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Sample records for adult human central

  1. Transmitted drug-resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult population in El Salvador, Central America.

    PubMed

    Holguín, Á; Yebra, G; Martín, L; de Pineda, A T; Ruiz, L E; Quezada, A Y; Nieto, A I; Escobar, G

    2013-12-01

    El Salvador harbours one of the largest Central American human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, but few studies have analysed it in depth. Here, we describe the presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV variants in the HIV-infected adult population in El Salvador. Dried blood spots from 119 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive adults attended in El Salvador were collected in 2011. The TDR was assessed according to the list recommended by the WHO. HIV-1 variants were described using phylogeny. Pol sequences could be amplified in 88 patients (50.6% men), with a mean age of 35 years. Almost all (96.7%) were infected with HIV through sexual practice and 58.7% were recently diagnosed. The mean CD4(+) count was 474 cells/mm(3) and 43.1% and 15.5% of patients showed moderate (<500 CD4 cells) or severe (<200) immune suppression, respectively. HIV-1 viral load was >100 000 copies/mL in 24.7% of patients and <2000 copies/mL in 9.1%. Five samples (5.7%) harboured any TDR mutation: 2.3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and 1.4% for protease inhibitor (PI). All showed only one TDR single-class resistance mutation: M184I (two cases) for NRTI, K101E and K103N for NNRTI and L23I for PI. All viruses excepting one (URF_BG) belonged to subtype B. No phylogenetic TDR networks were found. In conclusion, we report a TDR prevalence of 5.7% in El Salvador, lower than in other Central American studies. Periodical studies are essential to monitor and prevent TDR emergence in low-income and middle-income regions. Also, more efforts are needed to promote early diagnosis and prevention of infection in El Salvador.

  2. Region-specific vulnerability to lipid peroxidation and evidence of neuronal mechanisms for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the healthy adult human central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Mayelin; Ayala, Victoria; Jové, Mariona; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Gil-Villar, Maria Pilar; Rué, Montserrat; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2017-02-07

    Lipids played a determinant role in the evolution of the brain. It is postulated that the morphological and functional diversity among neural cells of the human central nervous system (CNS) is projected and achieved through the expression of particular lipid profiles. The present study was designed to evaluate the differential vulnerability to oxidative stress mediated by lipids through a cross-regional comparative approach. To this end, we compared 12 different regions of CNS of healthy adult subjects, and the fatty acid profile and vulnerability to lipid peroxidation, were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), respectively. In addition, different components involved in PUFA biosynthesis, as well as adaptive defense mechanisms against lipid peroxidation, were also measured by western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We found that: i) four fatty acids (18.1n-9, 22:6n-3, 20:1n-9, and 18:0) are significant discriminators among CNS regions; ii) these differential fatty acid profiles generate a differential selective neural vulnerability (expressed by the peroxidizability index); iii) the cross-regional differences for the fatty acid profiles follow a caudal-cranial gradient which is directly related to changes in the biosynthesis pathways which can be ascribed to neuronal cells; and iv) the higher the peroxidizability index for a given human brain region, the lower concentration of the protein damage markers, likely supported by the presence of adaptive antioxidant mechanisms. In conclusion, our results suggest that there is a region-specific vulnerability to lipid peroxidation and offer evidence of neuronal mechanisms for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the human central nervous system.

  3. Human metapneumovirus in adults.

    PubMed

    Haas, Lenneke E M; Thijsen, Steven F T; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A

    2013-01-08

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination.

  4. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  5. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  6. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  7. Pharmacotherapy for Adults with Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Schor, Nina F.

    2009-01-01

    Tumors of the adult central nervous system are among the most common and most chemoresistant neoplasms. Malignant tumors of the brain and spinal cord collectively account for approximately 1.3% of all cancers and 2.2% of all cancer-related deaths. Novel pharmacological approaches to nervous system tumors are urgently needed. This review presents the current approaches and challenges to successful pharmacotherapy of adults with malignant tumors of the central nervous system and discusses novel approaches aimed at overcoming these challenges. PMID:19091301

  8. Microbes central to human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett

    2015-01-01

    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions.

  9. Hemi-central retinal artery occlusion in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Rishi, Ekta; Sharma, Tarun; Mahajan, Sheshadri

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the clinical presentations of retinal artery occlusion, hemi-central retinal artery occlusion (Hemi-CRAO) is rarely described. This case series of four adults aged between 22 and 36 years attempts to describe the clinical profile, etiology and management of Hemi-CRAO. Case 1 had an artificial mitral valve implant. Polycythemia and malignant hypertension were noted in Case 2. The third patient had Leiden mutation while the fourth patient had Eisenmenger's syndrome. Clinical examination and fundus fluorescein angiography revealed a bifurcated central retinal artery at emergence from the optic nerve head, in all cases. Color Doppler examination of the central retinal artery confirmed branching of the artery behind the lamina cribrosa. It is hypothesized that bifurcation of central retinal artery behind the lamina cribrosa may predispose these hemi-trunks to develop an acute occlusion if associated with underlying risk factors. The prognosis depends upon arterial recanalisation and etiology of the thromboembolic event.

  10. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    PubMed

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  11. Astrocitary niches in human adult medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Dermengiu, Dan; Loreto, Carla; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius; Pop, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Astrocytes are considered as neuromodulators of the CNS. Whereas experimental studies on astrocitary functions are gaining importance, the anatomy of the astrocitary niches in the human CNS has been overlooked. The study was performed on the brainstem of 10 adult cadavers. We aimed to determine astrocitary niches in the human medulla oblongata using immunohistochemical labeling with vimentin and also CD34 immunostaining to accurately diagnose associated microvessels. Niches rich in astrocytes were identified as follows: (a) the superficial layer of astrocytes, ventral and ventrolateral, in the rostral medulla oblongata; (b) the median raphe; (c) medullary nuclei: arcuate nucleus, area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract; (d) the subependymal zone (SEZ, caudal medulla) and subventricular zone (SVZ, rostral medulla). Astrocytes were scarce in the ventrolateral medulla, and mostly present within the pyramidal tract and the olivary nucleus. Apart from the SEZ and SVZ, the brainstem niches of astrocytes mostly overlap those regions known to perform roles as central respiratory chemoreceptors. The astrocytes of the SEZ and SVZ, which are known as stem cell niches, are related to an increased microvascular density.

  12. Contour Enhancement Benefits Older Adults with Simulated Central Field Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, MiYoung; Ramachandra, Chaithanya; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Mel, Bartlett W.; Peli, Eli; Tjan, Bosco S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among Americans over the age of 65. Currently, no effective treatment can reverse the central vision loss associated with most AMD. Digital image-processing techniques have been developed to improve image visibility for peripheral vision; however, both the selection and efficacy of such methods are limited. Progress has been difficult for two reasons: the exact nature of image enhancement that might benefit peripheral vision is not well understood, and efficient methods for testing such techniques have been elusive. The current study aims to develop both an effective image-enhancement technique for peripheral vision and an efficient means for validating the technique. Methods We used a novel contour detection algorithm to locate shape-defining edges in images based on natural-image statistics. We then enhanced the scene by locally boosting the luminance contrast along such contours. Using a gaze-contingent display, we simulated central visual field loss in normally-sighted young (ages 18–30) and older adults (ages 58–88). Visual search performance was measured as a function of contour enhancement strength ("Original" (unenhanced), "Medium", and "High"). For preference task, a separate group of subjects judged which image in a pair "would lead to better search performance". Results We found that while contour enhancement had no significant effect on search time and accuracy in young adults, Medium enhancement resulted in significantly shorter search time in older adults (~13% reduction relative to Original). Both age groups preferred images with Medium enhancement over Original (2 to 7 times). Furthermore, across age groups, image content types and enhancement strengths, there was a robust correlation between preference and performance. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a beneficial role of contour enhancement in peripheral vision for older adults. Our findings further suggest

  13. The Human Central Pattern Generator for Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Minassian, Karen; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Dzeladini, Florin; Guertin, Pierre A; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-03-01

    The ability of dedicated spinal circuits, referred to as central pattern generators (CPGs), to produce the basic rhythm and neural activation patterns underlying locomotion can be demonstrated under specific experimental conditions in reduced animal preparations. The existence of CPGs in humans is a matter of debate. Equally elusive is the contribution of CPGs to normal bipedal locomotion. To address these points, we focus on human studies that utilized spinal cord stimulation or pharmacological neuromodulation to generate rhythmic activity in individuals with spinal cord injury, and on neuromechanical modeling of human locomotion. In the absence of volitional motor control and step-specific sensory feedback, the human lumbar spinal cord can produce rhythmic muscle activation patterns that closely resemble CPG-induced neural activity of the isolated animal spinal cord. In this sense, CPGs in humans can be defined by the activity they produce. During normal locomotion, CPGs could contribute to the activation patterns during specific phases of the step cycle and simplify supraspinal control of step cycle frequency as a feedforward component to achieve a targeted speed. Determining how the human CPGs operate will be essential to advance the theory of neural control of locomotion and develop new locomotor neurorehabilitation paradigms.

  14. Infiltration of central nervous system in adult acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Pippard, M J; Callender, S T; Sheldon, P W

    1979-01-01

    Out of 64 consecutive unselected patients with acute myeloid leukaemia studied during 1973-6, five developed clinical evidence of spread to the central nervous system (CNS). Neuroradiological examination showed cerebral deposits in three, in whom rapid symptomatic relief was obtained with radiotherapy. In two of these patients who developed solid intracranial deposits haematological remission could be reinduced or maintained; they were still alive 86 and 134 weeks later. When patients presented with spread to the CNS complicating generalised uncontrolled leukaemia they had short survivals. CNS infiltration may respond dramatically to appropriate treatment provided that it is not associated with generalised uncontrolled leukaemia, which has a poor prognosis. In view of this, routine "prophylaxis" of the CNS in adult acute myeloid leukaemia does not seem justified at present. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 PMID:283873

  15. The Structural Connectome of the Human Central Homeostatic Network.

    PubMed

    Edlow, Brian L; McNab, Jennifer A; Witzel, Thomas; Kinney, Hannah C

    2016-04-01

    Homeostatic adaptations to stress are regulated by interactions between the brainstem and regions of the forebrain, including limbic sites related to respiratory, autonomic, affective, and cognitive processing. Neuroanatomic connections between these homeostatic regions, however, have not been thoroughly identified in the human brain. In this study, we perform diffusion spectrum imaging tractography using the MGH-USC Connectome MRI scanner to visualize structural connections in the human brain linking autonomic and cardiorespiratory nuclei in the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata with forebrain sites critical to homeostatic control. Probabilistic tractography analyses in six healthy adults revealed connections between six brainstem nuclei and seven forebrain regions, several over long distances between the caudal medulla and cerebral cortex. The strongest evidence for brainstem-homeostatic forebrain connectivity in this study was between the brainstem midline raphe and the medial temporal lobe. The subiculum and amygdala were the sampled forebrain nodes with the most extensive brainstem connections. Within the human brainstem-homeostatic forebrain connectome, we observed that a lateral forebrain bundle, whose connectivity is distinct from that of rodents and nonhuman primates, is the primary conduit for connections between the brainstem and medial temporal lobe. This study supports the concept that interconnected brainstem and forebrain nodes form an integrated central homeostatic network (CHN) in the human brain. Our findings provide an initial foundation for elucidating the neuroanatomic basis of homeostasis in the normal human brain, as well as for mapping CHN disconnections in patients with disorders of homeostasis, including sudden and unexpected death, and epilepsy.

  16. [Viral infections of human central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Agut, Henri

    2016-01-01

    The viruses that can infect the central nervous system of humans are numerous and form a heterogeneous group with respect to their structural, functional and epidemiological properties. The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to associated neurological diseases, mainly meningitis and encephalitis, also are complex and often intertwined. Overall, neurological clinical symptoms correspond either to acute viral diseases associated with primary infections or to acute, subacute or chronic diseases associated with persistent viral infections. The frequent severity of the clinical situation requires in all cases the practice of virological diagnosis for which the PCR techniques applied to cerebrospinal fluid samples occupy a prominent place. The severity of clinical manifestations justifies the use of prophylactic vaccination when available and antiviral treatment as soon as the causative virus is identified or suspected.

  17. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    PubMed

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  18. Residential Pesticide Usage in Older Adults Residing in Central California

    PubMed Central

    Armes, Mary N.; Liew, Zeyan; Wang, Anthony; Wu, Xiangmei; Bennett, Deborah H.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors (SUPERB) study (N = 153) and from community controls ascertained in two Parkinson’s disease studies, the Parkinson’s Environment and Gene (PEG) study (N = 359) and The Center for Gene-Environment Studies in Parkinson’s Disease (CGEP; N = 297). All participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on recent and lifetime indoor and outdoor residential pesticide use. Interviews ascertained type of product used, frequency of use, and behaviors that may influence exposure to pesticides during and after application. Well over half of all participants reported ever using indoor and outdoor pesticides; yet frequency of pesticide use was relatively low, and appeared to increase slightly with age. Few participants engaged in behaviors to protect themselves or family members and limit exposure to pesticides during and after treatment, such as ventilating and cleaning treated areas, or using protective equipment during application. Our findings on frequency of use over lifetime and exposure related behaviors will inform future efforts to develop population pesticide exposure models and risk assessment. PMID:21909294

  19. Uniquely hominid features of adult human astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Oberheim, Nancy Ann; Takano, Takahiro; Han, Xiaoning; He, Wei; Lin, Jane H C; Wang, Fushun; Xu, Qiwu; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Pilcher, Webster; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Ransom, Bruce R; Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2009-03-11

    Defining the microanatomic differences between the human brain and that of other mammals is key to understanding its unique computational power. Although much effort has been devoted to comparative studies of neurons, astrocytes have received far less attention. We report here that protoplasmic astrocytes in human neocortex are 2.6-fold larger in diameter and extend 10-fold more GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-positive primary processes than their rodent counterparts. In cortical slices prepared from acutely resected surgical tissue, protoplasmic astrocytes propagate Ca(2+) waves with a speed of 36 microm/s, approximately fourfold faster than rodent. Human astrocytes also transiently increase cystosolic Ca(2+) in response to glutamatergic and purinergic receptor agonists. The human neocortex also harbors several anatomically defined subclasses of astrocytes not represented in rodents. These include a population of astrocytes that reside in layers 5-6 and extend long fibers characterized by regularly spaced varicosities. Another specialized type of astrocyte, the interlaminar astrocyte, abundantly populates the superficial cortical layers and extends long processes without varicosities to cortical layers 3 and 4. Human fibrous astrocytes resemble their rodent counterpart but are larger in diameter. Thus, human cortical astrocytes are both larger, and structurally both more complex and more diverse, than those of rodents. On this basis, we posit that this astrocytic complexity has permitted the increased functional competence of the adult human brain.

  20. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children.

  1. Reorganization of the human central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Schalow, G; Zäch, G A

    2000-10-01

    The key strategies on which the discovery of the functional organization of the central nervous system (CNS) under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions have been based included (1) our measurements of phase and frequency coordination between the firings of alpha- and gamma-motoneurons and secondary muscle spindle afferents in the human spinal cord, (2) knowledge on CNS reorganization derived upon the improvement of the functions of the lesioned CNS in our patients in the short-term memory and the long-term memory (reorganization), and (3) the dynamic pattern approach for re-learning rhythmic coordinated behavior. The theory of self-organization and pattern formation in nonequilibrium systems is explicitly related to our measurements of the natural firing patterns of sets of identified single neurons in the human spinal premotor network and re-learned coordinated movements following spinal cord and brain lesions. Therapy induced cell proliferation, and maybe, neurogenesis seem to contribute to the host of structural changes during the process of re-learning of the lesioned CNS. So far, coordinated functions like movements could substantially be improved in every of the more than 100 patients with a CNS lesion by applying coordination dynamic therapy. As suggested by the data of our patients on re-learning, the human CNS seems to have a second integrative strategy for learning, re-learning, storing and recalling, which makes an essential contribution of the functional plasticity following a CNS lesion. A method has been developed by us for the simultaneous recording with wire electrodes of extracellular action potentials from single human afferent and efferent nerve fibres of undamaged sacral nerve roots. A classification scheme of the nerve fibres in the human peripheral nervous system (PNS) could be set up in which the individual classes of nerve fibres are characterized by group conduction velocities and group nerve fibre diameters. Natural impulse patterns

  2. CCM2 expression during prenatal development and adult human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, Gamze; Sozen, Berna; Gunel, Murat; Demir, Necdet

    2011-08-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is one of the most common types of vascular malformations of the central nervous system, affecting nearly one in 200 people. CCM lesions are characterized by grossly dilated vascular channels lined by a single layer of endothelium. Genetic linkage analyses have mapped three CCM loci to CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3. All three causative genes have now been identified allowing new insights into CCM pathophysiology. We focused on the CCM2 protein that might take place in blood vessel formation; we report here the expression patterns of CCM2 in prenatal development and adult human neocortex by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. CCM2 was obviously detected in vascular endothelium and neuroglial precursor cells during development and also observed in arterial endothelium, neurons, some of the glial cells in adult neocortex. The expression patterns suggest that it could be one of the arterial markers whether this is a cause or a consequence of an altered vascular identity. CCM2 might play a role during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during human brain development. Furthermore, with this study, CCM2 have been described for the first time in developing human neocortex.

  3. Adult vaccination in 11 Central European countries - calendars are not just for children.

    PubMed

    Chlibek, Roman; Anca, Ioana; André, Francis; Čižman, Milan; Ivaskeviciene, Inga; Mangarov, Atanas; Mészner, Zsófia; Perenovska, Penka; Pokorn, Marko; Prymula, Roman; Richter, Darko; Salman, Nuran; Šimurka, Pavol; Tamm, Eda; Tešović, Goran; Urbancikova, Ingrid; Zavadska, Dace; Usonis, Vytautas

    2012-02-21

    As Europe's population ages, disease morbidity and treatment costs in the adult population are likely to rise substantially, making this a pertinent time to review and revise preventive strategies such as vaccination. Vaccine uptake remains a problem for adults and there is a lack of coordinated programmes for vaccination of adults. Countries in Western Europe have begun to identify the need to increase adult vaccination, but the situation in Central European countries remains poorly identified and inadequately described. This paper summarises the evidence to support the development of an adult vaccination calendar in the Central European Vaccination Awareness Group (CEVAG) member countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey). CEVAG recommends the introduction of an adult vaccination calendar, which should include vaccination against diseases that represent a large burden in adults in terms of mortality and morbidity. This calendar could be modified to meet the priorities of individual countries.

  4. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult human testis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Sabine; Renninger, Markus; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Wiesner, Tina; Just, Lothar; Bonin, Michael; Aicher, Wilhelm; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Mattheus, Ulrich; Mack, Andreas; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Minger, Stephen; Matzkies, Matthias; Reppel, Michael; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Skutella, Thomas

    2008-11-20

    Human primordial germ cells and mouse neonatal and adult germline stem cells are pluripotent and show similar properties to embryonic stem cells. Here we report the successful establishment of human adult germline stem cells derived from spermatogonial cells of adult human testis. Cellular and molecular characterization of these cells revealed many similarities to human embryonic stem cells, and the germline stem cells produced teratomas after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. The human adult germline stem cells differentiated into various types of somatic cells of all three germ layers when grown under conditions used to induce the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. We conclude that the generation of human adult germline stem cells from testicular biopsies may provide simple and non-controversial access to individual cell-based therapy without the ethical and immunological problems associated with human embryonic stem cells.

  5. Toward Strategic Human Resource Management in the Central Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley Linhardt, Heather LeAnn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explore how human resources are managed, what human resource management can look like, and what organizational issues, tensions, and ambiguities are likely to surface as a district central office moves toward being more strategic with their human resources. The research design was an exploratory case…

  6. Latent inhibition in human adults without masking.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Martha; Arcediano, Francisco; Miller, Ralph R

    2003-09-01

    Latent inhibition refers to attenuated responding to Cue X observed when the X-outcome pairings are preceded by X-alone presentations. It has proven difficult to obtain in human adults unless the preexposure (X-alone) presentations are embedded within a masking (i.e., distracting) task. The authors hypothesized that the difficulty in obtaining latent inhibition with unmasked tasks is related to the usual training procedures, in which the preexposure and conditioning experiences are separated by a set of instructions. Experiment 1 reports latent inhibition without masking in a task in which preexposure and conditioning occur without interruption. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that this attenuation in responding to target Cue X does not pass a summation test for conditioned inhibition and is context specific, thereby confirming that it is latent inhibition. Experiments 3 and 4 confirm that introducing instructions between preexposure and conditioning disrupts latent inhibition.

  7. Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

  8. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  9. Axonal Elongation into Peripheral Nervous System ``Bridges'' after Central Nervous System Injury in Adult Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Samuel; Aguayo, Albert J.

    1981-11-01

    The origin, termination, and length of axonal growth after focal central nervous system injury was examined in adult rats by means of a new experimental model. When peripheral nerve segments were used as ``bridges'' between the medulla and spinal cord, axons from neurons at both these levels grew approximately 30 millimeters. The regenerative potential of these central neurons seems to be expressed when the central nervous system glial environment is changed to that of the peripheral nervous system.

  10. Centralization or decentralization of facial structures in Korean young adults.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Shin, Kang-Jae; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively.

  11. Encephalitis-Associated Human Metapneumovirus Pneumonia in Adult, Australia.

    PubMed

    Fok, Anthony; Mateevici, Cristina; Lin, Belinda; Chandra, Ronil V; Chong, Victor H T

    2015-11-01

    Human metapneumovirus pneumonia, most commonly found in children, was diagnosed in an adult with encephalitis. This case suggests that testing for human metapneumovirus RNA in nasopharyngeal aspirate and cerebrospinal fluid samples should be considered in adults with encephalitis who have a preceding respiratory infection.

  12. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  13. Transcriptional profiling of adult neural stem-like cells from the human brain.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33-60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6), foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1) and human brain tissues (n = 12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate.

  14. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders.

  15. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  16. The dynamics of adult neurogenesis in human hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Ihunwo, Amadi O.; Tembo, Lackson H.; Dzamalala, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of adult neurogenesis is now an accepted occurrence in mammals and also in humans. At least two discrete places house stem cells for generation of neurons in adult brain. These are olfactory system and the hippocampus. In animals, newly generated neurons have been directly or indirectly demonstrated to generate a significant amount of new neurons to have a functional role. However, the data in humans on the extent of this process is still scanty and such as difficult to comprehend its functional role in humans. This paper explores the available data on as extent of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in humans and makes comparison to animal data. PMID:28197172

  17. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1HIGH cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1HIGH cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  18. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-12-04

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1(HIGH) cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1(HIGH) cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions.

  19. Clonal development and organization of the adult Drosophila central brain

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Hsiang; Awasaki, Takeshi; Schroeder, Mark David; Long, Fuhui; Yang, Jacob S.; He, Yisheng; Ding, Peng; Kao, Jui-Chun; Wu, Gloria Yueh-Yi; Peng, Hanchuan; Myers, Gene; Lee, Tzumin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The insect brain can be divided into neuropils that are formed by neurites of both local and remote origin. The complexity of the interconnections obscures how these neuropils are established and interconnected through development. The Drosophila central brain develops from a fixed number of neuroblasts (NBs) that deposit neurons in regional clusters. Results By determining individual NB clones and pursuing their projections into specific neuropils we unravel the regional development of the brain neural network. Exhaustive clonal analysis revealed 95 stereotyped neuronal lineages with characteristic cell body locations and neurite trajectories. Most clones show complex projection patterns, but despite the complexity, neighboring clones often co-innervate the same local neuropil(s) and further target a restricted set of distant neuropils. Conclusions These observations argue for regional clonal development of both neuropils and neuropil connectivity throughout the Drosophila central brain. PMID:23541733

  20. Comparison of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Tercan, Fahri; Oguzkurt, Levent; Ozkan, Ugur; Eker, Hatice Evren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the technical success and complication rates of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric patients which have not been reported previously. In a 4-year period, 859 ultrasonography-guided central vein catheterizations in 688 adult patients and 247 catheterizations in 156 pediatric patients were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age was 56.3 years (range, 18 to 95 years) for adults and 3.3 years (range, 0.1 to 16.3 years) for children. The preferred catheterization site was internal jugular vein in 97% of adults and 85% of children. The technical success rate, mean number of punctures, and rate of single wall puncture were 99.4%, 1.04 (range, 1-3), and 83% for adults and 90.3%, 1.25 (range, 1-5), and 49% for children, respectively. All the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Complication rates were 2.3% and 2.4% for adults and children, respectively (p > 0.05). Major complications such as pneumothorax and hemothorax were not seen in any group. In conclusion, ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization has a high technical success rate, lower puncture attempt rate, and higher single wall puncture rate in adults compared to children. Complication rates are comparable in the two groups.

  1. Adult Human Neurogenesis: From Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of generating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases. PMID:21519376

  2. Adult human neurogenesis: from microscopy to magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of generating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases.

  3. Leptin sustains spontaneous remyelination in the adult central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Ken; Muramatsu, Rieko; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2017-01-01

    Demyelination is a common feature of many central nervous system (CNS) diseases and is associated with neurological impairment. Demyelinated axons are spontaneously remyelinated depending on oligodendrocyte development, which mainly involves molecules expressed in the CNS environment. In this study, we found that leptin, a peripheral hormone secreted from adipocytes, promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Leptin increased the OPC proliferation via in vitro phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK); whereas leptin neutralization inhibited OPC proliferation and remyelination in a mouse model of toxin-induced demyelination. The OPC-specific leptin receptor long isoform (LepRb) deletion in mice inhibited both OPC proliferation and remyelination in the response to demyelination. Intrathecal leptin administration increased OPC proliferation. These results demonstrated a novel molecular mechanism by which leptin sustained OPC proliferation and remyelination in a pathological CNS. PMID:28091609

  4. Developing Resourceful Humans. Adult Education within the Economic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lynn Elen, Ed.

    This book, which explores the shifting paradigm from human resource development to developing resourceful humans, establishes the historical position of adult education within the economic context, discusses human capital propositions, and examines the learning dimensions of economic and educational change. The following chapters are included:…

  5. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  6. A study of the human decomposition sequence in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Parks, Connie L

    2011-01-01

    Decomposition studies utilizing nonhuman subjects as human analogues are well established, but fewer studies utilizing intact human remains exist. This study provides data from a controlled decomposition study involving human remains in Central Texas. A 63.5-kg unmodified cadaver was placed in an open-air site and observed over a 10-week period from April 11 through June 19, 2008. A wire enclosure restricted scavenger access. State of decomposition and environmental conditions were recorded daily for the first 36 days and then every 2 weeks thereafter. Results indicated a high degree of correlation with other decomposition studies originating in the southwestern United States, although slight deviations for the average duration of early events were noted. The data were also utilized to test a quantitative method for estimating the postmortem interval. Results indicated preliminary support for a quantitative approach. Additional research is encouraged to further establish the human decomposition data set for Central Texas.

  7. College and Adult Reading XI: The Eleventh Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    This yearbook contains selected papers presented at the twenty-third and twenty-fourth annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, held in October of 1981 and 1982. Papers in the yearbook include: "History of Adult Reading Programs" (Clarence Anderson); "About Creativity and Study Skills" (Mark E. Thompson); "Recent Changes in…

  8. Involvement of the Central Cognitive Mechanism in Word Production in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Tzu; Bernstein Ratner, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study examined whether semantic and phonological encoding processes were capacity demanding, involving the central cognitive mechanism, in adults who do and do not stutter (AWS and NS) to better understand the role of cognitive demand in linguistic processing and stuttering. We asked (a) whether the two linguistic processes in AWS are…

  9. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  10. Humanities and the Adult Learner in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Dale; Kamholtz, Jonathan

    Humanities courses have often been given little attention in continuing education for adults, possibly because they have been viewed as not "practical" or not "job-oriented" enough in our career-oriented, technologically advanced society. However, the humanities should be an integral part of our culture and of the lives of…

  11. Distension of central great vein decreases sympathetic outflow in humans.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Gao, Zhaohui; Blaha, Cheryl; Herr, Michael D; Mast, Jessica; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2013-08-01

    Classic canine studies suggest that central great vein distension evokes an autonomic reflex tachycardia (Bainbridge reflex). It is unclear whether central venous distension in humans is a necessary and sufficient stimulus to evoke a reflex increase in heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Prior work from our laboratory suggests that limb venous distension evokes a reflex increase in BP and MSNA in humans. We hypothesized that in humans, compared with the limb venous distension, inferior vena cava (IVC) distension would evoke a less prominent increase in HR and MSNA. IVC distension (monitored with ultrasonography) was induced by two methods: 1) head-down tilt (HDT, N = 13); and 2) lower-body positive pressure (LBPP, N = 10). Two minutes of HDT induced IVC distension (Δ2.6 ± 0.2 mm, P < 0.001, ~27% in cross-sectional area), slightly increased mean BP (Δ2.3 ± 0.7 mmHg, P = 0.005), decreased MSNA (Δ5.2 ± 0.8 bursts/min, P < 0.001, N = 10), and did not alter HR (P = 0.37). LBPP induced similar IVC distension, increased BP (Δ2.0 ± 0.7 mmHg, P < 0.01), and did not alter HR (P = 0.34). Thus central venous distension leads to a rapid increase in BP and a subsequent fall in MSNA. Central venous distension does not evoke either bradycardia or tachycardia in humans. The absence of a baroreflex-mediated bradycardia suggests that the Bainbridge reflex is engaged. Clearly, this reflex differs from the powerful sympathoexcitation peripheral venous distension reflex described in humans.

  12. Unevenness of the apical constriction in human maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Olson, David G; Roberts, Steven; Joyce, Anthony P; Collins, D Edward; McPherson, James C

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the incisoapical extent of the apical constriction in 45 human maxillary central incisors. The null hypothesis was that the apical constriction is a flat ring. Our working hypothesis was that the constriction is actually uneven or "skewed" as it traces a path around the circumference of the canal. Teeth were split and imaged with 25x magnification, and the most apical and coronal limits of the apical constriction were identified and measured. Analysis of the data indicates that a majority (>70%) of maxillary central incisors exhibit an unevenness or "skew" of the apical constriction of greater than 100 microm in the incisoapical dimension, with a maximum measured skew of 385 microm. On the basis of the results of this study, a statistically significant (P < .05) variation in the longitudinal position of the apical constriction around its circumference was confirmed in maxillary central incisors.

  13. Radial glia and neural progenitors in the adult zebrafish central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Than-Trong, Emmanuel; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2015-08-01

    The adult central nervous system (CNS) of the zebrafish, owing to its enrichment in constitutive neurogenic niches, is becoming an increasingly used model to address fundamental questions pertaining to adult neural stem cell (NSC) biology, adult neurogenesis and neuronal repair. Studies conducted in several CNS territories (notably the telencephalon, retina, midbrain, cerebellum and spinal cord) highlighted the presence, in these niches, of progenitor cells displaying NSC-like characters. While pointing to radial glial cells (RG) as major long-lasting, constitutively active and/or activatable progenitors in most domains, these studies also revealed a high heterogeneity in the progenitor subtypes used at the top of neurogenic hierarchies, including the persistence of neuroepithelial (NE) progenitors in some areas. Likewise, dissecting the molecular pathways underlying RG maintenance and recruitment under physiological conditions and upon repair in the zebrafish model revealed shared processes but also specific cascades triggering or sustaining reparative NSC recruitment. Together, the zebrafish adult brain reveals an extensive complexity of adult NSC niches, properties and control pathways, which extends existing understanding of adult NSC biology and gives access to novel mechanisms of efficient NSC maintenance and recruitment in an adult vertebrate brain.

  14. Central nervous system control of the laryngeal muscles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2005-01-01

    Laryngeal muscle control may vary for different functions such as: voice for speech communication, emotional expression during laughter and cry, breathing, swallowing, and cough. This review discusses the control of the human laryngeal muscles for some of these different functions. Sensori-motor aspects of laryngeal control have been studied by eliciting various laryngeal reflexes. The role of audition in learning and monitoring ongoing voice production for speech is well known; while the role of somatosensory feedback is less well understood. Reflexive control systems involving central pattern generators may contribute to swallowing, breathing and cough with greater cortical control during volitional tasks such as voice production for speech. Volitional control is much less well understood for each of these functions and likely involves the integration of cortical and subcortical circuits. The new frontier is the study of the central control of the laryngeal musculature for voice, swallowing and breathing and how volitional and reflexive control systems may interact in humans. PMID:15927543

  15. Detection of BMAA in the human central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Berntzon, L; Ronnevi, L O; Bergman, B; Eriksson, J

    2015-04-30

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an extremely devastating neurodegenerative disease with an obscure etiology. The amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) produced by globally widespread phytoplankton has been implicated in the etiology of human motor neuron diseases [corrected]. BMAA was recently proven to be present in Baltic Sea food webs, ranging from plankton to larger Baltic Sea organisms, some serving as important food items (fish) for humans. To test whether exposure to BMAA in a Baltic Sea setting is reflected in humans, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from individuals suffering from ALS were analyzed, together with sex- and age-matched individuals not inflicted with ALS. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), in conjunction with diagnostic transitions revealed BMAA in three (12%) of the totally 25 Swedish individuals tested, with no preference for those suffering from ALS. The three BMAA-positive samples were all retrieved from the CSF, while BMAA was not detected in the blood. The data show that BMAA, potentially originating from Baltic Sea phytoplankton, may reach the human central nervous system, but does not lend support to the notion that BMAA is resident specifically in ALS-patients. However, while dietary exposure to BMAA may be intermittent and, if so, difficult to detect, our data provide the first demonstration of BMAA in the central nervous system of human individuals ante mortem quantified with UHPLC-MS/MS, and therefore calls for extended research efforts.

  16. Clinical outcomes of children and adults with central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Lester, Rachael A; Brown, Lindsay C; Eckel, Laurence J; Foote, Robert T; NageswaraRao, Amulya A; Buckner, Jan C; Parney, Ian F; Wetjen, Nicholas M; Laack, Nadia N

    2014-11-01

    Central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS PNETs) predominantly occur in children and rarely in adults. Because of the rarity of this tumor, its outcomes and prognostic variables are not well characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for children and adults with CNS PNET. The records of 26 patients (11 children and 15 adults) with CNS PNET from 1991 to 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and relevant prognostic factors were analyzed. For the cohort, both the 5-year DFS and the OS were 46 %. For pediatric patients, the 5-year DFS was 78 %; for adult patients, it was 22 % (P = 0.004). Five-year OS for the pediatric and adult patients was 67 and 33 %, respectively (P = 0.07). With bivariate analysis including chemotherapy regimen (high dose vs. standard vs. nonstandard) or risk stratification (standard vs. high) and age, the increased risk of disease recurrence in adults persisted. A nonsignificant tendency toward poorer OS in adult patients relative to pediatric patients also persisted. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue was associated with a statistically significant improvement in OS and a tendency toward improved DFS, although the findings were mitigated when the effect of age was considered. Local recurrence was the primary pattern of treatment failure in both adults and children. Our results suggest that adult patients with CNS PNETs have inferior outcomes relative to the pediatric cohort. Further research is needed to improve outcomes for CNS PNET in populations of all ages.

  17. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, β cells.

    PubMed

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; O'Donnell, Charles W; Deng, Francis; Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia Walton; DiIorio, Philip; Rezania, Alireza; Gifford, David K; Melton, Douglas A

    2014-02-25

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic β cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts are essential to validate hPSC-derived cells. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of sorted insulin-expressing (INS(+)) cells derived from three independent hPSC lines, human fetal pancreata, and adult human islets points to two major conclusions: (i) Different hPSC lines produce highly similar INS(+) cells and (ii) hPSC-derived INS(+) (hPSC-INS(+)) cells more closely resemble human fetal β cells than adult β cells. This study provides a direct comparison of transcriptional programs between pure hPSC-INS(+) cells and true β cells and provides a catalog of genes whose manipulation may convert hPSC-INS(+) cells into functional β cells.

  18. Localization of rem2 in the central nervous system of the adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Downs, Anna G; Scholles, Katie R; Hollis, David M

    2016-12-01

    Rem2 is member of the RGK (Rem, Rad, and Gem/Kir) subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTP binding proteins known to influence Ca(2+) entry into the cell. In addition, Rem2, which is found at high levels in the vertebrate brain, is also implicated in cell proliferation and synapse formation. Though the specific, regional localization of Rem2 in the adult mammalian central nervous system has been well-described, such information is lacking in other vertebrates. Rem2 is involved in neuronal processes where the capacities between adults of different vertebrate classes vary. Thus, we sought to localize the rem2 gene in the central nervous system of an adult anamniotic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In situ hybridization using a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled RNA probe was used to identify the regional distribution of rem2 expression throughout the trout central nervous system, while real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) further supported these findings. Based on in situ hybridization, the regional distribution of rem2 occurred within each major subdivision of the brain and included large populations of rem2 expressing cells in the dorsal telencephalon of the cerebrum, the internal cellular layer of the olfactory bulb, and the optic tectum of the midbrain. In contrast, no rem2 expressing cells were resolved within the cerebellum. These results were corroborated by rtPCR, where differential rem2 expression occurred between the major subdivisions assayed with the highest levels being found in the cerebrum, while it was nearly absent in the cerebellum. These data indicate that rem2 gene expression is broadly distributed and likely influences diverse functions in the adult fish central nervous system.

  19. Oligodendrocyte heterogeneity in the mouse juvenile and adult central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Codeluppi, Simone; van Bruggen, David; Mendanha Falcão, Ana; Xiao, Lin; Li, Huiliang; Häring, Martin; Hochgerner, Hannah; Romanov, Roman A.; Gyllborg, Daniel; Muñoz Manchado, Ana; La Manno, Gioele; Lönnerberg, Peter; Floriddia, Elisa M.; Rezayee, Fatemah; Ernfors, Patrik; Arenas, Ernest; Hjerling-Leffler, Jens; Harkany, Tibor; Richardson, William D.; Linnarsson, Sten; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes have been considered as a functionally homogenous population in the central nervous system (CNS). We performed single-cell RNA-Seq on 5072 cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage from ten regions of the mouse juvenile/adult CNS. Twelve populations were identified, representing a continuum from Pdgfra+ oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) to distinct mature oligodendrocytes. Initial stages of differentiation were similar across the juvenile CNS, whereas subsets of mature oligodendrocytes were enriched in specific regions in the adult brain. Newly-formed oligodendrocytes were found to be resident in the adult CNS and responsive to complex motor learning. A second Pdgfra+ population, distinct from OPCs, was found along vessels. Our study reveals the dynamics of oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation, uncoupling them at a transcriptional level and highlighting oligodendrocyte heterogeneity in the CNS. PMID:27284195

  20. Cdk2 loss accelerates precursor differentiation and remyelination in the adult central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Caillava, Céline; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Jablonska, Beata; Deboux, Cyrille; Spigoni, Giulia; Gallo, Vittorio; Malgrange, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    The specific functions of intrinsic regulators of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) division are poorly understood. Type 2 cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk2) controls cell cycle progression of OPCs, but whether it acts during myelination and repair of demyelinating lesions remains unexplored. Here, we took advantage of a viable Cdk2−/− mutant mouse to investigate the function of this cell cycle regulator in OPC proliferation and differentiation in normal and pathological conditions. During central nervous system (CNS) development, Cdk2 loss does not affect OPC cell cycle, oligodendrocyte cell numbers, or myelination. However, in response to CNS demyelination, it clearly alters adult OPC renewal, cell cycle exit, and differentiation. Importantly, Cdk2 loss accelerates CNS remyelination of demyelinated axons. Thus, Cdk2 is dispensable for myelination but is important for adult OPC renewal, and could be one of the underlying mechanisms that drive adult progenitors to differentiate and thus regenerate myelin. PMID:21502361

  1. SOD1 Lysine 123 Acetylation in the Adult Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Kaliszewski, Michael; Kennedy, Austin K; Blaes, Shelby L; Shaffer, Robert S; Knott, Andrew B; Song, Wenjun; Hauser, Henry A; Bossy, Blaise; Huang, Ting-Ting; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) knockout (Sod1(-/-)) mice exhibit an accelerated aging phenotype. In humans, SOD1 mutations are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and post-translational modification (PTM) of wild-type SOD1 has been associated with sporadic ALS. Reversible acetylation regulates many enzymes and proteomic studies have identified SOD1 acetylation at lysine 123 (K123). The function and distribution of K123-acetylated SOD1 (Ac-K123 SOD1) in the nervous system is unknown. Here, we generated polyclonal rabbit antibodies against Ac-K123 SOD1. Sod1 deletion in Sod1(-/-) mice, K123 mutation or preabsorption with Ac-K123 peptide all abolished antibody binding. Using immunohistochemistry, we assessed Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution in the normal adult mouse nervous system. In the cerebellum, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in cell bodies of the granular cell layer (GCL) and Purkinje cell dendrites and interneurons of the molecular cell layer. In the hippocampus, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was strong in the fimbria, subiculum, pyramidal cells and Schaffer collateral fibers of the cornus ammonis field 1 (CA1) region and granule and neuronal progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus. In addition, labeling was observed in the choroid plexus (CP) and the ependyma of the brain ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. In the olfactory bulb, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in axons of sensory neurons, in cell bodies of interneurons and neurites of the mitral and tufted cells. In the retina, labeling was strong in the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) and axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the inner nuclear layer (INL) and cone photoreceptors of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). In summary, our findings describe Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution to distinct regions and cell types of the normal nervous system.

  2. SOD1 Lysine 123 Acetylation in the Adult Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kaliszewski, Michael; Kennedy, Austin K.; Blaes, Shelby L.; Shaffer, Robert S.; Knott, Andrew B.; Song, Wenjun; Hauser, Henry A.; Bossy, Blaise; Huang, Ting-Ting; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) knockout (Sod1−/−) mice exhibit an accelerated aging phenotype. In humans, SOD1 mutations are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and post-translational modification (PTM) of wild-type SOD1 has been associated with sporadic ALS. Reversible acetylation regulates many enzymes and proteomic studies have identified SOD1 acetylation at lysine 123 (K123). The function and distribution of K123-acetylated SOD1 (Ac-K123 SOD1) in the nervous system is unknown. Here, we generated polyclonal rabbit antibodies against Ac-K123 SOD1. Sod1 deletion in Sod1−/− mice, K123 mutation or preabsorption with Ac-K123 peptide all abolished antibody binding. Using immunohistochemistry, we assessed Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution in the normal adult mouse nervous system. In the cerebellum, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in cell bodies of the granular cell layer (GCL) and Purkinje cell dendrites and interneurons of the molecular cell layer. In the hippocampus, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was strong in the fimbria, subiculum, pyramidal cells and Schaffer collateral fibers of the cornus ammonis field 1 (CA1) region and granule and neuronal progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus. In addition, labeling was observed in the choroid plexus (CP) and the ependyma of the brain ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. In the olfactory bulb, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in axons of sensory neurons, in cell bodies of interneurons and neurites of the mitral and tufted cells. In the retina, labeling was strong in the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) and axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the inner nuclear layer (INL) and cone photoreceptors of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). In summary, our findings describe Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution to distinct regions and cell types of the normal nervous system. PMID:28066183

  3. Using DNA barcoding to link cystacanths and adults of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus brevis in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alcántar-Escalera, F J; García-Varela, M; Vázquez-Domínguez, E; Pérez-Ponce de León, G

    2013-11-01

    In parasitic organisms, particularly helminths, the usage of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene as the standard DNA barcoding region for species identification and discovery has been very limited. Here, we present an integrated study, based on both DNA barcoding and morphological analyses, for acanthocephalans belonging to the genus Polymorphus, whose larvae (cystacanths) are commonly found in the mesentery of freshwater fishes, while adults are found in the intestine of fish-eating birds. The alpha taxonomy of parasitic helminths is based on adult morphological traits, and because of that larval forms cannot be identified to species level based on morphology alone. DNA barcoding offers an alternative tool for linking larval stages of parasitic organisms to known adults. We sequenced cystacanths collected from freshwater fishes in localities across central Mexico and adults obtained from fish-eating birds, to determine whether they were conspecific. To corroborate the molecular results, we conducted a morphometric analysis with 'Proboscis profiler', which is a software tool developed to detect heterogeneity in morphologically similar acanthocephalans based on the multivariate statistical analysis of proboscis hook dimensions. Both sources of information indicate that cystacanths infecting freshwater fishes in central Mexico belong to a single species, Polymorphus brevis.

  4. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

  5. Genotype identification of human cystic echinococcosis in Isfahan, central Iran.

    PubMed

    Kia, Eshrat Bigom; Rahimi, Hamidreza; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Talebi, Ardeshir; Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2010-08-01

    Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases commonly found in different regions of Iran with a major economic and public health importance. In the current study, Echinococcus granulosus isolates were collected from hospitalized patients in Isfahan, central Iran. The genotypes of 30 samples were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacer-1 region of ribosomal DNA, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with two restriction enzymes namely AluI and MspI. As expected, each isolate yielded an approximately 1-kbp DNA fragment on the electrophoresis gel. According to RFLP results for both enzymes, all isolates had an equal pattern indicating the G1 genotype. Our findings confirmed that G1 is the dominant genotype of cystic echinococcosis in human in central Iran, with predilection to different organs including liver, lung, and brain, and warrants the importance of sheep dog cycle in public health.

  6. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  8. Maps of the adult human hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Nezzar, Hachemi; Sakka, Laurent; Boirie, Yves; Fontaine, Denys; Coste, Aurélien; Coll, Guillaume; Sontheimer, Anna; Sarret, Catherine; Gabrillargues, Jean; De Salles, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The human hypothalamus is a small deeply located region placed at the crossroad of neurovegetative, neuroendocrine, limbic, and optic systems. Although deep brain stimulation techniques have proven that it could be feasible to modulate these systems, targeting the hypothalamus and in particular specific nuclei and white bundles, is still challenging. Our goal was to make a synthesis of relevant topographical data of the human hypothalamus, under the form of magnetic resonance imaging maps useful for mastering its elaborated structure as well as its neighborhood. As from 1.5 Tesla, Inversion-Recovery sequence allows locating the hypothalamus and most of its components. Spotting hypothalamic compartments is possible according to specific landmarks: the anterior commissure, the mammillary bodies, the preoptic recess, the infundibular recess, the crest between the preoptic and the infundibular recesses, the optical tract, the fornix, and the mammillo-thalamic bundle. The identification of hypothalamus and most of its components could be useful to allow the quantification of local pathological processes and to target specific circuitry to alleviate severe symptoms, using physical or biological agents. PMID:23682342

  9. Dientamoeba fragilis is more prevalent than Giardia duodenalis in children and adults attending a day care centre in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crotti, D; D'Annibale, M L; Fonzo, G; Lalle, M; Cacciò, S M; Pozio, E

    2005-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a well recognised enteropathogen, while Dientamoeba fragilis is rarely detected and consequently it is not recognised as an important human pathogen. In 2002-2003, a survey has been carried out on enteroparasites in faecal samples of outpatients attending a day care centre in the town of Perugia (Central Italy). To improve the detection level, at least three samples from each patient were collected at different days and within two hours from defecation. The coproparasitological examination has been carried out by direct microscopic examination, faecal concentration, and Giemsa and modified Ziehl-Nielsen stainings of faecal smears. The genotypes of Giardia duodenalis isolates were determined by PCR of the beta-giardin gene. Of 1,989 enrolled people (966 children, 1,023 adults), 165 persons (8.3%; 153 adults, 15.0%; 12 children, 1.2%), were positive for parasites, but only 1 12 adults (73.2% of those infected) and eight children (66.7% of those infected) harboured D. fragilis and G. duodenalis. Both the Assemblages A and B were detected in 18 G. duodenalis isolates examined at the beta-giardin gene. The higher prevalence of D. fragilis infections than that of G. duodenalis is probably related to the method used, a procedure, which is rarely followed in laboratories for the diagnosis of enteric parasites. These epidemiological data suggest that when faecal samples are examined after a period of time and without Giemsa staining, most D. fragilis infections goes undetected.

  10. The response of the anterior striatum during adult human vocal learning.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Anna J; Leech, Robert; Iverson, Paul; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-08-15

    Research on mammals predicts that the anterior striatum is a central component of human motor learning. However, because vocalizations in most mammals are innate, much of the neurobiology of human vocal learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Essential for song learning is a pathway, the homolog of mammalian cortical-basal ganglia "loops," which includes the avian striatum. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated adult human vocal learning, a skill that persists throughout life, albeit imperfectly given that late-acquired languages are spoken with an accent. Monolingual adult participants were scanned while repeating novel non-native words. After training on the pronunciation of half the words for 1 wk, participants underwent a second scan. During scanning there was no external feedback on performance. Activity declined sharply in left and right anterior striatum, both within and between scanning sessions, and this change was independent of training and performance. This indicates that adult speakers rapidly adapt to the novel articulatory movements, possibly by using motor sequences from their native speech to approximate those required for the novel speech sounds. Improved accuracy correlated only with activity in motor-sensory perisylvian cortex. We propose that future studies on vocal learning, using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, will provide insights into adult striatal plasticity and its potential for modification in both educational and clinical contexts.

  11. The response of the anterior striatum during adult human vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Leech, Robert; Iverson, Paul; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on mammals predicts that the anterior striatum is a central component of human motor learning. However, because vocalizations in most mammals are innate, much of the neurobiology of human vocal learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Essential for song learning is a pathway, the homolog of mammalian cortical-basal ganglia “loops,” which includes the avian striatum. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated adult human vocal learning, a skill that persists throughout life, albeit imperfectly given that late-acquired languages are spoken with an accent. Monolingual adult participants were scanned while repeating novel non-native words. After training on the pronunciation of half the words for 1 wk, participants underwent a second scan. During scanning there was no external feedback on performance. Activity declined sharply in left and right anterior striatum, both within and between scanning sessions, and this change was independent of training and performance. This indicates that adult speakers rapidly adapt to the novel articulatory movements, possibly by using motor sequences from their native speech to approximate those required for the novel speech sounds. Improved accuracy correlated only with activity in motor-sensory perisylvian cortex. We propose that future studies on vocal learning, using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, will provide insights into adult striatal plasticity and its potential for modification in both educational and clinical contexts. PMID:24805076

  12. Centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority promote cooperation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Social sanctioning is widely considered a successful strategy to promote cooperation among humans. In situations in which individual and collective interests are at odds, incentives to free-ride induce individuals to refrain from contributing to public goods provision. Experimental evidence from public goods games shows that when endowed with sanctioning powers, conditional cooperators can discipline defectors, thus leading to greater levels of cooperation. However, extant evidence is based on peer punishment institutions, whereas in complex societies, systems of control are often centralized: for instance, we do not sanction our neighbors for driving too fast, the police do. Here we show the effect of centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority on cooperation. We designed an adaptation of the public goods game in which sanctioning power is given to a single monitor, and we experimentally manipulated the process by which the monitor is chosen. To increase the external validity of the study, we conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 1,543 Ugandan farmers from 50 producer cooperatives. This research provides evidence of the effectiveness of centralized sanctioning and demonstrates the causal effect of legitimacy on cooperation: participants are more responsive to the authority of an elected monitor than a randomly chosen monitor. Our essay contributes to the literature on the evolution of cooperation by introducing the idea of role differentiation. In complex societies, cooperative behavior is not only sustained by mechanisms of selection and reciprocity among peers, but also by the legitimacy that certain actors derive from their position in the social hierarchy. PMID:21690401

  13. Assessing the WHO 50% Prevalence Threshold in School-Aged Children as Indication for Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Adults in Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Darin S.; King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Adamani, William; Alphonsus, Kal; Sambo, Yohanna; Miri, Emmanual S.; Goshit, Danjuma; Ogah, Gladys; Richards, Frank O.

    2013-01-01

    Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel is recommended in adults by the World Health Organization when prevalence of schistosomiasis in school-aged children (SAC) is ≥ 50%. This study ascertained the value of this threshold in predicting prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma hematobium (SH) infection in adults in central Nigeria. We evaluated urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence in 1,164 adults: 659 adults in 12 communities where mean hematuria among SAC in 2008 was 26.6% and 505 adults in 7 communities where the mean hematuria among SAC in 2008 was 70.4%. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of adults in prevalence of hematuria, prevalence of SH eggs, or intensity of infections. We conclude that, in this setting, the SAC threshold is not useful for treatment decisions in adults. Given the increased risk of subtle morbidity or urogenital schistosomiasis as a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), more liberal treatment of adults with praziquantel is warranted. PMID:23382170

  14. Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Cassandra M.; Batsis, John A.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; McQuoid, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment. PMID:27034833

  15. Diffuse Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma With Early Central Enhancement in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Aisheng; Dong, Hui; Zuo, Changjing; He, Tianlin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) is the most common vascular tumor of the liver in infancy. Adult with IHH is extremely rare. We presented a diffuse IHH in an adult patient with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings. A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a 2-year history of abnormal liver function tests and a 7-day history of jaundice. Physical examination revealed enlarged liver. Unenhanced abdominal CT showed enlargement of the liver with diffuse hypodensity. Enhanced CT on the arterial phase revealed multiple centrally enhanced lesions diffusely involved the enlarged liver. The enhanced areas of the lesions became larger on the portal phase and all the lesions became homogeneous enhanced on the delayed phase. These lesions showed heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted image, hypointense on T1-weighted image, and early centrally enhanced on dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI, with complete tumor enhancement after 180 s. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. IHH type 2 was confirmed by pathology. The patient died of tumor recurrence in the liver 4 months after transplantation. Unlike the previously described imaging appearances of IHH, this case showed diffuse nodules with early central enhancement on CT and MRI. Considering the importance of the ability to differentiate IHH from other hepatic tumors, radiologists should be aware of these imaging appearances to establish knowledge of the entire spectrum of IHH. PMID:26705232

  16. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior.

  17. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Results Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn’t. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224–1.461), 1.323 (1.193–1.456) and 1.261 (1.152–1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department. PMID:27467819

  18. Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Adults in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S.; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Zhao, Shiwen

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns represent a broader picture of food consumption, and are better correlated with a variety of health outcomes. However, few studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity in Southwest China. Data from the 2010–2012 National Nutrition Survey in the province of Yunnan, Southwest China, were analyzed (n = 1604, aged 18–80 years). Dietary data were collected using the 24 h dietary recall over three consecutive days. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between dietary patterns and obesity. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as traditional, modern, and tuber according to their key components. With potential confounders adjusted, adults in the highest quartile of the modern pattern were at higher risk of general and central obesity (odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–3.48; OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.37–2.93). In contrast, adults in the highest quartile of the tuber pattern were at lower risk of general and central obesity (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15–0.61; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.95) but at higher risk of underweight (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.20–6.45). No significant association was found between the traditional pattern and obesity. Moreover, dietary pattern differences occurred due to the differences in socio-demographic characteristics. In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern was positively, and the tuber pattern negatively, associated with general and central obesity among adults in Southwest China. PMID:27827895

  19. Central artery stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity, and brain white matter neuronal fiber integrity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Takashi; de Jong, Daan L K; Zhu, David C; Tseng, Benjamin Y; Liu, Jie; Hill, Candace; Riley, Jonathan; Womack, Kyle B; Kerwin, Diana R; Lu, Hanzhang; Munro Cullum, C; Zhang, Rong

    2015-04-15

    Cerebral hypoperfusion elevates the risk of brain white matter (WM) lesions and cognitive impairment. Central artery stiffness impairs baroreflex, which controls systemic arterial perfusion, and may deteriorate neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among brain WM neuronal fiber integrity, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and central artery stiffness in older adults. Fifty-four adults (65 ± 6 years) with normal cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were tested. The neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM was assessed from diffusion metrics acquired by diffusion tensor imaging. BRS was measured in response to acute changes in blood pressure induced by bolus injections of vasoactive drugs. Central artery stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). The WM diffusion metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivities, BRS, and cfPWV were not different between the control and MCI groups. Thus, the data from both groups were combined for subsequent analyses. Across WM, fiber tracts with decreased FA and increased RD were associated with lower BRS and higher cfPWV, with many of the areas presenting spatial overlap. In particular, the BRS assessed during hypotension was strongly correlated with FA and RD when compared with hypertension. Executive function performance was associated with FA and RD in the areas that correlated with cfPWV and BRS. These findings suggest that baroreflex-mediated control of systemic arterial perfusion, especially during hypotension, may play a crucial role in maintaining neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM in older adults.

  20. CENTRAL DIABETES INSIPIDUS: CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND LONG-TERM COURSE IN A LARGE COHORT OF ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Masri-Iraqi, Hiba; Hirsch, Dania; Herzberg, Dana; Lifshitz, Avner; Tsvetov, Gloria; Benbassat, Carlos; Shimon, Ilan

    2017-02-22

    Purpose Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare heterogeneous condition with various underlying causes. This study sought to increase the still-limited data on the clinical characteristics and long-term course in adults diagnosed with CDI. Methods Data on demographics, presentation, imaging findings, affected pituitary axes, treatment, and complications were collected retrospectively from the files of 70 adult patients with CDI followed at a referral endocrine clinic. Results 40 women and 30 men were included. Mean age was 46.8±15 years at the time of this study and 29.3±20 years at CDI diagnosis. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed in childhood. Forty patients (57%) acquired CDI following surgery. Main sellar pathologies were: craniopharyngioma, 17 patients (11 diagnosed in childhood); Langerhans histiocytosis, 10 patients (5 diagnosed in childhood); 7 patients (all diagnosed as adults) had a growth-hormone-secreting adenoma; twelve patients (17%; 6 diagnosed in childhood) had idiopathic CDI. At least one anterior pituitary axis was affected in 73% of the cohort: 59% had growth hormone deficiency, 56% hypogonadism, 55% central hypothyroidism, 44% ACTH-cortisol deficiency. Patients with post-operative/trauma CDI (n=44) tended to have multiple anterior pituitary axes deficits compared to the non-surgical group of patients. All patients were treated with vasopressin preparations, mostly nasal spray. Hyponatremia developed in 32 patients, more in women and was severe (<125 mEq/l) in 10. Hypernatremia (>150 mEq/l) was noticed in 5 patients. Overall, the calculated complication rate was 22/1250 treatment-years. Conclusions Most adult patients with CDI have anterior pituitary dysfunction. Stability is usually achieved with long-term treatment. Women were more susceptible to desmopressin complications, albeit with an overall relatively low complication rate.

  1. Exploring stress-induced cognitive impairment in middle aged, centrally obese adults.

    PubMed

    Lasikiewicz, N; Hendrickx, H; Talbot, D; Dye, L

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that psychosocial stress can induce cognitive impairment. However, few studies have explored impairment following acute stress exposure in individuals with central obesity. Central obesity co-occurs with glucocorticoid excess and can lead to elevated cortisol responses to stress. It is not clear whether centrally obese individuals exhibit greater cognitive impairment following acute stress. Cortisol responses to stress versus no-stress control were compared in 66 high- and low waist to hip ratio (WHR) middle-aged adults (mean age of 46 ± 7.17 years). Cognitive performance post exposure was assessed using Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery. It was hypothesised that high WHR would exhibit greater cortisol in response to stress exposure and would show poorer cognitive performance. Males, particularly of high WHR, tended to secrete greater cortisol during stress exposure. Exposure to stress and increasing WHR were specifically associated with poorer performance on declarative memory tasks (spatial recognition memory and paired associates learning). These data tentatively suggest a reduction in cognitive performance in those with central obesity following exposure to acute stress. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of stress on cognition in this population.

  2. Bacteriology of moderate (chronic) periodontitis in mature adult humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1983-01-01

    A total of 171 taxa was represented among 1,900 bacterial isolates from 60 samples of sites affected with moderate periodontitis in 22 mature adult humans. The composition of the subgingival sulcus flora was statistically significantly different from that of the adjacent supragingival flora and the subgingival flora of 14 people with healthy gingiva, but was not significantly different from that of sulci affected with severe periodontitis in 21 young human adults. The sulcus floras of moderate periodontitis and severe periodontitis shared many of their predominant bacterial species, but there were differences in the relative proportions of some of these species. Similar relationships were found for seven taxa of treponemes that were cultured from the samples. PMID:6642641

  3. Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Wael; Brouillet, Sophie; Sergent, Frederic; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean Jacques; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and (PROK2), are two closely related proteins that were identified as the mammalian homologs of their two amphibian homologs, mamba intestinal toxin (MIT-1) and Bv8. PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions. In particular, PROKs stimulate gastrointestinal motility, thus accounting for their family name "prokineticins". PROK1 acts as a potent angiogenic mitogen, thus earning its other name, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial factor. In contrast, PROK2 signaling pathway has been shown to be a critical regulator of olfactory bulb morphogenesis and sexual maturation. During the last decade, strong evidences established the key roles of prokineticins in the control of human central and peripheral reproductive processes. PROKs act as main regulators of the physiological functions of the ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis, with marked dysfunctions in various pathological conditions such as recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. PROKs have also been associated to the tumor development of some of these organs. In the central system, prokineticins control the migration of GnRH neurons, a key process that controls reproductive functions. Importantly, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 are associated to the development of Kallmann syndrome, with direct consequences on the reproductive system. This review describes the finely tuned actions of prokineticins in the control of the central and peripheral reproductive processes. Also, it discusses future research directions for the use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases.

  4. Lymphatic Stomata in the Adult Human Pulmonary Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Masahiro; Iobe, Hiroaki; Kudo, Tomoo; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Aoba, Takaaki; Okudela, Koji; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Yoshida, Maki; Nagao, Toshitaka; Nakaya, Takeo; Kurata, Atsushi; Ohtani, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lymphatic stomata are small lymphatic openings in the serosal membrane that communicate with the serosal cavity. Although these stomata have primarily been studied in experimental mammals, little is known concerning the presence and properties of lymphatic stomata in the adult human pleura. Thus, adult human pleurae were examined for the presence or absence of lymphatic stomata. Methods and Results: A total of 26 pulmonary ligaments (13 left and 13 right) were obtained from 15 adult human autopsy cases and examined using electron and light microscopy. The microscopic studies revealed the presence of apertures fringed with D2-40-positive, CD31-positive, and cytokeratin-negative endothelial cells directly communicating with submesothelial lymphatics in all of the pulmonary ligaments. The apertures' sizes and densities varied from case to case according to the serial tissue section. The medians of these aperture sizes ranged from 2.25 to 8.75 μm in the left pulmonary ligaments and from 2.50 to 12.50 μm in the right pulmonary ligaments. The densities of the apertures ranged from 2 to 9 per mm2 in the left pulmonary ligaments and from 2 to 18 per mm2 in the right pulmonary ligaments. However, no significant differences were found regarding the aperture size (p=0.359) and density (p=0.438) between the left and the right pulmonary ligaments. Conclusions: Our study revealed that apertures exhibit structural adequacy as lymphatic stomata on the surface of the pulmonary ligament, thereby providing evidence that lymphatic stomata are present in the adult human pleura. PMID:25526320

  5. Prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation programs for a central hypothyroidism in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Isabela Teixeira; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Alves, Simone Bezerra; Reis, Adelina Martha; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2008-08-01

    Malnutrition during lactation is associated with hypoprolactinemia and failure in milk production. Adult rats whose mothers were malnourished presented higher body weight and serum tri-iodothyronine (T(3)). Maternal hypoprolactinemia at the end of lactation caused higher body weight in adult life, suggesting an association between maternal prolactin (PRL) level and programming of the offspring's adult body weight. Here, we studied the consequences of the maternal PRL inhibition at the end of lactation by bromocriptine (BRO) injection, a dopaminergic agonist, upon serum TSH and thyroid hormones, thyroid iodide uptake, liver mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), liver and pituitary de-iodinase activities (D1 and/or D2), and in vitro post-TRH TSH release in the adult offspring. Wistar lactating rats were divided into BRO - injected with 1 mg/twice a day, daily for the last 3 days of lactation, and C - control, saline-injected with the same frequency. At 180 days of age, the offspring were injected with (125)I i.p. and after 2 h, they were killed. Adult animals whose mothers were treated with BRO at the end of lactation presented lower serum TSH (-51%), T(3) (-23%), and thyroxine (-21%), lower thyroid (125)I uptake (-41%), liver mGPD (-55%), and pituitary D2 (-51%) activities, without changes in the in vitro post-TRH TSH release. We show that maternal PRL suppression at the end of lactation programs a hypometabolic state in adulthood, in part due to a thyroid hypofunction, caused by a central hypothyroidism, probably due to decreased TRH secretion. We suggest that PRL during lactation can regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and programs its function.

  6. Doublecortin expression in the normal and epileptic adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y W J; Curtis, M A; Gibbons, H M; Mee, E W; Bergin, P S; Teoh, H H; Connor, B; Dragunow, M; Faull, R L M

    2008-12-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a neurological disorder associated with spontaneous recurrent complex partial seizures and hippocampal sclerosis. Although increased hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported in animal models of MTLE, increased neurogenesis has not been reported in the hippocampus of adult human MTLE cases. Here we showed that cells expressing doublecortin (Dcx), a microtubule-associated protein expressed in migrating neuroblasts, were present in the hippocampus and temporal cortex of the normal and MTLE adult human brain. In particular, increased numbers of Dcx-positive cells were observed in the epileptic compared with the normal temporal cortex. Importantly, 56% of Dcx-expressing cells in the epileptic temporal cortex coexpressed both the proliferative cell marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and early neuronal marker, TuJ1, suggesting that they may be newly generated neurons. A subpopulation of Dcx-positive cells in the epileptic temporal cortex also coexpressed the mature neuronal marker, NeuN, suggesting that epilepsy may promote the generation of new neurons in the temporal cortex. This study has identified, for the first time, a novel population of Dcx-positive cells in the adult human temporal cortex that can be upregulated by epilepsy and thus, raises the possibility that these cells may have functional significance in the pathophysiology of epilepsy.

  7. Rapid Increase in Neural Conduction Time in the Adult Human Auditory Brainstem Following Sudden Unilateral Deafness.

    PubMed

    Maslin, M R D; Lloyd, S K; Rutherford, S; Freeman, S; King, A; Moore, D R; Munro, K J

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with sudden unilateral deafness offer a unique opportunity to study plasticity of the binaural auditory system in adult humans. Stimulation of the intact ear results in increased activity in the auditory cortex. However, there are no reports of changes at sub-cortical levels in humans. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate changes in sub-cortical activity immediately before and after the onset of surgically induced unilateral deafness in adult humans. Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to stimulation of the healthy ear were recorded from ten adults during the course of translabyrinthine surgery for the removal of a unilateral acoustic neuroma. This surgical technique always results in abrupt deafferentation of the affected ear. The results revealed a rapid (within minutes) reduction in latency of wave V (mean pre = 6.55 ms; mean post = 6.15 ms; p < 0.001). A latency reduction was also observed for wave III (mean pre = 4.40 ms; mean post = 4.13 ms; p < 0.001). These reductions in response latency are consistent with functional changes including disinhibition or/and more rapid intra-cellular signalling affecting binaurally sensitive neurons in the central auditory system. The results are highly relevant for improved understanding of putative physiological mechanisms underlying perceptual disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis.

  8. Plasticity of connections underlying locomotor recovery after central and/or peripheral lesions in the adult mammals

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Serge

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses some aspects of plasticity of connections after spinal injury in adult animal models as a basis for functional recovery of locomotion. After reviewing some pitfalls that must be avoided when claiming functional recovery and the importance of a conceptual framework for the control of locomotion, locomotor recovery after spinal lesions, mainly in cats, is summarized. It is concluded that recovery is partly due to plastic changes within the existing spinal locomotor networks. Locomotor training appears to change the excitability of simple reflex pathways as well as more complex circuitry. The spinal cord possesses an intrinsic capacity to adapt to lesions of central tracts or peripheral nerves but, as a rule, adaptation to lesions entails changes at both spinal and supraspinal levels. A brief summary of the spinal capacity of the rat, mouse and human to express spinal locomotor patterns is given, indicating that the concepts derived mainly from work in the cat extend to other adult mammals. It is hoped that some of the issues presented will help to evaluate how plasticity of existing connections may combine with and potentiate treatments designed to promote regeneration to optimize remaining motor functions. PMID:16939980

  9. Growth Arrest Specific 1 (GAS1) Is Abundantly Expressed in the Adult Mouse Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Zarco, Natanael; Bautista, Elizabeth; Cuéllar, Manola; Vergara, Paula; Flores-Rodriguez, Paola; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Growth arrest specific 1 (GAS1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis and cell arrest in different tumors, but it is also involved in the development of the nervous system and other tissues and organs. This dual ability is likely caused by its capacity to interact both by inhibiting the intracellular signaling cascade induced by glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and by facilitating the activity of the sonic hedgehog pathway. The presence of GAS1 mRNA has been described in adult mouse brain, and here we corroborated this observation. We then proceeded to determine the distribution of the protein in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We detected, by western blot analysis, expression of GAS1 in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. To more carefully map the expression of GAS1, we performed double-label immunohistochemistry and noticed expression of GAS1 in neurons in all brain areas examined. We also observed expression of GAS1 in astroglial cells, albeit the pattern of expression was more restricted than that seen in neurons. Briefly, in the present article, we report the widespread distribution and cellular localization of the GAS1 native protein in adult mammalian CNS. PMID:23813868

  10. Evaluation of neck circumference as a predictor of central obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Caiguo; Ji, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether neck circumference (NC) could be used as a valid and effective method for identifying obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 3307 adults aged 20-65 years were randomly recruited from two communities of Tongzhou, Beijing. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), neck circumference (NC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), serum triglyceride (TG), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Urinary albumin (UAlb) were measured. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to explore the relationship between NC and other measurements. Furthermore, the best cutoff values of NC for central obesity identification were determined by applying the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: NC correlated positively with BMI, SBP and WC In both sexes. Both WC and NC correlated significantly positively with IR. A positive correlation between NC and FPG as well as a negative correlation between NC and HDL were found in obese men. NC≥38.5 cm for men and ≥34.5 cm for women were determined to be the best cutoff levels for identifying subjects with central obesity, with 82.9% accuracy for men and 79.9% accuracy for women. Conclusions: NC correlated positively with BMI and WC in both genders, indicating that NC could be used as a valid marker for both overall obesity and central obesity. In addition, measuring NC was shown to be a useful test for IR identification. Large number of NC is suggested to be associated with high risk of developing metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:26770540

  11. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in South and Central America and the Caribbean: systematic search and review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro D; de Carvalho, Rebeca F; Bittencourt, Achiléa L

    2017-03-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is caused by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) which is endemic in countries of Caribbean and Central and South America. We performed a systematic search and review to identify publications on ATL in these countries to verify if this disease was getting recognition in these regions as well as the characteristics of the observed cases. The median age of 49.4 years was lower than that referred to in Japan. According to our findings in most Brazilian states and in some other countries, ATL is not being recognized and should be strongly considered in the differential diagnosis of T-cell leukemias/lymphomas. Failure to identify these cases may be due to the unsystematic realization of serology for HTLV-1 and phenotypic identification of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that may result from lack of resources. Detection of ATL cases has been more feasible with cooperation from foreign research centers. A huge effort should be made to improve the surveillance system for ATL diagnosis in most of the South- and Central-American and Caribbean countries, and this attitude should be embraced by public organs to support health professionals in this important task.

  12. Covert spatial attention is functionally intact in amblyopic human adults

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Mariel; Cymerman, Rachel; Smith, R. Theodore; Kiorpes, Lynne; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention—the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements—to the same degree as neurotypical observers. We manipulated both involuntary (Experiment 1) and voluntary (Experiment 2) attention during an orientation discrimination task for which the effects of covert spatial attention have been well established in neurotypical and special populations. In both experiments, attention significantly improved accuracy and decreased reaction times to a similar extent (a) between the eyes of the amblyopic adults and (b) between the amblyopes and their age- and gender-matched controls. Moreover, deployment of voluntary attention away from the target location significantly impaired task performance (Experiment 2). The magnitudes of the involuntary and voluntary attention benefits did not correlate with amblyopic depth or severity. Both groups of observers showed canonical performance fields (better performance along the horizontal than vertical meridian and at the lower than upper vertical meridian) and similar effects of attention across locations. Despite their characteristic low-level vision impairments, covert spatial attention remains functionally intact in human amblyopic adults. PMID:28033433

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes Prevalence in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Wen-jie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To study the epidemic characteristics, transmission sources and routes of various subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and sequence variations in Henan, central China. To provide theoretical foundation for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention strategy in this region where the primary HIV transmission route was through former paid blood donation. Materials and Methods HIV-1 gene env and gag were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 1,287 HIV-1 confirmed samples in Henan. Results Among 1,287 samples, 5 HIV-1 strains were found including subtypes B' (95.9%), C (0.47%) and recombinant subtypes CRF 07_BC (1.09%), CRF 08_BC (1.79%) and CRF 01_AE (0.78%). Phylogenetic tree analysis found that 1,234 Henan subtype B' were closely related to those commonly found in Thailand, and were distantly related to other international subtypes. The dominant strain in former blood plasma donors (FPDs) was subtype B', and the dominant strains in sexual transmission were subtype B' and BC. Among HIV patients who were most likely infected through routes other than paid blood donation, the percentage of non-B' subtypes was much higher than those of FPD. Conclusion These findings suggest that the prevailing strain of HIV-1 in Henan is subtype B', similar to the B' subtype found in Thailand. In addition, for the first time we found subtypes C and recombinant subtypes CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE in this region. Indicating that the subtype feature of HIV-1 became more complicated than before in central China. PMID:19881967

  14. Third-molar development in relation to chronologic age in young adults of central China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuming; Mao, Jing; Zhu, Shengrong; Wei, Wei

    2008-08-01

    The estimation of chronologic age based on the stages of third-molar development was evaluated by using the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian and the third-molar development was compared, in terms of sex and age, with results of previous studies. The samples consisted of 291 orthopantomograms from young Chinese subjects of known chronologic age and sex (including 139 males with a mean age of 14.67+/-3.62 y and 152 females with a mean age of 14.85+/-3.70 y). Statistical analysis was performed by employing the Mann-Whitney U-test and the t-test. Regression analysis was conducted to obtain regression formulas for calculating dental age from the chronologic age. Our results showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in third-molar development between males and females, at the calcification stages D, E and H. And a strong correlation was found between age and third-molar development in both males (r (2)=0.65) and females (r (2)=0.61). New equations (Age=8.76+1.32 Development stage) for estimating chronologic age were derived. It is concluded that third-molar genesis took place earlier in males than in females. The use of third molars as a developmental marker is appropriate in young adults of Central China. The formula obtained in the present study can be used as a guide for estimation of dental maturity and a standard for age estimation for young adults of Central China.

  15. Central Nervous System Involvement in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Diagnostic Tools, Prophylaxis, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; De Santis, Giovanna; Di Veroli, Ambra; Ditto, Concetta; Nasso, Daniela; Postorino, Massimiliano; Refrigeri, Marco; Attrotto, Cristina; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement is associated with a very poor prognosis. The diagnostic assessment of this condition relies on the use of neuroradiology, conventional cytology (CC) and flow cytometry (FCM). Among these approaches, which is the gold standard it is still a matter of debate. Neuroradiology and CC have a limited sensitivity with a higher rate of false negative results. FCM demonstrated a superior sensitivity over CC, particularly when low levels of CNS infiltrating cells are present. Although prospective studies of a large series of patients are still awaited, a positive finding by FCM appears to anticipate an adverse outcome even if CC shows no infiltration. Current strategies for adult ALL CNS-directed prophylaxis or therapy involve systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation therapy. An early and frequent intrathecal injection of cytostatic combined with systemic chemotherapy is the most effective strategy to reduce the frequency of CNS involvement. In patients with CNS overt ALL, at diagnosis or upon relapse, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered. This review discusses risk factors, diagnostic techniques for identification of CNS infiltration and modalities of prophylaxis and therapy to manage it. PMID:25408861

  16. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09) and 1.17 (1.25–1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. PMID:26184308

  17. Perforated microelectrode arrays implanted in the regenerating adult central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Heiduschka, P; Romann, I; Stieglitz, T; Thanos, S

    2001-09-01

    Adult mammalian optic nerve axons are able to regenerate, when provided with the permissive environment of an autologous peripheral nerve graft, which is usually the sciatic nerve. This study demonstrates the ability of adult rat optic nerve axons to regenerate through the preformed perforations of a polyimide electrode carrier implanted at the interface between the proximal stump of the cut optic nerve and the stump of the peripheral nerve piece used for grafting. Evidence that retinal ganglion cells regenerated their axons through the perforated electrode carrier was obtained by retrograde labeling with a fluorescent dye deposited into the sciatic nerve graft beyond the nerve-carrier-nerve junction. The number of regenerating cells could be enhanced by injecting neuroprotective drugs like aurintricarboxylic acid and cortisol intravitreally. A second line of evidence was obtained by immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to neurofilament. Third, electrical activity of the regenerating nerves was recorded after stimulating the retina with a flash of light. The results suggest that a regenerating central nerve tract may serve as an experimental model to implant artificial microdevices to monitor the physiological and topographical properties of neurites passing through the device or to stimulate them, thus interfering with their potential to grow. This study reports for the first time that the optic nerve has unique properties, which aids in the realization of these goals.

  18. Variations of midline facial soft tissue thicknesses among three skeletal classes in Central Anatolian adults.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Kahraman; Bulut, Ozgur; Hizliol, Ismail; Hekimoglu, Baki; Gurcan, Safa

    2015-11-01

    Facial reconstruction is a technique employed in a forensic investigation as a last resort to recreate an individual's facial appearance from his/her skull. Forensic anthropologists or artists use facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) measurements as a guide in facial reconstructions. The aim of this study was to develop FSTT values for Central Anatolian adults, taking into consideration sex and skeletal classes; first, to achieve better results obtaining the likenesses of deceased individuals in two or three-dimensional forensic facial reconstructions and, second, to compare these values to existing databases. Lateral cephalograms were used to determine FSTT values at 10 midline facial landmarks of 167 adults. Descriptive statistics were calculated for these facial soft tissue thickness values, and these values were compared to those reported in two other comparable databases. The majority of the landmarks showed sex-based differences. Males were found to have significantly larger landmark values than female subjects. These results point not only to the necessity to present data in accordance with sexual dimorphism, but also the need to consider that individuals from different geographical areas have unique facial features and that, as a result, geographical population-specific FSTT values are required.

  19. Birth weight modifies the association between central nervous system gene variation and adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-03-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified ~100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study, and were based on genotype data on 20 BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth weight, weight at age 18 and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1 and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient=-0.045 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and -0.055 (95% CI -0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth weight ⩾3200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient=0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction=0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction<0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1 and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low-birth weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation.

  20. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  1. [Viral infection risk in polytransfused adults: seroprevalence of seven viruses in central Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Hannachi, N; Boughammoura, L; Marzouk, M; Tfifha, M; Khlif, A; Soussi, S; Skouri, H; Boukadida, J

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of seven transfusion-transmitted viruses in polytransfused adults and children comparatively with a group of healthy control subjects. We studied 107 polytransfused patients (59 adults and 48 children) and 160 control subjects (100 blood donors and 60 children). Immunoenzymatic tests were used for detection of HBs antigen (HBs Ag), antibodies against hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV), and IgG antibodies against human cytomegalovirus (IgG anti-CMV), human parvovirus B19 (IgG anti-PB19), and hepatitis E virus (IgG anti-HEV). An immunofluorescent assay was performed for the detection of human herpesvirus 8 antibodies (anti-HHV8). Prevalence of HBs Ag, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, IgG anti-CMV, IgG anti-PB19, IgG anti-HEV, and anti-HHV8 in polytransfused group was 8.4, 4.7, 0, 86.9, 60.7, 28.9, and 47.6%, respectively, and 1.8, 0.6, 0, 86.2, 53.1, 10, and 12.5%, respectively, in the control group. The difference in prevalence between the two groups was statistically significant for HBs Ag (P = 0.01), anti-HCV (P = 0.03), IgG anti-HEV (P < 10(-4)), and IgG anti-HHV8 (P < 10(-4)). Categorization according to age showed that hepatitis B and C risk was limited in adult polytransfused group. HHV8 infection was higher in polytransfused subjects born before the use of leucocyte-depleted blood components. Our results corroborate literature data on the risk of HEV and HHV8 infection by blood transfusion. Hepatitis B vaccination and improvement in screening tests have an important role in reduction of hepatitis B and C risk in transfusion, especially in young polytransfused persons. However, a residual risk of transmitting viral infections persists, and efforts are needed to improve transfusion safety.

  2. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-Wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little is known about the distribution of TJ proteins in adult human salivary cells and thus what key molecular components might be desirable for the cellular component of an artificial salivary gland device. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of TJ proteins in human salivary glands. Salivary gland samples were obtained from 10 patients. Frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained using IHC methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in ductal, endothelial, and ∼25% of serous cells. Claudins-2, -3, and -4 and JAM-A were expressed in both ductal and acinar cells, whereas claudin-5 was expressed only in endothelial cells. Occludin and ZO-1 were expressed in acinar, ductal, and endothelial cells. These results provide new information on TJ proteins in two major human salivary glands and should serve as a reference for future studies to assess the presence of appropriate TJ proteins in a tissue-engineered human salivary gland. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1093–1098, 2008) PMID:18765838

  3. Geometric properties and the predicted mechanical behavior of adult human clavicles.

    PubMed

    Harrington, M A; Keller, T S; Seiler, J G; Weikert, D R; Moeljanto, E; Schwartz, H S

    1993-01-01

    An image processing system was used to examine histomorphometric properties of 15 adult male and female human clavicles. Variations in porosity, cross-sectional area, anatomic and principal moments of inertia were assessed at 2.5-5.0% increments along the length of the clavicles. The clavicle's biomechanical behavior (axial, flexural, and torsional rigidities and the critical force for buckling) was modeled from these data using beam theory. Over threefold variations in porosity and moments of inertia were found along the length of the s-shaped clavicle--the greatest porosity and moments of inertia were located in the variably shaped sternal and acromial thirds of the bone in contrast to the denser and smaller, more circulatory shaped central third of the bone. Clavicle orientation, as indicated by the direction of greatest resistance to bending (maximum principal moment of inertia), was found to rotate from a primarily cranio-caudal orientation at the sternum to a primarily anterior-posterior orientation at the acromion. Based on cross-sectional geometry, section moduli, and estimates of flexural and torsional rigidity, the clavicle was found to be weakest in the central third of its length. These data concur with the fracture location most commonly reported clinically. Analysis of Euler buckling predicted a minimum critical force for buckling during axial loading of approximately two to three body weights for an average adult. Thus, buckling, or a combination of axial loading and bending or torsional loading, must be considered as possible failure mechanisms for this commonly injured bone.

  4. Human tau expression reduces adult neurogenesis in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Komuro, Yutaro; Xu, Guixiang; Bhaskar, Kiran; Lamb, Bruce T

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a central feature of a class of neurodegenerative diseases termed tauopathies. Notably, there is increasing evidence that tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, are also characterized by a reduction in neurogenesis, the birth of adult neurons. However, the exact relationship between hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of MAPT and neurogenic deficits remains unclear, including whether this is an early- or late-stage disease marker. In the present study, we used the genomic-based hTau mouse model of tauopathy to examine the temporal and spatial regulation of adult neurogenesis during the course of the disease. Surprisingly, hTau mice exhibited reductions in adult neurogenesis in 2 different brain regions by as early as 2 months of age, before the development of robust MAPT pathology in this model. This reduction was found to be due to reduced proliferation and not because of enhanced apoptosis in the hippocampus. At these same time points, hTau mice also exhibited altered MAPT phosphorylation with neurogenic precursors. To examine whether the effects of MAPT on neurogenesis were cell autonomous, neurospheres prepared from hTau animals were examined in vitro, revealing a growth deficit when compared with non-transgenic neurosphere cultures. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that altered adult neurogenesis is a robust and early marker of altered, cell-autonomous function of MAPT in the hTau mouse mode of tauopathy and that altered adult neurogenesis should be examined as a potential marker and therapeutic target for human tauopathies.

  5. Val1483Ile in FASN gene is linked to central obesity and insulin sensitivity in adult white men.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Botas, Patricia; Valdés, Sergio; Ortega, Francisco J; Delgado, Elías; Vázquez-Martín, Alejandro; Bassols, Judit; Pardo, Gerard; Ricart, Wifredo; Menéndez, Javier A; Fernández-Real, José M

    2009-09-01

    The Val1483Ile polymorphism in the human fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene is located within the interdomain region of the FASN close to the two dynamic active centers of the FASN enzyme and putatively affects FASN action. We aimed to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with obesity phenotypes, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue FASN activity in adult white subjects. The polymorphism was evaluated in association with metabolic variables in two independent studies: in a case-control study of 457 men (229 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 228 with altered glucose tolerance (AGT)); and in 600 population-based NGT subjects (274 men and 326 women). Adipose tissue FASN activity was analyzed using the method of Nepokroeff. The Ile variant was associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and a lower increase in weight over a 7-year period in NGT men. In a subset of 147 men, carriers of the Ile variant showed significantly increased insulin sensitivity. BMI (P < 0.001), WHR (P = 0.03), and Val1483Ile (P = 0.03), contributed independently to 37% of insulin sensitivity variance. In men from the population-based study, the Ile variant was associated with a lower BMI, WHR, fasting glucose, and systolic blood pressure compared with carriers of the Val variant. In agreement with these results, the adipose tissue FASN activity was significantly lower in subjects with the Ile variant (P = 0.01). In summary, adult white men with the Ile 1483 variant of the FASN gene seem protected from developing central obesity through decreased adipose tissue FASN activity.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and its association with central obesity and disability among older adults: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Miret, Marta; Chatterji, Somnath; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between various factors and diabetes type II (DM) with a particular emphasis on indicators of central obesity, and to compare the effect of DM on disability among elder populations (≥ 50 years old) in nine countries. Data were available for 52,946 people aged ≥ 18 years who participated in the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health and the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe studies conducted between 2007 and 2012. DM was defined as self-report of physician diagnosis. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Disability status was assessed with the WHODAS II questionnaire. The overall prevalence of DM was 7.9% and ranged from 3.8% (Ghana) to 17.6% (Mexico). A 10 cm increase in waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio of >0.5 were associated with a significant 1.26 (India) to 1.77 (Finland), and 1.68 (China, Spain) to 5.40 (Finland) times higher odds for DM respectively. No significant associations were observed in Mexico and South Africa. DM was associated with significantly higher disability status in all countries except Mexico in the model adjusted for demographics and smoking. The inclusion of chronic conditions associated with diabetes in the model attenuated the coefficients in varying degrees depending on the country. A considerable proportion of the studied older population had DM. Central obesity may be a key factor for the prevention of DM among older populations globally. Prevention of DM especially among the older population globally may contribute to reducing the burden of disability.

  7. How Illusory Is the Solitaire Illusion? Assessing the Degree of Misperception of Numerosity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Solitaire illusion occurs when the spatial arrangement of items influences the subjective estimation of their quantity. Unlike other illusory phenomena frequently reported in humans and often also in non-human animals, evidence of the Solitaire illusion in species other than humans remains weak. However, before concluding that this perceptual bias affects quantity judgments differently in human and non-human animals, further investigations on the strength of the Solitaire illusion is required. To date, no study has assessed the exact misperception of numerosity generated by the Solitaire arrangement, and the possibility exists that the numerical effects generated by the illusion are too subtle to be detected by non-human animals. The present study investigated the strength of this illusion in adult humans. In a relative numerosity task, participants were required to select which array contained more blue items in the presence of two arrays made of identical blue and yellow items. Participants perceived the Solitaire illusion as predicted, overestimating the Solitaire array with centrally clustered blue items as more numerous than the Solitaire array with blue items on the perimeter. Their performance in the presence of the Solitaire array was similar to that observed in control trials with numerical ratios larger than 0.67, suggesting that the illusory array produces a substantial overestimation of the number of blue items in one array relative to the other. This aspect was more directly investigated in a numerosity identification task in which participants were required to estimate the number of blue items when single arrays were presented one at a time. In the presence of the Solitaire array, participants slightly overestimated the number of items when they were centrally located while they underestimated the number of items when those items were located on the perimeter. Items located on the perimeter were perceived to be 76% as numerous as centrally located

  8. How Illusory Is the Solitaire Illusion? Assessing the Degree of Misperception of Numerosity in Adult Humans

    PubMed Central

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E.; Beran, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The Solitaire illusion occurs when the spatial arrangement of items influences the subjective estimation of their quantity. Unlike other illusory phenomena frequently reported in humans and often also in non-human animals, evidence of the Solitaire illusion in species other than humans remains weak. However, before concluding that this perceptual bias affects quantity judgments differently in human and non-human animals, further investigations on the strength of the Solitaire illusion is required. To date, no study has assessed the exact misperception of numerosity generated by the Solitaire arrangement, and the possibility exists that the numerical effects generated by the illusion are too subtle to be detected by non-human animals. The present study investigated the strength of this illusion in adult humans. In a relative numerosity task, participants were required to select which array contained more blue items in the presence of two arrays made of identical blue and yellow items. Participants perceived the Solitaire illusion as predicted, overestimating the Solitaire array with centrally clustered blue items as more numerous than the Solitaire array with blue items on the perimeter. Their performance in the presence of the Solitaire array was similar to that observed in control trials with numerical ratios larger than 0.67, suggesting that the illusory array produces a substantial overestimation of the number of blue items in one array relative to the other. This aspect was more directly investigated in a numerosity identification task in which participants were required to estimate the number of blue items when single arrays were presented one at a time. In the presence of the Solitaire array, participants slightly overestimated the number of items when they were centrally located while they underestimated the number of items when those items were located on the perimeter. Items located on the perimeter were perceived to be 76% as numerous as centrally located

  9. Sex Determination of Adult Human Maxillary Sinuses on Panoramic Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Leao de Queiroz, Cristhiane; Terada, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias; Dezem, Thais Uenoyama; Gomes de Araújo, Lais; Galo, Rodrigo; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; Alves da Silva, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensions of adult human maxillary sinuses on panoramic radiographs and their possible application on the sex determination for forensic purposes. The sample comprised 64 database panoramic radiographs from individuals aged 20 years or older (32 male and 32 female subjects), with complete permanent dentition (or absence of third molars). One examiner measured the width and height of the right and left maxillary sinuses using the software Image J 1.47v (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA). Measurements were repeated to calculate intra-observer agreement. Chi-Square test, Kappa, ANOVA and T-Student were used for results analysis for p≤ 0.05. Intra-observer agreement with correlation Kappa ranged between 0.38 and 0.96. For female subjects, the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus were 28.7856mm and 44.6178mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 27.7163mm for height and 45.1850mm for width. Male subjects were found to have the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus 30.9981mm and 48.7753mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 30.7403mm for height and 48.5753mm for width. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and width of maxillary sinuses between males and females. It can be concluded that maxillary sinuses height and width on panoramic radiographs can be used to determine the gender of adult human subjects.

  10. The adult human pubic symphysis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Ines; Woodley, Stephanie J; Stringer, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    The pubic symphysis is a unique joint consisting of a fibrocartilaginous disc sandwiched between the articular surfaces of the pubic bones. It resists tensile, shearing and compressive forces and is capable of a small amount of movement under physiological conditions in most adults (up to 2 mm shift and 1° rotation). During pregnancy, circulating hormones such as relaxin induce resorption of the symphyseal margins and structural changes in the fibrocartilaginous disc, increasing symphyseal width and mobility. This systematic review of the English, German and French literature focuses on the normal anatomy of the adult human pubic symphysis. Although scientific studies of the joint have yielded useful descriptive data, comparison of results is hampered by imprecise methodology and/or poorly controlled studies. Several aspects of the anatomy of the pubic symphysis remain unknown or unclear: the precise attachments of surrounding ligaments and muscles; the arrangement of connective tissue fibres within the interpubic disc and the origin, structure and function of its associated interpubic cleft; the biomechanical consequences of sexual dimorphism; potential ethnic variations in morphology; and its precise innervation and blood supply. These deficiencies hinder our understanding of the normal form and function of the joint, which is particularly relevant when attempting to understand the mechanisms underlying pregnancy-related pubic symphyseal pain, a neglected and relatively common cause of pubic pain. A better understanding of the normal anatomy of the human pubic symphysis should improve our understanding of such problems and contribute to better treatments for patients suffering from symphyseal pain and dysfunction. PMID:20840351

  11. Sex Determination of Adult Human Maxillary Sinuses on Panoramic Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Leao de Queiroz, Cristhiane; Terada, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias; Dezem, Thais Uenoyama; Gomes de Araújo, Lais; Galo, Rodrigo; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano

    2016-01-01

    Absract The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensions of adult human maxillary sinuses on panoramic radiographs and their possible application on the sex determination for forensic purposes. The sample comprised 64 database panoramic radiographs from individuals aged 20 years or older (32 male and 32 female subjects), with complete permanent dentition (or absence of third molars). One examiner measured the width and height of the right and left maxillary sinuses using the software Image J 1.47v (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA). Measurements were repeated to calculate intra-observer agreement. Chi-Square test, Kappa, ANOVA and T-Student were used for results analysis for p≤ 0.05. Intra-observer agreement with correlation Kappa ranged between 0.38 and 0.96. For female subjects, the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus were 28.7856mm and 44.6178mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 27.7163mm for height and 45.1850mm for width. Male subjects were found to have the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus 30.9981mm and 48.7753mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 30.7403mm for height and 48.5753mm for width. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and width of maxillary sinuses between males and females. It can be concluded that maxillary sinuses height and width on panoramic radiographs can be used to determine the gender of adult human subjects. PMID:27847394

  12. Aging, the Central Nervous System, and Mobility in Older Adults: Neural Mechanisms of Mobility Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Clark, David J.; Viswanathan, Anand; Scherzer, Clemens R.; De Jager, Philip; Csiszar, Anna; Laurienti, Paul J.; Hausdorff, Jeffery M.; Chen, Wen G.; Ferrucci, Luiggi; Rosano, Caterina; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Black, Sandra E.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mobility is crucial for successful aging and is impaired in many older adults. We know very little about the subtle, subclinical age-related changes in the central nervous system (CNS) that mediate mobility impairment. Methods. A conference series focused on aging, the CNS, and mobility was launched. The second conference addressed major age-associated mechanisms of CNS-mediated mobility impairment. Speakers and conference attendees recommended key areas for future research, identified barriers to progress, and proposed strategies to overcome them. Results. Priorities identified for future research include (a) studying interactions among different mechanisms; (b) examining effects of interventions targeting these mechanisms; (c) evaluating the effect of genetic polymorphisms on risks and course of age-related mobility impairment; and (d) examining the effect of age on CNS repair processes, neuroplasticity, and neuronal compensatory mechanisms. Key strategies to promote research include (a) establish standard measures of mobility across species; (b) evaluate the effect of aging in the absence of disease on CNS and mobility; and (c) use advanced computational methods to better evaluate the interactions between CNS and other systems involved in mobility. Conclusions. CNS is a major player in the process, leading to mobility decline with aging. Future research in this area has the potential to prolong independence in older persons. Better interactions among disciplines and shared research paradigms are needed to make progress. Research priorities include the development of innovative approaches to integrate research on aging, cognition, and movement with attention to neurovascular function, neuroplasticity, and neurophysiological reserve. PMID:26386013

  13. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…

  14. The Effect of Body Mass on Outdoor Adult Human Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Spencer, Jessica R; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2017-02-23

    Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6.0), TBS ≥12.5, advanced decomposition (TBS ≥19.0), TBS ≥23.0, and skeletonization (TBS ≥27.0). Results indicate no significant correlation between body mass and KADD at any TBS threshold. Body mass accounted for up to 24.0% of variation in decomposition rate depending on stage, and minor differences in decomposition pattern were observed. Body mass likely has a minimal impact on postmortem interval estimation.

  15. Adult human liver mesenchymal progenitor cells express phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Baruteau, Julien; Nyabi, Omar; Najimi, Mustapha; Fauvart, Maarten; Sokal, Etienne

    2014-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most prevalent inherited metabolic diseases and is accountable for a severe encephalopathy by progressive intoxication of the brain by phenylalanine. This results from an ineffective L-phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme (PAH) due to a mutated phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Neonatal screening programs allow an early dietetic treatment with restrictive phenylalanine intake. This diet prevents most of the neuropsychological disabilities but remains challenging for lifelong compliance. Adult-derived human liver progenitor cells (ADHLPC) are a pool of precursors that can differentiate into hepatocytes. We aim to study PAH expression and PAH activity in a differenciated ADHLPC. ADHLPC were isolated from human hepatocyte primary culture of two different donors and differenciated under specific culture conditions. We demonstrated the high expression of PAH and a large increase of PAH activity in differenciated LPC. The age of the donor, the cellular viability after liver digestion and cryopreservation affects PAH activity. ADHLPC might therefore be considered as a suitable source for cell therapy in PKU.

  16. Ossified Ligamentum Longitudinale Anterius in Adult Human Dry Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Venumadhav, Nelluri; KS, Siddaraju

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ligamentum longitudinale anterius is a broad and strong band of fibrous tissue that runs along the anterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae. Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius in adult dry human vertebra. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 95 sets of dry human vertebral columns irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery- Calicut, India. All the sets of vertebral columns were macroscopically inspected for the ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius. Results: It was observed that out of 95 sets of vertebral columns, 27 (28.42%) vertebral columns showed ossification. Out of 27 vertebral columns, 17 (17.89%) vertebral columns showed segmental type of ossification, 2 (2.11%) vertebral columns showed continuous type of ossification and 8 (8.42%) vertebral columns showed mixed type of ossification at different vertebral level. Conclusion: Such type of ossification will affect the biomechanics of the spine and may result in stiff neck, low back pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, compression of the brachial plexus, aphonia, immobility or mucosal thickening of larynx. Hence, knowledge of such abnormalities should be kept in mind to minimise serious complications in any surgical intervention or investigative procedures in the region. PMID:25302180

  17. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.

  18. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    DOE PAGES

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less

  19. Comprehensive cellular‐resolution atlas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Joshua J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A.C.; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet‐Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A.; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Fischl, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole‐brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high‐resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large‐format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto‐ and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127–3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  20. [Protozoa and protozoan infections of humans in Central Europe].

    PubMed

    Walochnik, Julia; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    This article is a condensed review of the medically relevant protozoa in Central Europe and the infections and diseases caused by them. Information is given on modes and sources of infection, organs involved in the disease, prevalence, diagnostics, therapy, and prophylaxis. Moreover, travel-associated infections with protozoa are briefly outlined.

  1. Simulation for human factors research. A central question: Fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized outlines are presented for simulation in human factors research. Recent trends in aeronautical simulation are given. Some criteria for effective training devices are also given. Full system/full mission simulation in aviation and in space human factors research is presented.

  2. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution.

  3. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  4. Long-Term Central Venous Catheter Use and Risk of Infection in Older Adults With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Sepkowitz, Kent A.; Elkin, Elena B.; Pinheiro, Laura C.; Sima, Camelia S.; Son, Crystal H.; Atoria, Coral L.; Bach, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Long-term central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used in patients with cancer to facilitate venous access to administer intravenous fluids and chemotherapy. CVCs can also be a source of bloodstream infections, although this risk is not well understood. We examined the impact of long-term CVC use on infection risk, independent of other risk factors such as chemotherapy, in a population-based cohort of patients with cancer. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis using SEER-Medicare data for patients age > 65 years diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 with invasive colorectal, head and neck, lung, or pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or invasive or noninvasive breast cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the relationship between CVC use and infections, with CVC exposure as a time-dependent predictor. We used multivariable analysis and propensity score methods to control for patient characteristics. Results CVC exposure was associated with a significantly elevated infection risk, adjusting for demographic and disease characteristics. For patients with pancreatic cancer, risk of infections during the exposure period was three-fold greater (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.93; 95% CI, 2.58 to 3.33); for those with breast cancer, it was six-fold greater (AHR, 6.19; 95% CI, 5.42 to 7.07). Findings were similar when we accounted for propensity to receive a CVC and limited the cohort to individuals at high risk of infections. Conclusion Long-term CVC use was associated with an increased risk of infections for older adults with cancer. Careful assessment of the need for long-term CVCs and targeted strategies for reducing infections are critical to improving cancer care quality. PMID:24982458

  5. Features of hand-foot crawling behavior in human adults.

    PubMed

    Maclellan, M J; Ivanenko, Y P; Cappellini, G; Sylos Labini, F; Lacquaniti, F

    2012-01-01

    Interlimb coordination of crawling kinematics in humans shares features with other primates and nonprimate quadrupeds, and it has been suggested that this is due to a similar organization of the locomotor pattern generators (CPGs). To extend the previous findings and to further explore the neural control of bipedal vs. quadrupedal locomotion, we used a crawling paradigm in which healthy adults crawled on their hands and feet at different speeds and at different surface inclinations (13°, 27°, and 35°). Ground reaction forces, limb kinematics, and electromyographic (EMG) activity from 26 upper and lower limb muscles on the right side of the body were collected. The EMG activity was mapped onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the motoneuron pools to characterize the general features of cervical and lumbosacral spinal cord activation. The spatiotemporal pattern of spinal cord activity significantly differed between quadrupedal and bipedal gaits. In addition, participants exhibited a large range of kinematic coordination styles (diagonal vs. lateral patterns), which is in contrast to the stereotypical kinematics of upright bipedal walking, suggesting flexible coupling of cervical and lumbosacral pattern generators. Results showed strikingly dissimilar directional horizontal forces for the arms and legs, considerably retracted average leg orientation, and substantially smaller sacral vs. lumbar motoneuron activity compared with quadrupedal gait in animals. A gradual transition to a more vertical body orientation (increasing the inclination of the treadmill) led to the appearance of more prominent sacral activity (related to activation of ankle plantar flexors), typical of bipedal walking. The findings highlight the reorganization and adaptation of CPG networks involved in the control of quadrupedal human locomotion and a high specialization of the musculoskeletal apparatus to specific gaits.

  6. Effect of half adult dose of oral Rifampicin (300mg) in patients with idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Saim; Sameen, Murtaza; Lodhi, Arshad Ali; Ahmed, Munawar; Ahmed, Noman; Kamal, Mustafa; Junejo, Sameen Afzal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of half adult dose of oral Rifampicin on mean change in best corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 31 patients with idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) were registered. Unaided Visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity was documented and detailed slit lamp examination along with dilated ophthalmoscopy was performed. All subjects were treated with oral Rifampicin 300 mg (half adult dose) daily for 03 months. Patients underwent a complete ocular and systemic examination as well as central macular thickness (CMT) measurement by optical coherence tomography (OCT) every month after starting treatment until four months. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) was performed in recurrent cases. Liver function tests were carried out prior to the treatment and during follow up period. Results: A total of 38 eyes of 31 patients (24 males, 07 females) were included in the study. Mean age of patients was 36.16±3.19 years (range 30-44). Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before treatment was 0.56±0.11 and improved to 0.47±0.14 at 04 weeks (P<0.001) of treatment. The mean CMT at the time of presentation was 494.39±96.29 um and was decreased to 306.90±50.71 um after 04 weeks of treatment (P<0.001). The mean induced reduction in CMT was 187.48±122 um (P<0.001) while that in BCVA 0.41±0.16 at 04 weeks of treatment (P<0.001). Liver function tests were within normal range before and after the treatment. Conclusion: Half adult dose rifampicin (300mg) is effective and safe in treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy without causing any systemic imbalance. PMID:27882013

  7. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  8. The role of repulsive guidance molecules in the embryonic and adult vertebrate central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Bernhard K; Yamashita, Toshihide; Schaffar, Gregor; Mueller, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    During the development of the nervous system, outgrowing axons often have to travel long distances to reach their target neurons. In this process, outgrowing neurites tipped with motile growth cones rely on guidance cues present in their local environment. These cues are detected by specific receptors expressed on growth cones and neurites and influence the trajectory of the growing fibres. Neurite growth, guidance, target innervation and synapse formation and maturation are the processes that occur predominantly but not exclusively during embryonic or early post-natal development in vertebrates. As a result, a functional neural network is established, which is usually remarkably stable. However, the stability of the neural network in higher vertebrates comes at an expensive price, i.e. the loss of any significant ability to regenerate injured or damaged neuronal connections in their central nervous system (CNS). Most importantly, neurite growth inhibitors prevent any regenerative growth of injured nerve fibres. Some of these inhibitors are associated with CNS myelin, others are found at the lesion site and in the scar tissue. Traumatic injuries in brain and spinal cord of mammals induce upregulation of embryonic inhibitory or repulsive guidance cues and their receptors on the neurites. An example for embryonic repulsive directional cues re-expressed at lesion sites in both the rat and human CNS is provided with repulsive guidance molecules, a new family of directional guidance cues. PMID:16939972

  9. Human resources data collection--Central Information Service.

    PubMed

    Teodosijevic, Nada; Rikanovic, Sasa

    2010-01-01

    The Central Information Service--(CIS) is located at the Institute of Public Health of Serbia, which maintains and upgrades it. CIS has been developed through the Serbia Health Project, a project developed by the Ministry of Health and funded by the World Bank loan. Through its web portal CIS ensures that all health institutions enter and maintain HR and other resource data, at the same time enabling all users of the system (Ministry of Health, Health Insurance Fund, Institutions of Public Health, all health institutions) to use CIS data in accordance with the pre-established rights. In the following period CIS will offer its services to the private sector as well, and it shall be a basis for the establishment of Serbia e-Health portal for citizens.

  10. Protocol to Isolate a Large Amount of Functional Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells from the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Rodríguez, Eva María; Arenzana, Francisco Javier; Bribián, Ana; de Castro, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    During development, oligodendrocytes are generated from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), a cell type that is a significant proportion of the total cells (3-8%) in the adult central nervous system (CNS) of both rodents and humans. Adult OPCs are responsible for the spontaneous remyelination that occurs in demyelinating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and they constitute an interesting source of cells for regenerative therapy in such conditions. However, there is little data regarding the neurobiology of adult OPCs isolated from mice since an efficient method to isolate them has yet to be established. We have designed a protocol to obtain viable adult OPCs from the cerebral cortex of different mouse strains and we have compared its efficiency with other well-known methods. In addition, we show that this protocol is also useful to isolate functional OPCs from human brain biopsies. Using this method we can isolate primary cortical OPCs in sufficient quantities so as to be able to study their survival, maturation and function, and to facilitate an evaluation of their utility in myelin repair. PMID:24303061

  11. An Update of the Mayo Clinic Cohort of Patients With Adult Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Salvarani, Carlo; Brown, Robert D.; Christianson, Teresa; Miller, Dylan V.; Giannini, Caterina; Huston, John; Hunder, Gene G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is an uncommon condition in which lesions are limited to vessels of the brain and spinal cord. Because the clinical manifestations are not specific, the diagnosis is often difficult, and permanent disability and death are frequent outcomes. This study is based on a cohort of 163 consecutive patients with PCNSV who were examined at the Mayo Clinic over a 29-year period from 1983 to 2011. The aim of the study was to define the characteristics of these patients, which represents the largest series in adults reported to date. A total of 105 patients were diagnosed by angiographic findings and 58 by biopsy results. The patients diagnosed by biopsy more frequently had at presentation cognitive dysfunction, greater cerebrospinal fluid total protein concentrations, less frequent cerebral infarcts, and more frequent leptomeningeal gadolinium-enhanced lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with less mortality and disability at last follow-up. The patients diagnosed by angiograms more frequently had at presentation hemiparesis or a persistent neurologic deficit or stroke, more frequent infarcts on MRI and an increased mortality. These differences were mainly related to the different size of the vessels involved in the 2 groups. Although most patients responded to therapy with glucocorticoids alone or in conjunction with cyclophosphamide and tended to improve during the follow-up period, an overall increased mortality rate was observed. Relapses occurred in one-quarter of the patients and were less frequent in patients treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide compared with those treated with prednisone alone. The mortality rate and degree of disability at last follow-up were greater in those with increasing age, cerebral infarctions on MRI, angiographic large vessel involvement, and diagnosis made by angiography alone, but were lower in those with gadolinium-enhanced lesions on MRI and in those with

  12. The California and Central Valley Microwave Network: Serving Adult Learners through Lifelong Learning Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveille, David E.

    Ways that technology is being integrated into the instructional and administrative operation of U.S. colleges are considered, along with the application of one of the technologies, microwave, to adult learning opportunities. Changing demographics relating to adult learners over the next 10 to 15 years are identified. Eight projects applying…

  13. Immunoreactivity of thymosin beta 4 in human foetal and adult genitourinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Nemolato, S.; Cabras, T.; Fanari, M.U.; Cau, F.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Manconi, B.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a member of the beta-thymosins family, a family of peptides playing essential roles in many cellular functions. Our recent studies suggested Tβ4 plays a key role in the development of human salivary glands and the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to analyse the presence of Tβ4 in the human adult and foetal genitourinary tract. Immunolocalization of Tβ4 was studied in autoptic samples of kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, testicle and prostate obtained from four human foetuses and four adults. Presence of the peptide was observed in cells of different origin: in surface epithelium, in gland epithelial cells and in the interstitial cells. Tβ4 was mainly found in adult and foetal bladder in the transitional epithelial cells; in the adult endometrium, glands and stromal cells were immunoreactive for the peptide; Tβ4 was mainly localized in the glands of foetal prostate while, in the adults a weak Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the stroma. In adult and foetal kidney, Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to ducts and tubules with completely spared glomeruli; a weak positivity was observed in adult and foetal oocytes; immunoreactivity was mainly localized in the interstitial cells of foetal and adult testis. In this study, we confirm that Tβ4 could play a relevant role during human development, even in the genitourinary tract, and reveal that immunoreactivity for this peptide may change during postnatal and adult life. PMID:21263742

  14. Hyperoxia Induces Inflammation and Cytotoxicity in Human Adult Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Christina; Wu, Jing; Tiboldi, Akos; Hess, Moritz; Mitulovic, Goran; Kaun, Christoph; Krychtiuk, Konstantin Alexander; Wojta, Johann; Ullrich, Roman; Tretter, Eva Verena; Markstaller, Klaus; Klein, Klaus Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Supplemental oxygen (O2) is used as adjunct therapy in anesthesia, emergency, and intensive care medicine. We hypothesized that excessive O2 levels (hyperoxia) can directly injure human adult cardiac myocytes (HACMs). HACMs obtained from the explanted hearts of transplantation patients were exposed to constant hyperoxia (95% O2), intermittent hyperoxia (alternating 10 min exposures to 5% and 95% O2), constant normoxia (21% O2), or constant mild hypoxia (5% O2) using a bioreactor. Changes in cell morphology, viability as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and trypan blue (TB) staining, and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and various pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin, IL; chemokine C-X-C motif ligand, CXC; granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, G-CSF; intercellular adhesion molecule, ICAM; chemokine C-C motif ligand, CCL) were compared among treatment groups at baseline (0 h) and after 8, 24, and 72 h of treatment. Changes in HACM protein expression were determined by quantitative proteomic analysis after 48 h of exposure. Compared with constant normoxia and mild hypoxia, constant hyperoxia resulted in a higher TB-positive cell count, greater release of LDH, and elevated secretion of VEGF, MIF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL-1, CXCL-10, G-CSF, ICAM-1, CCL-3, and CCL-5. Cellular inflammation and cytotoxicity gradually increased and was highest after 72 h of constant and intermittent hyperoxia. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that hypoxic and hyperoxic O2 exposure differently altered the expression levels of proteins involved in cell-cycle regulation, energy metabolism, and cell signaling. In conclusion, constant and intermittent hyperoxia induced inflammation and cytotoxicity in HACMs. Cell injury occurred earliest and was greatest after constant hyperoxia, but even relatively brief repeating hyperoxic episodes induced a substantial inflammatory response.

  15. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-10-07

    People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons.

  16. A comparison of some organizational characteristics of the mouse central retina and the human macula.

    PubMed

    Volland, Stefanie; Esteve-Rudd, Julian; Hoo, Juyea; Yee, Claudine; Williams, David S

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly assisted our understanding of retinal degenerations. However, the mouse retina does not have a macula, leading to the question of whether the mouse is a relevant model for macular degeneration. In the present study, a quantitative comparison between the organization of the central mouse retina and the human macula was made, focusing on some structural characteristics that have been suggested to be important in predisposing the macula to stresses leading to degeneration: photoreceptor density, phagocytic load on the RPE, and the relative thinness of Bruch's membrane. Light and electron microscopy measurements from retinas of two strains of mice, together with published data on human retinas, were used for calculations and subsequent comparisons. As in the human retina, the central region of the mouse retina possesses a higher photoreceptor cell density and a thinner Bruch's membrane than in the periphery; however, the magnitudes of these periphery to center gradients are larger in the human. Of potentially greater relevance is the actual photoreceptor cell density, which is much greater in the mouse central retina than in the human macula, underlying a higher phagocytic load for the mouse RPE. Moreover, at eccentricities that correspond to the peripheral half of the human macula, the rod to cone ratio is similar between mouse and human. Hence, with respect to photoreceptor density and phagocytic load of the RPE, the central mouse retina models at least the more peripheral part of the macula, where macular degeneration is often first evident.

  17. A Comparison of Some Organizational Characteristics of the Mouse Central Retina and the Human Macula

    PubMed Central

    Hoo, Juyea; Yee, Claudine; Williams, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly assisted our understanding of retinal degenerations. However, the mouse retina does not have a macula, leading to the question of whether the mouse is a relevant model for macular degeneration. In the present study, a quantitative comparison between the organization of the central mouse retina and the human macula was made, focusing on some structural characteristics that have been suggested to be important in predisposing the macula to stresses leading to degeneration: photoreceptor density, phagocytic load on the RPE, and the relative thinness of Bruch’s membrane. Light and electron microscopy measurements from retinas of two strains of mice, together with published data on human retinas, were used for calculations and subsequent comparisons. As in the human retina, the central region of the mouse retina possesses a higher photoreceptor cell density and a thinner Bruch’s membrane than in the periphery; however, the magnitudes of these periphery to center gradients are larger in the human. Of potentially greater relevance is the actual photoreceptor cell density, which is much greater in the mouse central retina than in the human macula, underlying a higher phagocytic load for the mouse RPE. Moreover, at eccentricities that correspond to the peripheral half of the human macula, the rod to cone ratio is similar between mouse and human. Hence, with respect to photoreceptor density and phagocytic load of the RPE, the central mouse retina models at least the more peripheral part of the macula, where macular degeneration is often first evident. PMID:25923208

  18. Early Origins of Adult Disease: Approaches for Investigating the Programmable Epigenome in Humans, Nonhuman Primates, and Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ganu, Radhika S.; Harris, R. Alan; Collins, Kiara; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2012-01-01

    According to the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, in utero experiences reprogram an individual for immediate adaptation to gestational perturbations, with the sequelae of later-in-life risk of metabolic disease. An altered gestational milieu with resultant adult metabolic disease has been observed in instances of both in utero constraint (e.g., from famine or uteroplacental insufficiency) and overt caloric abundance (e.g., from a maternal high-fat, caloric-dense diet). The commonality of the adult metabolic phenotype begs the question of how diverse in utero experiences (i.e., reprogramming events) converge on common metabolic pathways and how the memory of these events is maintained across the lifespan. We and others have investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying fetal programming and observed that epigenetic modifications to the fetal and placental epigenome accompany these reprogramming events. Based on several lines of emerging data in human and nonhuman primates, it is now felt that modified epigenetic signature—and the histone code in particular—underlies alterations in postnatal gene expression and metabolic pathways central to accurate functioning and maintenance of health. Because of the tissue lineage specificity of many of these modifications, nonhuman primates serve as an apt model system for the capacity to recapitulate human gene expression and regulation during development. This review summarizes recent epigenetic advances using rodent and primate (both human and nonhuman) models during in utero development and contributing to adult diseases later in life. PMID:23744969

  19. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe.

  20. Gene Expression Profiling of Embryonic Human Neural Stem Cells and Dopaminergic Neurons from Adult Human Substantia Nigra

    PubMed Central

    Marei, Hany E. S.; Althani, Asma; Afifi, Nahla; Michetti, Fabrizio; Pescatori, Mario; Pallini, Roberto; Casalbore, Patricia; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Schwartz, Philip; Ahmed, Abd-Elmaksoud

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSC) with self-renewal and multipotent properties serve as an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat neurodegenerative insults such as Parkinson's disease. We used Agilent's and Illumina Whole Human Genome Oligonucleotide Microarray to compare the genomic profiles of human embryonic NSC at a single time point in culture, and a multicellular tissue from postmortem adult substantia nigra (SN) which are rich in dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We identified 13525 up-regulated genes in both cell types of which 3737 (27.6%) genes were up-regulated in the hENSC, 4116 (30.4%) genes were up-regulated in the human substantia nigra dopaminergic cells, and 5672 (41.93%) were significantly up-regulated in both cell population. Careful analysis of the data that emerged using DAVID has permitted us to distinguish several genes and pathways that are involved in dopaminergic (DA) differentiation, and to identify the crucial signaling pathways that direct the process of differentiation. The set of genes expressed more highly at hENSC is enriched in molecules known or predicted to be involved in the M phase of the mitotic cell cycle. On the other hand, the genes enriched in SN cells include a different set of functional categories, namely synaptic transmission, central nervous system development, structural constituents of the myelin sheath, the internode region of axons, myelination, cell projection, cell somata, ion transport, and the voltage-gated ion channel complex. Our results were also compared with data from various databases, and between different types of arrays, Agilent versus Illumina. This approach has allowed us to confirm the consistency of our obtained results for a large number of genes that delineate the phenotypical differences of embryonic NSCs, and SN cells. PMID:22163301

  1. Study origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human and rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Gupta, Satish K; Virant-Klun, Irma; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B; Copas, Pleas; Van Meter, Stuart E; Svetlikova, Marta; Ayala, Maria E; Dominguez, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The central thesis regarding the human ovaries is that, although primordial germ cells in embryonal ovaries are of extraovarian origin, those generated during the fetal period and in postnatal life are derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) bipotent cells. With the assistance of immune system-related cells, secondary germ cells and primitive granulosa cells originate from OSE stem cells in the fetal and adult human gonads. Fetal primary follicles are formed during the second trimester of intrauterine life, prior to the end of immune adaptation, possibly to be recognized as self-structures and renewed later. With the onset of menarche, a periodical oocyte and follicular renewal emerges to replace aging primary follicles and ensure that fresh eggs for healthy babies are always available during the prime reproductive period. The periodical follicular renewal ceases between 35 and 40 yr of age, and the remaining primary follicles are utilized during the premenopausal period until exhausted. However, the persisting oocytes accumulate genetic alterations and may become unsuitable for ovulation and fertilization. The human OSE stem cells preserve the character of embryonic stem cells, and they may produce distinct cell types, including new eggs in vitro, particularly when derived from patients with premature ovarian failure or aging and postmenopausal ovaries. Our observations also indicate that there are substantial differences in follicular renewal between adult human and rat ovaries. As part of this chapter, we present in detail protocols utilized to analyze oogenesis in humans and to study interspecies differences when compared to the ovaries of rat females.

  2. Abnormal degree centrality of functional hubs associated with negative coping in older Chinese adults who lost their only child.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, HuiJuan; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Yang, Junyi; Meng, Jie; Wang, Lihong; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-12-01

    The loss of an only child is a negative life event and may potentially increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. However, the psychological consequences of the loss of an only child and the associated neural mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Degree centrality (DC), derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was used to examine network communication in 22 older adults who lost their only child and 23 matched controls. The older adults who lost their only child exhibited an ineffective coping style. They also showed decreased distant and local DC in the precuneus and left inferior parietal lobule and decreased distant DC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, the decreased local and distant DC of these regions and the decreased DLPFC-precuneus connectivity strength were negatively correlated with negative coping scores in the loss group but not in the controls. Overall, the results suggested a model that the impaired neural network communication of brain hubs within the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN) were associated with a negative coping style in older adults who lost their only child. The decreased connectivity of the hubs can be identified as a neural risk factor that is related to future psychopathology.

  3. Modular neuromuscular control of human locomotion by central pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Haghpanah, Seyyed Arash; Farahmand, Farzam; Zohoor, Hassan

    2017-02-28

    The central pattern generators (CPG) in the spinal cord are thought to be responsible for producing the rhythmic motor patterns during rhythmic activities. For locomotor tasks, this involves much complexity, due to a redundant system of muscle actuators with a large number of highly nonlinear muscles. This study proposes a reduced neural control strategy for the CPG, based on modular organization of the co-active muscles, i.e., muscle synergies. Four synergies were extracted from the EMG data of the major leg muscles of two subjects, during two gait trials each, using non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. A Matsuoka׳s four-neuron CPG model with mutual inhibition, was utilized to generate the rhythmic activation patterns of the muscle synergies, using the hip flexion angle and foot contact force information from the sensory afferents as inputs. The model parameters were tuned using the experimental data of one gait trial, which resulted in a good fitting accuracy (RMSEs between 0.0491 and 0.1399) between the simulation and experimental synergy activations. The model׳s performance was then assessed by comparing its predictions for the activation patterns of the individual leg muscles during locomotion with the relevant EMG data. Results indicated that the characteristic features of the complex activation patterns of the muscles were well reproduced by the model for different gait trials and subjects. In general, the CPG- and muscle synergy-based model was promising in view of its simple architecture, yet extensive potentials for neuromuscular control, e.g., resolving redundancies, distributed and fast control, and modulation of locomotion by simple control signals.

  4. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  5. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific.

  6. Diffuse Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma With Early Central Enhancement in an Adult: A Case Report of CT and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Dong, Hui; Zuo, Changjing; He, Tianlin

    2015-12-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) is the most common vascular tumor of the liver in infancy. Adult with IHH is extremely rare. We presented a diffuse IHH in an adult patient with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings.A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a 2-year history of abnormal liver function tests and a 7-day history of jaundice. Physical examination revealed enlarged liver. Unenhanced abdominal CT showed enlargement of the liver with diffuse hypodensity. Enhanced CT on the arterial phase revealed multiple centrally enhanced lesions diffusely involved the enlarged liver. The enhanced areas of the lesions became larger on the portal phase and all the lesions became homogeneous enhanced on the delayed phase. These lesions showed heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted image, hypointense on T1-weighted image, and early centrally enhanced on dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI, with complete tumor enhancement after 180 s. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. IHH type 2 was confirmed by pathology. The patient died of tumor recurrence in the liver 4 months after transplantation.Unlike the previously described imaging appearances of IHH, this case showed diffuse nodules with early central enhancement on CT and MRI. Considering the importance of the ability to differentiate IHH from other hepatic tumors, radiologists should be aware of these imaging appearances to establish knowledge of the entire spectrum of IHH.

  7. Adult Continuing Education and Human Resource Development: Present Competitors, Potential Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Adult Continuing Education (ACE) and Human Resource Development (HRD) have grown tremendously in the last quarter century. ACE experienced tremendous growth in the 60s and 70s, with over 17 million attending colleges and universities, and local school and community adult education programs by the end of the 1970s. More ACE programs were started…

  8. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  9. Behavioral and magnetoencephalographic correlates of plasticity in the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, V. S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent behavioral and physiological evidence suggests that even brief sensory deprivation can lead to the rapid emergence of new and functionally effective neural connections in the adult human brain. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8248123

  10. Le gliome du tronc cérébral : cause rare de vertige central de l’adulte

    PubMed Central

    Turki, Senda; Mardassi, Ali; Nefzaoui, Safa; Hachicha, Amani; Rhouma, Sofiène Ben

    2016-01-01

    Contrairement à ceux de l'enfant, les gliomes du tronc cérébral de l'adulte sont rares et représentent un groupe hétérogène de tumeurs, souvent de bas grade et de meilleur pronostic. Ces tumeurs représentent une cause rare de vertige central chez l'adulte. Le traitement des gliomes diffus repose sur la radiothérapie. A travers un cas de gliome du tronc cérébral de bas grade chez une femme de 35 ans révélé par des troubles de l'équilibre, ce travail développera les différents aspects cliniques, paracliniques et radiologiques de cette affection, ainsi que les moyens thérapeutiques et les modalités évolutives. PMID:28292097

  11. Central nervous system involvement in adult patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Influence of rituximab

    PubMed Central

    CAO, BING; ZHOU, XIAOYAN; JI, DONGMEI; CAO, JUNNING; GUO, YE; ZHANG, QUNLING; WU, XIANGHUA; LI, JUNMIN; WANG, JIANMIN; CHEN, FANGYUAN; WANG, CHUN; ZOU, SHANHUA; HONG, XIAONAN

    2012-01-01

    CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-like chemotherapy, in combination with rituximab (R-CHOP-like), improves outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We aimed to investigate the impact of rituximab on central nervous system (CNS) disease in adult patients. We studied 315 patients (aged 18–60 years old) from six hospitals between July 2003 and May 2008. All patients received CHOP-like (n=165) or R-CHOP-like (n=150) regimen every 3 weeks. With a median follow-up of 3.69 years, 10 patients (3.17%) developed CNS disease. The cumulative risk of CNS occurrence was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (P=0.871). We conclude that the addition of rituximab did not reduce the risk of CNS disease in adult patients with DLBCL. PMID:22970053

  12. Structure-Function Correlation of the Human Central Retina

    PubMed Central

    Charbel Issa, Peter; Troeger, Eric; Finger, Robert; Holz, Frank G.; Wilke, Robert; Scholl, Hendrik P. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background The impact of retinal pathology detected by high-resolution imaging on vision remains largely unexplored. Therefore, the aim of the study was to achieve high-resolution structure-function correlation of the human macula in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings To obtain high-resolution tomographic and topographic images of the macula spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO), respectively, were used. Functional mapping of the macula was obtained by using fundus-controlled microperimetry. Custom software allowed for co-registration of the fundus mapped microperimetry coordinates with both SD-OCT and cSLO datasets. The method was applied in a cross-sectional observational study of retinal diseases and in a clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab in macular telangietasia type 2. There was a significant relationship between outer retinal thickness and retinal sensitivity (p<0.001) and neurodegeneration leaving less than about 50 µm of parafoveal outer retinal thickness completely abolished light sensitivity. In contrast, functional preservation was found if neurodegeneration spared the photoreceptors, but caused quite extensive disruption of the inner retina. Longitudinal data revealed that small lesions affecting the photoreceptor layer typically precede functional detection but later cause severe loss of light sensitivity. Ranibizumab was shown to be ineffective to prevent such functional loss in macular telangietasia type 2. Conclusions/Significance Since there is a general need for efficient monitoring of the effectiveness of therapy in neurodegenerative diseases of the retina and since SD-OCT imaging is becoming more widely available, surrogate endpoints derived from such structure-function correlation may become highly relevant in future clinical trials. PMID:20877651

  13. [Ultrasound-guided central venous access in adults and children: Procedure and pathological findings].

    PubMed

    Scheiermann, P; Seeger, F H; Breitkreutz, R

    2010-01-01

    Central venous line placement is a standard procedure in critical care and peri-operative medicine. This procedure can be associated with severe complications. In contrast to the landmark technique, ultrasound-guided punctures can significantly reduce the rate of complications. Patients with a high risk for difficult vascular access include critical care and emergency patients as well as patients on anticoagulation medication and dialysis. Placement of central venous catheters can be difficult in ventilated patients and if there has been prior surgery in the puncture area. In children and small infants central venous access can also be challenging due to the anatomical relationship in the head and neck region. Puncture techniques are explained briefly by means of ultrasound anatomy. Typical ultrasonographic images visualize pathological findings in order to identify dangers and complications in central venous catheterization.

  14. Hemispheric Lateralization of Bilaterally Presented Homologous Visual and Auditory Stimuli in Normal Adults, Normal Children, and Children with Central Auditory Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual…

  15. Newborn human skin fibroblasts senesce in vitro without acquiring adult growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of human fibroblasts were prepared from chest skin obtained either from newborns (less than 3 months old) or adults (more than 35 years old) and maintained in vitro until they senesced. Adult cells grew logarithmically in medium supplemented with whole blood serum but not with platelet-poor plasma. Early passage cells obtained from newborns grew equally well in either plasma- or serum-supplemented medium. The difference in growth factor requirements between adult and newborn cells persisted through the lifespan of the cells; i.e., newborn cells did not develop adult hormonal requirements when maintained in culture. Thus, in vitro cellular aging can be distinguished from some types of differentiation.

  16. Divergent effects of central melanocortin signalling on fat and sucrose preference in humans

    PubMed Central

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Keogh, Julia M.; Henning, Elana; Stephenson, Cheryl; Kelway, Sarah; Trowse, Victoria M.; Subramanian, Naresh; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Fletcher, Paul C.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R)-expressing neurons modulate food intake and preference in rodents but their role in human food preference is unknown. Here we show that compared with lean and weight-matched controls, MC4R deficient individuals exhibited a markedly increased preference for high fat, but a significantly reduced preference for high sucrose food. These effects mirror those in Mc4r null rodents and provide evidence for a central molecular circuit influencing human macronutrient preference. PMID:27701398

  17. Investigation of genes important in neurodevelopment disorders in adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Maussion, Gilles; Diallo, Alpha B; Gigek, Carolina O; Chen, Elizabeth S; Crapper, Liam; Théroux, Jean-Francois; Chen, Gary G; Vasuta, Cristina; Ernst, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are caused by mutations in genes expressed in fetal brain, but little is known about these same genes in adult human brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that genes associated with NDDs continue to have a role in adult human brain to explore the idea that NDD symptoms may be partially a result of their adult function rather than just their neurodevelopmental function. To demonstrate adult brain function, we performed expression analyses and ChIPseq in human neural stem cell(NSC) lines at different developmental stages and adult human brain, targeting two genes associated with NDDs, SATB2 and EHMT1, and the WNT signaling gene TCF7L2, which has not been associated with NDDs. Analysis of DNA interaction sites in neural stem cells reveals high (40-50 %) overlap between proliferating and differentiating cells for each gene in temporal space. Studies in adult brain demonstrate that consensus sites are similar to NSCs but occur at different genomic locations. We also performed expression analyses using BrainSpan data for NDD-associated genes SATB2, EHMT1, FMR1, MECP2, MBD5, CTNND2, RAI1, CHD8, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, TCF4, SCN2A, and DYRK1A and find high expression of these genes in adult brain, at least comparable to developing human brain, confirming that genes associated with NDDs likely have a role in adult tissue. Adult function of genes associated with NDDs might be important in clinical disease presentation and may be suitable targets for therapeutic intervention.

  18. Cortical thickness in human V1 associated with central vision loss

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Wesley K.; Griffis, Joseph C.; Nenert, Rodolphe; Elkhetali, Abdurahman; DeCarlo, Dawn K.; ver Hoef, Lawrence W.; Ross, Lesley A.; Visscher, Kristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of the extent and scope of visual cortex plasticity following central vision loss is essential both for clarifying the mechanisms of brain plasticity and for future development of interventions to retain or restore visual function. This study investigated structural differences in primary visual cortex between normally-sighted controls and participants with central vision loss due to macular degeneration (MD). Ten participants with MD and ten age-, gender-, and education-matched controls with normal vision were included. The thickness of primary visual cortex was assessed using T1-weighted anatomical scans, and central and peripheral cortical regions were carefully compared between well-characterized participants with MD and controls. Results suggest that, compared to controls, participants with MD had significantly thinner cortex in typically centrally-responsive primary visual cortex – the region of cortex that normally receives visual input from the damaged area of the retina. Conversely, peripherally-responsive primary visual cortex demonstrated significantly increased cortical thickness relative to controls. These results suggest that central vision loss may give rise to cortical thinning, while in the same group of people, compensatory recruitment of spared peripheral vision may give rise to cortical thickening. This work furthers our understanding of neural plasticity in the context of adult vision loss. PMID:27009536

  19. "Adult Education Is about Human Being in All Its Aspects"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Derek Legge, who celebrated his 95th birthday at the end of last month, is one of the most dedicated and influential of the largely unsung heroes of the adult education movement in Britain. As modesty is one of the many qualities with which his friends and colleagues credit him, he is certain to shrink from the description, but there is little…

  20. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

  1. Human Capital Development: Reforms for Adult and Community Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The adult and community education (ACE) sector is consistently responsive to changing community needs and government priorities. It is this particular function that has drawn ACE into the lifelong learning debate as one model for sustaining communities. The responsiveness of ACE means that the sector and its programs continue to make valuable…

  2. Vocational identity, positive affect, and career thoughts in a group of young adult central nervous system cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lange, Dustin D; Wong, Alex W K; Strauser, David R; Wagner, Stacia

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: (a) to compare levels of career thoughts and vocational identity between young adult childhood central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors and noncancer peers and (b) to investigate the contribution of vocational identity and affect on career thoughts among cancer survivors. Participants included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors and a comparison sample of 60 college students. Participants completed Career Thoughts Inventory, My Vocational Situation, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data in this study. CNS cancer survivors had a higher level of decision-making confusion than the college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that vocational identity and positive affect significantly predicted the career thoughts of CNS survivors. The differences in decision-making confusion suggest that young adult CNS survivors would benefit from interventions that focus on providing knowledge of how to make decisions, while increasing vocational identity and positive affect for this specific population could also be beneficial.

  3. College and Adult Reading XII: The Twelfth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Consisting of a selection of papers presented at the 1982 and 1983 meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on computers, research, professional issues, and programs. Papers include: "The Computerized Broom Will Sweep Our Future Classrooms: But Not Necessarily Clean" (George E. Mason); "Beyond the…

  4. College and Adult Reading XIV: The Fourteenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kay E., Ed.; Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Containing selections from the 1987 and 1988 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "The Effects of a Secondary Reading Methods Course on Undergraduate Students' Awareness of Reading Skills"…

  5. College and Adult Reading VII: The Seventh Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, David M., Ed.

    Spanning the annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association from 1971 to 1974, this yearbook presents papers dealing with programs and centers, materials and techniques, a new research field, and in honor of Roger S. Pepper. Papers include: "Attitudinal Factors among Marginal Admission Students" (Roger S. Pepper and John A. Drexler,…

  6. College and Adult Reading IX: The Ninth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Drawn from presentations at the 1977 meeting of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on programs and centers; professional training; clinical problems and methods; research; the Roger Pepper Research Award presentation; and the invitational address. Papers include: "Use of Galvanic Skin Response, Heart Rate,…

  7. College and Adult Reading X: The Tenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Including sections on research, programs, and professional problems and issues, this yearbook contains presentations given at the 1978 and 1979 meetings of the North Central Reading Association. Papers include: "The Effects of Anxiety on Reading Comprehension" (David Wark and others); "Some Effects of Anxiety on University Students" (J. Michael…

  8. College and Adult Reading XIII: The Thirteenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Containing selections of the papers presented at the 1984 and 1985 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "Twenty-Five Years of Professional Progress" (James E. Walker); "A Study of Student Alienation…

  9. The Cellular and Molecular Landscapes of the Developing Human Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Silbereis, John C.; Pochareddy, Sirisha; Zhu, Ying; Li, Mingfeng; Sestan, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Summary The human central nervous system follows a pattern of development typical of all mammals, but certain neurodevelopmental features are highly derived. Building the human CNS requires the precise orchestration and coordination of myriad molecular and cellular processes across a staggering array of cell types and over a long period of time. Dysregulation of these processes affects the structure and function of the CNS and can lead to neurological or psychiatric disorders. Recent technological advances and increased focus on human neurodevelopment have enabled a more comprehensive characterization of the human CNS and its development in both health and disease. The aim of this review is to highlight recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular landscapes of the developing human CNS, with focus on the cerebral neocortex, and the insights these findings provide into human neural evolution, function, and dysfunction. PMID:26796689

  10. An Inventory of Skills and Attitudes Necessary for a Career in Human Services/Adult Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, William

    This document is an inventory of skills identified as necessary by professionals in the human services field specializing in adult care. It is intended as a mechanism whereby educators can compare that which they teach against what the human services industry feels is relevant. Introductory material discusses the process of the occupational…

  11. Morphological alterations of central nervous system (CNS) myelin in vanadium (V)-exposed adult rats.

    PubMed

    García, Graciela B; Quiroga, Ariel D; Stürtz, Nelson; Martinez, Alejandra I; Biancardi, María E

    2004-08-01

    In the present work we show morphological data of the in vivo susceptibility of CNS myelin to sodium metavanadate [V(+5)] in adult rats. The possible role of vanadium in behavioral alterations and in brain lipid peroxidation was also investigated. Animals were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 3 mg/kg body weight (bw) of sodium metavanadate [1.25 V/kg bw/day] for 5 consecutive days. Open field and rotarod tests were performed the day after the last dose had been administered and then animals were sacrificed by different methods for histological and lipid peroxidation studies. The present results show that intraperitoneal administration of V(+5) to adult rats resulted in changes in locomotor activity, specific myelin stainings and lipid peroxidation in some brain areas. They support the notion that CNS myelin could be a preferential target of V(+5)-mediated lipid peroxidation in adult rats. The mechanisms underlying this action could affect the myelin sheath leading to behavioral perturbations.

  12. Sweet taste and chorda tympani transection alter capsaicin-induced lingual pain perception in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Schöbel, N; Kyereme, J; Minovi, A; Dazert, S; Bartoshuk, L; Hatt, H

    2012-10-10

    Sweetness signals the nutritional value of food and may moreover be accompanied by a sensory suppression that leads to higher pain tolerance. This effect is well documented in infant rats and humans. However, it is still debated whether sensory suppression is also present in adult humans. Thus, we investigated the effects of sweet taste on the perception of the painful trigeminal stimulus capsaicin in two groups of healthy adult human subjects. A solution of 100 μM capsaicin was applied to the tip of the subject's tongues in order to stimulate trigeminal Aδ- and C-fiber nociceptors. When swallowed, 1M sucrose reduced the capsaicin-induced burning sensation by 29% (p ≤ 0.05) whereas a solution of similar taste intensity containing 1 μM quinine did not. Similarly, sucrose application to the frontal hemitongue suppressed the perception of the burning sensation induced by contralaterally applied capsaicin by 25% (p ≤ 0.01). We furthermore investigated the effects of documented unilateral transection of the chorda tympani nerve on capsaicin perception. In accordance with the ipsi-to-contralateral effect of sucrose on capsaicin perception in healthy subjects, hemiageusic subjects were more sensitive for capsaicin on the tongue contralateral to the taste nerve lesion (+38%; p ≤ 0.01). Taken together, these results argue I) for the existence of food intake-induced sensory suppression, if not analgesia, in adult humans and II) a centrally mediated suppression of trigeminal sensation by taste inputs that III) becomes disinhibited upon peripheral taste nerve lesion.

  13. Central nervous system regulation of eating: Insights from human brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Farr, Olivia M; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-05-01

    Appetite and body weight regulation are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) in a rather complicated manner. The human brain plays a central role in integrating internal and external inputs to modulate energy homeostasis. Although homeostatic control by the hypothalamus is currently considered to be primarily responsible for controlling appetite, most of the available evidence derives from experiments in rodents, and the role of this system in regulating appetite in states of hunger/starvation and in the pathogenesis of overeating/obesity remains to be fully elucidated in humans. Further, cognitive and affective processes have been implicated in the dysregulation of eating behavior in humans, but their exact relative contributions as well as the respective underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We briefly review each of these systems here and present the current state of research in an attempt to update clinicians and clinical researchers alike on the status and future directions of obesity research.

  14. Serological evidence of human infection with Pteropine orthoreovirus in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Ngoc, Thanh Cao; Quoc Huy, Nguyen Vu; Chuong, Tran Xuan; Le Van, An; Saijo, Masayuki; Yang, Ming; Sugamata, Masami

    2015-12-01

    Pteropine orthoreovirus, potentially of bat origin, has been reported to cause respiratory tract infections among human beings in Southeast Asia. Twelve IgG ELISA-positive cases with antibodies against Pteropine orthoreovirus were detected among 272 human serum samples collected between March and June 2014 from in and around Hue City, Central Vietnam. These 12 cases were IgM ELISA negative. Neutralizing antibodies were also detected among six of these cases with the highest titer of 1:1,280 in 2 cases (both female, 32 and 68 years old, respectively). This is the first report of human infection with Pteropine orthoreovirus in Central Vietnam. These findings indicate the need for surveillance on Pteropine orthoreovirus infections in Southeast Asia to enable prevention and control strategies to be developed should a change in virulence occur.

  15. Serological evidence of human infection with Pteropine orthoreovirus in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Ngoc, Thanh Cao; Quoc Huy, Nguyen Vu; Chuong, Tran Xuan; Le Van, An; Saijo, Masayuki; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Pteropine orthoreovirus, potentially of bat origin, has been reported to cause respiratory tract infections among human beings in Southeast Asia. Twelve IgG ELISA‐positive cases with antibodies against Pteropine orthoreovirus were detected among 272 human serum samples collected between March and June 2014 from in and around Hue City, Central Vietnam. These 12 cases were IgM ELISA negative. Neutralizing antibodies were also detected among six of these cases with the highest titer of 1:1,280 in 2 cases (both female, 32 and 68 years old, respectively). This is the first report of human infection with Pteropine orthoreovirus in Central Vietnam. These findings indicate the need for surveillance on Pteropine orthoreovirus infections in Southeast Asia to enable prevention and control strategies to be developed should a change in virulence occur. J. Med. Virol. 87:2145–2148, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26010233

  16. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the development of human disease.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Steve C

    2008-10-01

    The mammalian brain contains a population of neurons that are continuously generated from late embryogenesis through adulthood-after the generation of almost all other neuronal types. This brain region-the hippocampal dentate gyrus-is in a sense, therefore, persistently immature. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis is likely an essential feature of the dentate, which is critical for learning and memory. Protracted neurogenesis after birth would allow the new cells to develop in conjunction with external events-but it may come with a price: while neurogenesis in utero occurs in a protected environment, children and adults are exposed to any number of hazards, such as toxins and infectious agents. Mature neurons might be resistant to such exposures, but new neurons may be vulnerable. Consistent with this prediction, in adult rodents seizures disrupt the integration of newly generated granule cells, whereas mature granule cells are comparatively unaffected. Significantly, abnormally interconnected cells may contribute to epileptogenesis and/or associated cognitive and memory deficits. Finally, studies increasingly indicate that new granule cells are extremely sensitive to a host of endogenous and exogenous factors, raising the possibility that disrupted granule cell integration may be a common feature of many neurological diseases.

  17. Regulation of central dopamine-2 receptor sensitivity by a proportional control thermostat in humans.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Paul J; Erk, Stanley D

    2004-06-30

    Central dopamine-2 (D2) receptors are importantly involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of schizophrenia. Central D2 receptors are also involved in thermoregulation. Recently, a type of central nervous system proportional control thermostat was described that governs the magnitude of several serotonin receptor-mediated core body thermoregulatory responses in proportion to both the amount of nocturnal melatonin secreted and the minimum level of nocturnal core body temperature (Tmin). The present study investigated whether the magnitude of D2 receptor-mediated hypothermia--a putative index of central D2 receptor sensitivity--is also regulated by this proportional control thermostat in humans. Twenty healthy subjects had their 02:00 h melatonin concentrations (MT2am) and Tmin measured during consecutive sleep episodes and their core body temperature responses (TAUC) measured the next two mornings after oral ingestion of either the D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine 3.125 mg or placebo. We found that the bromocriptine-induced TAUC was significantly and independently correlated with both Tmin and MT2am. In conclusion, D2 receptor-mediated hypothermia, an index of central D2 receptor sensitivity, is regulated by a proportional control thermostat in humans. The abnormal D2 receptor function in schizophrenia could be related to dysfunction of this thermostat.

  18. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Associated with Central Nervous System Involvement in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tommy L. H.; Cartagena, Ana M.; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M.

    2016-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus reactivation affecting the central nervous system is rare. We describe a 55-year-old diabetic female who presented with gait ataxia, right peripheral facial palsy, and painful vesicular lesions involving her right ear. Later, she developed dysmetria, fluctuating diplopia, and dysarthria. Varicella zoster virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. She was diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with spread to the central nervous system. Her facial palsy completely resolved within 48 hours of treatment with intravenous acyclovir 10 mg/kg every 8 hours. However, cerebellar symptoms did not improve until a tapering course of steroid therapy was initiated. PMID:27366189

  19. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  20. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor is essential for axonal regeneration in adult central nervous system neurons.

    PubMed

    Dupraz, Sebastián; Grassi, Diego; Karnas, Diana; Nieto Guil, Alvaro F; Hicks, David; Quiroga, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Axonal regeneration is an essential condition to re-establish functional neuronal connections in the injured adult central nervous system (CNS), but efficient regrowth of severed axons has proven to be very difficult to achieve. Although significant progress has been made in identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms involved, many aspects remain unresolved. Axonal development in embryonic CNS (hippocampus) requires the obligate activation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). Based on known similarities between axonal growth in fetal compared to mature CNS, we decided to examine the expression of the IGF-1R, using an antibody to the βgc subunit or a polyclonal anti-peptide antibody directed to the IGF-R (C20), in an in vitro model of adult CNS axonal regeneration, namely retinal ganglion cells (RGC) derived from adult rat retinas. Expression of both βgc and the β subunit recognized by C20 antibody were low in freshly isolated adult RGC, but increased significantly after 4 days in vitro. As in embryonic axons, βgc was localised to distal regions and leading growth cones in RGC. IGF-1R-βgc co-localised with activated p85 involved in the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, upon stimulation with IGF-1. Blocking experiments using either an antibody which neutralises IGF-1R activation, shRNA designed against the IGF-1R sequence, or the PI3K pathway inhibitor LY294002, all significantly reduced axon regeneration from adult RGC in vitro (∼40% RGC possessed axons in controls vs 2-8% in the different blocking studies). Finally, co-transfection of RGC with shRNA to silence IGF-1R together with a vector containing a constitutively active form of downstream PI3K (p110), fully restored axonal outgrowth in vitro. Hence these data demonstrate that axonal regeneration in adult CNS neurons requires re-expression and activation of IGF-1R, and targeting this system may offer new therapeutic approaches to enhancing axonal

  1. Airborne particles of the california central valley alter the lungs of healthy adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin R; Kim, Seongheon; Recendez, Julian J; Teague, Stephen V; Ménache, Margaret G; Grubbs, David E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that airborne particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10) is associated with an increase in respiratory-related disease. However, there is a growing consensus that particles < 2.5 microm (PM2.5), including many in the ultrafine (< 0.1 microm) size range, may elicit greater adverse effects. PM is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds; however, those components or properties responsible for biologic effects on the respiratory system have yet to be determined. During the fall and winter of 2000-2001, healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in six separate experiments to filtered air or combined fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine portions of ambient PM in Fresno, California, enhanced approximately 20-fold above outdoor levels. The intent of these studies was to determine if concentrated fine/ultrafine fractions of PM are cytotoxic and/or proinflammatory in the lungs of healthy adult rats. Exposures were for 4 hr/day for 3 consecutive days. The mean mass concentration of particles ranged from 190 to 847 microg/m3. PM was enriched primarily with ammonium nitrate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals. Viability of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from rats exposed to concentrated PM was significantly decreased during 4 of 6 weeks, compared with rats exposed to filtered air (p< 0.05). Total numbers of BAL cells were increased during 1 week, and neutrophil numbers were increased during 2 weeks. These observations strongly suggest exposure to enhanced concentrations of ambient fine/ultrafine particles in Fresno is associated with mild, but significant, cellular effects in the lungs of healthy adult rats. PMID:12782490

  2. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia.

  3. Effects of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Central Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Indian Adults- A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Thillai, Manoj; Nain, Prabhdeep Singh; Ahuja, Ashish; Vayoth, Sudheer Othiyil; Khurana, Preetika

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Increasing incidence of obesity in Indian population has led to an exponential rise in the number of bariatric operations performed annually. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) has been proposed to cause rapid remission of Type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome in a weight loss independent manner. Aim To evaluate the effects of LSG on metabolic syndrome and central obesity in morbidly and severely obese Indian adults. Material and Methods: Study was conducted on 91 morbidly obese [Body Mass Index (BMI)>40 kg/m2] and severely obese (BMI>35 kg/m2) individuals who were suffering from diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidemia. The patients were followed up for six months and the trends of glycaemic control, mean blood pressure, lipid profile, weight loss parameters and changes in parameters of central obesity were studied. Results Weight loss was significant at three months postsurgery and was sustained through six months. There was significant improvement in glycaemic control leading to reduction in need for oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin in majority of them and even discontinuation of these medications in few patients. Hypertension and dyslipidemia also showed an improving trend through six months postsurgery. There was a significant impact on reduction of central obesity in these patients as marked by significant reduction in waist to hip ratio. Conclusion LSG produces sustainable weight loss with significant improvement in glycaemic status and control of metabolic syndrome in severe to morbidly obese patients. LSG is also efficacious in reducing central obesity in Indian population which is a major depressive ailment amongst obese individuals. PMID:28273998

  4. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  5. Perinatal thiamine restriction affects central GABA and glutamate concentrations and motor behavior of adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita Hélen; de Freitas-Silva, Danielle Marra; Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Pereira, Sílvia Rejane Castanheira; Ribeiro, Ângela Maria

    2016-03-23

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of perinatal thiamine deficiency, from the 11th day of gestation until the 5th day of lactation, on motor behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult rat offspring, using 3-month-old, adult, male Wistar rats. All rats were submitted to motor tests, using the rotarod and paw print tasks. After behavioral tests, their thalamus, cerebellum and spinal cord were dissected for glutamate and GABA quantifications by high performance liquid chromatography. The thiamine-restricted mothers (RM) group showed a significant reduction of time spent on the rotarod at 25 rpm and an increase in hind-base width. A significant decrease of glutamate concentration in the cerebellum and an increase of GABA concentrations in the thalamus were also observed. For the offspring from control mothers (CM) group there were significant correlations between thalamic GABA concentrations and both rotarod performance and average hind-base width. In addition, for rats from the RM group a significant correlation between stride length and cerebellar GABA concentration was found. These results show that the deficiency of thiamine during an early developmental period affects certain motor behavior parameters and GABA and glutamate levels in specific brain areas. Hence, a thiamine deficiency episode during an early developmental period can induce motor impairments and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter changes that are persistent and detectable in later periods of life.

  6. Quality of Life for Diverse Older Adults in Assisted Living: The Centrality of Control.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Sharon D; Mahmood, Atiya N; Stott-Eveneshen, Sarah

    This pilot project asked: How do ethnically diverse older adult residents of assisted living (AL) facilities in British Columbia (BC) experience quality of life? And, what role, if any, do organizational and physical environmental features play in influencing how quality of life is experienced? The study was conducted at three AL sites in BC: two ethnoculturally targeted and one nontargeted. Environmental audits at each site captured descriptive data on policies, fees, rules, staffing, meals, and activities, and the built environment of the AL building and neighborhood. Using a framework that understands the quality of life of older adults to be contingent on their capability to pursue 5 conceptual attributes-attachment, role, enjoyment, security, and control-we conducted 3 focus groups with residents (1 per site) and 6 interviews with staff (2 per site). Attributes were linked to the environmental features captured in the audits. All dimensions of the environment, especially organizational, influence tenants' capability to attain the attributes of quality of life, most importantly control. Although many tenants accept the trade-off between increased safety and diminished control that accompanies a move into AL, more could be done to minimize that loss. Social workers can advocate for the necessary multi-sectoral changes.

  7. Lineage mapping identifies molecular and architectural similarities between the larval and adult Drosophila central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Lacin, Haluk; Truman, James W

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis in Drosophila occurs in two phases, embryonic and post-embryonic, in which the same set of neuroblasts give rise to the distinct larval and adult nervous systems, respectively. Here, we identified the embryonic neuroblast origin of the adult neuronal lineages in the ventral nervous system via lineage-specific GAL4 lines and molecular markers. Our lineage mapping revealed that neurons born late in the embryonic phase show axonal morphology and transcription factor profiles that are similar to the neurons born post-embryonically from the same neuroblast. Moreover, we identified three thorax-specific neuroblasts not previously characterized and show that HOX genes confine them to the thoracic segments. Two of these, NB2-3 and NB3-4, generate leg motor neurons. The other neuroblast is novel and appears to have arisen recently during insect evolution. Our findings provide a comprehensive view of neurogenesis and show how proliferation of individual neuroblasts is dictated by temporal and spatial cues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13399.001 PMID:26975248

  8. [Dietary phytoestrogen and its potential benefits in adult human health].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Argelia; de la Maza, María Pía; Valladares, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Human diet contains a series of bioactive vegetal compounds that can improve human health. Among these, there has been a special interest for phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence about the potential benefits of phytoestrogens for human health. Forty eight manuscripts were selected for their study design and relevance to human health. The cell growth inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens and their implication in breast cancer are reviewed. Also the effects of these compounds on serum lipid levels and the effectiveness of a phytoestrogen derivate, ipriflavone, on the prevention of osteoporosis are analyzed. Although these compounds have a great potential for improving health, there is still not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of phytoestrogens.

  9. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

  10. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-07-26

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  11. A century of trends in adult human height

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  12. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP)- A Pilot Study Conducted on Young Healthy Adults from Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; Gandhe, Swapnali Mahendra; Puttewar, A.N.; Saraf, Chhaya; Singh, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To Evaluate I, II, III, IV, V wave latencies and I-III, III-V, I-V inter-peak latencies and V/I wave amplitude ratio in Normal subjects in Central India. Methods: We recorded BAEP from 50 healthy normal subjects from the community of same sex and geographical setup. The absolute, interpeak and wave V/I amplitude ratio were measurement and recording was done using RMS EMG EP MARK II machine manufactured by RMS recorders and Medicare system, Chandigarh. Result: Absolute, interpeak and wave V/I amplitude ratio were measured in normal subjects and compared with other previous studies. Conclusion: This study was conducted as exploratory pilot study only on male healthy controls. Since, the study conducted in different regions, there are some differences in the latencies and interpeak latencies and amplitude ratio but they are within range, so reference range of this study can be used for future studies in this Wardha region of Central India. PMID:25120971

  13. Immune physiology and oogenesis in fetal and adult humans, ovarian infertility, and totipotency of adult ovarian stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Virant-Klun, Irma; Gupta, Satish K; Dominguez, Roberto; Svetlikova, Marta; Xu, Fei

    2009-03-01

    It is still widely believed that while oocytes in invertebrates and lower vertebrates are periodically renewed throughout life, oocytes in humans and higher vertebrates are formed only during the fetal/perinatal period. However, this dogma is questioned, and clashes with Darwinian evolutionary theory. Studies of oogenesis and follicular renewal from ovarian stem cells (OSCs) in adult human ovaries, and of the role of third-party bone marrow-derived cells (monocyte-derived tissue macrophages and T lymphocytes) could help provide a better understanding of the causes of ovarian infertility, its prevention, and potential treatment. We have reported differentiation of distinct cell types from OSC and the production of new eggs in cultures derived from premenopausal and postmenopausal human ovaries. OSCs are also capable of producing neural/neuronal cells in vitro after sequential stimulation with sex steroid combinations. Hence, OSC represent a unique type of totipotent adult stem cells, which could be utilized for autologous treatment of premature ovarian failure and also for autologous stem cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases without use of allogeneic embryonic stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer. The in vivo application of sex steroid combinations may augment the proliferation of existing neural stem cells and their differentiation into mature neuronal cells (systemic regenerative therapy). Such treatment may also stimulate the transdifferentiation of autologous neural stem cell precursors into neural stem cells useful for topical or systemic regenerative treatment.

  14. Hesperetin induces melanin production in adult human epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Usach, Iris; Taléns-Visconti, Raquel; Magraner-Pardo, Lorena; Peris, José-Esteban

    2015-06-01

    One of the major sources of flavonoids for humans are citrus fruits, hesperidin being the predominant flavonoid. Hesperetin (HSP), the aglycon of hesperidin, has been reported to provide health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. However, the effect of HSP on skin pigmentation is not clear. Some authors have found that HSP induces melanogenesis in murine B16-F10 melanoma cells, which, if extrapolated to in vivo conditions, might protect skin against photodamage. Since the effect of HSP on normal melanocytes could be different to that observed on melanoma cells, the described effect of HSP on murine melanoma cells has been compared to the effect obtained using normal human melanocytes. HSP concentrations of 25 and 50 µM induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to control melanocytes, 25 µM HSP increased melanin production and tyrosinase activity 1.4-fold (p < 0.01) and 1.1-fold (p < 0.01), respectively, and the corresponding increases in the case of 50 µM HSP were 1.9-fold (p < 0.001) and 1.3-fold (p < 0.001). Therefore, HSP could be considered a valuable photoprotective substance if its capacity to increase melanin production in human melanocyte cultures could be reproduced on human skin.

  15. Relation of adult size to movements and distribution of smallmouth bass in a central Maine Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu of three size-classes were radiotracked in Green Lake, Maine, during summer 1993 (10 June-1 September) to determine whether adult size influenced distribution and movement. Large smallmouth bass (>406 mm) used deep water (>8 m) more often than did small (248-279 mm) or medium-sized (305-356 mm) smallmouth bass during the late summer (15 July-1 September). Large smallmouth bass also were found at middepths (4-8 m) significantly more often than were small individuals during late summer. Small fish used cover more frequently than large ones during early summer (10 June-13 July). Both small and medium-sized individuals were associated with cover more frequently than large smallmouth bass were during the late summer. Small smallmouth bass exhibited significantly smaller summer total ranges than did large individuals, and mean active displacement differed among all three size-classes.

  16. Comparison of proliferating cells between human adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Hong; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Gang

    2008-04-01

    Studies of sweat glands had demonstrated that there were degenerating cells and proliferating cells in the eccrine sweat glands. To compare the differences in the proliferating cells between human adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands, immunostaining of proliferating-associated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67 nuclear antigen (Ki67) was performed, and the location and the percentage of the positive staining cells were analyzed. The results showed that a few cells of the secretory and ductal portion in both the adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands stained positive with Ki67 and PCNA. The labeling index of PCNA in adult eccrine sweat glands was 34.71 +/- 8.37%, while that in the fetal was 62.72 +/- 6.54%. The labeling index of PCNA in fetal eccrine sweat glands was higher than that in adult. Myoepithelial cells were negative staining with anti-PCNA antibody in adult eccrine sweat glands, while in the fetal a few myoepithelial cells were positive staining. Labeling index of Ki67 in adult eccrine sweat glands was similar to that in the fetal, ranging from 0.5 to 4.3%. Myoepithelial cells of the adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands both were negative staining with anti-Ki67 antibody. We concluded that the myoepithelial cells had proliferating ability only in fetal eccrine sweat glands, and that the proliferating ability of fetal eccrine sweat glands was stronger than that of the adult.

  17. Perception and Attitude of a Rural Community Regarding Adult Blindness in North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olatunji, Victoria A.; Adepoju, Feyi G.; Owoeye, Joshua F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the perception and attitudes of a rural community regarding the etiology, prevention, and treatment of blindness in adults. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in a rural community in Kwara State, Nigeria using semi-structured questionnaire. All adults aged 40 years or older who were residents for a minimum of 6 months in the community were included. Data were collected on patient demographics, knowledge, attitude, perception, and use of the eye care facility. Results: A total of 290 participants were interviewed. The male-to-female ratio was 1:2. Consumption of certain types of food was an important cause of blindness as perceived by 57.9% of the respondents, followed by supernatural forces (41.7%) and aging (19%). Sixty percent of respondents thought blindness could be prevented. Age (P = 0.04) and level of education (P =0.003) significantly affected the beliefs on the prevention of blindness. Most respondents (79.3%) preferred orthodox eye care, but only 65% would accept surgical intervention if required. The level of education significantly affected the acceptance of surgery (P = 0.04). Reasons for refusing surgery were, fear (64%), previous poor outcomes in acquaintances (31%), belief that surgery is not required (3%), and cost (2%). About 65% used one form of traditional eye medication or the other. Over half (56.6%) believed that spectacles could cure all causes of blindness. Of those who had ocular complaints, 57.1% used orthodox care without combining with either traditional or spiritual remedies. Conclusion: This rural Nigerian community had some beliefs that were consistent with modern knowledge. However, the overall knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of this community need to be redirected to favor the eradication of avoidable blindness. Although an eye care facility was available, use by the community was suboptimal. Age and the level of education affected their overall perception and attitudes. PMID:26692726

  18. Androgen responsive adult human prostatic epithelial cell lines immortalized by human papillomavirus 18.

    PubMed

    Bello, D; Webber, M M; Kleinman, H K; Wartinger, D D; Rhim, J S

    1997-06-01

    Prostate cancer and benign tumors of the prostate are the two most common neoplastic diseases in men in the United States, however, research on their causes and treatment has been slow because of the difficulty in obtaining fresh samples of human tissue and a lack of well characterized cell lines which exhibit growth and differentiation characteristics of normal prostatic epithelium. Non-neoplastic adult human prostatic epithelial cells from a white male donor were immortalized with human papillomavirus 18 which resulted in the establishment of the RWPE-1 cell line. Cells from the RWPE-1 cell line were further transformed by v-Ki-ras to establish the RWPE-2 cell line. The objectives of this study were to: (1) establish the prostatic epithelial origin and androgen responsiveness of RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 cell lines; (2) examine their response to growth factors; and (3) establish the malignant characteristics of the RWPE-2 cell line. Immunoperoxidase staining showed that both RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 cells express cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are characteristic of luminal prostatic epithelial cells, but they also coexpress basal cell cytokeratins. These cell lines show growth stimulation and prostate specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in response to the synthetic androgen mibolerone, which establishes their prostatic epithelial origin. Both cell lines also show a dose-dependent growth stimulation by EGF and bFGF and growth inhibition when exposed to TGF-beta, however, the transformed RWPE-2 cells are less responsive. RWPE-1 cells neither grow in agar nor form tumors when injected into nude mice with or without Matrigel. However, RWPE-2 cells form colonies in agar and tumors in nude mice. In the in vitro invasion assay, RWPE-1 cells are not invasive whereas RWPE-2 cells are invasive. Nuclear expression of p53 and Rb proteins was heterogeneous but detectable by immunostaining in both cell lines. The RWPE-1 cells, which show many normal cell

  19. Regeneration strategies after the adult mammalian central nervous system injury—biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yudan; Yang, Zhaoyang; Li, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has very restricted intrinsic regeneration ability under the injury or disease condition. Innovative repair strategies, therefore, are urgently needed to facilitate tissue regeneration and functional recovery. The published tissue repair/regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, has been demonstrated to have some therapeutic effects on experimental animal models, but can hardly find clinical applications due to such methods as the extremely low survival rate of transplanted cells, difficulty in integrating with the host or restriction of blood–brain barriers to administration patterns. Using biomaterials can not only increase the survival rate of grafts and their integration with the host in the injured CNS area, but also sustainably deliver bioproducts to the local injured area, thus improving the microenvironment in that area. This review mainly introduces the advances of various strategies concerning facilitating CNS regeneration. PMID:27047678

  20. High prevalence of central hypothyroidism in adult patients with β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, V; Soliman, A; Candini, G; Campisi, S; Anastasi, S; Iassin, M

    2013-09-01

    The commonest form of thyroid dysfunction seen in subjects with TM is primary hypothyroidism due to abnormalities of the thyroid gland. Central hypothyroidism (CH) has been reported as an uncommon clinical entity in TM patients although the anterior pituitary gland is particularly sensitive to free radical oxidative stresses. Diagnosis is usually made on a biochemical basis showing low circulating concentrations of thyroid hormone associated with an inappropriately low TSH levels. The diagnosis is not clinically obvious and a basal normal TSH level does not exclude the diagnosis of CH. Therefore, it is important that clinicians accurately interpret thyroid function tests. In TM patients, CH prevalence differs at different ages is unknown and it is not easy to diagnose because most of the symptoms of symptoms of CH are non specific and are frequently attributed to anaemia or other associated complications . We performed a cross-sectional analysis on a large database using the clinical records of our TM patients to explore the prevalence of CH in prepubertal (<11 years: 25 patients; 13 males) peripubertal (between 11 and 16 years: 9 patients; 3 males), and pubertal TM subjects (>16 years: 305 patients; 164 males). Central hypothyroidism was present in 26 (7,6%) TM patients. Their mean age was 29.9 ± 8.4 years, 14 (53.8%) were males and 12 (46.1%) were females. The prevalence of CH was 6% in patients with a chronological age below 21 years and 7.9% in those above 21 years. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of CH through accurate interpretation of thyroid function tests. We recommend L-thyroxine therapy if the level of FT4 is consistently low provided that the patient has normal cortisol levels.

  1. [Diagnostic studies in the planning process of human resources: the Central American experience].

    PubMed

    de Canales, F; Martínez Chopen, O; Tercero Talavera, I; González, G

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyze various aspects of one of the essential stages in the process of planning human resources--diagnostic studies and research which will serve as a starting point. They stress the role of diagnostic personnel studies in formulating human resources policies and planning, and describe the phases to be followed in their execution, according to the results obtained in the three Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) in which the studies were completed. The paper concludes with a summary of the process in the three countries.

  2. Global and local processing in adult humans (Homo sapiens), 5-year-old children (Homo sapiens), and adult cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Neiworth, Julie J; Gleichman, Amy J; Olinick, Anne S; Lamp, Kristen E

    2006-11-01

    This study compared adults (Homo sapiens), young children (Homo sapiens), and adult tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) while they discriminated global and local properties of stimuli. Subjects were trained to discriminate a circle made of circle elements from a square made of square elements and were tested with circles made of squares and squares made of circles. Adult humans showed a global bias in testing that was unaffected by the density of the elements in the stimuli. Children showed a global bias with dense displays but discriminated by both local and global properties with sparse displays. Adult tamarins' biases matched those of the children. The striking similarity between the perceptual processing of adult monkeys and humans diagnosed with autism and the difference between this and normatively developing human perception is discussed.

  3. Rapid and persistent adaptability of human oculomotor control in response to simulated central vision loss

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, MiYoung; Nandy, Anirvan S.; Tjan, Bosco S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The central region of the human retina, the fovea, provides high-acuity vision. The oculomotor system continually brings targets of interest into the fovea via ballistic eye movements (saccades). The fovea thus serves both as the locus for fixations and as the oculomotor reference for saccades. This highly automated process of foveation is functionally critical to vision and is observed from infancy [1, 2]. How would the oculomotor system adjust to loss of foveal vision (central scotoma)? Clinical observations of patients with central vision loss [3, 4] suggest a lengthy adjustment period [5], but the nature and dynamics of this adjustment remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the oculomotor system can spontaneously and rapidly adopt a peripheral locus for fixation and can re-reference saccades to this locus, in normally sighted individuals whose central vision is blocked by an artificial scotoma. Once developed, the fixation locus is retained over weeks in the absence of the simulated scotoma. Our data reveal a basic guiding principle of the oculomotor system that prefers control simplicity over optimality. We demonstrate the importance of a visible scotoma on the speed of the adjustment and suggest a possible rehabilitation regimen for patients with central vision loss. PMID:23954427

  4. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeun Seoung; Lim, Jung Soo; Kwon, Woocheol; Jung, Soon-Hee; Park, Il Hwan; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Lee, Seok Jeong; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun; Jeong, Joon Taek; Yoo, Jin Sae; Kim, Sang-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Computed tomographic scanning of the lungs revealed multiple, irregularly shaped cystic lesions and small nodules bilaterally, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. On a follow-up visit, only 1 year after the patient had quit smoking, clinical and radiological improvement was significant. Here, we report an uncommon case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis that simultaneously presented with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.

  5. Targeting the Central Pocket in Human Transcription Factor TEAD as a Potential Cancer Therapeutic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Pobbati, Ajaybabu V.; Han, Xiao; Hung, Alvin W.; Weiguang, Seetoh; Huda, Nur; Chen, Guo-Ying; Kang, CongBao; Chia, Cheng San Brian; Luo, Xuelian; Hong, Wanjin; Poulsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The human TEAD family of transcription factors (TEAD1-4) is required for YAP-mediated transcription in the Hippo pathway. Hyperactivation of TEAD’s co-activator YAP contributes to tissue overgrowth and human cancers, suggesting that pharmacological interference of TEAD-YAP activity may be an effective strategy for anticancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a central pocket in the YAP-binding domain (YBD) of TEAD that is targetable by small molecule inhibitors. Our X-ray crystallography studies reveal that flufenamic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), binds to the central pocket of TEAD2 YBD. Our biochemical and functional analyses further demonstrate that binding of NSAIDs to TEAD inhibits TEAD-YAP-dependent transcription, cell migration and proliferation, indicating that the central pocket is important for TEAD function. Therefore, our studies discover a novel way of targeting TEAD transcription factors and set the stage for therapeutic development of specific TEAD-YAP inhibitors against human cancers. PMID:26592798

  6. Divergent paths for adult mortality in Russia and Central Asia: evidence from Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Michel; Gavrilova, Natalia; Torgasheva, Liudmila; Denisenko, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Adult mortality has been lower in Kyrgyzstan vs. Russia among males since at least 1981 and among females since 1999. Also, Kyrgyzstan's mortality fluctuations have had smaller amplitude. This has occurred in spite of worse macro-economic outcomes in Kyrgyzstan. To understand these surprising patterns, we analyzed cause-specific mortality in Kyrgyzstan vs. Russia for the period 1981-2010, using unpublished official data. We find that, as in Russia, fluctuations in Kyrgyzstan have been primarily due to changes in external causes and circulatory causes, and alcohol appears to play an important role. However, in contrast with Russia, mortality from these causes in Kyrgyzstan has been lower and has increased by a smaller amount. As a result, the mortality gap between the two countries is overwhelmingly attributable to external and cardio-vascular causes, and more generally, to causes that have been shown to be strongly related to alcohol consumption. These cause-specific results, together with the existence of large ethnic differentials in mortality in Kyrgyzstan, highlight the importance of cultural and religious differences, and their impact on patterns of alcohol consumption, in explaining the mortality gap between the two countries. These findings show that explanatory frameworks relying solely on macro-economic factors are not sufficient for understanding differences in mortality levels and trends among former Soviet republics.

  7. Differential Distribution of Major Brain Gangliosides in the Adult Mouse Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Vajn, Katarina; Viljetić, Barbara; Degmečić, Ivan Večeslav; Schnaar, Ronald L.; Heffer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Gangliosides - sialic acid-bearing glycolipids - are major cell surface determinants on neurons and axons. The same four closely related structures, GM1, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b, comprise the majority of total brain gangliosides in mammals and birds. Gangliosides regulate the activities of proteins in the membranes in which they reside, and also act as cell-cell recognition receptors. Understanding the functions of major brain gangliosides requires knowledge of their tissue distribution, which has been accomplished in the past using biochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Armed with new knowledge about the stability and accessibility of gangliosides in tissues and new IgG-class specific monoclonal antibodies, we investigated the detailed tissue distribution of gangliosides in the adult mouse brain. Gangliosides GD1b and GT1b are widely expressed in gray and white matter. In contrast, GM1 is predominately found in white matter and GD1a is specifically expressed in certain brain nuclei/tracts. These findings are considered in relationship to the hypothesis that gangliosides GD1a and GT1b act as receptors for an important axon-myelin recognition protein, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Mediating axon-myelin interactions is but one potential function of the major brain gangliosides, and more detailed knowledge of their distribution may help direct future functional studies. PMID:24098718

  8. Assessing the association of taurodontism with numeric dentition anomalies in an adult central Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Puttalingaiah, Vinuth Dundanahalli; Agarwal, Poonam; Miglani, Rohit; Gupta, Puneet; Sankaran, Abilash; Dube, Gunjan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the association between taurodontism and numeric anomalies in adult population. Materials and Methods: Out of 1,012; 946 panoramic radiographs and dental records were retrospectively assessed to determine the presence of dental agenesis and supernumerary and taurodont teeth. Results: Taurodontism of one or more teeth was observed in 164 cases (97 females and 67 males). Hypodontia was observed in 148 patients (84 females and 64 males) with 62 patients having associated taurodontism (38 females, 24 males), oligodontia in 12 patients (five females and seven males) of whom nine patients also had taurodontism of one or more teeth (five females and four males). Forty-five patients (32 females and 13 males) presented with 57 supernumerary teeth (ST) with 12 patients having simultaneous presence of taurodontic tooth (seven females and five males). Conclusion: Our study suggests a preferential association between tooth agenesis and taurodontism; however, such association was not observed in individuals with hyperdontia. Understanding the nature of this preferential association may be of importance in determining the etiology of both conditions. This association may also define a subphenotype for future genetic studies on dental development. Further molecular studies are necessary to verify the etiology and mechanism of taurodontism associated with tooth agenesis. PMID:25097429

  9. Kynurenine pathway inhibition reduces central nervous system inflammation in a model of human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Jean; Stone, Trevor W; Barrett, Michael P; Bradley, Barbara; Kennedy, Peter G E

    2009-05-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and is a major cause of systemic and neurological disability throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Following early-stage disease, the trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system leading to the encephalitic, or late stage, infection. Treatment of human African trypanosomiasis currently relies on a limited number of highly toxic drugs, but untreated, is invariably fatal. Melarsoprol, a trivalent arsenical, is the only drug that can be used to cure both forms of the infection once the central nervous system has become involved, but unfortunately, this drug induces an extremely severe post-treatment reactive encephalopathy (PTRE) in up to 10% of treated patients, half of whom die from this complication. Since it is unlikely that any new and less toxic drug will be developed for treatment of human African trypanosomiasis in the near future, increasing attention is now being focussed on the potential use of existing compounds, either alone or in combination chemotherapy, for improved efficacy and safety. The kynurenine pathway is the major pathway in the metabolism of tryptophan. A number of the catabolites produced along this pathway show neurotoxic or neuroprotective activities, and their role in the generation of central nervous system inflammation is well documented. In the current study, Ro-61-8048, a high affinity kynurenine-3-monooxygenase inhibitor, was used to determine the effect of manipulating the kynurenine pathway in a highly reproducible mouse model of human African trypanosomiasis. It was found that Ro-61-8048 treatment had no significant effect (P = 0.4445) on the severity of the neuroinflammatory pathology in mice during the early central nervous system stage of the disease when only a low level of inflammation was present. However, a significant (P = 0.0284) reduction in

  10. Impact of growth hormone hypersecretion on the adult human kidney.

    PubMed

    Grunenwald, Solange; Tack, Ivan; Chauveau, Dominique; Bennet, Antoine; Caron, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Acromegaly is most often secondary to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with increased Insulin-like Growth Factor type 1 (IGF-1) level. The consequences of GH/IGF-1 hypersecretion reflect the diversity of action of these hormones. The genes of the GH receptor (GHR), IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF-binding proteins (IGF-BP) are physiologically expressed in the adult kidney, suggesting a potential role of the somatotropic axis on renal structure and functions. The expression of these proteins is highly organized and differs according to the anatomical and functional segments of the nephron suggesting different roles of GH and IGF-1 in these segments. In animals, chronic exposure to high doses of GH induces glomerulosclerosis and increases albuminuria. Studies in patients with GH hypersecretion have identified numerous targets of GH/IGF-1 axis on the kidney: 1) an impact on renal filtration with increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 2) a structural impact with an increase in kidney weight and glomerular hypertrophy, and 3) a tubular impact leading to hyperphosphatemia, hypercalciuria and antinatriuretic effects. Despite the increased glomerular filtration rate observed in patients with GH hypersecretion, GH is an inefficient treatment for chronic renal failure. GH and IGF-1 seem to be involved in the physiopathology of diabetic nephropathy; this finding offers the possibility of targeting the GH/IGF-1 axis for the prevention and the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  12. Bacteriology of severe periodontitis in young adult humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Smibert, R M; Hash, D E; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1982-01-01

    A total of 78 bacteriological samples were taken from the supragingival tooth surface after superficial cleaning with toothpicks or from the periodontal sulci of 42 affected sites in 21 adolescents or young adults with severe generalized periodontitis. Of 190 bacterial species, subspecies, or serotypes detected among 2,723 isolates, 11 species exceeded 1% of the subgingival flora and were most closely associated with the diseased sulci. Eleven others were also sufficiently frequent to be suspect agents of tissue destruction. Many of these species are known pathogens of other body sites. In addition, 10 species of Treponema were isolated. One of these and the "large treponeme" were also more closely associated with severe periodontitis than they were with healthy sites or gingivitis. There were highly significant differences between the composition of the flora of the affected sulci and the flora of (i) the adjacent supragingival tooth surface, (ii) the gingival crevice of periodontally healthy people, and (iii) sites with a gingival index score of 0 or 2 in experimental gingivitis studies. The floras of different individuals were also significantly different. There was no statistically detectable effect of sampling per se upon the composition of the flora of subsequent samples from the same sites. The composition of the supragingival flora of the patients with severe generalized periodontitis that had serum antibody to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was significantly different from the supragingival flora of patients without this serum antibody. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the composition of their subgingival floras. PMID:7152665

  13. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Early central nervous complications after umbilical cord blood transplantation for adults.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, Hiroto; Miyamura, Koichi; Iida, Hiroatsu; Hamaguchi, Motohiro; Uchida, Toshiki; Morishita, Yoshihisa

    2009-01-01

    Early central nervous complications (CNS) are significant after allogeneic stem cell transplantation; however, the clinical characteristics of early CNS complications have not yet been well described. The medical record of 77 patients who underwent cord blood transplantation (CBT) between March 2001 and November 2005, at 8 centers of the Nagoya Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group were retrospectively reviewed. The preparative regimen included myeloablative CBT (n = 31) or reduced-intensity (RI)-CBT (n = 46). Of the 77 patients, 10 (13%) developed early CNS complications. Causes included Cyclosporine encephalopathy (n = 5), tacrolimus encephalopathy (n = 2), thrombocytic microangiopathy (n = 1), and unknown (n = 3). The median time of onset was 19 days (range: 2-58 days). All of the 10 patients developed impaired consciousness. Seizures developed in 6 patients. Early CNS complications spontaneously subsided in 3 patients. Three patients responded to cyclosporine or tacrolimus discontinuation. The remaining 4 patients died within 30 days of developing of early CNS complications. No relationship was detected between the preparative regimen and the onset of early CNS complications, while an HLA disparity showed borderline significance (hazard ratio, 3.24; 95% confidential interval, 0.94-11.20; P = .06). Early CNS complications are a significant problem after CBT, and the clinician has to be aware of the possibility of these complications.

  15. Primary central nervous system ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoqin; Li, Jun; Huo, Na; Wang, Yan; Wu, Zhao; Lin, Xiaohong; Zhao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It mostly invades lymph nodes with extranodal involvement observed in the soft tissue, bone, and skin. Patient concerns: We report a 34-year-old Chinese male patient who presented with headache, diplopia, and vomit. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis via lumbar puncture showed elevated CSF pressure, elevated CSF protein concentrations, decreased CSF glucose and chloride concentration significantly, and pleocytosis of 68 to 350 × 106/L, in which lymphocytes and monocytes were predominant. These changes could be suggestive of tuberculous (TB) meningitis. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord delineated multiple enhancing nodules in spinal cord, cauda equina, and cristae membrane, and multiple abnormal enhancing lesions in bilateral lumbar intervertebral foramen. Diagnoses: Spinal dura mater biopsy and paraffin pathology examination revealed anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive ALCL. Interventions: High-dose methotrexate, cytosine arabinoside craniospinal, and radiotherapy. Outcomes: Last follow-up on September 22, 2015 showed no evidence of tumor recurrence and the lower extremity muscle strength recovered to 4/5. Lessons: ALCL of primary central nervous system is an exceedingly rare tumor, which is usually misdiagnosed as meningitis (especially TB meningitis) according to clinical manifestation and laboratory examination. Thus closely monitoring patient's conditions and timely adjusting therapeutic regimen during treatment are necessary. PMID:27930548

  16. Resveratrol prevents hyperleptinemia and central leptin resistance in adult rats programmed by early weaning.

    PubMed

    Franco, J G; Lisboa, P C; da Silva Lima, N; Peixoto-Silva, N; Maia, L A; Oliveira, E; Passos, M C F; de Moura, E G

    2014-09-01

    We have previously shown that early weaning in rats increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance at adulthood, and leptin resistance can be a prime factor leading to these changes. Resveratrol is reported to decrease oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk. However, there is no report about its effect on leptin resistance. Thus, in this study we have evaluated resveratrol-preventing effect on the development of visceral obesity, insulin, and leptin resistance in rats programmed by early weaning. To induce early weaning, lactating dams were separated into 2 groups: early weaning (EW)--dams were wrapped with a bandage to interrupt lactation in the last 3 days of lactation and control (C)--dams whose pups had free access to milk during throughout lactation period (21 days). At 150 days-old, EW offspring were subdivided into 2 groups: EW+res--treated with resveratrol solution (30 mg/kg BW/day) or EW--receiving equal volume of vehicle solution, both given by gavage during 30 days. Control group received vehicle solution. Resveratrol prevented the higher body weight, hyperphagia, visceral obesity, hyperleptinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypoadiponectinemia at adulthood in animals that were early weaned. Leptin resistance, associated with lower JAK2 and pSTAT3 and higher NPY in hypothalamus of EW rats were also normalized by resveratrol. The present results suggest that resveratrol is useful as therapeutic tool in treating obesity, mainly because it prevents the development of central leptin resistance.

  17. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78) for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62) for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93) for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04) for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00) for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on human rights violations in

  18. Does the adult human ciliary body epithelium contain "true" retinal stem cells?

    PubMed

    Frøen, Rebecca; Johnsen, Erik O; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Facskó, Andrea; Petrovski, Goran; Moe, Morten C

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports of retinal stem cells being present in several locations of the adult eye have sparked great hopes that they may be used to treat the millions of people worldwide who suffer from blindness as a result of retinal disease or injury. A population of proliferative cells derived from the ciliary body epithelium (CE) has been considered one of the prime stem cell candidates, and as such they have received much attention in recent years. However, the true nature of these cells in the adult human eye has still not been fully elucidated, and the stem cell claim has become increasingly controversial in light of new and conflicting reports. In this paper, we will try to answer the question of whether the available evidence is strong enough for the research community to conclude that the adult human CE indeed harbors stem cells.

  19. Effect of Probiotics on Central Nervous System Functions in Animals and Humans: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiying; Lee, In-Seon; Braun, Christoph; Enck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the effects of probiotics on central nervous system function in animals and humans, to summarize effective interventions (species of probiotic, dose, duration), and to analyze the possibility of translating preclinical studies. Literature searches were conducted in Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials were included. In total, 38 studies were included: 25 in animals and 15 in humans (2 studies were conducted in both). Most studies used Bifidobacterium (eg, B. longum, B. breve, and B. infantis) and Lactobacillus (eg, L. helveticus, and L. rhamnosus), with doses between 109 and 1010 colony-forming units for 2 weeks in animals and 4 weeks in humans. These probiotics showed efficacy in improving psychiatric disorder-related behaviors including anxiety, depression, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, and memory abilities, including spatial and non-spatial memory. Because many of the basic science studies showed some efficacy of probiotics on central nervous system function, this background may guide and promote further preclinical and clinical studies. Translating animal studies to human studies has obvious limitations but also suggests possibilities. Here, we provide several suggestions for the translation of animal studies. More experimental designs with both behavioral and neuroimaging measures in healthy volunteers and patients are needed in the future. PMID:27413138

  20. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter-Related Infections in a Cohort of Hospitalized Adult Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzad, Caroline; Duron, Sandrine; Bousquet, Aurore; Arnaud, François-Xavier; Valbousquet, Laura; Weber-Donat, Gabrielle Teriitehau, Christophe Baccialone, Jacques Potet, Julien

    2016-03-15

    PurposeTo determine the incidence and the risks factors of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related infectious complications.Materials and MethodsMedical charts of every in-patient that underwent a PICC insertion in our hospital between January 2010 and October 2013 were reviewed. All PICC-related infections were recorded and categorized as catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI), exit-site infections, and septic thrombophlebitis.ResultsNine hundred and twenty-three PICCs were placed in 644 unique patients, mostly male (68.3 %) with a median age of 58 years. 31 (3.4 %) PICC-related infections occurred during the study period corresponding to an infection rate of 1.64 per 1000 catheter-days. We observed 27 (87.1 %) CR-BSI, corresponding to a rate of 1.43 per 1000 catheter-days, 3 (9.7 %) septic thrombophlebitis, and 1 (3.2 %) exit-site infection. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a higher PICC-related infection rate with chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 7.2–confidence interval (CI) 95 % [1.77–29.5]), auto/allograft (OR 5.9–CI 95 % [1.2–29.2]), and anti-coagulant therapy (OR 2.2–95 % [1.4–12]).ConclusionChemotherapy, auto/allograft, and anti-coagulant therapy are associated with an increased risk of developing PICC-related infections.Clinical AdvanceChemotherapy, auto/allograft, and anti-coagulant therapy are important predictors of PICC-associated infections. A careful assessment of these risk factors may be important for future success in preventing PICC-related infections.

  1. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Jeffery, Jason A L; Trewin, Brendan J; Wockner, Leesa F; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Hoang Le; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2014-02-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  2. Asymmetries of the central sulcus in young adults: Effects of gender, age and sulcal pattern.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Ge, Haitao; Tang, Yuchun; Hou, Zhongyu; Xu, Junhai; Lin, Xiangtao; Liu, Shuwei

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we clarified the gender and age-related asymmetries of the central sulcus (CS) in early adulthood using a parametric ribbon method. The CS was reconstructed and parameterized automatically from 3D MR images of 112 healthy right-handed subjects. The 3D anatomic morphology of the CS was presented using 5 sulcal parameters, including sulcal depth position-based profile (DPP), average depth (AD), average width (AW), top length (TL) and bottom length (BL). Asymmetry differences in DPPs were found in the medial and lateral part of the CS. In addition, significant gender differences were observed in the medial and middle parts of the right CS DPPs but scattered in the left side. We found leftward asymmetries of TL in males, but rightward asymmetries of AW in females. Males had a greater AW than females in the right hemisphere. Moreover, the females had bilateral longer TL and a longer left BL than did males. We also found significant age-related reductions in bilateral TL and increases in bilateral AW, with males presenting more obvious age-related change than females. There were sexual differences of the CS patterns, in which Type b was the most dominant sulcal pattern in males, whereas Type a was dominant in females. Three-way ANOVA revealed sexual and asymmetry changes of TL and BL among different CS patterns. Our findings indicate that the lateralization performances of the CS manifest as sexually and regionally different. In addition, it is suggested that males may undergo a faster progress of aging compared to females.

  3. Iatrogenic chylothorax due to pleural cavity extravasation of total parenteral nutrition in two adults receiving nutrition through a peripherally inserted central catheter.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Thomas J; Jamous, Fady G; Kooistra, Alma; Zawada, Edward T

    2010-02-01

    Extravasation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) delivered via central lines is a known potential complication, but significant extravasations of infusate into the pleural space when using peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have not been reported in adults. We report 2 cases ofpleural cavity extravasation ofTPN delivered via a PICC. Measurement of the glucose level of the effusate is a quick way to determine the presence of TPN and should be considered in any patient receiving TPN via any type of central line with a rapidly developing effusion.

  4. Genetic and functional characterization of clonally derived adult human brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Kosaku; Luijten, Ineke H N; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Hong, Haemin; Sonne, Si B; Kim, Miae; Xue, Ruidan; Chondronikola, Maria; Cypess, Aaron M; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Nedergaard, Jan; Sidossis, Labros S; Kajimura, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) acts in mammals as a natural defense system against hypothermia, and its activation to a state of increased energy expenditure is believed to protect against the development of obesity. Even though the existence of BAT in adult humans has been widely appreciated1–8, its cellular origin and molecular identity remain elusive largely because of high cellular heterogeneity within various adipose tissue depots. To understand the nature of adult human brown adipocytes at single cell resolution, we isolated clonally derived adipocytes from stromal vascular fractions of adult human BAT from two individuals and globally analyzed their molecular signatures. We used RNA sequencing followed by unbiased genome-wide expression analyses and found that a population of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive human adipocytes possessed molecular signatures resembling those of a recruitable form of thermogenic adipocytes (that is, beige adipocytes). In addition, we identified molecular markers that were highly enriched in UCP1-positive human adipocytes, a set that included potassium channel K3 (KCNK3) and mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1). Further, we functionally characterized these two markers using a loss-of-function approach and found that KCNK3 and MTUS1 were required for beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenic function. The results of this study present new opportunities for human BAT research, such as facilitating cell-based disease modeling and unbiased screens for thermogenic regulators. PMID:25774848

  5. Characterization of colony-forming cells in adult human articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ozbey, Ozlem; Sahin, Zeliha; Acar, Nuray; Ozcelik, Filiz Tepekoy; Ozenci, Alpay Merter; Koksoy, Sadi; Ustunel, Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that adult human articular cartilage contains stem-like cells within the native structure. In this study, we aimed to determine the localization of putative stem cell markers such as CD90, STRO-1, OCT-3/4, CD105 and CD166 in adult human articular cartilage tissue sections and demonstrate the expression of these markers within the expanded surface zone colony-forming (CF) cells and evaluate their differentiation potential. Biopsy samples were either fixed immediately for immunohistochemical analyses or processed for in vitro cell culture. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometry analyses were performed by using CD90, STRO-1, OCT-3/4, CD105 and CD166 antibodies. Isolated colony-forming (CF) cells were further stimulated, by using the appropriate growth factors in their pellet culture, to obtain cartilage, bone and adipose lineages. We observed that the expression of the stem cell markers were in various zones of the human adult cartilage. Flow cytometry results showed that in CF cells the expression of CD90 and CD166 was high, while OCT-3/4 was low. We also determined that CF cells could be stimulated towards cartilage, bone and adipose lineages. The results of this research support the idea that the resident stem-like cells in adult human articular cartilage express these putative stem cell markers, but further experimental investigations are needed to determine the precise localization of these cells.

  6. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  7. Treatment of Human-Caused Trauma: Attrition in the Adult Outcomes Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica; Ivanoff, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Attrition or dropout is the failure of a participant to complete, comply, or the prematurely discontinuation or discharge from treatment, resulting in lost data and affecting outcomes. This review of 10 years of adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment outcome literature specific to Criterion A events of human origin examines how…

  8. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2006-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  9. Emotions and Human Concern: Adult Education and the Philosophical Thought of Martha Nussbaum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Donovan

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that philosopher Martha Nussbaum's reflections on the role of the emotions in human flourishing can contribute in important ways to our understanding of the emotions in adult education contexts. The article summarises Nussbaum's exploration of the contributions of classical philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and…

  10. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2006-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  11. NIRS Measurement of Venous Oxygen Saturation in the Adult Human Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Derek W.; Haensse, Daniel; Bauschatz, Andrea; Wolf, Martin

    Provided that both the breathing frequency remains constant and that the temporal resolution of the instrument is sufficiently high, NIRS spiroximetry enables measurement of cerebral SvO2 in healthy human adults. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements of StO2, SaO2, and SvO2 enable calculation of both OEF and the compartmental distribution of cerebral blood volume.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Adenovirus 7 Associated with Fatal Adult Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshina, Svetlana B; Ageeva, Margarita R; Deviatkin, Andrey A; Pimkina, Ekaterina V; Markelov, Mikhail L; Dedkov, Vladimir G; Safonova, Marina V; Shumilina, Elena Y; Lukashev, Alexander N; Shipulin, German A

    2016-10-27

    Human adenovirus 7 (hAdv7) 19BOVLB/Volgograd/Rus/2014 was isolated from the autopsy material from an adult with fatal pneumonia in Volgograd, Russia, in March 2014. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus isolate was performed.

  13. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  14. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  15. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  16. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  17. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  18. Canonical Genetic Signatures of the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Jegga, Anil G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L.; Menche, Jörge; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A.; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R.; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C.; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure, and function. We applied a correlation-based metric of “differential stability” (DS) to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing meso-scale genetic organization. The highest DS genes are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related biological annotations, disease associations, drug targets, and literature citations. Using high DS genes we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components, and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely-patterned genes displayed dramatic shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  19. Astrocytes As the Main Players in Primary Degenerative Disorders of the Human Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Capani, Francisco; Quarracino, Cecilia; Caccuri, Roberto; Sica, Roberto E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Along the last years it has been demonstrated that non-neural cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of the primary degenerative disorders (PDDs) of the human central nervous system. Among them, astrocytes coordinate and participate in many different and complex metabolic processes, in close interaction with neurons. Moreover, increasing experimental evidence hints an early astrocytic dysfunction in these diseases. In this mini review we summarize the astrocytic behavior in PDDs, with special consideration to the experimental observations where astrocytic pathology precedes the development of neuronal dysfunction. We also suggest a different approach that could be consider in human investigations in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. We believe that the study of PDDs with human brain samples may hold the key of a paradigmatic physiopathological process in which astrocytes might be the main players. PMID:26973519

  20. Astrocytes As the Main Players in Primary Degenerative Disorders of the Human Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Capani, Francisco; Quarracino, Cecilia; Caccuri, Roberto; Sica, Roberto E P

    2016-01-01

    Along the last years it has been demonstrated that non-neural cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of the primary degenerative disorders (PDDs) of the human central nervous system. Among them, astrocytes coordinate and participate in many different and complex metabolic processes, in close interaction with neurons. Moreover, increasing experimental evidence hints an early astrocytic dysfunction in these diseases. In this mini review we summarize the astrocytic behavior in PDDs, with special consideration to the experimental observations where astrocytic pathology precedes the development of neuronal dysfunction. We also suggest a different approach that could be consider in human investigations in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. We believe that the study of PDDs with human brain samples may hold the key of a paradigmatic physiopathological process in which astrocytes might be the main players.

  1. Prevalence of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 in patients with human herpesvirus 6-central nervous system dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hill, Joshua A; Sedlak, Ruth Hall; Zerr, Danielle M; Huang, Meei-Li; Yeung, Cecilia; Myerson, David; Jerome, Keith R; Boeckh, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    We identified 37 hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) central nervous system dysfunction and tested donor-recipient pairs for chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6). One patient had ciHHV-6A with possible HHV-6A reactivation and encephalitis. There was no ciHHV-6 enrichment in this group, but larger studies are needed to determine if patients with ciHHV-6 are at increased risk for HHV-6-associated diseases or other complications.

  2. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  3. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  4. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  5. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  6. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  7. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  8. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  9. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  10. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  11. Rehabilitation in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-related diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, M W; Dillon, M E

    1992-06-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a fatal disorder of cell-mediated immunity caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As many as one million Americans infected with HIV can expect improved survival with more advanced treatment approaches. Complications of HIV infection occur in the brain, spinal cord, muscle, nerve, joints and other organ systems, which lead to extensive impairments. As survival increases, rehabilitation professionals can anticipate a greater number of referrals for the assessment and management of physical disability in persons with HIV infection. This article reviews HIV-related disease, impairment, disability and handicap pertinent to rehabilitation medicine. An agenda for future research is also proposed. Current knowledge and models or rehabilitation care can be applied to HIV-related physical disability in an effort to improve overall quality of life.

  12. Non-invasive access to the vagus nerve central projections via electrical stimulation of the external ear: fMRI evidence in humans

    PubMed Central

    Frangos, Eleni; Ellrich, Jens; Komisaruk, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tract-tracing studies in cats and rats demonstrated that the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) projects to the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS); it has remained unclear as to whether or not the ABVN projects to the NTS in humans. Objective To ascertain whether non-invasive electrical stimulation of the cymba conchae, a region of the external ear exclusively innervated by the ABVN, activates the NTS and the “classical” central vagal projections in humans. Methods Twelve healthy adults underwent two fMRI scans in the same session. Electrical stimulation (continuous 0.25ms pulses, 25Hz) was applied to the earlobe (control, scan #1) and left cymba conchae (scan #2). Statistical analyses were performed with FSL. Two region-of-interest analyses were performed to test the effects of cymba conchae stimulation (compared to baseline and control, earlobe, stimulation) on the central vagal projections (corrected; brainstem p<0.01, forebrain p<0.05), followed by a whole-brain analysis (corrected, p< 0.05). Results Cymba conchae stimulation, compared to earlobe (control) stimulation, produced significant activation of the “classical” central vagal projections, e.g., widespread activity in the ipsilateral nucleus of the solitary tract, bilateral spinal trigeminal nucleus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus, and contralateral parabrachial area, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens. Bilateral activation of the paracentral lobule was also observed. Deactivations were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Conclusion These findings provide evidence in humans that the central projections of the ABVN are consistent with the “classical” central vagal projections and can be accessed non-invasively via the external ear. PMID:25573069

  13. Characterization of human foetal intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Comparison with the isoenzymes from the adult intestine and human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, C M; Enns, C A; Sussman, H H

    1983-01-01

    The molecular structure of human foetal intestinal alkaline phosphatase was defined by high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and amino acid inhibition studies. Comparison was made with the adult form of intestinal alkaline phosphatase, as well as with alkaline phosphatases isolated from cultured foetal amnion cells (FL) and a human tumour cell line (KB). Two non-identical subunits were isolated from the foetal intestinal isoenzyme, one having same molecular weight and isoelectric point as placental alkaline phosphatase, and the other corresponding to a glycosylated subunit of the adult intestinal enzyme. The FL-cell and KB-cell alkaline phosphatases were also found to contain two subunits similar to those of the foetal intestinal isoenzyme. Characterization of neuraminidase digests of the non-placental subunit showed it to be indistinguishable from the subunits of the adult intestinal isoenzyme. This implies that no new phosphatase structural gene is involved in the transition from the expression of foetal to adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase, but that the molecular changes involve suppression of the placental subunit and loss of neuraminic acid from the non-placental subunit. Enzyme-inhibition studies demonstrated an intermediate response to the inhibitors tested for the foetal intestinal, FL-cell and KB-cell isoenzymes when compared with the placental, adult intestinal and liver forms. This result is consistent with the mixed-subunit structure observed for the former set of isoenzymes. In summary, this study has defined the molecular subunit structure of the foetal intestinal form of alkaline phosphatase and has demonstrated its expression in a human tumour cell line. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6882358

  14. Human footprints in Central Mexico older than 40,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Silvia; Huddart, David; Bennett, Matthew R.; González-Huesca, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    The timing, route and origin of the first colonization to the Americas remains one of the most contentious topics in human evolution. A number of migration routes have been suggested and there are different views as to the antiquity of the earliest human occupation. Some believe that settlement happened as early as 30 ka BP, but most of the currently accepted early sites in North America date to the latest Pleistocene, related to the expansion of the Clovis culture, while the oldest directly radiocarbon dated human remains are 11.5 ka BP. In this context new evidence is presented in this paper, in the form of human footprints preserved in indurated volcanic ash, to suggest that Central Mexico was inhabited as early as over 40 ka BP. Human and animal footprints have been found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in the Valsequillo Basin, south of Puebla, Mexico. This ash layer was produced by a subaqueous monogenetic volcano erupting within a palaeo-lake, dammed by lava within the Valsequillo Basin during the Pleistocene. The footprints were formed during low stands in lake level along the former shorelines and indicate the presence of humans, deer, canids, big felids, and probably camels and bovids. The footprints were buried by ash and lake sediments as lake levels rose and transgressed across the site. The ash has been dated to at least 40 ka BP by OSL dating of incorporated, baked lake sediments.

  15. Techniques for verifying human footprints: reappraisal of pre-Clovis footprints in Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Sarita Amy; Bennett, Matthew R.; Gonzalez, Silvia; Huddart, David

    2010-09-01

    Verification of human footprints within the geological record provides critical evidence of presence as well as information on the biomechanics of the individuals who made those prints. Consequently, the correct identification of human footprints is important, but is something for which critical and objective criteria do not exist. The current paper attempts to address this issue by presenting a new statistically based approach to the verification of human footprints. The importance of this is illustrated by the recent controversy surrounding a series of marks identified as human prints in the Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico dated originally to 40 000 years ago. The dating of these marks remains highly controversial with some teams placing their age at 1.3 million years old. Irrespective of this debate the crucial question that must be addressed is whether or not they represent evidence of human presence. Using an objective statistically based methodology developed here, these controversial marks are re-examined and found to be of questionable origin, as they are inconsistent with a suite of other, known human and hominin prints. Consequently, we argue that they should be removed as evidence in the ongoing controversy surrounding the colonization of the Americas.

  16. Humans and Great Apes Cohabiting the Forest Ecosystem in Central African Republic Harbour the Same Hookworms

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Shutt, Kathryn A.; Todd, Angelique; Kalousová, Barbora; Profousová, Ilona; Petrželková, Klára J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms are important pathogens of humans. To date, Necator americanus is the sole, known species of the genus Necator infecting humans. In contrast, several Necator species have been described in African great apes and other primates. It has not yet been determined whether primate-originating Necator species are also parasitic in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings The infective larvae of Necator spp. were developed using modified Harada-Mori filter-paper cultures from faeces of humans and great apes inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of mtDNA obtained from the hookworm larvae were sequenced and compared. Three sequence types (I–III) were recognized in the ITS region, and 34 cox1 haplotypes represented three phylogenetic groups (A–C). The combinations determined were I-A, II-B, II-C, III-B and III-C. Combination I-A, corresponding to N. americanus, was demonstrated in humans and western lowland gorillas; II-B and II-C were observed in humans, western lowland gorillas and chimpanzees; III-B and III-C were found only in humans. Pairwise nucleotide difference in the cox1 haplotypes between the groups was more than 8%, while the difference within each group was less than 2.1%. Conclusions/Significance The distinctness of ITS sequence variants and high number of pairwise nucleotide differences among cox1 variants indicate the possible presence of several species of Necator in both humans and great apes. We conclude that Necator hookworms are shared by humans and great apes co-habiting the same tropical forest ecosystems. PMID:24651493

  17. Deciphering Human Cell-Autonomous Anti-HSV-1 Immunity in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Lafaille, Fabien G; Ciancanelli, Michael J; Studer, Lorenz; Smith, Gregory; Notarangelo, Luigi; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Zhang, Shen-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common virus that can rarely invade the human central nervous system (CNS), causing devastating encephalitis. The permissiveness to HSV-1 of the various relevant cell types of the CNS, neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia cells, as well as their response to viral infection, has been extensively studied in humans and other animals. Nevertheless, human CNS cell-based models of anti-HSV-1 immunity are of particular importance, as responses to any given neurotropic virus may differ between humans and other animals. Human CNS neuron cell lines as well as primary human CNS neurons, astrocytes, and microglia cells cultured/isolated from embryos or cadavers, have enabled the study of cell-autonomous anti-HSV-1 immunity in vitro. However, the paucity of biological samples and their lack of purity have hindered progress in the field, which furthermore suffers from the absence of testable primary human oligodendrocytes. Recently, the authors have established a human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-based model of anti-HSV-1 immunity in neurons, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, astrocytes, and neural stem cells, which has widened the scope of possible in vitro studies while permitting in-depth explorations. This mini-review summarizes the available data on human primary and iPSC-derived CNS cells for anti-HSV-1 immunity. The hiPSC-mediated study of anti-viral immunity in both healthy individuals and patients with viral encephalitis will be a powerful tool in dissecting the disease pathogenesis of CNS infections with HSV-1 and other neurotropic viruses.

  18. Early ontogeny of the central benzodiazepine receptor in human embryos and fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Hebebrand, J.; Hofmann, D.; Reichelt, R.; Schnarr, S.; Knapp, M.; Propping, P.; Foedisch, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The early ontogeny of the central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) was investigated in human embryos and fetuses between 7 and 26 weeks of gestation. Brain tissue was gained from terminated pregnancies or spontaneous abortions. Binding studies, which were performed with /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (FNZ), revealed that specific benzodiazepine binding is already detectable at an embryonal age of 7 weeks post conception. Binding at this early stage can be displaced potently by clonazepam and the inverse agonist ..beta..-CCE. Additionally, /sup 3/H-FNZ binding is enhanced by GABA. Thus, benzodiazepine binding is of the central type. Receptor density increases steeply in whole brain between weeks 8 and 11 of gestation. In frontal cortex receptor density increases gradually between weeks 12 and 26 of gestation. No specific fetal disease entity (including trisomy 21) was consistently associated with exceptionally high or low B/sub max/-values.

  19. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  20. A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, K; Schreiweis, C; Minge, C; Pääbo, S; Fischer, J; Enard, W

    2015-11-01

    The transcription factor FOXP2 has been linked to severe speech and language impairments in humans. An analysis of the evolution of the FOXP2 gene has identified two amino acid substitutions that became fixed after the split of the human and chimpanzee lineages. Studying the functional consequences of these two substitutions in the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice showed alterations in dopamine levels, striatal synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphology and cortico-striatal-dependent learning. In addition, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of pups had a significantly lower average pitch than control littermates. To which degree adult USVs would be affected in mice carrying the 'humanized' Foxp2 variant remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed USVs of 68 adult male mice uttered during repeated courtship encounters with different females. Mice carrying the Foxp2(hum/hum) allele did not differ significantly in the number of call elements, their element structure or in their element composition from control littermates. We conclude that neither the structure nor the usage of USVs in adult mice is affected by the two amino acid substitutions that occurred in FOXP2 during human evolution. The reported effect for pup vocalization thus appears to be transient. These results are in line with accumulating evidence that mouse USVs are hardly influenced by vocal learning. Hence, the function and evolution of genes that are necessary, but not sufficient for vocal learning in humans, must be either studied at a different phenotypic level in mice or in other organisms.

  1. The mechanical properties of human ribs in young adult.

    PubMed

    Pezowicz, Celina; Głowacki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    A good understanding of thoracic biomechanics is important for complete examination and control of chest behaviour under conditions of physiological and pathological work, and under the impact of external forces leading to traumatic loading of the chest. The purpose of the study was to analyse the mechanical properties of human ribs obtained from individuals under the age of 25 with scoliosis deformation and to correlate them with geometric properties of ribs. Thirty three fragments of ribs (9th to 12th) were tested in three-point bending. Rib fragments were collected intraoperatively from female patients treated for scoliosis in the thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spine. The results were used to determine the maximum failure force, stiffness, and Young's modulus. A significant relationship was found between the age and elastic modulus of the ribs. The analysis was carried out for two age groups, i.e., between the ages of 10 and 15 and between the ages of 16 and 22, and statistically significant differences were obtained for Young's modulus (p = 0.0001) amounting to, respectively, 2.79 ± 1.34 GPa for the first group and 7.44 ± 2.85 GPa for the second group. The results show a significant impact of age on the mechanical properties of ribs.

  2. Neural-competent cells of adult human dermis belong to the Schwann lineage.

    PubMed

    Etxaniz, Usue; Pérez-San Vicente, Adrián; Gago-López, Nuria; García-Dominguez, Mario; Iribar, Haizea; Aduriz, Ariane; Pérez-López, Virginia; Burgoa, Izaskun; Irizar, Haritz; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Leis, Olatz; Matheu, Ander; Martín, Angel G; Otaegui, David; López-Mato, María Paz; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; MacLellan, Robb; Izeta, Ander

    2014-11-11

    Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs) have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR(+) precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56(+)) and perivascular (CD56(-)) cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR(+)CD56(+) Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread.

  3. Neural-Competent Cells of Adult Human Dermis Belong to the Schwann Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Etxaniz, Usue; Pérez-San Vicente, Adrián; Gago-López, Nuria; García-Dominguez, Mario; Iribar, Haizea; Aduriz, Ariane; Pérez-López, Virginia; Burgoa, Izaskun; Irizar, Haritz; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Leis, Olatz; Matheu, Ander; Martín, Angel G.; Otaegui, David; López-Mato, María Paz; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; MacLellan, Robb; Izeta, Ander

    2014-01-01

    Summary Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs) have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR+ precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56+) and perivascular (CD56−) cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR+CD56+ Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread. PMID:25418723

  4. Classic Period collapse of the Central Maya Lowlands: insights about human-environment relationships for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Turner, B L; Sabloff, Jeremy A

    2012-08-28

    The ninth century collapse and abandonment of the Central Maya Lowlands in the Yucatán peninsular region were the result of complex human-environment interactions. Large-scale Maya landscape alterations and demands placed on resources and ecosystem services generated high-stress environmental conditions that were amplified by increasing climatic aridity. Coincident with this stress, the flow of commerce shifted from land transit across the peninsula to sea-borne transit around it. These changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions generated increasing societal conflicts, diminished control by the Maya elite, and led to decisions to move elsewhere in the peninsular region rather than incur the high costs of maintaining the human-environment systems in place. After abandonment, the environment of the Central Maya Lowlands largely recovered, although altered from its state before Maya occupation; the population never recovered. This history and the spatial and temporal variability in the pattern of collapse and abandonment throughout the Maya lowlands support the case for different conditions, opportunities, and constraints in the prevailing human-environment systems and the decisions to confront them. The Maya case lends insights for the use of paleo- and historical analogs to inform contemporary global environmental change and sustainability.

  5. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure alters expression of central and peripheral insulin signaling molecules in adult guinea pig offspring.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Christine C; Thevasundaram, Kersh; Mongillo, Daniel L; Winterborn, Andrew; Holloway, Alison C; Brien, James F; Reynolds, James N

    2014-11-01

    Maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy can produce a range of teratogenic outcomes in offspring. The mechanism of ethanol teratogenicity is multi-faceted, but may involve alterations in insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathways. These pathways are not only important for metabolism, but are also critically involved in neuronal survival and plasticity, and they can be altered by chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that CPEE alters expression of insulin and IGF signaling molecules in the prefrontal cortex and liver of adult guinea pig offspring. Pregnant Dunkin-Hartley-strain guinea pigs received ethanol (4 g/kg maternal body weight/day) or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding (nutritional control) throughout gestation. Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in male and female offspring at postnatal day 150-200, followed by euthanasia, collection of prefrontal cortex and liver, and RNA extraction. IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), IGF-2, IGF-2 receptor (IGF-2R), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS-2, and insulin receptor (INSR) mRNA expression levels were measured in tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. The mean maternal blood ethanol concentration was 281 ± 15 mg/dL at 1 h after the second divided dose of ethanol on GD 57. CPEE resulted in increased liver weight in adult offspring, but produced no difference in fasting blood glucose concentration compared with nutritional control. In the liver, CPEE decreased mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R, and IGF-2, and increased IRS-2 mRNA expression in male offspring only compared with nutritional control. Female CPEE offspring had decreased INSR hepatic mRNA expression compared with male CPEE offspring. In the prefrontal cortex, IRS-2 mRNA expression was increased in CPEE offspring compared with nutritional control. The data demonstrate that CPEE alters both central and peripheral expression of insulin and IGF signaling

  6. HMGA2 Moderately Increases Fetal Hemoglobin Expression in Human Adult Erythroblasts

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos, Jaira F.; Lee, Y. Terry; Byrnes, Colleen; Tumburu, Laxminath; Rabel, Antoinette; Miller, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) has therapeutic importance for patients with beta-hemoglobin disorders. Previous studies showed that let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs) are highly regulated in erythroid cells during the fetal-to-adult developmental transition, and that targeting let-7 mediated the up-regulation of HbF to greater than 30% of the total globin levels in human adult cultured erythroblasts. HMGA2 is a member of the high-mobility group A family of proteins and a validated target of the let-7 family of miRNAs. Here we investigate whether expression of HMGA2 directly regulates fetal hemoglobin in adult erythroblasts. Let-7 resistant HMGA2 expression was studied after lentiviral transduction of CD34(+) cells. The transgene was regulated by the erythroid-specific gene promoter region of the human SPTA1 gene (HMGA2-OE). HMGA2-OE caused significant increases in gamma-globin mRNA expression and HbF to around 16% of the total hemoglobin levels compared to matched control transductions. Interestingly, no significant changes in KLF1, SOX6, GATA1, ZBTB7A and BCL11A mRNA levels were observed. Overall, our data suggest that expression of HMGA2, a downstream target of let-7 miRNAs, causes moderately increased gamma-globin gene and protein expression in adult human erythroblasts. PMID:27861570

  7. Predictions of ozone absorption in human lungs from newborn to adult

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Graham, R.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Although children are an important human population, dosimetry models for gases have been used to predict absorption mainly in laboratory animals and adult humans. To correct this omission, we have used several sources of data on age-dependent lower respiratory tract (LRT) volumes, age-dependent airway dimensions, a model of the adult tracheobronchial region, and a model of the adult acinus to construct theoretical LRT lung models for humans from birth to adulthood. An ozone (O3) dosimetry model was then used to estimate the regional and local uptake of O3 in the (theoretical) LRT of children and adults. For sedentary or quiet breathing, the LRT distribution of absorbed O3, the percent uptake (84 to 88%) and the centriacinar O3 tissue dose are not very sensitive to age. For maximal work during exercise, predicted LRT uptakes range from 87 to 93%, and the regional percent uptakes are more dependent on age than during quiet breathing. In general, the total quantity of O3 absorbed per minute increases with age. Regardless of age and state of breathing, the largest tissue dose of O3 is predicted to occur in the centriacinar region, where many animal studies show the maximal morphological damage from O3.

  8. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    attachment insecurity and particularly anxiety. Emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal or suppression of social emotions are also differentially modulated by attachment style. This research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulation is likely to play an important (causal) role. PMID:22822396

  9. Nestin-Positive Ependymal Cells Are Increased in the Human Spinal Cord after Traumatic Central Nervous System Injury.

    PubMed

    Cawsey, Thomas; Duflou, Johan; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Gorrie, Catherine Anne

    2015-09-15

    Endogenous neural progenitor cell niches have been identified in adult mammalian brain and spinal cord. Few studies have examined human spinal cord tissue for a neural progenitor cell response in disease or after injury. Here, we have compared cervical spinal cord sections from 14 individuals who died as a result of nontraumatic causes (controls) with 27 who died from injury with evidence of trauma to the central nervous system. Nestin immunoreactivity was used as a marker of neural progenitor cell response. There were significant increases in the percentage of ependymal cells that were nestin positive between controls and trauma cases. When sections from lumbar and thoracic spinal cord were available, nestin positivity was seen at all three spinal levels, suggesting that nestin reactivity is not simply a localized reaction to injury. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of ependymal cells that were nestin positive and post-injury survival time but not for age, postmortem delay, or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity. No double-labelled nestin and GFAP cells were identified in the ependymal, subependymal, or parenchymal regions of the spinal cord. We need to further characterize this subset of ependymal cells to determine their role after injury, whether they are a population of neural progenitor cells with the potential for proliferation, migration, and differentiation for spinal cord repair, or whether they have other roles more in line with hypothalamic tanycytes, which they closely resemble.

  10. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  11. Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulating among Ruminants, Mosquitoes and Humans in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kamgang, Basile; Berthet, Nicolas; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes a viral zoonosis, with discontinuous epizootics and sporadic epidemics, essentially in East Africa. Infection with this virus causes severe illness and abortion in sheep, goats, and cattle as well as other domestic animals. Humans can also be exposed through close contact with infectious tissues or by bites from infected mosquitoes, primarily of the Aedes and Culex genuses. Although the cycle of RVFV infection in savannah regions is well documented, its distribution in forest areas in central Africa has been poorly investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate current circulation of RVFV among livestock and humans living in the Central African Republic (CAR), blood samples were collected from sheep, cattle, and goats and from people at risk, such as stock breeders and workers in slaughterhouses and livestock markets. The samples were tested for anti-RVFV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. We also sequenced the complete genomes of two local strains, one isolated in 1969 from mosquitoes and one isolated in 1985 from humans living in forested areas. The 1271 animals sampled comprised 727 cattle, 325 sheep, and 219 goats at three sites. The overall seroprevalence of anti-RVFV IgM antibodies was 1.9% and that of IgG antibodies was 8.6%. IgM antibodies were found only during the rainy season, but the frequency of IgG antibodies did not differ significantly by season. No evidence of recent RVFV infection was found in 335 people considered at risk; however, 16.7% had evidence of past infection. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the strains isolated in the CAR with those isolated in other African countries showed that they belonged to the East/Central African cluster. Conclusion and significance This study confirms current circulation of RVFV in CAR. Further studies are needed to determine the potential vectors involved and the virus reservoirs. PMID:27760144

  12. Ultrastructural evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in adult mouse myocardium and adult human cardiospheres.

    PubMed

    Barile, Lucio; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Moccetti, Tiziano; Vassalli, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres) that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34⁺ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an "off-the-shelf" product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

  13. Binding of furosemide to albumin isolated from human fetal and adult serum.

    PubMed

    Viani, A; Cappiello, M; Silvestri, D; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    Albumin was isolated from pooled fetal serum from 58 placentas obtained at normal delivery at term and from pooled adult plasma from 8 individuals. Albumin isolation was carried out by means of PEG precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A 50 and then on SP-Sephadex C 50. The electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels showed only one spot that comigrated with commercial human albumin. Binding to albumin was measured by equilibrium dialysis of an aliquot of albumin solution (0.7 ml) against the same volume of 0.13 M sodium orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.4). At a total concentration of 2 micrograms/ml (therapeutic range), the unbound fraction of furosemide was 2.71% (fetal albumin) and 2.51% (adult albumin). Two classes of binding sites for furosemide were observed in fetal and adult albumin. The number of binding sites (moles of furosemide per mole of albumin) was 1.22 (fetal albumin) and 1.58 (adult albumin) for the high-affinity site and 2.97 (fetal albumin) and 3.25 (adult albumin) for the low-affinity site. The association constants (M-1) were 3.1 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 2.6 X 10(4) (adult albumin) for the high-affinity set of sites and 0.83 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 1.0 X 10(4) (adult albumin) low-affinity site. The displacement of furosemide from albumin was studied with therapeutic concentrations of several drugs. Valproic acid, salicylic acid, azapropazone and tolbutamide had the highest displacing effects which were significantly higher with fetal than with adult albumin.

  14. Dengue Virus Type 2: Protein Binding and Active Replication in Human Central Nervous System Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Ma Isabel; Pérez-García, Marissa; Terreros-Tinoco, Marisol; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia; Diegopérez-Ramírez, Jaime; Ramírez-Reyes, Alma Griselda; Aguilera, Penélope; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; García-Flores, María Martha

    2013-01-01

    An increased number of dengue cases with neurological complications have been reported in recent years. The lack of reliable animal models for dengue has hindered studies on dengue virus (DENV) pathogenesis and cellular tropism in vivo. We further investigate the tropism of DENV for the human central nervous system (CNS), characterizing DENV interactions with cell surface proteins in human CNS cells by virus overlay protein binding assays (VOPBA) and coimmunoprecipitations. In VOPBA, three membrane proteins (60, 70, and 130 kDa) from the gray matter bound the entire virus particle, whereas only a 70 kDa protein bound in white matter. The coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed three proteins from gray matter consistently binding virus particles, one clearly distinguishable protein (~32 kDa) and two less apparent proteins (100 and 130 kDa). Monoclonal anti-NS3 targeted the virus protein in primary cell cultures of human CNS treated with DENV-2, which also stained positive for NeuH, a neuron-specific marker. Thus, our results indicate (1) that DENV-2 exhibited a direct tropism for human neurons and (2) that human neurons sustain an active DENV replication as was demonstrated by the presence of the NS3 viral antigen in primary cultures of these cells treated with DENV-2. PMID:24302878

  15. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A.; Márquez, Ana L.; Vargas, J. Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met. PMID:25639588

  16. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A.; Márquez, Ana L.; Vargas, J. Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met.

  17. Adenosine 5' triphosphate evoked mobilization of intracellular calcium in central nervous system white matter of adult mouse optic nerve.

    PubMed

    James, G; Butt, A M

    1999-06-11

    Although it has been established that immature glial cells express functional purinergic receptors, the responsiveness of mature glial cells in vivo had not been elucidated. This question was addressed using fura-2 ratiometric measurements of [Ca2+]i in the adult mouse optic nerve, a central nervous system (CNS) white matter tract, taking advantage of the facts that (i), the optic nerve contains glial cells but not neurons and (ii), that fura-2 loads primarily astrocytes in isolated intact optic nerves. We show that adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP) evoked an increase in [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-maximal effect at 3 microm ATP, and with a rank order of agonist potency of ATP > ADP > alpha,beta-methyline-ATP > UDP > adenosine. The results indicate mainly P2Y and P2X components, consistent with the in vitro astroglial purinergic receptor profile. The in vivo response of mature glia to ATP may be important in their response to CNS damage.

  18. Central amygdala lesions inhibit pontine nuclei acoustic reactivity and retard delay eyeblink conditioning acquisition in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Pochiro, Joseph M; Lindquist, Derick H

    2016-06-01

    In delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; tone) is repeatedly paired with a mildly aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; periorbital electrical shock). Over training, subjects learn to produce an anticipatory eyeblink conditioned response (CR) during the CS, prior to US onset. While cerebellar synaptic plasticity is necessary for successful EBC, the amygdala is proposed to enhance eyeblink CR acquisition. In the current study, adult Long-Evans rats received bilateral sham or neurotoxic lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) followed by 1 or 4 EBC sessions. Fear-evoked freezing behavior, CS-mediated enhancement of the unconditioned response (UR), and eyeblink CR acquisition were all impaired in the CEA lesion rats relative to sham controls. There were also significantly fewer c-Fos immunoreactive cells in the pontine nuclei (PN)-major relays of acoustic information to the cerebellum-following the first and fourth EBC session in lesion rats. In sham rats, freezing behavior decreased from session 1 to 4, commensurate with nucleus-specific reductions in amygdala Fos+ cell counts. Results suggest delay EBC proceeds through three stages: in stage one the amygdala rapidly excites diffuse fear responses and PN acoustic reactivity, facilitating cerebellar synaptic plasticity and the development of eyeblink CRs in stage two, leading, in stage three, to a diminution or stabilization of conditioned fear responding.

  19. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  20. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Ross, J Perran; Carbonneau, Dwayne A; Terrell, Scott P; Woodward, Allan R; Schoeb, Trenton R; Perceval, H Franklin; Hinterkopf, Joy P

    2008-04-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities.

  1. Cyclooxygenase inhibition augments central blood pressure and aortic wave reflection in aging humans.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N; Casey, Darren P; Hines, Casey N; Nicholson, Wayne T; Joyner, Michael J

    2012-06-15

    The augmentation index and central blood pressure increase with normal aging. Recently, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, commonly used for the treatment of pain, have been associated with transient increases in the risk of cardiovascular events. We examined the effects of the COX inhibitor indomethacin (Indo) on central arterial hemodynamics and wave reflection characteristics in young and old healthy adults. High-fidelity radial arterial pressure waveforms were measured noninvasively by applanation tonometry before (control) and after Indo treatment in young (25 ± 5 yr, 7 men and 6 women) and old (64 ± 6 yr, 5 men and 6 women) subjects. Aortic systolic (control: 115 ± 3 mmHg vs. Indo: 125 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.05) and diastolic (control: 74 ± 2 mmHg vs. Indo: 79 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) pressures were elevated after Indo treatment in older subjects, whereas only diastolic pressure was elevated in young subjects (control: 71 ± 2 mmHg vs. Indo: 76 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure increased in both young and old adults after Indo treatment (P < 0.05). The aortic augmentation index and augmented pressure were elevated after Indo treatment in older subjects (control: 30 ± 5% vs. Indo 36 ± 6% and control 12 ± 1 mmHg vs. Indo: 18 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas pulse pressure amplification decreased (change: 8 ± 3%, P < 0.05). In addition, older subjects had a 61 ± 11% increase in wasted left ventricular energy after Indo treatment (P < 0.05). In contrast, young subjects showed no significant changes in any of the variables of interest. Taken together, these results demonstrate that COX inhibition with Indo unfavorably increases central wave reflection and augments aortic pressure in old but not young subjects. Our results suggest that aging individuals have a limited ability to compensate for the acute hemodynamic changes caused by systemic COX inhibition.

  2. Novel Strain of Andes Virus Associated with Fatal Human Infection, Central Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Cristhopher D.; Vallejo, Efrain; Agudo, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge; Blazes, David L.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2012-01-01

    To better describe the genetic diversity of hantaviruses associated with human illness in South America, we screened blood samples from febrile patients in Chapare Province in central Bolivia during 2008–2009 for recent hantavirus infection. Hantavirus RNA was detected in 3 patients, including 1 who died. Partial RNA sequences of small and medium segments from the 3 patients were most closely related to Andes virus lineages but distinct (<90% nt identity) from reported strains. A survey for IgG against hantaviruses among residents of Chapare Province indicated that 12.2% of the population had past exposure to >1 hantaviruses; the highest prevalence was among agricultural workers. Because of the high level of human exposure to hantavirus strains and the severity of resulting disease, additional studies are warranted to determine the reservoirs, ecologic range, and public health effect of this novel strain of hantavirus. PMID:22515983

  3. Maternal endotoxemia, fetal anomalies, and central nervous system damage: a rat model of a human problem.

    PubMed

    Ornoy, A; Altshuler, G

    1976-01-15

    Endotoxemia is a common consequence of the gram-negative urinary tract infections that complicate human pregnancies. Only rarely, however, have the effects of maternal endotoxemia been evaluated by animal experiments or by human investigations. Data of the Collaborative Perinatal Study suggest an association between maternal endotoxemia and fetal central nervous system damage. For these reasons we performed controlled studies of the fetal effects of treatment of pregnant rats, at appropriate gestational ages, with E. coli endotoxin. We found a maximum 7 per cent incidence of fetal anomalies in the treated animals but no anomalies in controls. Placental light microscopy examinations indicated the mechanism to include Shwartzman-lixemia produces periventricular leukomalacia. We obtained an incidence of neuronal necrosis in treated fetuses that was 10 times greater than in control fetuses. It is therefore of importance that additional studies of the pathologic effects of endotoxin be performed.

  4. Activity of D-amino acid oxidase is widespread in the human central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Sasabe, Jumpei; Suzuki, Masataka; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) plays an essential role in degrading D-serine, an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. DAO shows genetic association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and schizophrenia, in whose pathophysiology aberrant metabolism of D-serine is implicated. Although the pathology of both essentially involves the forebrain, in rodents, enzymatic activity of DAO is hindbrain-shifted and absent in the region. Here, we show activity-based distribution of DAO in the central nervous system (CNS) of humans compared with that of mice. DAO activity in humans was generally higher than that in mice. In the human forebrain, DAO activity was distributed in the subcortical white matter and the posterior limb of internal capsule, while it was almost undetectable in those areas in mice. In the lower brain centers, DAO activity was detected in the gray and white matters in a coordinated fashion in both humans and mice. In humans, DAO activity was prominent along the corticospinal tract, rubrospinal tract, nigrostriatal system, ponto-/olivo-cerebellar fibers, and in the anterolateral system. In contrast, in mice, the reticulospinal tract and ponto-/olivo-cerebellar fibers were the major pathways showing strong DAO activity. In the human corticospinal tract, activity-based staining of DAO did not merge with a motoneuronal marker, but colocalized mostly with excitatory amino acid transporter 2 and in part with GFAP, suggesting that DAO activity-positive cells are astrocytes seen mainly in the motor pathway. These findings establish the distribution of DAO activity in cerebral white matter and the motor system in humans, providing evidence to support the involvement of DAO in schizophrenia and ALS. Our results raise further questions about the regulation of D-serine in DAO-rich regions as well as the physiological/pathological roles of DAO in white matter astrocytes. PMID:24959138

  5. Activity of D-amino acid oxidase is widespread in the human central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sasabe, Jumpei; Suzuki, Masataka; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) plays an essential role in degrading D-serine, an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. DAO shows genetic association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and schizophrenia, in whose pathophysiology aberrant metabolism of D-serine is implicated. Although the pathology of both essentially involves the forebrain, in rodents, enzymatic activity of DAO is hindbrain-shifted and absent in the region. Here, we show activity-based distribution of DAO in the central nervous system (CNS) of humans compared with that of mice. DAO activity in humans was generally higher than that in mice. In the human forebrain, DAO activity was distributed in the subcortical white matter and the posterior limb of internal capsule, while it was almost undetectable in those areas in mice. In the lower brain centers, DAO activity was detected in the gray and white matters in a coordinated fashion in both humans and mice. In humans, DAO activity was prominent along the corticospinal tract, rubrospinal tract, nigrostriatal system, ponto-/olivo-cerebellar fibers, and in the anterolateral system. In contrast, in mice, the reticulospinal tract and ponto-/olivo-cerebellar fibers were the major pathways showing strong DAO activity. In the human corticospinal tract, activity-based staining of DAO did not merge with a motoneuronal marker, but colocalized mostly with excitatory amino acid transporter 2 and in part with GFAP, suggesting that DAO activity-positive cells are astrocytes seen mainly in the motor pathway. These findings establish the distribution of DAO activity in cerebral white matter and the motor system in humans, providing evidence to support the involvement of DAO in schizophrenia and ALS. Our results raise further questions about the regulation of D-serine in DAO-rich regions as well as the physiological/pathological roles of DAO in white matter astrocytes.

  6. Influences of recent climate change and human activities on water storage variations in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Haijun; Chen, Yaning

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change is an indicator of climate change. Therefore, it is helpful to understand how climate change impacts water systems. In this study, the influence of climate change on TWS in Central Asia over the past decade was analyzed using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites and Climatic Research Unit datasets. Results indicate that TWS experienced a decreasing trend in Central Asia from 2003 to 2013 at a rate of -4.44 ± 2.2 mm/a, and that the maximum positive anomaly for TWS (46 mm) occurred in July 2005, while the minimum negative anomaly (-32.5 mm) occurred in March 2008-August 2009. The decreasing trend of TWS in northern Central Asia (-3.86 ± 0.63 mm/a) is mainly attributed to soil moisture storage depletion, which is driven primarily by the increase in evapotranspiration. In the mountainous regions, climate change exerted an influence on TWS by affecting glaciers and snow cover change. However, human activities are now the dominant factor driving the decline of TWS in the Aral Sea region and the northern Tarim River Basin.

  7. Statistical inference on genetic data reveals the complex demographic history of human populations in central Asia.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Friso P; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    The demographic history of modern humans constitutes a combination of expansions, colonizations, contractions, and remigrations. The advent of large scale genetic data combined with statistically refined methods facilitates inference of this complex history. Here we study the demographic history of two genetically admixed ethnic groups in Central Asia, an area characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and a history of recurrent immigration. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation, we infer that the timing of admixture markedly differs between the two groups. Admixture in the traditionally agricultural Tajiks could be dated back to the onset of the Neolithic transition in the region, whereas admixture in Kyrgyz is more recent, and may have involved the westward movement of Turkic peoples. These results are confirmed by a coalescent method that fits an isolation-with-migration model to the genetic data, with both Central Asian groups having received gene flow from the extremities of Eurasia. Interestingly, our analyses also uncover signatures of gene flow from Eastern to Western Eurasia during Paleolithic times. In conclusion, the high genetic diversity currently observed in these two Central Asian peoples most likely reflects the effects of recurrent immigration that likely started before historical times. Conversely, conquests during historical times may have had a relatively limited genetic impact. These results emphasize the need for a better understanding of the genetic consequences of transmission of culture and technological innovations, as well as those of invasions and conquests.

  8. Connectomic Insights into Topologically Centralized Network Edges and Relevant Motifs in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Mingrui; Lin, Qixiang; Bi, Yanchao; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    White matter (WM) tracts serve as important material substrates for information transfer across brain regions. However, the topological roles of WM tracts in global brain communications and their underlying microstructural basis remain poorly understood. Here, we employed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and graph-theoretical approaches to identify the pivotal WM connections in human whole-brain networks and further investigated their wiring substrates (including WM microstructural organization and physical consumption) and topological contributions to the brain's network backbone. We found that the pivotal WM connections with highly topological-edge centrality were primarily distributed in several long-range cortico-cortical connections (including the corpus callosum, cingulum and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus) and some projection tracts linking subcortical regions. These pivotal WM connections exhibited high levels of microstructural organization indicated by diffusion measures (the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity and the axial diffusivity) and greater physical consumption indicated by streamline lengths, and contributed significantly to the brain's hubs and the rich-club structure. Network motif analysis further revealed their heavy participations in the organization of communication blocks, especially in routes involving inter-hemispheric heterotopic and extremely remote intra-hemispheric systems. Computational simulation models indicated the sharp decrease of global network integrity when attacking these highly centralized edges. Together, our results demonstrated high building-cost consumption and substantial communication capacity contributions for pivotal WM connections, which deepens our understanding of the topological mechanisms that govern the organization of human connectomes. PMID:27148015

  9. Human and monkey striatal interneurons are derived from the medial ganglionic eminence but not from the adult subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congmin; You, Yan; Qi, Dashi; Zhou, Xing; Wang, Lei; Wei, Song; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Huang, Weixi; Liu, Zhidong; Liu, Fang; Ma, Lan; Yang, Zhengang

    2014-08-13

    In adult rodent and monkey brains, newly born neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the wall of the lateral ventricle migrate into the olfactory bulb (OB) via the rostral migratory stream (RMS). A recent study reported that interneurons are constantly generating in the adult human striatum from the SVZ. In contrast, by taking advantage of the continuous expression of Sp8 from the neuroblast stage through differentiation into mature interneurons, we found that the adult human SVZ does not generate new interneurons for the striatum. In the adult human SVZ and RMS, very few neuroblasts were observed, and most of them expressed the transcription factor Sp8. Neuroblasts in the adult rhesus monkey SVZ-RMS-OB pathway also expressed Sp8. In addition, we observed that Sp8 was expressed by most adult human and monkey OB interneurons. However, very few Sp8+ cells were in the adult human striatum. This suggests that neuroblasts in the adult human SVZ and RMS are likely destined for the OB, but not for the striatum. BrdU-labeling results also revealed few if any newly born neurons in the adult rhesus monkey striatum. Finally, on the basis of transcription factor expression, we provide strong evidence that the vast majority of interneurons in the human and monkey striatum are generated from the medial ganglionic eminence during embryonic developmental stages, as they are in rodents. We conclude that, although a small number of neuroblasts exist in the adult human SVZ, they do not migrate into the striatum and become mature striatal interneurons.

  10. PET imaging of neurogenic activity in the adult brain: Toward in vivo imaging of human neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yasuhisa; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    Neural stem cells are present in 2 neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and continue to generate new neurons throughout life. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is linked to a variety of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, and to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants, as well as learning and memory. In vivo imaging for hippocampal neurogenic activity may be used to diagnose psychiatric disorders and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. However, these imaging techniques remain to be established until now. Recently, we established a quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique for neurogenic activity in the adult brain with 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluoro-L-thymidine ([(18)F]FLT) and probenecid, a drug transporter inhibitor in blood-brain barrier. Moreover, we showed that this PET imaging technique can monitor alterations in neurogenic activity in the hippocampus of adult rats with depression and following treatment with an antidepressant. This PET imaging method may assist in diagnosing depression and in monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. In this commentary, we discuss the possibility of in vivo PET imaging for neurogenic activity in adult non-human primates and humans.

  11. Ticks (Ixodida) on humans from central Panama, Panama (2010-2011).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez C, Sergio E; Castro, Angélica; Esser, Helen; Liefting, Yorick; García, Gleydis; Miranda, Roberto J

    2012-09-01

    From January 2010 to December 2011, a total of 138 cases of ticks feeding on humans were reported from 11 locations in central Panama. Five of these locations were situated in forest environments, three in rural landscapes and three in urban areas. The ticks were submitted to the Gorgas Memorial Institute, where nine species were identified among 65 specimens: Amblyomma cajennense s.l., A. dissimile, A. naponense, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. sabanerae, A. tapirellum, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. The remaining 73 specimens consisted of unidentified immature ticks, all belonging to the genus of Amblyomma. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. was the species most frequently associated with humans, particularly in urban environments. In rural landscapes, tick bites were most often caused by A. cajennense s.l., whereas A. tapirellum was the species most often found parasitizing humans in forest environments. These data provide information on the tick species most commonly associated with humans in forested environments, rural areas and cities around the Panama Canal.

  12. Species-Specific Responses of Carnivores to Human-Induced Landscape Changes in Central Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Nicolás; Lucherini, Mauro; Fortin, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B.

    2016-01-01

    The role that mammalian carnivores play in ecosystems can be deeply altered by human-driven habitat disturbance. While most carnivore species are negatively affected, the impact of habitat changes is expected to depend on their ecological flexibility. We aimed to identify key factors affecting the habitat use by four sympatric carnivore species in landscapes of central Argentina. Camera trapping surveys were carried out at 49 sites from 2011 to 2013. Each site was characterized by 12 habitat attributes, including human disturbance and fragmentation. Four landscape gradients were created from Principal Component Analysis and their influence on species-specific habitat use was studied using Generalized Linear Models. We recorded 74 events of Conepatus chinga, 546 of Pseudalopex gymnocercus, 193 of Leopardus geoffroyi and 45 of Puma concolor. We found that the gradient describing sites away from urban settlements and with low levels of disturbance had the strongest influence. L. geoffroyi was the only species responding significantly to the four gradients and showing a positive response to modified habitats, which could be favored by the low level of persecution by humans. P. concolor made stronger use of most preserved sites with low proportion of cropland, even though the species also used sites with an intermediate level of fragmentation. A more flexible use of space was found for C. chinga and P. gymnocercus. Our results demonstrate that the impact of human activities spans across this guild of carnivores and that species-specific responses appear to be mediated by ecological and behavioral attributes. PMID:26950300

  13. Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that functional mouse oocytes and sperm can be derived in vitro from somatic cell lines. We hypothesize that in adult human ovaries, mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea (TA) are bipotent progenitors with a commitment for both primitive granulosa and germ cells. We investigated ovaries of twelve adult women (mean age 32.8 ± 4.1 SD, range 27–38 years) by single, double, and triple color immunohistochemistry. We show that cytokeratin (CK)+ mesenchymal cells in ovarian TA differentiate into surface epithelium (SE) cells by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Segments of SE directly associated with ovarian cortex are overgrown by TA, forming solid epithelial cords, which fragment into small (20 micron) epithelial nests descending into the lower ovarian cortex, before assembling with zona pellucida (ZP)+ oocytes. Germ cells can originate from SE cells which cover the TA. Small (10 micron) germ-like cells showing PS1 meiotically expressed oocyte carbohydrate protein are derived from SE cells via asymmetric division. They show nuclear MAPK immunoexpression, subsequently divide symmetrically, and enter adjacent cortical vessels. During vascular transport, the putative germ cells increase to oocyte size, and are picked-up by epithelial nests associated with the vessels. During follicle formation, extensions of granulosa cells enter the oocyte cytoplasm, forming a single paranuclear CK+ Balbiani body supplying all the mitochondria of the oocyte. In the ovarian medulla, occasional vessels show an accumulation of ZP+ oocytes (25–30 microns) or their remnants, suggesting that some oocytes degenerate. In contrast to males, adult human female gonads do not preserve germline type stem cells. This study expands our previous observations on the formation of germ cells in adult human ovaries. Differentiation of primitive granulosa and germ cells from the bipotent mesenchymal cell precursors of TA in adult human ovaries represents a most

  14. A seroprevalence survey for human immunodeficiency virus antibody in mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Pincus, S H; Schoenbaum, E E; Webber, M

    1990-03-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among adults who are mentally retarded is not known. Policies for those in residential settings are being established despite incomplete information. Knowledge regarding HIV seroprevalence would enable administrators to make more effective policy decisions concerning testing and HIV prevention. Discarded sera from mentally retarded adults were anonymously tested for HIV antibody. Sera were collected from a health facility in Westchester County, NY, that provides care to developmentally disabled adults. After identifications were removed, sera were coded and linked to demographic and clinical variables from hospital and laboratory records. Sera came from individuals living in both institutional and less restrictive community settings in metropolitan New York City and more distant locations in New York State, all of whom were seen by the above facility. No HIV antibody was detected in sera from 241 mentally retarded adults. This study suggests that the prevalence of HIV antibody in mentally retarded adults is not high. Mandatory screening programs may not be appropriate for these individuals. Monies might be better spent on educational programs directed at AIDS prevention, and further development of ethical and safe policies for those who are mentally retarded.

  15. A Comparison of Pure Tone Auditory Thresholds in Human Infants and Adults.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Joan M; Pisoni, David B; Aslin, Richard N

    1983-01-01

    Pure tone auditory thresholds for frequencies from .250 to 8.0 kHz were obtained from 277-to-11-month-old human infants and nine adults using a go-no-go operant head-turning technique combined with an adaptive staircase (tracking) discrimination procedure. New methods were devised for maintaining infants under stimulus control during threshold testing through the use of randomly interleaved "probe" and "catch" trials. Reliable threshold data were obtained from every infant studied, and identical threshold criteria were applied to infants and adults alike. Although infant thresholds were 17-27 dB higher than those of adults, infant inter-subject variability was no greater than that of adults. Adult audiograms were nearly flat between frequencies of .500 and 8.0 kHz with sensitivity ranging between 7 and 14 dB SPL. Infant audiograms were flat between frequencies of .500 and 4.0 kHz, with sensitivity ranging between 30 and 36 dB SPL. The most sensitive frequency for infants was 8.0 kHz (25 dB SPL).

  16. [Estimation of adult mortality in six parishes of the central valley of Costa Rica (1888-1910) based on information on orphanhood].

    PubMed

    Jaspers Faijer, D; Perez Brignoli, H

    1985-04-01

    "This paper contains an application of the orphanhood method for estimating adult mortality, based on information provided during the period 1888-1910 by the brides and bridegrooms of six parishes of the Central Valley of Costa Rica.... Using the Brass technique for estimating adult mortality from orphanhood and interpolating the resulting probabilities of surviving into... Coale and Demeny's regional model life tables, the life expectancy at the age of 25 years is estimated [at] 41 years for women and 40 years for men." Mortality differences by region and social-occupational group are considered. (summary in ENG)

  17. Isolation, Characterization, and Differentiation of Progenitor Cells from Human Adult Adrenal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Magda M.; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Karl; Bastos, Carlos A.; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10–12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+/β-3-tubulin+ cells and TH−/β-3-tubulin+ cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH+/PNMT+). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  18. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of progenitor cells from human adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Santana, Magda M; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Klaus; Bastos, Carlos A; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R; Cavadas, Cláudia; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10-12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells and TH(-)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH(+)/PNMT(+)). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.

  20. Recapitulating adult human immune traits in laboratory mice by normalizing environment

    PubMed Central

    Beura, Lalit K.; Hamilton, Sara E.; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M.; Odumade, Oludare A.; Casey, Kerry A.; Thompson, Emily A.; Fraser, Kathryn A.; Rosato, Pamela C.; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W. Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C.; Masopust, David

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice because of experimental advantages including inbred homogeneity, tools for genetic manipulation, the ability to perform kinetic tissue analyses starting with the onset of disease, and tractable models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. Despite revealing many fundamental principals of immunology, there is growing concern that mice fail to capture relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside1–8. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic “specific pathogen free” (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that the standard practice of laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes result in better recapitulation of features of adult humans. Laboratory mice lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells, which more closely resembles neonatal than adult humans. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice, pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting a role for environment. Consequences of altering mouse housing profoundly impacted the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune system and resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression patterns that more closely aligned with immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered the mouse’s resistance to infection, and impacted T cell differentiation to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the impact of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modeling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans. PMID

  1. Adult human gingival epithelial cells as a source for whole-tooth bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Angelova Volponi, A; Kawasaki, M; Sharpe, P T

    2013-04-01

    Teeth develop from interactions between embryonic oral epithelium and neural-crest-derived mesenchyme. These cells can be separated into single-cell populations and recombined to form normal teeth, providing a basis for bioengineering new teeth if suitable, non-embryonic cell sources can be identified. We show here that cells can be isolated from adult human gingival tissue that can be expanded in vitro and, when combined with mouse embryonic tooth mesenchyme cells, form teeth. Teeth with developing roots can be produced from this cell combination following transplantation into renal capsules. These bioengineered teeth contain dentin and enamel with ameloblast-like cells and rests of Malassez of human origin.

  2. FGF2-induced effects on transcriptome associated with regeneration competence in adult human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult human fibroblasts grown in low oxygen and with FGF2 supplementation have the capacity to tip the healing outcome of skeletal muscle injury – by favoring regeneration response in vivo over scar formation. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of control adult human dermal fibroblasts and induced regeneration-competent (iRC) fibroblasts to identify transcriptional changes that may be related to their regeneration competence. Results We identified a unique gene-expression profile that characterizes FGF2-induced iRC fibroblast phenotype. Significantly differentially expressed genes due to FGF2 treatment were identified and analyzed to determine overrepresented Gene Ontology terms. Genes belonging to extracellular matrix components, adhesion molecules, matrix remodelling, cytoskeleton, and cytokines were determined to be affected by FGF2 treatment. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis comparing control adult human fibroblasts with FGF2-treated fibroblasts identified functional groups of genes that reflect transcriptional changes potentially contributing to their regeneration competence. This comparative transcriptome analysis should contribute new insights into genes that characterize cells with greater regenerative potential. PMID:24066673

  3. Long-term culture and functional characterization of follicular cells from adult normal human thyroids.

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, F; Ambesi-Impiombato, F S; Perrella, G; Coon, H G

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained long-term cultures of differentiated proliferating follicular cells from normal adult human thyroid glands. In vitro growth of such human cells has been sustained by a modified F-12 medium, supplemented with bovine hypothalamus and pituitary extracts and no added thyrotropin. Cultures have been expanded, cloned, frozen, successfully retrieved, and characterized. Functional characterization of these cells shows constitutive thyroglobulin production and release and thyrotropin-dependent adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production, the latter apparently not associated with significant increases in DNA synthesis or cell proliferation. Genetic characterization of these cells by chromosome counting showed the normal diploid chromosome number. The ability to cultivate differentiated human thyroid follicular cells in long-term culture opens possibilities for investigating the transduction pathways of thyrotropin stimulation in normal and pathological human tissues, developing clinically relevant in vitro assays, and considering cellular and molecular therapies. Images PMID:8090760

  4. Hemispheric lateralization of bilaterally presented homologous visual and auditory stimuli in normal adults, normal children, and children with central auditory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual analog. Results of the first experiment revealed a significant right ear advantage (REA) for the dichotic listening task and a left-visual-field advantage (LVFA) for the corresponding visual analog in normal adults and children. In the second experiment, results revealed a significantly larger REA in the children with CAPD as compared to the normal children. Results also revealed a reversed cerebral asymmetry (RVFA) for the children with CAPD on the visual task. Significant cross-modal correlations suggest that the two tasks may reflect, at least in part, similar interhemispheric processing mechanisms in children. Findings are discussed in relation to differential diagnosis and modality-specificity of CAPD.

  5. Integrated Central-Autonomic Multifractal Complexity in the Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, D. C.; Sharif, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Study: The aim of this study was to characterize the central-autonomic interaction underlying the multifractality in heart rate variability (HRV) of healthy humans. Materials and Methods: Eleven young healthy subjects participated in two separate ~40 min experimental sessions, one in supine (SUP) and one in, head-up-tilt (HUT), upright (UPR) body positions. Surface scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were collected and fractal correlation of brain and heart rate data was analyzed based on the idea of relative multifractality. The fractal correlation was further examined with the EEG, HRV spectral measures using linear regression of two variables and principal component analysis (PCA) to find clues for the physiological processing underlying the central influence in fractal HRV. Results: We report evidence of a central-autonomic fractal correlation (CAFC) where the HRV multifractal complexity varies significantly with the fractal correlation between the heart rate and brain data (P = 0.003). The linear regression shows significant correlation between CAFC measure and EEG Beta band spectral component (P = 0.01 for SUP and P = 0.002 for UPR positions). There is significant correlation between CAFC measure and HRV LF component in the SUP position (P = 0.04), whereas the correlation with the HRV HF component approaches significance (P = 0.07). The correlation between CAFC measure and HRV spectral measures in the UPR position is weak. The PCA results confirm these findings and further imply multiple physiological processes underlying CAFC, highlighting the importance of the EEG Alpha, Beta band, and the HRV LF, HF spectral measures in the supine position. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings of this work can be summarized into three points: (i) Similar fractal characteristics exist in the brain and heart rate fluctuation and the change toward stronger fractal correlation implies the change toward more complex

  6. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed

  7. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed

  8. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Tricou, Vianney; Bouscaillou, Julie; Kamba Mebourou, Emmanuel; Koyanongo, Fidèle Dieudonné; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR), an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated. Methods To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains. Results In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (P<0.001). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three variants belonging to Africa I and II lineages actively circulated in 2012. Conclusions These data indicate that canine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country. PMID

  9. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi.

  10. Urinary concentrations of parabens in Chinese young adults: implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wan-Li; Wang, Lei; Guo, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have indicated that high and systemic exposure to parabens can be harmful to human health. Although a few studies have reported urinary paraben levels in western countries, studies on paraben exposure in the Chinese population are limited. China is currently a major producer of parabens in the world. In this study, 109 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults (approximately 20 years old) were analyzed for five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-parabens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methyl-, propyl-, and ethyl-parabens were the three major paraben analogues found in all (100%) samples. The concentration of the sum of the five parabens ranged from 0.82 to 728 ng/mL with a geometric mean value of 17.4 ng/mL. Urinary concentration of parabens was 2-fold greater in females than in males. Based on the measured urinary concentrations, daily intake of parabens by the Chinese young adults was estimated and compared with those reported for United States adults. The estimated daily intakes (EDIurine) of parabens were 18.4 and 40.8 μg/kg bw/day for Chinese males and females, respectively, values that were lower than those reported for United States adults (74.7 μg/kg bw/day). Based on the reported concentrations of parabens in foods from China and the United States, the contribution of dietary intake to EDIurine was estimated to be 5.5, 2.6, and 0.42% for Chinese males, Chinese females, and United States adults, respectively, which indicates the significance of nondietary sources of parabens to human exposures.

  11. Blast shockwaves propagate Ca(2+) activity via purinergic astrocyte networks in human central nervous system cells.

    PubMed

    Ravin, Rea; Blank, Paul S; Busse, Brad; Ravin, Nitay; Vira, Shaleen; Bezrukov, Ludmila; Waters, Hang; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Lee, Philip R; Fields, R Douglas; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2016-05-10

    In a recent study of the pathophysiology of mild, blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) the exposure of dissociated, central nervous system (CNS) cells to simulated blast resulted in propagating waves of elevated intracellular Ca(2+). Here we show, in dissociated human CNS cultures, that these calcium waves primarily propagate through astrocyte-dependent, purinergic signaling pathways that are blocked by P2 antagonists. Human, compared to rat, astrocytes had an increased calcium response and prolonged calcium wave propagation kinetics, suggesting that in our model system rat CNS cells are less responsive to simulated blast. Furthermore, in response to simulated blast, human CNS cells have increased expressions of a reactive astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and a protease, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9). The conjoint increased expression of GFAP and MMP-9 and a purinergic ATP (P2) receptor antagonist reduction in calcium response identifies both potential mechanisms for sustained changes in brain function following primary bTBI and therapeutic strategies targeting abnormal astrocyte activity.

  12. Blast shockwaves propagate Ca2+ activity via purinergic astrocyte networks in human central nervous system cells

    PubMed Central

    Ravin, Rea; Blank, Paul S.; Busse, Brad; Ravin, Nitay; Vira, Shaleen; Bezrukov, Ludmila; Waters, Hang; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Lee, Philip R.; Fields, R. Douglas; Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study of the pathophysiology of mild, blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) the exposure of dissociated, central nervous system (CNS) cells to simulated blast resulted in propagating waves of elevated intracellular Ca2+. Here we show, in dissociated human CNS cultures, that these calcium waves primarily propagate through astrocyte-dependent, purinergic signaling pathways that are blocked by P2 antagonists. Human, compared to rat, astrocytes had an increased calcium response and prolonged calcium wave propagation kinetics, suggesting that in our model system rat CNS cells are less responsive to simulated blast. Furthermore, in response to simulated blast, human CNS cells have increased expressions of a reactive astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and a protease, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9). The conjoint increased expression of GFAP and MMP-9 and a purinergic ATP (P2) receptor antagonist reduction in calcium response identifies both potential mechanisms for sustained changes in brain function following primary bTBI and therapeutic strategies targeting abnormal astrocyte activity. PMID:27162174

  13. Bovine fasciolosis in the human fasciolosis hyperendemic Binh Dinh province in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T G T; Le, T H; Dao, T H T; Tran, T L H; Praet, N; Speybroeck, N; Vercruysse, J; Dorny, P

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey on bovine fasciolosis was conducted in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam that was previously identified as hyperendemic for human fasciolosis. In Vietnam, both pure Fasciola gigantica and hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liverflukes bearing genetic material from both Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica infect humans and animals. In this study, 825 cattle were randomly selected from 8 of the 11 provincial districts for faecal collection; blood samples were taken from 400 of these animals. Fasciola eggs and antibodies against Fasciola were detected by a quantitative sedimentation method and an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, respectively. Overall, 54.9% of the animals were shedding Fasciola eggs while 72.2% were Fasciola seropositive. Animals under two years showed lower Fasciola infection rates than older animals. There were no differences in infection rates between districts. These results indicate a very high prevalence of Fasciola infections in cattle in Binh Dinh province. It is concluded that a fasciolosis control programme should be designed in this region aiming at reducing infection in both cattle and humans.

  14. Poliovirus trafficking toward central nervous system via human poliovirus receptor-dependent and -independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ohka, Seii; Nihei, Coh-ichi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Nomoto, Akio

    2012-01-01

    In humans, paralytic poliomyelitis results from the invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by circulating poliovirus (PV) via the blood–brain barrier (BBB). After the virus enters the CNS, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, neural pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155)-transgenic (Tg) mice. We demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the sciatic nerve of hPVR-Tg mice and that intramuscularly inoculated PV causes paralysis in a hPVR-dependent manner. We also showed that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV exists in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist in these mice. Circulating PV after intravenous inoculation in mice cross the BBB at a high rate in a hPVR-independent manner. We will implicate an involvement of a new possible receptor for PV to permeate the BBB based on our recent findings. PMID:22529845

  15. Central mechanisms for force and motion--towards computational synthesis of human movement.

    PubMed

    Hemami, Hooshang; Dariush, Behzad

    2012-12-01

    Anatomical, physiological and experimental research on the human body can be supplemented by computational synthesis of the human body for all movement: routine daily activities, sports, dancing, and artistic and exploratory involvements. The synthesis requires thorough knowledge about all subsystems of the human body and their interactions, and allows for integration of known knowledge in working modules. It also affords confirmation and/or verification of scientific hypotheses about workings of the central nervous system (CNS). A simple step in this direction is explored here for controlling the forces of constraint. It requires co-activation of agonist-antagonist musculature. The desired trajectories of motion and the force of contact have to be provided by the CNS. The spinal control involves projection onto a muscular subset that induces the force of contact. The projection of force in the sensory motor cortex is implemented via a well-defined neural population unit, and is executed in the spinal cord by a standard integral controller requiring input from tendon organs. The sensory motor cortex structure is extended to the case for directing motion via two neural population units with vision input and spindle efferents. Digital computer simulations show the feasibility of the system. The formulation is modular and can be extended to multi-link limbs, robot and humanoid systems with many pairs of actuators or muscles. It can be expanded to include reticular activating structures and learning.

  16. Applications of human umbilical cord blood cells in central nervous system regeneration.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Antonio S; Gonzalo-Gobernado, Rafael; Reimers, Diana; Asensio, Maria J; Rodríguez-Serrano, Macarena; Bazán, Eulalia

    2010-03-01

    In recent decades, there has been considerable amount of information about embryonic stem cells (ES). The dilemma facing scientists interested in the development and use of human stem cells in replacement therapies is the source of these cells, i.e. the human embryo. There are many ethical and moral problems related to the use of these cells. Hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood have been proposed as an alternative source of embryonic stem cells. After exposure to different agents, these cells are able to express antigens of diverse cellular lineages, including the neural type. The In vitro manipulation of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cells has shown their stem capacity and plasticity. These cells are easily accessible, In vitro amplifiable, well tolerated by the host, and with more primitive molecular characteristics that give them great flexibility. Overall, these properties open a promising future for the use of hUCB in regenerative therapies for the Central Nervous System (CNS). This review will focus on the available literature concerning umbilical cord blood cells as a therapeutic tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Fairchok, Mary P.; Danaher, Patrick J.; McDonough, Erin A.; Blair, Patrick J.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Schofield, Christina; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. Objectives To characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. Study design Observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. Results Eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18y. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11 HRV-B, and 19 HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusions Among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. PMID:25728083

  18. Comparison of human growth hormone products' cost in pediatric and adult patients. A budgetary impact model.

    PubMed

    Bazalo, Gary R; Joshi, Ashish V; Germak, John

    2007-09-01

    We assessed the economic impact to the United States payer of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) utilization, comparing the relative dosage efficiency of marketed pen-based and vial-based products in a pediatric and in an adult population. A budgetary impact model calculated drug costs based on product waste and cost. Waste was the difference between prescribed dose, based on patient weight, and actual delivered dose, based on dosing increments and maximum deliverable dose for pens and a fixed-percent waste as derived from the literature for vials. Annual wholesale acquisition costs were calculated based upon total milligrams delivered, using a daily dose of 0.03 mg/kg for pediatric patients and 0.016 mg/kg for adults. Total annual drug costs were compared for two scenarios: 1) a product mix based on national market share and 2) restricting use to the product with lowest waste. Based on the literature, waste for each vial product was 23 percent. Among individual pens, waste was highest for Humatrope 24 mg (19.5 percent pediatric, 14.3 percent adult) and lowest for Norditropin Nordi-Flex 5 mg (1.1 percent pediatric, 1 percent adult). Restricting use to the brand with least waste (Norditropin), compared to national product share mix, resulted in a 10.2 percent reduction in annual pediatric patient cost from $19,026 to $17,089 and an 8 percent reduction in annual adult patient cost from $24,099 to $22,161. We concluded that pen delivery systems result in less waste than vial and syringe. Considering all approved delivery systems, Norditropin resulted in the least product waste and lower annual patient cost for both pediatric and adult populations.

  19. The mental representation of the human gait in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Tino; Jacksteit, Robert; Behrens, Martin; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    The link between mental representation (MREP) structures and motor performance has been evidenced for a great variety of movement skills, but not for the human gait. Therefore the present study sought to investigate the cognitive memory structures underlying the human gait in young and older adults. In a first experiment, gait parameters at comfortable gait speed (OptoGait) were compared with gait-specific MREPs (structural dimensional analysis of MREP; SDA-M) in 36 young adults. Participants were divided into a slow- and fast-walking group. The proven relationship between gait speed and executive functions such as working memory led to the hypothesis that gait pattern and MREP differ between slow- and fast-walking adults. In a second experiment, gait performance and MREPs were compared between 24 young (27.9 years) and 24 elderly (60.1 years) participants. As age-related declines in gait performance occur from the seventh decade of life onward, we hypothesized that gait parameters would not be affected until the age of 60 years accompanied by unchanged MREP. Data of experiment one revealed that gait parameters and MREPs differed significantly between slow and fast walkers. Notably, eleven previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries were documented for the slow walkers but only two injuries and one disorder for fast walkers. Experiment two revealed no age-related differences in gait parameters or MREPs between healthy young and older adults. In conclusion, the differences in gait parameters associated with lower comfortable gait speeds are reflected by differences in MREPs, whereby SDA-M data indicate that the single limb support phase may serve as a critical functional period. These differences probably resulted from previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries. Our data further indicate that the human gait and its MREP are stable until the age of 60. SDA-M may be considered as a valuable clinical tool for diagnosis of gait abnormalities and monitoring of

  20. Silver Editions II: Advancing the Concept of Library-Centered Humanities Programs for Older Adults. An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, Connie; And Others

    This report is an evaluation of the Silver Edition II Project, a program to offer library-centered humanities programming to older adults. In the program local scholars in seven geographically dispersed library systems led discussion groups made up of 20 to 25 participating older adults. This evaluation focuses on the stated goals of the project:…

  1. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  3. A protein related to p21-activated kinase (PAK) that is involved in neurogenesis in the Drosophila adult central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Melzig, J; Rein, K H; Schäfer, U; Pfister, H; Jäckle, H; Heisenberg, M; Raabe, T

    1998-11-05

    Brains are organized by the developmental processes generating them. The embryonic neurogenic phase of Drosophila melanogaster has been studied in detail at the genetic, cellular and molecular level. In contrast, much of what is known of postembryonic brain development has been gathered by neuroanatomical and gene expression studies. The molecular mechanisms underlying cellular diversity and structural organisation in the adult brain, such as the establishment of the correct neuroblast number, the spatial and temporal control of neuroblast proliferation, cell fate determination, and the generation of the precise pattern of neuronal connectivity, are largely unknown. In a screen for viable mutations affecting adult central brain structures, we isolated the mushroom bodies tiny (mbt) gene of Drosophila, which encodes a protein related to p21-activated kinase (PAK). We show that mutations in mbt primarily interfere with the generation or survival of the intrinsic cells (Kenyon cells) of the mushroom body, a paired neuropil structure in the adult brain involved in learning and memory.

  4. Peripheral inflammatory disease associated with centrally activated IL-1 system in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Lampa, Jon; Westman, Marie; Kadetoff, Diana; Agréus, Anna Nordenstedt; Le Maître, Erwan; Gillis-Haegerstrand, Caroline; Andersson, Magnus; Khademi, Mohsen; Corr, Maripat; Christianson, Christina A; Delaney, Ada; Yaksh, Tony L; Kosek, Eva; Svensson, Camilla I

    2012-07-31

    During peripheral immune activation caused by an infection or an inflammatory condition, the innate immune response signals to the brain and causes an up-regulation of central nervous system (CNS) cytokine production. Central actions of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-1β, are pivotal for the induction of fever and fatigue. In the present study, the influence of peripheral chronic joint inflammatory disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on CNS inflammation was investigated. Intrathecal interleukin (IL)-1β concentrations were markedly elevated in RA patients compared with controls or with patients with multiple sclerosis. Conversely, the anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-4 were decreased in RA cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 levels in the CSF did not differ between patients and controls. Concerning IL-1β, CSF concentrations in RA patients were higher than in serum, indicating local production in the CNS, and there was a positive correlation between CSF IL-1β and fatigue assessments. Next, spinal inflammation in experimental arthritis was investigated. A marked increase of IL-1β, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor, but not IL-6 mRNA production, in the spinal cord was observed, coinciding with increased arthritis scores in the KBxN serum transfer model. These data provide evidence that peripheral inflammation such as arthritis is associated with an immunological activation in the CNS in both humans and mice, suggesting a possible therapeutic target for centrally affecting conditions as fatigue in chronic inflammatory diseases, for which to date there are no specific treatments.

  5. Centrality in primate–parasite networks reveals the potential for the transmission of emerging infectious diseases to humans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José María; Nunn, Charles L.; Verdú, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans have arisen from animals. Identifying high-risk hosts is therefore vital for the control and surveillance of these diseases. Viewing hosts as connected through the parasites they share, we use network tools to investigate predictors of parasitism and sources of future EIDs. We generated host–parasite networks that link hosts when they share a parasite, using nonhuman primates as a model system because—owing to their phylogenetic proximity and ecological overlap with humans—they are an important source of EIDs to humans. We then tested whether centrality in the network of host species—a measurement of the importance of a given node (i.e., host species) in the network—is associated with that host serving as a potential EID source. We found that centrality covaries with key predictors of parasitism, such as population density and geographic range size. Importantly, we also found that primate species having higher values of centrality in the primate–parasite network harbored more parasites identified as EIDs in humans and had parasite communities more similar to those found in humans. These relationships were robust to the use of different centrality metrics and to multiple ways of controlling for variation in how well each species has been studied (i.e., sampling effort). Centrality may therefore estimate the role of a host as a source of EIDs to humans in other multispecific host–parasite networks. PMID:23610389

  6. Adult human heart slices are a multicellular system suitable for electrophysiological and pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Camelliti, Patrizia; Al-Saud, Sara Abou; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Al-Ayoubi, Samha; Bussek, Alexandra; Wettwer, Erich; Banner, Nicholas R; Bowles, Christopher T; Yacoub, Magdi H; Terracciano, Cesare M

    2011-09-01

    Electrophysiological and pharmacological data from the human heart are limited due to the absence of simple but representative experimental model systems of human myocardium. The aim of this study was to establish and characterise adult human myocardial slices from small patients' heart biopsies as a simple, reproducible and relevant preparation suitable for the study of human cardiac tissue at the multicellular level. Vibratome-cut myocardial slices were prepared from left ventricular biopsies obtained from end-stage heart failure patients undergoing heart transplant or ventricular assist device implantation, and from hearts of normal dogs. Multiple slices were prepared from each biopsy. Regular contractility was observed at a range of stimulation frequencies (0.1-2 Hz), and stable electrical activity, monitored using multi-electrode arrays (MEA), was maintained for at least 8 h from slice preparation. ATP/ADP and phosphocreatine/creatine ratios were comparable to intact organ values, and morphology and gap junction distribution were representative of native myocardium. MEA recordings showed that field potential duration (FPD) and conduction velocity (CV) in human and dog slices were similar to the values previously reported for papillary muscles, ventricular wedges and whole hearts. Longitudinal CV was significantly faster than transversal CV, with an anisotropic ratio of 3:1 for human and 2.3:1 for dog slices. Importantly, slices responded to the application of E-4031, chromanol and 4-aminopyridine, three potassium channel blockers known to affect action potential duration, with an increase in FPD. We conclude that viable myocardial slices with preserved structural, biochemical and electrophysiological properties can be prepared from adult human and canine heart biopsies and offer a novel preparation suitable for the study of heart failure and drug screening.

  7. Human genetic variation in the Sierra de Gredos mountain (central Spain): study of several polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Moral, P; Sandiumenge, T; Vives, S; Lutken, N; Ortega, F; Marrodan, M D; Fuster, V

    1996-01-01

    The variation in the third component of human complement (C3) and orosomucoid (ORM1) serum proteins, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), adenosine deaminase (ADA), esterase D (ESD), and acid phosphatase (ACP1) red cell enzymes was examined in two samples from autochthonous populations living on either side of the Sierra de Gredos range in Central Spain. These results support only a moderate differentiation between Gredos subpopulations, which is discussed in relation to other Iberian Peninsula groups. Allele frequencies in Gredos show a remarkable heterogeneity as contrasted with other Iberian populations for most of the markers examined; relatively high C3*S, ORM1*F, ADA*1, ESD*2, and ACP1*C gene frequencies are characteristics of Gredos samples. This differentiation was more marked for the Northern Gredos population and could be related to the geographical peculiarities of this region.

  8. Late Holocene human-induced modifications to a central Polynesian island ecosystem.

    PubMed Central

    Kirch, P V

    1996-01-01

    A 7000-year-long sequence of environmental change during the Holocene has been reconstructed for a central Pacific island (Mangaia, Cook Islands). The research design used geomorphological and palynological methods to reconstruct vegetation history, fire regime, and erosion and depositional rates, whereas archaeological methods were used to determine prehistoric Polynesian land use and resource exploitation. Certain mid-Holocene environmental changes are putatively linked with natural phenomena such as eustatic sea-level rise and periodic El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. However, the most significant changes were initiated between 2500 and 1800 years and were directly or indirectly associated with colonization by seafaring Polynesian peoples. These human-induced effects included major forest clearance, increased erosion of volcanic hillsides and alluvial deposition in valley bottoms, significant increases in charcoal influx, extinctions of endemic terrestrial species, and the introduction of exotic species. PMID:8643569

  9. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic.

  10. Late Holocene human-induced modifications to a central Polynesian island ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kirch, P V

    1996-05-28

    A 7000-year-long sequence of environmental change during the Holocene has been reconstructed for a central Pacific island (Mangaia, Cook Islands). The research design used geomorphological and palynological methods to reconstruct vegetation history, fire regime, and erosion and depositional rates, whereas archaeological methods were used to determine prehistoric Polynesian land use and resource exploitation. Certain mid-Holocene environmental changes are putatively linked with natural phenomena such as eustatic sea-level rise and periodic El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. However, the most significant changes were initiated between 2500 and 1800 years and were directly or indirectly associated with colonization by seafaring Polynesian peoples. These human-induced effects included major forest clearance, increased erosion of volcanic hillsides and alluvial deposition in valley bottoms, significant increases in charcoal influx, extinctions of endemic terrestrial species, and the introduction of exotic species.

  11. Fighting the Monster: Applying the Host Damage Framework to Human Central Nervous System Infections

    PubMed Central

    Panackal, Anil A.; Williamson, Kim C.; van de Beek, Diederik; Boulware, David R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The host damage-response framework states that microbial pathogenesis is a product of microbial virulence factors and collateral damage from host immune responses. Immune-mediated host damage is particularly important within the size-restricted central nervous system (CNS), where immune responses may exacerbate cerebral edema and neurological damage, leading to coma and death. In this review, we compare human host and therapeutic responses in representative nonviral generalized CNS infections that induce archetypal host damage responses: cryptococcal menigoencephalitis and tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients, pneumococcal meningitis, and cerebral malaria. Consideration of the underlying patterns of host responses provides critical insights into host damage and may suggest tailored adjunctive therapeutics to improve disease outcome. PMID:26814182

  12. Sleep Deprivation Impairs the Human Central and Peripheral Nervous System Discrimination of Social Threat.

    PubMed

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Greer, Stephanie M; Saletin, Jared M; Walker, Matthew P

    2015-07-15

    Facial expressions represent one of the most salient cues in our environment. They communicate the affective state and intent of an individual and, if interpreted correctly, adaptively influence the behavior of others in return. Processing of such affective stimuli is known to require reciprocal signaling between central viscerosensory brain regions and peripheral-autonomic body systems, culminating in accurate emotion discrimination. Despite emerging links between sleep and affective regulation, the impact of sleep loss on the discrimination of complex social emotions within and between the CNS and PNS remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate in humans that sleep deprivation impairs both viscerosensory brain (anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala) and autonomic-cardiac discrimination of threatening from affiliative facial cues. Moreover, sleep deprivation significantly degrades the normally reciprocal associations between these central and peripheral emotion-signaling systems, most prominent at the level of cardiac-amygdala coupling. In addition, REM sleep physiology across the sleep-rested night significantly predicts the next-day success of emotional discrimination within this viscerosensory network across individuals, suggesting a role for REM sleep in affective brain recalibration. Together, these findings establish that sleep deprivation compromises the faithful signaling of, and the "embodied" reciprocity between, viscerosensory brain and peripheral autonomic body processing of complex social signals. Such impairments hold ecological relevance in professional contexts in which the need for accurate interpretation of social cues is paramount yet insufficient sleep is pervasive.

  13. Enzymatic passaging of human embryonic stem cells alters central carbon metabolism and glycan abundance

    PubMed Central

    Badur, Mehmet G.; Zhang, Hui; Metallo, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    To realize the potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in regenerative medicine and drug discovery applications, large numbers of cells that accurately recapitulate cell and tissue function must be robustly produced. Previous studies have suggested that genetic instability and epigenetic changes occur as a consequence of enzymatic passaging. However, the potential impacts of such passaging methods on the metabolism of hESCs have not been described. Using stable isotope tracing and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, we have explored how different passaging reagents impact hESC metabolism. Enzymatic passaging caused significant decreases in glucose utilization throughout central carbon metabolism along with attenuated de novo lipogenesis. In addition, we developed and validated a method for rapidly quantifying glycan abundance and isotopic labeling in hydrolyzed biomass. Enzymatic passaging reagents significantly altered levels of glycans immediately after digestion but surprisingly glucose contribution to glycans was not affected. These results demonstrate that there is an immediate effect on hESC metabolism after enzymatic passaging in both central carbon metabolism and biosynthesis. HESCs subjected to enzymatic passaging are routinely placed in a state requiring re-synthesis of biomass components, subtly influencing their metabolic needs in a manner that may impact cell performance in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:26289220

  14. Molecular signatures distinguish human central memory from effector memory CD8 T cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Willinger, Tim; Freeman, Tom; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; McMichael, Andrew J; Callan, Margaret F C

    2005-11-01

    Memory T cells are heterogeneous in terms of their phenotype and functional properties. We investigated the molecular profiles of human CD8 naive central memory (T(CM)), effector memory (T(EM)), and effector memory RA (T(EMRA)) T cells using gene expression microarrays and phospho-protein-specific intracellular flow cytometry. We demonstrate that T(CM) have a gene expression and cytokine signaling signature that lies between that of naive and T(EM) or T(EMRA) cells, whereas T(EM) and T(EMRA) are closely related. Our data define the molecular basis for the different functional properties of central and effector memory subsets. We show that T(EM) and T(EMRA) cells strongly express genes with known importance in CD8 T cell effector function. In contrast, T(CM) are characterized by high basal and cytokine-induced STAT5 phosphorylation, reflecting their capacity for self-renewal. Altogether, our results distinguish T(CM) and T(EM)/T(EMRA) at the molecular level and are consistent with the concept that T(CM) represent memory stem cells.

  15. Sleep Deprivation Impairs the Human Central and Peripheral Nervous System Discrimination of Social Threat

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N.; Greer, Stephanie M.; Saletin, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    Facial expressions represent one of the most salient cues in our environment. They communicate the affective state and intent of an individual and, if interpreted correctly, adaptively influence the behavior of others in return. Processing of such affective stimuli is known to require reciprocal signaling between central viscerosensory brain regions and peripheral-autonomic body systems, culminating in accurate emotion discrimination. Despite emerging links between sleep and affective regulation, the impact of sleep loss on the discrimination of complex social emotions within and between the CNS and PNS remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate in humans that sleep deprivation impairs both viscerosensory brain (anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala) and autonomic-cardiac discrimination of threatening from affiliative facial cues. Moreover, sleep deprivation significantly degrades the normally reciprocal associations between these central and peripheral emotion-signaling systems, most prominent at the level of cardiac-amygdala coupling. In addition, REM sleep physiology across the sleep-rested night significantly predicts the next-day success of emotional discrimination within this viscerosensory network across individuals, suggesting a role for REM sleep in affective brain recalibration. Together, these findings establish that sleep deprivation compromises the faithful signaling of, and the “embodied” reciprocity between, viscerosensory brain and peripheral autonomic body processing of complex social signals. Such impairments hold ecological relevance in professional contexts in which the need for accurate interpretation of social cues is paramount yet insufficient sleep is pervasive. PMID:26180190

  16. Present-day central African forest is a legacy of the 19th century human history

    PubMed Central

    Morin-Rivat, Julie; Fayolle, Adeline; Favier, Charly; Bremond, Laurent; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Bayol, Nicolas; Lejeune, Philippe; Beeckman, Hans; Doucet, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees. Currently, common logging operations do not create suitable openings for the regeneration of these species, whereas deforestation degrades landscapes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, which included paleoecological, archaeological, historical, and dendrological data, we highlight the long-term history of human activities across central African forests and assess the contribution of these activities to present-day forest structure and composition. The conclusions of this sobering analysis present challenges to current silvicultural practices and to those of the future. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20343.001 PMID:28093097

  17. Enzymatic passaging of human embryonic stem cells alters central carbon metabolism and glycan abundance.

    PubMed

    Badur, Mehmet G; Zhang, Hui; Metallo, Christian M

    2015-10-01

    To realize the potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in regenerative medicine and drug discovery applications, large numbers of cells that accurately recapitulate cell and tissue function must be robustly produced. Previous studies have suggested that genetic instability and epigenetic changes occur as a consequence of enzymatic passaging. However, the potential impacts of such passaging methods on the metabolism of hESCs have not been described. Using stable isotope tracing and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, we have explored how different passaging reagents impact hESC metabolism. Enzymatic passaging caused significant decreases in glucose utilization throughout central carbon metabolism along with attenuated de novo lipogenesis. In addition, we developed and validated a method for rapidly quantifying glycan abundance and isotopic labeling in hydrolyzed biomass. Enzymatic passaging reagents significantly altered levels of glycans immediately after digestion but surprisingly glucose contribution to glycans was not affected. These results demonstrate that there is an immediate effect on hESC metabolism after enzymatic passaging in both central carbon metabolism and biosynthesis. HESCs subjected to enzymatic passaging are routinely placed in a state requiring re-synthesis of biomass components, subtly influencing their metabolic needs in a manner that may impact cell performance in regenerative medicine applications.

  18. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital.

    PubMed

    Victora, Cesar G; Adair, Linda; Fall, Caroline; Hallal, Pedro C; Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh

    2008-01-26

    In this paper we review the associations between maternal and child undernutrition with human capital and risk of adult diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from five long-standing prospective cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa and noted that indices of maternal and child undernutrition (maternal height, birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction, and weight, height, and body-mass index at 2 years according to the new WHO growth standards) were related to adult outcomes (height, schooling, income or assets, offspring birthweight, body-mass index, glucose concentrations, blood pressure). We undertook systematic reviews of studies from low-income and middle-income countries for these outcomes and for indicators related to blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, lung and immune function, cancers, osteoporosis, and mental illness. Undernutrition was strongly associated, both in the review of published work and in new analyses, with shorter adult height, less schooling, reduced economic productivity, and--for women--lower offspring birthweight. Associations with adult disease indicators were not so clear-cut. Increased size at birth and in childhood were positively associated with adult body-mass index and to a lesser extent with blood pressure values, but not with blood glucose concentrations. In our new analyses and in published work, lower birthweight and undernutrition in childhood were risk factors for high glucose concentrations, blood pressure, and harmful lipid profiles once adult body-mass index and height were adjusted for, suggesting that rapid postnatal weight gain--especially after infancy--is linked to these conditions. The review of published works indicates that there is insufficient information about long-term changes in immune function, blood lipids, or osteoporosis indicators. Birthweight is positively associated with lung function and with the incidence of some cancers, and

  19. Moderate-Heavy Alcohol Consumption Lifestyle in Older Adults Is Associated with Altered Central Executive Network Community Structure during Cognitive Task

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Malaak N.; Simpson, Sean L.; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Porrino, Linda J.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65–80 years) that consumed light (< 2 drinks/week and ≥ 1 drink/month, n = 20) or moderate-heavy (7–21 drinks/week, non-bingers, n = 21) amounts of alcohol were enrolled. Twenty-two young adults (24–35 years) were also enrolled (light, n = 11 and moderate-heavy, n = 11). Functional brain networks based on magnetic resonance imaging data were generated for resting state and during a working memory task. Whole-brain, Central Executive Network (CEN), and Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity were assessed in light and moderate-heavy alcohol consuming older adults with comparisons to young adults. The older adults had significantly lower whole brain connectivity (global efficiency) and lower regional connectivity (community structure) in the CEN during task and in the DMN at rest. Moderate-heavy older drinkers did not exhibit whole brain connectivity differences compared to the low drinkers. However, decreased CEN connectivity was observed during the task. There were no differences in the DMN connectivity between drinking groups. Taken together, a lifestyle including moderate-heavy alcohol consumption may be associated with further decreases in brain network connectivity within task-related networks in older adults. Further research is required to determine if this decrease is compensatory or an early sign of decline. PMID:27494180

  20. Moderate-Heavy Alcohol Consumption Lifestyle in Older Adults Is Associated with Altered Central Executive Network Community Structure during Cognitive Task.

    PubMed

    Mayhugh, Rhiannon E; Moussa, Malaak N; Simpson, Sean L; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Porrino, Linda J; Laurienti, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65-80 years) that consumed light (< 2 drinks/week and ≥ 1 drink/month, n = 20) or moderate-heavy (7-21 drinks/week, non-bingers, n = 21) amounts of alcohol were enrolled. Twenty-two young adults (24-35 years) were also enrolled (light, n = 11 and moderate-heavy, n = 11). Functional brain networks based on magnetic resonance imaging data were generated for resting state and during a working memory task. Whole-brain, Central Executive Network (CEN), and Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity were assessed in light and moderate-heavy alcohol consuming older adults with comparisons to young adults. The older adults had significantly lower whole brain connectivity (global efficiency) and lower regional connectivity (community structure) in the CEN during task and in the DMN at rest. Moderate-heavy older drinkers did not exhibit whole brain connectivity differences compared to the low drinkers. However, decreased CEN connectivity was observed during the task. There were no differences in the DMN connectivity between drinking groups. Taken together, a lifestyle including moderate-heavy alcohol consumption may be associated with further decreases in brain network connectivity within task-related networks in older adults. Further research is required to determine if this decrease is compensatory or an early sign of decline.

  1. Isoforms of Hsp70-binding human LDL in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriana S A; Cavalcanti, Marília G S; Zingali, Russolina B; Lima-Filho, José L; Chaves, Maria E C

    2015-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites infecting humans. They are well adapted to the host, and this parasite's longevity is a consequence of effective escape from the host immune system. In the blood circulation, lipoproteins not only help to conceal the worm from attack by host antibodies but also act as a source of lipids for S. mansoni. Previous SEM studies showed that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles present on the surface of adult S. mansoni worms decreased in size when the incubation time increased. In this study, immunocytochemical and proteomic analyses were used to locate and identify S. mansoni binding proteins to human plasma LDL. Ultrathin sections of adult worms were cut transversely from the anterior, medial and posterior regions of the parasite. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed particles of gold in the tegument, muscle region and spine in male worms and around vitelline cells in females. Immunoblotting and 2D-electrophoresis using incubations with human serum, anti-LDL antibodies and anti-chicken IgG peroxidase conjugate were performed to identify LDL-binding proteins in S. mansoni. Analysis of the binding proteins using LC-MS identified two isoforms of the Hsp70 chaperone in S. mansoni. Hsp70 is involved in the interaction with apoB in the cytoplasm and its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, further studies are needed to clarify the functional role of Hsp70 in S. mansoni, mainly related to the interaction with human LDL.

  2. Distribution of constitutively expressed MEF-2A in adult rat and human nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Ruffle, Rebecca A; Mapley, Andrew C; Malik, Manmeet K; Labruzzo, Salvatore V; Chabla, Janet M; Jose, Riya; Hallas, Brian H; Yu, Han-Gang; Horowitz, Judith M; Torres, German

    2006-06-15

    Myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF-2A) is a calcium-regulated transcription factor that promotes cell survival during nervous system development. To define and further characterize the distribution pattern of MEF-2A in the adult mammalian brain, we used a specific polyclonal antiserum against human MEF-2A to identify nuclear-localized MEF-2A protein in hippocampal and frontal cortical regions. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses showed that MEF-2A was expressed not only in laminar structures but also in blood vessels of rat and human brains. MEF-2A was colocalized with doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein expressed by migrating neuroblasts, in CA1 and CA2 boundaries of the hippocampus. MEF-2A was expressed heterogeneously in additional structures of the rat brain, including the striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. Furthermore, we found a strong nuclear and diffuse MEF-2A labeling pattern in spinal cord cells of rat and human material. Finally, the neurovasculature of adult rats and humans not only showed a strong expression of MEF-2A but also labeled positive for hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-regulated (HCN) channels. This study further characterizes the distribution pattern of MEF-2A in the mammalian nervous system, demonstrates that MEF-2A colocalizes with DCX in selected neurons, and finds MEF-2A and HCN1 proteins in the neurovasculature network.

  3. Uptake of dietary milk miRNAs by adult humans: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Amanda; Vyas, Gopi; Li, Anne; Halushka, Marc; Witwer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is replete with nutritional content as well as nucleic acids including microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent report, adult humans who drank bovine milk appeared to have increased circulating levels of miRNAs miR-29b-3p and miR-200c-3p. Since these miRNAs are homologous between human and cow, these results could be explained by xeno-miRNA influx, endogenous miRNA regulation, or both. More data were needed to validate the results and explore for additional milk-related alterations in circulating miRNAs. Samples from the published study were obtained, and 223 small RNA features were profiled with a custom OpenArray, followed by individual quantitative PCR assays for selected miRNAs. Additionally, small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data obtained from plasma samples of the same project were analyzed to find human and uniquely bovine miRNAs. OpenArray revealed no significantly altered miRNA signals after milk ingestion, and this was confirmed by qPCR. Plasma sequencing data contained no miR-29b or miR-200c reads and no intake-consistent mapping of uniquely bovine miRNAs. In conclusion, the results do not support transfer of dietary xenomiRs into the circulation of adult humans. PMID:27158459

  4. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  5. Human impact and colluvial sediment storages in Central Europe since the Neolithic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlummer, Manuela; Hoffmann, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The adoption of agricultural techniques during the early Neolithic persistently affected sediment fluxes in geomorphic hillslope and adjacent river systems. Since then soil erosion and colluviation has become important geomorphic processes in hillslope-channel-systems. Soil erosion in turn affected human societies by soil degradation causing dramatic shifts of settlement centres. Erosion induced soil degradation initiated by land use activities is considered as a major link between the interaction of humans and their environment. To test this hypothesis a large-scale synoptic analysis of local case studies is currently under progress within the Collaborative Research Centre "Our Way to Europe", which deals with human environmental interaction and human mobility in the late Quaternary. In this study it is intended to achieve the following four aims: i) a reconstruction of the spatial trajectory of the beginning colluvial process, ii) the identification of crucial controlling factors of colluviation, iii) the quantification of colluvial sediment storage in Central Europe, iv) a spatio-temporal analysis of the colluviation process. The methodological approach includes the compilation of a colluvial database for Central Europe containing information on sediment depth, volumes, sedimentation rates and sediment ages. The database will be completed by own data collections in a small catchment and by calculating a sediment budget for the Pleisbach catchment (Pleiser Hügelland, near Bonn, Germany). Based on this colluvial data an isoline map of the spatial variable starting times of colluviation is generated. The isolines will be compared to archaeological maps of European neolithisation in order to identify stagnancies in expansion of Neolithic techniques in colluvial sediment archives. Furthermore a semi-quantitative erosion index will be developed that integrates qualitative information on controlling factors of colluviation, i. e. vegetation, land use, settlement

  6. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

    PubMed

    Betsem, Edouard; Rua, Réjane; Tortevoye, Patricia; Froment, Alain; Gessain, Antoine

    2011-10-01

    Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV) can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP) or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (pro)viral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men) and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436) or Bantus (1085) live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR) were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2%) persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6%) persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39) FV (mainly gorilla). Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39). The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83%) are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (pro)viral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 10(5) cells) in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  7. Frequent and Recent Human Acquisition of Simian Foamy Viruses Through Apes' Bites in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Betsem, Edouard; Rua, Réjane; Tortevoye, Patricia; Froment, Alain; Gessain, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV) can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP) or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (pro)viral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men) and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436) or Bantus (1085) live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR) were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2%) persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6%) persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39) FV (mainly gorilla). Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39). The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83%) are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (pro)viral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 105 cells) in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question. PMID:22046126

  8. The Human Central Canal of the Spinal Cord: A Comprehensive Review of its Anatomy, Embryology, Molecular Development, Variants, and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brandon M; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Loukas, Marios; Iwanaga, Joe; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The human central canal of the spinal cord is often overlooked. However, with advancements in imaging quality, this structure can be visualized in more detail than ever before. Therefore, a timely review of this part of the cord seemed warranted. Using standard search engines, a literature review was performed for the development, anatomy, and pathology involving the central canal. Clinicians who treat patients with issues near the spine or interpret imaging of the spinal cord should be familiar with the morphology and variants of the central canal.   PMID:28097078

  9. Limits on efficient human mindreading: convergence across Chinese adults and Semai children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Hadi, Nur Shafiqah Abdul; Low, Jason

    2015-11-01

    We tested Apperly and Butterfill's (2009, Psychological Review, 116, 753) theory that humans have two mindreading systems whereby the efficient-system guiding anticipatory glances displays signature limits that do not apply to the flexible system guiding verbal predictions. Experiments 1 and 2 tested urban Mainland-Chinese adults (n = 64) and Experiment 3 tested Semai children living in the rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia (3- to 4-year-olds, n = 60). Participants - across different ages, groups and methods - anticipated others' false-beliefs about object-location but not object-identity. Convergence in signature limits signalled that the early-developing efficient system involved minimal theory-of-mind. Chinese adults and older Semai children showed flexibility in their direct predictions. The flexible mindreading system in ascribing others' beliefs as such was task-sensitive and implicated maturational and cultural contributions.

  10. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M; Hunt, Karen A; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L; Karczewski, Konrad J; Barnes, Michael R; Barnett, Anthony H; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R; Trembath, Richard C; MacArthur, Daniel G; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A

    2016-04-22

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3222 British adults of Pakistani heritage with high parental relatedness, discovering 1111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer homozygous knockout genotypes than we expected, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent loss-of-function (LOF) variants per adult. When genetic data were linked to the individuals' lifelong health records, we observed no significant relationship between gene knockouts and clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this data set, we identified a healthy PRDM9-knockout mother and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child, and control individuals. Our results show that meiotic recombination sites are localized away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform on essential genetic loci and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans.

  11. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M. Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A.; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O’Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A.; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R.; Trembath, Richard C.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3,222 British Pakistani-heritage adults with high parental relatedness, discovering 1,111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of gene function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer than expected homozygous knockout genotypes, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent LOF variants per adult. Linking genetic data to lifelong health records, knockouts were not associated with clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this dataset we identified a healthy PRDM9 knockout mother, and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child and controls, which showed meiotic recombination sites localised away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform upon essential genetic loci, and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans. PMID:26940866

  12. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  13. Central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity: a rebreathing demonstration illustrating integrative human physiology.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Christina M; Skow, Rachel J; Tymko, Michael M; Boulet, Lindsey M; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D; Ainslie, Philip N; Lemieux, Chantelle C M; Day, Trevor A

    2016-03-01

    One of the most effective ways of engaging students of physiology and medicine is through laboratory demonstrations and case studies that combine 1) the use of equipment, 2) problem solving, 3) visual representations, and 4) manipulation and interpretation of data. Depending on the measurements made and the type of test, laboratory demonstrations have the added benefit of being able to show multiple organ system integration. Many research techniques can also serve as effective demonstrations of integrative human physiology. The "Duffin" hyperoxic rebreathing test is often used in research settings as a test of central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of the hyperoxic rebreathing test for both respiratory and cerebrovascular responses to increases in CO2 and illustrate the integration of the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems. In the present article, methods such as spirometry, respiratory gas analysis, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound are described, and raw data traces can be adopted for discussion in a tutorial setting. If educators have these instruments available, instructions on how to carry out the test are provided so students can collect their own data. In either case, data analysis and quantification are discussed, including principles of linear regression, calculation of slope, the coefficient of determination (R(2)), and differences between plotting absolute versus normalized data. Using the hyperoxic rebreathing test as a demonstration of the complex interaction and integration between the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems provides senior undergraduate, graduate, and medical students with an advanced understanding of the integrative nature of human physiology.

  14. Crystal Structure of the Central Coiled-Coil Domain from Human Liprin-[beta]2

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Tang, Ming-Yun; Sawaya, Michael R.; Phillips, Martin L.; Bowie, James U.

    2012-02-07

    Liprins are a conserved family of scaffolding proteins important for the proper regulation and development of neuronal synapses. Humans have four liprin-{alpha}s and two liprin-{beta}s which all contain long coiled-coil domains followed by three tandem SAM domains. Complex interactions between the coiled-coil and SAM domains are thought to create liprin scaffolds, but the structural and biochemical properties of these domains remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we find that the human liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil forms an extended dimer. Several protease-resistant subdomains within the liprin-{beta}1 and liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coils were also identified. A 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central, protease-resistant core of the liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil reveals a parallel helix orientation. These studies represent an initial step toward determining the overall architecture of liprin scaffolds and understanding the molecular basis for their synaptic functions.

  15. Pleistocene To Holocene Human, Climatic and Environmental Changes In Central and Eastern Java (indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sémah, A.-M.; Sémah, F.; Simanjuntak, H. T.

    The period between 21,000 and 6000 BP, which includes the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, is likely to have known drastic environmental changes in the Indones ian archipelago, as seen from various sedimentary, pollen analytic, and archaeological records. In a low altitude swampy basin of central Java which yielded a thick clay and peat stratigraphy, several steps can be pointed between the driest period noticed prior 15,000 BP up to a climatic optimum c. 8,000 BP: a significant increase in humidity from c. 15,000 BP onwards, an extension of the forest after 10,500 BP, completion of almost everwet conditions c. 8,500 BP before a forest regression at c.6000 BP. Correlative excavations of the cave fillings near the coast of the Indian ocean, in the Southern Mountains of Java island, reflect conspicuous changes in the archaeological record: a more or less occasional human occupation of the caves during the late Plaistocene is followed by an intensive one in the early Holocene. Human groups, who brought new technologies (like sophisticated bone tools) had to adapt to and get their subsistence in an extending rain forest like environment, with a faunal turnover (Macaca and Presbytis dominance) or in the numerous flooded basins which formed during that period (fresh water molluscs gathering and smaller tortoise hunting). They carried out close contacts with the coastal area and used also the caves as burial places.

  16. Complexes of Amyloid-β and Cystatin C in the Human Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Weiqian; Jung, Sonia S.; Yu, Haung; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Nixon, Ralph A.; Mathews, Paul M.; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Levy, Efrat

    2009-01-01

    A role for cystatin C (CysC) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been suggested by the genetic linkage of a CysC gene (CST3) polymorphism with late-onset AD, the co-localization of CysC with amyloid-β (Aβ) in AD brains, and binding of CysC to soluble Aβ in vitro and in mouse models of AD. This study investigates the binding between Aβ and CysC in the human central nervous system. While CysC binding to soluble Aβ was observed in AD patients and controls, a SDS-resistant CysC/Aβ complex was detected exclusively in brains of neuropathologically normal controls, but not in AD cases. The association of CysC with Aβ in brain from control individuals and in cerebrospinal fluid reveals an interaction of these two polypeptides in their soluble form. The association between Aβ and CysC prevented Aβ accumulation and fibrillogenesis in experimental systems, arguing that CysC plays a protective role in the pathogenesis of AD in humans and explains why decreases in CysC concentration caused by the CST3 polymorphism or by specific presenilin 2 mutations can lead to the development of the disease. Thus, enhancing CysC expression or modulating CysC binding to Aβ have important disease-modifying effects, suggesting a novel therapeutic intervention for AD. PMID:19584436

  17. On the age of human footprints in Central Mexico: paleomagnetic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha Fernandez, J.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Martin Del Pozo, A.; Urrutia Fucugauchi, J.

    2007-05-01

    Until recently, we thought we knew where ancestral Native Americans came from (central Siberia, then across Beringia), and when they arrived (about 13 000 cal BP, after a trek between the recently separated Canadian ice sheets after Fiedel, 2006). Recent theories of American origins postulate multiple pre-Clovis migrations including Transpacific or coastal voyages by Australians, Melanesians, or Ainu, and even a Transatlantic migrations by Caucasoid Solutreans from Iberia. Thus, timing, route and origin of the first colonization to the Americas remains one of the most important topics in human evolution. Human and animal footprints have been found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in the Valsequillo Basin, south of Puebla, Mexico (Gonzalez et al., 2005). The ash has been dated to at least 40 ka BP. Paleomagnetic investigation yielded an intermediate magnetic polarity for Xalnene ash deposits while nearby Toluquilla volcano is reversely magnetized. Moreover, the absolute geomagnetic paleointensity derived from the volcanic lava flow is significantly reduced with respect to the present day geomagnetic field strength. It is quite possible that the ash as well as volcanic lava flow formed during worldwide observed Laschamp geomagnetic event.

  18. Leveraging human decision making through the optimal management of centralized resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyden, Paul; McGrath, Richard G.

    2016-05-01

    Combining results from mixed integer optimization, stochastic modeling and queuing theory, we will advance the interdisciplinary problem of efficiently and effectively allocating centrally managed resources. Academia currently fails to address this, as the esoteric demands of each of these large research areas limits work across traditional boundaries. The commercial space does not currently address these challenges due to the absence of a profit metric. By constructing algorithms that explicitly use inputs across boundaries, we are able to incorporate the advantages of using human decision makers. Key improvements in the underlying algorithms are made possible by aligning decision maker goals with the feedback loops introduced between the core optimization step and the modeling of the overall stochastic process of supply and demand. A key observation is that human decision-makers must be explicitly included in the analysis for these approaches to be ultimately successful. Transformative access gives warfighters and mission owners greater understanding of global needs and allows for relationships to guide optimal resource allocation decisions. Mastery of demand processes and optimization bottlenecks reveals long term maximum marginal utility gaps in capabilities.

  19. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Aditya; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Mondol, Samrat; Edgaonkar, Advait; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km) between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  20. Perceptions of Young Adult Central Nervous System Cancer Survivors and Their Parents Regarding Career Development and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Chan, Fong; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Identify barriers to career development and employment from both the survivor and parent perspective. Method: Young adult survivors (N = 43) and their parents participated in focus groups to elicit information regarding perceptions regarding career development and employment. Results: Perceptions of both the young adults and parents…

  1. Three-dimensional dental arch curvature in human adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G; Colombo, A

    1999-04-01

    The three-dimensional arrangement of dental cusps and incisal edges in human dentitions has been reported to fit the surface of a sphere (the curve of Monson), with a radius of about 4 inches in adults. The objective of the current study was to compare the three-dimensional curvature of the mandibular dental arch in healthy permanent dentitions of young adults and adolescents. The mandibular casts of 50 adults (aged 19 to 22 years) and 20 adolescents (aged 12 to 14 years) with highly selected sound dentitions that were free from temporomandibular joint problems were obtained. The three coordinates of cusp tips excluding the third molars were digitized with a three-dimensional digitizer, and used to derive a spherical model of the curvature of the occlusal surfaces. From the best interpolating sphere, the radii of the left and right curves of Spee (quasi-sagittal plane) and of molar curve of Wilson (frontal plane) were computed. Mandibular arch size (interdental distances) was also calculated. The occlusal curvature of the mandibular arch was not significantly influenced by sex, although a significant effect of age was found (Student t, P <.005). The radii of the overall sphere, right and left curves of Spee, and curve of Wilson in the molar area were about 101 mm in adults, and about 80 mm in adolescents. Arch size was not influenced by either sex or age. The different curvatures of the occlusal plane in adolescents and adults may be explained by a progressive rotation of the major axis of the teeth moving the occlusal plane toward a more buccal position. These dental movements should be performed in a frontal plane on an anteroposterior axis located next to the dental crown.

  2. Inventory of Research on Adult Human Resource Development in Canada. Inventaire de la Recherche sur le Developpement des Ressources Humaines Adultes au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Garnet T.; Caldwell, George

    This bilingual directory of research (1963-68) in the development of adult human resources in Canada indicates types of projects undertaken, principal objectives, institutions involved, amounts and sources of funding. It also shows which areas of research have been well covered, those with little or no coverage, and those which might be given a…

  3. Isolation and culture of adult human microglia within mixed glial cultures for functional experimentation and high-content analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amy M; Gibbons, Hannah M; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard L M; Dragunow, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are thought to be involved in diseases of the adult human brain as well as normal aging processes. While neonatal and rodent microglia are often used in studies investigating microglial function, there are important differences between rodent microglia and their adult human counterparts. Human brain tissue provides a unique and valuable tool for microglial cell and molecular biology. Routine protocols can now enable use of this culture method in many laboratories. Detailed protocols and advice for culture of human brain microglia are provided here. We demonstrate the protocol for culturing human adult microglia within a mixed glial culture and use a phagocytosis assay as an example of the functional studies possible with these cells as well as a high-content analysis method of quantification.

  4. The language of geometry: Fast comprehension of geometrical primitives and rules in human adults and preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Amalric, Marie; Wang, Liping; Pica, Pierre; Figueira, Santiago; Sigman, Mariano; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-01-01

    During language processing, humans form complex embedded representations from sequential inputs. Here, we ask whether a "geometrical language" with recursive embedding also underlies the human ability to encode sequences of spatial locations. We introduce a novel paradigm in which subjects are exposed to a sequence of spatial locations on an octagon, and are asked to predict future locations. The sequences vary in complexity according to a well-defined language comprising elementary primitives and recursive rules. A detailed analysis of error patterns indicates that primitives of symmetry and rotation are spontaneously detected and used by adults, preschoolers, and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Munduruku, who have a restricted numerical and geometrical lexicon and limited access to schooling. Furthermore, subjects readily combine these geometrical primitives into hierarchically organized expressions. By evaluating a large set of such combinations, we obtained a first view of the language needed to account for the representation of visuospatial sequences in humans, and conclude that they encode visuospatial sequences by minimizing the complexity of the structured expressions that capture them.

  5. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling: osteoblastic nature, catabolic functions and interactions with osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja; Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Alnaimi, Ragad Walid; Rolighed, Lars; Engelholm, Lars H; Marcussen, Niels; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter of debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts. Earlier preclinical studies indicate that reversal cells degrade the organic matrix left behind by the osteoclasts and that this degradation is crucial for the initiation of the subsequent bone formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first addressing these catabolic activities in adult human bone through electron microscopy and analysis of molecular markers. Periosteoclastic reversal cells show direct contacts with the osteoclasts and with the demineralized resorption debris. These early reversal cells show (1) ¾-collagen fragments typically generated by extracellular collagenases of the MMP family, (2) MMP-13 (collagenase-3) and (3) the endocytic collagen receptor uPARAP/Endo180. The prevalence of these markers was lower in the later reversal cells, which are located near the osteoid surfaces and morphologically resemble mature bone-forming osteoblasts. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that reversal cells colonizing bone surfaces right after resorption are osteoblast-lineage cells, and extends to adult human bone remodeling their role in rendering eroded surfaces osteogenic.

  6. Plasticity of Adult Human Pancreatic Duct Cells by Neurogenin3-Mediated Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Bonné, Stefan; Heremans, Yves; Borup, Rehannah; Van de Casteele, Mark; Ling, Zhidong; Pipeleers, Daniel; Ravassard, Philippe; Nielsen, Finn; Ferrer, Jorge; Heimberg, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Duct cells isolated from adult human pancreas can be reprogrammed to express islet beta cell genes by adenoviral transduction of the developmental transcription factor neurogenin3 (Ngn3). In this study we aimed to fully characterize the extent of this reprogramming and intended to improve it. Methods The extent of the Ngn3-mediated duct-to-endocrine cell reprogramming was measured employing genome wide mRNA profiling. By modulation of the Delta-Notch signaling or addition of pancreatic endocrine transcription factors Myt1, MafA and Pdx1 we intended to improve the reprogramming. Results Ngn3 stimulates duct cells to express a focused set of genes that are characteristic for islet endocrine cells and/or neural tissues. This neuro-endocrine shift however, is incomplete with less than 10% of full duct-to-endocrine reprogramming achieved. Transduction of exogenous Ngn3 activates endogenous Ngn3 suggesting auto-activation of this gene. Furthermore, pancreatic endocrine reprogramming of human duct cells can be moderately enhanced by inhibition of Delta-Notch signaling as well as by co-expressing the transcription factor Myt1, but not MafA and Pdx1. Conclusions/Interpretation The results provide further insight into the plasticity of adult human duct cells and suggest measurable routes to enhance Ngn3-mediated in vitro reprogramming protocols for regenerative beta cell therapy in diabetes. PMID:22606327

  7. The language of geometry: Fast comprehension of geometrical primitives and rules in human adults and preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Amalric, Marie; Wang, Liping; Figueira, Santiago; Sigman, Mariano; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-01-01

    During language processing, humans form complex embedded representations from sequential inputs. Here, we ask whether a “geometrical language” with recursive embedding also underlies the human ability to encode sequences of spatial locations. We introduce a novel paradigm in which subjects are exposed to a sequence of spatial locations on an octagon, and are asked to predict future locations. The sequences vary in complexity according to a well-defined language comprising elementary primitives and recursive rules. A detailed analysis of error patterns indicates that primitives of symmetry and rotation are spontaneously detected and used by adults, preschoolers, and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Munduruku, who have a restricted numerical and geometrical lexicon and limited access to schooling. Furthermore, subjects readily combine these geometrical primitives into hierarchically organized expressions. By evaluating a large set of such combinations, we obtained a first view of the language needed to account for the representation of visuospatial sequences in humans, and conclude that they encode visuospatial sequences by minimizing the complexity of the structured expressions that capture them. PMID:28125595

  8. Lithic Landscapes: Early Human Impact from Stone Tool Production on the Central Saharan Environment

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2015-01-01

    Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world’s ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools—Acheulean and Middle Stone Age—indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology. PMID:25760999

  9. Lithic landscapes: early human impact from stone tool production on the central Saharan environment.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2015-01-01

    Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world's ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools--Acheulean and Middle Stone Age--indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology.

  10. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K; Pott, F; Stok, W J; Karemaker, J M

    2004-01-01

    Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture and central venous pressure (CVP) on the distribution of cerebral outflow over the internal jugular veins and the vertebral plexus, using a mathematical model. Input to the model was a data set of beat-to-beat cerebral blood flow velocity and CVP measurements in 10 healthy subjects, during baseline rest and a Valsalva manoeuvre in the supine and standing position. The model, consisting of 2 jugular veins, each a chain of 10 units containing nonlinear resistances and capacitors, and a vertebral plexus containing a resistance, showed blood flow mainly through the internal jugular veins in the supine position, but mainly through the vertebral plexus in the upright position. A Valsalva manoeuvre while standing completely re-opened the jugular veins. Results of ultrasound imaging of the right internal jugular vein cross-sectional area at the level of the laryngeal prominence in six healthy subjects, before and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R2 = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the primary pathway. The internal jugular veins are collapsed in the standing position and blood is shunted to an alternative venous pathway, but a marked increase in CVP while standing completely re-opens the jugular veins. PMID:15284348

  11. Expression pattern of thymosin beta 4 in the adult human liver

    PubMed Central

    Nemolato, S.; Van Eyken, P.; Cabras, T.; Cau, F.; Fanari, M.U.; Locci, A.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a member of beta-thymosins, a family of small peptides involved in polymerization of G-actin, and in many critical biological processes including apoptosis, cell migration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. Previous studies in the newborn liver did not reveal any significant reactivity for Tβ4 during the intrauterine life. The aim of the present study was to investigate by immunohistochemistry Tβ4 expression in the adult normal liver. Thirty-five human liver samples, including 11 needle liver biopsies and 24 liver specimens obtained at autopsy, in which no pathological change was detected at the histological examination, were immunostained utilizing an anti-Tβ4 commercial antibody. Tβ4 was detected in the hepatocytes of all adult normal livers examined. A zonation of Tβ4 expression was evident in the vast majority of cases. Immunostaining was preferentially detected in zone 3, while a minor degree of reactivity was detected in periportal hepatocytes (zone 1). At higher power, Tβ4-reactive granules appeared mainly localized at the biliary pole of hepatocytes. In cases with a strong immunostaining, even perinuclear areas and the sinusoidal pole of hepatocytes appeared interested by immunoreactivity for Tβ4. The current work first evidences a strong diffuse expression of Tβ4 in the adult human liver, and adds hepatocytes to the list of human cells able to synthesize large amounts of Tβ4 in adulthood. Moreover, Tβ4 should be added to the liver proteins characterized by a zonate expression pattern, in a descending gradient from the terminal vein to the periportal areas of the liver acinus. Identifying the intimate role played by this peptide intracellularly and extracellularly, in physiology and in different liver diseases, is a major challenge for future research focusing on Tβ4. PMID:22073372

  12. Understanding and Managing Learning Disabilities in Adults. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    This book reviews learning disabilities (LD) in adults and makes suggestions for helping adults cope with these disabilities. Each chapter covers a type of learning disability or related syndrome or explains characteristics of the brain. Chapter 1 explains several types of specific learning disabilities that make classroom performance difficult…

  13. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Ayres, L.

    1992-03-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans.

  14. Immunolocalization of CYP1B1 in normal, human, fetal and adult eyes.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Manali; Marcus, Craig; Bejjani, Bassem A; Edward, Deepak P

    2006-01-01

    CYP1B1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme implicated in autosomal recessive primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). The mechanism and function of CYP1B1 in the development of the PCG phenotype is unknown. Previously, investigators have reported detection of Cyp1b1 mRNA in the ciliary body and epithelium and neuroepithelium in the developing mouse eye, employing in situ hybridization techniques. Similarly, additional investigators have detected CYP1B1 mRNA in the iris, ciliary body, non-pigmented ciliary epithelial line, cornea, retinal-pigment epithelium, and retina in the human adult eye, using Northern blotting. This study was designed to immunolocalize CYP1B1 protein in the various ocular structures of normal, human fetal and adult eyes. Normal fetal and adult eyes were immunolabeled with a polyclonal antibody against human CYP1B1 using indirect immunofluorescence, and then compared with appropriate controls. The intensity of immunolabeling of the various ocular structures was assessed by qualitative and semi-quantitative techniques. In the anterior segment anti-CYP1B1 immunoreactivity (IR) was detected early in fetal development in the primitive ciliary epithelium. As well, the most intense CYP1B1 IR was in the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium. In addition, CYP1B1 IR was also present in the corneal epithelium and keratocytes, both layers of the iris pigmented epithelium, and retina. However, CYP1B1 IR was absent in the trabecular meshwork in all of the samples. In general, CYP1B1 immunolabeling in the human fetal eyes was more intense when compared to adult eyes. CYP1B1 IR was primarily immunolocalized to the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium and early in fetal development. In addition, CYP1B1 IR was not detected in the trabecular meshwork. These findings suggest that the abnormalities in the development of the trabecular meshwork in PCG may result from diminished or absent metabolism of important endogenous substrates in the ciliary epithelium due to non-functional CYP1B1

  15. Main tributaries of the coronary sinus in the adult human heart.

    PubMed

    Duda, B; Grzybiak, M

    1998-01-01

    The coronary sinus collects blood from the heart walls. It is a structure which presently plays a very important clinical role in invasive cardology. In this study, the occurrence of the main tributaries of the coronary sinus was examined as wall as the topography of their outlet portions. Material consistied of 150 adult human hearts of both sexes from aged 18 to 85 years. In the examined material, the graet and middle cardiac veins as well as the posterior vein of the left ventricle were always obserwed. The remaining tributaries of the coronary sinus were less stable. The outlet portions of the main veins of the heart were characterized by significant variability.

  16. A comparative study of the structural organization of spheres derived from the adult human subventricular zone and glioblastoma biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Vik-Mo, Einar Osland; Sandberg, Cecilie; Joel, Mrinal; Stangeland, Biljana; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Moe, Morten Carstens; Murrell, Wayne; Langmoen, Iver Arne

    2011-04-15

    Sphere forming assays have been useful to enrich for stem like cells in a range of tumors. The robustness of this system contrasts the difficulties in defining a stem cell population based on cell surface markers. We have undertaken a study to describe the cellular and organizational composition of tumorspheres, directly comparing these to neurospheres derived from the adult human subventricular zone (SVZ). Primary cell cultures from brain tumors were found to contain variable fractions of cells positive for tumor stem cell markers (CD133 (2-93%)/SSEA1 (3-15%)/CXCR4 (1-72%)). All cultures produced tumors upon xenografting. Tumorspheres contained a heterogeneous population of cells, but were structurally organized with stem cell markers present at the core of spheres, with markers of more mature glial progenitors and astrocytes at more peripheral location. Ultrastructural studies showed that tumorspheres contained a higher fraction of electron dense cells in the core than the periphery (36% and 19%, respectively). Neurospheres also contained a heterogeneous cell population, but did not have an organization similar to tumorspheres. Although tumorspheres clearly display irregular and neoplastic cells, they establish an organized structure with an outward gradient of differentiation. We suggest that this organization is central in maintaining the tumor stem cell pool.

  17. Direct Participation in and Indirect Exposure to the Occupy Central Movement and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Hong Kong Adults.

    PubMed

    Ni, Michael Y; Li, Tom K; Pang, Herbert; Chan, Brandford H Y; Yuan, Betty Y; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schooling, C Mary; Leung, Gabriel M

    2016-11-01

    Despite the extensive history of social movements around the world, the evolution of population mental health before, during, and after a social movement remains sparsely documented. We sought to assess over time the prevalence of depressive symptoms during and after the Occupy Central movement in Hong Kong and to examine the associations of direct and indirect exposures to Occupy Central with depressive symptoms. We longitudinally administered interviews to 909 adults who were randomly sampled from the population-representative FAMILY Cohort at 6 time points from March 2009 to March 2015: twice each before, during, and after the Occupy Central protests. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depressive symptoms and probable major depression (defined as Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10). The absolute prevalence of probable major depression increased by 7% after Occupy Central, regardless of personal involvement in the protests. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with online and social media exposure to protest-related news (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.55) and more frequent Facebook use (IRR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.71). Higher levels of intrafamilial sociopolitical conflict was associated with more depressive symptoms (IRR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09). The Occupy Central protests resulted in substantial and sustained psychological distress in the community.

  18. Differential DNA Methylation Regions in Adult Human Sperm following Adolescent Chemotherapy: Potential for Epigenetic Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Stansfeld, Barbara; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Beck, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background The potential that adolescent chemotherapy can impact the epigenetic programming of the germ line to influence later life adult fertility and promote epigenetic inheritance was investigated. Previous studies have demonstrated a number of environmental exposures such as abnormal nutrition and toxicants can promote sperm epigenetic changes that impact offspring. Methods Adult males approximately ten years after pubertal exposure to chemotherapy were compared to adult males with no previous exposure. Sperm were collected to examine differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs) between the exposed and control populations. Gene associations and correlations to genetic mutations (copy number variation) were also investigated. Methods and Findings A signature of statistically significant DMRs was identified in the chemotherapy exposed male sperm. The DMRs, termed epimutations, were found in CpG desert regions of primarily 1 kilobase size. Observations indicate adolescent chemotherapy exposure can promote epigenetic alterations that persist in later life. Conclusions This is the first observation in humans that an early life chemical exposure can permanently reprogram the spermatogenic stem cell epigenome. The germline (i.e., sperm) epimutations identified suggest chemotherapy has the potential to promote epigenetic inheritance to the next generation. PMID:28146567

  19. Differential expression of HLA class II antigens on human fetal and adult lymphocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J A; Jones, D B; Evans, P R; Smith, J L

    1985-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies to monomorphic determinants of the MHC class II subregion locus products: DP, DR and DQ, was used to investigate the expression of these antigens on early lymphocytes and macrophages from human fetal liver (13-20 weeks), placenta (16 weeks and term) and cord blood, in relation to the class II phenotype of cells from adult tonsil and peripheral blood. Fetal liver sections and cell suspensions showed differential expression of class II antigens. DP was expressed at a higher frequency (11.0% of nucleated cells) than DR on lymphoid cells and macrophages from fetal liver, and DQ was either absent or expressed on less than 0.3% of nucleated cells. Consistent with this finding, DP but not DR or DQ antigens were observed on vascular elements and macrophages in the villi of 16-week placenta. At term, all three subregion locus products were expressed. Adult tonsil and peripheral blood B lymphocytes expressed DP, DR and DQ antigens with similar frequency; however, DQ was expressed at a lower frequency than DP and DR on cord blood B lymphocytes. In contrast, 30-50% macrophages from cord blood and adult peripheral blood expressed DP and DR, but fewer (5% and 18%, respectively) expressed DQ. These data suggest that class II antigens are expressed in the sequence DP, DR, DQ on developing lymphocytes. A similar sequence is suggested for macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3894221

  20. Appraisals of discriminatory events among adult offspring of Indian residential school survivors: the influences of identity centrality and past perceptions of discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bombay, Amy; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2014-01-01

    As part of a government policy of assimilation beginning in the mid-1800s, a large proportion of Aboriginal children in Canada were forcibly removed from their homes to attend Indian Residential Schools (IRSs), a practice which continued into the 1990s. This traumatic experience had lasting negative effects not only on those who attended but also on their offspring, who were previously found to report higher levels of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms compared with Aboriginal adults whose families were not directly affected by IRSs. In attempt to elucidate the processes involved in these previous findings, the current study (N = 399) revealed that greater levels of past perceptions of discrimination among IRS offspring, together with their greater likelihood of considering their Aboriginal heritage to be a central component of their self-concept (i.e., high identity centrality), were associated with an increased likelihood of appraising subsequent negative intergroup scenarios to be a result of discrimination and as threatening to their well-being. In turn, these altered appraisals of threat in response to the scenarios were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to non-IRS adults. The apparent reinforcing relationships between past discrimination, identity centrality, and appraisals of discrimination and threat in intergroup interactions highlight the need for interventions targeting this cycle that appears to contribute to heightened psychological distress among offspring of those who were directly victimized by collective race-based traumas.

  1. Large-scale identification of coregulated enhancer networks in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, Marit W; Reinink, Peter; Korving, Jeroen; de Bruijn, Ewart; Creyghton, Paul M; Basak, Onur; Geeven, Geert; Toonen, Pim W; Lansu, Nico; Meunier, Charles; van Heesch, Sebastiaan; Clevers, Hans; de Laat, Wouter; Cuppen, Edwin; Creyghton, Menno P

    2014-10-23

    Understanding the complexity of the human brain and its functional diversity remain a major challenge. Distinct anatomical regions are involved in an array of processes, including organismal homeostasis, cognitive functions, and susceptibility to neurological pathologies, many of which define our species. Distal enhancers have emerged as key regulatory elements that acquire histone modifications in a cell- and species-specific manner, thus enforcing specific gene expression programs. Here, we survey the epigenomic landscape of promoters and cis-regulatory elements in 136 regions of the adult human brain. We identify a total of 83,553 promoter-distal H3K27ac-enriched regions showing global characteristics of brain enhancers. We use coregulation of enhancer elements across many distinct regions of the brain to uncover functionally distinct networks at high resolution and link these networks to specific neuroglial functions. Furthermore, we use these data to understand the relevance of noncoding genomic variations previously linked to Parkinson's disease incidence.

  2. Lipid-mediated transfection of normal adult human hepatocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Ourlin, J C; Vilarem, M J; Daujat, M; Harricane, M C; Domergue, J; Joyeux, H; Baulieux, J; Maurel, P

    1997-04-05

    The aim of this work was to develop a procedure for the lipid-mediated transfection of DNA into normal adult human hepatocytes in culture. Cells were plated in a serum-free culture medium at various cell densities, on plastic or collagen-coated dishes, both in the absence and in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF). The cells were incubated for various periods of time with mixtures of DNA-lipofectin or DNA-3 beta[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-chol) liposomes, and the efficiency of transfection was assessed by measuring the activity of reporter genes, beta-galactosidase or chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT). For comparison, similar experiments were carried out with human cell lines including HepG2, Caco-2, and WRL68. The efficiency of transfection (in percentage of cells) was not significantly different after transfection with lipofectin or DC-chol and comprised between 0.04 and 1.7% (extreme values) for different cultures. The efficiency of transfection decreased as the age or density of the culture increased and increased in cultures treated with EGF. Direct measurement of the rate of DNA synthesis suggested that the efficiency of transfection was related to the number of cells entering the S phase. Under the same conditions, the efficiency of transfection was one to two orders of magnitude greater in the three cell lines. A plasmid harboring 660 bp of the 5'-flanking region of CYP1A1 (containing two xenobiotic enhancer elements) fused upstream of the promoter of thymidine kinase and the CAT reporter gene was constructed. When this plasmid was transfected in human hepatocytes, CAT activity was induced as expected. We conclude that normal adult human hepatocytes can be transfected with exogenous DNA and that the transfected construct is regulated in the manner expected from in vivo studies.

  3. Contribution of transplanted bone marrow cells to Purkinje neurons in human adult brains

    PubMed Central

    Weimann, James M.; Charlton, Carol A.; Brazelton, Timothy R.; Hackman, Robert C.; Blau, Helen M.

    2003-01-01

    We show here that cells within human adult bone marrow can contribute to cells in the adult human brain. Cerebellar tissues from female patients with hematologic malignancies, who had received chemotherapy, radiation, and a bone marrow transplant, were analyzed. Brain samples were obtained at autopsy from female patients who received male (sex-mismatched) or female (sex-matched, control) bone marrow transplants. Cerebella were evaluated in 10-μm-thick, formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections that encompassed up to ≈50% of a human Purkinje nucleus. A total of 5,860 Purkinje cells from sex-mismatched females and 3,202 Purkinje cells from sex-matched females were screened for Y chromosomes by epifluorescence. Confocal laser scanning microscopy allowed definitive identification of the sex chromosomes within the morphologically distinct Purkinje cells. In the brains of females who received male bone marrow, four Purkinje neurons were found that contained an X and a Y chromosome and two other Purkinje neurons contained more than a diploid number of sex chromosomes. No Y chromosomes were detected in the brains of sex-matched controls. The total frequency of male bone marrow contribution to female Purkinje cells approximated 0.1%. This study demonstrates that although during human development Purkinje neurons are no longer generated after birth, cells within the bone marrow can contribute to these CNS neurons even in adulthood. The underlying mechanism may be caused either by generation de novo of Purkinje neurons from bone marrow-derived cells or by fusion of marrow-derived cells with existing recipient Purkinje neurons. PMID:12576546

  4. Mid- to Late Holocene shoreline reconstruction and human occupation in Ancient Eretria (South Central Euboea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilardi, Matthieu; Psomiadis, David; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Çelka, Sylvie Müller; Fachard, Sylvian; Theurillat, Thierry; Verdan, Samuel; Knodell, Alex R.; Theodoropoulou, Tatiana; Bicket, Andrew; Bonneau, Amandine; Delanghe-Sabatier, Doriane

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have aimed to reconstruct landscape change in the area of Eretria (South Central Euboea, Greece) during the last 6000 years. The aim of this paper is to partially fill in this gap by examining the interaction between Mid- to Late Holocene shoreline evolution and human occupation, which is documented in the area from the Late Neolithic to the Late Roman period (with discontinuities). Evidence of shoreline displacements is derived from the study of five boreholes (maximum depth of 5.25 m below the surface) drilled in the lowlands of Eretria. Based on sedimentological analyses and micro/macrofaunal identifications, different facies have been identified in the cores and which reveal typical features of deltaic progradation with marine, lagoonal, fluvio-deltaic and fluvial environments. In addition, a chronostratigraphy has been obtained based on 20 AMS 14C radiocarbon dates performed on samples of plant remains and marine/lagoonal shells found in situ. The main sequences of landscape reconstruction in the plain of Eretria can be summarized as follows: a marine environment predominated from ca. 4000 to 3200 cal. BC and a gradual transition to shallow marine conditions is observed ca. 3200-3000 cal. BC due to the general context of deltaic progradation west of the ancient city. Subsequently, from ca. 3000 to 2000 cal. BC, a lagoon occupied the area in the vicinity of the Temple of Apollo and the settlement's development was restricted to several fluvio-deltaic levees, thus severely limiting human activities in the plain. From ca. 2000 to 800 cal. BC, a phase of shallow marine presence prevailed and constrained settlement on higher ground, forcing abandonment of the major part of the plain. Finally, since the eighth century BC, the sea has regressed southward and created the modern landscape.

  5. Fibronectin functional domains coupled to hyaluronan stimulate adult human dermal fibroblast responses critical for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kaustabh; Ren, Xiang-Dong; Shu, Xiao Zheng; Prestwich, Glenn D; Clark, Richard A F

    2006-03-01

    Fibronectin (FN) facilitates dermal fibroblast migration during normal wound healing. Proteolytic degradation of FN in chronic wounds hampers healing. Previously, three FN functional domains (FNfd) have been shown to be sufficient for optimal adult human dermal fibroblast migration. Here we report the development of an acellular hydrogel matrix comprised of the FNfds coupled to a hyaluronan (HA) backbone to stimulate wound repair. Employing Michael-type addition, the cysteine- tagged FNfds were first coupled to a homobifunctional PEG derivative. Thereafter, these PEG derivative FNfd solutions, containing bifunctional PEG-derivative crosslinker were coupled to thiol-modified HA (HA-DTPH) to obtain a crosslinked hydrogel matrix. When evaluated in vitro, these acellular hydrogels were completely cytocompatible. While spreading and proliferation of adult human dermal fibroblasts plateaued at higher FNfd bulk densities, their rapid and robust migration followed a typical bell-shaped response. When implanted in porcine cutaneous wounds, these acellular matrices, besides being completely biocompatible, induced rapid and en masse recruitment of stromal fibroblasts that was not observed with RGD-tethered or unmodified hydrogels. Such constructs might be of great benefit in clinical settings where rapid formation of new tissue is needed.

  6. Psychometric testing of the Revised Humane Caring Scale for adult patients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, Mien Li; Ang, Emily N K; Chan, Yiong-Huak; He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we examined the validity and reliability of the Revised Humane Caring Scale as used by adult patients in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A three-phase descriptive quantitative study was conducted. In phase I, an expert panel of nurses and inpatients examined the content validity of the scale; phase II comprised a pilot study on 20 patients; and in phase III, a large-scale study on 235 patients was implemented to test the internal consistency of the scale. The results revealed that the content validity index of the scale ranged from 0.856 to 1, and the scale had a high inter-rater agreement kappa value of 0.940. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.798 to 0.877 in phase II, and from 0.579 to 0.760 in phase III, respectively. The Revised Humane Caring Scale revealed good content validity and an acceptable level of internal consistency. The scale is an acceptable measurement tool for evaluating adult patients' satisfaction during hospitalization.

  7. Essential Microenvironment for Thymopoiesis is Preserved in Human Adult and Aged Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, J.; Utsuyama, M.; Seki, S.; Akamatsu, H.; Sunamori, M.; Kasai, M.; Hirokawa, K.

    2003-01-01

    Normal human thymuses at various ages were immunohistologically examined in order to determine whether adult or aged thymus maintained the microenvironment for the T cell development and thymopoiesis was really ongoing. To analyze the thymic microenvironment, two monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) were employed. One is MoAb to IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) recognizing medullary and subcapsular cortical epithelial cells of normal infant human thymus. The other is UH-1 MoAb recognizing thymic epithelial cells within the cortex, which are negative with IL-1R-MoAb. Thymus of subjects over 20 years of age was split into many fragments and dispersed in the fatty tissue. However, the microenvironment of each fragment was composed of both IL-1R positive and UH-1 positive epithelial cells, and the UH-1 positive portion was populated with lymphocytes showing a follicle-like appearance. Lymphocytes in these follicle-like portions were mostly CD4+CD8+ double positive cells and contained many proliferating cells as well as apoptotic cells. Thus these follicle-like portions in adult and aged thymus were considered to be functioning as cortex as in infant thymus. Proliferative activity of thymocytes in the thymic cortex and the follicle-like portions definitely declined with advance of age, while incidence of apoptotic thymocytes increased with aging. PMID:14575158

  8. Effects of human opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice following central administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Tian, Xiao-Zhu; Bai, Lu; Liu, Ze-Qi; Xiao, Xing-Peng; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiang-Kai

    2017-02-22

    Human opiorphin plays an important pharmacological functions in rats or mice. The present study was performed to investigate effects and underlying mechanism of central injected opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered opiorphin (5-20μg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in fasted mice, but had no influence on food intake in freely feeding mice. The cumulative food intake was significantly decreased at 60min after injection of 10 and 20μg/kg opiorphin and the food intake was significantly reduced during the 20-60min period after treatment. Non-selected opiate receptor antagonist naloxone could fully block the inhibitory effect induced by opiorphin on cumulative food intake at 60min in fasted mice, suggesting that the anorexic effect of opiorphin was related to the opioid system. Moreover, the anorexic effect induced by opiorphin in fasted mice was also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with captopril or valsartan, which suggested that endogenous angiotensin may be involved in the response to opiorphin. Interestingly, the effect of opiorphin on water intake was increased in both fasted and freely feeding mice, which was completely blocked by captopril and valsartan. Furthermore, naloxone did not modify the effect of opiorphin on water intake. All together, the food and water intake effects of opiorphin may be due to the protection of the endogenous angiotensin and opioid peptides from degradation by NEP or APN.

  9. Application of synchrotron radiation for elemental microanalysis of human central nervous System tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Lankosz, M.; Ostachowicz, J.; Adamek, D.; Krygowska-Wajs, A.; Tomik, B.; Szczudlik, A.; Simionovici, A.; Bohic, S.

    2003-03-01

    The pathogenesis of two neurodegenerative diseases i.e. Parkinson's Disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are still not known. It is supposed that disturbance of metal ions homeostasis may promote degeneration and atrophy of neurones. As a preliminary study. the quantitative and topographic elemental analysis of selected parts of human brain and spinal cord was performed using synchrotron microbeam-X ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) technique. The samples were taken during the autopsy from patients with PD, ALS and from patients died due to non-neurological conditions events. X-ray fluorescence imaging showed that increased concentration of selected elements are observed in neurons perikarial parts in compare with surrounding area. Moreover, comparable analysis showed significant differences in accumulation of selected elements between the pathological and control cases. The investigations indicate that micro-beam of synchrotron radiation can be satisfactory applied for analysis of central nervous System tissue providing useful information about distribution and contents of elements at the single cell level.

  10. Central nervous system alterations caused by infection with the human respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Bohmwald, Karen; Espinoza, Janyra A; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2014-11-01

    Worldwide, the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of infant hospitalization because of acute respiratory tract infections, including severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Despite intense research, to date there is neither vaccine nor treatment available to control hRSV disease burden globally. After infection, an incubation period of 3-5 days is usually followed by symptoms, such as cough and low-grade fever. However, hRSV infection can also produce a larger variety of symptoms, some of which relate to the individual's age at infection. Indeed, infants can display severe symptoms, such as dyspnea and chest wall retractions. Upon examination, crackles and wheezes are also common features that suggest infection by hRSV. Additionally, infection in infants younger than 1 year is associated with several non-specific symptoms, such as failure to thrive, periodic breathing or apnea, and feeding difficulties that usually require hospitalization. Recently, neurological symptoms have also been associated with hRSV respiratory infection and include seizures, central apnea, lethargy, feeding or swallowing difficulties, abnormalities in muscle tone, strabismus, abnormalities in the CSF, and encephalopathy. Here, we discuss recent findings linking the neurological, extrapulmonary effects of hRSV with infection and functional impairment of the CNS.

  11. Serum antibodies against central nervous system proteins in human demyelinating disease.

    PubMed Central

    Newcombe, J; Gahan, S; Cuzner, M L

    1985-01-01

    An immunoblotting technique has been used to screen serum samples from patients with demyelinating disease for antibody directed against central nervous system proteins. Antibodies of the IgM, IgG and IgA class directed against one or more of the particulate fraction proteins tubulin, myelin basic protein, 69 K neurofilament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, myelin associated glycoprotein or Wolfgram protein were present in 94, 54 and 47%, respectively, of multiple sclerosis sera examined. IgM antibodies against tubulin and myelin basic protein predominated. A similar antibody spectrum was seen in a significant proportion of sera from patients with optic neuritis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and motor neurone disease, in which primary or secondary demyelination occurs. Antibodies of all three classes directed against the 169 K and 220 K neurofilament proteins and against some unidentified proteins of human peripheral nerve, kidney, liver, spleen and skeletal muscle were detected in sera from healthy subjects and patients with neurological disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2579754

  12. Central stimulation of hormone release and the proliferative response of lymphocytes in humans.

    PubMed

    Juránková, E; Jezová, D; Vigas, M

    1995-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may communicate with the immune system by direct innervation of lymphoid organs and/or by neurotransmitters and changes in neuroendocrine functioning and hormone release. The consequences of selective transient changes in circulating hormones on immune functioning in humans have not yet been studied. To address this problem, the authors evaluated the lymphoproliferative responses to optimal and suboptimal concentrations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweek mitogen (PWM) under selective enhancement of circulating growth hormone, prolactin, or norepinephrine. The authors failed to demonstrate any effect of elevated growth hormone levels after clonidine challenge on the lymphoproliferative response to mitogens. Similarly, the results did not show any effect of elevated prolactin concentrations induced by domperidone administration on the immune test. Exposure of volunteers to cold resulted in elevation of plasma norepinephrine levels without changes in growth hormone, epinephrine, or cortisol secretion. Cold exposure induced elevation of plasma norepinephrine and reduction of the lymphoproliferative response to the suboptimal dosage of PHA. The reduction was significant 180 and 240 min after exposure. These results are indicative of a relationship between norepinephrine and immunity.

  13. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L.

    2013-12-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  14. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2013-12-17

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  15. MiR-375 Promotes Redifferentiation of Adult Human β Cells Expanded In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Gili; Kredo-Russo, Sharon; Geiger, Tamar; Lenz, Ayelet; Kaspi, Haggai; Hornstein, Eran; Efrat, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    In-vitro expansion of β cells from adult human pancreatic islets could provide abundant cells for cell replacement therapy of diabetes. However, proliferation of β-cell-derived (BCD) cells is associated with dedifferentiation. Here we analyzed changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) during BCD cell dedifferentiation and identified miR-375 as one of the miRNAs greatly downregulated. We hypothesized that restoration of miR-375 expression in expanded BCD cells may contribute to their redifferentiation. Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of miR-375 alone leads to activation of β-cell gene expression, reduced cell proliferation, and a switch from N-cadherin to E-cadherin expression, which characterizes mesenchymal-epithelial transition. These effects, which are reproducible in cells derived from multiple human donors, are likely mediated by repression of PDPK1 transcripts and indirect downregulation of GSK3 activity. These findings support an important role of miR-375 in regulation of human β-cell phenotype, and suggest that miR-375 upregulation may facilitate the generation of functional insulin-producing cells following ex-vivo expansion of human islet cells. PMID:25875172

  16. In Vitro Generation of Functional Liver Organoid-Like Structures Using Adult Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sarada Devi; Schirmer, Katharina; Münst, Bernhard; Heinz, Stefan; Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Wölfl, Stefan; Simon-Keller, Katja; Marx, Alexander; Øie, Cristina Ionica; Ebert, Matthias P.; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used differentiated adult human upcyte® cells for the in vitro generation of liver organoids. Upcyte® cells are genetically engineered cell strains derived from primary human cells by lenti-viral transduction of genes or gene combinations inducing transient proliferation capacity (upcyte® process). Proliferating upcyte® cells undergo a finite number of cell divisions, i.e., 20 to 40 population doublings, but upon withdrawal of proliferation stimulating factors, they regain most of the cell specific characteristics of primary cells. When a defined mixture of differentiated human upcyte® cells (hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)) was cultured in vitro on a thick layer of Matrigel™, they self-organized to form liver organoid-like structures within 24 hours. When further cultured for 10 days in a bioreactor, these liver organoids show typical functional characteristics of liver parenchyma including activity of cytochromes P450, CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 as well as mRNA expression of several marker genes and other enzymes. In summary, we hereby describe that 3D functional hepatic structures composed of primary human cell strains can be generated in vitro. They can be cultured for a prolonged period of time and are potentially useful ex vivo models to study liver functions. PMID:26488607

  17. An animal model of adult T-cell leukemia: humanized mice with HTLV-1-specific immunity.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Kenta; Xun, Runze; Tei, Mami; Ueno, Takaharu; Tanaka, Masakazu; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-16

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is causally associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive T-cell malignancy with a poor prognosis. To elucidate ATL pathogenesis in vivo, a variety of animal models have been established; however, the mechanisms driving this disorder remain poorly understood due to deficiencies in each of these animal models. Here, we report a novel HTLV-1-infected humanized mouse model generated by intra-bone marrow injection of human CD133(+) stem cells into NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγc null (NOG) mice (IBMI-huNOG mice). Upon infection, the number of CD4(+) human T cells in the periphery increased rapidly, and atypical lymphocytes with lobulated nuclei resembling ATL-specific flower cells were observed 4 to 5 months after infection. Proliferation was seen in both CD25(-) and CD25(+) CD4 T cells with identical proviral integration sites; however, a limited number of CD25(+)-infected T-cell clones eventually dominated, indicating an association between clonal selection of infected T cells and expression of CD25. Additionally, HTLV-1-specific adaptive immune responses were induced in infected mice and might be involved in the control of HTLV-1-infected cells. Thus, the HTLV-1-infected IBMI-huNOG mouse model successfully recapitulated the development of ATL and may serve as an important tool for investigating in vivo mechanisms of ATL leukemogenesis and evaluating anti-ATL drug and vaccine candidates.

  18. Examining the relationship between childhood animal cruelty motives and recurrent adult violent crimes toward humans.

    PubMed

    Overton, Joshua C; Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E

    2012-03-01

    Few researchers have studied the predictive ability of childhood animal cruelty motives as they are associated with later recurrent violence toward humans. Based on a sample of 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a Southern state, the present study examines the relationship among several retrospectively identified motives (fun, out of anger, hate for the animal, and imitation) for childhood animal cruelty and the later commission of violent crimes (murder, rape, assault, and robbery) against humans. Almost two thirds of the inmates reported engaging in childhood animal cruelty for fun, whereas almost one fourth reported being motivated either out of anger or imitation. Only one fifth of the respondents reported they had committed acts of animal cruelty because they hated the animal. Regression analyses revealed that recurrent animal cruelty was the only statistically significant variable in the model. Respondents who had committed recurrent childhood animal cruelty were more likely to have had committed recurrent adult violence toward humans. None of the motives for committing childhood animal cruelty had any effect on later violence against humans.

  19. Mid Holocene climate change and impact on evolution on human settlements in northern central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krossa, V. R.; Kim, H.-J.; Moros, M.; Dörfler, W.; Blanz, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schneider, R.

    2012-04-01

    have facilitated the adaption of human societies, further developing agriculture and the domestication of animals in northern central Europe.

  20. Enriched Environment Increases PCNA and PARP1 Levels in Octopus vulgaris Central Nervous System: First Evidence of Adult Neurogenesis in Lophotrochozoa.

    PubMed

    Bertapelle, Carla; Polese, Gianluca; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2017-03-02

    Organisms showing a complex and centralized nervous system, such as teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, and among invertebrates, crustaceans and insects, can adjust their behavior according to the environmental challenges. Proliferation, differentiation, migration, and axonal and dendritic development of newborn neurons take place in brain areas where structural plasticity, involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration, occurs. Octopus vulgaris has a complex and centralized nervous system, located between the eyes, with a hierarchical organization. It is considered the most "intelligent" invertebrate for its advanced cognitive capabilities, as learning and memory, and its sophisticated behaviors. The experimental data obtained by immunohistochemistry and western blot assay using proliferating cell nuclear antigen and poli (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 as marker of cell proliferation and synaptogenesis, respectively, reviled cell proliferation in areas of brain involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration. Furthermore, we showed how enriched environmental conditions affect adult neurogenesis.

  1. Trans and interesterified fat and palm oil during the pregnancy and lactation period inhibit the central anorexigenic action of insulin in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Kenia Pereira; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Letícia; da Silva Soares de Souza, Érica; Mucci, Daniela; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; de Albuquerque, Kelse Tibau; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fatima Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil and interesterified fat have been used to replace partially hydrogenated fats, rich in trans isomers, in processed foods. This study investigated whether the maternal consumption of normolipidic diets containing these lipids affects the insulin receptor and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) contents in the hypothalamus and the hypophagic effect of centrally administered insulin in 3-month-old male offspring. At 90 days, the intracerebroventricular injection of insulin decreased 24-h feeding in control rats but not in the palm, interesterified or trans groups. The palm group exhibited increases in the insulin receptor content of 64 and 69 % compared to the control and trans groups, respectively. However, the quantifications of PKB did not differ significantly across groups. We conclude that the intake of trans fatty acid substitutes during the early perinatal period affects food intake regulation in response to centrally administered insulin in the young adult offspring; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

  2. Simian foamy virus in non-human primates and cross-species transmission to humans in Gabon: an emerging zoonotic disease in central Africa?

    PubMed

    Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-06-19

    It is now known that all human retroviruses have a non-human primate counterpart. It has been reported that the presence of these retroviruses in humans is the result of interspecies transmission. Several authors have described the passage of a simian retrovirus, simian foamy virus (SFV), from primates to humans. To better understand this retroviral "zoonosis" in natural settings, we evaluated the presence of SFV in both captive and wild non-human primates and in humans at high risk, such as hunters and people bitten by a non-human primate, in Gabon, central Africa. A high prevalence of SFV was found in blood samples from non-human primates and in bush meat collected across the country. Mandrills were found to be highly infected with two distinct strains of SFV, depending on their geographical location. Furthermore, samples collected from hunters and non-human primate laboratory workers showed clear, extensive cross-species transmission of SFV. People who had been bitten by mandrills, gorillas and chimpanzees had persistent SFV infection with low genetic drift. Thus, SFV is presumed to be transmitted from non-human primates mainly through severe bites, involving contact between infected saliva and blood. In this review, we summarize and discuss our five-year observations on the prevalence and dissemination of SFV in humans and non-human primates in Gabon.

  3. The Model Human Processor and the Older Adult: Parameter Estimation and Validation Within a Mobile Phone Task

    PubMed Central

    Jastrzembski, Tiffany S.; Charness, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The authors estimate weighted mean values for nine information processing parameters for older adults using the Card, Moran, and Newell (1983) Model Human Processor model. The authors validate a subset of these parameters by modeling two mobile phone tasks using two different phones and comparing model predictions to a sample of younger (N = 20; Mage = 20) and older (N = 20; Mage = 69) adults. Older adult models fit keystroke-level performance at the aggregate grain of analysis extremely well (R = 0.99) and produced equivalent fits to previously validated younger adult models. Critical path analyses highlighted points of poor design as a function of cognitive workload, hardware/software design, and user characteristics. The findings demonstrate that estimated older adult information processing parameters are valid for modeling purposes, can help designers understand age-related performance using existing interfaces, and may support the development of age-sensitive technologies. PMID:18194048

  4. Activity, Inhibition, and Induction of Cytochrome P450 2J2 in Adult Human Primary Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Eric A.; Kaspera, Rüdiger; Mokadam, Nahush A.; Jones, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2J2 plays a significant role in the epoxidation of arachidonic acid to signaling molecules important in cardiovascular events. CYP2J2 also contributes to drug metabolism and is responsible for the intestinal clearance of ebastine. However, the interaction between arachidonic acid metabolism and drug metabolism in cardiac tissue, the main expression site of CYP2J2, has not been examined. Here we investigate an adult-derived human primary cardiac cell line as a suitable model to study metabolic drug interactions (inhibition and induction) of CYP2J2 in cardiac tissue. The primary human cardiomyocyte cell line demonstrated similar mRNA-expression profiles of P450 enzymes to adult human ventricular tissue. CYP2J2 was the dominant isozyme with minor contributions from CYP2D6 and CYP2E1. Both terfenadine and astemizole oxidation were observed in this cell line, whereas midazolam was not metabolized suggesting lack of CYP3A activity. Compared with recombinant CYP2J2, terfenadine was hydroxylated in cardiomyocytes at a similar Km value of 1.5 μM. The Vmax of terfenadine hydroxylation in recombinant enzyme was found to be 29.4 pmol/pmol P450 per minute and in the cells 6.0 pmol/pmol P450 per minute. CYP2J2 activity in the cell line was inhibited by danazol, astemizole, and ketoconazole in submicromolar range, but also by xenobiotics known to cause cardiac adverse effects. Of the 14 compounds tested for CYP2J2 induction, only rosiglitazone increased mRNA expression, by 1.8-fold. This cell model can be a useful in vitro model to investigate the role of CYP2J2-mediated drug metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and their association to drug induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24021950

  5. Adult, embryonic and fetal hemoglobin are expressed in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Emara, Marwan; Turner, A Robert; Allalunis-Turner, Joan

    2014-02-01

    Hemoglobin is a hemoprotein, produced mainly in erythrocytes circulating in the blood. However, non-erythroid hemoglobins have been previously reported in other cell types including human and rodent neurons of embryonic and adult brain, but not astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive tumor among gliomas. However, despite extensive basic and clinical research studies on GBM cells, little is known about glial defence mechanisms that allow these cells to survive and resist various types of treatment. We have shown previously that the newest members of vertebrate globin family, neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Cygb), are expressed in human GBM cells. In this study, we sought to determine whether hemoglobin is also expressed in GBM cells. Conventional RT-PCR, DNA sequencing, western blot analysis, mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate globin expression in GBM cell lines (M006x, M059J, M059K, M010b, U87R and U87T) that have unique characteristics in terms of tumor invasion and response to radiotherapy and hypoxia. The data showed that α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε globins are expressed in all tested GBM cell lines. To our knowledge, we are the first to report expression of fetal, embryonic and adult hemoglobin in GBM cells under normal physiological conditions that may suggest an undefined function of those expressed hemoglobins. Together with our previous reports on globins (Ngb and Cygb) expression in GBM cells, the expression of different hemoglobins may constitute a part of series of active defence mechanisms supporting these cells to resist various types of treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  6. Incidental finding of a true human tail in an adult: a case report.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Caitlin G; Duke, Taylor C; Allison, Ashley W

    2017-01-01

    True human tails are rare vestigial structures that are typically removed in childhood. Here a case is presented in which an inconspicuous sacrococcygeal tail was incidentally discovered in late adulthood. A 56-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented to a dermatology clinic with a chief complaint of a hyperpigmented lesion on his central back. However, on full body skin exam, a separate flesh-colored 0.7 cm × 0.5 cm appendage was discovered in the midline sacrococcygeal region. This lesion had been present and unchanged since childhood. This particular lesion was removed via shave biopsy. Microscopic exam found it to be consistent with a diagnosis of a true human tail. There were no apparent involved spinal cord structures, and no further treatment was thought to be necessary. Human tails are congenital anomalies associated with occult spinal lesions in about 50% of cases. Therefore, it is in these patients' best interest to thoroughly evaluate for spinal cord involvement prior to biopsy. There is a relative lack of literature published on the topic, and a greater awareness of human tails would be helpful to ensure their inclusion in a differential diagnosis for persistent sacrococcygeal lesions in patients of any age.

  7. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  8. MIO-M1 cells and similar muller glial cell lines derived from adult human retina exhibit neural stem cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jean M; Singhal, Shweta; Bhatia, Bhairavi; Keegan, David J; Reh, Thomas A; Luthert, Philip J; Khaw, Peng T; Limb, Gloria Astrid

    2007-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that glial cells may have a role as neural precursors in the adult central nervous system. Although it has been shown that Müller cells exhibit progenitor characteristics in the postnatal chick and rat retinae, their progenitor-like role in developed human retina is unknown. We first reported the Müller glial characteristics of the spontaneously immortalized human cell line MIO-M1, but recently we have derived similar cell lines from the neural retina of several adult eye donors. Since immortalization is one of the main properties of stem cells, we investigated whether these cells expressed stem cell markers. Cells were grown as adherent monolayers, responded to epidermal growth factor, and could be expanded indefinitely without growth factors under normal culture conditions. They could be frozen and thawed without losing their characteristics. In the presence of extracellular matrix and fibroblast growth factor-2 or retinoic acid, they acquired neural morphology, formed neurospheres, and expressed neural stem cell markers including betaIII tubulin, Sox2, Pax6, Chx10, and Notch 1. They also expressed markers of postmitotic retinal neurons, including peripherin, recoverin, calretinin, S-opsin, and Brn3. When grafted into the subretinal space of dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons rats or neonatal Lister hooded rats, immortalized cells migrated into the retina, where they expressed various markers of retinal neurons. These observations indicate that adult human neural retina harbors a population of cells that express both Müller glial and stem cell markers and suggest that these cells may have potential use for cell-based therapies to restore retinal function. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  9. Structure of human plasma low-density lipoproteins: molecular organization of the central core.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, D; Deckelbaum, R J; Small, D M; Shipley, G G

    1977-01-01

    Human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) exhibits a thermal transition over the temperature range 20-40 degrees. This transition is associated with a structural change within the lipoprotein particle and is reflected in the small-angle x-ray scattering profiles from LDL. The scattering profile of the quasispherical LDL particle at 10 degrees shows a relatively intense maximum at 1/36 A-1 which is absent from the scattering of LDL at 45 degrees. Theoretical calculations, using model electron density distributions, have been carried out to describe the packing of arrangement of the cholesterol esters, based on perturbations of the molecular packing of crystalline cholesteryl myristate, adequately reproduces the high relative intensity of the x-ray scattering maximum at 1/36 A-1. The perturbations of the packing in the crystal structure of cholesteryl myristate involve "melting" of the hydrocarbon chains of the esters together with translations of pairs of molecules parallel to the molecular long axis. The interaction of opposing steroid moieties, with C18 and C19 angular methyl groups interlocked, exhibited in the crystal structure is retained in the perturbed arrangement. At 45 degrees, thermally induced disorder of this arrangement averages the electron density of the central core. The x-ray scattering profiles of particles with a homogeneous electron density in the core region do not show a high relative intensity of the subsidiary maxima in the 1/36 A-1 region, in agreement with experimental observation. The results of these calculations support the concept that the thermal transition observed for LDL is due to a smectic leads to disordered transition of the cholesterol esters in the core of the LDL particle. PMID:191827

  10. Human impact on late Quaternary landscapes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, F.; Raab, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Like the Alps in Central Europe the Pyrenees in Southeast Europe are well known for their glacial history. Within the scope of the ongoing research project Post-LGM pedogenesis and geomorphodynamics in the Aragonese Pyrenees, Spain, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we are studying the landscapes in the Gallego valley and the Aragon valley formed during the late Quaternary period. The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the soil development since the retreat of the valley glaciers from the LGM-moraines which are supposed to have an age of up to 60 ka yrs. To these purposes soil profiles are excavated in sediments and landforms of different ages (LGM to Holocene) and different genesis (glacigenic, glacifluvial, fluvial, gravitational). The soil profiles are arranged as catenas and provide insight into the pedo-stratigraphy of moraines, fluvial terraces, glacis and alluvial fans. Our preliminary results show that besides geogenic process past human land use must be considered as a main trigger of landscape development during the late Holocene. Truncated soil profiles in the backslopes and the correlate sediments of soil erosion burying soil horizons in the footslopes clearly indicate one or even more periods of re-shaping the landforms after deglaciation. Considerable amounts of small charcoal and tile fragments in the translocated sediments hint to an anthropogenic agent. The disturbance in the soil profiles and sediments is visible in the field and by micromorphology. Although 14C and OSL datings on the base of the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate at least one phase of erosion and redeposition at the end of the 17th century, the onset of afresh pedogenic processes in the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate young soil formation.

  11. Induction of Central Host Signaling Kinases during Pneumococcal Infection of Human THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Thomas P.; Scholz, Annemarie; Kiachludis, Delia; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a widespread colonizer of the mucosal epithelia of the upper respiratory tract of human. However, pneumococci are also responsible for numerous local as well as severe systemic infections, especially in children under the age of five and the elderly. Under certain conditions, pneumococci are able to conquer the epithelial barrier, which can lead to a dissemination of the bacteria into underlying tissues and the bloodstream. Here, specialized macrophages represent an essential part of the innate immune system against bacterial intruders. Recognition of the bacteria through different receptors on the surface of macrophages leads thereby to an uptake and elimination of bacteria. Accompanied cytokine release triggers the migration of leukocytes from peripheral blood to the site of infection, where monocytes differentiate into mature macrophages. The rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during phagocytosis, resulting in the engulfment of bacteria, is thereby tightly regulated by receptor-mediated phosphorylation cascades of different protein kinases. The molecular cellular processes including the modulation of central protein kinases are only partially solved. In this study, the human monocytic THP-1 cell line was used as a model system to examine the activation of Fcγ and complement receptor-independent signal cascades during infection with S. pneumoniae. Pneumococci cultured either in chemically defined or complex medium showed no significant differences in pneumococcal phagocytosis by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) differentiated THP-1 cells. Double immuno-fluorescence microscopy and antibiotic protection assays demonstrated a time-dependent uptake and killing of S. pneumoniae 35A inside of macrophages. Infections of THP-1 cells in the presence of specific pharmacological inhibitors revealed a crucial role of actin polymerization and importance of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Protein kinase B (Akt) as well during

  12. Development and validation of two food portion photograph books to assess dietary intake among adults and children in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Amougou, Norbert; Cohen, Emmanuel; Mbala, Marie L; Grosdidier, Basile; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2016-03-14

    Owing to nutritional transition in Cameroon, one in two adults is overweight and one in five is obese, and 8·1% of children are overweight and 2·1% are obese. Given this phenomenon, dietary intake assessment is needed to establish appropriate preventive nutrition-sensitive strategies. Our aim was to develop and test the validity of two food portion photograph books (FPPB) to be used as visual aids for adults and children taking part in a 24-h dietary recall. To design FPPB, interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with women to obtain consensus on the local categorisation of foods. For each cooked and weighed food, three photographs of the average small, medium and large serving portion sizes were taken, and four intermediary portion sizes were calculated. To validate the FPPB, a sample of adults (361) and children (224) were asked, at meal times, to self-serve a food portion prepared in the household and the portion sizes were weighed; 24 h after the measurement, the same subjects were shown the appropriate FPPB and were asked to indicate the food and the portion they consumed. In adults, of the 821 portions tested, 77% were accurately estimated, whereas in children 74% of the 556 portions tested were accurately estimated. For both groups, the small- and medium-sized portions were frequently selected and accurately estimated (>70%). Our findings suggest that the adult and children's FPPB can be used in Cameroon to estimate food portion sizes, and thus nutritional intake in the frame of the 24-h dietary recall.

  13. Behaviour of solitary adult Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) when approached by humans on foot.

    PubMed

    Moen, Gro Kvelprud; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Sahlén, Veronica; Swenson, Jon E

    2012-01-01

    Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006-2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males) GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80%) left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%). Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m) than passive bears (69±47 m), and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans.

  14. Aural Acoustic Stapedius-Muscle Reflex Threshold Procedures to Test Human Infants and Adults.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L; Fitzpatrick, Denis F

    2017-02-01

    Power-based procedures are described to measure acoustic stapedius-muscle reflex threshold and supra-threshold responses in human adult and infant ears at frequencies from 0.2 to 8 kHz. The stimulus set included five clicks in which four pulsed activators were placed between each pair of clicks, with each stimulus set separated from the next by 0.79 s to allow for reflex decay. Each click response was used to detect the presence of reflex effects across frequency that were elicited by a pulsed broadband-noise or tonal activator in the ipsilateral or contralateral test ear. Acoustic reflex shifts were quantified in terms of the difference in absorbed sound power between the initial baseline click and the later four clicks in each set. Acoustic reflex shifts were measured over a 40-dB range of pulsed activators, and the acoustic reflex threshold was objectively calculated using a maximum 10 likelihood procedure. To illustrate the principles underlying these new reflex tests, reflex shifts in absorbed sound power and absorbance are presented for data acquired in an adult ear with normal hearing and in two infant ears in the initial and follow-up newborn hearing screening exams, one with normal hearing and the other with a conductive hearing loss. The use of absorbed sound power was helpful in classifying an acoustic reflex shift as present or absent. The resulting reflex tests are in use in a large study of wideband clinical diagnosis and monitoring of middle-ear and cochlear function in infant and adult ears.

  15. Specific Metabolomics Adaptations Define a Differential Regional Vulnerability in the Adult Human Cerebral Cortex.

    PubMed

    Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Ayala, Victoria; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Gil-Villar, Maria P; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Mayelin; Obis, Èlia; Berdun, Rebeca; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-01-01

    Brain neurons offer diverse responses to stresses and detrimental factors during development and aging, and as a result of both neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. This multiplicity of responses can be ascribed to the great diversity among neuronal populations. Here we have determined the metabolomic profile of three healthy adult human brain regions-entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex-using mass spectrometry-based technologies. Our results show the existence of a lessened energy demand, mitochondrial stress, and lower one-carbon metabolism (particularly restricted to the methionine cycle) specifically in frontal cortex. These findings, along with the better antioxidant capacity and lower mTOR signaling also seen in frontal cortex, suggest that this brain region is especially resistant to stress compared to the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, which are more vulnerable regions. Globally, our results show the presence of specific metabolomics adaptations in three mature, healthy human brain regions, confirming the existence of cross-regional differences in cell vulnerability in the human cerebral cortex.

  16. The cytoarchitecture of the adult human parabrachial nucleus: a Nissl and Golgi study.

    PubMed

    Gioia, M; Rodella, L; Petruccioli, M G; Bianchi, R

    2000-01-01

    The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) plays important roles in numerous autonomic functions and in pain modulation. In different animal species, three main regions of the PBN have been identified: the m-PB, the l-PB, and the Kolliker-Fuse nucleus (KF). The KF has not been identified in humans. The present study used Nissl and Golgi-Cox material and morphoquantitative methods to investigate the cytoarchitectural organization of the adult human PBN, paying particular attention to neuronal features endowed with functional significance, i. e. the arborization of the neurons. The PBN neuron population is made up of elements which are heterogeneous in size, shape and dendritic arborization, and grouped into two regions, the lateral and medial PBN (l- and m-PB). It has been suggested that some large sized neurons located in the ventral region of the m-PB might be the counterpart of the KF. In the m-PB the fusiform neurons are the most numerous cells; in the l-PB the multipolar neurons prevail, and are particularly numerous in the dorsal l-PB. Since the dendritic arborization is generally the main target of afferent projections to a neuron, it is possible that the l-PB, and in particular its dorsal region, might be the main site for the endings of afferences to the human PBN.

  17. Specific Metabolomics Adaptations Define a Differential Regional Vulnerability in the Adult Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Ayala, Victoria; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Gil-Villar, Maria P.; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Mayelin; Obis, Èlia; Berdun, Rebeca; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-01-01

    Brain neurons offer diverse responses to stresses and detrimental factors during development and aging, and as a result of both neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. This multiplicity of responses can be ascribed to the great diversity among neuronal populations. Here we have determined the metabolomic profile of three healthy adult human brain regions—entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex—using mass spectrometry-based technologies. Our results show the existence of a lessened energy demand, mitochondrial stress, and lower one-carbon metabolism (particularly restricted to the methionine cycle) specifically in frontal cortex. These findings, along with the better antioxidant capacity and lower mTOR signaling also seen in frontal cortex, suggest that this brain region is especially resistant to stress compared to the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, which are more vulnerable regions. Globally, our results show the presence of specific metabolomics adaptations in three mature, healthy human brain regions, confirming the existence of cross-regional differences in cell vulnerability in the human cerebral cortex. PMID:28008307

  18. Parietal Bone Thickness and Vascular Diameters in Adult Modern Humans: A Survey on Cranial Remains.

    PubMed

    Eisová, Stanislava; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Píšová, Hana; Pereira-Pedro, Sofia; Bruner, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Cranial bone thickness varies among modern humans, and many factors influencing this variability remain unclear. Growth hormones and physical activity are thought to influence the vault thickness. Considering that both systemic factors and energy supply influence the vascular system, and taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between endocranial vessels and vault bones, in this study we evaluate the correlation between vascular and bone diameters. In particular, we tested the relationship between the thickness of the parietal bone (which is characterized, in modern humans, by a complex vascular network) and the lumen size of the middle meningeal and diploic vessels, in adult modern humans. Our results show no patent correlation between the thickness of parietal bone and the size of the main vascular channels. Values and distributions of the branching patterns, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, are also described in order to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular morphology. This information is relevant in both evolutionary and medical contexts. Anat Rec, 299:888-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prevalence of human norovirus and Clostridium difficile coinfections in adult hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Stokely, Janelle N; Niendorf, Sandra; Taube, Stefan; Hoehne, Marina; Young, Vincent B; Rogers, Mary AM; Wobus, Christiane E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human norovirus (HuNoV) and Clostridium difficile are common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in adults in the US. However, limited information is available regarding HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections among adult patients in a hospital setting and disease symptomatology. Study design and setting For a cross-sectional analysis, 384 fecal samples were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxins from patients (n=290), whom the provider suspected of C. difficile infections. Subsequent testing was then performed for HuNoV genogroups I and II. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine symptoms more frequently associated with coinfections. Results The final cohort consisted of the following outcome groups: C. difficile (n=196), C. difficile + HuNoV coinfection (n=40), HuNoV only (n=12), and neither (n=136). Coinfected patients were more likely to develop nausea, gas, and abdominal pain and were more likely to seek treatment in the winter season compared with individuals not infected or infected with either pathogen alone. Conclusion Our study revealed that patients with coinfection are more likely to experience certain gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular abdominal pain, suggesting an increased severity of disease symptomatology in coinfected patients. PMID:27418856

  20. Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Johannesson, Bjarki; Sagi, Ido; Burnett, Lisa Cole; Kort, Daniel H; Prosser, Robert W; Paull, Daniel; Nestor, Michael W; Freeby, Matthew; Greenberg, Ellen; Goland, Robin S; Leibel, Rudolph L; Solomon, Susan L; Benvenisty, Nissim; Sauer, Mark V; Egli, Dieter

    2014-06-26

    The transfer of somatic cell nuclei into oocytes can give rise to pluripotent stem cells that are consistently equivalent to embryonic stem cells, holding promise for autologous cell replacement therapy. Although methods to induce pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by transcription factors are widely used in basic research, numerous differences between induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells have been reported, potentially affecting their clinical use. Because of the therapeutic potential of diploid embryonic stem-cell lines derived from adult cells of diseased human subjects, we have systematically investigated the parameters affecting efficiency of blastocyst development and stem-cell derivation. Here we show that improvements to the oocyte activation protocol, including the use of both kinase and translation inhibitors, and cell culture in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors, promote development to the blastocyst stage. Developmental efficiency varied between oocyte donors, and was inversely related to the number of days of hormonal stimulation required for oocyte maturation, whereas the daily dose of gonadotropin or the total number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved did not affect developmental outcome. Because the use of concentrated Sendai virus for cell fusion induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, causing premature oocyte activation, we used diluted Sendai virus in calcium-free medium. Using this modified nuclear transfer protocol, we derived diploid pluripotent stem-cell lines from somatic cells of a newborn and, for the first time, an adult, a female with type 1 diabetes.

  1. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Hamilton, Derek A.; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Crowley, David J.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Silveri, Marisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  2. Micropatterning control of tubular commitment in human adult renal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sciancalepore, Anna G; Portone, Alberto; Moffa, Maria; Persano, Luana; De Luca, Maria; Paiano, Aurora; Sallustio, Fabio; Schena, Francesco P; Bucci, Cecilia; Pisignano, Dario

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of renal injury by autologous, patient-specific adult stem cells is still an unmet need. Unsolved issues remain the spatial integration of stem cells into damaged areas of the organ, the commitment in the required cell type and the development of improved bioengineered devices. In this respect, biomaterials and architectures have to be specialized to control stem cell differentiation. Here, we perform an extensive study on micropatterned extracellular matrix proteins, which constitute a simple and non-invasive approach to drive the differentiation of adult renal progenitor/stem cells (ARPCs) from human donors. ARPCs are interfaced with fibronectin (FN) micropatterns, in the absence of exogenous chemicals or cellular reprogramming. We obtain the differentiation towards tubular cells of ARPCs cultured in basal medium conditions, the tubular commitment thus being specifically induced by micropatterned substrates. We characterize the stability of the tubular differentiation as well as the induction of a polarized phenotype in micropatterned ARPCs. Thus, the developed cues, driving the functional commitment of ARPCs, offer a route to recreate the microenvironment of the stem cell niche in vitro, that may serve, in perspective, for the development of ARPC-based bioengineered devices.

  3. Pertussis toxin activates adult and neonatal naive human CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tonon, Sandrine; Badran, Bassam; Benghiat, Fleur Samantha; Goriely, Stanislas; Flamand, Véronique; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Willems, Fabienne; Goldman, Michel; De Wit, Dominique

    2006-07-01

    Pertussis toxin (PTX) is known to be mitogenic for T lymphocytes, but its direct action on naive human T cells has not been specified. Herein, we show that PTX induces the proliferation of purified adult CD45RA(+)CD4(+) T cells independently of its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PTX directly induces TNF-alpha and IL-2 mRNA expression, modulates the level of several cell surface receptors and induces Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) protein accumulation in naive CD4(+) T cells. Addition of autologous dendritic cells was found to be required for the production of high levels of IFN-gamma by PTX-stimulated naive T cells. These effects of PTX occurred in conjunction with activation of NF-kappaB and NFAT transcription factors. Overall, responses of neonatal CD4(+) T cells to PTX were similar to those of adult CD45RA(+)CD4(+) naive T cells except for their blunted CD40 ligand up-regulation. We suggest that the adjuvant properties of PTX during primary cell-mediated immune responses involve a direct action on naive T lymphocytes in addition to activation of antigen-presenting cells.

  4. Fourier analysis of human soft tissue facial shape: sex differences in normal adults.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Schmitz, J H; Miani, A; Taroni, G

    1995-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in human facial form involves both size and shape variations of the soft tissue structures. These variations are conventionally appreciated using linear and angular measurements, as well as ratios, taken from photographs or radiographs. Unfortunately this metric approach provides adequate quantitative information about size only, eluding the problems of shape definition. Mathematical methods such as the Fourier series allow a correct quantitative analysis of shape and of its changes. A method for the reconstruction of outlines starting from selected landmarks and for their Fourier analysis has been developed, and applied to analyse sex differences in shape of the soft tissue facial contour in a group of healthy young adults. When standardised for size, no sex differences were found between both cosine and sine coefficients of the Fourier series expansion. This shape similarity was largely overwhelmed by the very evident size differences and it could be measured only using the proper mathematical methods. PMID:8586558

  5. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells give rise to distinct T cell lineages in humans.

    PubMed

    Mold, Jeff E; Venkatasubrahmanyam, Shivkumar; Burt, Trevor D; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Rivera, Jose M; Galkina, Sofiya A; Weinberg, Kenneth; Stoddart, Cheryl A; McCune, Joseph M

    2010-12-17

    Although the mammalian immune system is generally thought to develop in a linear fashion, findings in avian and murine species argue instead for the developmentally ordered appearance (or "layering") of distinct hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that give rise to distinct lymphocyte lineages at different stages of development. Here we provide evidence of an analogous layered immune system in humans. Our results suggest that fetal and adult T cells are distinct populations that arise from different populations of HSCs that are present at different stages of development. We also provide evidence that the fetal T cell lineage is biased toward immune tolerance. These observations offer a mechanistic explanation for the tolerogenic properties of the developing fetus and for variable degrees of immune responsiveness at birth.

  6. Second generation codon optimized minicircle (CoMiC) for nonviral reprogramming of human adult fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Diecke, Sebastian; Lisowski, Leszek; Kooreman, Nigel G; Wu, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    The ability to induce pluripotency in somatic cells is one of the most important scientific achievements in the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This technique allows researchers to obtain pluripotent stem cells without the controversial use of embryos, providing a novel and powerful tool for disease modeling and drug screening approaches. However, using viruses for the delivery of reprogramming genes and transcription factors may result in integration into the host genome and cause random mutations within the target cell, thus limiting the use of these cells for downstream applications. To overcome this limitation, various non-integrating techniques, including Sendai virus, mRNA, minicircle, and plasmid-based methods, have recently been developed. Utilizing a newly developed codon optimized 4-in-1 minicircle (CoMiC), we were able to reprogram human adult fibroblasts using chemically defined media and without the need for feeder cells.

  7. Histological study of the extratympanic portion of the discomallear ligament in adult humans: a functional hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; de la Cuadra-Blanco, C; Pozo Kreilinger, J J; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out on histological aspects of the extratympanic portion of the discomallear ligament (DL) in adult humans. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was dissected bilaterally in 20 cadavers; in 15 cases the articular disc (AD) and the retroarticular tissue were extirpated. The extratympanic portion of the DL had the shape of a base-down triangle, in relation to the AD, and an upper vertex, in relation to the petrotympanic fissure. In five cases, the base, measured bilaterally, had an average length of 6.4 mm, while the distance from the base to the upper vertex averaged 9.3 mm in length. The extratypanic portion of the DL is an intrinsic ligament of the TMJ, composed of collagen fibres and abundant elastic fibres. We propose that this ligament could act as a tensor of the synovial membrane in movements of the TMJ. PMID:22050648

  8. Histological study of the extratympanic portion of the discomallear ligament in adult humans: a functional hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; de la Cuadra-Blanco, C; Pozo Kreilinger, J J; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out on histological aspects of the extratympanic portion of the discomallear ligament (DL) in adult humans. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was dissected bilaterally in 20 cadavers; in 15 cases the articular disc (AD) and the retroarticular tissue were extirpated. The extratympanic portion of the DL had the shape of a base-down triangle, in relation to the AD, and an upper vertex, in relation to the petrotympanic fissure. In five cases, the base, measured bilaterally, had an average length of 6.4 mm, while the distance from the base to the upper vertex averaged 9.3 mm in length. The extratypanic portion of the DL is an intrinsic ligament of the TMJ, composed of collagen fibres and abundant elastic fibres. We propose that this ligament could act as a tensor of the synovial membrane in movements of the TMJ.

  9. The evidence for increased L1 activity in the site of human adult brain neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kurnosov, Alexey A; Ustyugova, Svetlana V; Nazarov, Vadim I; Minervina, Anastasia A; Komkov, Alexander Yu; Shugay, Mikhail; Pogorelyy, Mikhail V; Khodosevich, Konstantin V; Mamedov, Ilgar Z; Lebedev, Yuri B

    2015-01-01

    Retroelement activity is a common source of polymorphisms in human genome. The mechanism whereby retroelements contribute to the intraindividual genetic heterogeneity by inserting into the DNA of somatic cells is gaining increasing attention. Brain tissues are suspected to accumulate genetic heterogeneity as a result of the retroelements somatic activity. This study aims to expand our understanding of the role retroelements play in generating somatic mosaicism of neural tissues. Whole-genome Alu and L1 profiling of genomic DNA extracted from the cerebellum, frontal cortex, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus, and the myocardium revealed hundreds of somatic insertions in each of the analyzed tissues. Interestingly, the highest concentration of such insertions was detected in the dentate gyrus-the hotspot of adult neurogenesis. Insertions of retroelements and their activity could produce genetically diverse neuronal subsets, which can be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.

  10. Adolescent and adult first time mothers' health seeking practices during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal health services have a potentially critical role in the improvement of reproductive health. In order to get a better understanding of adolescent mothers'needs we compared health seeking practices of first time adolescent and adult mothers during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between May and August, 2007 in Wakiso district. A total of 762 women (442 adolescents and 320 adult) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. We calculated odds ratios with their 95% CI for antenatal and postnatal health care seeking, stigmatisation and violence experienced from parents comparing adolescents to adult first time mothers. STATA V.8 was used for data analysis. Results Adolescent mothers were significantly more disadvantaged in terms of health care seeking for reproductive health services and faced more challenges during pregnancy and early motherhood compared to adult mothers. Adolescent mothers were more likely to have dropped out of school due to pregnancy (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 2.40–5.44), less likely to earn a salary (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.24–0.76), and more likely to attend antenatal care visits less than four times compared to adult mothers (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.07). Adolescents were also more likely to experience violence from parents (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.39–3.08) and to be stigmatized by the community (CI = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.09–2.59). In early motherhood, adolescent mothers were less likely to seek for second and third vaccine doses for their infants [Polio2 (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55–0.98), Polio3 (OR = 0.70: 95% CI: 0.51–0.95), DPT2 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53–0.96), DPT3 (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50–0.92)] compared to adult mothers. These results are compelling and call for urgent adolescent focused interventions. Conclusion Adolescents showed poorer health care seeking behaviour for themselves and their children, and experienced increased community

  11. Food insecurity is associated with social capital, perceived personal disparity, and partnership status among older and senior adults in a largely rural area of central Texas.

    PubMed

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association of compositional measures of collective social functioning, composed of community and familial social capital and perceived personal disparity, with food security among older (aged 50-59 y) and senior (aged ≥ 60 y) adult residents of the largely rural Brazos Valley in Central Texas using data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment (analytic N = 1059, 74% response rate). Among older adults and seniors, 18.6% reported food insecurity (5.5% often and 13.1% sometimes), defined as running out of food and not having money to buy more. Low community social capital was reported by 22.4% of participants, and 30.8% indicated they were single, widowed, or divorced, an indicator of limited familial social capital. A robust multinomial regression model found the odds of reporting greater food insecurity increased for individuals who were women, African American, residents of a household with a low or poverty-level income, individuals who perceived themselves to be worse off than others within their community, and those who had low social capital. The odds of being food insecure decreased for older respondents, partnered respondents and persons with more education (pseudo r(2) = 0.27, p < 0.0000). Compositional level measures of collective social functioning are important associates of food insecurity among older adults and seniors, regardless of severity.

  12. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species.

  13. The effects of neonatal castration on the subsequent behavioural response to centrally administered arginine vasopressin and the expression of V1a receptors in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Cushing, B S; Okorie, U; Young, L J

    2003-11-01

    Centrally administered arginine vasopressin induces the formation of partner preferences in male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). The expression of many vasopressin-regulated behaviours is testosterone dependent. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that early exposure to gonadal steroids are necessary to establish the typical response of adult male prairie voles to exogenous vasopressin, predicting that adult males which were castrated neonatally would not form partner preferences in response to centrally administered vasopressin. We also examined the effect of neonatal castration on the expression of vasopressin (V1a) receptors. Voles were castrated on the day of birth (NEOCAST), sham-castrated on the day of birth (NEOSHAM) or castrated as adults (ADULTCAST). With the exception of one group of neonatal sham males (NEOSHAM CON), which served as a control for the effects of vasopressin, as adults, all males received a 1- micro l intracerebroventricular injection of vasopressin (100 ng) in artificial cerebrospinal fluid. In addition, 2 weeks before testing, one group of neonatally castrated males received an implant of testosterone propionate (NEOCAST + TP). Between 60 and 90 days of age, an internal cannula was placed in the lateral cerebral ventricle and, 24 h later, males were injected with vasopressin. Subsequently, after an additional 15 min, males were cohabitated with a female 'partner' for 1 h. Immediately following cohabitation, males were placed in a Y-shaped partner preference test apparatus for 3 h, in which the male had access to the 'partner' and a novel female, 'stranger.' Time spent with the partner versus the stranger was compared within and between treatments. The results were found to support our hypothesis as the NEOSHAM and ADULTCAST males formed partner preferences, spending more time with the partner, and they spent significantly more time with their partner than did NEOSHAM CON, NEOCAST or NEOCAST + TP males. Replacement of

  14. Human embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages in contrast to their adult counterparts.

    PubMed

    Ramkisoensing, Arti A; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Askar, Saïd F A; Passier, Robert; Swildens, Jim; Goumans, Marie José; Schutte, Cindy I; de Vries, Antoine A F; Scherjon, Sicco; Mummery, Christine L; Schalij, Martin J; Atsma, Douwe E

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show unexplained differences in differentiation potential. In this study, differentiation of human (h) MSCs derived from embryonic, fetal and adult sources toward cardiomyocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells was investigated. Labeled hMSCs derived from embryonic stem cells (hESC-MSCs), fetal umbilical cord, bone marrow, amniotic membrane and adult bone marrow and adipose tissue were co-cultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (nrCMCs) or cardiac fibroblasts (nrCFBs) for 10 days, and also cultured under angiogenic conditions. Cardiomyogenesis was assessed by human-specific immunocytological analysis, whole-cell current-clamp recordings, human-specific qRT-PCR and optical mapping. After co-culture with nrCMCs, significantly more hESC-MSCs than fetal hMSCs stained positive for α-actinin, whereas adult hMSCs stained negative. Furthermore, functional cardiomyogenic differentiation, based on action potential recordings, was shown to occur, but not in adult hMSCs. Of all sources, hESC-MSCs expressed most cardiac-specific genes. hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs contained significantly higher basal levels of connexin43 than adult hMSCs and co-culture with nrCMCs increased expression. After co-culture with nrCFBs, hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs did not express α-actinin and connexin43 expression was decreased. Conduction velocity (CV) in co-cultures of nrCMCs and hESC-MSCs was significantly higher than in co-cultures with fetal or adult hMSCs. In angiogenesis bioassays, only hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs were able to form capillary-like structures, which stained for smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers.Human embryonic and fetal MSCs differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages, in contrast to adult MSCs. Cardiomyogenesis is determined by stimuli from the cellular microenvironment, where connexin43 may play an important role.

  15. Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected human organs of adult asian population.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Cho, S Y; Natera, E S

    2004-08-01

    Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in some selected human organs were estimated for adult Asian population using data obtained in four Asian countries: China, India, Philippines, and Republic of Korea, as part of a Coordinated Research Program of the International Atomic Energy Agency on "Ingestion and Organ contents of elements of importance in radiation protection." These countries together represent more than 40% of the world population. Highly sensitive analytical techniques were employed to measure cesium in skeletal muscle, iodine in thyroid, strontium in skeleton, thorium and uranium in skeleton, liver, kidneys, and lungs where, in comparison to other organs, these elements are present in higher concentrations. The organ contents for adult Asian population, when compared with the corresponding data proposed for Reference Man by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), showed about 40 times lower kidneys content and about 10 times lower skeleton content of uranium. The content of thorium in skeleton for Asian population was also half of the ICRP Reference Man value. Interestingly, organ contents for the other elements such as iodine in thyroid, cesium in skeletal muscle, and strontium in skeleton were comparable for Asian and the Caucasian population (represented by ICRP Reference Man). Organ contents for these elements were also calculated by applying the new ICRP models of these elements to their daily intakes. The comparison of the calculated and measured organ contents showed that despite uncertainties in the organ content values arising due to the inter-country variations in daily dietary intakes, the contents were within a factor of two to three. This observation is significant since human data both on organ contents and ingestion were obtained at environmental level of intakes. The study suggests that currently available ICRP models for these elements are quite realistic.

  16. Development of human cloned blastocysts following somatic cell nuclear transfer with adult fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    French, Andrew J; Adams, Catharine A; Anderson, Linda S; Kitchen, John R; Hughes, Marcus R; Wood, Samuel H

    2008-02-01

    Nuclear transfer stem cells hold considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. In this study, a total of 29 oocytes were obtained from three young (20-24 years old) reproductive egg donors who had been successful in previous cycles. These oocytes, deemed by intended parents to be in excess of their reproductive needs, were donated for research without financial compensation by both the egg donor and intended parents after receiving informed consent. All intended parents successfully achieved ongoing pregnancies with the oocytes retained for reproductive purposes. Mature oocytes, obtained within 2 hours following transvaginal aspiration, were enucleated using one of two methods, extrusion or aspiration, after 45 minutes of incubation in cytochalasin B. Rates of oocyte lysis or degeneration did not differ between the two methods. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos were constructed using two established adult male fibroblast lines of normal karyotype. High rates of pronuclear formation (66%), early cleavage (47%), and blastocyst (23%) development were observed following incubation in standard in vitro fertilization culture media. One cloned blastocyst was confirmed by DNA and mitochondrial DNA fingerprinting analyses, and DNA fingerprinting of two other cloned blastocysts indicated that they were also generated by SCNT. Blastocysts were also obtained from a limited number of parthenogenetically activated oocytes. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that SCNT can produce human blastocyst-stage embryos using nuclei obtained from differentiated adult cells and provides new information on methods that may be needed for a higher level of efficiency for human nuclear transfer.

  17. Technological overview of iPS induction from human adult somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Bayart, Emilie; Cohen-Haguenauer, Odile

    2013-04-01

    The unlimited proliferation capacity of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) combined with their pluripotent differentiation potential in various lineages raised great interest in both the scientific community and the public at large with hope for future prospects of regenerative medicine. However, since ESCs are derived from human embryos, their use is associated with significant ethical issues preventing broad studies and therapeutic applications. To get around this bottleneck, Takahashi and Yamanaka have recently achieved the conversion of adult somatic cells into ES-like cells via the forced expression of four transcription factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. This first demonstration attracted public attention and opened a new field of stem cells research with both cognitive - such as disease modeling - and therapeutic prospects. This pioneer work just received the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Many methods have been reported since 2006, for the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Most strategies currently under use are based on gene delivery via gamma-retroviral or lentiviral vectors; some experiments have also been successful using plasmids or transposons- based systems and few with adenovirus. However, most experiments involve integration in the host cell genome with an identified risk for insertional mutagenesis and oncogenic transformation. To circumvent such risks which are deemed incompatible with therapeutic prospects, significant progress has been made with transgene-free reprogramming methods based on e.g.: sendai virus or direct mRNA or protein delivery to achieve conversion of adult cells into iPS. In this review we aim to cover current knowledge relating to both delivery systems and combinations of inducing factors including chemicals which are used to generate human iPS cells. Finally, genetic instability resulting from the reprogramming process is also being considered as a safety bottleneck for future clinical translation

  18. Oct4 expression in adult human stem cells: evidence in support of the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tai, Mei-Hui; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kiupel, Matti; Webster, Joshua D; Olson, L Karl; Trosko, James E

    2005-02-01

    The Oct3/4 gene, a POU family transcription factor, has been noted as being specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells and in tumor cells but not in cells of differentiated tissues. With the ability to isolate adult human stem cells it became possible to test for the expression of Oct3/4 gene in adult stem cells and to test the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis. Using antibodies and PCR primers we tested human breast, liver, pancreas, kidney, mesenchyme and gastric stem cells, the cancer cell lines HeLa and MCF-7 and human, dog and rat tumors for Oct4 expression. The results indicate that adult human stem cells, immortalized non-tumorigenic cells and tumor cells and cell lines, but not differentiated cells, express Oct4. Oct4 is expressed in a few cells found in the basal layer of human skin epidermis. The data demonstrate that adult stem cells maintain expression of Oct4, consistent with the stem cell hypothesis of carcinogenesis.

  19. Microenvironmental determinants of adult neural stem cell proliferation and lineage commitment in the healthy and injured central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Moyse, Emmanuel; Segura, Stéphanie; Liard, Oliver; Mahaut, Stéphanie; Mechawar, Naguib

    2008-09-01

    The discovery of neural stem cells (NSC) which ensure continuous neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain, has led to a conceptual revolution in basic neuroscience and to high hopes for clinical nervous tissue repair. However, several research issues remain to address before neural stem cells can be harnessed for regenerative therapies. The presence of NSC in a nervous structure is demonstrated in vitro by primary culture of dissociated adult nervous tissue in the presence of the specific mitogens EGF and bFGF. This leads to spherical masses of proliferating cells endowed with capacities for self-renewal and, after growth factor removal, differentiation into the three characteristic cell types of nervous tissue (neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes). In vivo, neurogenesis per se, i.e. production of new neurons, occurs only in a small subset of NSC-endowed structures. The production of oligodendrocytes, i.e. myelinating glial cells, is similarly restricted. Such in vivo restrictions were formally demonstrated to arise from the tissular microenvironnement, which led to the emerging concept of "neurogenic niche". In this context, major challenges now consist in identifying the nature of tissue-specific extracellular signals that determine lineage commitment of NSC progeny, understanding why NSCs display weak in vivo reactivity to lesions compared to other stem cell types in adults, and identifying the factors behind the very high resistance to tumorigenesis displayed by NSCs. Altogether, the current data offer hope for the future use of adult NSCs in regenerative therapies, provided that tissue-specific signals are identified in view of counteracting the intrinsic repression of new cell genesis and/or stimulating endogenous NSC recruitment to lesion sites.

  20. Neuroendocrine function in adult female transgenic mice expressing the human growth hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, V; Bartke, A; Wagner, T E

    1992-04-01

    Adult female transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene with mouse metallothionein-I promoter are sterile. To evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary function in these animals, adult female transgenic mice and nontransgenic normal littermates were ovariectomized. On days 7 and 8 after ovariectomy, mice were injected with either oil or primed with 0.5 micrograms estradiol benzoate (EB) in oil, 24 h later treated with 10 micrograms EB/100 g body wt and a day later bled for measurements of FSH, LH, and PRL levels. Plasma gonadotropin and PRL levels were also measured in ovary-intact transgenic and normal siblings at estrus. Additional ovariectomized EB-treated transgenic mice and normal siblings were injected with either saline or GnRH in saline (1 ng/g body wt) and were bled 15 min later for determination of circulating hormone levels. At estrus, in transgenic mice, circulating FSH and PRL levels were significantly lower (FSH:P less than 0.001; PRL:P less than 0.025), but plasma LH concentrations were higher (P less than 0.001) than those in nontransgenic mice. As expected, ovariectomy significantly increased (P less than 0.001) circulating FSH and LH levels in both groups of mice relative to ovary-intact animals, but the increase in plasma LH levels was attenuated in transgenic mice. The suppressive effect of estrogen on circulating FSH and LH levels were similar in transgenic and nontransgenic mice. Treatment with GnRH significantly increased plasma FSH and LH levels in both transgenic and normal mice. However, the plasma FSH and LH responses to GnRH administration were significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) in transgenic mice. The results of these studies indicate that adult female transgenic mice expressing the hGH gene are hypoprolactinemic. Yet due to PRL-like activity of hGH, the gonadotropin secretion is altered. Thus, endogenously secreted hGH modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary function of adult female transgenic mice bearing the hGH gene.

  1. Satb2 determines miRNA expression and long-term memory in the adult central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Jaitner, Clemens; Reddy, Chethan; Abentung, Andreas; Whittle, Nigel; Rieder, Dietmar; Delekate, Andrea; Korte, Martin; Jain, Gaurav; Fischer, Andre; Sananbenesi, Farahnaz; Cera, Isabella; Singewald, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    SATB2 is a risk locus for schizophrenia and encodes a DNA-binding protein that regulates higher-order chromatin configuration. In the adult brain Satb2 is almost exclusively expressed in pyramidal neurons of two brain regions important for memory formation, the cerebral cortex and the CA1-hippocampal field. Here we show that Satb2 is required for key hippocampal functions since deletion of Satb2 from the adult mouse forebrain prevents the stabilization of synaptic long-term potentiation and markedly impairs long-term fear and object discrimination memory. At the molecular level, we find that synaptic activity and BDNF up-regulate Satb2, which itself binds to the promoters of coding and non-coding genes. Satb2 controls the hippocampal levels of a large cohort of miRNAs, many of which are implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Together, our findings demonstrate that Satb2 is critically involved in long-term plasticity processes in the adult forebrain that underlie the consolidation and stabilization of context-linked memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17361.001 PMID:27897969

  2. Human health risks in an old gold mining area with circum-neutral drainage, central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P C S; Neiva, A M R; Silva, M M V G; Santos, A C T

    2017-02-01

    The former mine of Escádia Grande was active at the middle of 1900 and was exploited for Au and Ag. The mineralized quartz veins consist mainly of quartz, arsenopyrite, pyrite, rare chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, gold and argentite. The mine dumps and tailings were deposited close to a stream, and there is a river beach downstream used for recreational proposes. Two villages are also located close to the old mining area. Mine wastes contained up to 8090 mg/kg of As and 70.1 mg/kg of Sb. The waters of the stream that cross the mining area have circum-neutral pH values and contained elevated concentrations of As reaching up to 284 µg/L. However, geochemical speciation modeling (Phreeq C) revealed that As was mainly present as As (V). Arsenic concentrations in waters are attenuated throughout the stream, mainly by the iron-(hydro)-oxides adsorption upstream. However, at 2 km downstream of mine wastes in the river beach, the waters still exceeded 10 µg/L of As, the drinking water limit. The waters also have NO2(-), Cu and Cd concentrations higher than drinking water limit. The stream sediments have As concentrations up to 45 times higher (3140 mg/kg) than the limit of the sediment guideline values of NWQMS (2000). The maximum arsenic concentrations in soils are also up to 27 times higher (5940 mg/kg) than the maximum concentrations in streams from FOREGS Geochemical Atlas of Europe. The use of river beach for recreational purposes causes cancer risk (4.48 × 10(-6)) higher than USEPA limit, mainly due to the arsenic exposure. Even for recreational purposes, stream sediments and soils in the old mining area have high non-carcinogenic effects (2.76 and 4.78, respectively) for children, also related to the arsenic exposure mainly by the ingestion pathway, and the risk is unacceptable according to the limits of USEPA. Moreover, the cancer risk resulting from exposure of adults to arsenic in soils also has unacceptable non-cancer risk (1.13). Arsenic is the

  3. Human responses to upright tilt: a window on central autonomic integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, W. H.; Hoag, J. B.; Crossman, A. A.; Kuusela, T. A.; Tahvanainen, K. U.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    1. We examined interactions between haemodynamic and autonomic neural oscillations during passive upright tilt, to gain better insight into human autonomic regulatory mechanisms. 2. We recorded the electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, respiration and peroneal nerve muscle sympathetic activity in nine healthy young adults. Subjects breathed in time with a metronome at 12 breaths min-1 (0.2 Hz) for 5 min each, in supine, and 20, 40, 60, 70 and 80 deg head-up positions. We performed fast Fourier transform (and autoregressive) power spectral analyses and integrated low-frequency (0.05-0.15 Hz) and respiratory-frequency (0. 15-0.5 Hz) spectral powers. 3. Integrated areas of muscle sympathetic bursts and their low- and respiratory-frequency spectral powers increased directly and significantly with the tilt angle. The centre frequency of low-frequency sympathetic oscillations was constant before and during tilt. Sympathetic bursts occurred more commonly during expiration than inspiration at low tilt angles, but occurred equally in expiration and inspiration at high tilt angles. 4. Systolic and diastolic pressures and their low- and respiratory-frequency spectral powers increased, and R-R intervals and their respiratory-frequency spectral power decreased progressively with the tilt angle. Low-frequency R-R interval spectral power did not change. 5. The cross-spectral phase angle between systolic pressures and R-R intervals remained constant and consistently negative at the low frequency, but shifted progressively from positive to negative at the respiratory frequency during tilt. The arterial baroreflex modulus, calculated from low-frequency cross-spectra, decreased at high tilt angles. 6. Our results document changes of baroreflex responses during upright tilt, which may reflect leftward movement of subjects on their arterial pressure sympathetic and vagal response relations. The intensity, but not the centre frequency of low

  4. Norovirus-Specific Memory T Cell Responses in Adult Human Donors

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Maria; Tamminen, Kirsi; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages worldwide. NoV-specific serum antibodies which block the binding of NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) to the cell receptors have been thoroughly investigated. In contrast, only a few publications are available on the NoV capsid VP1 protein-specific T cell responses in humans naturally infected with the virus. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight healthy adult human donors previously exposed to NoV were stimulated with purified VLPs derived from NoV GII.4-1999, GII.4-2012 (Sydney), and GI.3, and IFN-γ production was measured by an ELISPOT assay. In addition, 76 overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the entire 539-amino acid sequence of GII.4 VP1 were pooled into two-dimensional matrices and used to identify putative T cell epitopes. Seven of the eight subjects produced IFN-γ in response to the peptides and five subjects produced IFN-γ in response to the VLPs of the same origin. In general, stronger T cell responses were induced with the peptides in each donor compared to the VLPs. A CD8+ T cell epitope in the shell domain of the VP1 (134SPSQVTMFPHIIVDVRQL151) was identified in two subjects, both having human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A∗02:01 allele. To our knowledge, this is the first report using synthetic peptides to study NoV-specific T cell responses in human subjects and identify T cell epitopes. PMID:27752254

  5. Microarray Analysis of Cell Cycle Gene Expression in Adult Human Corneal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ha Thi, Binh Minh; Campolmi, Nelly; He, Zhiguo; Pipparelli, Aurélien; Manissolle, Chloé; Thuret, Jean-Yves; Piselli, Simone; Forest, Fabien; Peoc'h, Michel; Garraud, Olivier; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Corneal endothelial cells (ECs) form a monolayer that controls the hydration of the cornea and thus its transparency. Their almost nil proliferative status in humans is responsible, in several frequent diseases, for cell pool attrition that leads to irreversible corneal clouding. To screen for candidate genes involved in cell cycle arrest, we studied human ECs subjected to various environments thought to induce different proliferative profiles compared to ECs in vivo. Donor corneas (a few hours after death), organ-cultured (OC) corneas, in vitro confluent and non-confluent primary cultures, and an immortalized EC line were compared to healthy ECs retrieved in the first minutes of corneal grafts. Transcriptional profiles were compared using a cDNA array of 112 key genes of the cell cycle and analysed using Gene Ontology classification; cluster analysis and gene map presentation of the cell cycle regulation pathway were performed by GenMAPP. Results were validated using qRT-PCR on 11 selected genes. We found several transcripts of proteins implicated in cell cycle arrest and not previously reported in human ECs. Early G1-phase arrest effectors and multiple DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest-associated transcripts were found in vivo and over-represented in OC and in vitro ECs. Though highly proliferative, immortalized ECs also exhibited overexpression of transcripts implicated in cell cycle arrest. These new effectors likely explain the stress-induced premature senescence that characterizes human adult ECs. They are potential targets for triggering and controlling EC proliferation with a view to increasing the cell pool of stored corneas or facilitating mass EC culture for bioengineered endothelial grafts. PMID:24747418

  6. [Clinico-biochemical aspects of human adaptation in central Antarctica as applied to the problems of space biology and medicine].

    PubMed

    Kurbanov, V V; Khmel'kov, V P; Krupina, T N; Kuznetscv, A G; Kuz'min, M P

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of clinical, physiological and biochemical examination of 27 polar explorer--members of the 17th Soviet Antartic Expedition at the Vostok station. It gives data on the morbidity rate and describes the development of the asthenic-neurotic syndrome. On the basis of studies of catecholamines and serotonin, the role of the sympatho-adrenal system in the human adaptation to the harsh environments of the Central Antarctica has been shown.

  7. [Ethical justification for human stem cell research. The view of the German Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research].

    PubMed

    Siep, L

    2008-09-01

    According to the German Stem Cell Act the Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research (ZES) advices the competent authority (Robert Koch Institute) as to whether an application to import human embryonic stem-cells for research is "ethically justifiable" ("ethisch vertretbar"). The law does indeed specify some conditions of this justification, but without precisely defining them. This article clarifies the committee's understanding of ethically justifiable research. It deals with misunderstandings of the law and problems involved in its application.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of human hemoglobin switching: selective undermethylation and expression of globin genes in embryonic, fetal, and adult erythroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Mavilio, F; Giampaolo, A; Carè, A; Migliaccio, G; Calandrini, M; Russo, G; Pagliardi, G L; Mastroberardino, G; Marinucci, M; Peschle, C

    1983-01-01

    The globin chain synthetic pattern and the extent of DNA methylation within embryonic, fetal, and adult beta-like globin gene domains were evaluated in greater than or equal to 90% purified human erythroblasts from yolk sacs and fetal livers in the 6- to 12-wk gestational period as well as from adult marrows. The 6-wk erythroblasts produce essentially embryonic epsilon chains, whereas the 12-wk erythroblasts synthesize largely fetal gamma globin and the adult marrow erythroblasts synthesize almost exclusively adult beta chains. In all phases of ontogenic development, a strong correlation exists between DNA hypomethylation in the close flanking sequences of globin genes and their expression. These results suggest that modulation of the methylation pattern may represent a key mechanism for regulating expression of human globin genes during embryonic leads to fetal and fetal leads to adult Hb switches in humans. In ontogenic development this mechanism might in turn correlate with a gradual modification of chromatin structure in the non-alpha gene cluster, thus leading to a 5' leads to 3' activation of globin genes in a balanced fashion. Images PMID:6316333

  9. Breathing Through an Inspiratory Threshold Device Improves Stroke Volume During Central Hypovolemia in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-28

    oscillations of the R-to-R interval) were not altered. ITD breathing did not alter the transfer function between systolic arterial pressure and R-to-R...resistance increases tolerance to progressive central hypovolemia by better maintaining SV, cardiac output, and arterial blood pressures via primarily...increase in tolerance to progressive central hypovolemia using inspiratory resistance was associated with maintenance of blood pressure (13) and

  10. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Werner; Buerger, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Although experimental data clearly confirm the existence of self-renewing mammary stem cells, the characteristics of such progenitor cells have never been satisfactorily defined. Using a double immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous detection of the basal cytokeratin 5, the glandular cytokeratins 8/18 and the myoepithelial differentiation marker smooth muscle actin (SMA), we were able to demonstrate the presence of CK5+ cells in human adult breast epithelium. These cells have the potential to differentiate to either glandular (CK8/18+) or myoepithelial cells (SMA+) through intermediary cells (CK5+ and CK8/18+ or SMA+). We therefore proceeded on the assumption that the CK5+ cells are phenotypically and behaviourally progenitor (committed adult stem) cells of human breast epithelium. Furthermore, we furnish evidence that most of these progenitor cells are located in the luminal epithelium of the ductal lobular tree. Based on data obtained in extensive analyses of proliferative breast disease lesions, we have come to regard usual ductal hyperplasia as a progenitor cell-derived lesion, whereas most breast cancers seem to evolve from differentiated glandular cells. Double immunofluorescence experiments provide a new tool to characterize phenotypically progenitor (adult stem) cells and their progenies. This model has been shown to be of great value for a better understanding not only of normal tissue regeneration but also of proliferative breast disease. Furthermore, this model provides a new tool for unravelling further the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal and pathological cell growth.

  11. Culture bag systems for clinical applications of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases as well as complex craniofacial injuries such as those common after cancer therapy, the field of regenerative medicine increasingly relies on stem cell transplantation strategies. Here, neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) offer many promising applications, although scale up of clinical-grade processes prior to potential transplantations is currently limiting. In this study, we aimed to establish a clinical-grade, cost-reducing cultivation system for NCSCs isolated from the adult human nose using cGMP-grade Afc-FEP bags. Methods We cultivated human neural crest-derived stem cells from inferior turbinate (ITSCs) in a cell culture bag system using Afc-FEP bags in human blood plasma-supplemented medium. Investigations of viability, proliferation and expression profile of bag-cultured ITSCs were followed by DNA-content and telomerase activity determination. Cultivated ITSCs were introduced to directed in vitro differentiation assays to assess their potential for mesodermal and ectodermal differentiation. Mesodermal differentiation was determined using an enzyme activity assay (alkaline phosphatase, ALP), respective stainings (Alizarin Red S, Von Kossa and Oil Red O), and RT-PCR, while immunocytochemistry and synaptic vesicle recycling were applied to assay neuroectodermal differentiation of ITSCs. Results When cultivated within Afc-FEP bags, ITSCs grew three-dimensionally in a human blood plasma-derived matrix, thereby showing unchanged morphology, proliferation capability, viability and expression profile in comparison to three dimensionally-cultured ITSCs growing in standard cell culture plastics. Genetic stability of bag-cultured ITSCs was further accompanied by unchanged telomerase activity. Importantly, ITSCs retained their potential to differentiate into mesodermal cell types, particularly including ALP-active, Alizarin Red S-, and Von Kossa-positive osteogenic cell types, as well as

  12. Effect of exercise on fluoride metabolism in adult humans: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    V Zohoori, Fatemeh; Innerd, Alison; Azevedo, Liane B; Whitford, Gary M; Maguire, Anne

    2015-11-19

    An understanding of all aspects of fluoride metabolism is critical to identify its biological effects and avoid fluoride toxicity in humans. Fluoride metabolism and subsequently its body retention may be affected by physiological responses to acute exercise. This pilot study investigated the effect of exercise on plasma fluoride concentration, urinary fluoride excretion and fluoride renal clearance following no exercise and three exercise intensity conditions in nine healthy adults after taking a 1-mg Fluoride tablet. After no, light, moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively, the mean (SD) baseline-adjusted i) plasma fluoride concentration was 9.6(6.3), 11.4(6.3), 15.6(7.7) and 14.9(10.0) ng/ml; ii) rate of urinary fluoride excretion over 0-8 h was 46(15), 44(22), 34(17) and 36(17) μg/h; and iii) rate of fluoride renal clearance was 26.5(9.0), 27.2(30.4), 13.1(20.4) and 18.3(34.9) ml/min. The observed trend of a rise in plasma fluoride concentration and decline in rate of fluoride renal clearance with increasing exercise intensity needs to be investigated in a larger trial. This study, which provides the first data on the effect of exercise with different intensities on fluoride metabolism in humans, informs sample size planning for any subsequent definitive trial, by providing a robust estimate of the variability of the effect.

  13. Absorption of sunscreens across human skin: an evaluation of commercial products for children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, R; Roberts, M S; Collins, D M; Benson, H A E

    1999-01-01

    Aims Topical sunscreens are routinely applied to the skin by a large percentage of the population. This study assessed the extent of absorption of a number of common chemical sunscreen agents into and through human skin following application of commercially available products. Methods Sunscreen products were applied to excised human epidermis in Franz diffusion cells with the amount penetrating into and across the epidermis assessed by h.p.l.c. for 8 h following application. Results All sunscreen agents investigated penetrated into the skin (0.25 g m−2 or 14% of applied dose), but only benzophenone-3 passed through the skin in significant amounts (0.08 g m−2 or 10% of the applied dose). With one exception, suncreen agents in corresponding products marketed for adults and children had similar skin penetration profiles. Conclusions Whilst limited absorption across the skin was observed for the majority of the sunscreens tested, benzophenone-3 demonstrated sufficiently high penetration to warrant further investigation of its continued application. PMID:10583038

  14. Electrophysiological Profiles of Induced Neurons Converted Directly from Adult Human Fibroblasts Indicate Incomplete Neuronal Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Koppensteiner, Peter; Boehm, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The direct conversion of human fibroblasts to neuronal cells, termed human induced neuronal (hiN) cells, has great potential for future clinical advances. However, previous studies have not provided an in-depth analysis of electrophysiological properties of adult fibroblast-derived hiN cultures. We have examined the electrophysiological profile of hiN cells by measuring passive and active membrane properties, as well as spontaneous and evoked neurotransmission. We found that hiN cells exhibited passive membrane properties equivalent to perinatal rodent neurons. In addition, 30% of hiN cells were incapable of action potential (AP) generation and did not exhibit rectifying membrane currents, and none of the cells displayed firing patterns of typical glutamatergic pyramidal neurons. Finally, hiN cells exhibited neither spontaneous nor evoked neurotransmission. Our results suggest that current methods used to produce hiN cells provide preparations in which cells do not achieve the cellular properties of fully mature neurons, rendering these cells inadequate to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25437871

  15. Effect of exercise on fluoride metabolism in adult humans: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    V. Zohoori, Fatemeh; Innerd, Alison; Azevedo, Liane B.; Whitford, Gary M.; Maguire, Anne

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of all aspects of fluoride metabolism is critical to identify its biological effects and avoid fluoride toxicity in humans. Fluoride metabolism and subsequently its body retention may be affected by physiological responses to acute exercise. This pilot study investigated the effect of exercise on plasma fluoride concentration, urinary fluoride excretion and fluoride renal clearance following no exercise and three exercise intensity conditions in nine healthy adults after taking a 1-mg Fluoride tablet. After no, light, moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively, the mean (SD) baseline-adjusted i) plasma fluoride concentration was 9.6(6.3), 11.4(6.3), 15.6(7.7) and 14.9(10.0) ng/ml; ii) rate of urinary fluoride excretion over 0–8 h was 46(15), 44(22), 34(17) and 36(17) μg/h; and iii) rate of fluoride renal clearance was 26.5(9.0), 27.2(30.4), 13.1(20.4) and 18.3(34.9) ml/min. The observed trend of a rise in plasma fluoride concentration and decline in rate of fluoride renal clearance with increasing exercise intensity needs to be investigated in a larger trial. This study, which provides the first data on the effect of exercise with different intensities on fluoride metabolism in humans, informs sample size planning for any subsequent definitive trial, by providing a robust estimate of the variability of the effect. PMID:26581340

  16. Quantitative estimation of absorption and degradation of a carnitine supplement by human adults.

    PubMed

    Rebouche, C J

    1991-12-01

    Results of kinetic and pharmacokinetic studies have suggested that dietary carnitine supplements are not totally absorbed, and are in part degraded in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. To determine the metabolic fate of dietary carnitine supplements in humans, we administered orally a tracer dose of [methyl-3H]L-carnitine with a meal to five normal adult males, who had been adapted to a high-carnitine diet plus carnitine supplement (2 g/d) for 14 days. Appearance of [methyl-3H]L-carnitine and metabolites in serum, and urinary and fecal excretion of radiolabeled carnitine and metabolites was monitored for 5 to 11 days following administration of the test dose. Maximum concentration of [methyl-3H]L-carnitine in serum occurred at 2.0 to 4.5 hours after administration of the tracer, indicating relatively slow absorption from the intestinal lumen. Total radioactive metabolites excreted in urine and feces ranged from 47% to 55% of the ingested tracer. Major metabolites found were [3H]trimethylamine N-oxide (8% to 49% of the administered dose; excreted primarily in urine) and [3H]gamma-butyrobetaine (0.44% to 45% of the administered dose; excreted primarily in feces). Urinary excretion of total carnitine was 16% to 23% of intake. Fecal excretion of total carnitine was negligible (less than 2% of total carnitine excretion).

  17. ECM microenvironment unlocks brown adipogenic potential of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michelle H.; Goralczyk, Anna G.; Kriszt, Rókus; Ang, Xiu Min; Badowski, Cedric; Li, Ying; Summers, Scott A.; Toh, Sue-Anne; Yassin, M. Shabeer; Shabbir, Asim; Sheppard, Allan; Raghunath, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Key to realizing the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of human brown/brite adipocytes is the identification of a renewable, easily accessible and safe tissue source of progenitor cells, and an efficacious in vitro differentiation protocol. We show that macromolecular crowding (MMC) facilitates brown adipocyte differentiation in adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs), as evidenced by substantially upregulating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and uncoupled respiration. Moreover, MMC also induced ‘browning’ in bmMSC-derived white adipocytes. Mechanistically, MMC creates a 3D extracellular matrix architecture enshrouding maturing adipocytes in a collagen IV cocoon that is engaged by paxillin-positive focal adhesions also at the apical side of cells, without contact to the stiff support structure. This leads to an enhanced matrix-cell signaling, reflected by increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a key transcription factor in UCP1 regulation. Thus, tuning the dimensionality of the microenvironment in vitro can unlock a strong brown potential dormant in bone marrow. PMID:26883894

  18. Effect of the N-terminal residues on the quaternary dynamics of human adult hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shanyan; Mizuno, Misao; Ishikawa, Haruto; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2016-05-01

    The protein dynamics of human hemoglobin following ligand photolysis was studied by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy. The time-resolved spectra of two kinds of recombinant hemoglobin expressed in Escherichia coli, normal recombinant hemoglobin and the α(V1M)/β(V1M) double mutant, were compared with those of human adult hemoglobin (HbA) purified from blood. A frequency shift of the iron-histidine stretching [ν(Fe-His)] band was observed in the time-resolved spectra of all three hemoglobin samples, indicative of tertiary and quaternary changes in the protein following photolysis. The spectral changes of the α(V1M)/β(V1M) double mutant were distinct from those of HbA in the tens of microseconds region, whereas the spectral changes of normal recombinant hemoglobin were similar to those of HbA isolated from blood. These results demonstrated that a structural change in the N-termini is involved in the second step of the quaternary structure change of hemoglobin. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the allosteric pathway of HbA.

  19. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian’an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna AE; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex SF; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M.; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor VA; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John JP; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela AF; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul IW; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L.; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth JF; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explain one-fifth of heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ~2,000, ~3,700 and ~9,500 SNPs explained ~21%, ~24% and ~29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured the majority (60%) of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci enriched for genes, pathways, and tissue-types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin, and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants. PMID:25282103

  20. Differential expression of TYRP1 in adult human retinal pigment epithelium and uveal melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    QIU, CHUN; LI, PENG; BI, JIANJUN; WU, QING; LU, LINNA; QIAN, GUANXIANG; JIA, RENBING; JIA, RONG

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most frequently occurring primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Tyrosinase (TYR) is a copper-containing enzyme and a type I membrane protein that is involved in the generation of melanin, the main pigment in vertebrates. TYR-related protein 1 (TYRP1) is regarded to have a crucial role in the immunotherapy of melanoma. As biomarkers, the TYR-related proteins, TYRP1 and TYRP2, exhibit specific expression in melanocytes, while also contributing to melanin synthesis within melanosomes. In the present study, the differential expression of TYRP1 was investigated at the mRNA, protein and morphological levels in four human UM cell lines (SP6.5, OM431, OCM1 and OCM290) and the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line, using polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. It was found that SP6.5 cells expressed the highest level of TYRP1, in comparison to SP6.5 OCM1 and OM431 cells, which produced less TYRP1, and OCM290 cells, which produced almost no TYRP1. No TYRP1 protein expression was identified in the RPE cell line. These findings indicate the potential use of TYRP1 in the development of therapy for UM. PMID:27073483

  1. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew R; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Pers, Tune H; Gustafsson, Stefan; Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Arnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor V A; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela A F; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth J F; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2014-11-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.

  2. Human atherosclerosis. III. Immunocytochemical analysis of the cell composition of lesions of young adults.

    PubMed Central

    Katsuda, S.; Boyd, H. C.; Fligner, C.; Ross, R.; Gown, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    There have been only limited immunocytochemical studies of the cell composition of the early lesions of human atherosclerosis, and none that incorporate a comprehensive panel of antibodies to various cell types and subsets. The authors thus performed a prospective study of 27 lesions from 16 different individuals ranging in age from 15 to 34 years. These were all lesions that appeared grossly as slightly raised, yellow fatty streaks in the posterior ascending aorta, but on histologic examination had varying degrees of round-cell, spindle-cell, and foam-cell accumulation. Using a panel of antibodies, including monoclonal antibodies specific for smooth muscle cells [HHF35], human macrophages [HAM56], endothelial cells [monoclonal antibodies to F. VIII related antigen], lymphocytes [anti-CD45, anti-CD20, anti-CD45RO, anti-T-cell receptor], it was revealed that the predominant cell type in these early lesions was the smooth muscle cell, including the vast majority of the foam cells, which tended to appear in the deeper regions of the lesions. There were variable numbers of smooth muscle cells and lymphocytes; the latter were exclusively T cells. It is concluded that in atherosclerotic lesions of young adults, which may represent various stages of fatty streak formation and advanced fatty streaks, smooth muscle cell accumulation may be an early event. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1562051

  3. Tissue-specific mutation accumulation in human adult stem cells during life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokzijl, Francis; de Ligt, Joep; Jager, Myrthe; Sasselli, Valentina; Roerink, Sophie; Sasaki, Nobuo; Huch, Meritxell; Boymans, Sander; Kuijk, Ewart; Prins, Pjotr; Nijman, Isaac J.; Martincorena, Inigo; Mokry, Michal; Wiegerinck, Caroline L.; Middendorp, Sabine; Sato, Toshiro; Schwank, Gerald; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Verstegen, Monique M. A.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; de Jonge, Jeroen; Ijzermans, Jan N. M.; Vries, Robert G.; van de Wetering, Marc; Stratton, Michael R.; Clevers, Hans; Cuppen, Edwin; van Boxtel, Ruben

    2016-10-01

    The gradual accumulation of genetic mutations in human adult stem cells (ASCs) during life is associated with various age-related diseases, including cancer. Extreme variation in cancer risk across tissues was recently proposed to depend on the lifetime number of ASC divisions, owing to unavoidable random mutations that arise during DNA replication. However, the rates and patterns of mutations in normal ASCs remain unknown. Here we determine genome-wide mutation patterns in ASCs of the small intestine, colon and liver of human donors with ages ranging from 3 to 87 years by sequencing clonal organoid cultures derived from primary multipotent cells. Our results show that mutations accumulate steadily over time in all of the assessed tissue types, at a rate of approximately 40 novel mutations per year, despite the large variation in cancer incidence among these tissues. Liver ASCs, however, have different mutation spectra compared to those of the colon and small intestine. Mutational signature analysis reveals that this difference can be attributed to spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosine residues in the colon and small intestine, probably reflecting their high ASC division rate. In liver, a signature with an as-yet-unknown underlying mechanism is predominant. Mutation spectra of driver genes in cancer show high similarity to the tissue-specific ASC mutation spectra, suggesting that intrinsic mutational processes in ASCs can initiate tumorigenesis. Notably, the inter-individual variation in mutation rate and spectra are low, suggesting tissue-specific activity of common mutational processes throughout life.

  4. A mystery unraveled: no