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic resemblances among groups are non-randomly distributed in humans. This population structure may influence the correlations between traits and environmental drivers of natural selection thus complicating the interpretation of the fossil record when modern human variation is used as a referential model. In this paper, we examine the effects of population structure and natural selection on postcranial traits that reflect body size and shape with application to the more general issue of how climate - using latitude as a proxy - has influenced hominin morphological variation. We compare models that include terms reflecting population structure, ascertained from globally distributed microsatellite data, and latitude on postcranial phenotypes derived from skeletal dimensions taken from a large global sample of modern humans. We find that models with a population structure term fit better than a model of natural selection along a latitudinal cline in all cases. A model including both latitude and population structure terms is a good fit to distal limb element lengths and bi-iliac breadth, indicating that multiple evolutionary forces shaped these morphologies. In contrast, a model that included only a population structure term best explained femoral head diameter and the crural index. The results demonstrate that population structure is an important part of human postcranial variation, and that clinally distributed natural selection is not sufficient to explain among-group differentiation. The distribution of human body form is strongly influenced by the contingencies of modern human origins, which calls for new ways to approach problems in the evolution of human variation, past and present.

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of body weight and weight change in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D F

    1993-10-01

    Data on body weight and weight change collected from nationally representative samples of U.S. adults are reviewed. The body mass index (weight [kg]/height [m2]) has a low correlation with height and is used to compare body weights between persons of differing heights. The BMI varies to a greater degree in women than in men. Below the 75th percentile of the BMI distribution, women have lower BMIs than men, whereas at the 75th percentile and above, women have higher BMIs than men. Overweight is defined as a BMI of 27.8 or more in men and of 27.3 or more in women, corresponding to approximately 20% or more above desirable weight in the 1983 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company tables. For persons of average height (men, 5'9"; women, 5'4") this definition is equivalent to a body weight above 85 kg (187 pounds) in men and above 72 kg (158 pounds) in women. Among adults 20 to 74 years of age, 24% of men and 27% of women are overweight, yielding an estimated total of 34 million persons in the United States. The prevalence of overweight increases with age, for both men and women but to a greater degree in women. Blacks and Hispanics have a higher prevalence of overweight than do whites, especially among women. Between 1960 and 1980, the prevalence of overweight among whites increased by 3% in women and by 6% in men. In blacks, however, the prevalence of overweight increased by 7% in women and by 28% in men. Longitudinal body weight measurements taken 10 years apart show that adults younger than 55 years tend to gain weight, whereas those 55 years and older tend to lose weight. The youngest adults gain the most weight, and the oldest adults lose the most weight. In all age groups, women have substantially greater variation in their 10-year weight change than do men.

  11. Sex impacts the relation between body composition and physical function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Rudy J.; Misic, Mark M.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the sex-specific relationships between physical activity, aerobic fitness, adiposity (%Fat), mineral-free lean mass (MFLM) and balance and gait performance in older adults. Design Eighty-five female and 49 male sedentary, healthy, community-dwelling older adults (M±SD; 69.6±5.4 and 70.3±4.7 years, respectively) were evaluated on habitual physical activity via questionnaire, aerobic fitness by a maximal oxygen consumption treadmill test, whole and regional body composition by DXA, and lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) using gait tasks and computerized dynamic posturography. Results As expected, males had less body fat, more lean mass and higher aerobic fitness than females, and tended to perform better on all LEPF tasks (all p≤0.1). Physical activity was not related to gait; however, fitness was related to gait in both sexes (r>0.50, all p<0.05). Body fat was related to gait in women (r=−0.38, p<0.05) but not men. Neither fitness nor body composition was related to balance in men, whereas in women leg MFLM was positively associated (r=0.27, p<0.05). Women, but not men, with a greater body weight to leg MFLM ratio performed worse on gait tasks (p<0.001). There was an interaction with sex for %Fat on gait (p=0.05), and for MFLMLEG on balance (p<0.05). Conclusions In sedentary healthy older adults the relation between body composition, aerobic fitness and balance and gait differs between sexes such that women are more strongly impacted by alterations in body composition. Lower %Fat and preservation of lower body lean mass have important implications for reducing the risk of physical disability, especially in older women. PMID:19423997

  12. Adult Body Size, Hormone Receptor Status, and Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Sangaramoorthy, Meera; Phipps, Amanda I.; Koo, Jocelyn; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.

    2011-01-01

    Large body size has been associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer in non-Hispanic white women. Data on other racial/ethnic populations are limited. The authors examined the association between premenopausal breast cancer risk and adult body size in 672 cases and 808 controls aged ≥35 years from a population-based case-control study conducted in 1995–2004 in the San Francisco Bay Area (Hispanics: 375 cases, 483 controls; African Americans: 154 cases, 160 controls; non-Hispanic whites: 143 cases, 165 controls). Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Height was associated with increased breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quartile: odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 2.53; Ptrend < 0.01); the association did not vary by hormone receptor status or race/ethnicity. Body mass index (measured as weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared) was inversely associated with risk in all 3 racial/ethnic groups, but only for estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–positive tumors (body mass index ≥30 vs. <25: odds ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.61). Other body size measures (current weight, body build, adult weight gain, young adult weight and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) were similarly inversely associated with risk of estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–positive breast cancer but not estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–negative disease. Despite racial/ethnic differences in body size, inverse associations were similar across the 3 racial/ethnic groups when stratified by hormone receptor status. PMID:21084558

  13. Selectivity for the human body in the fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Downing, Paul E

    2005-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed human brain regions, notably in the fusiform gyrus, that respond selectively to images of faces as opposed to other kinds of objects. Here we use fMRI to show that the mid-fusiform gyrus responds with nearly the same level of selectivity to images of human bodies without faces, relative to tools and scenes. In a group-average analysis (n = 22), the fusiform activations identified by contrasting faces versus tools and bodies versus tools are very similar. Analyses of within-subjects regions of interest, however, show that the peaks of the two activations occupy close but distinct locations. In a second experiment, we find that the body-selective fusiform region, but not the face-selective region, responds more to stick figure depictions of bodies than to scrambled controls. This result further distinguishes the two foci and confirms that the body-selective response generalizes to abstract image formats. These results challenge accounts of the mid-fusiform gyrus that focus solely on faces and suggest that this region contains multiple distinct category-selective neural representations.

  14. Recovering 3D human body configurations using shape contexts.

    PubMed

    Mori, Greg; Malik, Jitendra

    2006-07-01

    The problem we consider in this paper is to take a single two-dimensional image containing a human figure, locate the joint positions, and use these to estimate the body configuration and pose in three-dimensional space. The basic approach is to store a number of exemplar 2D views of the human body in a variety of different configurations and viewpoints with respect to the camera. On each of these stored views, the locations of the body joints (left elbow, right knee, etc.) are manually marked and labeled for future use. The input image is then matched to each stored view, using the technique of shape context matching in conjunction with a kinematic chain-based deformation model. Assuming that there is a stored view sufficiently similar in configuration and pose, the correspondence process will succeed. The locations of the body joints are then transferred from the exemplar view to the test shape. Given the 2D joint locations, the 3D body configuration and pose are then estimated using an existing algorithm. We can apply this technique to video by treating each frame independently--tracking just becomes repeated recognition. We present results on a variety of data sets.

  15. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation.

  16. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation. PMID:27626046

  17. Human body scents: do they influence our behavior?

    PubMed

    Mildner, Sophie; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    Pheromonal communication in the animal world has been of great research interest for a long time. While extraordinary discoveries in this field have been made, the importance of the human sense of smell was of far lower interest. Humans are seen as poor smellers and therefore research about human olfaction remains quite sparse compared with other animals. Nevertheless amazing achievements have been made during the past 15 years. This is a collection of available data on this topic and a controversial discussion on the role of putative human pheromones in our modem way of living. While the focus was definitely put on behavioral changes evoked by putative human pheromones this article also includes other important aspects such as the possible existence of a human vomeronasal organ. If pheromones do have an influence on human behavior there has to be a receptor organ. How are human body scents secreted and turned into odorous substances? And how can con-specifics detect those very odors and transmit them to the brain? Apart from that the most likely candidates for human pheromones are taken on account and their impact on human behavior is shown in various detail.

  18. New neurons in the adult striatum: from rodents to humans

    PubMed Central

    Inta, Dragos; Cameron, Heather A.; Gass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Most neurons are generated during development and are not replaced during adulthood, even if they are lost to injury or disease. It is firmly established, however, that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of virtually all adult mammals, including humans [1]. Many questions still remain, however, regarding adult neurogenesis in other brain regions and particularly in humans, where standard birthdating methods are not generally feasible. Exciting recent evidence indicates that calretinin-expressing interneurons are added to the adult human striatum at a substantial rate [2]. The role of new neurons is unknown, but studies in rodents will be able to further elucidate their identity and origin and then begin to understand their regulation and function. PMID:26298770

  19. Sensing power transfer between the human body and the environment.

    PubMed

    Veltink, Peter H; Kortier, Henk; Schepers, H Martin

    2009-06-01

    The power transferred between the human body and the environment at any time and the work performed are important quantities to be estimated when evaluating and optimizing the physical interaction between the human body and the environment in sports, physical labor, and rehabilitation. It is the objective of the current paper to present a concept for estimating power transfer between the human body and the environment during free motions and using sensors at the interface, not requiring measurement systems in the environment, and to experimentally demonstrate this principle. Mass and spring loads were moved by hand over a fixed height difference via varying free movement trajectories. Kinematic and kinetic quantities were measured in the handle between the hand and the load. 3-D force and moments were measured using a 6 DOF force/moment sensor module, 3-D movement was measured using 3-D accelerometers and angular velocity sensors. The orientation was estimated from the angular velocity, using the initial orientation as a begin condition. The accelerometer signals were expressed in global coordinates using this orientation information. Velocity was estimated by integrating acceleration in global coordinates, obtained by adding gravitational acceleration to the accelerometer signals. Zero start and end velocities were used as begin and end conditions. Power was calculated as the sum of the inner products of velocity and force and of angular velocity and moment, and work was estimated by integrating power over time. The estimated performed work was compared to the potential energy difference corresponding to the change in height of the loads and appeared to be accurate within 4% for varying movements with net displacements and varying loads (mass and spring). The principle of estimating power transfer demonstrated in this paper can be used in future interfaces between the human body and the environment instrumented with body-mounted miniature 3-D force and

  20. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight.

  1. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD.

  2. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  3. Heterotopic synaptic bodies in the auditory hair cells of adult lizards.

    PubMed

    Miller, M R; Beck, J

    1987-07-01

    The auditory hair cells of adults of eight species of lizards (three gekkonids: Coleonyx variegatus, Gekko gecko, and Cosymbotus platyurus; two teiids: Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus tigris; one anguid: Celestus costatus; one lacertid: Podarcis (Lacerta) sicula; and one iguanid: Crotaphytus wislizeni) were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Heterotopic synaptic bodies were found in some of the auditory hair cells of all of the above species, occurring frequently in the gekkonids but infrequently in other species. The groups of heterotopic synaptic bodies occurred mainly in the infranuclear cytoplasm between the hair cell nucleus and the hair cell plasma membrane. The groups of synaptic bodies that were close to the hair cell nucleus were usually associated with specialized arrays of rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The numbers of heterotopic synaptic bodies were greatest in the gekkonid species and were especially large in Coleonyx variegatus, where an average of 36.8 synaptic bodies occur in one group. The functional significance of the presence of heterotopic synaptic bodies in the auditory hair cells of adults animals is not known. PMID:2820267

  4. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Anam J.; Hun, Lewis V.; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal–specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms.—Arik, A. J., Hun, L. V., Quicke, K., Piatt, M., Ziegler, R., Scaraffia, P. Y., Badgandi H., Riehle, M. A. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship. PMID:25550465

  5. Anaemia in Relation to Body Mass Index (BMI) and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Obuna, Akuma Johnson; Awelegbe, Femi; Uro-Chukwu, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anaemia, a multifactorial health challenge has been found to affect every stage of human development with negative health impacts. Providing information on the factors associated with Anaemia will help in formulating mitigating strategies against this important public health problem. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Anaemia and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographic characteristics in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Adults (n=428) aged ≥ 18 y (mean=38.4±13.7 y) randomly selected from 130 political wards from the 13 Local Government Areas of the state were studied. Sociodemographic data was collected with questionnaire while blood samples were collected for hemoglobin determination using colorimetric cyanmethemoglobin method. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS® for Windows® ver. 16). Results: In general, 21.7% of the subjects were anemic with Anaemia prevalence of 9.9%, 15.8% and 39.8% in male, non-pregnant and pregnant female, respectively. About four percent (3.7%) of the subjects were underweight, while 37.6% had excess weight with hemoglobin concentration having no relationship with BMI and sociodemographic parameters. Conclusion: It may be conclude that the Anaemia in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State has no definite relationship with BMI and sociodemographic characteristics studied. Further studies are needed to document other factors that may be associated with Anaemia among adults in the State. PMID:25738011

  6. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  7. Influence of lower body pressure support on the walking patterns of healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Max J; Deffeyes, Joan E; Arpin, David J; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a lower body positive pressure support system on the joint kinematics and activity of the lower extremity antigravity musculature of adults and children during walking. Adults (age = 25 ± 4 years) and children (age = 13 ± 2 years) walked at a preferred speed and a speed that was based on the Froude number, while 0-80% of their body weight was supported. Electrogoniometers were used to monitor knee and ankle joint kinematics. Surface electromyography was used to quantify the magnitude of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle activity. There were three key findings: (1) The lower extremity joint angles and activity of the lower extremity antigravity muscles of children did not differ from those of adults. (2) The magnitude of the changes in the lower extremity joint motion and antigravity muscle activity was dependent upon an interaction between body weight support and walking speed. (3) Lower body positive pressure support resulted in reduced activation of the antigravity musculature, and reduced range of motion of the knee and ankle joints.

  8. On the dynamics of a human body model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Passerello, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Equations of motion for a model of the human body are developed. Basically, the model consists of an elliptical cylinder representing the torso, together with a system of frustrums of elliptical cones representing the limbs. They are connected to the main body and each other by hinges and ball and socket joints. Vector, tensor, and matrix methods provide a systematic organization of the geometry. The equations of motion are developed from the principles of classical mechanics. The solution of these equations then provide the displacement and rotation of the main body when the external forces and relative limb motions are specified. Three simple example motions are studied to illustrate the method. The first is an analysis and comparison of simple lifting on the earth and the moon. The second is an elementary approach to underwater swimming, including both viscous and inertia effects. The third is an analysis of kicking motion and its effect upon a vertically suspended man such as a parachutist.

  9. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

  10. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  11. [Anatomia sacra. Religiously motivated interventions on human or animal bodies].

    PubMed

    Gladigow, B

    1995-01-01

    Controlled surgery in the interior of human or animal bodies in classical antiquity was allowed only under certain circumstances. Bloody animal sacrifice and its rules for the interpretation of entrails as well as the rare examples of 'ritual anatomy' presented a religious framework for the opening of bodies. Greek mythology provided several examples of medical operations, for example, the Caesarean section, transplantations and plastic surgery. Great cultic significance was given to organ votives or reproductions of human inner organs which were offered in temples ex voto or with request for their curing. The anatomical knowledge transported along with these offerings represents a separate tradition different from the state of anatomical knowledge found in medical literature of the period.

  12. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

    2014-03-10

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 μA/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

  13. Property and the human body: a proposal for posthumous conception.

    PubMed

    Ball, Eli Byron Stuart

    2008-02-01

    There is no greater error in law and bioethics than the continuing opposition to applying the concept of property to posthumous conception cases and the human body generally. The aim of this article is to challenge this error and the assumptions underpinning it. The language of property, conceived of as a "web of interests", can be used to capture and identify the social, moral and ethical concerns that arise in cases concerning the human body, a position that finds support from a correct reading of the early High Court of Australia's decision in Doodeward v Spence (1908) 6 CLR 406. However, a key issue on which the language of property is silent is how to quantify the various competing interests in the posthumous conception case: the concept is useful only insofar as it provides the device for capturing the entirety of the posthumous conception problem.

  14. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system. PMID:27526187

  15. A topological multilayer model of the human body.

    PubMed

    Barbeito, Antonio; Painho, Marco; Cabral, Pedro; O'Neill, João

    2015-11-04

    Geographical information systems deal with spatial databases in which topological models are described with alphanumeric information. Its graphical interfaces implement the multilayer concept and provide powerful interaction tools. In this study, we apply these concepts to the human body creating a representation that would allow an interactive, precise, and detailed anatomical study. A vector surface component of the human body is built using a three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction methodology. This multilayer concept is implemented by associating raster components with the corresponding vector surfaces, which include neighbourhood topology enabling spatial analysis. A root mean square error of 0.18 mm validated the three-dimensional reconstruction technique of internal anatomical structures. The expansion of the identification and the development of a neighbourhood analysis function are the new tools provided in this model.

  16. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  17. Telomerase RNA Accumulates in Cajal Bodies in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yusheng; Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Lukowiak, Andrew A.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The RNA component of the enzyme (hTR) provides the template for telomere synthesis, which is catalyzed by telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Little is known regarding the subcellular localization of hTR and hTERT and the pathway by which telomerase is assembled. Here we report the first glimpse of the detailed subcellular localization of endogenous hTR in human cells, which we obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our studies have revealed a distinctive hTR localization pattern in cancer cells. We have found that hTR accumulates within intranuclear foci called Cajal bodies in all typical tumor-derived cell lines examined (in which telomerase is active), but not in primary or ALT cells (where little or no hTERT is present). Accumulation of hTR in the Cajal bodies of primary cells is induced when hTERT is ectopically expressed. Moreover, we report that hTERT is also found in Cajal bodies. Our data suggest that Cajal bodies are involved in the assembly and/or function of human telomerase. PMID:14528011

  18. Perspective of the human body in sasang constitutional medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junhee; Jung, Yongjae; Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Koh, Byunghee

    2009-09-01

    The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney). Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies) found in SCM.

  19. The role of human body movements in mate selection.

    PubMed

    Hugill, Nadine; Fink, Bernhard; Neave, Nick

    2010-02-18

    It is common scientific knowledge, that most of what we say within a conversation is not only expressed by the words' meaning alone, but also through our gestures, postures, and body movements. This non-verbal mode is possibly rooted firmly in our human evolutionary heritage, and as such, some scientists argue that it serves as a fundamental assessment and expression tool for our inner qualities. Studies of nonverbal communication have established that a universal, culture-free, non-verbal sign system exists, that is available to all individuals for negotiating social encounters. Thus, it is not only the kind of gestures and expressions humans use in social communication, but also the way these movements are performed, as this seems to convey key information about an individual's quality. Dance, for example, is a special form of movement, which can be observed in human courtship displays. Recent research suggests that people are sensitive to the variation in dance movements, and that dance performance provides information about an individual's mate quality in terms of health and strength. This article reviews the role of body movement in human non-verbal communication, and highlights its significance in human mate preferences in order to promote future work in this research area within the evolutionary psychology framework.

  20. [Meteorology and the human body: two hundred years of history].

    PubMed

    Forrai, Judit

    2010-07-01

    Modern meteorology was started in the 18th century, with the establishment of observer networks through countries. Since then, temperature, pressure and purity of air, quantity of powder have been measured and the effects of changes on the human body have been studied. New theories have been set relating to the atmospheric properties of microorganisms. Changes of pathogens in the context of climatic changes have been also studied.

  1. Novel surface markers directed against adult human gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Galivo, Feorillo H; Dorrell, Craig; Grompe, Maria T; Zhong, YongPing; Streeter, Philip R; Grompe, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Novel cell surface-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated against extrahepatic biliary cells were developed for the isolation and characterization of different cell subsets from normal adult human gallbladder. Eleven antigenically distinct gallbladder subpopulations were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. They were classified into epithelial, mesenchymal, and pancreatobiliary (PDX1(+)SOX9(+)) subsets based on gene expression profiling. These antigenically distinct human gallbladder cell subsets could potentially also reflect different functional properties in regards to bile physiology, cell renewal and plasticity. Three of the novel monoclonal antibodies differentially labeled archival sections of primary carcinoma of human gallbladder relative to normal tissue. The novel monoclonal antibodies described herein enable the identification and characterization of antigenically diverse cell subsets within adult human gallbladder and are putative tumor biomarkers.

  2. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Smale, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  3. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-02-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum - "The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly divides it into three main levels that are arranged "pyramid" style, in an ascending order of difficulty: 1. Analysis of system components—the ability to identify the components and processes existing in the human body system; 2. Synthesis of system components—ability to identify dynamic relations within the system; 3. Implementation—ability to generalize and identify patterns in the system, and to identify its hidden dimensions. The students in this study proved largely incapable of achieving systems thinking beyond the primary STH level of identifying components. An overwhelming majority if their responses corresponded to this level of the STH model, further indicating a pronounced favoring of structure over process, and of larger, macro elements over microscopic ones.

  4. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Exercise Interventions on Body Composition in HIV+ Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leach, L.L; Bassett, S.H; Smithdorf, G; Andrews, B.S; Travill, A.L

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, physical activity and exercise have been used to positively impact the health and quality of life of persons infected with HIV and, more recently, has been associated with a spectrum of body composition changes. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of various exercise interventions on body composition in HIV positive adults, using a search strategy of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic review was performed by five independent reviewers using a predetermined protocol adapted from previous research for assessing the articles for inclusion, the extracted data, and methodological quality. Eight RCTs involving 430 (26% female) HIV positive adults performing exercise a minimum of thrice weekly for at least six weeks were finally selected: Four were progressive resistance training (PRT) studies, three were aerobic training (AT) studies, and one involved yoga. In the PRT studies, there were significant increases in three anthropometric measures, namely, body mass, sum of skinfolds and sum of limb girths. In the AT studies, significant decreases were found in seven anthropometric measures, namely, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body mass, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and sum of skinfolds. With yoga, the changes were non-significant. Exercise contributes to improved body composition and, when applied safely, appears to be beneficial for adults living with HIV/AIDS. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the relatively few RCTs published to date. Future studies would benefit from increased attention to sample size, female participants, participant follow-up, complete statistical analysis and intention-to-treat analysis. PMID:26587075

  5. Clinical review: Brain-body temperature differences in adults with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Childs, Charmaine; Lunn, Kueh Wern

    2013-04-22

    Surrogate or 'proxy' measures of brain temperature are used in the routine management of patients with brain damage. The prevailing view is that the brain is 'hotter' than the body. The polarity and magnitude of temperature differences between brain and body, however, remains unclear after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The focus of this systematic review is on the adult patient admitted to intensive/neurocritical care with a diagnosis of severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 8). The review considered studies that measured brain temperature and core body temperature. Articles published in English from the years 1980 to 2012 were searched in databases, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid SP, Mednar and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database. For the review, publications of randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, before and after studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and descriptive studies were considered for inclusion. Of 2,391 records identified via the search strategies, 37 were retrieved for detailed examination (including two via hand searching). Fifteen were reviewed and assessed for methodological quality. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review providing 15 brain-core body temperature comparisons. The direction of mean brain-body temperature differences was positive (brain higher than body temperature) and negative (brain lower than body temperature). Hypothermia is associated with large brain-body temperature differences. Brain temperature cannot be predicted reliably from core body temperature. Concurrent monitoring of brain and body temperature is recommended in patients where risk of temperature-related neuronal damage is a cause for clinical concern and when deliberate induction of below-normal body temperature is instituted.

  6. [The existence vomeronasal organ in adult humans].

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, Piotr; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Wojdas, Andrzej; Ratajczak, Jan; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    The influence of chemical substances (feromones) on human emotional and physical condition has fascinated psychologists, sexuologists and laryngologists since centurie. Literature conveys inconsistent information on vomeronasal organ (VNO) occurrence in humans. This organ is often called Jacobson's, and 2 symmetrical openings leading into it, located on both sides of septum, are called Ruyasch's ducts. The aim of the study was to analyze vomeronasal organ occurrence in humans in relation to age and sex. The study was conducted in a group of 634 patients, aged 18-80 years. All patients underwent routine ENT examination including rhinoscopy, nasal cavity examination with usage of 2.5x magnification lens (surgical glasses) and surgical microscope with 10x magnification. All persons had nasal cavities examined endoscopically. Every time presence of vomeronasal organ openings, along with localization, size and symmetry of these was noted. Subjects, who presented Jacobson's organ, were asked to fill a questionnaire concerning influence of smells on erotic sensations. Vomeronasal organ was fund in 312 persons, that is 49.21%. In 83.65% of cases vomeronasal organ opening size was smaller than 0.2 mm, what restricted its visibility to usage of magnifying lens, microscope, or endoscope. In 16.34% of cases only vomeronasal organ ducts openings were well visible in routine rhinoscopy without magnification. Vomeronasal organ was found more often in men than women. VNO was significantly more rare in patients with nasal septal deviation. In these cases, vomeronasal organ was usually found unilaterally, in all the cases on the concave side of deviated nasal septum. PMID:18260256

  7. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  8. Effect of nutritional supplements on immune function and body weight in malnourished adults.

    PubMed

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H; Poddar, Kavita H; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m(2). After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m(2). The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements.

  9. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  10. Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhaohui H; Gan, Ping

    2013-05-28

    The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm - 500 nm. Two types of granules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no correlation between the number of NLBs and the sex of the animals.

  11. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Inter-subject variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-02-01

    The biodynamic responses of the seated human body to whole-body vibration vary considerably between people, but the reasons for the variability are not well understood. This study was designed to determine how the physical characteristics of people affect their apparent mass and whether inter-subject variability is influenced by the magnitude of vibration and the support of a seat backrest. The vertical apparent masses of 80 seated adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) were measured at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with four backrest conditions (no backrest, upright rigid backrest, reclined rigid backrest, reclined foam backrest) and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Relationships between subject physical characteristics (age, gender, weight, and anthropometry) and subject apparent mass were investigated with multiple regression models. The strongest predictor of the modulus of the vertical apparent mass at 0.6 Hz, at resonance, and at 12 Hz was body weight, with other factors having only a marginal effect. After correction for other variables, the principal resonance frequency was most consistently associated with age and body mass index. As age increased from 18 to 65 years, the resonance frequency increased by up to 1.7 Hz, and when the body mass index was increased from 18 to 34 kg m -2 the resonance frequency decreased by up to 1.7 Hz. These changes were greater than the 0.9-Hz increase in resonance frequency between sitting without a backrest and sitting with a reclined rigid backrest, and greater than the 1.0-Hz reduction in resonance frequency when the magnitude of vibration increased from 0.5 to 1.5 m s -2 rms. It is concluded that the effects of age, body mass index, posture, vibration magnitude, and weight should be taken into account when defining the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body.

  12. Increasing body size among adult cook islanders between 1966 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-01-01

    There is limited evidence of a secular trend toward increased body size among populations in the Pacific Region, although some populations have shown a clear rise in overweight and obesity across the past 30 years or so. Mean height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of adults surveyed in 1996 on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands, are reported by age group and compared with data collected in 1966 by Evans and Prior, to determine the extent to which a secular trend in increasing body size has taken place across this 30-year period. In addition, a comparison of these anthropometric variables between subjects born on the most modernized island of Rarotonga with those born on other less-modernized islands is made, to determine the extent to which adult body size differs according to place of origin. Comparing the sample of those born on Rarotonga, the most modernized island, with those born on other, less modernized islands shows those born on Rarotonga to be taller, but not relatively heavier than those born elsewhere in the Cook Islands. Both males and females of the 1996 sample of adults are significantly taller, heavier, with higher BMI compared with the 1966 sample, indicating a secular trend toward increased body size across this 30-year period. The mean BMIs of the younger age groups in 1996 are greater than those of the same age groups in 1966, indicating a secular trend toward greater body fatness. There has been a significant increase in obesity among both males and females. In 1966, 14% of males had a BMI greater than 30, while in 1996, the proportion was 52%. Among females, 44% of those measured in 1966 had a BMI greater than 30, while in 1996 the proportion was 57%. The higher mean stature of younger adult males relative to older ones suggests that the secular trend toward increasing height may have been underway prior to 1966. The mean statures and weights of adults aged 60 years and older in the 1996 sample are more similar to values given for most age groups

  13. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  14. [A study on three dimensional modeling of human body in man-machine system simulation].

    PubMed

    Wei, B; Yuan, X

    1997-12-01

    Modeling of the human body is a basic problem in human-machine system simulation. In this study a B-spline surface model of the human body was established. In the modeling, human body is split into several segments and each segment is a cubic B-spline surface. A blend surface was used to link two jointed segments. It is easy to simulate the motion of the human body by using the algorithm of axial deformation. PMID:11540444

  15. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  16. Input files with ORNL—mathematical phantoms of the human body for MCNP-4B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstić, D.; Nikezić, D.

    2007-01-01

    Protection against ionizing radiation requires information on the absorbed doses in organs of the human body. Implantation of many dosimeters in the human body is undesirable (or impossible), so the doses in organs are not measurable and some kind of dose calculation has to be applied. Calculation of doses in organs requests: (a) an exact description of the geometry of organs, (b) the chemical constitution of tissues, and (c) appropriate computer programs. The first two items, (a) and (b), make a so-called "phantom". In another words, the "phantom of a human body" is a mathematical representation of the human body including all other relevant information. All organs are represented with geometrical bodies (like cylinders, ellipsoids, tori, cones etc.), which are described with suitable mathematical equations. A corresponding chemical constitution for various types of organ tissues is also defined. MCNP-4B ( Monte Carlo N- Particle) is often used as transport code. Users of this software prepare an "input file" providing all necessary information for program execution. This information includes: (a) source definition—type of ionizing radiation, energy spectrum, and geometry of the source; (b) target definition—material constitution, geometry, location in respect to the source etc.; (c) characterization of absorbing media between the source and target; (d) output tally, etc. This paper presents input files with "human phantoms" for the MCNP-4B code. The input files with "phantoms" were prepared based on publications issued by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Seven input files relating to different age groups (newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 years, as well as, male and female adults) are presented here. A test example and comparison with other data found in literature are also given. Program summaryTitle of program: INPUT FILES, AMALE, AFEMALE, AGE15, AGE10, AGE5, AGE01, NEWB Catalogue identifier:ADYF_v1_0 Program summary URL

  17. Trichobilharzia regenti (Digenea: Schistosomatidae): changes of body wall musculature during the development from miracidium to adult worm.

    PubMed

    Bulantová, Jana; Chanová, Marta; Houžvičková, Lenka; Horák, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Trichobilharzia regenti (Schistosomatidae, Digenea), a parasite of birds, exhibits a unique strategy among schistosomes, having affinity to the nervous system of vertebrate hosts. Migration of parasitic stages within hosts and/or swimming of non-parasitic larvae in water environment depend on the action of body wall muscles which were studied with confocal and electron microscopy. In all stages, body wall musculature is comprised of differently organized circular and longitudinal muscles. During the development, an extensive change of musculature characteristics and/or formation of new muscle structures were recorded; cercariae, schistosomula and adult worms produce additional underlying diagonal muscle fibers and inner plexus of radial musculature. Substantial changes of the outer environment during penetration of a host (osmotic values of water vs. host tissues) are accompanied by surface transformation of miracidia/mother sporocysts and cercariae/schistosomula. Contrary to that, changes of body musculature in these stages are characterized only by growth and re-organization of existing structures, and never by formation of new components of body musculature. Future studies in this field may contribute to a better knowledge of morphology and function of trematode muscles, including those of schistosomes that are important pathogens of humans and animals. PMID:20813538

  18. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p < 0.01). [Formula: see text]O2max was significantly improved in both genders (males: pre: 30.63 ± 2.06 vs. post: 33.19 ± 1.77 ml(.)kg(-1) min(-1), females: pre: 25.93 ± 1.01 vs. post: 29.51 ± 1.06 ml(.)kg(-1) min(-1), p < 0.01). A significant correlation was found between the change in [Formula: see text]O2max and the change in body weight and BMI (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the relative change in [Formula: see text]O2max explained approximately 26% of the variance in the changes for both BMI (p = 0.07) and body weight (p = 0.06). A treatment of exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  19. Body-composition assessment via air-displacement plethysmography in adults and children: a review.

    PubMed

    Fields, David A; Goran, Michael I; McCrory, Megan A

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory-based body-composition techniques include hydrostatic weighing (HW), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), measurement of total body water (TBW) by isotope dilution, measurement of total body potassium, and multicompartment models. Although these reference methods are used routinely, each has inherent practical limitations. Whole-body air-displacement plethysmography is a new practical alternative to these more traditional body-composition methods. We reviewed the principal findings from studies published between December 1995 and August 2001 that compared the BOD POD method (Life Measurement, Inc, Concord, CA) with reference methods and summarized factors contributing to the different study findings. The average of the study means indicates that the BOD POD and HW agree within 1% body fat (BF) for adults and children, whereas the BOD POD and DXA agree within 1% BF for adults and 2% BF for children. Few studies have compared the BOD POD with multicompartment models; those that have suggest a similar average underestimation of approximate 2-3% BF by both the BOD POD and HW. Individual variations between 2-compartment models compared with DXA and 4 -compartment models are partly attributable to deviations from the assumed chemical composition of the body. Wide variations among study means, -4.0% to 1.9% BF for BOD POD - HW and -3.0% to 1.7% BF for BOD POD - DXA, are likely due in part to differences in laboratory equipment, study design, and subject characteristics and in some cases to failure to follow the manufacturer's recommended protocol. Wide intersubject variations between methods are partly attributed to technical precision and biological error but to a large extent remain unexplained. On the basis of this review, future research goals are suggested.

  20. Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, Gen; Yoshimura, Takuya; Kuriyama, Kaoru; Nakai, Kazuma

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to the spinal column. This model has the spinal column and the support structures such as the muscles of the back and the abdomen. The spinal column is made by the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks that are considered the rigid body and the rotational spring and damper respectively. The parameter of this model is decided by the literature and the body type of the subject with respect to the mass and the model structure. And stiffness and damping parameters are searched by fitting the model simulation results to the experimental measured data with respect to the vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and the head and with respect to the driving-point apparent mass. In addition, the natural modes of the model compare with the result of experimental modal analysis. The influence of the abdomen and the muscles of the back are investigated by comparing three models with respect to above vibration characteristics. Three model are the proposed model, the model that has the spinal column and the model that has the muscles of the back in addition to the spinal column.

  1. Modeling of interactions of electromagnetic fields with human bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Krzysztof

    Interactions of electromagnetic fields with the human body have been a subject of scientific interest and public concern. In recent years, issues in power line field effects and those of wireless telephones have been in the forefront of research. Engineering research compliments biological investigations by quantifying the induced fields in biological bodies due to exposure to external fields. The research presented in this thesis aims at providing reliable tools, and addressing some of the unresolved issues related to interactions with the human body of power line fields and fields produced by handheld wireless telephones. The research comprises two areas, namely development of versatile models of the human body and their visualisation, and verification and application of numerical codes to solve selected problems of interest. The models of the human body, which are based on the magnetic resonance scans of the body, are unique and differ considerably from other models currently available. With the aid of computer software developed, the models can be arranged to different postures, and medical devices can be accurately placed inside them. A previously developed code for modeling interactions of power line fields with biological bodies has been verified by rigorous, quantitative inter-laboratory comparison for two human body models. This code has been employed to model electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the magnetic field with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this case, the correct placement and representation of the pacemaker leads are critical, as simplified computations have been shown to result in significant errors. In modeling interactions of wireless communication devices, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) has become a de facto standard. The previously developed code has been verified by comparison with the analytical solution for a conductive sphere. While previously researchers limited their verifications to principal axes of the sphere

  2. Predictors of food preferences in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Logue, A W; Smith, M E

    1986-06-01

    Predictors of preferences for a wide variety of foods were examined in 303 male and female human subjects ranging from 14-68 years of age. The subjects completed questionnaires which requested information on the subject's sex, age, thinness, sensation seeking and ethnic background, as well as on the subjects' food preferences. Largely consistent with previous studies, female subjects reported higher preferences for low-calorie foods, candy and wine, and lower preferences for meat, beer, spicy foods and milk. Younger subjects reported higher preferences for sweet foods and lower preferences for foods such as chili pepper that are considered acquired tastes. Thinner subjects tended to rate both sweet foods and meat lower than did other subjects. Preferences for spicy foods or foods likely to cause illness were positively correlated with sensation seeking while preferences for sweet or bland foods or foods unlikely to cause illness were negatively correlated with sensation seeking. Subjects for whom the primary cuisine on which they were raised was Oriental cuisine preferred alcoholic beverages and non-Oriental foods less than did other subjects. A factor analysis of the food preferences yielded ten factors including those for meat and potatoes, alcohol, spices and junk food. Data on predictors of food preferences can assist research on the determinants of food preferences, however much of the variance in food preferences remains to be explained.

  3. The effect of grounding the human body on mood.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Gaétan

    2015-04-01

    Earthing (grounding) refers to bringing the body in contact with the Earth. Health benefits were previously reported, but no study exists about mood. This study was conducted to assess if Earthing improves mood. 40 adult participants were either grounded or sham-grounded (no grounding) for 1 hr. while relaxing in a comfortable recliner chair equipped with a conductive pillow, mat, and patches connecting them to the ground. This pilot project was double-blinded and the Brief Mood Introspection Scale (comprising 4 mood scales) was used. Pleasant and positive moods statistically significantly improved among grounded-but not sham-grounded-participants. It is concluded that the 1-hr. contact with the Earth improved mood more than expected by relaxation alone. More extensive studies are, therefore, warranted.

  4. Cross- and triple-ratios of human body parts during development.

    PubMed

    Lundh, Torbjörn; Udagawa, Jun; Hänel, Sven-Erik; Otani, Hiroki

    2011-08-01

    Recently developed landmark-based geometric morphometry has been used to depict the morphological development of organisms. In geometry, four landmarks can be mapped to any other four by Möbius transformations, if the cross-ratio of the landmarks is invariant and vice versa. To geometrically analyze the morphological development of the human body, we examined the cross-ratio of three consecutive body parts that are segmented by four landmarks in their configuration. Moreover, we introduced the triple-ratio of five landmarks that segments four consecutive parts (e.g., the shoulder, upper arm, forearm, and hand) and examined their growth patterns. The cross- and triple-ratios of the upper limb and shoulder girdle in fetuses were constant when biomechanical landmarks were used, although the cross-ratio of the upper limb varied when anatomical landmarks were used. The cross-ratios of the lower limbs, trunk, and pelvic girdles in fetuses differed from their corresponding cross-ratios in adults. These results suggest Möbius growth in the fetal upper limb and shoulder girdle but not in the other body parts examined. However, the growth balance of the three contiguous body parts was represented by the developmental change in the cross-ratio. Therefore, the cross- and triple-ratios may be applicable for simple but significant assessments of growth balance or proportion of the body parts.

  5. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    PubMed

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  6. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital.

    PubMed

    Victora, Cesar G; Adair, Linda; Fall, Caroline; Hallal, Pedro C; Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh

    2008-01-26

    In this paper we review the associations between maternal and child undernutrition with human capital and risk of adult diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from five long-standing prospective cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa and noted that indices of maternal and child undernutrition (maternal height, birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction, and weight, height, and body-mass index at 2 years according to the new WHO growth standards) were related to adult outcomes (height, schooling, income or assets, offspring birthweight, body-mass index, glucose concentrations, blood pressure). We undertook systematic reviews of studies from low-income and middle-income countries for these outcomes and for indicators related to blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, lung and immune function, cancers, osteoporosis, and mental illness. Undernutrition was strongly associated, both in the review of published work and in new analyses, with shorter adult height, less schooling, reduced economic productivity, and--for women--lower offspring birthweight. Associations with adult disease indicators were not so clear-cut. Increased size at birth and in childhood were positively associated with adult body-mass index and to a lesser extent with blood pressure values, but not with blood glucose concentrations. In our new analyses and in published work, lower birthweight and undernutrition in childhood were risk factors for high glucose concentrations, blood pressure, and harmful lipid profiles once adult body-mass index and height were adjusted for, suggesting that rapid postnatal weight gain--especially after infancy--is linked to these conditions. The review of published works indicates that there is insufficient information about long-term changes in immune function, blood lipids, or osteoporosis indicators. Birthweight is positively associated with lung function and with the incidence of some cancers, and

  7. Human Adult Cortical Reorganization and Consequent Visual Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Serences, John T.; Rosenau, Benjamin J.; Yantis, Steven; McCloskey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Neural and behavioral evidence for cortical reorganization in the adult somatosensory system after loss of sensory input (e.g., amputation) has been well documented. In contrast, evidence for reorganization in the adult visual system is far less clear: neural evidence is the subject of controversy, behavioral evidence is sparse, and studies combining neural and behavioral evidence have not previously been reported. Here, we report converging behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from a stroke patient (B.L.) in support of cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system. B.L.’s stroke spared the primary visual cortex (V1), but destroyed fibers that normally provide input to V1 from the upper left visual field (LVF). As a consequence, B.L. is blind in the upper LVF, and exhibits distorted perception in the lower LVF: stimuli appear vertically elongated, toward and into the blind upper LVF. For example, a square presented in the lower LVF is perceived as a rectangle extending upward. We hypothesized that the perceptual distortion was a consequence of cortical reorganization in V1. Extensive behavioral testing supported our hypothesis, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) confirmed V1 reorganization. Together, the behavioral and fMRI data show that loss of input to V1 after a stroke leads to cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system, and provide the first evidence that reorganization of the adult visual system affects visual perception. These findings contribute to our understanding of the human adult brain’s capacity to change and has implications for topics ranging from learning to recovery from brain damage. PMID:17804619

  8. Bioimpedance measurements of human body composition: critical analysis and outlook.

    PubMed

    Matthie, James R

    2008-03-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy represents one of the largest emerging medical device technologies. The method is generally known as impedance spectroscopy and is an inexpensive, yet extremely powerful, analytical technique for studying the electrical properties of materials. Much of what we know about biological cells and tissues comes from use of this technique in vitro. Due to the high impedance of the cell membrane, current flow through the cell is frequency dependent and this allows the fluid volume inside versus outside the body's cells to be determined. The fluid outside the cells is primarily related to fluid volume status while the intracellular fluid also relates to the body's cellular mass. Technical advances have removed much of the method's basic complexities. The first commercial bioimpedance spectroscopy device for in vivo human body composition studies was introduced in 1990. Major strides have been made and the method is now poised to enter mainstream clinical medicine but the field is only in its infancy. This paper attempts to fully describe the current use of impedance in the body composition field.

  9. Influence of support conditions on vertical whole-body vibration of the seated human body.

    PubMed

    M-Pranesh, Anand; Rakheja, Subhash; Demont, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The vibration transmission to the lumbar and thoracic segments of seated human subjects exposed to whole body vibration of a vehicular nature have been mostly characterised without the back and hand supports, which is not representative of general driving conditions. This non-invasive experimental study investigated the transmission of vertical seat vibration to selected vertebrae and the head along the vertical and fore-aft axes of twelve male human subjects seated on a rigid seat and exposed to random vertical excitation in the 0.5-20 Hz range. The measurements were performed under four different sitting postures involving combinations of back support conditions and hands positions, and three difference magnitudes of vertical vibration (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s(2) rms acceleration). The results showed significant errors induced by sensor misalignment and skin effects, which required appropriate correction methodologies. The averaged corrected responses revealed that the back support attenuates vibration in the vertical axis to all the body locations while increasing the fore-aft transmissibility at the C7 and T5. The hands position generally has a relatively smaller effect, showing some influences on the C7 and L5 vibration. Sitting without a back support resulted in very low magnitude fore-aft vibration at T5, which was substantially higher with a back support, suggestive of a probable change in the body's vibration mode. The effect of back support was observed to be very small on the horizontal vibration of the lower thoracic and lumbar regions. The results suggest that distinctly different target body-segment biodynamic functions need to be defined for different support conditions in order to represent the unique contribution of the specific support condition. These datasets may then be useful for the development of biodynamic models.

  10. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  11. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  12. Effects of ventilation on body sway during human standing.

    PubMed

    Caron, Olivier; Fontanari, Pierre; Cremieux, Jacques; Joulia, Fabrice

    2004-08-01

    Body sway was studied in standing with eyes closed during quiet breathing and apnoea. The hypothesis was that absence of ventilation improved balance. Performance and control of balance were assessed by centre of gravity and centre of pressure motions respectively. Eight healthy male subjects participated in the study. The analysis was performed for the first 20s when no activity of the diaphragm and no force variation at thoracic and abdominal levels were observed in apnoea condition. Performance and control were significantly improved in apnoea from 17 to 26% for the planar parameters; this improvement was only observed along the medio-lateral axis (around 34%), probably due to upper body asymmetry and diminution of the number of degrees of freedom that can be mobilised along this axis. In conclusion, ventilation in quiet breathing is a perturbing factor in human standing. PMID:15265579

  13. [Radon and ionizing radiation in the human body].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Belowska-Bień, Kinga

    2004-03-08

    Spa health care became a medical discipline just as the development of other sciences created sufficient grounds for it. The basic and oldest method of spa treatment is balneotherapy. Among the medicinal waters, those with radon arouse the most controversy, these being the source of ionizing radiation. Radon is the one of the most important natural sources of radiation on earth. The exact mechanism of radon's effect on the human body is not completely understood. The hormesis theory is the best explanation of the advantageous biological effect of ionizing radiation in low doses. Radon significantly influences free oxygen radical transformations, nucleic acid repair, immunological processes, etc. It is a rare gas and does not react chemically with any compound in the body. It is known that radon is effective in treating chronic pain syndromes, endocrine disorders, and diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems.

  14. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  15. Season of birth is associated with adult body mass index in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Soreca, Isabella; Cheng, Yu; Frank, Ellen; Fagiolini, Andrea; Kupfer, David J

    2013-05-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors, such as abdominal obesity and obesity in general, are very prevalent among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Although long-term use of psychotropic medications is an important determinant of these risk factors, other evidence suggests that early development may interact with the mood disorder diathesis to exponentially increase the risk of obesity. The goal of our study was to test whether season of birth is associated with adult body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity in individuals with bipolar disorder. We compared season of birth effects on BMI in 375 adult patients with bipolar disorder and 196 adult patients with unipolar major depression. We found a significant season of birth effect on BMI in patients with bipolar disorder, but not unipolar. In patients with bipolar disorder, season of birth was also associated with waist circumference, with a stronger effect in males. Season of birth affects adult BMI and waist circumference in patients with bipolar disorder, but not in patients with unipolar depression. Our results suggest that early environmental factors, yet to be identified, interact with specific neurobiological features of bipolar disorder to determine stable traits and disease risk factors in adult life. PMID:23445513

  16. Body-related pride in young adults: an exploration of the triggers, contexts, outcomes and attributions.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-06-01

    This study explored body-related emotional experiences of pride in young adult males (n=138) and females (n=165). Data were collected using a relived emotion task and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Thirty-nine codes were identified and grouped into six categories (triggers, contexts, cognitive attributions, and affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes) for each of two themes (hubristic and authentic pride). Hubristic pride triggers included evaluating appearance/fitness as superior. Cognitions centered on feelings of superiority. Behaviors included strategies to show off. Triggers for authentic pride were personal improvements/maintenance in appearance and meeting or exceeding goals. Feeling accomplished was a cognitive outcome, and physical activity was a behavioral strategy. Contexts for the experience of both facets of pride primarily involved sports settings, swimming/beach, and clothes shopping. These findings provide theoretical support for models of pride as it applies to body image, and advances conceptual understanding of positive body image.

  17. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  18. Quantitative assessment of human body shape using Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Martin; Rohlf, F. J.; Hsiao, Hongwei

    2004-04-01

    Fall protection harnesses are commonly used to reduce the number and severity of injuries. Increasing the efficiency of harness design requires the size and shape variation of the user population to be assessed as detailed and as accurately as possible. In light of the unsatisfactory performance of traditional anthropometry with respect to such assessments, we propose the use of 3D laser surface scans of whole bodies and the statistical analysis of elliptic Fourier coefficients. Ninety-eight male and female adults were scanned. Key features of each torso were extracted as a 3D curve along front, back and the thighs. A 3D extension of Elliptic Fourier analysis4 was used to quantify their shape through multivariate statistics. Shape change as a function of size (allometry) was predicted by regressing the coefficients onto stature, weight and hip circumference. Upper and lower limits of torso shape variation were determined and can be used to redefine the design of the harness that will fit most individual body shapes. Observed allometric changes are used for adjustments to the harness shape in each size. Finally, the estimated outline data were used as templates for a free-form deformation of the complete torso surface using NURBS models (non-uniform rational B-splines).

  19. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  20. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  1. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions.

  2. Dynamics and associations of microbial community types across the human body.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Schloss, Patrick D

    2014-05-15

    A primary goal of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was to provide a reference collection of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences collected from sites across the human body that would allow microbiologists to better associate changes in the microbiome with changes in health. The HMP Consortium has reported the structure and function of the human microbiome in 300 healthy adults at 18 body sites from a single time point. Using additional data collected over the course of 12-18 months, we used Dirichlet multinomial mixture models to partition the data into community types for each body site and made three important observations. First, there were strong associations between whether individuals had been breastfed as an infant, their gender, and their level of education with their community types at several body sites. Second, although the specific taxonomic compositions of the oral and gut microbiomes were different, the community types observed at these sites were predictive of each other. Finally, over the course of the sampling period, the community types from sites within the oral cavity were the least stable, whereas those in the vagina and gut were the most stable. Our results demonstrate that even with the considerable intra- and interpersonal variation in the human microbiome, this variation can be partitioned into community types that are predictive of each other and are probably the result of life-history characteristics. Understanding the diversity of community types and the mechanisms that result in an individual having a particular type or changing types, will allow us to use their community types to assess disease risk and to personalize therapies. PMID:24739969

  3. Dynamics and associations of microbial community types across the human body.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Schloss, Patrick D

    2014-05-15

    A primary goal of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was to provide a reference collection of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences collected from sites across the human body that would allow microbiologists to better associate changes in the microbiome with changes in health. The HMP Consortium has reported the structure and function of the human microbiome in 300 healthy adults at 18 body sites from a single time point. Using additional data collected over the course of 12-18 months, we used Dirichlet multinomial mixture models to partition the data into community types for each body site and made three important observations. First, there were strong associations between whether individuals had been breastfed as an infant, their gender, and their level of education with their community types at several body sites. Second, although the specific taxonomic compositions of the oral and gut microbiomes were different, the community types observed at these sites were predictive of each other. Finally, over the course of the sampling period, the community types from sites within the oral cavity were the least stable, whereas those in the vagina and gut were the most stable. Our results demonstrate that even with the considerable intra- and interpersonal variation in the human microbiome, this variation can be partitioned into community types that are predictive of each other and are probably the result of life-history characteristics. Understanding the diversity of community types and the mechanisms that result in an individual having a particular type or changing types, will allow us to use their community types to assess disease risk and to personalize therapies.

  4. The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adiposity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, C S

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to review the links between maternal nutrition, offspring's birth weight and the propensity to early insulin resistance and high diabetes rates in Indian adults. Studies included a comparison of maternal size and nutrition with birth weights in Pune, India, and Southampton, UK. In Pune, the growth, insulin resistance and blood pressure of four-year-old children were assessed. Adults >40 years of age, who were resident in rural areas, were compared with adults living in urban areas for size, glucose handling, lipid status and blood pressure. Newly diagnosed diabetic adults living in urban areas were also monitored. Height, weight, head, waist and hip circumferences, skin-fold measurements and blood pressure were routinely measured. Fasting glucose, insulin, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were linked to the glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests. Cytokine levels were measured in plasma samples of urban and rural adults. Indian babies were lighter, thinner, shorter and had a relatively lower lean tissue mass than the Caucasian babies. However, the subcutaneous fat measurements of these babies were comparable to those of the white Caucasian babies. The Indian mothers were small, but relatively fat mothers produced larger babies. Maternal intake of green vegetables, fruit and milk, and their circulating folate and vitamin C levels, predicted larger fetal size. Rapid childhood growth promoted insulin resistance and higher blood pressure. Rural adults were thin, with a 4% prevalence of diabetes and a 14% prevalence of hypertension, but the risks increased within the normal body mass index (BMI) range. Type 2 diabetes was common in urban adults younger than 35 years of age. Although the average BMI was 23.9 kg m(-2), central obesity and thin limbs were noteworthy. Levels of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a were markedly increased in urban dwellers. Hence, there is evidence of a

  5. The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adiposity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, C S

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to review the links between maternal nutrition, offspring's birth weight and the propensity to early insulin resistance and high diabetes rates in Indian adults. Studies included a comparison of maternal size and nutrition with birth weights in Pune, India, and Southampton, UK. In Pune, the growth, insulin resistance and blood pressure of four-year-old children were assessed. Adults >40 years of age, who were resident in rural areas, were compared with adults living in urban areas for size, glucose handling, lipid status and blood pressure. Newly diagnosed diabetic adults living in urban areas were also monitored. Height, weight, head, waist and hip circumferences, skin-fold measurements and blood pressure were routinely measured. Fasting glucose, insulin, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were linked to the glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests. Cytokine levels were measured in plasma samples of urban and rural adults. Indian babies were lighter, thinner, shorter and had a relatively lower lean tissue mass than the Caucasian babies. However, the subcutaneous fat measurements of these babies were comparable to those of the white Caucasian babies. The Indian mothers were small, but relatively fat mothers produced larger babies. Maternal intake of green vegetables, fruit and milk, and their circulating folate and vitamin C levels, predicted larger fetal size. Rapid childhood growth promoted insulin resistance and higher blood pressure. Rural adults were thin, with a 4% prevalence of diabetes and a 14% prevalence of hypertension, but the risks increased within the normal body mass index (BMI) range. Type 2 diabetes was common in urban adults younger than 35 years of age. Although the average BMI was 23.9 kg m(-2), central obesity and thin limbs were noteworthy. Levels of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a were markedly increased in urban dwellers. Hence, there is evidence of a

  6. Probiotics as flourishing benefactors for the human body.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Ilse J; Walker, W Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of the beneficial effects of various strains of probiotics in preventing and treating certain diseases. Currently, changed lifestyles as well as the increased use of antibiotics are significant factors challenging the preservation of a healthy intestinal microflora. The concept of probiotics is to restore and uphold a microflora advantageous for the human body. Probiotics are found in a number of fermented dairy products, infant formula, and dietary supplements. In the presence of prebiotics, which are nondigestible food ingredients favorable for probiotic growth, their survival in the intestine is ameliorated. PMID:16552297

  7. Lead poisoning due to bullets lodged in the human body.

    PubMed

    Gerstner Garcés, Juan Bernardo; Manotas Artuz, Rafael Ignacio

    2012-07-01

    With the increased violence and use of firearms in Colombia, we may see more cases of lead poisoning in our environment, and must be prepared to diagnose and treat them. Subtle signs and symptoms as unexplained anemia, gastro-intestinal discomfort and abdominal cramps, as well as severe signs such as changes in behavior and neurological status, nephropathy, and unexplained death, may be associated with a history of gunshot wounds and bullets in the human body. We must offer the patient knowledge and management strategies of pathology.

  8. [A graphic study of levers in the human body].

    PubMed

    Basso, M; Soardo, G P

    1989-02-01

    A graphical method is proposed which permits one to determine by a simple drawing procedure for any lever in the human body the intensity of the muscular force and of the force acting on the fulcrum (i.e. on the joint) and the direction of this latter. The method is compared with the conventional one, in which muscular force is first determined by a calculation in which the geometrical lever arms are measured, and then fulcrum force is obtained by means of a vector construction. The new graphic method permits one to simultaneously obtain the intensity and the direction of the forces acting on the lever, without measuring or computing torque values.

  9. Dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults - a population based study.

    PubMed

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Bergier, Barbara; Diatczyk, Julia; Niedźwiecka, Joanna; Biliński, Przemysław; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of nutritional behaviours shaped in childhood and during the period of adolescents are mostly continued in adult life, and on these patterns, to a great degree, depends the risk of development of many chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults. The study group covered 14,511 adolescents/young adults: 10,081 children attending high schools and secondary schools, and 4,428 university students. More than 87% of schoolchildren and students admitted that that they snacked between meals everyday, and 1/3 of them mentioned that they consumed meals at night. As many as 41.40% of schoolchildren, and 46.70% of students experienced the feeling of overeating at least several times a week. Analysis of the respondents BMI showed that in the group of students there were considerably more respondents obese or overweight, compared to the group of schoolchildren. Fear of gaining weight was mentioned by 9.90% of respondents, including 6.90% of those with normal body structure, 1.40% with underweight or overweight, and 0.40% of those obese. As many as 54.60% of the total number of respondents described their body structure as remaining within the normal, 23.7% - as slim, 13.9% reported that they were overweight, 6% - thin, while 1.7% considered themselves as obese. A comprehensive analysis of the data available, including attempts at dieting or gaining weight, indicated that approximately ¾ of obese respondents had undertaken attempts in the past to reduce their body weight. The importance of physical activity and healthy eating habits should be given due attention not only to prevent obesity but also other eating disorder.

  10. The application study on laser scanning tridimensional modeling of human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Ling; Li, Yuxiang; Yao, Jianquan; Ma, Guilan

    2009-11-01

    A novel three-dimensional human body modeling method on laser technology, using the CCD camera to receive the scanning information, based on the theory of aerial photography surveying and 36 characteristic measuring points, is reported here. We introduce the mode integration of human body and the principle of human body feature identifying. The laser scanning human body three-dimensional modeling system is established.

  11. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  12. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  13. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45–53 Years Old): A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Li, Bing; Liu, Lingli; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multistage stratified random sampling. The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument was used to investigate body pain intensity and interference. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in this study. Our results showed that 64.1% of the participants (males: 687; females: 537) reported body pain, and 45.7% of the participants reported body pain interference. Middle-aged respondents who were female, were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, had a negative relationship with their family, had poor sleep quality, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain intensity rating (ordered logistic regression/six-level pain intensity criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). Respondents who were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, with a low education level, were unemployed, had lower incomes, had a negative relationship with their family, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain interference rating (ordered logistic regression/five-level pain interference criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). In conclusion, an estimated 64.1% of middle-aged adults reported body pain, and 45.7% of middle-aged adults reported body pain interference. These results provide a clue for possible interventions for improving body pain intensity and interference in adults, especially among middle-aged people. These factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of pain, pain management and treatment planning in order to help

  14. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45-53 Years Old): A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Li, Bing; Liu, Lingli; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multistage stratified random sampling. The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument was used to investigate body pain intensity and interference. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in this study. Our results showed that 64.1% of the participants (males: 687; females: 537) reported body pain, and 45.7% of the participants reported body pain interference. Middle-aged respondents who were female, were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, had a negative relationship with their family, had poor sleep quality, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain intensity rating (ordered logistic regression/six-level pain intensity criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). Respondents who were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, with a low education level, were unemployed, had lower incomes, had a negative relationship with their family, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain interference rating (ordered logistic regression/five-level pain interference criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). In conclusion, an estimated 64.1% of middle-aged adults reported body pain, and 45.7% of middle-aged adults reported body pain interference. These results provide a clue for possible interventions for improving body pain intensity and interference in adults, especially among middle-aged people. These factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of pain, pain management and treatment planning in order to help

  15. [Generation of new nerve cells in the adult human brain].

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Meyer, Morten; Rasmussen, Jens Zimmer

    2003-03-31

    Generation of new nerve cells (neurogenesis) is normally considered to be limited to the fetal and early postnatal period. Thus, damaged nerve cells are not expected to be replaced by generation of new cells. The brain is, however, more plastic than previously assumed. This also includes neurogenesis in the adult human brain. In particular two brain regions show continuous division of neural stem and progenitor cells generating neurons and glial cells, namely the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zones of the lateral ventricles. From the latter region newly generated neuroblasts (immature nerve cells) migrate toward the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into neurons. In the dentate gyrus the newly generated neurons become functionally integrated in the granule cell layer, where they are believed to be of importance to learning and memory. It is at present not known whether neurogenesis in the adult human brain can be manipulated for specific repair after brain damage.

  16. Cytogenetic Features of Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2015-09-01

    The genus Pediculus L. that parasitize humans comprise two subspecies: the head lice Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer and the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus De Geer. Despite the 200 yr of the first description of these two species, there is still a long debate about their taxonomic status. Some authors proposed that these organisms are separate species, conspecifics, or grouped in clades. The sequencing of both forms indicated that the difference between them is one gene absent in the head louse. However, their chromosomal number remains to be determined. In this study, we described the male and female karyotypes, and male meiosis of head and body lice, and examined the chromatin structure by means of C-banding. In P. h. humanus and P. h. capitis, the diploid chromosome complement was 2 n = 12 in both sexes. In oogonial prometaphase and metaphase and spermatogonial metaphase, it is evident that chromosomes lack of a primary constriction. No identifiable sex chromosomes or B chromosomes were observed in head and body lice. Neither chiasmata nor chromatin connections between homologous chromosomes were detected in male meiosis. The meiotic behaviour of the chromosomes showed that they are holokinetic. C-banding revealed the absence of constitutive heterochromatin. Our results provide relevant information to be used in mapping studies of genes associated with sex determination and environmental sensing and response. PMID:26336229

  17. Cytogenetic Features of Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2015-09-01

    The genus Pediculus L. that parasitize humans comprise two subspecies: the head lice Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer and the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus De Geer. Despite the 200 yr of the first description of these two species, there is still a long debate about their taxonomic status. Some authors proposed that these organisms are separate species, conspecifics, or grouped in clades. The sequencing of both forms indicated that the difference between them is one gene absent in the head louse. However, their chromosomal number remains to be determined. In this study, we described the male and female karyotypes, and male meiosis of head and body lice, and examined the chromatin structure by means of C-banding. In P. h. humanus and P. h. capitis, the diploid chromosome complement was 2 n = 12 in both sexes. In oogonial prometaphase and metaphase and spermatogonial metaphase, it is evident that chromosomes lack of a primary constriction. No identifiable sex chromosomes or B chromosomes were observed in head and body lice. Neither chiasmata nor chromatin connections between homologous chromosomes were detected in male meiosis. The meiotic behaviour of the chromosomes showed that they are holokinetic. C-banding revealed the absence of constitutive heterochromatin. Our results provide relevant information to be used in mapping studies of genes associated with sex determination and environmental sensing and response.

  18. Dynamic propagation channel characterization and modeling for human body communication.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zedong; Ma, Jingjing; Li, Zhicheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei

    2012-12-18

    This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = -10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of -4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks.

  19. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  20. The Role of Body Size in Mate Selection among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    A profusion of studies have demonstrated that body size is a major factor in mate selection for both men and women. The particular role played by weight, however, has been subject to some debate, particularly with respect to the types of body sizes deemed most attractive, and scholars have questioned the degree to which body size preferences are constant across groups. In this paper, we drew from two perspectives on this issue, Sexual Strategies Theory and what we termed the cultural variability perspective, and used survey data to examine how body size was associated with both casual dating and serious romantic relationships. We used a United States sample of 386 African American adolescents and young adults between ages 16 and 21, living in the Midwest and Southeast, and who were enrolled in either high school or college. Results showed that overweight women were more likely to report casually dating than women in the thinnest weight category. Body size was not related to dating status among men. Among women, the results suggest stronger support for the cultural variability argument than for Sexual Strategies Theory. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:26973377

  1. Patterns and associations of body weight among older adults in two Asian societies.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig; Johnson, Nan E; Ofstedal, Mary Beth

    2007-03-01

    Body weight has important health implications across the lifespan. Most recent attention has focused on the obesity epidemic that is occurring in many parts of the world. However, underweight is also a concern, particularly in less developed countries. For most health outcomes there is a curvilinear association with body weight, with underweight and overweight (compared to normal weight) being associated with a higher prevalence of chronic debilitating and life-threatening conditions and ultimately mortality. This paper uses data from two nationally-representative surveys of older adults (aged 60 and older) in the Philippines (1996) and Taiwan (1999) to assess the prevalence of underweight and overweight and examine associations between body weight and demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in these populations. Older Filipinos have a modest prevalence of underweight (29.9%) and low prevalence of overweight (12.2%), whereas the reverse is observed in Taiwan (6.4 and 29.3%, respectively). Results show generally expected associations between body weight and demographic characteristics, health conditions and behaviors. We find little evidence of socioeconomic differences in body weight, except in the Philippines where higher SES is associated with a lower risk of being underweight. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of healthy weight maintenance among critical subgroups to potentially reduce the prevalence of disease and improve quality of life.

  2. Human body motion capture from multi-image video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    In this paper is presented a method to capture the motion of the human body from multi image video sequences without using markers. The process is composed of five steps: acquisition of video sequences, calibration of the system, surface measurement of the human body for each frame, 3-D surface tracking and tracking of key points. The image acquisition system is currently composed of three synchronized progressive scan CCD cameras and a frame grabber which acquires a sequence of triplet images. Self calibration methods are applied to gain exterior orientation of the cameras, the parameters of internal orientation and the parameters modeling the lens distortion. From the video sequences, two kinds of 3-D information are extracted: a three-dimensional surface measurement of the visible parts of the body for each triplet and 3-D trajectories of points on the body. The approach for surface measurement is based on multi-image matching, using the adaptive least squares method. A full automatic matching process determines a dense set of corresponding points in the triplets. The 3-D coordinates of the matched points are then computed by forward ray intersection using the orientation and calibration data of the cameras. The tracking process is also based on least squares matching techniques. Its basic idea is to track triplets of corresponding points in the three images through the sequence and compute their 3-D trajectories. The spatial correspondences between the three images at the same time and the temporal correspondences between subsequent frames are determined with a least squares matching algorithm. The results of the tracking process are the coordinates of a point in the three images through the sequence, thus the 3-D trajectory is determined by computing the 3-D coordinates of the point at each time step by forward ray intersection. Velocities and accelerations are also computed. The advantage of this tracking process is twofold: it can track natural points

  3. Dissection of human vitreous body elements for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Skeie, Jessica M; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2011-01-01

    The vitreous is an optically clear, collagenous extracellular matrix that fills the inside of the eye and overlies the retina. (1,2) Abnormal interactions between vitreous substructures and the retina underlie several vitreoretinal diseases, including retinal tear and detachment, macular pucker, macular hole, age-related macular degeneration, vitreomacular traction, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and inherited vitreoretinopathies. (1,2) The molecular composition of the vitreous substructures is not known. Since the vitreous body is transparent with limited surgical access, it has been difficult to study its substructures at the molecular level. We developed a method to separate and preserve these tissues for proteomic and biochemical analysis. The dissection technique in this experimental video shows how to isolate vitreous base, anterior hyaloid, vitreous core, and vitreous cortex from postmortem human eyes. One-dimensional SDS-PAGE analyses of each vitreous component showed that our dissection technique resulted in four unique protein profiles corresponding to each substructure of the human vitreous body. Identification of differentially compartmentalized proteins will reveal candidate molecules underlying various vitreoretinal diseases. PMID:21304469

  4. Does the human body produce a substance similar to caffeine?

    PubMed

    Missak, S S

    1987-10-01

    The idea that the human body probably produces a substance similar to caffeine came to my mind after reviewing the literature on the "restless legs syndrome". This syndrome is a disorder in which the afflicted individual feels an irresistible urge to move the legs, generally when sitting or lying down, and especially in bed, at night, just prior to getting to sleep. The patient has an extremely unpleasant deep discomfort inside the calves, requiring that the legs be moved(1). The "restless legs syndrome" has been described in persons who consume a lot of caffeine(2,3), in patients with iron deficiency anemia(4), and in patients with chronic renal failure(5). Since this syndrome occurs in persons who indulge in caffeine consumption as well as in patients with iron deficiency and patients with chronic renal failure, it is tempting to postulate that the human body- in cases of iron deficiency and chronic renal failure -produces a substance similar to caffeine. The following discussion entertains the hypothetical route that might be involved in the formation of this substance.

  5. Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, AE; Reeder, BA; Elliott, S; Joffres, MR; Pahwa, P; Kirkland, SA; Paradis, G; Katzmarzyk, PT

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased mortality risk, but it is unclear which anthropometric measurement most highly relates to mortality. We examined single and combined associations between BMI, WC, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. METHODS We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate relative risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 8061 adults (aged 18–74 years) in the Canadian Heart Health Follow-Up Study (1986–2004). Models controlled for age, sex, exam year, smoking, alcohol use and education. RESULTS There were 887 deaths over a mean 13 (SD 3.1) years follow-up. Increased risk of death from all-causes, CVD and cancer were associated with elevated BMI, WC and WHR (P < 0.05). Risk of death was consistently higher from elevated WC versus BMI or WHR. Ascending tertiles of each anthropometric measure predicted increased CVD mortality risk. In contrast, all-cause mortality risk was only predicted by ascending WC and WHR tertiles and cancer mortality risk by ascending WC tertiles. Higher risk of all-cause death was associated with WC in overweight and obese adults and with WHR in obese adults. Compared with non-obese adults with a low WC, adults with high WC had higher all-cause mortality risk regardless of BMI status. CONCULSION BMI and WC predicted higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and WC predicted the highest risk for death overall and among overweight and obese adults. Elevated WC has clinical significance in predicting mortality risk beyond BMI. PMID:22249224

  6. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  7. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  8. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor in adult human dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huerta, J J; Diaz-Trelles, R; Naves, F J; Llamosas, M M; Del Valle, M E; Vega, J A

    1996-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) enhances neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. It binds a membrane protein, denominated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr). EGFr has been localized in developing and adult human DRG. However, it remains to be elucidated whether all DRG neurons express EGFr or whether differences exist among neuronal subtypes. This study was undertaken to investigate these topics in adult human DRG using immunoblotting, and combined immunohistochemistry and image analysis techniques. A mouse monoclonal antibody (clone F4) mapping within the intracytoplasmic domain of EGFr was used. Immunoblotting revealed two main proteins with estimated molecular masses of approximately/equal to 65 kDa and 170 kDa, and thus consistent with the full-length EGFr. Additional protein bands were also encountered. Light immunohistochemistry revealed specific immunoreactivity (IR) for EGFr-like proteins in most (86%) primary sensory neurons, the intensity of immunostaining being stronger in the small- and intermediate-sized ones. Furthermore, EGFr-like IR was also observed in the satellite glial cells of the ganglia as well as in the intraganglionic and dorsal root Schwann cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that EGFr, and other related proteins containing the epitope labeled with the antibody F4, are responsible for the EGFr IR reported in DRG. Furthermore, we demonstrated heterogeneity in the expression of EGFr-like IR in adult human primary sensory neurons, which suggests different responsiveness to their ligands.

  10. Human body proportions explained on the basis of biomechanical principles.

    PubMed

    Witte, H; Preuschoft, H; Recknagel, S

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of theoretical biomechanics and of experiments, we investigated the mechanical requirements to which the body of a bipedally walking primate is subject, and the possibilities to meet these requirements with a minimum amount of energy. The least energy-consuming adaptation is clearly a body shape favourable for the preferred locomotion. Some characteristics of human body shape, in particular its proportions, could be identified as advantageous for fulfilling obvious biological roles or mechanical necessities. The characteristic length and the extended position of human hindlimbs make walking faster without additional input of energy. Mass distribution on the hindlimbs reduces the energy necessary for accelerating the swing limb after liftoff and for decelerating the swing limb before the heelstrike. Length and mass distribution in the forelimb gives it a pendulum length comparable to that of the hindlimb, so that both extremities swing at the same frequency. This swinging of the forelimbs counters in part the movements exerted by the moved hindlimbs on the trunk. The elongate and slim shape of the trunk provides great mass moments of inertia and that means stability against being flexed ventrally and dorsally by the forward and rearward movements of the heavy and long hindlimbs. Shoulder breadth in combination with the shallow shape of the thorax yield higher mass moments of inertia against the rotation of the trunk about a vertical axis than a cylindrical trunk shape. Further elongation of the hindlimbs is limited by the energy necessary for acceleration and deceleration, as well as for lifting them during the swing phase. In addition, the reaction forces exerted by the hindlimbs would expose the trunk to undue excursions if the proportions trunk length/limb length or trunk mass/limb mass would decrease. The above-noted kinetic requirements are partly in line, partly in conflict with the requirements of statics.

  11. Fate of pathogenic bacteria in microcosms mimicking human body sites.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Francesco; Ghidini, Valentina; Tafi, Maria Carla; Boaretti, Marzia; Lleo, Maria M

    2013-07-01

    During the infectious process, pathogens may reach anatomical sites where they are exposed to substances interfering with their growth. These substances can include molecules produced by the host, and his resident microbial population, as well as exogenous antibacterial drugs. Suboptimal concentrations of inhibitory molecules and stress conditions found in vivo (high or low temperatures, lack of oxygen, extreme pH) might induce in bacteria the activation of survival mechanisms blocking their division capability but allowing them to stay alive. These "dormant" bacteria can be reactivated in particular circumstances and would be able to express their virulence traits. In this study, it was evaluated the effect of some environmental conditions, such as optimal and suboptimal temperatures, direct light and antibiotic sub-inhibitory concentrations doses of antibiotic, on the human pathogens Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis when incubated in fluids accumulated in the body of patients with different pathologies. It is shown that inoculation in a number of accumulated body fluids and the presence of gentamicin, reliable conditions encountered during pathological states, induce stress-responding strategies enabling bacteria to persist in microcosms mimicking the human body. Significant differences were detected in Gram-negative and Gram-positive species with E. faecalis surviving, as starved or viable but non-culturable forms, in any microcosm and condition tested and E. coli activating a viable but non-culturable state only in some clinical samples. The persistence of bacteria under these conditions, being non-culturable, might explain some recurrent infections without isolation of the causative agent after application of the standard microbiological methods.

  12. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    PubMed

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information.

  13. Reference values for echocardiographic parameters and indexes of left ventricular function in healthy, young adult sheep used in translational research: comparison with standardized values in humans

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Paola; Olea, Fernanda D; Lorenzi, Andrea De; Salmo, Fabián; Janavel, Gustavo L Vera; Hnatiuk, Anna P; Guevara, Eduardo; Crottogini, Alberto J

    2011-01-01

    Ovine models of ischemic heart disease and cardiac failure are increasingly used in translational research. However, reliable extrapolation of the results to the clinical setting requires knowing if ovine normal left ventricular (LV) function is comparable to that of humans. We thus assessed for echocardiographic LV dimensions and indexes in a large normal adult sheep population and compared them with standardized values in normal human adults. Bidimensional and tissue Doppler echocardiograms were performed in 69 young adult Corriedale sheep under light sedation. LV dimensions and indexes of systolic and diastolic function were measured. Absolute and body surface areanormalized values were compared to those for normal adult humans and their statistical distribution was assessed. Normalized dimensions (except for end diastolic diameter) as well as ejection fraction and fractional shortening fell within the ranges established by the American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Echocardiography for normal adult humans. Normalized end diastolic diameter exceeded the upper normal limit but got close to it when correcting for the higher heart mass/body surface area ratio of sheep with respect to humans. Diastolic parameters also fell within normal human ranges except for a slightly lower mitral deceleration time. All values exhibited a Gaussian distribution. We conclude that echocardiographic parameters of systolic and diastolic LV performance in young adult sheep can be reliably extrapolated to the adult human, thus supporting the use of ovine models of human heart disease in translational research. PMID:22140597

  14. Socioeconomic status, body size and physical activity of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-01-01

    Much of the secular trend toward increased body size among populations in the Pacific Region has been attributed to the processes of economic modernization and socioeconomic change. The primary objective of the present analysis was to examine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and stature, weight, body mass index and physical activity level of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernized lifestyle in the Pacific Region. In a cross-sectional study of physical activity, body size and socioeconomic status, a volunteer sample of 345 Cook Islanders aged 20-65 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga, and measured at six out-patient clinics. Stature, weight, body mass index (BMI), physical activity level and age were calculated by sex and occupational category, years of education, island of birth and number of years lived on Rarotonga, respectively, using SPSSPC for Windows. Stepwise multiple regression was used to examine the relationships between stature, weight, BMI, PALweekday (a measure of physical activity level), age and non-linear functions of age, and the socioeconomic variables. These analyses indicate that the secular trend in stature is a function of the relative level of modernization on Rarotonga relative to other Cook Islands, and with level of education. These factors associate differently among males and females, the secular trend among males appearing to be a general phenomenon in response to lifestyle change associated with life on Rarotonga, while among females the trend is a function of lifestyle change associated with education and independent of island of origin. The trend toward increasing body fatness is also different for males and females. Weight declines with age for both men and women, in a linear way for the males, but in a non-linear fashion for the females. Body weight is also greater among those males in more skilled and professional occupations than among those with less-skilled professions. For

  15. Contrasting associations of body mass index and measles with asthma and rhinitis in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hirokazu; Konno, Satoshi; Isada, Akira; Maeda, Yukiko; Musashi, Manabu; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis often coexist and are increasing worldwide, particularly among the younger generation. Although the prevalences of adult asthma and allergic rhinitis and their risk factors have been reported, there have been few studies focusing on young adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalences of asthma and allergic rhinitis and their associated factors in Japanese young adults. A questionnaire survey of new students at Hokkaido University about the presence of current wheeze and rhinitis and a history of several viral infections during childhood was conducted in 2008 and 2010. The prevalences of wheeze and rhinitis and their associated factors were evaluated. Of 4076 nonsmoking subjects aged 18-25 years, 261 (6.4%) had current wheeze and 1373 (33.7%) had allergic rhinitis. On multivariate analyses, current wheeze was associated with high body mass index (BMI), atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and a history of measles infection. In contrast, allergic rhinitis was associated with low BMI, current wheeze, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and no history of measles. When subjects were classified into four groups by the presence or absence of wheeze and rhinitis, both high BMI and a history of measles were positively associated with wheeze without rhinitis but negatively associated with rhinitis without wheeze. High BMI and past measles infection showed contrasting associations with asthma and allergic rhinitis in nonsmoking young adults. It is important to not only recognize the common pathophysiological characteristics of asthma and allergic rhinitis but also to understand their differences.

  16. Body mass of wild Bornean orangutans living in human-dominated landscapes: Implications for understanding their ecology and conservation.

    PubMed

    Rayadin, Yaya; Spehar, Stephanie N

    2015-06-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of a species' ecology, including locomotion, foraging strategies, and energetics. Accurate information on the body mass of wild primates allows us to develop explanatory models for relationships among body size, ecology, and behavior and is crucial for reconstructing the ecology and behavior of fossil primates and hominins. Information on body mass can also provide indirect information on health and can be an important tool for conservation in the context of increasingly widespread habitat disturbance. This study reports body mass data recorded for wild Northeast Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) during relocation efforts in forestry and oil palm plantations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The average mass of flanged adult males (n = 12, 74 ± 9.78 kg) and adult females (n = 7, 35.29 ± 7.32 kg) from this study were 13.6% and 9% lower, respectively, than the only other published wild Bornean orangutan body mass measurements, but the range of weights for both males and females was larger for this study. This pattern could be due to sampling error, data collection differences, or the influence of habitat disturbance, specifically a lack of access to resources, on individual health. When necessary relocations present the opportunity, we encourage researchers to prioritize the collection of body size data for the purposes of understanding ecology but also as an indirect means of monitoring population viability. As primate habitat becomes increasingly fragmented and altered by humans such data will become critical to our ability to make informed conservation decisions.

  17. Estimation of body weight and development of a body weight score for adult equids using morphometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E

    2014-05-01

    Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ≥ 3 yr, height ≥ 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was

  18. Estimation of body weight and development of a body weight score for adult equids using morphometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E

    2014-05-01

    Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ≥ 3 yr, height ≥ 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was

  19. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

  20. Neurobeachin, a Regulator of Synaptic Protein Targeting, Is Associated with Body Fat Mass and Feeding Behavior in Mice and Body-Mass Index in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Pawel K.; Rozman, Jan; Jacobsson, Josefin A.; Rathkolb, Birgit; Strömberg, Siv; Hans, Wolfgang; Klockars, Anica; Alsiö, Johan; Risérus, Ulf; Becker, Lore; Hölter, Sabine M.; Elvert, Ralf; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Fredriksson, Robert; Wolf, Eckhard; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Levine, Allen S.; Marcus, Claude; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Klingenspor, Martin; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Kilimann, Manfred W.

    2012-01-01

    Neurobeachin (Nbea) regulates neuronal membrane protein trafficking and is required for the development and functioning of central and neuromuscular synapses. In homozygous knockout (KO) mice, Nbea deficiency causes perinatal death. Here, we report that heterozygous KO mice haploinsufficient for Nbea have higher body weight due to increased adipose tissue mass. In several feeding paradigms, heterozygous KO mice consumed more food than wild-type (WT) controls, and this consumption was primarily driven by calories rather than palatability. Expression analysis of feeding-related genes in the hypothalamus and brainstem with real-time PCR showed differential expression of a subset of neuropeptide or neuropeptide receptor mRNAs between WT and Nbea+/− mice in the sated state and in response to food deprivation, but not to feeding reward. In humans, we identified two intronic NBEA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with body-mass index (BMI) in adult and juvenile cohorts. Overall, data obtained in mice and humans suggest that variation of Nbea abundance or activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related neural circuits. Our study emphasizes the importance of neural mechanisms in body weight control and points out NBEA as a potential risk gene in human obesity. PMID:22438821

  1. Neurotrophic Properties, Chemosensory Responses and Neurogenic Niche of the Human Carotid Body.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Villadiego, Javier; Pardal, Ricardo; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; López-Barneo, José

    2015-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is a polymodal chemoreceptor that triggers the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia necessary for the maintenance of O(2) homeostasis essential for the survival of organs such as the brain or heart. Glomus cells, the sensory elements in the CB, are also sensitive to hypercapnia, acidosis and, although less generally accepted, hypoglycemia. Current knowledge on CB function is mainly based on studies performed on lower mammals, but the information on the human CB is scant. Here we describe the structure, neurotrophic properties, and cellular responses to hypoxia and hypoglycemia of CBs dissected from human cadavers. The adult CB parenchyma contains clusters of chemosensitive glomus (type I) and sustentacular (type II) cells as well as nestin-positive progenitor cells. This organ also expresses high levels of the dopaminotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). GDNF production and the number of progenitor and glomus cells were preserved in the CBs of human subjects of advanced age. As reported for other mammalian species, glomus cells responded to hypoxia by external Ca(2+)-dependent increase of cytosolic [Ca(2+)] and quantal catecholamine release. Human glomus cells are also responsive to hypoglycemia and together the two stimuli, hypoxia and hypoglycemia, can potentiate each other's effects. The chemo-sensory responses of glomus cells are also preserved at an advanced age. Interestingly, a neurogenic niche similar to that recently described in rodents is also preserved in the adult human CB. These new data on the cellular and molecular physiology of the CB pave the way for future pathophysiological studies involving this organ in humans.

  2. Education for Older Adults with Early-Stage Dementia: Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richeson, Nancy E.; Boyne, Sarah; Brady, E. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 13-week adult education class for older adults with early-stage dementia titled Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit. The mixed method research design (N = 14) used a quasiexperimental one-group pretest/posttest and the qualitative methods of focus group and phone interview with…

  3. Tracking human position and lower body parts using Kalman and particle filters constrained by human biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Martinez del Rincon, Jesús; Makris, Dimitrios; Orrite Urunuela, Carlos; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a novel framework for visual tracking of human body parts is introduced. The approach presented demonstrates the feasibility of recovering human poses with data from a single uncalibrated camera by using a limb-tracking system based on a 2-D articulated model and a double-tracking strategy. Its key contribution is that the 2-D model is only constrained by biomechanical knowledge about human bipedal motion, instead of relying on constraints that are linked to a specific activity or camera view. These characteristics make our approach suitable for real visual surveillance applications. Experiments on a set of indoor and outdoor sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on tracking human lower body parts. Moreover, a detail comparison with current tracking methods is presented.

  4. Field assessments for obesity prevention in children and adults: physical activity, fitness, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Spears, Karen; Idris, Rafida; Dyrek, Anthony; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition and health educators work in community settings implementing lifestyle programs focused on obesity prevention and chronic disease risk reduction. These programs typically focus on improving diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors. Many nutrition educators may not be confident in their ability to select, administer, and interpret PA assessments to effectively evaluate their PA or lifestyle programs. This report will assist educators in identifying and selecting appropriate field-based assessments for measurement of PA, physical fitness, and body composition for children and adults. Specific guidelines, references, and resources are given for selecting assessment methods and test within these 3 areas.

  5. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    PubMed

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  6. Lipid body formation during maturation of human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Dichlberger, Andrea; Schlager, Stefanie; Lappalainen, Jani; Käkelä, Reijo; Hattula, Katarina; Butcher, Sarah J; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Kovanen, Petri T

    2011-12-01

    Lipid droplets, also called lipid bodies (LB) in inflammatory cells, are important cytoplasmic organelles. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics and functions of LBs in human mast cells (MC). Here, we have analyzed the genesis and components of LBs during differentiation of human peripheral blood-derived CD34(+) progenitors into connective tissue-type MCs. In our serum-free culture system, the maturing MCs, derived from 18 different donors, invariably developed triacylglycerol (TG)-rich LBs. Not known heretofore, the MCs transcribe the genes for perilipins (PLIN)1-4, but not PLIN5, and PLIN2 and PLIN3 display different degrees of LB association. Upon MC activation and ensuing degranulation, the LBs were not cosecreted with the cytoplasmic secretory granules. Exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) enhanced LB genesis in Triacsin C-sensitive fashion, and it was found to be preferentially incorporated into the TGs of LBs. The large TG-associated pool of AA in LBs likely is a major precursor for eicosanoid production by MCs. In summary, we demonstrate that cultured human MCs derived from CD34(+) progenitors in peripheral blood provide a new tool to study regulatory mechanisms involving LB functions, with particular emphasis on AA metabolism, eicosanoid biosynthesis, and subsequent release of proinflammatory lipid mediators from these cells.

  7. GENERALIZED CYTOMEGALIC INCLUSION-BODY DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA IN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Symmers, W. St. C.

    1960-01-01

    Three cases of generalized cytomegalic inclusion-body disease (salivary virus disease) in adults are reported, bringing the number of published cases up to 34. The infection is very rare in adults although well known in infants. As is often found in infants with this disease, pneumonia due to Pneumocystis carinii was also present in each case. The first patient had Wegener's granulomatosis, which presented with acute otitis media: a review of histological material obtained at mastoidectomy eight weeks before death showed that inclusion-body cytomegaly was already present then. Various antibiotics and prednisolone were given, and the lesions in the respiratory organs and the arteritis healed to a considerable extent. Renal failure, however, was progressive and led to death. The second patient had thrombotic purpura and died after a few weeks' illness, during which oxytetracycline and hydrocortisone were given. Congenital absence of the spleen was found at laparotomy, which was performed with the object of doing a splenectomy. Focal cryptococcal pneumonia was present post mortem: six years before death a solitary cryptococcal granuloma of one lung had been treated by lobectomy. The third patient had had Hodgkin's disease for 18 years. During the first 12 years the disease had the characteristics of the so-called indolent form (“Hodgkin's paragranuloma”) and it then passed into the typical form. Deep x-ray therapy and cytotoxic drugs were used during the course of the disease at various times, and streptomycin and tuberculostatic drugs were given because of intercurrent tuberculous meningitis which developed three months before death. In all three cases it seems likely that the underlying disease, or the drugs used in its treatment, predisposed to cytomegalic inclusion-body disease and concomitant pneumocystis pneumonia by lowering the patients' resistance. Just as some unusual types of fungal and bacterial infections have become less rare since the introduction

  8. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y.; Jacobson, Debra J.; St. Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A.; Rutten, Lila J. Finney; Ebbert, Jon O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults. We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012. We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67–2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74–3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59–1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend). Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood. PMID:26765446

  9. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables.

    PubMed

    Madden, A M; Smith, S

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of body composition is an important part of assessing nutritional status and provides prognostically useful data and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate body composition methodology in adults, focusing on anthropometric variables. The variables considered include height, weight, body mass index and alternative indices, trunk measurements (waist and hip circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter) and limb measurements (mid-upper arm and calf circumferences) and skinfold thickness. The importance of adhering to a defined measurement protocol, checking measurement error and the need to interpret measurements using appropriate population-specific cut-off values to identify health risks were highlighted. Selecting the optimum method for assessing body composition using anthropometry depends on the purpose (i.e. evaluating obesity or undernutrition) and requires practitioners to have a good understanding of both practical and theoretical limitations and to be able to interpret the results wisely.

  10. Hair toxic element content in adult men and women in relation to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Demidov, Vasily A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to estimate the hair toxic metal content in adults in relation to body mass index. A total of 1,229 persons including 719 women and 510 men were examined. All subjects were divided into two age groups: 1 and 2 periods of adulthood. All men and women were also subdivided into groups in relation to their values of body mass index (BMI): underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Hair aluminium (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) content was evaluated using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. It has been shown that increase in body weight is accompanied by elevated hair cadmium content in women. At the same time, no significant alteration of hair cadmium concentration was observed in males. Higher values of scalp hair mercury and lead content were observed in men and women with increased body mass index independently of their age. BMI-related elevation of hair tin content was registered only in men of the first period of adulthood. A significant correlation between hair metal content and the values of BMI was observed for mercury independently of the gender of the subjects, whereas BMI values correlated significantly with hair cadmium levels in women and lead and tin levels in men. It has been also estimated that hair cadmium, mercury and lead levels in men exceed the respective values in women.

  11. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  12. Upper body balance control strategy during continuous 3D postural perturbation in young adults.

    PubMed

    Amori, V; Petrarca, M; Patané, F; Castelli, E; Cappa, P

    2015-01-01

    We explored how changes in vision and perturbation frequency impacted upright postural control in healthy adults exposed to continuous multiaxial support-surface perturbation. Ten subjects were asked to maintain equilibrium in standing stance with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) during sinusoidal 3D rotations at 0.25 (L) and 0.50 Hz (H). We measured upper-body kinematics--head, trunk, and pelvis--and analyzed differences in horizontal displacements and roll, pitch, and yaw sways. The presence of vision significantly decreased upper-body displacements in the horizontal plane, especially at the head level, while in EC the head was the most unstable segment. H trials produced a greater segment stabilization compared to L ones in EO and EC. Analysis of sways showed that in EO participants stabilized their posture by reducing the variability of trunk angles; in H trials a sway decrease for the examined segments was observed in the yaw plane and, for the pelvis only, in the pitch plane. Our results suggest that, during continuous multiaxial perturbations, visual information induced: (i) in L condition, a continuous reconfiguration of multi-body-segments orientation to follow the perturbation; (ii) in H condition, a compensation for the ongoing perturbation. These findings were not confirmed in EC where the same strategy--that is, the use of the pelvis as a reference frame for the body balance was adopted both in L and H.

  13. [Multipotency of adult stem cells derived from human amnion].

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingxia; Li, Weijia; Li, Bingzong; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunhua

    2009-05-01

    Adult stem cells are drawing more and more attention due to the potential application in degenerative medicine without posing any moral problem. There is growing evidence showing that the human amnion contains various types of adult stem cell. Since amniotic tissue is readily available, it has the potential to be an important source of regenerative medicine material. In this study we tried to find multipotent adult stem cells in human amnion. We isolated stem cells from amniotic mesenchymal cells by limiting dilution assay. Similar to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, these cells displayed a fibroblast like appearance. They were positive for CD105, CD29, CD44, negative for haematopoietic (GlyA, CD31, CD34, CD45) and epithelial cell (pan-CK) markers. These stem cells had the potential to differentiate not only into osteogenic, adipogenic and endothelial lineages, but also hepatocyte-like cells and neural cells at the single-cell level depending on the culture conditions. They had the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation even after being expanded for more than 30 population doublings in vitro. So they may be an ideal stem cell source for inherited or degenerative diseases treatment.

  14. The Human Potential Movement: Body/Nonverbal/Movement Approaches to Human Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Stratton F.

    This report briefly describes the recent search for personal and interpersonal growth which has been termed the "Human Potential Movement," and the institutions or "growth centers" which have evolved as a result of this movement. It presents a list of body, nonverbal, and movement experiences derived from descriptive literature of the growth…

  15. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  16. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y.; Catrysse, Peter B.; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management.

  17. Earthsickness: circumnavigation and the terrestrial human body, 1520-1800.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Joyce E

    2012-01-01

    From their distinctive experience of going around the world, maritime circumnavigators concluded that their characteristic disease, sea scurvy, must result from their being away from land too long, much longer than any other sailors. They offered their scorbutic bodies as proof that humans were terrestrial creatures, physically suited to the earthly parts of a terraqueous globe. That arresting claim is at odds with the current literature on the cultural implications of European expansion, which has emphasized early modern colonists' and travelers' fear of alien places, and has concluded that they had a small and restricted geographic imagination that fell short of the planetary consciousness associated with the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. But circumnavigators did conceive of themselves as actors on a planetary scale, as creatures adapted to all of the land on Earth, not just their places of origin.

  18. Treatment model of dengue hemorrhagic fever infection in human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Primasari, N.; Wijaya, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    The treatment model of DHF presented in this paper involves the dynamic of five time-dependent compartments, i.e. susceptible, infected, free virus particle, immune cell, and haematocrit level. The treatment model is investigated based on normalization of haematocrit level, which is expressed as intravenous fluid infusion control. We analyze the stability of the disease free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium. The numerical simulations will explain the dynamic of each compartment in human body. These results show particularly that infected compartment and free virus particle compartment are tend to be vanished in two weeks after the onset of dengue virus. However, these simulation results also show that without the treatment, the haematocrit level will decrease even though not up to the normal level. Therefore the effective haematocrit normalization should be done with the treatment control.

  19. The human body as field of conflict between discourses.

    PubMed

    Kimsma, Gerrit K; Leeuwen, Evert van

    2005-01-01

    The approach to AIDS as a disease and a threat for social discrimination is used as an example to illustrate a conceptual thesis. This thesis is a claim that concerns what we call a medical issue or not, what is medicalised or needs to be demedicalised. In the friction between medicalisation and demedicalisation as discursive strategies the latter approach can only be effected through the employment of discourses or discursive strategies other than medicine, such as those of the law and of economics. These discourses each realise different values, promote a different subject, and have a different concept of man. The concept of discourse is briefly outlined against concepts such as the linear growth concept of science and the growth model of science as changes in paradigm. The issue of testing for AIDS shows a conflict between the medical and the legal discourse and illustrates the title of our contribution: the human body as field of conflict between discourses.

  20. How long have adult humans been consuming milk?

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Evershed, Richard P; Thomas, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose, and in most mammals, including most humans, lactase activity is down-regulated after the weaning period is completed. However, in about 35% of adults worldwide, lactase continues to be expressed throughout adulthood, a feature termed lactase persistence (LP). Genetic evidence indicates that LP is a recent human adaptation, and its current geographic distribution correlates with the relative historical importance of dairying in different human populations. Investigating archaeological evidence for fresh milk consumption has proved crucial in building an account of the joint evolution of LP and dairying. A powerful technique for investigating food processing, including milk processing, in ancient populations is lipid residue analysis on archaeological pottery. We review here the archaeological and genetic evidence available that have contributed to a better understanding of the gene-culture co-evolution of LP and dairying. PMID:24339181

  1. How long have adult humans been consuming milk?

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Evershed, Richard P; Thomas, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose, and in most mammals, including most humans, lactase activity is down-regulated after the weaning period is completed. However, in about 35% of adults worldwide, lactase continues to be expressed throughout adulthood, a feature termed lactase persistence (LP). Genetic evidence indicates that LP is a recent human adaptation, and its current geographic distribution correlates with the relative historical importance of dairying in different human populations. Investigating archaeological evidence for fresh milk consumption has proved crucial in building an account of the joint evolution of LP and dairying. A powerful technique for investigating food processing, including milk processing, in ancient populations is lipid residue analysis on archaeological pottery. We review here the archaeological and genetic evidence available that have contributed to a better understanding of the gene-culture co-evolution of LP and dairying.

  2. The biokinetics of ruthenium in the human body

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The biokinetics of ruthenium (Ru) in the human body is of interest due mainly to the potential for occupational or environmental exposure to 106Ru (T1/2 = 373.6 d) and 103Ru (T1/2 = 39.3 d), which typically represent a significant portion of the fission products in a reactor inventory. During reactor operations or nuclear fuel reprocessing these ruthenium isotopes may be present as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) vapor, a highly mobile form of ruthenium that has been involved in a number of cases of accidental exposure to 106Ru or 103Ru. This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for ruthenium and proposes a new respiratory model for inhaled RuO4 vapor, a new biokinetic for systemic (absorbed) ruthenium, and material-specific gastrointestinal absorption fractions for ruthenium. The proposed respiratory model for RuO4 differs from the current ICRP model mainly in that it depicts slower clearance of deposited activity from the respiratory tract and lower absorption to blood than depicted in the current ICRP model. The proposed systemic biokinetic model depicts more realistic paths of movement of absorbed ruthenium in the body than the current ICRP model and, in contrast to the present model, a less uniform distribution of systemic activity. Implications of the proposed models with regard to inhalation and ingestion dose coefficients for 106Ru are examined.

  3. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

  4. Methods of human body odor sampling: the effect of freezing.

    PubMed

    Lenochova, Pavlina; Roberts, S Craig; Havlicek, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Body odor sampling is an essential tool in human chemical ecology research. However, methodologies of individual studies vary widely in terms of sampling material, length of sampling, and sample processing. Although these differences might have a critical impact on results obtained, almost no studies test validity of current methods. Here, we focused on the effect of freezing samples between collection and use in experiments involving body odor perception. In 2 experiments, we tested whether axillary odors were perceived differently by raters when presented fresh or having been frozen and whether several freeze-thaw cycles affected sample quality. In the first experiment, samples were frozen for 2 weeks, 1 month, or 4 months. We found no differences in ratings of pleasantness, attractiveness, or masculinity between fresh and frozen samples. Similarly, almost no differences between repeatedly thawed and fresh samples were found. We found some variations in intensity; however, this was unrelated to length of storage. The second experiment tested differences between fresh samples and those frozen for 6 months. Again no differences in subjective ratings were observed. These results suggest that freezing has no significant effect on perceived odor hedonicity and that samples can be reliably used after storage for relatively long periods.

  5. Study of human phonation in a full-body domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurabh, Shakti; Bodony, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The generation and propagation of the human voice is studied in two-dimensions using a full-body domain, using direct numerical simulation. The fluid/air in the vocal tract is modeled as a compressible and viscous fluid interacting with the non-linear, viscoelastic vocal folds (VF). The VF tissue material properties are multi-layered, with varying stiffness, and a finite-strain model is utilized and implemented in a quadratic finite element code. The fluid-solid domains are coupled through a boundary-fitted interface and utilize a Poisson equation-based mesh deformation method. The full-body domain includes the near VF region, the vocal tract, a simplified model of the soft palate and mouth, and extends out into the acoustic far-field. A new kind of inflow boundary condition based upon a quasi-one-dimensional formulation with constant sub-glottal volume velocity, which is linked to the VF movement, has been adopted. The sound pressure levels (SPL) measured are realistic and we analyze their connection to the VF dynamics and glottal and vocal tract geometries. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CAREER award number 1150439).

  6. Comparison of Biodynamic Responses in Standing and Seated Human Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2000-12-01

    The dynamic responses of the human body in a standing position and in a sitting position have been compared. The apparent mass and transmissibilities to the head, six locations along the spine, and the pelvis were measured with eight male subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration. In both postures, the principal resonance in the apparent mass occurred in the range 5-6 Hz, with slightly higher frequencies and lower apparent mass in the standing posture. There was greater transmission of vertical vibration to the pelvis and the lower spine and greater relative motion within the lower spine in the standing posture than in the sitting posture at the principal resonance and at higher frequencies. Transmissibilities from the supporting surface (floor or seat) to the thoracic region had similar magnitudes for both standing and sitting subjects. The lumbar spine has less lordosis and may be more compressed and less flexible in the sitting posture than in the standing posture. This may have reduced the relative motions between lumbar vertebrae and both the supporting vibrating surface and the other vertebrae in the sitting posture. The characteristics of the vibration transmitted to the pelvis may have differed in the two postures due to different transmission paths. Increased forward rotation of the pelvis in the standing posture may have caused the differences in responses of the pelvis and the lower spine that were observed between the two postures.

  7. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts

  8. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  9. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, carotid body function and erythropoietin production in adult rats perinatally exposed to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Lloret, Jesus; Ramirez, Maria; Olea, Elena; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Cogolludo, Angel; Castañeda, Javier; Yubero, Sara; Agapito, Teresa; Gomez-Niño, Angela; Rocher, Asuncion; Rigual, Ricardo; Obeso, Ana; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; González, Constancio

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalians possess three cell systems that are activated by acute bodily hypoxia: pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), carotid body chemoreceptor cells (CBCC) and erythropoietin (EPO)-producing cells. In rats, chronic perinatal hyperoxia causes permanent carotid body (CB) atrophy and functional alterations of surviving CBCC. There are no studies on PASMC or EPO-producing cells. Our aim is to define possible long-lasting functional changes in PASMC or EPO-producing cells (measured as EPO plasma levels) and, further, to analyse CBCC functional alterations. We used 3- to 4-month-old rats born and reared in a normal atmosphere or exposed to perinatal hyperoxia (55–60% O2 for the last 5–6 days of pregnancy and 4 weeks after birth). Perinatal hyperoxia causes an almost complete loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), which was correlated with lung oxidative status in early postnatal life and prevented by antioxidant supplementation in the diet. O2-sensitivity of K+ currents in the PASMC of hyperoxic animals is normal, indicating that their inhibition is not sufficient to trigger HPV. Perinatal hyperoxia also abrogated responses elicited by hypoxia on catecholamine and cAMP metabolism in the CB. An increase in EPO plasma levels elicited by hypoxia was identical in hyperoxic and control animals, implying a normal functioning of EPO-producing cells. The loss of HPV observed in adult rats and caused by perinatal hyperoxia, comparable to oxygen therapy in premature infants, might represent a previously unrecognized complication of such a medical intervention capable of aggravating medical conditions such as regional pneumonias, atelectases or general anaesthesia in adult life. Key points Adult animals that have been perinatally exposed to oxygen-rich atmospheres (hyperoxia), recalling those used for oxygen therapy in infants, exhibit a loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas vasoconstriction elicited by depolarizing agents is

  10. Lifetime selection on adult body size and components of body size in a waterstrider: opposing selection and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, R F; Fairbairn, D J

    2000-04-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), the difference in body size between males and females, is common in almost all taxa of animals and is generally assumed to be adaptive. Although sexual selection and fecundity selection alone have often been invoked to explain the evolution of SSD, more recent views indicate that the sexes must experience different lifetime selection pressures for SSD to evolve and be maintained. We estimated selection acting on male and female adult body size (total length) and components of body size in the waterstrider Aquarius remigis during three phases of life history. Opposing selection pressures for overall body size occurred in separate episodes of fitness for females in both years and for males in one year. Specific components of body size were often the targets of the selection on overall body size. When net adult fitness was estimated by combining each individual's fitnesses from all episodes, we found stabilizing selection in both sexes. In addition, the net optimum overall body size of males was smaller than that of females. However, even when components of body size had experienced opposing selection pressures in individual episodes, no components appeared to be under lifetime stabilizing selection. This is the first evidence that contemporary selection in a natural population acts to maintain female size larger than male size, the most common pattern of SSD in nature.

  11. Neurons in the White Matter of the Adult Human Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Solá, M. Luisa; González-Delgado, Francisco J.; Pueyo-Morlans, Mercedes; Medina-Bolívar, O. Carolina; Hernández-Acosta, N. Carolina; González-Gómez, Miriam; Meyer, Gundela

    2009-01-01

    The white matter (WM) of the adult human neocortex contains the so-called “interstitial neurons”. They are most numerous in the superficial WM underlying the cortical gyri, and decrease in density toward the deep WM. They are morphologically heterogeneous. A subgroup of interstitial neurons display pyramidal-cell like morphologies, characterized by a polarized dendritic tree with a dominant apical dendrite, and covered with a variable number of dendritic spines. In addition, a large contingent of interstitial neurons can be classified as interneurons based on their neurochemical profile as well as on morphological criteria. WM- interneurons have multipolar or bipolar shapes and express GABA and a variety of other neuronal markers, such as calbindin and calretinin, the extracellular matrix protein reelin, or neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and nitric oxide synthase. The heterogeneity of interstitial neurons may be relevant for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia. Interstitial neurons are most prominent in human brain, and only rudimentary in the brain of non-primate mammals. These evolutionary differences have precluded adequate experimental work on this cell population, which is usually considered as a relict of the subplate, a transient compartment proper of development and without a known function in the adult brain. The primate-specific prominence of the subplate in late fetal stages points to an important role in the establishment of interstitial neurons. Neurons in the adult WM may be actively involved in coordinating inter-areal connectivity and regulation of blood flow. Further studies in primates will be needed to elucidate the developmental history, adult components and activities of this large neuronal system. PMID:19543540

  12. Visual Coding of Human Bodies: Perceptual Aftereffects Reveal Norm-Based, Opponent Coding of Body Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…

  13. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  14. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  15. Elevated body mass index is associated with executive dysfunction in otherwise healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H; Cohen, Ronald A; Tate, David F; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Gordon, Evian

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that obesity is linked to adverse neurocognitive outcome, including reduced cognitive functioning and Alzheimer disease. However, no study to date has determined whether the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive performance varies as a function of age. We examined attention and executive function in a cross-section of 408 healthy persons across the adult life span (20-82 years). Bivariate correlation showed that BMI was inversely related to performance on all cognitive tests. After controlling for possible confounding factors, overweight and obese adults (BMI > 25) exhibited poorer executive function test performance than normal weight adults (BMI, 18.5-24.9). No differences emerged in attention test performance, and there was no evidence of a BMI x age interaction for either cognitive domain. These results provide further evidence for the relationship between elevated BMI and reduced cognitive performance and suggest that this relationship does not vary with age. Further research is needed to identify the etiology of these deficits and whether they resolve after weight loss.

  16. HYPERGLYCEMIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH RELATIVELY LOWER LEAN BODY MASS IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    KALYANI, RITA R.; TRA, Y.; EGAN, J.M.; FERRUCCI, L.; BRANCATI, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Older adults with known diabetes are vulnerable to accelerated loss of lean body mass. However, the relationship of hyperglycemia per se with lean body mass is not fully understood. We sought to examine the independent relationship of hyperglycemia with relative lean body mass in older persons without a reported history of diabetes. Design Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. Setting United States. Participants We studied U.S. adults >50 years without known diabetes (n=5434) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Measurements In linear regression models, we studied the relationship of measured HbA1c (<5.0%, 5.0–5.4%, 5.5–5.9%, 6.0–6.4%, ≥6.5%) with percent lean body mass, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, after accounting for potential confounders. Results Among older U.S. men and women, progressively higher HbA1c was associated with relatively lower total, appendicular, and trunk percent lean mass, independent of demographics and height (all p<0.05). Accounting for physical activity, C-reactive protein, and diabetes-related comorbidities (heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, arthritis, neuropathy, hip fracture, amputation, cancer, pulmonary disease), undiagnosed diabetes (i.e. HbA1c ≥6.5%) versus reference (<5.0%) in both men and women was associated with lower total (−3.5±0.8% and −2.9±0.8%), appendicular (−1.8±0.5% and −1.2±0.4%), and trunk percent lean mass (−1.2±0.4% and −1.3±0.5%), respectively (all p<0.05). Persons at increased risk for diabetes (i.e. HbA1c 6.0–6.4%) also had significant decrements at these sites versus reference. Conclusions Hyperglycemia is associated with relatively lower lean mass in a nationally representative population of older adults without history of diabetes. Future longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship of hyperglycemia with the accelerated decline of skeletal muscle mass in older persons

  17. Relationship Between Body Composition Parameters and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Namwongprom, Sirianong; Rerkasem, Kittipan; Wongthanee, Antika; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Mangklabruks, Ampica

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition parameters, i.e. waist circumference, android fat mass (AFM), gynoid fat mass (GFM), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (AG ratio) and metabolic syndrome (MS) risk components in young Thai adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 391 adolescents (174 male, 217 female). The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and glucose levels were determined. AFM, GFM and AG ratio were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Linear regression analysis was done to assess the relationship of waist circumference, AFM, GFM and AG ratio with MS risk components’ score, separately. Results: Among 391 young adults aged 18.5-21.8 years, MS was found in 5.9%. Participants with MS (n=23) had a significantly higher weight, height and BMI than those without MS. There was no statistically significant difference in bone mineral density between the two groups. At univariable linear regression analysis, waist circumferences, AFM, GFM and AG ratio showed significant relationship with MS risk components’ score. However, after adjusting for gender, birth weight and BMI, AG ratio demonstrated greater relationship with MS risk components’ score (β 1.89, 95%CI 1.096-2.978) than waist circumference (β 0.046, 95%CI 0.033-0.058) and AFM (β 0.979, 95%CI 0.667-1.290). No significant association was observed between GFM and MS risk components’ score (β 0.077, 95%CI -0.089-0.243). Conclusion: The results from this study indicated that AG ratio is a stronger predictor of MS than waist circumference and AFM in young Thai adults. The role of AG ratio for the diagnosis of MS needs to be further investigated. PMID:25541893

  18. Study of variation in human upper body parameters and motion for use in robotics based simulation.

    PubMed

    Lura, Derek J; Carey, Stephanie L; Dubey, Rajiv V

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the variations in human upper body motion of subjects completing activities of daily living. This study was completed to serve as a reference to evaluate the quality of simulated of human motion. In this paper we define the variation in motion as the variation in subjects' parameters (link lengths), joint angles, and hand positions, for a given task. All of these variations are related by forward kinematic equations. Motion data from eight healthy right hand dominant adults performing three activities of daily living (brushing hair, drinking from a cup, and opening a door) were collected using an eight camera Vicon motion analysis system. Subject parameters were calculated using relative positions of functional joint center locations between segments. Joint angles were calculated by Euler angle rotations between body segments. Hand position was defined as the origin of the hand frame relative to the pelvis frame. The variance of recorded human motion was analyzed based on the standard deviations of subject parameters, joint angles, and hand positions. Variances in joint angles were found to be similar in magnitude to root mean squared error of kinematics based motion simulation. To evaluate the relative variance, the forward kinematic solutions of the trials were found after removing subject parameter variance and reducing joint angle variance. The variance in the forward kinematic solution was then compared to the recorded hand position variance. Reductions in subject parameter and joint angle variance produced a proportionally much smaller reduction in the calculated hand position variance. Using the average instead of individual subject parameters had only a small impact on hand position variance. Modifying joint angles to reduce variance had a greater impact on the calculated hand position variance than using average subject parameters, but was still a relatively small change. Future work will focus on using these results to create formalized

  19. Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that functional mouse oocytes and sperm can be derived in vitro from somatic cell lines. We hypothesize that in adult human ovaries, mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea (TA) are bipotent progenitors with a commitment for both primitive granulosa and germ cells. We investigated ovaries of twelve adult women (mean age 32.8 ± 4.1 SD, range 27–38 years) by single, double, and triple color immunohistochemistry. We show that cytokeratin (CK)+ mesenchymal cells in ovarian TA differentiate into surface epithelium (SE) cells by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Segments of SE directly associated with ovarian cortex are overgrown by TA, forming solid epithelial cords, which fragment into small (20 micron) epithelial nests descending into the lower ovarian cortex, before assembling with zona pellucida (ZP)+ oocytes. Germ cells can originate from SE cells which cover the TA. Small (10 micron) germ-like cells showing PS1 meiotically expressed oocyte carbohydrate protein are derived from SE cells via asymmetric division. They show nuclear MAPK immunoexpression, subsequently divide symmetrically, and enter adjacent cortical vessels. During vascular transport, the putative germ cells increase to oocyte size, and are picked-up by epithelial nests associated with the vessels. During follicle formation, extensions of granulosa cells enter the oocyte cytoplasm, forming a single paranuclear CK+ Balbiani body supplying all the mitochondria of the oocyte. In the ovarian medulla, occasional vessels show an accumulation of ZP+ oocytes (25–30 microns) or their remnants, suggesting that some oocytes degenerate. In contrast to males, adult human female gonads do not preserve germline type stem cells. This study expands our previous observations on the formation of germ cells in adult human ovaries. Differentiation of primitive granulosa and germ cells from the bipotent mesenchymal cell precursors of TA in adult human ovaries represents a most

  20. Building "Bob": A Project Exploring the Human Body at Western Illinois University Preschool Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouette, Scott

    2008-01-01

    When the children at Western Illinois University Preschool Center embarked on a study of human bodies, they decided to build a life-size model of a body, organ by organ from the inside out, to represent some of the things they were learning. This article describes the building of "Bob," the human body model, highlighting the children's problem…

  1. Mapping implied body actions in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Moro, Valentina; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2006-07-26

    The human visual system is highly tuned to perceive actual motion as well as to extrapolate dynamic information from static pictures of objects or creatures captured in the middle of motion. Processing of implied motion activates higher-order visual areas that are also involved in processing biological motion. Imagery and observation of actual movements performed by others engenders selective activation of motor and premotor areas that are part of a mirror-neuron system matching action observation and execution. By using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we found that the mere observation of static snapshots of hands suggesting a pincer grip action induced an increase in corticospinal excitability as compared with observation of resting, relaxed hands, or hands suggesting a completed action. This facilitatory effect was specific for the muscle that would be activated during actual execution of the observed action. We found no changes in responsiveness of the tested muscles during observation of nonbiological entities with (e.g., waterfalls) or without (e.g., icefalls) implied motion. Thus, extrapolation of motion information concerning human actions induced a selective activation of the motor system. This indicates that overlapping motor regions are engaged in the visual analysis of physical and implied body actions. The absence of motor evoked potential modulation during observation of end posture stimuli may indicate that the observation-execution matching system is preferentially activated by implied, ongoing but not yet completed actions. PMID:16870739

  2. Mapping implied body actions in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Moro, Valentina; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2006-07-26

    The human visual system is highly tuned to perceive actual motion as well as to extrapolate dynamic information from static pictures of objects or creatures captured in the middle of motion. Processing of implied motion activates higher-order visual areas that are also involved in processing biological motion. Imagery and observation of actual movements performed by others engenders selective activation of motor and premotor areas that are part of a mirror-neuron system matching action observation and execution. By using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we found that the mere observation of static snapshots of hands suggesting a pincer grip action induced an increase in corticospinal excitability as compared with observation of resting, relaxed hands, or hands suggesting a completed action. This facilitatory effect was specific for the muscle that would be activated during actual execution of the observed action. We found no changes in responsiveness of the tested muscles during observation of nonbiological entities with (e.g., waterfalls) or without (e.g., icefalls) implied motion. Thus, extrapolation of motion information concerning human actions induced a selective activation of the motor system. This indicates that overlapping motor regions are engaged in the visual analysis of physical and implied body actions. The absence of motor evoked potential modulation during observation of end posture stimuli may indicate that the observation-execution matching system is preferentially activated by implied, ongoing but not yet completed actions.

  3. Macro And Microcosmus: Moon Influence On The Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchin, Giorgio

    Belief in the action of the macrocosmus, i.e., celestial bodies, on the microcosmus, i.e., on man, goes back to the dawn of human thinking. More specifically, lunar phases have been considered to act on behaviour and on physiological functions. This possible relationship has not only been taken for granted for many centuries in ancient medicine but also investigated in a number of modern published works, mainly on the issues of emergency activity; violent behaviour; car accidents; drug overdose; menses and birth; and mood disorders. Indeed, if the idea that the stars and planets may influence human health and behaviour can be traced so far in the past, it seems that not only the laymen but a high proportion of health professionals continue to hold this credence: recently, in New Orleans a questionnaire sent to 325 people indicated that 140 individuals (43%) held the opinion that lunar phenomena alter personal behaviour. Specifically, it came out that mental health professionals (social workers, clinical psychologists, nurses' aides) held this belief more strongly than other occupational groups (Vance, 1995). A short historical outline of some old beliefs and the results of contemporary research on this fascinating, time-honoured field, will be presented.

  4. Lean Body Mass as a Predictive Value of Hypertension in Young Adults, in Ankara, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    VAZIRI, Yashar; BULDUK, Sidika; SHADMAN, Zhaleh; BULDUK, Emre Ozgur; HEDAYATI, Mehdi; KOC, Haluk; ER, Fatmanur; ERDOGAN, Ceren Suveren

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body composition estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify abnormal blood pressure in physical education and sport teaching students in the city of Ankara. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained in the city of Ankara in 2014. A total of 133 students aged 20–35 yr participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Body composition was assessed by BIA. Physical activity level (PAL) and usual dietary intake were assessed. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined, respectively, as BP ≥120 and/or 80, and ≥140 and /or 90 mmHg. Results: More overweight students showed abnormal BP especially SBP (P=0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Age adjusted regression showed significant association between arm circumference (β= 0.176, P 0.044), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) (β= 0.235, P 0.007), lean body mass (LBM) (β= 0.238, P 0.006), basal metabolism rate (BMR) (β= 0.219, P 0.012) and SBP and, also, MAMC (β= 0.201, P 0.022), LBM (β= 0.203, P 0.021), BMR (β= 0.189, P 0.030) and DBP. Fat intake was associated with DBP (β= 0.14, P =0.040). Multivariate regression models adjusted for age, BMI, WC and fat intake/kg body weight showed positive association of SBP with MAMC, BMR and LBM (P<0.05). Conclusion: The relationship between blood pressure and body composition in young adults may be associated to LBM and MAMC. LBM or MAMC in this population may be indirect indicators of heart muscle mass and heart pumping power. PMID:26811815

  5. Metabolic responses of upper-body accelerometer-controlled video games in adults.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Leah C; Amonette, William E; Dupler, Terry L

    2010-10-01

    Historically, video games required little physical exertion, but new systems utilize handheld accelerometers that require upper-body movement. It is not fully understood if the metabolic workload while playing these games is sufficient to replace routine physical activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify metabolic workloads and estimate caloric expenditure while playing upper-body accelerometer-controlled and classic seated video games. Nineteen adults completed a peak oxygen consumption treadmill test followed by an experimental session where exercising metabolism and ventilation were measured while playing 3 video games: control (CON), low activity (LOW) and high activity (HI). Resting metabolic measures (REST) were also acquired. Caloric expenditure was estimated using the Weir equation. Mean oxygen consumption normalized to body weight for HI condition was greater than LOW, CON, and REST. Mean oxygen consumption normalized to body weight for LOW condition was also greater than CON and REST. Mean exercise intensities of oxygen consumption reserve for HI, LOW, and CON were 25.8% ± 5.1%, 6.4% ± 4.8%, and 0.8% ± 2.4%, respectively. Estimated caloric expenditure during the HI was significantly related to aerobic fitness, but not during other conditions. An active video game significantly elevated oxygen consumption and heart rate, but the increase was dependent on the type of game. The mean oxygen consumption reserve during the HI video game was below recommended international standards for moderate and vigorous activity. Although upper-body accelerometer-controlled video games provided a greater exercising stimulus than classic seated video games, these data suggest they should not replace routine moderate or vigorous exercise.

  6. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  7. Controlled whole-body vibration training reduces risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; King, George A; Dillon, Loretta; Su, Xiaogang

    2015-09-18

    The primary purpose of this study was to systematically examine the effects of an 8-week controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing the risk of falls among community-dwelling adults. Eighteen healthy elderlies received vibration training which was delivered on a side alternating vibration platform in an intermittent way: five repetitions of 1 min vibration followed by a 1 min rest. The vibration frequency and amplitude were 20 Hz and 3.0mm respectively. The same training was repeated 3 times a week, and the entire training lasted for 8 weeks for a total of 24 training sessions. Immediately prior to (or pre-training) and following (or post-training) the 8-week training course, all participants' risk of falls were evaluated in terms of body balance, functional mobility, muscle strength and power, bone density, range of motion at lower limb joints, foot cutaneous sensation level, and fear of falling. Our results revealed that the training was able to improve all fall risk factors examined with moderate to large effect sizes ranging between 0.55 and 1.26. The important findings of this study were that an 8-week vibration training could significantly increase the range of motion of ankle joints on the sagittal plane (6.4° at pre-training evaluation vs. 9.6° at post-training evaluation for dorsiflexion and 45.8° vs. 51.9° for plantar-flexion, p<0.05 for both); reduce the sensation threshold of the foot plantar surface (p<0.05); and lower the fear of falling (12.2 vs. 10.8, p<0.05). These findings could provide guidance to design optimal whole-body vibration training paradigm for fall prevention among older adults.

  8. Morphologic characteristics of processes of nucleus pulposus cells in adult human intervertebral disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Xinghuo; Hui, Liu; Xu, Weihua; Liu, Xianze; Yang, Shuhua

    2008-12-01

    To explore morphologic characterizatics of cellular processes from adult human nucleus pulposus cells, the nucleus pulposus of adult human intervertebral disc were obtained from 8 patients (Thompson's grade I~II) and then the tissues specimens were carried out by frozen section and electron microscopic section as well as cell isolation and cultured, processes of nucleus pulposus cells were examined using light microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. When examined at both the confocal and electron microscope level, all the cells possessed the processes and adjacent nucleus pulposus cells processes possessed a gap junction. But elongated and round cells can be examined when NP cells were monolayer cultured. The rate of elongated cells to round cells is 2.3 to 1. The elongated cells protrude along with the long axis of cell body without second processes. Dendritic processes of round cells protrude to all directions from the cell body with multiple-level processes. Processes are one of the morphologic characteristics of intervertebral disc cells which are different from articular cartilage chondrocytes. The research on processes functions will be helpful to understand pathomechanism of intervertebral disc degradation and open a new approach for cytobiology treatment of the intervertebral disc diseases.

  9. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  10. Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki

    The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.

  11. Feasibility study of in vivo partial body potassium determination in the human body using gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Lisa Marie

    This work investigates partial body potassium determination in the human body using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Potassium is an essential element in the human body that controls many of the enzyme systems and intra- and extra-cellular water flow. Potassium is symptomatic to several disease cases and has gender and ethnic variability. This work assesses the feasibility to measure partial body potassium in three specific regions: brain, arm, and leg, that are of interest to multiple sclerosis, chronic renal failure, and spinal cord injury, respectively. Three detector systems were constructed and their capabilities assessed. System characterization and analytical procedure for potassium evaluation and determination are presented together with experimental and initial clinical results. The results indicate that partial body potassium measurement is viable, statistically reproducible, and has potential clinical significance.

  12. A finite-element simulation of galvanic coupling intra-body communication based on the whole human body.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Hao, Qun; Hu, Lanxin; Wang, Jingwen; Shang, Fuzhou

    2012-10-09

    Simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, a finite-element model of the whole body model used for the IBC simulation is proposed and verified, while the FE simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC with different signal transmission paths has been achieved. Firstly, a novel finite-element method for modeling the whole human body is proposed, and a FE model of the whole human body used for IBC simulation was developed. Secondly, the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC with the different signal transmission paths were implemented. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by using in vivo measurements within the frequency range of 10 kHz-5 MHz, whereby some important conclusions were deduced. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in the investigation of the galvanic coupling intra-body communication.

  13. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  14. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  15. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  16. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-04-20

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  17. Improvements of mean body mass index and body weight in preobese and overweight Japanese adults with black Chinese tea (Pu-Erh) water extract.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kazumitsu; Sumi, Shunichiro; Tojo, Hideaki; Sumi-Inoue, Yukiko; I-Chin, Hou; Oi, Yasuyuki; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Urata, Hidenori

    2011-06-01

    Water-soluble black Chinese (Pu-Erh) tea extract (BTE), which contains high gallic acid content, has been demonstrated to elicit antiobese effects in animals. Because gallic acid is related with the reduction of visceral fat and cholesterol contents and improvement of obesity in animals, we investigated the effects of BTE intake on 36 preobese Japanese adults (body mass index [BMI], >25- <30 kg/m(2)) in a 12-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled group comparison study using powdered barley tea with or without (placebo) BTE. A follow-up 4-week period after BTE intake termination was monitored to observe the withdrawal effect. All subjects ingested barley tea with or without BTE (333 mg) before each of the 3 daily meals. In the BTE-treated group, the mean pretreament values of body weight and BMI significantly decreased after intake and after BTE withdrawal. However, the corresponding values scored significant differences only from 8 weeks after intake (vs the placebo-treated group). The mean values of the waist circumference indicated a similar tendency. Furthermore, coronal navel section (same anatomical position) images of computed tomography of all BTE- and non-BTE-treated subjects revealed that the visceral fat areas (cm(2)) were significantly (P < .05) less in the former 12 weeks after BTE ingestion. Measured biochemical parameters did not indicate significant differences, and BTE-treated subjects did not complain of any adverse effects (abdominal distension, etc). Ingestion of BTE exhibited significant effects in reducing the mean waist circumference, BMI, and visceral fat values and might be useful for weight control and prevention of obesity development (or metabolic syndrome) in humans.

  18. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  19. Hypertension, abnormal cholesterol, and high body mass index among non-Hispanic Asian adults: United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yoon, Sung Sug; Chong, Yinong; Carroll, Margaret D

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hispanic Asian adults constituted 4.9% of the U.S. population in 2012, corresponding to 15.4 million people (2). This group primarily comprises persons of Chinese, Asian Indian, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese descent. The prevalence of hypertension (defined as having blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg or taking blood pressure-lowering medications) among non-Hispanic Asian adults aged 20 and over was 25.6%. As previously reported, this prevalence is similar to that of non-Hispanic white adults and Hispanic adults but lower than that of non-Hispanic black adults (3). Among non-Hispanic Asian adults, the prevalence of hypertension was higher among those who were older or had less education, similar to findings in U.S. adults overall (4,5). The prevalence of high total cholesterol (measured as cholesterol of at least 240 mg/dL) among non-Hispanic Asian adults was similar to that among adults of other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adults had a lower prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (measured as HDL less than 40 mg/dL) than Hispanic persons (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adult men were almost five times more likely than non-Hispanic Asian adult women to have low HDL cholesterol. While adult men in general are known to have a higher prevalence of low HDL cholesterol than adult women (7), the sex difference was larger than in other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). The prevalence of high BMI among non-Hispanic Asian adults (38.6%) was much lower than that previously reported for non-Hispanic white adults (66.7%), non-Hispanic black adults (76.7%), and Hispanic adults (78.8%) (8). BMI is widely used as a measure of body fat. However, at a given BMI level, body fat may vary by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. In particular, at a given BMI, Asian adults may have more body fat than white adults (9). Also, morbidity and mortality risk may be influenced by body composition and fat distribution in a manner that is

  20. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  1. Topographic representation of the human body in the occipitotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Tanya; Makin, Tamar R; Zohary, Ehud

    2010-11-01

    Large-scale topographic representations of the body have long been established in the somatosensory and motor cortices. Using functional imaging, we identified a topographically organized body part map within the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), with distinct clusters of voxels showing clear preference for different visually presented body parts. This representation was consistent both across hemispheres and participants. Using converging methods, the preference for specific body parts was demonstrated to be robust and did not merely reflect shape differences between the categories. Finally, execution of (unseen) movements with different body parts resulted in a limited topographic representation of the limbs and trunk, which partially overlapped with the visual body part map. This motor-driven activation in the OTC could not be explained solely by visual or motor imagery of the body parts. This suggests that visual and motor-related information converge within the OTC in a body part specific manner.

  2. Body futures: the case against marketing human organs.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, C J

    1987-06-01

    Creation of a market for the buying and selling of human organs for transplantation, even if it did allow supply to match demand, would be a serious mistake. Even if the market were fairly constructed, it might not dramatically increase the supply of transplantable organs, since donations likely would decrease if selling were allowed. Such a market would create a relative disadvantage for the poor, who would feel disproportionately greater pressure to sell their organs than would the wealthy. The possibility of realizing a profit from the organs of the dead could provide an incentive for murder or for doing less than we might to save lives. An organ market, where parts of a person are viewed as commodities, could lead to a general cheapening and coarsening of human relationships. Any organ selling system would create an economic relationship between buyer and seller, rather than a charitable one, raising quality control problems. The economic system, would drive out the volunteer donor system, sapping the altruistic bond that draws people together. Finally, an organ market presents a metaphysical threat in that it demeans our bodies to the status of articles to trade. An alternative to the current voluntary donor system and an organ market is to presume passive consent to organ donation with the right to informed refusal. Unless a record of the decedent's opposition to organ removal exists, the next of kin objects on being informed of the intent to remove organs, or the decedent was a member of a group known to oppose organ removal, we should presume a person's willingness to donate organs after death to save another person's life.

  3. The relation between body size perception and change in body mass index over 13 years: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Liu, Kiang; Wei, Gina S; Spring, Bonnie; Kiefe, Catarina; Greenland, Philip

    2009-04-01

    The authors assessed associations of body size perception and weight change over 13 years in black men and women and white men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (1992-2005). The perceptions of self and ideal body size were measured by using the Stunkard 9-figure scale at the year 7 examination (1992-1993). Figures were classified into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. Self-ideal discrepancy yielded 4 body size satisfaction categories. Body mass index (BMI) (measured at years 7, 10, 15, and 20) was the dependent variable in gender-specific adjusted multiple regression models stratified by year 7 BMI. Obese women who perceived themselves as obese lost 0.09 BMI units annually, while those who perceived themselves as normal weight gained 0.31 units annually (P = 0.0005); obese women who considered their body size much too large had less annual weight gain than did those who considered their body size a bit too large (0.21 vs. 0.38 BMI units; P = 0.009). Obese women with overweight ideal body size gained less weight annually than did those with normal weight ideal body size (0.12 vs. 0.27 BMI units; P = 0.04). Results for men showed fewer and weaker associations. When obese women perceive themselves as obese and feel that their body size is too large, they gain less weight over time. PMID:19221119

  4. An investigation of body part as object (BPO) responses in normal and brain-damaged adults.

    PubMed

    Duffy, R J; Duffy, J R

    1989-07-01

    A test of simple pantomime was administered to three groups of adults and comparisons were made across groups of the incidence of subjects who exhibited body part as object (BPO) responses and of the mean frequency of occurrence of BPO in each group. The three groups were left-hemisphere-damaged aphasics (N = 28), right-hemisphere-damaged (N = 24), and normal controls (N = 28). The results indicated no significant differences among groups on the BPO measures. Also, to test the strength of association between the frequency of occurrence of BPO and measures of limb apraxia and severity of aphasia for the left-hemisphere-damaged aphasic group, correlation coefficients were obtained. The correlations were low and nonsignificant. The results of this investigation do not support the common clinical assumption that the occurrence of BPO during the performance of simple pantomimes is pathognomic for left-hemisphere pathology or associated with limb apraxia.

  5. Height and body mass influence on human body outlines: a quantitative approach using an elliptic Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Ferdy, Jean Baptiste; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Claude, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Many studies use representations of human body outlines to study how individual characteristics, such as height and body mass, affect perception of body shape. These typically involve reality-based stimuli (e.g., pictures) or manipulated stimuli (e.g., drawings). These two classes of stimuli have important drawbacks that limit result interpretations. Realistic stimuli vary in terms of traits that are correlated, which makes it impossible to assess the effect of a single trait independently. In addition, manipulated stimuli usually do not represent realistic morphologies. We describe and examine a method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to automatically predict and represent body outlines for a given set of predicted variables (e.g., sex, height, and body mass). We first estimate whether these predictive variables are significantly related to human outlines. We find that height and body mass significantly influence body shape. Unlike height, the effect of body mass on shape differs between sexes. Then, we show that we can easily build a regression model that creates hypothetical outlines for an arbitrary set of covariates. These statistically computed outlines are quite realistic and may be used as stimuli in future studies.

  6. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-01

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  7. The Influence of Human Body Orientation on Distance Judgments.

    PubMed

    Jung, Edgard; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi; de la Rosa, Stephan; Butz, Martin V; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Meilinger, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    People maintain larger distances to other peoples' front than to their back. We investigated if humans also judge another person as closer when viewing their front than their back. Participants watched animated virtual characters (avatars) and moved a virtual plane toward their location after the avatar was removed. In Experiment 1, participants judged avatars, which were facing them as closer and made quicker estimates than to avatars looking away. In Experiment 2, avatars were rotated in 30 degree steps around the vertical axis. Observers judged avatars roughly facing them (i.e., looking max. 60 degrees away) as closer than avatars roughly looking away. No particular effect was observed for avatars directly facing and also gazing at the observer. We conclude that body orientation was sufficient to generate the asymmetry. Sensitivity of the orientation effect to gaze and to interpersonal distance would have suggested involvement of social processing, but this was not observed. We discuss social and lower-level processing as potential reasons for the effect. PMID:27014108

  8. Constraint, natural selection, and the evolution of human body form.

    PubMed

    Savell, Kristen R R; Auerbach, Benjamin M; Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-23

    Variation in body form among human groups is structured by a blend of natural selection driven by local climatic conditions and random genetic drift. However, attempts to test ecogeographic hypotheses have not distinguished between adaptive traits (i.e., those that evolved as a result of selection) and those that evolved as a correlated response to selection on other traits (i.e., nonadaptive traits), complicating our understanding of the relationship between climate and morphological distinctions among populations. Here, we use evolutionary quantitative methods to test if traits previously identified as supporting ecogeographic hypotheses were actually adaptive by estimating the force of selection on individual traits needed to drive among-group differentiation. Our results show that not all associations between trait means and latitude were caused by selection acting directly on each individual trait. Although radial and tibial length and biiliac and femoral head breadth show signs of responses to directional selection matching ecogeographic hypotheses, the femur was subject to little or no directional selection despite having shorter values by latitude. Additionally, in contradiction to ecogeographic hypotheses, the humerus was under directional selection for longer values by latitude. Responses to directional selection in the tibia and radius induced a nonadaptive correlated response in the humerus that overwhelmed its own trait-specific response to selection. This result emphasizes that mean differences between groups are not good indicators of which traits are adaptations in the absence of information about covariation among characteristics. PMID:27482101

  9. The Influence of Human Body Orientation on Distance Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Edgard; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi; de la Rosa, Stephan; Butz, Martin V.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Meilinger, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    People maintain larger distances to other peoples’ front than to their back. We investigated if humans also judge another person as closer when viewing their front than their back. Participants watched animated virtual characters (avatars) and moved a virtual plane toward their location after the avatar was removed. In Experiment 1, participants judged avatars, which were facing them as closer and made quicker estimates than to avatars looking away. In Experiment 2, avatars were rotated in 30 degree steps around the vertical axis. Observers judged avatars roughly facing them (i.e., looking max. 60 degrees away) as closer than avatars roughly looking away. No particular effect was observed for avatars directly facing and also gazing at the observer. We conclude that body orientation was sufficient to generate the asymmetry. Sensitivity of the orientation effect to gaze and to interpersonal distance would have suggested involvement of social processing, but this was not observed. We discuss social and lower-level processing as potential reasons for the effect. PMID:27014108

  10. Wearable thermoelectric generator for harvesting human body heat energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Lee, Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the realization of a wearable thermoelectric generator (TEG) in fabric for use in clothing. A TEG was fabricated by dispenser printing of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 and Bi2Se0.3Te2.7 in a polymer-based fabric. The prototype consisted of 12 thermocouples connected by conductive thread over an area of 6 × 25 mm2. The device generated a power of 224 nW for a temperature difference of 15 K. When the TEG was used on the human body, the measured output power was 224 nW in an ambient temperature of 5 °C. The power of the TEG was affected by the movement of the wearer. A higher voltage was maintained while walking than in a stationary state. In addition, the device did not deform after it was bent and stretched several times. The prospect of using the TEG in clothing applications was confirmed under realistic conditions.

  11. Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

  12. Optimal body fat percentage cut-offs for obesity in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wang, Chen; Bao, Yuqian; Peng, Liangpu; Gu, Huilin; Jia, Weiping

    2012-04-01

    Obesity results in an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Body fat percentage (BF%) is a common index of body composition. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity to predict MetS and T2DM in Chinese adults. The baseline study group comprised 3916 Chinese adults (age 30-70 years of age); 2033 subjects without MetS or T2DM were followed up for a maximum of 5.5 years. The BF% was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Optimal BF% cut-offs were analysed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to measure the association between obesity at baseline defined by BF% and newly developed MetS and T2DM. Mean BF% levels were lower in men than in women (23.9 ± 6.1% vs 33.5 ± 7.1%, respectively; P < 0.01). For men, the optimal BF% cut-offs for the prediction of MetS and T2DM were 25.45% and 26.65%, respectively; for women, the corresponding values were 34.95% and 36.55%. Subjects with high BF% (≥ 25% in men; ≥ 35% in women) had higher risks of incident MetS or T2DM than those with low BF% (< 25% in men; < 35% in women). The relative risks were 3.43 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.59-4.54) and 2.92 (95% CI 1.85-4.60), respectively. The optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity for the prediction of MetS and T2DM in Chinese men and women were around 25% and 35%, respectively.

  13. [Morphometric evaluation of relative adipose tissue content in the human body].

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the mathematical models of the human body composition revealed main shortcomings of body mass index (A. Quetelet, 1832). This allowed to offer more accurate body mass index (BMI = M/H3), body build index [BBI = (BMI)1/2] and body fatness index (BFI = M/HC2), where (M), (H) and (C) signified the mass, height and wrist circumference correspondingly. PMID:23659047

  14. Walking, body mass index, and self-rated health in a representative sample of Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Romo-Perez, Vicente; Souto, Dilia; Mota, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity (PI) are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486). The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03), and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes). 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week). According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations. PMID:26886367

  15. The Association of Physical Activity during Weekdays and Weekend with Body Composition in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gribben, Nicole; Wirth, Michael D.; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male). At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA), in moderate PA (MPA), and in vigorous PA (VPA). PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management. PMID:27200185

  16. Robotic Reconnaissance Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic reconnaissance missions to asteroids and comets will directly address crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning small body physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations .

  17. Body configuration and joint moment analysis during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males.

    PubMed

    Horita, T; Kitamura, K; Kohno, N

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the body configurations and the joint function during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males. Twelve healthy adult males and eight (one male and seven females) 6-yr-old kindergartners participated in this study. Subjects performed standing long jump on a force platform with full effort. Body segment and joint angles were analyzed by high speed videography (100 frames.s-1). Using kinetic and kinematic data, joint moments, power, and work done were calculated through a free body diagram. Average standing long jump performances were +1.5 SD above Japanese norm in both adults and children. A wide range of motion of the lower limb segments during flight phase was found in the adults. In the crouch prior to take off, joint muscle power peaks appeared in the same order, and joint contribution to the total work done showed almost the same values in both adults and children. It is suggested that gross motor pattern before take off is almost accomplished by the 6-yr-old. Judging by hip joint work, adult performance was much better than that of children, since the adults exerted relatively higher negative work from the onset of preparatory movement to the point of lowest center of gravity during crouch. It was concluded that skilled 6-yr-old children have not fully developed either hip negative work during preparatory movement or body configuration in the flight phase, although gross motor pattern before take off phase was accomplished to skilled adult level. PMID:1943628

  18. A preliminary investigation of racial differences in body talk in age-diverse U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Fiery, Mallory F; Martz, Denise M; Webb, Rose Mary; Curtin, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    To compare racial similarities and differences in conversations about body image, this online study surveyed U.S. adult men (n=1928) and women (n=1965) on 1) exposure to and 2) pressure to engage in body talk using vignettes featuring unfavorable body talk (e.g., "fat talk") or favorable self-accepting body talk. Black women reported less unfavorable body talk compared to White, Hispanic, and Asian women. Conversely, Black and Hispanic women reported more experience with favorable body talk compared to White women. Asian men reported more experience with favorable and unfavorable body talk compared to White men, and Black men reported more experience with favorable body talk compared to White men. Findings for Black women and men are largely consistent with body image literature espousing personal individualization of beauty and style (e.g., "She's got it going on"). Given the dearth of research on body talk among men, conclusions regarding racial differences among men are tentative. Further exploration of varying forms of body talk holds promise for the development of culturally-sensitive prevention and treatment efforts for body image and disordered eating among culturally diverse groups of men and women. PMID:27015294

  19. [Nuclear techniques in nutrition: assessment of body fat and intake of human milk in breast-fed infants].

    PubMed

    Pallaro, Anabel; Tarducci, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The application of nuclear techniques in the area of nutrition is safe because they use stable isotopes. The deuterium dilution method is used in body composition and human milk intake analysis. It is a reference method for body fat and validates inexpensive tools because of its accuracy, simplicity of application in individuals and population and the background of its usefulness in adults and children as an evaluation tool in clinical and health programs. It is a non-invasive technique as it uses saliva, which facilitates the assessment in pediatric populations. Changes in body fat are associated with non-communicable diseases; moreover, normal weight individuals with high fat deposition were reported. Furthermore, this technique is the only accurate way to determine whether infants are exclusively breast-fed and validate conventional methods based on surveys to mothers.

  20. The influence of body configuration on motor imagery of walking in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Saimpont, A; Malouin, F; Tousignant, B; Jackson, P L

    2012-10-11

    Motor imagery (MI) refers to the mental simulation of a movement. It is used as a tool to improve motor function in several populations. In young adults, it has been repeatedly shown that MI of upper-limb movements is facilitated when one's posture is congruent with the movement to simulate. As MI training is notably used for improving locomotor-related activities in older populations, it may be questioned whether subjects' body configuration could also influence MI of walking movements and whether this influence is preserved with age. In the present study, we examined the impact of one's body position (congruent with walking: standing/incongruent with walking: sitting) on the duration of walking simulation over two distances (3m/6m), in 26 young (21 females, 5 males; mean: 23.2 ± 2.4 years) and 26 elderly (18 females, 8 males; mean: 72.7 ± 5.5 years) healthy subjects. It was found that, in both age groups, walking simulation times while standing were shorter than while sitting. Furthermore, walking simulation times in the standing position were closer to actual walking times to cover the same distances. The present findings extend to walking movements the notion that adopting a posture congruent with the movement to imagine facilitates the simulation process. They also suggest that, at least for simple walking tasks, this effect is maintained across the lifespan. The implication of our findings for optimizing MI training of locomotor-related activities is underlined.

  1. Energy expenditure of freely swimming adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and its link with body acceleration.

    PubMed

    Enstipp, Manfred R; Ciccione, Stéphane; Gineste, Benoit; Milbergue, Myriam; Ballorain, Katia; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Kato, Akiko; Plot, Virginie; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2011-12-01

    Marine turtles are globally threatened. Crucial for the conservation of these large ectotherms is a detailed knowledge of their energy relationships, especially their at-sea metabolic rates, which will ultimately define population structure and size. Measuring metabolic rates in free-ranging aquatic animals, however, remains a challenge. Hence, it is not surprising that for most marine turtle species we know little about the energetic requirements of adults at sea. Recently, accelerometry has emerged as a promising tool for estimating activity-specific metabolic rates of animals in the field. Accelerometry allows quantification of the movement of animals (ODBA/PDBA, overall/partial dynamic body acceleration), which, after calibration, might serve as a proxy for metabolic rate. We measured oxygen consumption rates (V(O(2))) of adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas; 142.1±26.9 kg) at rest and when swimming within a 13 m-long swim channel, using flow-through respirometry. We investigated the effect of water temperature (T(w)) on turtle and tested the hypothesis that turtle body acceleration can be used as a proxy for V(O(2)). Mean mass-specific V(O(2)) (sV(O(2))) of six turtles when resting at a T(w) of 25.8±1.0°C was 0.50±0.09 ml min(-1) kg(-0.83). sV(O(2))increased significantly with T(w) and activity level. Changes in sV(O(2)) were paralleled by changes in respiratory frequency (f(R)). Deploying bi-axial accelerometers in conjunction with respirometry, we found a significant positive relationship between sV(O(2)) and PDBA that was modified by T(w). The resulting predictive equation was highly significant (r(2)=0.83, P<0.0001) and associated error estimates were small (mean algebraic error 3.3%), indicating that body acceleration is a good predictor of V(O(2)) in green turtles. Our results suggest that accelerometry is a suitable method to investigate marine turtle energetics at sea. PMID:22071193

  2. Energy expenditure of freely swimming adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and its link with body acceleration.

    PubMed

    Enstipp, Manfred R; Ciccione, Stéphane; Gineste, Benoit; Milbergue, Myriam; Ballorain, Katia; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Kato, Akiko; Plot, Virginie; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2011-12-01

    Marine turtles are globally threatened. Crucial for the conservation of these large ectotherms is a detailed knowledge of their energy relationships, especially their at-sea metabolic rates, which will ultimately define population structure and size. Measuring metabolic rates in free-ranging aquatic animals, however, remains a challenge. Hence, it is not surprising that for most marine turtle species we know little about the energetic requirements of adults at sea. Recently, accelerometry has emerged as a promising tool for estimating activity-specific metabolic rates of animals in the field. Accelerometry allows quantification of the movement of animals (ODBA/PDBA, overall/partial dynamic body acceleration), which, after calibration, might serve as a proxy for metabolic rate. We measured oxygen consumption rates (V(O(2))) of adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas; 142.1±26.9 kg) at rest and when swimming within a 13 m-long swim channel, using flow-through respirometry. We investigated the effect of water temperature (T(w)) on turtle and tested the hypothesis that turtle body acceleration can be used as a proxy for V(O(2)). Mean mass-specific V(O(2)) (sV(O(2))) of six turtles when resting at a T(w) of 25.8±1.0°C was 0.50±0.09 ml min(-1) kg(-0.83). sV(O(2))increased significantly with T(w) and activity level. Changes in sV(O(2)) were paralleled by changes in respiratory frequency (f(R)). Deploying bi-axial accelerometers in conjunction with respirometry, we found a significant positive relationship between sV(O(2)) and PDBA that was modified by T(w). The resulting predictive equation was highly significant (r(2)=0.83, P<0.0001) and associated error estimates were small (mean algebraic error 3.3%), indicating that body acceleration is a good predictor of V(O(2)) in green turtles. Our results suggest that accelerometry is a suitable method to investigate marine turtle energetics at sea.

  3. Heterogeneity of income and lifestyle determinants of body weight among adult women in Mexico, 2006.

    PubMed

    Colchero, M A; Sosa-Rubí, S G

    2012-07-01

    In Mexico, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican women increased from 64% in 2000 to 72% in 2006. In this paper, we report our findings on the relation of women's body mass index (BMI) with income and lifestyles choices using data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006. The two following approaches were executed. First, we estimated a two-stage least-squares regression to control for the potential endogeneity of income stratified by urban or rural residency. The second approach was aimed at exploring whether the determinants of weight varied among different weight levels using latent class models. Our findings from the two-stage least-squares regression show a positive non-significant association between income and BMI in the overall and urban samples but a significant positive relationship among rural women. Our results suggest that one unit increase in income is associated with 4.1% increase in body weight in rural areas. Estimates from the latent class model (LCM) show a positive but marginally significant association between income and BMI in the overall sample only in the class where there is a greater likelihood that women have normal weight or overweight compared to the class with a higher probability of being obese, but we also found a large association in rural areas for both classes. Lifestyle choices were associated with BMI. Results from the two-stage least-squares regressions reveal that more hours sitting per day and a higher percentage of expenditures in sugary beverages were associated with higher BMI levels. In the LCM, for women who eventually belong to the higher body weight class, lifestyles seem to matter more. Findings from this research suggest that policies to tackle the obesity epidemic among adult women should be different for women living in urban and rural areas and women with different weight levels.

  4. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  5. Beneficial effects of exercise on aerobic capacity and body composition in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K H; Hornak, J E

    1993-05-01

    Adults with Prader Willi syndrome were subdivided into an experimental group (n = 6) and a control group (n = 5) to determine the effects of an aerobic exercise program. Their resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, body weight, and somatotype were determined. Participants in a 6-month walking program showed statistically significant differences in all variables measuring aerobic capacity and a significant variation in weight loss over the 6-month program compared to the control group.

  6. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase. PMID:25958462

  7. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase.

  8. Analysis of Long-Term Temperature Variations in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Dakappa, Pradeepa Hoskeri; Mahabala, Chakrapani

    2015-01-01

    Body temperature is a continuous physiological variable. In normal healthy adults, oral temperature is estimated to vary between 36.1°C and 37.2°C. Fever is a complex host response to many external and internal agents and is a potential contributor to many clinical conditions. Despite being one of the foremost vital signs, temperature and its analysis and variations during many pathological conditions has yet to be examined in detail using mathematical techniques. Classical fever patterns based on recordings obtained every 8-12 h have been developed. However, such patterns do not provide meaningful information in diagnosing diseases. Because fever is a host response, it is likely that there could be a unique response to specific etiologies. Continuous long-term temperature monitoring and pattern analysis using specific analytical methods developed in engineering and physics could aid in revealing unique fever responses of hosts and in different clinical conditions. Furthermore, such analysis can potentially be used as a novel diagnostic tool and to study the effect of pharmaceutical agents and other therapeutic protocols. Thus, the goal of our article is to present a comprehensive review of the recent relevant literature and analyze the current state of research regarding temperature variations in the human body.

  9. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ∼35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. PMID:25540216

  10. A review of the volatiles from the healthy human body.

    PubMed

    de Lacy Costello, B; Amann, A; Al-Kateb, H; Flynn, C; Filipiak, W; Khalid, T; Osborne, D; Ratcliffe, N M

    2014-03-01

    A compendium of all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from the human body (the volatolome) is for the first time reported. 1840 VOCs have been assigned from breath (872), saliva (359), blood (154), milk (256), skin secretions (532) urine (279), and faeces (381) in apparently healthy individuals. Compounds were assigned CAS registry numbers and named according to a common convention where possible. The compounds have been grouped into tables according to their chemical class or functionality to permit easy comparison. Some clear differences are observed, for instance, a lack of esters in urine with a high number in faeces. Careful use of the database is needed. The numbers may not be a true reflection of the actual VOCs present from each bodily excretion. The lack of a compound could be due to the techniques used or reflect the intensity of effort e.g. there are few publications on VOCs from blood compared to a large number on VOCs in breath. The large number of volatiles reported from skin is partly due to the methodologies used, e.g. collecting excretions on glass beads and then heating to desorb VOCs. All compounds have been included as reported (unless there was a clear discrepancy between name and chemical structure), but there may be some mistaken assignations arising from the original publications, particularly for isomers. It is the authors' intention that this database will not only be a useful database of VOCs listed in the literature, but will stimulate further study of VOCs from healthy individuals. Establishing a list of volatiles emanating from healthy individuals and increased understanding of VOC metabolic pathways is an important step for differentiating between diseases using VOCs.

  11. Gustatory reaction time to various sweeteners in human adults.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Kato, T; Matsuo, R; Kawamura, Y; Yoshida, M

    1985-09-01

    Reaction times to recognize the sweet taste of 12 sweeteners at various concentrations were measured in 48 human adults. The reaction time (T) decreased with increasing concentration (C) of each sweetener applied to the anterior dorsal tongue. The relationships between T and C, and T and logC were well described by a rectangular hyperbola formula for each of the 12 sweeteners. Reaction times to discriminate sweet taste quality between pairs of sweeteners were measured, then a similarity index was calculated. Factor analysis based on correlation coefficients between pairs of sweeteners which were obtained by the similarity indices has indicated classification of the sweeteners. Sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose, sorbitol and aspartame tend to group together. Na-cyclamate and Na-saccharin form another group. DL-alanine, stevioside and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone are rather independent and do not belong to any group.

  12. Variations in adult body mass in roe deer: the effects of population density at birth and of habitat quality.

    PubMed Central

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Van Laere, Guy; Duncan, Patrick; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Delorme, Daniel; Maillard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of fitness components in many organisms, and adult mass varies considerably among individuals within populations. These variations have several causes, involve temporal and spatial factors, and are not yet well understood. We use long-term data from 20 roe deer cohorts (1977-96) in a 2600 ha study area (Chizé, western France) with two habitats contrasting in quality (rich oak forest in the North versus poor beech forest in the South) to analyse the effects of both cohort and habitat quality on adult mass (i.e. median body mass between 4 and 10 years of age) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Cohort strongly influenced the adult body mass of roe deer in both sexes: males born in 1994 were 5.2 kg heavier when aged between 4 and 10 years old than males born in 1986, while females born in 1995 were 4.7 kg heavier between 4 and 10 years old than females born in 1982. For a given cohort, adult males were, on average, 0.9 kg heavier in the rich oak forest than in the poor beech forest. A similar trend occurred for adult females (0.5 kg heavier in the oak forest). The effects of cohort and habitat were additive and accounted for ca. 40% of the variation observed in the adult mass of roe deer at Chizé (males: 41.2%; females: 40.2%). Population density during the spring of the birth accounted for about 35% of cohort variation, whereas rainfall in May-June had no effect. Such delayed effects of density at birth on adult body mass probably affect population dynamics, and might constitute a mechanism by which delayed density-dependence occurs in ungulate populations. PMID:11934368

  13. The human carotid body releases acetylcholine, ATP and cytokines during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kåhlin, Jessica; Mkrtchian, Souren; Ebberyd, Anette; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle; Nordlander, Britt; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Prabhakar, Nanduri; Poellinger, Lorenz; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I

    2014-08-01

    Studies on experimental animals established that the carotid bodies are sensory organs for detecting arterial blood O2 levels and that the ensuing chemosensory reflex is a major regulator of cardiorespiratory functions during hypoxia. However, little information is available on the human carotid body responses to hypoxia. The present study was performed on human carotid bodies obtained from surgical patients undergoing elective head and neck cancer surgery. Our results show that exposing carotid body slices to hypoxia for a period as brief as 5 min markedly facilitates the release of ACh and ATP. Furthermore, prolonged hypoxia for 1 h induces an increased release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that type 1 cells of the human carotid body express an array of cytokine receptors as well as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ACh and ATP are released from the human carotid body in response to hypoxia, suggesting that these neurotransmitters, as in several experimental animal models, play a role in hypoxic signalling also in the human carotid body. The finding that the human carotid body releases cytokines in response to hypoxia adds to the growing body of information suggesting that the carotid body may play a role in detecting inflammation, providing a link between the immune system and the nervous system.

  14. Experiments on the ectoparasitic deer ked that often attacks humans; preferences for body parts, colour and temperature.

    PubMed

    Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Hokkanen, P; Härkönen, S; Kaitala, A; Kaunisto, S; Laaksonen, S; Kekäläinen, J; Ylönen, H

    2010-06-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) can fail in its host search. Host search fails when an individual deer ked irreversibly accepts a host unsuitable for its reproduction (e.g. a human) and drops its wings. In northern Europe, the main host of the deer ked is the moose (Alces alces). The deer ked is increasingly causing serious problems for humans (for example, causing deer ked dermatitis) and is considered a threat for the recreational use of forests. The adult deer ked flies in early and mid-autumn to search for a host. Our aims were: (i) to study whether there are ways to avoid deer ked attacks by wearing particular clothing, and (ii) to evaluate deer ked host choice. Using human targets, we explored the cues the deer ked uses for host selection. We studied which part of the host body deer keds target and if body colour and temperature affect their choice. In our experiments, deer keds landed more on dark and red clothing than on white clothing. Moreover, deer keds mostly attacked the upper body parts and preferred the back side of the body over the front side. Finally, deer keds preferred the warmest areas of the host.

  15. Representational Momentum for the Human Body: Awkwardness Matters, Experience Does Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Margaret; Lancaster, Jessy; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of the human body appears to involve predictive simulations that project forward to track unfolding body-motion events. Here we use representational momentum (RM) to investigate whether implicit knowledge of a learned arbitrary system of body movement such as sign language influences this prediction process, and how this compares to…

  16. Body mass of wild Bornean orangutans living in human-dominated landscapes: Implications for understanding their ecology and conservation.

    PubMed

    Rayadin, Yaya; Spehar, Stephanie N

    2015-06-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of a species' ecology, including locomotion, foraging strategies, and energetics. Accurate information on the body mass of wild primates allows us to develop explanatory models for relationships among body size, ecology, and behavior and is crucial for reconstructing the ecology and behavior of fossil primates and hominins. Information on body mass can also provide indirect information on health and can be an important tool for conservation in the context of increasingly widespread habitat disturbance. This study reports body mass data recorded for wild Northeast Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) during relocation efforts in forestry and oil palm plantations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The average mass of flanged adult males (n = 12, 74 ± 9.78 kg) and adult females (n = 7, 35.29 ± 7.32 kg) from this study were 13.6% and 9% lower, respectively, than the only other published wild Bornean orangutan body mass measurements, but the range of weights for both males and females was larger for this study. This pattern could be due to sampling error, data collection differences, or the influence of habitat disturbance, specifically a lack of access to resources, on individual health. When necessary relocations present the opportunity, we encourage researchers to prioritize the collection of body size data for the purposes of understanding ecology but also as an indirect means of monitoring population viability. As primate habitat becomes increasingly fragmented and altered by humans such data will become critical to our ability to make informed conservation decisions. PMID:25682922

  17. The story of the body and the story of the person: towards an ethics of representing human bodies and body-parts.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2005-01-01

    Western culture has a few traditions of representing the human body - among them mortuary art (gisants), the freak show, the culture of the relics, renaissance art and pre-modern and modern anatomy. A historical analysis in the spirit of Norbert Elias is offered with regard to body - person relationship in anatomy. Modern anatomy is characterized by separating the story of the person from the story of the body, a strategy that is incompatible with the bio-psycho-social paradigm of clinical medicine. The paper discusses different aspects of the above traditions and how they might bear on this conflict and on contemporary bioethics and bedside practice.

  18. Influence of Serum Leptin on Weight and Body Fat Growth in Children at High Risk for Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Agarwal, Neha; Roberts, Mary D.; Han, Joan C.; Theim, Kelly R.; Vexler, Albert; Troendle, James; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine serum leptin prospectively as a predictor of weight and body fat growth in children at high risk for adult obesity. We hypothesized that leptin measurements would be positively associated with increased growth of adipose tissue because children with high baseline leptin for their body fat mass have greater leptin resistance and thus would have greater susceptibility to weight gain. Methods Children ages 6–12 yr at high risk for adult obesity because of early-onset childhood overweight and/or parental overweight were recruited from 1996–2004. Growth in body mass index (BMI) was studied in 197 children, and growth in total body fat mass was examined in 149 children over an average follow-up interval of 4.4 yr (range, 1–8 yr). Longitudinal analyses accounted for sex, race, socioeconomic status, initial body composition, age, skeletal age, and physical activity and included all available interim visits for each individual so that a total of 982 subject visits were included in the analysis. Results At baseline, 43% of children studied were overweight (BMI ≥ 95th percentile); during follow-up, an additional 14% became overweight. Independent of initial body composition, baseline leptin was a statistically significant positive predictor of increased BMI (P = 0.0147) and increased total body fat mass (P < 0.007). Conclusions High serum leptin, independent of body fat, may be an indicator of increased leptin resistance, which predisposes children at high risk for adult obesity to somewhat greater growth in weight and body fat during childhood. PMID:17179198

  19. Optimal frequency range for medical radar measurements of human heartbeats using body-contact radar.

    PubMed

    Brovoll, Sverre; Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the optimal frequency range for heartbeat measurements using body-contact radar is experimentally evaluated. A Body-contact radar senses electromagnetic waves that have penetrated the human body, but the range of frequencies that can be used are limited by the electric properties of the human tissue. The optimal frequency range is an important property needed for the design of body-contact radar systems for heartbeat measurements. In this study heartbeats are measured using three different antennas at discrete frequencies from 0.1 - 10 GHz, and the strength of the received heartbeat signal is calculated. To characterize the antennas, when in contact with the body, two port S-parameters(†) are measured for the antennas using a pork rib as a phantom for the human body. The results shows that frequencies up to 2.5 GHz can be used for heartbeat measurements with body-contact radar.

  20. Extraction of the velocity of walking human's body segments using ultrasonic Doppler.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Asif; Sabatier, James M; Bradley, Marshall; Ekimov, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    The focus of this paper is to experimentally extract the Doppler signatures of a walking human's individual body segments using an ultrasonic Doppler system (UDS) operating at 40 kHz. In a human's walk, the major contribution to Doppler velocities and acoustic scattering is from the foot, lower leg, thigh (upper leg) and torso. The Doppler signature of these human body segments are extracted experimentally. The measurements were made by illuminating one of these body segments at a time and blocking the remaining body segments using acoustic screens. The results obtained in our experiment were verified with the results published by Bradley using a physics-based model for Doppler sonar spectrograms.

  1. [A portable impedance meter for monitoring liquid compartments of human body under space flight conditions].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nikolaev, D V; Tuĭkin, S A; Kozharinov, V I; Grachev, V A

    2007-01-01

    A portable two-frequency tetrapolar impedance meter was developed to study the state of liquid compartments of human body under zero-gravity conditions. The portable impedance meter makes it possible to monitor the hydration state of human body under conditions of long-term space flight on board international space station.

  2. Human body motion tracking based on quantum-inspired immune cloning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hong; Yue, Lichuan; Jiao, Licheng; Wu, Xing

    2009-10-01

    In a static monocular camera system, to gain a perfect 3D human body posture is a great challenge for Computer Vision technology now. This paper presented human postures recognition from video sequences using the Quantum-Inspired Immune Cloning Algorithm (QICA). The algorithm included three parts. Firstly, prior knowledge of human beings was used, the key joint points of human could be detected automatically from the human contours and skeletons which could be thinning from the contours; And due to the complexity of human movement, a forecasting mechanism of occlusion joint points was addressed to get optimum 2D key joint points of human body; And then pose estimation recovered by optimizing between the 2D projection of 3D human key joint points and 2D detection key joint points using QICA, which recovered the movement of human body perfectly, because this algorithm could acquire not only the global optimal solution, but the local optimal solution.

  3. Understanding everyday life of morbidly obese adults-habits and body image

    PubMed Central

    Borge, Lisbet; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Background Morbid obesity is a progressive, chronic condition associated with failed attempts at change and repeated relapses. Aim There seems to be little previous research into the understanding of the everyday life of morbidly obese adults. We wanted to gain more knowledge about characteristics of eating habits and body image as well as motivational forces for change. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen in order to gain insight into how morbidly obese adults experience everyday life. Qualitative interviews are well suited to provide insight into themes from the interviewee's life story from the subjects’ own perspectives. To gain insight into such processes, a narrative approach that allowed the informants to give voice to their ways of doing, thinking and feeling in daily life, was adopted. The informants comprised seven women and four men aged of 26–56 years, recruited from a population of obese individuals who had participated in a weight reduction course. A hermeneutic approach was used where the research question was the basis for a reflective interpretation. Results The following meaning-units were identified: to be perceived as overweight; and to see oneself as overweight. Ingrained habits: the struggle between knowing and doing; acting without knowing; and eating is soothing. Conclusions Seeing oneself as an obese person is a gradual process that implied experiencing oneself as different from significant others, such as (slim) siblings and friends. To experience a gap between knowing and doing concerning food habits in everyday life indicates that informants value they have a choice. This is an important insight to consider when framing interventions to support this vulnerable group. PMID:22866062

  4. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P<0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared to all other groups (P<0.05), and significantly overestimated calories in food compared to both WL groups (P<0.05). However, among all groups there was a considerable range of over and underestimation (−280 kcal to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  5. Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Kathryn H.; Hornak, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Six adults with Prader Willi syndrome who participated in a six-month walking program showed significant differences in resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, and weight loss, compared to a control group of five nonparticipants. (Author/JDD)

  6. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  7. Distribution of insulin mRNA transcripts within the human body.

    PubMed

    Bell, Glenn D; Reddy, Shiva; Sun, Xueying; Yang, Yi; Krissansen, Geoffrey W

    2014-08-29

    Here we sought evidence for the existence of insulin mRNA-producing cells outside the human pancreas. Commercially available complementary DNA (cDNA) arrays prepared from 72 different types of adult human tissues were screened by PCR for transcripts encoding insulin, and other classic pancreatic hormones. Insulin mRNA transcripts were detected by standard PCR in the pancreas, stomach, pylorus region of the stomach, and the duodenum; and additionally by nested PCR in the jejunum, ileum and cecum, but not in other body tissues including the brain and colon. Most of these tissues also variably expressed mRNA transcripts for amylase α2B, amylin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. In summary, using sensitive PCR methods we have provided evidence for the presence of rare insulin mRNA-expressing cells within the stomach, small intestine, and cecum. Their role at these sites may be to support classical enteroendocrine cells as sentinels to sense and monitor gastric contents passing into and through the bowel.

  8. Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity—a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events. PMID:22757749

  9. Tensor body: real-time reconstruction of the human body and avatar synthesis from RGB-D.

    PubMed

    Barmpoutis, Angelos

    2013-10-01

    Real-time 3-D reconstruction of the human body has many applications in anthropometry, telecommunications, gaming, fashion, and other areas of human-computer interaction. In this paper, a novel framework is presented for reconstructing the 3-D model of the human body from a sequence of RGB-D frames. The reconstruction is performed in real time while the human subject moves arbitrarily in front of the camera. The method employs a novel parameterization of cylindrical-type objects using Cartesian tensor and b-spline bases along the radial and longitudinal dimension respectively. The proposed model, dubbed tensor body, is fitted to the input data using a multistep framework that involves segmentation of the different body regions, robust filtering of the data via a dynamic histogram, and energy-based optimization with positive-definite constraints. A Riemannian metric on the space of positive-definite tensor splines is analytically defined and employed in this framework. The efficacy of the presented methods is demonstrated in several real-data experiments using the Microsoft Kinect sensor. PMID:23974673

  10. Tensor body: real-time reconstruction of the human body and avatar synthesis from RGB-D.

    PubMed

    Barmpoutis, Angelos

    2013-10-01

    Real-time 3-D reconstruction of the human body has many applications in anthropometry, telecommunications, gaming, fashion, and other areas of human-computer interaction. In this paper, a novel framework is presented for reconstructing the 3-D model of the human body from a sequence of RGB-D frames. The reconstruction is performed in real time while the human subject moves arbitrarily in front of the camera. The method employs a novel parameterization of cylindrical-type objects using Cartesian tensor and b-spline bases along the radial and longitudinal dimension respectively. The proposed model, dubbed tensor body, is fitted to the input data using a multistep framework that involves segmentation of the different body regions, robust filtering of the data via a dynamic histogram, and energy-based optimization with positive-definite constraints. A Riemannian metric on the space of positive-definite tensor splines is analytically defined and employed in this framework. The efficacy of the presented methods is demonstrated in several real-data experiments using the Microsoft Kinect sensor.

  11. Role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in baroreflex control of blood pressure during hypoglycaemia in humans.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Taylor, Jennifer L; Dube, Simmi; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Joyner, Michael J; Wehrwein, Erica A

    2014-04-01

    Activation of the carotid body chemoreceptors with hypoxia alters baroreceptor-mediated responses. We aimed to examine whether this relationship can be translated to other chemoreceptor stimuli (i.e. hypoglycaemia) by testing the following hypotheses: (i) activation of the carotid body chemoreceptors with hypoglycaemia would reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (sCBRS) in healthy humans; and (ii) desensitization of the carotid chemoreceptors with hyperoxia would restore sCBRS to baseline levels during hypoglycaemia. Ten young healthy adults completed two 180 min hyperinsulinaemic [2 mU (kg fat-free mass)(-1) min(-1)], hypoglycaemic (∼ 3.2 μmol ml(-1)) clamps, separated by at least 1 week and randomized to normoxia (arterial partial pressure of O2, 122 ± 10 mmHg) or hyperoxia (arterial partial pressure of O2, 424 ± 123 mmHg; to blunt activation of the carotid body glomus cells). Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, plasma catecholamines, heart rate variability (HRV) and sCBRS were assessed. During hypoglycaemia, HRV and sCBRS were reduced (P < 0.05) and the baroreflex working range was shifted to higher heart rates. When hyperoxia was superimposed on hypoglycaemia, there was a greater reduction in blood pressure and a blunted rise in heart rate when compared with normoxic conditions (P < 0.05); however, there was no detectable effect of hyperoxia on sCBRS or HRV during hypoglycaemia (P > 0.05). In summary, hypoglycaemia-mediated changes in HRV and sCBRS cannot be attributed exclusively to the carotid chemoreceptors; however, the chemoreceptors appear to play a role in resetting the baroreflex working range during hypoglycaemia.

  12. Comprehensive cellular‐resolution atlas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Joshua J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A.C.; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet‐Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A.; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Fischl, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole‐brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high‐resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large‐format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto‐ and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127–3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  13. Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song-Lin; Royall, Joshua J; Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A C; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H Ronald; Hohmann, John G; Jones, Allan R; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hof, Patrick R; Fischl, Bruce; Lein, Ed S

    2016-11-01

    Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  14. Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song-Lin; Royall, Joshua J; Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A C; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H Ronald; Hohmann, John G; Jones, Allan R; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hof, Patrick R; Fischl, Bruce; Lein, Ed S

    2016-11-01

    Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Body Mass Index and Adult Weight Gain Among Reproductive Age Women with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Michelle; Ainalem, Abinnet; Qiu, Chunfang; Peterlin, B. Lee; Aurora, Sheena K.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between migraine and pre-gravid obesity; and to assess the risk of adult weight gain among women with history of a pediatric diagnosis of migraine. Background Obesity, comorbid with pain disorders including migraine, shares common pathophysiological characteristics including systemic inflammation, and derangements in adipose-tissue derived cytokines. Despite biochemical and epidemiological commonalities, obesity-migraine associations have been inconsistently observed. Methods A cohort of 3,733 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained participants’ self-reported history of physician-diagnosed migraine and collected self-reported information about pre-gravid weight, adult height and net weight change from age 18 to the 3-monthsperiodpriorto pregnancy. Using pre-gravid body mass index, we categorized participants as follows: lean (<18.5 kg/m2); normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2); overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), obese (30–34.9 kg/m2), severely obese (35–39.9 kg/m2), and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m2). Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results After adjusting for confounders, relative to normal weight women, obese women had a 1.48-fold increased odds of migraine(OR=1.48; 95%CI 1.12–1.96). Severely obese (OR=2.07; 95%CI 1.27–3.39) and morbidly obese (OR=2.75; 95%CI 1.60–4.70) had the highest odds of migraines. Women with a history of diagnosed pediatric migraine had a 1.67-fold higher odds of gaining ≥10.0 kg above their weight at age 18, as compared with non-migraineurs (OR=1.67; 95%CI 1.13–2.47). Conclusion These data support earlier observations of migraine-obesity association among women, and extend the literature to include evidence of adult weight gain among women with a history of pediatric migraine. PMID:21269300

  16. Distribution and determinants of body mass index of non-smoking adults in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Pragti; Chhabra, Sunil K

    2007-09-01

    Data on height and weight of 3,428 non-smoking healthy adult subjects, obtained during an earlier community-based study in Delhi, India, on chronic respiratory morbidity due to ambient air pollution was analyzed to study the distribution of body mass index (BMI) and its determinants among adults in Delhi. The sample was drawn by systematic sampling from rural and urban areas of Delhi. In urban areas, the sampling frame was restricted to areas around air quality-monitoring stations. However, the areas were spread across the city and reflected wide economic spectrum. Subjects were classified as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese as per the criteria of the World Health Organization for BMI. The mean BMI of the entire sample was 22.14 +/- 4.61. It was higher among females, urban residents, and the higher-income group. Overall, 49.7% of the 3,428 subjects had a normal nutritional status, 24.8% were underweight, 19.4% overweight, and 6.1% obese. The prevalence of underweight was higher in rural areas (38.5%) and among the lower-income group (39.9%), while overweight and obesity were more common in urban residents (22.7% and 7.5% respectively), among females (21.7% and 7.7%), and the higher-income group (31.8% and 11%) (p < 0.05). The adjusted odds for underweight were 2.02 for rural subjects and 4.00 for the lower-income group. For overweight or obesity, odds were 5.6 for the higher-income group, 3.62 for urban residents, and 2.5 for females. It was concluded that problems of both underweight and overweight and obesity exist among the adults of Delhi. While females, residents of urban areas, and economically-better-off were more likely to be overweight or obese, residents of rural areas and those from lower-income groups were more likely to be underweight. PMID:18330062

  17. Serum Vitamin D status and its relations to body fatness and fitness and risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinkook; Gong, Jiyoung; Hong, Hyeryun; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2013-12-01

    The study examined the relations of serum vitamin D levels to body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in young adults in Korea. A total of 593 young men completed a health examination, body fatness, maximal treadmill exercise test, and assessment of metabolic risk factors. Participants were classified by serum vitamin D levels as deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (20~30 ng/mL), and sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). Body fatness, CRF, and metabolic risk factors were evaluated according to serum vitamin D classification. Significant inverse trends in body fatness and metabolic risk factors were observed, as was a significant linear trend for CRF across incremental vitamin D categories in this study population. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CRF. Compared to the BMI-based lean group, the obese groups had significantly higher odds ratio for serum vitamin D insufficiency before and after adjusting for age, CRF, and physical activity. Similarly, compared to percent body fat- and waist circumference-based lean groups, the obese groups had significant higher odds ratios for serum vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, the current findings of the study suggest that along with vitamin D intakes, body fat loss and outdoor physical activity should be promoted as non-pharmacologic means to improve metabolic risk factors in young adults.

  18. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  19. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology. PMID:26832439

  20. Body mass index and subjective well-being in young adults: a twin population study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. Methods FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20), satisfaction with leisure time, work, and family relationships, and satisfaction with sex life in young adulthood in the 1975–79 birth cohorts of Finnish twins (n=5240). We studied the relationship between indicators of subjective well-being and BMI both in full birth cohorts and in subgroups stratified by lifetime DSM-IV eating disorders. Results We found an inverse U-shaped relationship between all indicators of subjective well-being and BMI in men. There was no overall association between BMI and subjective well-being in women. However, there was an inverse U-shaped relationship between BMI and indicators of subjective well-being in women with a lifetime eating disorder and their healthy female co-twins. Subjective well-being was optimal in the overweight category. Conclusions Both underweight and obesity are associated with impaired subjective well-being in young men. The BMI reflecting optimal subjective well-being of young men may be higher than currently recognized. Categorization of body weight in terms of BMI may need to be reassessed in young men. BMI and subjective well-being are related in women with a lifetime eating disorder, but not in the general population of young women. PMID:23496885

  1. Obesity in young Dutch adults: II, daily life-style and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Baecke, J A; Burema, J; Frijters, J E; Hautvast, J G; van der Wiel-Wetzels, W A

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between aspects of daily life-style and age, level of education, and body mass index (BMI; weight/height) were studied in young adult males (n = 1765) and females (n = 2092) in three age groups (19-21, 24-26 and 29-31 yr) in a Dutch population. By means of principal-components analysis five conceptually meaningful factors could be distinguished within the aspects of daily life-style which were considered. These factors were interpreted as constructs of: (1) slimming behaviour; (2) behaviour characterized by the consumption of coffee and alcohol, smoking habits and the number of hours sleep per night (CASS behaviour); (3) eating sweet and savoury snacks between meals; (4) health-conscious behaviour; and (5) physical activity. After adjustments were made for age and level of education, multiple regression analysis showed that slimming behaviour was positively related to BMI in both sexes, CASS behaviour was positively related to BMI in males, and health-conscious behaviour was inversely related to BMI in both sexes. An observed positive relationship between BMI and occupational physical activity in males could be explained by a confounding effect of socio-economic status. The observed weak positive relationship between number of hours active sport per month and BMI in males is possibly due to a difference in lean body mass. The consumption of sweet and savoury snacks was not related to BMI in either sex. These findings suggest that the daily life-style variables should be interpreted as indicators of more general types of behaviour, some of which may be important determinants of obesity.

  2. Footprint-based estimates of arch structure are confounded by body composition in adults.

    PubMed

    Wearing, Scott C; Grigg, Nicole L; Lau, Hin C; Smeathers, James E

    2012-08-01

    Previous research employing indirect measures of arch structure, such as those derived from footprints, have indicated that obesity results in a "flatter" foot type. In the absence of radiographic measures, however, definitive conclusions regarding the osseous alignment of the foot cannot be made. We determined the effect of body mass index (BMI) on radiographic and footprint-based measures of arch structure. The research was a cross-sectional study in which radiographic and footprint-based measures of foot structure were made in 30 subjects (10 males, 20 female) in addition to standard anthropometric measures of height, weight, and BMI. Multiple (univariate) regression analysis demonstrated that both BMI (β = 0.39, t(26) = 2.12, p = 0.04) and radiographic arch alignment (β = 0.51, t(26) = 3.32, p < 0.01) were significant predictors of footprint-based measures of arch height after controlling for all variables in the model (R(2) = 0.59, F(3,26) = 12.3, p < 0.01). In contrast, radiographic arch alignment was not significantly associated with BMI (β = -0.03, t(26) = -0.13, p = 0.89) when Arch Index and age were held constant (R(2) = 0.52, F(3,26) = 9.3, p < 0.01). Adult obesity does not influence osseous alignment of the medial longitudinal arch, but selectively distorts footprint-based measures of arch structure. Footprint-based measures of arch structure should be interpreted with caution when comparing groups of varying body composition.

  3. Whole-body amino acid composition of adult fancy ranchu goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Aqua feeds should be formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition to achieve optimal health and growth in fish, including adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). There are few or no data relating to the EAA requirements for ornamental fish species, with the majority of quantitative data for these nutrients being available for commercially farmed fish. The determination of EAA requirements is usually established through dose-response studies, which can be costly and time consuming, especially if determining the requirement for many amino acids (AA). An alternative method for predicting the EAA of fish, which is also relatively fast and inexpensive, is the assessment of whole-body AA composition. A total of eight goldfish with a mean wet weight of 34.2 (SEM 1.4) g were obtained as a result of a routine cull by breeders. The fish were freeze-dried and AA was content analysed by hydrolysis or performic 'acid' oxidation. EAA values ranged between 0.97 (SEM 0.02) for tryptophan and 7.9 (SEM 0.14) for lysine (g/100 g AA). Compositional data were also used to estimate the essential amino acid ratios of these fish. The findings are in agreement with those for juvenile common goldfish, suggesting that there are no differences in whole-body AA composition between juvenile and adult, or fancy and common goldfish. However, these indices do not provide a quantitative total amount of each AA required by the fish, but can be used proportionally to provide guidelines to formulate diets for ornamental species. PMID:22005403

  4. Whole-body amino acid composition of adult fancy ranchu goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Aqua feeds should be formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition to achieve optimal health and growth in fish, including adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). There are few or no data relating to the EAA requirements for ornamental fish species, with the majority of quantitative data for these nutrients being available for commercially farmed fish. The determination of EAA requirements is usually established through dose-response studies, which can be costly and time consuming, especially if determining the requirement for many amino acids (AA). An alternative method for predicting the EAA of fish, which is also relatively fast and inexpensive, is the assessment of whole-body AA composition. A total of eight goldfish with a mean wet weight of 34.2 (SEM 1.4) g were obtained as a result of a routine cull by breeders. The fish were freeze-dried and AA was content analysed by hydrolysis or performic 'acid' oxidation. EAA values ranged between 0.97 (SEM 0.02) for tryptophan and 7.9 (SEM 0.14) for lysine (g/100 g AA). Compositional data were also used to estimate the essential amino acid ratios of these fish. The findings are in agreement with those for juvenile common goldfish, suggesting that there are no differences in whole-body AA composition between juvenile and adult, or fancy and common goldfish. However, these indices do not provide a quantitative total amount of each AA required by the fish, but can be used proportionally to provide guidelines to formulate diets for ornamental species.

  5. A functional-based segmentation of human body scans in arbitrary postures.

    PubMed

    Werghi, Naoufel; Xiao, Yijun; Siebert, Jan Paul

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a general framework that aims to address the task of segmenting three-dimensional (3-D) scan data representing the human form into subsets which correspond to functional human body parts. Such a task is challenging due to the articulated and deformable nature of the human body. A salient feature of this framework is that it is able to cope with various body postures and is in addition robust to noise, holes, irregular sampling and rigid transformations. Although whole human body scanners are now capable of routinely capturing the shape of the whole body in machine readable format, they have not yet realized their potential to provide automatic extraction of key body measurements. Automated production of anthropometric databases is a prerequisite to satisfying the needs of certain industrial sectors (e.g., the clothing industry). This implies that in order to extract specific measurements of interest, whole body 3-D scan data must be segmented by machine into subsets corresponding to functional human body parts. However, previously reported attempts at automating the segmentation process suffer from various limitations, such as being restricted to a standard specific posture and being vulnerable to scan data artifacts. Our human body segmentation algorithm advances the state of the art to overcome the above limitations and we present experimental results obtained using both real and synthetic data that confirm the validity, effectiveness, and robustness of our approach.

  6. Human body area factors for radiation exchange analysis: standing and walking postures.

    PubMed

    Park, Sookuk; Tuller, Stanton E

    2011-09-01

    Effective radiation area factors (f (eff)) and projected area factors (f (p)) of unclothed Caucasians' standing and walking postures used in estimating human radiation exchange with the surrounding environment were determined from a sample of adults in Canada. Several three-dimensional (3D) computer body models were created for standing and walking postures. Only small differences in f (eff) and f (p) values for standing posture were found between gender (male or female) and body type (normal- or over-weight). Differences between this study and previous studies were much larger: ≤0.173 in f (p) and ≤0.101 in f (eff). Directionless f (p) values for walking posture also had only minor differences between genders and positions in a stride. However, the differences of mean directional f (p) values of the positions dependent on azimuth angles were large enough, ≤0.072, to create important differences in modeled radiation receipt. Differences in f (eff) values were small: 0.02 between the normal-weight male and female models and up to 0.033 between positions in a stride. Variations of directional f (p) values depending on solar altitudes for walking posture were narrower than those for standing posture. When both standing and walking postures are considered, the mean f (eff) value, 0.836, of standing (0.826) and walking (0.846) could be used. However, f (p) values should be selected carefully because differences between directional and directionless f (p) values were large enough that they could influence the estimated level of human thermal sensation.

  7. [Some traditional representations of the human body in Basque].

    PubMed

    Duvert, Michel

    2008-01-01

    This work is a selection of ethnographic data chiefly collected in the North of the Basque Country. It suggests restoring the traditional image of body and proposes interpretation of "historical meanings".

  8. Geographical variations in adult body size and reproductive life history traits in an invasive anuran, Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Pujol-Buxó, Eudald; San Sebastián, Olatz; Llorente, Gustavo A; Hammou, Mohamed Aït; Sanuy, Delfi

    2016-06-01

    Variability in life history traits positively affects the establishment and expansive potential of invasive species. In the present study, we analysed the variation of body size in seven populations - two native and five invasive - of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus, Anura: Discoglossidae), native to North Africa and introduced in southern France and the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Other life history traits (age at maturity, size at maturity, longevity, median age and potential reproductive lifespan) were analysed in a native and an invasive population. We observed geographic variations in adult body size, related mainly to mean annual precipitation. Thus, populations had greater body size as mean annual precipitation increased, resulting in bigger specimens in the invasive populations. Adult body size and growth rates also varied between sexes in all studied populations, with males significantly larger than females. Age distribution varied between native (1-5 years) and invasive populations (2-4 years) and also between sexes. Our results suggest that higher precipitation promotes faster growth rates and larger adult body size that could facilitate the successful establishment of invasive populations.

  9. Use of Anthropometry for the Prediction of Regional Body Tissue Distribution in Adults: Benefits and Limitations in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Scafoglieri, Aldo; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Cattrysse, Erik; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Regional body composition changes with aging. Some of the changes in composition are considered major risk factors for developing obesity related chronic diseases which in turn may lead to increased mortality in adults. The role of anthropometry is well recognized in the screening, diagnosis and follow-up of adults for risk classification, regardless of age. Regional body composition is influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therapeutic measures recommended to lower cardiovascular disease risk include lifestyle changes. The aim of this review is to systematically summarize studies that assessed the relationships between anthropometry and regional body composition. The potential benefits and limitations of anthropometry for use in clinical practice are presented and suggestions for future research given. PMID:25489489

  10. Validation of Human Body Model VIRTHUMAN and its Implementation in Crash Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroslav Maňas, Ing.; Luděk Kovář, Ing.; Jan Petřík, Ing.; Hana Čechová, Ing.; Stanislav Špirk, Ing.

    Standard virtual prototyping approach of passive safety field is based on virtual models of dummies, but human body models become to be more and more important for specific crash scenarios. VIRTHUMAN is human body model based on MBS (Multi-Body Structure) approach. The model consists of movable rigid segments, which represent proper mass of each human part and enables to evaluate injury criteria describing safety risks during crash scenarios. There is evident advantage of the MBS approach in simple preparation of crash configuration—human body positioning, reasonable calculation times and mainly its applicability for robust designs development respecting variety of human population. The project VIRTHUMAN is directed on development of scaling technique enabling to generate human model based on the standard anthropometric inputs. The contribution describes status of the VIRTHUMAN model, procedures of its validation and results in standard crash scenarios.

  11. Effect of clothing material on thermal responses of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengzhi, Li; Yi, Li

    2005-09-01

    The influence of clothing material on thermal responses of the human body are investigated by using an integrated model of a clothed thermoregulatory human body. A modified 25-nodes model considering the sweat accumulation on the skin surface is applied to simulate the human physiological regulatory responses. The heat and moisture coupled transfer mechanisms, including water vapour diffusion, the moisture evaporation/condensation, the moisture sorbtion/desorption by fibres, liquid sweat transfer under capillary pressure, and latent heat absorption/release due to phase change, are considered in the clothing model. On comparing prediction results with the experimental data in the literature, the proposed model seems able to predict dynamic heat and moisture transfer between the human body and the clothing system. The human body's thermal responses and clothing temperature and moisture variations are compared for different clothing materials during transient periods. We concluded that the hygroscopicity of clothing materials influences the human thermoregulation process significantly during environmental transients.

  12. Observation of temperature trace, induced by changing of temperature inside the human body, on the human body skin using commercially available IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possibility of temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body due to water drinking. We use as a computer code that is available for treatment of images captured by commercially available IR camera, manufactured by Flir Corp., as well as our developed computer code for computer processing of these images. Using both codes we demonstrate clearly changing of human body skin temperature induced by water drinking. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden samples and substances concealed inside the human body using non-destructive control without X-rays using. Early we have demonstrated such possibility using THz radiation. Carried out experiments can be used for counter-terrorism problem solving. We developed original filters for computer processing of images captured by IR cameras. Their applications for computer processing of images results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras.

  13. Comparison of three different thermometers in evaluating the body temperature of healthy young adult individuals.

    PubMed

    Basak, Tulay; Aciksoz, Semra; Tosun, Betul; Akyuz, Aygul; Acikel, Cengizhan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the measurement values obtained with a non-contact infrared thermometer, a tympanic thermometer and a chemical dot thermometer. The research population was composed of students studying in two departments of a university in Ankara. A total of 452 students who fit the inclusion criteria of the study and volunteered to participate were included in the sample. Body temperature measurements with different thermometers were performed by the same researcher at the same room temperature. Data were analyzed in a computerized environment by SPSS 15.0 statistical program pack and Bland-Altman graph. Mean age of healthy young adults participating in the study was 19.66 ± 0.94, and 55.1% of them were female. The agreement limits for non-contact infrared and chemical dot was between -1.30 and 0.32°C; for non-contact infrared and tympanic was between -1.26 and 0.13°C; and for chemical dot and tympanic -0.89 and 0.74°C. It was determined that, although the measurement values of the tympanic membrane and chemical dot thermometers conformed with each other, the conformity of the non-contact infrared thermometer was weak.

  14. Body mass and weight change in adults in relation to mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kenneth F; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Albanes, Demetrius; Harris, Tamara B; Hollenbeck, Albert; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-01-15

    Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we evaluated the influence of adulthood weight history on mortality risk. The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study is an observational cohort study of US men and women who were aged 50-71 years at entry in 1995-1996. This analysis focused on 109,947 subjects who had never smoked and were younger than age 70 years. We estimated hazard ratios of total and cause-specific mortality for recalled body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at ages 18, 35, and 50 years; weight change across 3 adult age intervals; and the effect of first attaining an elevated BMI at 4 successive ages. During 12.5 years' follow-up through 2009, 12,017 deaths occurred. BMI at all ages was positively related to mortality. Weight gain was positively related to mortality, with stronger associations for gain between ages 18 and 35 years and ages 35 and 50 years than between ages 50 and 69 years. Mortality risks were higher in persons who attained or exceeded a BMI of 25.0 at a younger age than in persons who reached that threshold later in adulthood, and risks were lowest in persons who maintained a BMI below 25.0. Heavier initial BMI and weight gain in early to middle adulthood strongly predicted mortality risk in persons aged 50-69 years. PMID:24173550

  15. Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that parental weight is a strong determinant of offspring weight status. The study used cross-sectional self-reported and measured data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adults (n = 2128) from Stage 3 (2008–10) of the North West Adelaide Health Study (1999–2003, baseline n = 4056) to investigate the association between midlife parental body shape and four indicators of obesity and fat distribution. The analysis used measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist height ratio (WHtR) of adult offspring, together with pictograms for recall of parental body shape. Compared to both parents being a healthy weight, offspring were more likely to be overweight or obese if both parents were an unhealthy weight at age 40 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.67–2.76) and further, those participants whose mother was an unhealthy weight were more likely to be overweight or obese themselves (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.14–1.98). There were similar but lower results for those with an overweight/obese father (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08–1.93). The effect of one or both parents being overweight or obese tended to be stronger for daughters than for sons across BMI, WC and WHtR. BMI showed the strongest association with parental body shape (OR 2.14), followed by WC (OR 1.78), WHtR (OR 1.71) and WHR (OR 1.45). WHtR (42–45%) and BMI (35–36%) provided the highest positive predictive values for overweight/obesity from parental body shape. Parental obesity increases the risk of obesity for adult offspring, both for overall body shape and central adiposity, particularly for daughters. Pictograms could potentially be used as a screening tool in primary care settings to promote healthy weight among young adults. PMID:26355742

  16. Body composition in human infants at birth and postnatally.

    PubMed

    Koo, W W; Walters, J C; Hockman, E M

    2000-09-01

    The predictive values of anthropometric measurements, race, gender, gestational and postnatal ages, and season at birth and at study for the total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM) and fat mass as a percentage of body weight (%FM) were determined in 214 singleton appropriate birth weight for gestational age infants [101 Caucasian (60 boys, 41 girls) and 113 African American (55 boys, 58 girls)]. Gestational ages were 27-42 wk and the infants were studied between birth and 391 d, weighing between 851 and 13446 g. In addition, predictive value of body weight, LM and FM for DXA bone measurements was also determined. Scan acquisition used Hologic QDR 1000/W densitometer and infant platform and scans without significant movement artifacts were analyzed using software 5.64p. Body weight, length, gender and postnatal age were significant predictors of LM (adjusted R:(2) >0. 94) and FM (adjusted R:(2) >0.85). Physiologic variables had little predictive value for %FM except in the newborns (adjusted R:(2) 0. 69). Body weight was the dominant predictor of LM and FM, although length had similar predictive value for LM with increasing postnatal age. Female infants had less LM and more FM throughout infancy (P: < 0.01). LM or FM offered no advantage over body weight in the prediction of bone mass measurements. DXA is a useful means with which to determine body composition, and our data are important in the design and assessment of nutritional intervention studies.

  17. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  18. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  19. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  20. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B.; O'Rourke, Mary K.; Chen, Zhao; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Billheimer, Dean; Lu Zhenqiang; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2011-04-15

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency; however, an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA), while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

  1. Human body impedance for electromagnetic hazard analysis in the VLF to MF band

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, H.; Chatterjee, I.; Gandhi, O.P.

    1984-08-01

    A knowledge of the average electrical impedance of the human body is essential for the analysis of electromagnetic hazards in the VLF to MF band. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the average body impedance of several human subjects as a function of frequency. Measurements were carried out with the subjects standing barefoot on a ground plane and touching various metal electrodes with the hand or index finger. The measured impedance includes the electrode polarization and skin impedances, spread impedance near the electrode, body impedance, stray capacitance between the body surface and ground, and inductance due to the body and grounding strap. These components are separated and simplified equivalent circuits are presented for body impedance of humans exposed to free-space electromagnetic waves as well as in contact with large ungrounded metallic objects therein.

  2. The Adult Learner. The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Malcolm S.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Swanson, Richard A.

    This book examines the core principles of adult learning and the roots of andragogy, advances in adult learning, and practice in adult learning. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 17 chapters: importance of learning theory; theories of learning (concept of part and whole models of development, theories based on elemental…

  3. The venality of human body parts and products in French law and common law.

    PubMed

    Haoulia, Naima

    2012-03-01

    The successive bioethics laws in France have constantly argued that the human body is not for sale and consecrated an absolute principle of free and anonymous donations, whether of semen, ova, blood, tissues or organs. Nonetheless, this position is not shared by all countries. These legal divergences upset today our moral principles and the development of these practices leads us to question the legal status of human biological material and its gradual commodification. This paper outlines the current law principles that protect people's interests in their bodies, excised body parts and tissues without conferring the rights of full legal ownership in French law and in Common law. Contrary to what many people believe, people do not legally 'own' their bodies, body parts or tissues. However, they do have some legal rights in relation to their bodies and excised body material. For lawyers, the exact relationship people have with their bodies has raised a host of complex questions and long debates about the status we should grant to human body parts. The significance of this issue is due to two reasons:first, because of the imperative protection we have to assure to human dignity and then, because of the economic value which is attached to human products.

  4. The personification of animals: coding of human and nonhuman body parts based on posture and function.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Timothy N; McDougall, Laura; Paulson, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine how humans represent the bodies and limbs of nonhuman mammals based on anatomical and functional properties. To this end, participants completed a series of body-part compatibility tasks in which they responded with a thumb or foot response to the color of a stimulus (red or blue, respectively) presented on different limbs of several animals. Across the studies, this compatibility task was conducted with images of human and nonhuman animals (bears, cows, and monkeys) in bipedal or quadrupedal postures. The results revealed that the coding of the limbs of nonhuman animals is strongly influenced by the posture of the body, but not the functional capacity of the limb. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects were present for both human and nonhuman animals when the figures were in a bipedal posture, but were not present when the animals were in a quadrupedal stance (Experiments 1a-c). Experiments 2a and 2b revealed that the posture-based body-part compatibility effects were not simply a vertical spatial compatibility effect or due to a mismatch between the posture of the body in the image and the participant. These data indicate that nonhuman animals in a bipedal posture are coded with respect to the "human" body representation, whereas nonhuman animals in a quadrupedal posture are not mapped to the human body representation. Overall, these studies provide new insight into the processes through which humans understand, mimic, and learn from the actions of nonhuman animals.

  5. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; <-0.010 g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (<0.05%) for lean and fat; -23 and -5 g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good

  6. Diagram of Calcium Movement in the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  7. Absolute and allometric relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the adult collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1986-01-01

    Selected morphological features of 8 adult male and 8 adult female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) shot from southern Texas during March 1983 are described. A total of 16 adult peccaries with an average body mass of 18.68 +/- 0.61 (SE) Kg was examined. Significant differences between males and females were observed for absolute and relative mass of liver and lungs, and relative heart mass. These visceral organs were heavier among females than males. Significant sex effects were also found for absolute and relative mass of the dorsal scent gland. The dorsal scent gland contributed twice as much to total body mass in males as in females. No sexual dimorphisms of the gastrointestinal tract were noted. Females had a significantly greater portion of total visceral fat deposited around the kidneys than did males. Relative mass of the mandible was significantly greater in males than in females. Adult males had extremely large accessory sex glands. The bulbourethral and seminal vesicle glands comprised 0.27 per cent of the total body mass. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (eyes, b = 0.34) to well above (seminal vesicles, b = 1.87) unity. Growth coefficients of lungs, kidneys, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland during adulthood greatly exceeded respective values in developing nurslings.

  8. Creating a Tiny Human Body on a Chip

    ScienceCinema

    Hunsberger, Maren; Soscia, Dave; Moya, Monica

    2016-07-12

    LLNL science communicator Maren Hunsberger takes us "Inside the Lab" to learn about the iChip (In-vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. "One application of the iChip system would be to develop new pharmaceutical drugs," explains Dave Soscia, LLNL postdoc. "When you test in a mouse for example, it's not as close to the human system as you can get. If we can take human cells and put them on devices and actually mimic the structure and function of the organ systems in the human, we can actually replace animal testing and even make a better system for testing pharmaceutical drugs."

  9. [Human body meridian spatial decision support system for clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian. PMID:26946752

  10. [Human body meridian spatial decision support system for clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian.

  11. Why the way we consider the body matters – Reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body

    PubMed Central

    Schicktanz, Silke

    2007-01-01

    Background Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy. Results The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed locus, always historically and culturally transformed. The author goes on to suggest a methodological approach that dialectically considers embodiment from four different perspectives: as bodily self-determination, as respect for the bodily unavailability of the other, as care for bodily individuality; and lastly, as acknowledgement of bodily-constituted communities. These four perspectives encompass autonomy in two of its main interpretations: as the capability of a person to act independent of external forces, and as the moral ideal of pursuing individual wishes by means of role distance, self-limitation and universalization. Various bioethical cases are utilized to show how the four perspectives on the body can complement one another. Conclusion The way we consider the body matters. The author's dialectical method allows a premise-critical identification and exploration of bioethical problems concerning the body. The method is potentially applicable to other bioethical problems. PMID:18053201

  12. History of the study of human body composition: A brief review.

    PubMed

    Wang, ZiMian; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    1999-01-01

    This review assembles a chronology of human body composition research with the goal of exposing historical roots and identifying future potential trends. Body composition research has emerged over the past several decades as a distinct field, and for many scientists body composition is their primary investigative focus. Technological advances will likely move the field forward and, ultimately, help to expand knowledge of human body composition variability in health and disease. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:157-165, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-11-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition.

  14. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648

  15. Adult somatic stem cells in the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J.; Wang, Bo; Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Tharp, Marla; Iyer, Harini; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide1. The etiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades2, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance. Although adult pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts, drive long-term homeostatic tissue maintenance in long-lived free-living flatworms3,4 (e.g., planarians), and neoblast-like cells have been described in some parasitic tapeworms5, little is known about whether similar cell types exist in any trematode species. Here, we describe a population of neoblast-like cells in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. These cells resemble planarian neoblasts morphologically and share their ability to proliferate and differentiate into derivatives of multiple germ layers. Capitalizing on available genomic resources6,7 and RNAseq-based gene expression profiling, we find that these schistosome neoblast-like cells express a fibroblast growth factor receptor ortholog. Using RNA interference we demonstrate that this gene is required for the maintenance of these neoblast-like cells. Our observations suggest that adaptation of developmental strategies shared by free-living ancestors to modern-day schistosomes likely contributed to the success of these animals as long-lived obligate parasites. We expect that future studies deciphering the function of these neoblast-like cells will have important implications for understanding the biology of these devastating parasites. PMID:23426263

  16. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-09-07

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.

  17. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets. PMID:27618088

  18. Evolutionary divergence of adult body size and juvenile growth in sympatric subpopulations of a top predator in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Nordahl, Oscar; Johannessen, Peter; Nilsson, Jonas; Larsson, Per

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different selective regimes may contribute to divergent evolution of body size and growth rate among populations, but most studies have focused on allopatric populations. Here, we studied five sympatric subpopulations of anadromous northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea subjected to allopatric habitats for a short period of their life cycle due to homing behavior. We report differences in adult body size among subpopulations that were in part due to variation in growth rate. Body size of emigrating juveniles also differed among subpopulations, and differences remained when individuals were reared in a common environment, thus indicating evolutionary divergence among subpopulations. Furthermore, a QST-FST comparison indicated that differences had evolved due to divergent selection rather than genetic drift, possibly in response to differences in selective mortality among spawning habitats during the allopatric life stage. Adult and juvenile size were negatively correlated across subpopulations, and reconstruction of growth trajectories of adult fishes suggested that body size differences developed gradually and became accentuated throughout the first years of life. These results represent rare evidence that sympatric subpopulations can evolve differences in key life-history traits despite being subjected to allopatric habitats during only a very short fraction of their life.

  19. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  20. Bone-forming capacity of adult human nasal chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pippenger, Benjamin E; Ventura, Manuela; Pelttari, Karoliina; Feliciano, Sandra; Jaquiery, Claude; Scherberich, Arnaud; Walboomers, X Frank; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Nasal chondrocytes (NC) derive from the same multipotent embryological segment that gives rise to the majority of the maxillofacial bone and have been reported to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells in vitro. In this study, we assessed the capacity of adult human NC, appropriately primed towards hypertrophic or osteoblastic differentiation, to form bone tissue in vivo. Hypertrophic induction of NC-based micromass pellets formed mineralized cartilaginous tissues rich in type X collagen, but upon implantation into subcutaneous pockets of nude mice remained avascular and reverted to stable hyaline-cartilage. In the same ectopic environment, NC embedded into ceramic scaffolds and primed with osteogenic medium only sporadically formed intramembranous bone tissue. A clonal study could not demonstrate that the low bone formation efficiency was related to a possibly small proportion of cells competent to become fully functional osteoblasts. We next tested whether the cues present in an orthotopic environment could induce a more efficient direct osteoblastic transformation of NC. Using a nude rat calvarial defect model, we demonstrated that (i) NC directly participated in frank bone formation and (ii) the efficiency of survival and bone formation by NC was significantly higher than that of reference osteogenic cells, namely bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. This study provides a proof-of-principle that NC have the plasticity to convert into bone cells and thereby represent an easily available cell source to be further investigated for craniofacial bone regeneration. PMID:25689393