Science.gov

Sample records for adult human dental

  1. Three-dimensional dental arch curvature in human adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G; Colombo, A

    1999-04-01

    The three-dimensional arrangement of dental cusps and incisal edges in human dentitions has been reported to fit the surface of a sphere (the curve of Monson), with a radius of about 4 inches in adults. The objective of the current study was to compare the three-dimensional curvature of the mandibular dental arch in healthy permanent dentitions of young adults and adolescents. The mandibular casts of 50 adults (aged 19 to 22 years) and 20 adolescents (aged 12 to 14 years) with highly selected sound dentitions that were free from temporomandibular joint problems were obtained. The three coordinates of cusp tips excluding the third molars were digitized with a three-dimensional digitizer, and used to derive a spherical model of the curvature of the occlusal surfaces. From the best interpolating sphere, the radii of the left and right curves of Spee (quasi-sagittal plane) and of molar curve of Wilson (frontal plane) were computed. Mandibular arch size (interdental distances) was also calculated. The occlusal curvature of the mandibular arch was not significantly influenced by sex, although a significant effect of age was found (Student t, P <.005). The radii of the overall sphere, right and left curves of Spee, and curve of Wilson in the molar area were about 101 mm in adults, and about 80 mm in adolescents. Arch size was not influenced by either sex or age. The different curvatures of the occlusal plane in adolescents and adults may be explained by a progressive rotation of the major axis of the teeth moving the occlusal plane toward a more buccal position. These dental movements should be performed in a frontal plane on an anteroposterior axis located next to the dental crown.

  2. Human Adult Dental Pulp Stem Cells Enhance Poststroke Functional Recovery Through Non-Neural Replacement Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L.; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L.; Lewis, Martin D.; Helps, Stephen C.; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A.; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo. In this study, we demonstrate that the intracerebral transplantation of human DPSCs 24 hours following focal cerebral ischemia in a rodent model resulted in significant improvement in forelimb sensorimotor function at 4 weeks post-treatment. At this time, 2.3 ± 0.7% of engrafted cells had survived in the poststroke brain and demonstrated targeted migration toward the stroke lesion. In the peri-infarct striatum, transplanted DPSCs differentiated into astrocytes in preference to neurons. Our data suggest that the dominant mechanism of action underlying DPSC treatment that resulted in enhanced functional recovery is unlikely to be due to neural replacement. Functional improvement is more likely to be mediated through DPSC-dependent paracrine effects. This study provides preclinical evidence for the future use of human DPSCs in cell therapy to improve outcome in stroke patients. PMID:23197777

  3. Predicting dental avoidance among dentally fearful Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Armfield, Jason M

    2013-06-01

    Dental fear is related to poorer oral health outcomes, and this might be explained by the less frequent dental visiting of many fearful people. The objectives of this study were to investigate differences between dentally fearful people who regularly attend the dentist and fearful people who infrequently visit the dentist. A random sample of 1,082 Australians ≥ 15 yr of age completed a mailed questionnaire (response rate = 71.6%), and 191 dentate, high-fear adults (≥ 18 yr of age) were selected for further analysis. Dental avoidance was recorded if a person was currently avoiding or delaying dental care and if he/she had not been to a dentist in the previous 2 yr. Among the selected dentally fearful adults, dental avoidance was predicted by smoking status, toothbrushing frequency, coping strategy use, perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable and unpredictable, and by anxiety relating to numbness, not knowing what the dentist is going to do, and cost. In a multivariate logistic regression model, smoking, toothbrushing, coping, and anxiety about numbness and cost remained as statistically significant predictors, with the model accounting for 30% of the variance. While several variables were associated with dental avoidance among fearful adults, the nature and causal directions of these associations remain to be established.

  4. Dental implants in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Jones, John D; Partida, M Norma; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2012-01-01

    A need for dental implant treatment in the older population is recognized considering the prevalence of partial and complete edentulism and the positive predictability of implant therapy. Even with a number of barriers to overcome for the older adult seeking implant care, dental implants provide stabilizing support for removable dental appliances and have been shown to be successful in that population. In this paper, we describe quality of life, systemic, surgical, and prosthodontic considerations of this prosthetic treatment along with maintenance challenges.

  5. Dental health practices in Norwegian adults.

    PubMed

    Helöe, L A; Aarö, L E; Sögaard, A J

    1982-12-01

    A nationwide sample of 1511 Norwegian adults were interviewed in 1979-80 concerning health habits, including dental habits. While daily toothbrushing and regular treatment attendance appeared to have become the rule among young and middle aged individuals, use of dental floss and especially of fluoride tablets or rinses, still are the exception. Dental health habits were clustered around the variable treatment attendance with slightly different patterns for men and for women. Measures of sugar consumptions were only slightly correlated with background variables and dental health behavior. While the latter was socially dependent, consumption of sugar probably was attached to personal characteristics or situational factors. The correlations between dental health behavior and other health behavior practices were generally weak, and somewhat different for men and women. Two separate types of motives for preventive behavior were distinguished between: health motives and cosmetic motives.

  6. Adult safeguarding; guidance for dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Lewney, J; Boland, B

    2015-09-25

    The legal responsibilities of all those involved in the care of adults at risk of harm were set out in the 'Care Act 2014' which became law in England in April 2015. In the same month, the General Dental Council (GDC) announced that 'safeguarding vulnerable adults' was to become a recommended topic for continuing professional development (CPD), along with 'safeguarding children and young people.' This paper updates on relevant legislation, and outlines the role of dental professionals in adult safeguarding. It then advises on issues surrounding safeguarding concerns, using three scenarios for illustration. Rather than covering the very broad topic of abuse of adults in general, the paper focusses on 'adults at risk' to whom statutory safeguarding law applies. PMID:26404993

  7. Dental Stem Cell in Tooth Development and Advances of Adult Dental Stem Cell in Regenerative Therapies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiali; Xu, Xin; Lin, Jiong; Fan, Li; Zheng, Yuting; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are considered as a promising treatment for many clinical usage such as tooth regeneration, bone repairation, spinal cord injury, and so on. However, the ideal stem cell for stem cell-based therapy still remains to be elucidated. In the past decades, several types of stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), which may be a good source for stem cell-based therapy in certain disease, especially when they origin from neural crest is considered. In this review, the specific characteristics and advantages of the adult dental stem cell population will be summarized and the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation of dental stem cell during tooth development will be also discussed.

  8. Dental hygiene students' perceptions of older adults.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D Leann

    2014-12-01

    Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students' attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students' anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience.

  9. Eliminating Medicaid adult dental coverage in California led to increased dental emergency visits and associated costs.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Caplan, Daniel J; Jones, Michael P; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Buresh, Christopher T; Isman, Robert; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Dental coverage for adults is an elective benefit under Medicaid. As a result of budget constraints, California Medicaid eliminated its comprehensive adult dental coverage in July 2009. We examined the impact of this policy change on emergency department (ED) visits by Medicaid-enrolled adults for dental problems in the period 2006-11. We found that the policy change led to a significant and immediate increase in dental ED use, amounting to more than 1,800 additional dental ED visits per year. Young adults, members of racial/ethnic minority groups, and urban residents were disproportionately affected by the policy change. Average yearly costs associated with dental ED visits increased by 68 percent. The California experience provides evidence that eliminating Medicaid adult dental benefits shifts dental care to costly EDs that do not provide definitive dental care. The population affected by the Medicaid adult dental coverage policy is increasing as many states expand their Medicaid programs under the ACA. Hence, such evidence is critical to inform decisions regarding adult dental coverage for existing Medicaid enrollees and expansion populations. PMID:25941275

  10. Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-05-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer young adults with ID (45%) visited a dentist at least once per year, compared with those without ID (58%). ID severity and the presence of co-occurring developmental disabilities predicted dental care use. Sociodemographics, daily functioning, societal participation, dental services, and dental health factors were examined as predictors of dental care frequency. Our findings can help focus efforts toward improving the frequency of dental care visits among young adults with ID.

  11. Dental Hygiene Students’ Perceptions of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D. Leann

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students’ attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students’ anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience. PMID:25480277

  12. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  13. The Level of Dental Anxiety and Dental Status in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobros, Katarzyna; Hajto-Bryk, Justyna; Wnek, Anna; Zarzecka, Joanna; Rzepka, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to assess potential correlation between dental anxiety and overall dental status in adult patients, in consideration of the frequency of dental appointments and individual dental hygiene practices. Materials and Methods: Individual dental anxiety levels were assessed with the aid of the Corah’s dental anxiety scale (DAS). The study embraced 112 patients of the University Dental Clinic, Kraków. Following clinical and X-ray exams, respectively, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index and dental treatment index (DTI) were computed for each study subject. Results: Mean DAS among the 112 subjects under study was 9.41 standard deviation (SD = 3.36). Mean DMFT value was 15.86 (SD = 7.00), whereas DTI value was 0.76 (SD = 0.27). The number of decayed teeth and an individual dental anxiety level were found to be correlated (r = 0.26). Higher dental anxiety correlated with lower DTI value (r = −0.22) and lesser frequency of dental appointments (r = 0.22). Conclusions: Individual dental anxiety level appears to impact overall dental status, frequency of dental appointments and everyday oral health practices. Every conceivable effort should therefore be undertaken with a view to effectively diminishing dental anxiety levels in the patients. How to cite the article: Dobros K, Hajto-Bryk J, Wnęk A, Zarzecka J, Rzepka D. The level of dental anxiety and dental status in adult patients. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):11-4. PMID:25083026

  14. Dental Insurance Visits and Expenditures Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manski, Richard J.; Goodman, Harold S.; Reid, Britt C.; Macek, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effect of age, income, and coverage on dental service utilization during 1996. Methods. We used data from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Results. Edentulous and poorer older adults are less likely to have coverage and less likely to report a dental visit than dentate or wealthier older adults. Conclusions. These analyses help to describe the needs of older adults as they cope with diminishing resources as a consequence of retirement, including persons previously accustomed to accessing oral health services with dental insurance. PMID:15117697

  15. Dietary behavior and knowledge of dental erosion among Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study the dietary behavior and knowledge about dental erosion and self-reported symptoms that can be related to dental erosion among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Methods Chinese adults aged 25-45 years were randomly selected from a list of registered telephone numbers generated by computer. A telephone survey was administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics, dietary habits, dental visits, and knowledge of and presence of self-reported symptoms that can be related to dental erosion. Results A total of 520 participants were interviewed (response rate, 75%; sampling error, ± 4.4%) and their mean age was 37. Most respondents (79%) had ever had caries, and about two thirds (64%) attended dental check-ups at least once a year. Respondents had a mean of 5.4 meals per day and 36% had at least 6 meals per day. Fruit (89%) and lemon tea/water (41%) were the most commonly consumed acidic food and beverage. When asked if they ever noticed changes in their teeth, most respondents (92%) said they had experienced change that can be related to erosion. However, many (71%) had never heard about dental erosion and 53% mixed up dental erosion with dental caries. Conclusion Hong Kong Chinese adults have frequent intake of food and many have experienced symptoms that can be related to dental erosion. Their level of awareness of and knowledge about dental erosion is generally low, despite most of them have regular dental check-ups. Dental health education is essential to help the public understand dental erosion and its damaging effects. PMID:20525244

  16. Adults with Disabilities and Proper Dental Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Cinotti, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Repeated studies of graduating dental students indicate limited preparation to provide services for individuals with special healthcare needs. By the end of the 1990s and into the present decade, more than half of the U.S. dental schools provided less than five hours of class room presentations and about three quarters of the schools provided 0-5…

  17. Shaking up the dental safety-net: elimination of optional adult dental Medicaid benefits in California.

    PubMed

    Wides, Cynthia; Alam, Sonia Rab; Mertz, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    In July 2009, California eliminated funding for most adult non-emergency Medicaid dental benefits (Denti-Cal). This paper presents the findings from a qualitative assessment of the impacts of the Denti-Cal cuts on California's oral health safety-net. Interviews were conducted with dental safety-net providers throughout the state, including public health departments, community health centers, dental schools, Native American health clinics, and private providers, and were coded thematically using Atlas.ti. Safety-net providers reported decreased utilization by Denti-Cal-eligible adults, who now primarily seek emergency dental services, and reported shifting to focus on pediatric and privately-insured patients. Significant changes were reported in safety-net clinic finances, operations, and ability to refer. The impact of the Denti-Cal cuts has been distributed unevenly across the safety-net, with private providers and County Health Departments bearing the highest burden.

  18. Shaking Up the Dental Safety-net: Elimination of Optional Adult Dental Medicaid Benefits in California

    PubMed Central

    Wides, Cynthia; Alam, Sonia Rab; Mertz, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In July 2009, California eliminated funding for most adult non-emergency Medicaid dental benefits (Denti-Cal). This paper presents the findings from a qualitative assessment of the impacts of the Denti-Cal cuts on California's oral health safety-net. Interviews were conducted with dental safety-net providers throughout the state, including public health departments, community health centers, dental schools, Native American health clinics, and private providers, and were coded thematically using Atlas.ti. Safety-net providers reported decreased utilization by Denti-Cal-eligible adults, who now primarily seek emergency dental services, and reported shifting to focus on pediatric and privately-insured patients. Significant changes were reported in safety-net clinic finances, operations, and ability to refer. The impact of the Denti-Cal cuts has been distributed unevenly across the safety-net, with private providers and County Health Departments bearing the highest burden. PMID:24583494

  19. Adult heavy and low users of dental services: treatment provided.

    PubMed

    Nihtilä, Annamari; Widström, Eeva; Elonheimo, Outi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare treatment provided to adult heavy and low users of dental services in the Finnish Public Dental Service (PDS) and to analyse changes in patients' oral health status. We assigned all adults who attended the PDS in Espoo in 2004 to a group of heavy users (n = 3,173) if they had made six or more dental visits and to a comparison group of low users (n = 22,820), if they had made three or fewer dental visits. Data were obtained from the patient register of the PDS. A sample of 320 patients was randomly selected from each group. Baseline information (year 2004) on age, sex, number and types of visits, oral health status and treatment provided was collected from treatment records. Both groups were followed-up for five years. Restorative treatment measures dominated the heavy and low users'treatments; 88.8% of heavy users and 79.6% low users had received restorations during the five-year period. Fixed prosthetic treatments were provided to just 2% of the heavy users and 0.8% of the low users. Emergency visits were more common for heavy users (74.8%) than for low users (21.6%) (p < 0.001). Fewer than half of the heavy (46.1%) or low (46.5%) users were examined twice. Typical for heavy use of oral health services was a cycle of repetitive repair or replacement of restorations, often as emergency treatment, a lack of proper examinations and preventive care; crown therapy was seldom used. Immediately after the major dental care reform in Finland, the PDS in Espoo had problems providing good quality dental care for the new adult patients. Older patients with lower social class background were not accustomed to regular dental care and the PDS did not actively propose proper comprehensive regular care for adults.

  20. Adult heavy and low users of dental services: treatment provided.

    PubMed

    Nihtilä, Annamari; Widström, Eeva; Elonheimo, Outi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare treatment provided to adult heavy and low users of dental services in the Finnish Public Dental Service (PDS) and to analyse changes in patients' oral health status. We assigned all adults who attended the PDS in Espoo in 2004 to a group of heavy users (n = 3,173) if they had made six or more dental visits and to a comparison group of low users (n = 22,820), if they had made three or fewer dental visits. Data were obtained from the patient register of the PDS. A sample of 320 patients was randomly selected from each group. Baseline information (year 2004) on age, sex, number and types of visits, oral health status and treatment provided was collected from treatment records. Both groups were followed-up for five years. Restorative treatment measures dominated the heavy and low users'treatments; 88.8% of heavy users and 79.6% low users had received restorations during the five-year period. Fixed prosthetic treatments were provided to just 2% of the heavy users and 0.8% of the low users. Emergency visits were more common for heavy users (74.8%) than for low users (21.6%) (p < 0.001). Fewer than half of the heavy (46.1%) or low (46.5%) users were examined twice. Typical for heavy use of oral health services was a cycle of repetitive repair or replacement of restorations, often as emergency treatment, a lack of proper examinations and preventive care; crown therapy was seldom used. Immediately after the major dental care reform in Finland, the PDS in Espoo had problems providing good quality dental care for the new adult patients. Older patients with lower social class background were not accustomed to regular dental care and the PDS did not actively propose proper comprehensive regular care for adults. PMID:27464379

  1. Self-Evaluated Dental Appearance Satisfaction among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Ogbomo, AC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental appearance satisfaction is important among young adults because judgment concerning the personal characteristics of individuals is influenced by their dental appearance in the absence of other information. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey of financial industry prone undergraduates of University of Benin was conducted between July and September, 2010. The self-administered questionnaire which assessed information on demographic characteristics, smoking habit, alcohol use, previous dental visit, dental appearance satisfaction, tooth shape, size, arrangement and strength was the tool of data collection. The data was subjected to descriptive, Chi-square and regression statistics using statistical package for the social sciences version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). (P < 0.05) was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 399 undergraduates which are made up of 179 (44.9%) males and 220 (55.1%) females with mean age of 24.66 (4.20) years participated in this study. Self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction was expressed by 79.4% (317/399) of the participants. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction were skin color (P = 0.03, odds ratio [OR] =2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.09-6.09) and perceived tooth strength (P = 0.02, OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 1.40-24.28) among males and alcohol consumption (P = 0.04, OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.95] and perceived size of tooth (P = 0.02, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.15-4.89) among females. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among the participants were ethnicity (P = 0.04, OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.96), skin color (P = 0.04, OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.03-2.93), perceived tooth size (P = 0.03, OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.07-3.09) and strength (P = 0.01, OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.58-7.41). Conclusion: Ethnicity, tooth arrangement

  2. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    PubMed Central

    Coolidge, Trilby; Chambers, Mark A; Garcia, Laura J; Heaton, Lisa J; Coldwell, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS), as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS). Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability), and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations) for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish versions of the DFS and NS

  3. Dental orthopantomogram biometrics system for human identification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sandeep; Bhargava, Darpan; Deshpande, Ashwini

    2013-07-01

    Fingerprinting is the most widely accepted method of identification of people. But in cases of disfigured, decomposed, burnt or fragmented bodies, it is of limited value. Teeth and dental restorations on the other hand are extremely resistant to destruction by fire. They retain a number of their original characteristics, which are often unique and hence offer a possibility of rather accurate and legally acceptable identification of such remains. This study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of orthopantomography for human identification and propose a coding system for orthopantomogram (OPG), which can be utilized as an identification tool in forensic sciences.

  4. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  5. A Decade in Dental Care Utilization among Adults and Children (2001–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Vujicic, Marko; Nasseh, Kamyar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To decompose the change in pediatric and adult dental care utilization over the last decade. Data 2001 through 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Study Design The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to explain the change in dental care utilization among adults and children. Changes in dental care utilization were attributed to changes in explained covariates and changes due to movements in estimated coefficients. Controlling for demographics, overall health status, and dental benefits variables, we estimated year-specific logistic regression models. Outputs from these models were used to compute the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition. Principal Findings Dental care utilization decreased from 40.5 percent in 2001 to 37.0 percent in 2010 for adults and increased from 43.2 percent in 2001 to 46.3 percent in 2010 for children (p < .05). Among adults, changes in insurance status, race, and income contributed to a decline in adult dental care utilization (−0.018, p < .01). Among children, changes in controlled factors did not substantially change dental care utilization, which instead may be explained by changes in policy, oral health status, or preferences. Conclusions Dental care utilization for adults has declined, especially among the poor and uninsured. Without further policy intervention, disadvantaged adults face increasing barriers to dental care. PMID:24299620

  6. Humanities in Dental Education: A Focus on Understanding the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balis, Sophia A.; Rule, James T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a seminar program at the University of Maryland Dental School, which uses books, short stories, and films that integrate human values into dental education, specifically in pediatric dentistry, for residents, clerks, and faculty. Results of initial evaluation and changes in the program over time are detailed. (DB)

  7. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. PMID:25572078

  8. A national cross-sectional survey of dental anxiety in the French adult population

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Emmanuel; Collado, Valérie; Faulks, Denise; Bullier, Brigitte; Hennequin, Martine

    2007-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a public health problem but no epidemiological study has been undertaken in France to evaluate its prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, severity and associations of dental anxiety in a sample of the French adult population. Methods A convenience sample of 2725 adults (mean age = 47 years, SD16, minimum = 16, maximum = 101 years), representative of the French population with regard to age and urban distribution, completed a French version of the Corah Dental Anxiety scale (DAS) and a questionnaire relating to their dental appointments. Results Moderate dental anxiety (14≥DAS≥13) was revealed for 172 persons (6.2%), while 195 (7.3%) had severe dental anxiety (DAS≥15), giving an overall prevalence of dental anxiety of 13.5%. Prevalence was lower proportionally with age (P < 0.001) and was higher in French overseas territories and in the countryside (P < 0.01). Farmers and low skilled workers were significantly more anxious than executives and shopkeepers (P < 0.001). Anxiety was associated with avoidance of care (p < 0.001) and lack of regular dental appointments (p < 0.001). Conclusion Dental anxiety in France appears to concern a similar proportion of the population as in other industrialised European, Australasian or North American countries. Recommendations for prevention and management of dental anxiety are made with reference to dental education and health care services in France. PMID:17927808

  9. [Validity and utility of self-perceived need for dental treatment by adults and elderly].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Alex Rodrigues do; Andrade, Fabíola Bof de; César, Cibele Comini

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity of self-rated measures as an indicator of dental treatment needs in adults and the elderly. The sample consisted of individuals that participated in the National Oral Health Survey and the Survey on Oral Health Conditions in Minas Gerais State. Self-rated needs for dental treatment and total prostheses were compared to need based on dental examination, defined as the gold standard. The quality of measures was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Sensitivity varied from 51% to 90%, and specificity from 56% to 90%. Positive predictive values were 11% to 95% and negative predictive values were 23% to 99%. Self-rated need for dental treatment in adults and for total prostheses in the elderly showed acceptable validity. Meanwhile, self-rated need for dental treatment in the elderly and for total prostheses in adults were not considered useful, due to their low performance.

  10. More than a Set of Teeth: Assessing and Enhancing Dental Students' Perceptions of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.; Fabiano, Jude A.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Zittel-Palamara, Kimberly; Davis, Elaine L.; Goldberg, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Dental professionals play a key role in maintaining the well-being of older adults by identifying problems that disturb systemic health. A 3-part instrument was used to assess dental students' knowledge of aging, comfort with patient diversity and patient care strategies (Years 1-4; N = 321). Collaborative education and services were developed by…

  11. The Relationships between Cognitive Ability and Dental Status in a National Sample of USA Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbah, Wael; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    There are very few studies on the relationship between cognitive ability and dental status in middle aged and younger adults. We postulate that lower cognitive ability is directly related to poorer dental status and that this relationship operates through the relationship between cognitive ability and health-related behaviors. The objectives of…

  12. Anxiety and depressive disorders and dental fear among adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Vesa; Mattila, Aino K; Joukamaa, Matti; Lahti, Satu

    2011-02-01

    We studied the association between dental fear and anxiety or depressive disorders, as well as the comorbidity of dental fear with anxiety and depressive disorders, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, dental attendance, and dental health. Nationally representative data on Finnish adults, ≥ 30 yr of age (n = 5,953), were gathered through interviews and clinical examination. Dental fear was measured using the question: 'How afraid are you of visiting a dentist?' Anxiety and/or depressive disorders were assessed using a standardized structured psychiatric interview according to criteria presented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) (DSM-IV).Those with depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder or social phobia more commonly reported high dental fear than did those without these disorders. When age, gender, education, dental attendance, and the number of decayed, missing, and restored teeth were considered, those with generalized anxiety disorder were more likely to have high dental fear than were participants with neither anxiety nor depressive disorders. The comorbidity of depressive and anxiety disorders also remained statistically significantly associated with dental fear; those with both depressive and anxiety disorders were more likely to have high dental fear than were those without these disorders. Our findings support the suggestion that some individuals may have a personality that is vulnerable to dental fear. PMID:21244512

  13. Social equality and dental conditions--a study of an adult population in Southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bagewitz, I C; Söderfeldt, B; Palmqvist, S; Nilner, K

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to: describe dental conditions--focusing on prosthodontic variables--in relation to social conditions in the late 1990s in an adult population of Southern Sweden, evaluate if a change could be traced in the pattern of socioeconomic influences on dental conditions, and study if various attitudes toward dental care were associated with social as well as dental conditions. The study was based on questionnaire responses. Significant differences in dental conditions and denture prevalence were found for age and education. To a majority of the sample it was very important to have own teeth and/or fixed restorations and the opportunity to attend regular dental care. The cost for dental care was very important for 52% of the sample especially for men, those with low education, and those wearing removable denture. Need for dental care that could not be provided for because of the costs was experienced by 9%. Eighteen percent stated that they once or more had refrained from dental care because of the cost. Those with removable dentures and low education dominated. Besides socioeconomic differences in dental conditions, there were sociodental differences in attitudes concerning the importance of costs, self-estimated needs, and cost-barriers for dental care.

  14. Activation of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenkai; Lv, Haipeng; Wang, Haijing; Wang, Diya; Sun, Shukai; Jia, Qian; Wang, Peina; Song, Bing; Ni, Longxing

    2015-08-01

    The NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway plays an important role in cellular immune defence against bacterial infection; however, its function in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that NLRP3 protein expression occurs to a greater extent in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis than in normal pulp tissue and in tissue with reversible pulpitis. Caspase-1 is present in its active (cleaved) form only in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis. NLRP3 and caspase-1 are expressed in the odontoblast layers in normal human dental pulp tissue, whereas in inflamed pulp tissue, the odontoblast layers are disrupted and dental pulp cells are positive for NLRP3 and caspase-1. Additionally, we investigate the role of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway in human dental pulp fibroblasts and show that ATP activates the P2X7 receptor on the cell membrane triggering K(+) efflux and inducing the gradual recruitment of the membrane pore pannexin-1. Extracellular lipopolysaccharide is able to penetrate the cytosol and activate NLRP3. Furthermore, the low intracellular K(+) concentration in the cytosol triggers reactive oxygen species generation, which also induces the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway has a biological role in the innate immune response mounted by human dental pulp fibroblasts.

  15. Dental Calculus and the Evolution of the Human Oral Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Warinner, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Characterizing the evolution of the oral microbiome is a challenging, but increasingly feasible, task. Recently, dental calculus has been shown to preserve ancient biomolecules from the oral microbiota, host tissues and diet for tens of thousands of years. As such, it provides a unique window into the ancestral oral microbiome. This article reviews recent advancements in ancient dental calculus research and emerging insights into the evolution and ecology of the human oral microbiome. PMID:27514153

  16. Dental Calculus and the Evolution of the Human Oral Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Warinner, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Characterizing the evolution of the oral microbiome is a challenging, but increasingly feasible, task. Recently, dental calculus has been shown to preserve ancient biomolecules from the oral microbiota, host tissues and diet for tens of thousands of years. As such, it provides a unique window into the ancestral oral microbiome. This article reviews recent advancements in ancient dental calculus research and emerging insights into the evolution and ecology of the human oral microbiome.

  17. Costs of providing dental services to adult mentally retarded: a preliminary report.

    PubMed Central

    Gotowka, T D; Johnson, E S; Gotowka, C J

    1982-01-01

    This study reports on the hourly costs of providing comprehensive dental services to mentally retarded adults in a hospital-based group dental practice. The analysis indicated average total hourly costs of $56.11 for dentist-provided services an $22.25 for dental hygienist-provided services. When compared to the revenues available for program maintenance, a net hourly deficit of $18.82 per dentist hour and $9.89 per dental hygienist hour resulted. The implications of this operating loss on the continued care of this patient population are discussed. PMID:6751105

  18. Human population variability in relative dental development.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, R L

    1996-01-01

    Using dental X-rays, the calcification of various teeth was compared between samples of black southern Africans, white French-Canadians, and prehistoric Native Americans sharing the same stage of calcification of a specified "reference tooth." The French-Canadians have markedly delayed relative development of the M3 compared to the Africans. They also appear delayed in their M2 development compared to both the Africans and Amerindians. While no difference in relative mandibular canine development is found between the African and French-Canadian males, French-Canadian females are advanced over the African females. Prehistoric Native Americans may be delayed in mandibular central incisor development compared to French-Canadians. These results are in general accord with other studies of variability in dental development between Africans/African Americans, Europeans/European Americans, and Native Americans, and demonstrate that population differences in ages of eruption are attributable in part to differences in relative dental development. Two potentially falsifiable hypotheses concerning the significance of population variability in relative dental development are discussed: 1) the variability (at least for molars) is associated with the amount of space in the jaws for developing teeth, 2) the variability is due to population differences in the timing of dental and skeletal development.

  19. Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neanderthals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tanya M; Tafforeau, Paul; Reid, Donald J; Pouech, Joane; Lazzari, Vincent; Zermeno, John P; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Olejniczak, Anthony J; Hoffman, Almut; Radovcic, Jakov; Makaremi, Masrour; Toussaint, Michel; Stringer, Chris; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Humans have an unusual life history, with an early weaning age, long childhood, late first reproduction, short interbirth intervals, and long lifespan. In contrast, great apes wean later, reproduce earlier, and have longer intervals between births. Despite 80 y of speculation, the origins of these developmental patterns in Homo sapiens remain unknown. Because they record daily growth during formation, teeth provide important insights, revealing that australopithecines and early Homo had more rapid ontogenies than recent humans. Dental development in later Homo species has been intensely debated, most notably the issue of whether Neanderthals and H. sapiens differ. Here we apply synchrotron virtual histology to a geographically and temporally diverse sample of Middle Paleolithic juveniles, including Neanderthals, to assess tooth formation and calculate age at death from dental microstructure. We find that most Neanderthal tooth crowns grew more rapidly than modern human teeth, resulting in significantly faster dental maturation. In contrast, Middle Paleolithic H. sapiens juveniles show greater similarity to recent humans. These findings are consistent with recent cranial and molecular evidence for subtle developmental differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens. When compared with earlier hominin taxa, both Neanderthals and H. sapiens have extended the duration of dental development. This period of dental immaturity is particularly prolonged in modern humans. PMID:21078988

  20. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  1. Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neanderthals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tanya M; Tafforeau, Paul; Reid, Donald J; Pouech, Joane; Lazzari, Vincent; Zermeno, John P; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Olejniczak, Anthony J; Hoffman, Almut; Radovcic, Jakov; Makaremi, Masrour; Toussaint, Michel; Stringer, Chris; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Humans have an unusual life history, with an early weaning age, long childhood, late first reproduction, short interbirth intervals, and long lifespan. In contrast, great apes wean later, reproduce earlier, and have longer intervals between births. Despite 80 y of speculation, the origins of these developmental patterns in Homo sapiens remain unknown. Because they record daily growth during formation, teeth provide important insights, revealing that australopithecines and early Homo had more rapid ontogenies than recent humans. Dental development in later Homo species has been intensely debated, most notably the issue of whether Neanderthals and H. sapiens differ. Here we apply synchrotron virtual histology to a geographically and temporally diverse sample of Middle Paleolithic juveniles, including Neanderthals, to assess tooth formation and calculate age at death from dental microstructure. We find that most Neanderthal tooth crowns grew more rapidly than modern human teeth, resulting in significantly faster dental maturation. In contrast, Middle Paleolithic H. sapiens juveniles show greater similarity to recent humans. These findings are consistent with recent cranial and molecular evidence for subtle developmental differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens. When compared with earlier hominin taxa, both Neanderthals and H. sapiens have extended the duration of dental development. This period of dental immaturity is particularly prolonged in modern humans.

  2. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P < .01, odds ratio = 5.110, 95% confidence interval = 3.740-6.982). The 574 persons with H pylori had a higher mean dental plaque index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  3. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  4. Dental arch size in healthy human permanent dentitions: ethnic differences as assessed by discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Carvajal, R; Duncan, V; Palomino, H

    1999-01-01

    Race and ethnicity variably influence the form of the human craniofacial complex. In the present study, the effects of ethnicity and sex on the global size of normal adult dental arches were analyzed. The dental arches of 47 northern Chilean mestizos (25 men, 22 women) and 95 northern Italian Caucasians (50 men, 45 women) were cast in stone. All subjects had a complete dentition in both arches. In all models the coordinates of dental cusp tips were digitized using an image analyzer. The center of gravity of each tooth was computed and arches were interpolated using a polynomial model (y = ax + bx2 + cx3 + dx4). In all arches, the intercanine, intermolar, and mid-intercanine to mid-intermolar distances were computed from the dental centers of gravity. These arch distances were entered in a linear discriminant function analysis. The polynomial model accurately interpolated data points in all instances, and most of the dental arch form was determined by the first and second degree coefficients. On average, Italian Caucasian arches were smaller than Chilean mestizo arches. Male mean distances were larger than female distances regardless of ethnic group or arch. The linear discriminant analysis performed between male and female arches within ethnic groups was significant only for both Italian Caucasian arches, but the percentage errors for the classification of a new individual were very high (about 30%). Conversely, Italian Caucasian arches could always be discriminated from Chilean mestizo arches of the same sex with a much smaller error.

  5. Assessment of dentally related functional competency for older adults with cognitive impairment--a survey for special-care dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer J J

    2013-01-01

    This survey was to study whether and how dental professional assess dental-related function in older adults with cognitive impairment (OACI). An invitation was sent to 525 special-care dental professionals, followed by a reminder in 2 weeks. Thirteen percent of the targeted participants completed the survey. Among them, 88% completed a hospital dentistry, geriatric dentistry, or other postgraduate training program. Nearly 70% of the respondents considered somewhat to very difficult to assess dentally related function; 45% did not ever or did not regularly assess dental-related function for OACI. Dental-related functional assessments were often based on a subjective, unstructured approach. Only 6% of the respondents routinely used standard instruments to assess the patients' function. These results indicate that an objective functional assessment based on a standardized instrument has not been routinely incorporated into dental care for OACI, raising concerns for quality of care in this vulnerable population.

  6. Dental fear and alexithymia among adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Vesa; Mattila, Aino K; Joukamaa, Matti; Lahti, Satu

    2011-07-01

    population sample, controlling for age, gender, education and marital status as well as depressive and anxiety disorders. An additional aim was to evaluate whether gender modified this association. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The two-stage stratified cluster sample (n = 8028) represented the Finnish population aged 30 years and older. Participants (n = 5241) answered the question 'How afraid are you of visiting a dentist?' They also filled out the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), which included three sub-scales, i.e. difficulties in identifying feelings (DIF), difficulties in describing feelings (DDF) and externally oriented thinking (EOT). Anxiety and depressive disorders were assessed with a standardized structured psychiatric interview according to DSM-IV criteria. To evaluate the association between dental fear and alexithymia, multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, adjusting simultaneously for the effects of possible confounding variables. RESULTS. Gender modified the association between dental fear and alexithymia. Among women, those reporting higher scores for TAS-20, DIF and EOT sub-scale scores were more likely to have high dental fear than were those reporting lower scores. Among men no such association was observed. Those participants who reported high DDF sub-scale scores were more likely to have high dental fear than were those reporting lower scores. CONCLUSIONS. Alexithymics are more likely to have high dental fear than non-alexithymics are. The findings support the suggestion that some people with dental fear may have internal personality vulnerability to anxiety disorders. PMID:21294672

  7. Does Dental Insurance Make a Difference in Type of Service Received by Iranian Dentate Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Bayat, Fariborz; Murtomaa, Heikki; Vehkalahti, Miira M.; Tala, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the relationship between insurance status and type of service received among dentate adults in a developing oral health care system. Methods: A cross-sectional survey based on phone interviews in Tehran, Iran. Four trained interviewers collected data using a structured questionnaire. Of 1,531 subjects answering the phone call, 224 were <18 years; of the remaining 1,307, 221 (17%) refused to participate, and 85 (6%) were excluded as edentate or reporting no dental visit, leaving 1,001 eligible subjects in the sample. The questionnaire covered insurance status, socio-demographics, frequency of tooth brushing, dental attendance as reasons for, and time since last dental visit, and dental service received then. Data analysis included the chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: Of the subjects, 71% had a dental insurance. Those with no insurance were more likely to report tooth extractions (OR=1.5) than those with an insurance coverage; for all other treatments no differences according to the insurance status appeared. Among the insured subjects, extractions were more likely for those reporting a problem-based dental visit (OR=6.0) or having a low level of education (OR=2.3). Conclusions: In Iran, with its developing oral health care system, dental insurance had only a minor impact on dental services reported. PMID:21311609

  8. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  9. Differences Among Older Adults in the Types of Dental Services Used in the United States.

    PubMed

    Manski, Richard J; Hyde, Jody Schimmel; Chen, Haiyan; Moeller, John F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore differences in the socioeconomic, demographic characteristics of older adults in the United States with respect to their use of different types of dental care services. The 2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) collected information about patterns of dental care use and oral health from individuals aged 55 years and older in the United States. We analyze these data and explore patterns of service use by key characteristics before modeling the relationship between service use type and those characteristics. The most commonly used service category was fillings, inlays, or bonding, reported by 43.6% of those with any utilization. Just over one third of those with any utilization reported a visit for a crown, implant, or prosthesis, and one quarter reported a gum treatment or tooth extraction. The strongest consistent predictors of use type are denture, dentate, and oral health status along with dental insurance coverage and wealth. Our results provide insights into the need for public policies to address inequalities in access to dental services among an older US population. Our findings show that lower income, less wealthy elderly with poor oral health are more likely to not use any dental services rather than using only preventive dental care, and that cost prevents most non-users who say they need dental care from going to the dentist. These results suggest a serious access problem and one that ultimately produces even worse oral health and expensive major procedures for this population in the future. PMID:27284127

  10. The persuasive power of oral health promotion messages: a theory of planned behavior approach to dental checkups among young adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christina N; Noar, Seth M; Rogers, Brandi D

    2013-01-01

    Although routine dental checkups are important for both oral and overall health, several factors influence young adults' use or nonuse of dental services. The two studies included in this report tested the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and an expanded TPB model in predicting young adults' routine dental checkups. Additionally, the study tested the perceived message effectiveness of TPB-based messages. Results support the use of an expanded TPB model (particularly adding satisfaction with the dentist and environmental constraints to the traditional model) for an understanding of routine dental checkup intention and behavior, and, most notably, provide support for the use of subjective norm-based messages to prompt dental checkups. This study lays the groundwork for a health communication campaign encouraging routine dental checkups among young adults. The use of targeting and tailoring to design effective oral health media campaign messages is discussed.

  11. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

    PubMed Central

    Girish, KL; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains. PMID:21731342

  12. Laser Ultrasonic Technique for Evaluating Human Dental Enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H-C Wang, D.; Fleming, S.; Lee, Y.-C.; Swain, M.; Law, S.; Xue, J.

    2011-01-01

    A non-destructive laser ultrasonic surface acoustic wave technique has been demonstrated to quantitatively evaluate the elastic response of human dental enamel. We demonstrate the system performance by measuring surface acoustic wave velocity in sound and demineralised enamel. In addition, progressive measurements were made to monitor the change in the enamel elasticity during a two week remineralisation process. The results are presented and they confirm the efficacy, as well as illuminating the progress, of the treatment.

  13. Adult Dental Health Survey 2009: implications of findings for clinical practice and oral health policy.

    PubMed

    Watt, R G; Steele, J G; Treasure, E T; White, D A; Pitts, N B; Murray, J J

    2013-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series reporting on the results of the 2009 Adult Dental Health Survey. Since 1968 national adult surveys have been repeated every decade with broadly similar methods providing a unique overview of trends in oral health over a 40-year period. This paper aims to explore the implications for dentists and oral health policy of the key results from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009. Although repeat, cross-sectional, epidemiological surveys provide very valuable data on trends in disease patterns, they do not provide answers to test causal relationships and therefore cannot identify the causes for the significant improvements in oral health over the last 40 years. Evidence would indicate, however, that broad societal shifts in population norms and behaviours, combined with changes in clinical diagnostic criteria, treatment planning and clinical procedures are the main reasons for the changes that have taken place. Key implications of the survey results include the need to monitor, support and maintain the good state of oral health of the increasing proportion of younger adults with relatively simple treatment needs. A smaller number of young and middle aged adults but a significant proportion of older adults will have far more complex treatment needs requiring advanced restorative and periodontal care. Future oral health policy will need to address oral health inequalities, encourage skill mix and promote and facilitate the dental profession to deliver appropriate and high quality care relevant to the needs of their local population.

  14. Access to Fluoridated Water and Adult Dental Caries: A Natural Experiment.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Barbato, P R; Höfelmann, D A

    2016-07-01

    Systematic reviews have found no evidence to support a benefit of water fluoridation (WF) to prevent dental caries in adult populations. The aim of this natural experiment was to investigate whether lifetime access to fluoridated water is associated with dental caries experience among adults from Florianópolis, Brazil. The data originated from a population-based cohort study (EpiFloripa Adult) initiated in 2009 (n = 1,720) when participants were aged 20 to 59 years. The second wave was carried out in 2012 (n = 1,140) and included a dental examination and a face-to-face questionnaire. Participants residing at the same address since the age of 7 y or before were included in the primary analyses. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. WF was implemented in the city in 2 different periods of time: 1982 (60% of the population) and 1996. Dental caries was assessed by the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. A combination of residential status, participant's age, and year of implementation of WF permitted the creation of participants' lifetime access to fluoridated water: >75%, 50% to 75%, and <50% of a participant's lifetime. Covariates included sex, age, socioeconomic mobility, educational attainment, income, pattern of dental attendance, and smoking. Participants who accessed fluoridate water <50% of their lifetime presented a higher mean rate ratio of DMFT (1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84) compared with those living >75% of their lifetime with residential access to fluoridated water. Participants living between 50% and 75% and <50% of their lives in fluoridated areas presented a decayed and filled teeth mean ratio of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.75) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.05-2.04) higher than those with residential access to fluoridated water >75% of their lifetime, respectively. Longer residential lifetime access to fluoridated water was associated with less dental caries even in a context of multiple exposures to fluoride. PMID:27053119

  15. Osteogenic differentiation of human dental papilla mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Etsuko; Hirose, Motohiro . E-mail: motohiro-hirose@aist.go.jp; Kotobuki, Noriko; Shimaoka, Hideki; Tadokoro, Mika; Maeda, Masahiko; Hayashi, Yoshiko; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2006-04-21

    We isolated dental papilla from impacted human molar and proliferated adherent fibroblastic cells after collagenase treatment of the papilla. The cells were negative for hematopoietic markers but positive for CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, and CD166. When the cells were further cultured in the presence of {beta}-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid, and dexamethasone for 14 days, mineralized areas together with osteogenic differentiation evidenced by high alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin contents were observed. The differentiation was confirmed at both protein and gene expression levels. The cells can also be cryopreserved and, after thawing, could show in vivo bone-forming capability. These results indicate that mesenchymal type cells localize in dental papilla and that the cells can be culture expanded/utilized for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Saudi Arabian dental students' knowledge and beliefs regarding obesity in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Wyne, Amjad H; Al-Hammad, Nouf; Nainar, S M Hashim

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine knowledge/beliefs of a group of Saudi Arabian dental students regarding overweight/obesity (OW/OB). Dental students (fourth-year, fifth-year, and interns) at King Saud University College of Dentistry completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding OW/OB in children and adults. Frequency distribution and chi-square analyses were done. The total respondents were 260 (response rate=87 percent), most of whom were male (59 percent). Half of the respondents reported their knowledge of OW/OB in adults/children to be average, with knowledge of pediatric OW/OB rated lower (37 percent reported it as fair/poor) than adult OW/OB (17 percent reported it as fair/poor). Only a third (34 percent) of the respondents selected body mass index (BMI) as the best method to identify OW/OB. More than half of the respondents correctly believed that OW/OB was a problem in many adults/children in Saudi Arabia. A slightly higher proportion endorsed a role for dentists in the identification/prevention of OW/OB in children (76 percent) as compared to adults (69 percent). Female respondents had better knowledge than males about OW/OB and were more likely to correctly select BMI as the best method for identifying OW/OB. These findings may provide support for the expansion of education in these areas in the dental curriculum.

  17. Oral health disparity in older adults: dental decay and tooth loss.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Paula K; Kaufman, Laura B; Karpas, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Progress has been made in reducing dental caries and edentulism in older adults, but disparities continue to exist related to race, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, and sex. Lack of training in treating medically complex patients, economic factors including absence of coverage for oral health services in Medicare and as a required service for adults in Medicaid, and attitudinal issues on the part of patients, caregivers, and providers contribute to barriers to care for older adults. In addition to the impact of oral health on overall health, oral health impacts quality of life and social and employment opportunities.

  18. The history of dental programs for older adults.

    PubMed

    Leake, J L

    2000-06-01

    Compared with other age groups, the elderly have less access to oral health care services and poorer oral health status. Most provinces have no publicly funded programs to address these inequities and the volunteer efforts of professionals and hospital-based programs have had little effect. In Ontario, two expert committees have called for seniors' programs augmented by a strong outreach component to be delivered by public health services. Their recommendations have not been implemented and, worse, some public health programs have lost the capacity to maintain the preventive services they once provided. The development of public policy to address the needs of the elderly is thwarted by the narrow definition of public health problems, the reluctance of the dental profession to lobby for public funding, the bias toward investment in younger groups, and the persistence of a "reverse public funding program" whereby the employed, more affluent receive dental care as a tax-free benefit and the retired, lower-income elderly pay in after-tax dollars. PMID:10927897

  19. Measurement error in human dental mensuration.

    PubMed

    Kieser, J A; Groeneveld, H T; McKee, J; Cameron, N

    1990-01-01

    The reliability of human odontometric data was evaluated in a sample of 60 teeth. Three observers, using their own instruments and the same definition of the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions were asked to repeat their measurements after 2 months. Precision, or repeatability, was analysed by means of Pearsonian correlation coefficients and mean absolute error values. Accuracy, or the absence of bias, was evaluated by means of Bland-Altman procedures and attendant Student t-tests, and also by an ANOVA procedure. The present investigation suggests that odontometric data have a high interobserver error component. Mesiodistal dimensions show greater imprecision and bias than buccolingual measurements. The results of the ANOVA suggest that bias is the result of interobserver error and is not due to the time between repeated measurements.

  20. The human brain response to dental pain relief.

    PubMed

    Meier, M L; Widmayer, S; Abazi, J; Brügger, M; Lukic, N; Lüchinger, R; Ettlin, D A

    2015-05-01

    Local anesthesia has made dental treatment more comfortable since 1884, but little is known about associated brain mechanisms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a modern neuroimaging tool widely used for investigating human brain activity related to sensory perceptions, including pain. Most brain regions that respond to experimental noxious stimuli have recently been found to react not only to nociception alone, but also to visual, auditory, and other stimuli. Thus, presumed functional attributions have come under scrutiny regarding selective pain processing in the brain. Evidently, innovative approaches are warranted to identify cerebral regions that are nociceptive specific. In this study, we aimed at circumventing known methodological confounders by applying a novel paradigm in 14 volunteers: rather than varying the intensity and thus the salience of painful stimuli, we applied repetitive noxious dental stimuli at constant intensity to the left mandibular canine. During the functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm, we suppressed the nociceptive barrage by a mental nerve block. Brain activity before and after injection of 4% articaine was compared intraindividually on a group level. Dental pain extinction was observed to correspond to activity reduction in a discrete region of the left posterior insular cortex. These results confirm previous reports demonstrating that direct electrical stimulation of this brain region-but not of others-evokes bodily pain sensations. Hence, our investigation adds further evidence to the notion that the posterior insula plays a unique role in nociceptive processing. PMID:25691071

  1. Soft matrix supports osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Viale-Bouroncle, Sandra; Voellner, Florian; Moehl, Christoph; Kuepper, Kevin; Brockhoff, Gero; Reichert, Torsten E.; Schmalz, Gottfried; Morsczeck, Christian

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Rigid stiffness supports osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). {yields} Our study examined stiffness and differentiation of dental follicle cells (DFCs). {yields} Soft ECMs have a superior capacity to support the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs. {yields} DFCs and MSCs react contrarily to soft and rigid surface stiffness. -- Abstract: The differentiation of stem cells can be directed by the grade of stiffness of the developed tissue cells. For example a rigid extracellular matrix supports the osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, less is known about the relation of extracellular matrix stiffness and cell differentiation of ectomesenchymal dental precursor cells. Our study examined for the first time the influence of the surface stiffness on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells (DFCs). Cell proliferation of DFCs was only slightly decreased on cell culture surfaces with a bone-like stiffness. The osteogenic differentiation in DFCs could only be initiated with a dexamethasone based differentiation medium after using varying stiffness. Here, the softest surface improved the induction of osteogenic differentiation in comparison to that with the highest stiffness. In conclusion, different to bone marrow derived MSCs, soft ECMs have a superior capacity to support the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs.

  2. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.; Cappellini, E.; Fischer, R.; Trachsel, C.; Arneborg, J.; Lynnerup, N.; Craig, O. E.; Swallow, D. M.; Fotakis, A.; Christensen, R. J.; Olsen, J. V.; Liebert, A.; Montalva, N.; Fiddyment, S.; Charlton, S.; Mackie, M.; Canci, A.; Bouwman, A.; Rühli, F.; Gilbert, M. T. P.; Collins, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up to the abandonment of the Norse Greenland colonies in the 15th century CE. PMID:25429530

  3. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus.

    PubMed

    Warinner, C; Hendy, J; Speller, C; Cappellini, E; Fischer, R; Trachsel, C; Arneborg, J; Lynnerup, N; Craig, O E; Swallow, D M; Fotakis, A; Christensen, R J; Olsen, J V; Liebert, A; Montalva, N; Fiddyment, S; Charlton, S; Mackie, M; Canci, A; Bouwman, A; Rühli, F; Gilbert, M T P; Collins, M J

    2014-01-01

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up to the abandonment of the Norse Greenland colonies in the 15(th) century CE.

  4. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus.

    PubMed

    Warinner, C; Hendy, J; Speller, C; Cappellini, E; Fischer, R; Trachsel, C; Arneborg, J; Lynnerup, N; Craig, O E; Swallow, D M; Fotakis, A; Christensen, R J; Olsen, J V; Liebert, A; Montalva, N; Fiddyment, S; Charlton, S; Mackie, M; Canci, A; Bouwman, A; Rühli, F; Gilbert, M T P; Collins, M J

    2014-01-01

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up to the abandonment of the Norse Greenland colonies in the 15(th) century CE. PMID:25429530

  5. Viability of imaging structures inside human dentin using dental transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandisoli, C. L.; Alves-de-Souza, F. D.; Costa, M. M.; Castro, L.; Ana, P. A.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C.

    2014-02-01

    Dental Transillumination (DT) is a technique for imaging internal structures of teeth by detecting infrared radiation transmitted throughout the specimens. It was successfully used to detect caries even considering dental enamel and dentin scatter infrared radiation strongly. Literature reports enamel's scattering coefficient is 10 to 30 times lower than dentin; this explain why DT is useful for imaging pathologies in dental enamel, but does not disable its using for imaging dental structures or pathologies inside the dentin. There was no conclusive data in the literature about the limitations of using DT to access biomedical information of dentin. The goal in this study was to present an application of DT to imaging internal structures of dentin. Slices of tooth were confectioned varying the thickness of groups from 0.5 mm up to 2,5 mm. For imaging a FPA InGaAs camera Xeva 1.7- 320 (900-1700 nm; Xenics, Inc., Belgium) and a 3W lamp-based broadband light source (Ocean Optics, Inc., USA) was used; bandpass optical filters at 1000+/-10 nm, 1100+/-10 nm, 1200+/-10 nm and 1300+/-50 nm spectral region were also applied to spectral selection. Images were captured for different camera exposure times and finally a computational processing was applied. The best results revealed the viability to imaging dent in tissue with thickness up to 2,5 mm without a filter (900-1700nm spectral range). After these results a pilot experiment of using DT to detect the pulp chamber of an incisive human tooth was made. New data showed the viability to imaging the pulp chamber of specimen.

  6. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

  7. Older adults--implications for private dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Linda C; Fedele, Denise J

    2005-09-01

    Currently, 35 million people are over the age of 65 in the United States. This number is expected to double to 70 million by 2030 (Figure 1). In California, 3.7 million people are over the age of 65, and this number is expected to increase to 6.4 million in the next 20 years or within the practice lifetime of students presently enrolled in California's dental hygiene and dental schools. The oldest old, those over age 85, are the fastest-growing segment of the United States and California's population. California's aging population will reflect the diversity of the state in general. Table 1 lists California's 65-plus population by age and ethnic/racial categories. By 2030, one in five Americans and Californians will be 65 years or older. Women who reach age 65 can expect to live an additional 19 years of life, while men can expect to live an additional 16 years. The gap in life expectancy between men and women is narrowing due to improvements in medical care, preventive health services, and healthier lifestyles. Figures 2-4 show the improvements in life expectancy at birth, age 65, and age 75 for the U.S. population. In the United States, there are an estimated 1.8 million nursing home beds used by 80 percent of the residents over age 65. A report by the U.S. General Accounting Office estimated that 43 percent of all Americans over age 65 will reside in a nursing home at some time in their life. California currently has approximately 100,000 residents living in one of the 1503 nursing home facilities throughout the state. Nursing home care in California accounts for 5.6 billion dollars. In 1998, the U.S. General Accounting Office reported that one in three California nursing homes was cited for serious or potentially life-threatening care problems. With an aging imperative in California, this paper will discuss the implications of an aging society on maintaining oral health throughout one's life, and the ability of dental professionals to meet the oral health needs

  8. Access to dental care for low-income adults: perceptions of affordability, availability and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bruce B; Macentee, Michael I

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore access to dental care for low-income communities from the perspectives of low-income people, dentists and related health and social service-providers. The case study included 60 interviews involving, low-income adults (N = 41), dentists (N = 6) and health and social service-providers (N = 13). The analysis explores perceptions of need, evidence of unmet needs, and three dimensions of access--affordability, availability and acceptability. The study describes the sometimes poor fit between private dental practice and the public oral health needs of low-income individuals. Dentists and low-income patients alike explained how the current model of private dental practice and fee-for-service payments do not work well because of patients' concerns about the cost of dentistry, dentists' reluctance to treat this population, and the cultural incompatibility of most private practices to the needs of low-income communities. There is a poor fit between private practice dentistry, public dental benefits and the oral health needs of low-income communities, and other responses are needed to address the multiple dimensions of access to dentistry, including community dental clinics sensitive to the special needs of low-income people. PMID:21590434

  9. Barriers and facilitators to dental care among HIV-Infected adults.

    PubMed

    Parish, Carrigan; Siegel, Karolynn; Pereyra, Margaret; Liguori, Terri; Metsch, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Oral health problems can significantly compromise HIV-infected individuals' general health and well-being, yet many of them experience an unmet need for oral care. The barriers and facilitators of obtaining dental care in a sample of HIV-infected adults, all of whom were eligible for Ryan White Part A funding for their treatment, were investigated through qualitative interviews with HIV-positive individuals who had not received dental services in the prior 12 months (n = 44). Identified barriers were as follows: (1) dental anxiety and fear, (2) cumbersome administrative procedures, (3) long waits at the dental office, (4) problem focused care-seeking behavior, (5) transportation difficulties, (6) dentists' reluctance to treat people like them, and (7) psychological issues. Identified facilitating factors were as follows: (1) coverage for dental care, (2) being treated with respect and acceptance, and (3) having an assigned case manager or social worker. Many of the barriers uncovered in this qualitative study can be addressed and overcome by case management services, but other approaches are needed to address the additional psychological and stigma-related factors that are impeding access to oral healthcare in this population.

  10. [Regular use of dental care services by adults: patterns of utilization and types of services].

    PubMed

    Camargo, Maria Beatriz J; Dumith, Samuel C; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of regular use of dental services by adults and identify groups where this behavior is more frequent. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in Pelotas, southern Brazil, including 2,961 individuals who answered a standardized questionnaire. Overall prevalence of regular use of dental services was 32.8%. The following variables were positively associated with regular use: female gender, age >or= 60 years, no partner, high educational level, high economic status, private service user, good/excellent self-rated oral health, and no perceived need for dental treatment. Those who had received orientation on prevention and expressed a favorable view towards the dentist had higher odds of being regular users. Especially among lower-income individuals, regular use was infrequent (15%). When restricting the analysis to users of public dental services, schooling was still positively associated with the outcome. Dental services, especially in the public sector, should develop strategies to increase regular and preventive use.

  11. What Maryland Adults With Young Children Know and Do About Preventing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Dushanka V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine Maryland adults’ knowledge, understanding, opinions, and practices with respect to prevention and early detection of dental caries. Methods. We conducted a statewide random-digit-dialing, computer-assisted telephone survey in 2010 among 770 adults who had a child aged 6 years or younger living in their home. A traditional random-digit sample and a targeted low-income sample were included. Analyses included frequencies, percentages, the χ2 test, and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents’ overall level of knowledge about preventing dental caries was low. Those with higher levels of education were more likely to have correct information regarding prevention and early detection of dental caries. Nearly all respondents (97.9%) reported that they were aware of fluoride, but only 57.8% knew its purpose. More than one third (35.1%) of the respondents were not aware of dental sealants. Those with lower levels of education were significantly less likely to drink tap water, as were their children, and significantly less likely to have had a dental appointment in the preceding past 12 months. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the need to increase oral health literacy regarding caries prevention and early detection. PMID:23597372

  12. A Systematic Review of Socioeconomic Indicators and Dental Caries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Simone M.; Martins, Carolina C.; Bonfim, Maria de Lourdes C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Abreu, Mauro H. N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that socioeconomic factors may be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. To provide better evidence of the association between dental caries in adults and socioeconomic indicators, we evaluated the relation between these two conditions in a thorough review of the literature. Seven databases were systematically searched: Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bireme, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. No restrictions were placed on the language or year of publication. The search yielded 41 studies for systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, extracted data and evaluated quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The following socioeconomic indicators were found: educational level, income, occupation, socio-economic status and the community index. These indicators were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of dental caries: the subject’s education, subject’s income, subject’s occupation and the Gini coefficient. A high degree of heterogeneity was found among the methods. Quality varied across studies. The criteria employed for socioeconomic indicators and dental caries should be standardized in future studies. The scientific evidence reveals that educational level, income, occupation and the Gini coefficient are associated with dental caries. PMID:23202762

  13. Mercury exposure in the work place and human health: dental amalgam use in dentistry at dental teaching institutions and private dental clinics in selected cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Nawaz, Sadaf; Ali, Saeed Waqar

    2016-03-01

    During the past two decades, mercury has come under increasing scrutiny with regard to its safety both in the general population and in occupationally exposed groups. It's a growing issue of global concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. Very few investigations on mercury amalgam use in the dentistry sector have been carried out in South Asia and there is little data reported on mercury contamination of indoor/outdoor air at dental sites. According to an earlier SDPI study, reported in 2013, alarmingly high mercury levels were observed in air (indoor as well as outdoor) at 11 of the 34 visited dental sites (17 dental teaching institutions, 7 general hospitals & 10 dental clinics) in five main cities of Pakistan. 88% of the sites indicated indoor mercury levels in air above the USA EPA reference level of 300 ng/m3. According to our study, carried out at 38 dental teaching institutions in 12 main cities (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh provinces) of Pakistan, respondents were of the opinion that the currently offered BDS curriculum does not effectively guide outgoing dental professionals and does not provide them adequate knowledge and training about mercury/mercury amalgam and other mercury related human health and mercury waste issues. 90% of respondents supported the review and revision of the present dental curriculum offered at dental teaching institutions in the country, at the earliest. A study has also been conducted to assess the status of mercury amalgam use in private dental clinics in Gilgit, Hunza, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. More than 90 private dental clinics were visited and dental professionals/private clinics in-charge were interviewed during June-July, 2015. The focus areas of the study were Hg amalgam toxicity, its waste management practices and safety measures practiced among the dental practitioners. In the light of the findings described and discussed in this brief report, to safeguard public health and

  14. Mercury exposure in the work place and human health: dental amalgam use in dentistry at dental teaching institutions and private dental clinics in selected cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Nawaz, Sadaf; Ali, Saeed Waqar

    2016-03-01

    During the past two decades, mercury has come under increasing scrutiny with regard to its safety both in the general population and in occupationally exposed groups. It's a growing issue of global concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. Very few investigations on mercury amalgam use in the dentistry sector have been carried out in South Asia and there is little data reported on mercury contamination of indoor/outdoor air at dental sites. According to an earlier SDPI study, reported in 2013, alarmingly high mercury levels were observed in air (indoor as well as outdoor) at 11 of the 34 visited dental sites (17 dental teaching institutions, 7 general hospitals & 10 dental clinics) in five main cities of Pakistan. 88% of the sites indicated indoor mercury levels in air above the USA EPA reference level of 300 ng/m3. According to our study, carried out at 38 dental teaching institutions in 12 main cities (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh provinces) of Pakistan, respondents were of the opinion that the currently offered BDS curriculum does not effectively guide outgoing dental professionals and does not provide them adequate knowledge and training about mercury/mercury amalgam and other mercury related human health and mercury waste issues. 90% of respondents supported the review and revision of the present dental curriculum offered at dental teaching institutions in the country, at the earliest. A study has also been conducted to assess the status of mercury amalgam use in private dental clinics in Gilgit, Hunza, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. More than 90 private dental clinics were visited and dental professionals/private clinics in-charge were interviewed during June-July, 2015. The focus areas of the study were Hg amalgam toxicity, its waste management practices and safety measures practiced among the dental practitioners. In the light of the findings described and discussed in this brief report, to safeguard public health and

  15. Human dental mesenchymal stem cells and neural regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2013-09-01

    Nerve tissue presents inherent difficulties for its effective regeneration. Stem cell transplantation is considered an auspicious treatment for neuronal injuries. Recently, human dental mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of regenerative medicine due to their accessibility and multipotency. Since their origin is within the neural crest, they can be differentiated into neural crest-derived cells including neuron and glia cells both in vitro and in vivo. DMSCs are also able to secrete a wide variety of neurotrophins and chemokines, which promote neuronal cells to survival and differentiation. Experimental evidence has shown that human DMSCs engraftment recovered neuronal tissue damage in animal models of central nervous system injuries. Human DMSCs can be a new hope for treatment of nervous system diseases and deficits such as spinal cord injury, stroke and Parkinson's disease.

  16. Dental pain related to quality of life and mental health in South Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Min, Jung-Ah; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-12-01

    High levels of stress, anxiety and depression have been reported in patients with orofacial pain. Dental pain has the potential to reduce quality of life (QOL), and pain relief is important aspect of QOL. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships of dental pain with QOL and mental health using a nationally representative, population-based study. This study analyzed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 5469). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was evaluated using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS, and mental health was evaluated by questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 5469 adults, 1992 (36.42%) presented self-reported dental pain. Participants with anxiety/depression or pain/discomfort, and participants with stress, melancholy, suicidal thought or depression showed significantly higher prevalence of dental pain. After adjusting for covariates, five aspects of QOL and five aspects of mental health were related with dental pain. The AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.39 (1.06-1.81) for mobility, 1.77 (1.19-2.63) for self-care, 1.38 (1.02-1.85) for usual activities, 1.73 (1.43-2.09) for pain/discomfort and 1.50 (1.13-1.98) for anxiety/depression. For mental health status factors, the AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.29 (1.11-1.51) for stress, 1.37 (1.09-1.74) for melancholy, 1.26 (1.01-1.58) for suicidal thoughts, 1.43 (.93-2.19) for consultation to psychiatrist and 1.53 (1.07-2.19) for depression. This study showed that dental pain has an association with lower HRQOL and worse mental health status in South Korean adults.

  17. Treating the older adult dental patient: what are the issues of concern?

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Roseann; Vanderlinde, Michele Alexis

    2009-11-01

    Just as aging successfully requires a multifaceted approach that includes full engagement in life, maintenance of high physical and cognitive function, and avoidance of disease and related disability, so does the care of adult patients. This geriatric treatment model suggests that understanding the psychosocial, behavioral, and medical presentation of the older patient may prove to be the key to the ultimate success of the dental/oral treatment arrived at collaboratively by the dentist and the older patient.

  18. Socio-Economic Determinants of the Need for Dental Care in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Trohel, Gilda; Bertaud-Gounot, Valérie; Soler, Marion; Chauvin, Pierre; Grimaud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data) was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need. Results In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3–37.8]). It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9–34.6]), without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0–34.6]) and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2–35.4]). It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02–1.44]), income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92–2.12]) and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26–1.86]). Conclusion These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level. PMID:27441841

  19. General anesthesia for the provision of dental treatment to adults with developmental disability.

    PubMed Central

    Ananthanarayan, C.; Sigal, M.; Godlewski, W.

    1998-01-01

    The management of the behavior of mentally challenged adults when providing required dental care is often a problem, whether in the dental office or in a hospital setting. Our institution has a designated program to provide required dental care to this group of patients. Because of the high incidence of poor cooperation, which may include aggressive antagonistic behavior, many of these patients are scheduled for dental care under general anesthesia with an incomplete preoperative medical assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact and limitations that an incomplete medical assessment may present in the delivery of dental care under general anesthesia to these adults with developmental disability. After approval from the institutional review board, the medical records of 139 patients treated in this program between 1992 and 1994 were reviewed to determine the patient profiles, anesthesia management, and complications. The charts of these patients, who underwent dental and radiographic examination, scaling and prophylaxis, and restoration and extraction of teeth under general anesthesia, were reviewed. There were 149 procedures performed on these patients, some more than once. The mean age was 29.5 yr. Males predominated females by a ratio of 2:1. All had multiple diagnoses, medical problems, and medications. Twenty-three patients had Down's Syndrome, four had schizophrenia disorders, 42 had seizure disorders, 11 had hypothyroidism, seven had heart disease, and 14 had central nervous system and neuromuscular disorders. The remainder had a variety of diagnoses, including rare syndromes. One hundred had intravenous (i.v.), 25 had mask inhalation, and 24 had intramuscular ketamine (Ketalar) induction. Nasotracheal intubation was uneventful in 139 patients, five had difficult visualization of the larynx and intubation. Ten patients experienced intraoperative complications, including nonfatal ventricular arrhythmia, slight fall in blood pressure and

  20. Radiation dose evaluation of dental cone beam computed tomography using an anthropomorphic adult head phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jay; Shih, Cheng-Ting; Ho, Chang-hung; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Min Chao, Max; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2014-11-01

    Dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides high-resolution tomographic images and has been gradually used in clinical practice. Thus, it is important to examine the amount of radiation dose resulting from dental CBCT examinations. In this study, we developed an in-house anthropomorphic adult head phantom to evaluate the level of effective dose. The anthropomorphic phantom was made of acrylic and filled with plaster to replace the bony tissue. The contour of the head was extracted from a set of adult computed tomography (CT) images. Different combinations of the scanning parameters of CBCT were applied. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure the absorbed doses at 19 locations in the head and neck regions. The effective doses measured using the proposed phantom at 65, 75, and 85 kVp in the D-mode were 72.23, 100.31, and 134.29 μSv, respectively. In the I-mode, the effective doses were 108.24, 190.99, and 246.48 μSv, respectively. The maximum percent error between the doses measured by the proposed phantom and the Rando phantom was l4.90%. Therefore, the proposed anthropomorphic adult head phantom is applicable for assessing the radiation dose resulting from clinical dental CBCT.

  1. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. PMID:26337763

  2. The effect of intrusive orthodontic force on dental pulp of adults versus adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Mostafa; Eslami, Neda; Abadi, Reza Zare Mahmoud; Rezaei, Saber Pooria

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no conclusive evidence on the effect of orthodontic force application on dental pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to compare early and delayed histological effects of intrusive forces on dental pulp of adolescents and adults. Materials and Methods: Patients referred to the Department of Orthodontics of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. They were assigned to adult (25–32-year-old) and adolescent (13–18-year-old) Groups. A cantilever spring made of 16 × 22 steel wire was used to apply intrusive force to upper first premolars (11 teeth in adolescents and 11 teeth in adults) and the opposing teeth were considered as control group. In each group, 6 pairs of teeth were extracted after one week, and the remaining 5 pairs were extracted after one month of intrusion. Histologic changes were compared between the control and intrusive groups and also between the adults and adolescents after 7 days and 1 month. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney U-tests. P ≤ 0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results: Significant difference was not found in any histological parameters between intrusive and control groups 1 week and 1 month after intrusion in adolescents and adults (P > 0.05). One month after intrusion, inflammatory cell response intensity (P = 0.032) and frequency of chronic inflammation (P = 0.032) were significantly higher in adults compared to adolescents. Conclusion: Mild intrusive force in closed apex teeth causes no significant histologic changes in adolescents and adults. However, it seems that inflammatory-related histologic pulpal changes are more severe in adults after one month of intrusion. PMID:27605996

  3. The effect of intrusive orthodontic force on dental pulp of adults versus adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Mostafa; Eslami, Neda; Abadi, Reza Zare Mahmoud; Rezaei, Saber Pooria

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no conclusive evidence on the effect of orthodontic force application on dental pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to compare early and delayed histological effects of intrusive forces on dental pulp of adolescents and adults. Materials and Methods: Patients referred to the Department of Orthodontics of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. They were assigned to adult (25–32-year-old) and adolescent (13–18-year-old) Groups. A cantilever spring made of 16 × 22 steel wire was used to apply intrusive force to upper first premolars (11 teeth in adolescents and 11 teeth in adults) and the opposing teeth were considered as control group. In each group, 6 pairs of teeth were extracted after one week, and the remaining 5 pairs were extracted after one month of intrusion. Histologic changes were compared between the control and intrusive groups and also between the adults and adolescents after 7 days and 1 month. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney U-tests. P ≤ 0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results: Significant difference was not found in any histological parameters between intrusive and control groups 1 week and 1 month after intrusion in adolescents and adults (P > 0.05). One month after intrusion, inflammatory cell response intensity (P = 0.032) and frequency of chronic inflammation (P = 0.032) were significantly higher in adults compared to adolescents. Conclusion: Mild intrusive force in closed apex teeth causes no significant histologic changes in adolescents and adults. However, it seems that inflammatory-related histologic pulpal changes are more severe in adults after one month of intrusion.

  4. A Comparison of Culture Characteristics between Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Dental Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nurul Hidayat; Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Azlina, Ahmad; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Hamid, Suzina Sheikh Abdul

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, the field of stem cell biology is of major interest among researchers due to its broad therapeutic potential. Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types. Stem cells can be classified into two main types: adult stem cells (adult tissues) and embryonic stem cells (embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development). This review will discuss two types of adult mesenchymal stem cells, dental stem cells and amniotic stem cells, with respect to their differentiation lineages, passage numbers and animal model studies. Amniotic stem cells have a greater number of differentiation lineages than dental stem cells. On the contrary, dental stem cells showed the highest number of passages compared to amniotic stem cells. For tissue regeneration based on animal studies, amniotic stem cells showed the shortest time to regenerate in comparison with dental stem cells.

  5. An in vitro model of human dental pulp repair.

    PubMed

    Magloire, H; Joffre, A; Bleicher, F

    1996-12-01

    Pulp tissue responds to dentin injury by laying down reactionary dentin secreted by existing odontoblasts or reparative dentin elaborated by odontoblast-like cells that differentiated from precursor cells in the absence of inner dental epithelium and basement membrane. Furthermore, growth factors or active dentin matrix components are fundamental signals involved in odontoblast differentiation. In vitro, dental pulp cells cultured under various conditions are able to express typical markers of differentiation, but no culture system can re-create pulp response to dentin drilling. This paper reports the behavior of thick slices from human teeth drilled immediately after extraction and cultured from 3 days to 1 month. Results show that the damaged pulp beneath the cavity is able to develop, in vitro, some typical aspects correlated to tissue healing, evidenced by cell proliferation (BrdU-positive cells), neovascularization (positive with antitype-IV collagen antibodies), and the presence of functional (3H proline-positive) cuboidal cells close to the injured area. After 30 days of culture, elongated spindle-shaped cells can be seen aligned along the edges of the relevant dentin walls, whereas sound functional odontoblasts are well-preserved beneath healthy areas. This tissue recovery leads us to believe that such a culture model will be a useful system for testing factors regulating pulp repair.

  6. Inequalities in the use of dental services among adults in inner South East London.

    PubMed

    Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Klass, Charlotte; Jones, Kate; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2013-06-01

    Improving access to National Health Service (NHS) dentistry is a public health issue that has been a focus for successive governments and policy makers in the UK. To inform this process, commissioners of services need to understand trends in service use and demands of the local population. This study explored inequalities in dental services use among adults in a socially deprived, ethnically diverse metropolitan area of London; satisfaction with services; and public views for improvement of services. Data from 695 adults were analysed for this study (56% of the eligible sample). Inequalities in dental services use and satisfaction with care according to sociodemographic factors were assessed in unadjusted and fully adjusted models. The proportion of participants who reported attending the dentist in the last 24 months was 69%, with inequalities according to social grade, ethnicity, sex and age but not according to borough of residence. The most common areas identified by respondents for service improvement were availability of dentists, affordability of care, and accommodation of services. Among those who visited the dentist in the last 24 months, 90% were satisfied with the quality of care provided. However, there were inequalities in satisfaction with care according to borough and reason for the last dental visit.

  7. Concentration of undergraduate dental college admissions in areas with high health and human development in India.

    PubMed

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if dental colleges are clustered in selective states in India and if population to dental college admissions (seats) is correlated with regional health, economic, and human development in that country. There are 29 states and seven union territories in India, with 301 dental colleges. This study used publicly available data from the Dental Council of India, Comptroller and Auditor General of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and Institute of Applied Manpower Research of the Government of India. Non-parametric tests were used to test for associations. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 293 approved and recognized colleges were in existence, and a total of 23,780 seats were available in all dental colleges. Close to 54% of all dental colleges and 55% of all dental college seats were clustered in five states. The mean population per dental college seat was 94,324 (median was 46,898, and range was a minimum of 2,432 to a maximum of 780,139). The population to one dental college seat decreased significantly as the health and human development index increased (p<0.05). The results showed that dental colleges are clustered in a few states, leaving multiple states in India with no dental colleges. Dental colleges appear to be located in states with high health, economic, and human development indices, thus doing little to address the imbalance in dentist to population ratios in states that are disadvantaged in terms of health, economics, and human development.

  8. Oral and dental conditions in adult African wild dog skulls: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, G; Gorrel, C

    1999-06-01

    Skulls of 29 adult African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) originating from museum collections were examined for evidence of oral pathology. A wide variety of conditions similar to those seen in the domestic dog were detected. Although other reports suggest that captive African wild dogs suffer more extensively from dental disease than those in the wild, we conclude that these wild carnivores suffer from the same oral diseases as their domestic relatives, suggesting that a natural diet does not protect against these diseases. As the African wild dog is threatened by extinction, further investigation of the incidence and development of oral and dental disease in this species may be of value. Preventive measures could be instituted leading to improved health for those held in captivity.

  9. The impact of providing dental services to frail older adults: perceptions of elders in adult day health centers.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan J; Kiyak, H Asuman

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known about the oral health of, and access to, dental services among frail elders who live in the community and use an adult day health center (ADHC) for respite care. This pilot study evaluated the perceived oral health quality of life (OHQOL) of elders who used a mobile dental program in urban, suburban, and rural ADHC settings. Pre- and post-treatment interviews were conducted to evaluate OHQOL using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). ADHC records were used to obtain demographic, medical history and medication data. Following initial dental examinations and consent, dental treatment was provided at each ADHC. Of the 138 elders screened at three ADHCs, pre- and post-treatment data were obtained on 76 subjects following their treatment (mean four months later). The group's members were mostly female (64.5%) and Caucasian (71.6%). Their mean age was 76.8 (+/- 9.8), with an average of 12.4 teeth (34.2% edentulous); 67.7% were on Medicaid. On average they had 5.5 chronic diseases, hypertension being the most common (67.19%); 44.8% had a neurological disorder or dementia. GOHAI scores were generally high both pre- and post-treatment, reflecting high physical and psychosocial OHQOL and low levels of worry. GOHAI scores were correlated with chronic diseases; the more chronic diseases an individual had, the lower his or her total score pre- and post-treatment (r=-.24, r=-.26 respectively, p<.04). The more dental treatment needs an elder had, the lower his or her GOHAI (r=-.23, p<.05). Elders with more teeth reported higher GOHAI pre- and post-treatment (r=.36, r=.37 respectively, p<.002). Paired t-tests comparing pre- and post-treatment GOHAI scores revealed significant improvements in overall GOHAI (p<.001), and on two dimensions: physical (p<.005) and psychosocial (p<.002). The findings support the importance of providing on-site access to dental services in order to maintain the general OHQOL of frail elders, more specifically in the

  10. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Coppa, Alfredo; Mancini, Lucia; Dreossi, Diego; Eichert, Diane; Turco, Gianluca; Biasotto, Matteo; Terrasi, Filippo; De Cesare, Nicola; Hua, Quan; Levchenko, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  11. Are the dental health needs of adults with illegal drug dependence being met by current service provision in the United Kingdom?: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hewson, Victoria; Wray, Jane

    2012-10-01

    This literature review outlines the current issues and debates relating to the dental health of adults with drug dependence. The dental health of adults with illegal drug dependence (IDD) continues to be under debate throughout dental practice, and the most appropriate model of care suitable to meet the high complex needs of this client group remains uncertain. The study aims to review and critically analyze available research relating to the oral health effects of illegal drug misuse and the dental health needs and status of adults with drug dependence. Second, it aims to identify and critically evaluate current models of dental service/care delivery, including relevant best practice guidance and potential barriers to dental access for adults with IDD. The available literature pertaining to dental health and adults with drug dependence are systematically reviewed and critically analyzed and evaluated in order to execute a rigorous investigation. The oral effects along with general medical complications associated with IDD are increasingly being recognized. There are substantive negative effects of IDD on oral health, particularly for those with opioid dependence; therefore, these clients have high complex dental needs and low use of dental services. Adults with drug dependence comprise a group with special dental needs and therefore need greater access to dental care than most people due to their high level of need. A high awareness of the implications for oral health care for adults with drug dependence is essential. Dental professionals have a key role in supporting the rehabilitation of these patients from potentially severe or fatal addictions. There is a distinct lack of national policy and guidance relating specifically to adults with drug dependence, and therefore, problems persist. Key findings and recommendations are presented to enhance the development of dental services for adults with IDD.

  12. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  13. Comparison of the dental health of adults and children living in NSW with their counterparts in the US and UK.

    PubMed

    Blinkhorn, Anthony S

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to place the findings of the NSW Adult and Child Dental Health Surveys in an international context. The comparator countries are the US and the UK, both of which have well-documented epidemiological dental health data. The US has a mainly private system of dental care, similar to NSW, whereas the UK has primarily a government-funded dental care program. The adult data collected in the last 20 years in all three locations indicates greatly improved oral health with a decline in the proportions of people with no natural teeth. The majority of children have few dental problems but inequality remains with some children in lower socioeconomic groups still having high levels of dental ill health, which contributes to a lower quality of life. Improving population levels of oral health in all three countries will require collective decision-making by stakeholders and politicians to finance plans for action and manage change to help those individuals for whom dental disease is still a major problem. PMID:19401069

  14. Nano-crystalline diamond-coated titanium dental implants - a histomorphometric study in adult domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Philipp; von Wilmowsky, Cornelius; Stadlinger, Bernd; Zemann, Wolfgang; Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Rosiwal, Stephan; Rupprecht, Stephan

    2013-09-01

    Promising biomaterial characteristics of diamond-coatings in biomedicine have been described in the literature. However, there is a lack of knowledge about implant osseointegration of this surface modification compared to the currently used sandblasted acid-etched Ti-Al6-V4 implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the osseointegration of microwave plasma-chemical-vapour deposition (MWP-CVD) diamond-coated Ti-Al6-V4 dental implants after healing periods of 2 and 5 months. Twenty-four MWP-CVD diamond-coated and 24 un-coated dental titanium-alloy implants (Ankylos(®)) were placed in the frontal skull of eight adult domestic pigs. To evaluate the effects of the nano-structured surfaces on bone formation, a histomorphometric analysis was performed after 2 and 5 months of implant healing. Histomorphometry analysed the bone-to-implant contact (BIC). No significant difference in BIC for the diamond-coated implants in comparison to reference implants could be observed for both healing periods. Scanning electron microscopy revealed an adequate interface between the bone and the diamond surface. No delamination or particle-dissociation due to shearing forces could be detected. In this study, diamond-coated dental titanium-alloy implants and sandblasted acid-etched implants showed a comparable degree of osseointegration.

  15. Oral health and dental care of elderly adults dependent on care.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Willy; Schimmel, Martin; Müller, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy in Switzerland is posing new challenges, as more and more people are becoming dependent on care, both at home and in long-term care facilities. The dental profession must deal with patients retaining their own teeth until later in life with an increased incidence and severity of caries and periodontal diseases. The association between general and oral health is becoming important, particularly in older people with medical conditions. Aspiration pneumonia can develop as a result of pathogenic bacteria descending from the oral cavity to the bronchoalveolar system, which presents a frequent, potentially life-threatening danger. By adapting care and treatment concepts, the masticatory ability can be preserved or restored, which in turn helps preventing malnutrition. Other aims include preventing infections as well as maintaining subjective well-being and an attractive dental appearance. Care standards should be defined for the provision of oral-health related dentistry for the vulnerable population of the care-dependent adults. These should be implemented by an interdisciplinary care team composed of nursing personnel, long-term care facility managers, Spitex staff, physicians, dentists as well as dental assistants and hygienists. PMID:26169068

  16. Passive immunization against dental caries and periodontal disease: development of recombinant and human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Y

    2000-01-01

    Indigenous micro-organisms in the oral cavity can cause two major diseases, dental caries and periodontal diseases. There is neither agreement nor consensus as to the actual mechanisms of pathogenesis of the specific virulence factors of these micro-organisms. The complexity of the bacterial community in dental plaque has made it difficult for the single bacterial agent of dental caries to be determined. However, there is considerable evidence that Streptococcus mutans is implicated as the primary causative organism of dental caries, and the cell-surface protein antigen (SA I/II) as well as glucosyltransferases (GTFs) produced by S. mutans appear to be major colonization factors. Various forms of periodontal diseases are closely associated with specific subgingival bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as an important etiological agent of adult periodontitis. Adherence of bacteria to host tissues is a prerequisite for colonization and one of the important steps in the disease process. Bacterial coaggregation factors and hemagglutinins likely play major roles in colonization in the subgingival area. Emerging evidence suggests that inhibition of these virulence factors may protect the host against caries and periodontal disease. Active and passive immunization approaches have been developed for immunotherapy of these diseases. Recent advances in mucosal immunology and the introduction of novel strategies for inducing mucosal immune responses now raise the possibility that effective and safe vaccines can be constructed. In this regard, some successful results have been reported in animal experimental models. Nevertheless, since the public at large might be skeptical about the seriousness of oral diseases, immunotherapy must be carried out with absolute safety. For this goal to be achieved, the development of safe antibodies for passive immunization is significant and important. In this review, salient advances in passive immunization against caries

  17. Non-destructive dental-age calculation methods in adults: intra- and inter-observer effects.

    PubMed

    Willems, Guy; Moulin-Romsee, Christian; Solheim, Tore

    2002-05-23

    The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the reliability and reproducibility of two non-destructive dental-age estimation methods in adults by calculating inter- and intra-observer effects. Both a morphological and a radiological technique available in the scientific literature were evaluated on a number of recently extracted teeth: the morphological technique was evaluated on a total of 160 teeth by two examiners, while three examiners applied the radiological technique on apical radiographs of 72 extracted teeth. Paired t-tests were used to calculate intra- and inter-observer differences. For the morphological method, both examiners were able to produce dental-age estimations that did not differ significantly from the real age of the teeth, obtaining a mean error between 0.5 and 1.8 years and a standard deviation of this error between 9.0 and 11.3 years. When using the radiological technique according to the original protocol, all three examiners produced age estimations that were statistically comparable to the real age of the teeth with a mean error of 0.5-2.5 years and a standard deviation of 4.6-9.8 years. For both techniques, intra-observer differences were observed. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that both non-destructive dental-age estimation techniques were able to produce reasonably accurate dental-age estimations, at least when these techniques were applied appropriately. However, the forensic odontologist is recommended to use different age estimation techniques and perform repetitive measurements in order to verify the reproducibility of the calculations performed. PMID:12062945

  18. Development of A Three-Dimensional Tissue Construct from Dental Human Ectomesenchymal Stem Cells: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Uribe, Daniela; Estrada, Keila Neri Alvarado; Guillén, Amaury de Jesús Pozos; Pérez, Silvia Martín; Ibáñez, Raúl Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Application of regenerative medicine technology provides treatment for patients with several clinical problems, like loss of tissue and its function. The investigation of biological tooth replacement, dental tissue engineering and cell culture, scaffolds and growth factors are considered essential. Currently, studies reported on the making of threedimensional tissue constructs focused on the use of animal cells in the early stages of embryogenesis applied to young biomodels. The purpose of this study was the development and characterization of a three-dimensional tissue construct from human dental cells. The construct was detached, cultured and characterized in mesenchymal and epithelial cells of a human tooth germ of a 12 year old patient. The cells were characterized by specific membrane markers (STRO1, CD44), making a biocomplex using Pura Matrix as a scaffold, and it was incubated for four days and transplanted into 30 adult immunosuppressed male Wistar rats. They were evaluated at 6 days, 10 days and 2 months, obtaining histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Cell cultures were positive for specific membrane markers, showing evident deviations in morphology under phase contrast microscope. Differentiation and organization were noted at 10 days, while the constructs at 2 months showed a clear difference in morphology, organization and cell type. It was possible to obtain a three-dimensional tissue construct from human dental ectomesenchymal cells achieving a degree of tissue organization that corresponds to the presence of cellular stratification and extracellular matrix. PMID:23308086

  19. Development of a three-dimensional tissue construct from dental human ectomesenchymal stem cells: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Uribe, Daniela; Estrada, Keila Neri Alvarado; Guillén, Amaury de Jesús Pozos; Pérez, Silvia Martín; Ibáñez, Raúl Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Application of regenerative medicine technology provides treatment for patients with several clinical problems, like loss of tissue and its function. The investigation of biological tooth replacement, dental tissue engineering and cell culture, scaffolds and growth factors are considered essential. Currently, studies reported on the making of threedimensional tissue constructs focused on the use of animal cells in the early stages of embryogenesis applied to young biomodels. The purpose of this study was the development and characterization of a three-dimensional tissue construct from human dental cells. The construct was detached, cultured and characterized in mesenchymal and epithelial cells of a human tooth germ of a 12 year old patient. The cells were characterized by specific membrane markers (STRO1, CD44), making a biocomplex using Pura Matrix as a scaffold, and it was incubated for four days and transplanted into 30 adult immunosuppressed male Wistar rats. They were evaluated at 6 days, 10 days and 2 months, obtaining histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Cell cultures were positive for specific membrane markers, showing evident deviations in morphology under phase contrast microscope. Differentiation and organization were noted at 10 days, while the constructs at 2 months showed a clear difference in morphology, organization and cell type. It was possible to obtain a three-dimensional tissue construct from human dental ectomesenchymal cells achieving a degree of tissue organization that corresponds to the presence of cellular stratification and extracellular matrix. PMID:23308086

  20. Re-regeneration of lower jaws and the dental lamina in adult urodeles.

    PubMed

    Graver, H T

    1978-09-01

    Transverse amputations were carried out through one-third fully regenerated jaw segments and through normal tissue of the mandible on the same and opposite sides of the jaw in adults of Notophthalmus viridescens. Collectively the results suggest that, in adult urodeles, the mandible and the dental lamina can be replaced in an identical manner more than one time. Although the major histological events are the same in jaw regeneration and re-regeneration, regrowth is more rapid in re-regeneration. It appears that recently differentiated tissues of the regenerate have a higher capacity for regeneration than normal tissues amputated for the first time. Re-regeneration of the jaw occurs by growth of the original regenerate cartilage which has undergone reorganization. In re-regeneration, the skeletal elements exhibit no polarity and regrowth occurs in both directions, while the dental lamina possesses an anterior-posterior polarity and can regrow in an anterior direction only. Information concerning the mechanisms involved in the regenerative events remain to be determined.

  1. Role of the dental surgeon in the early detection of adults with underlying HIV infection / AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Jorge; del Romero, Jorge; Hernando, Victoria; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    A review is made of the late diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a subject of growing interest in public health. It has been estimated that in Europe 30% of all HIV-infected people are unaware of their seropositive condition, and this in turn is associated with a poorer long-term disease prognosis and an increased risk of transmission to other individuals. The role of the dental surgeon in this context could be of great importance, since there are many oral lesions that can suggest the existence of underlying infection. The study also addresses the controversial subject of rapid HIV testing, and whether these tests should be performed on a routine basis in the dental clinic, or whether it is preferable to refer the patient to a specialized center. Key words:HIV in Spain, HIV screening, early diagnosis. PMID:22143719

  2. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557

  3. Association of Streptococcus mutans with Human Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Loesche, W. J.; Rowan, J.; Straffon, L. H.; Loos, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The association of Streptococcus mutans with human dental decay was investigated by using several types of samples: (i) paraffin-stimulated saliva samples taken from children with from 0 to 15 decayed teeth; (ii) pooled occlusal and approximal plaque taken from children with no decayed or filled teeth, or from children with rampant caries of 10 or more teeth; (iii) plaque removed from single occlusal fissures that were either carious or noncarious. The results showed a significant association between plaque levels of S. mutans and caries. The strongest association, P < 0.0001, was found when plaque was removed from single occlusal fissures. Seventy-one percent of the carious fissures had S. mutans accounting for more than 10% of the viable flora, whereas 70% of the fissures that were caries free had no detectable S. mutans. Sixty-five percent of the pooled plaque samples from the children with rampant caries had S. mutans accounting for more than 10% of the viable flora, whereas 40% of the pooled samples from children that were caries free had no detectable S. mutans. Saliva samples tended to have low levels of S. mutans and were equivocal in demonstrating a relationship between S. mutans and caries. PMID:1140847

  4. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques.

  5. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques.

  6. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques. PMID:25875625

  7. Successful enrichment and recovery of whole mitochondrial genomes from ancient human dental calculus

    PubMed Central

    Ozga, Andrew T.; Nieves‐Colón, Maria A.; Honap, Tanvi P.; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Hofman, Courtney A.; Milner, George R.; Lewis, Cecil M.; Stone, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Archaeological dental calculus is a rich source of host‐associated biomolecules. Importantly, however, dental calculus is more accurately described as a calcified microbial biofilm than a host tissue. As such, concerns regarding destructive analysis of human remains may not apply as strongly to dental calculus, opening the possibility of obtaining human health and ancestry information from dental calculus in cases where destructive analysis of conventional skeletal remains is not permitted. Here we investigate the preservation of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in archaeological dental calculus and its potential for full mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) reconstruction in maternal lineage ancestry analysis. Materials and Methods Extracted DNA from six individuals at the 700‐year‐old Norris Farms #36 cemetery in Illinois was enriched for mtDNA using in‐solution capture techniques, followed by Illumina high‐throughput sequencing. Results Full mitogenomes (7–34×) were successfully reconstructed from dental calculus for all six individuals, including three individuals who had previously tested negative for DNA preservation in bone using conventional PCR techniques. Mitochondrial haplogroup assignments were consistent with previously published findings, and additional comparative analysis of paired dental calculus and dentine from two individuals yielded equivalent haplotype results. All dental calculus samples exhibited damage patterns consistent with ancient DNA, and mitochondrial sequences were estimated to be 92–100% endogenous. DNA polymerase choice was found to impact error rates in downstream sequence analysis, but these effects can be mitigated by greater sequencing depth. Discussion Dental calculus is a viable alternative source of human DNA that can be used to reconstruct full mitogenomes from archaeological remains. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:220–228, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology

  8. Multilineage potential and proteomic profiling of human dental stem cells derived from a single donor

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Rajreddy; Kumar, B. Mohana; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Yeon-Mi; Park, Bong-Wook; Byun, June-Ho; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jae-Won; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Dental tissues provide an alternative autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we isolated human dental MSCs of follicle, pulp and papilla tissue from a single donor tooth after impacted third molar extraction by excluding the individual differences. We then compared the morphology, proliferation rate, expression of MSC-specific and pluripotency markers, and in vitro differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Finally, we analyzed the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated dental MSCs using 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS. Three types of dental MSCs largely shared similar morphology, proliferation potential, expression of surface markers and pluripotent transcription factors, and differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Upon hepatogenic induction, all MSCs were transdifferentiated into functional HLCs, and acquired hepatocyte functions by showing their ability for glycogen storage and urea production. Based on the proteome profiling results, we identified nineteen proteins either found commonly or differentially expressed among the three types of dental MSCs. In conclusion, three kinds of dental MSCs from a single donor tooth possessed largely similar cellular properties and multilineage potential. Further, these dental MSCs had similar proteomic profiles, suggesting their interchangeable applications for basic research and call therapy. - Highlights: • Isolated and characterized three types of human dental MSCs from a single donor. • MSCs of dental follicle, pulp and papilla had largely similar biological properties. • All MSCs were capable of transdifferentiating into functional hepatocyte-like cells. • 2DE proteomics with MALDI-TOF/MS identified 19 proteins in three types of MSCs. • Similar proteomic profiles suggest interchangeable applications of dental MSCs.

  9. Linking microstructure and nanochemistry in human dental tissues.

    PubMed

    Srot, Vesna; Bussmann, Birgit; Salzberger, Ute; Koch, Christoph T; van Aken, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    Mineralized dental tissues and dental pulp were characterized using advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy was employed to determine the Ca/P and Mg/P concentration ratios. Significantly lower Ca/P concentration ratios were measured in peritubular dentine compared to intertubular dentine, which is accompanied by higher and variable Mg/P concentration ratios. There is strong evidence that magnesium is partially substituting calcium in the hydroxyapatite structure. Electron energy-loss near-edge structures (ELNES) of C-K and O-K from enamel and dentine are noticeably different. We observe a strong influence of beam damage on mineralized dental tissues and dental pulp, causing changes of the composition and consequently also differences in the ELNES. In this article, the importance of TEM sample preparation and specimen damage through electron irradiation is demonstrated.

  10. Absence of lymphatic vessels in human dental pulp: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Gerli, Renato; Secciani, Ilaria; Sozio, Francesca; Rossi, Antonella; Weber, Elisabetta; Lorenzini, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Few and controversial data are available in the literature regarding the presence of lymphatic vessels in the human dental pulp. The present study was designed to examine morphologically the existence of a lymph drainage system in human dental pulp. Human dental pulp and skin sections were immunohistochemically stained with specific antibodies for lymphatic endothelium (D2-40, LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3], and Prox-1), with the pan-endothelial markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor (vWF), and with the blood-specific marker CD34. Several blood vessels were identified in human pulps and skin. Lymphatic vessels were found in all human skin samples but in none of the pulps examined. Western blotting performed on human dermis and on pulps treated with collagenase (to remove odontoblasts) confirmed these results. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that vessels which, by light microscopy, appeared to be initial lymphatic vessels had no anchoring filaments or discontinuous basement membrane, both of which are typical ultrastructural characteristics of lymphatic vessels. These results suggest that under normal conditions human dental pulp does not contain true lymphatic vessels. The various theories about dental pulp interstitial fluid circulation should be revised accordingly.

  11. Cladistic analysis of dental traits in recent humans using a fossil outgroup.

    PubMed

    Stringer, C B; Humphrey, L T; Compton, T

    1997-04-01

    The relationships between a range of modern human samples are assessed from cladistic analyses of the published population frequencies of tooth crown characters, using new data on the Krapina Neanderthal sample as an outgroup. All of the most parsimonious trees show an early divergence of African and Australasian groups. This result is compared with an alternative dendrogram proposed by Turner (1992). Reconstruction of a hypothetical dental ancestor suggests that the similarities between the African and Australasian groups result from the retention of symplesiomorphous dental traits. Additionally, despite expectations from multiregional evolution, recent Europeans are dentally less like the Krapina Neanderthals than are Africans and Australians.

  12. Adult Dental Health Survey 2009: transformations in British oral health 1968-2009.

    PubMed

    Steele, J G; Treasure, E T; O'Sullivan, I; Morris, J; Murray, J J

    2012-11-01

    This series of four papers reports and interprets the findings of the Adult Dental Health Survey (ADHS), 2009, published in early 2011. This is the fifth in a series of surveys repeated every decade since 1968. The evolution of the surveys and the way the supporting methodology has changed to meet the changing needs and circumstances over the last 40 years is described. In 1968, 37% of adults in England and Wales were edentate. By 2009, only 6% of the combined population of England, Wales and Northern Ireland were edentate. Among the dentate in 1968, there were a mean of 21.9 teeth. By 2009, not only had the dentate increased by 30 percentage points as a fraction of the population, but the number of teeth in this group had also increased by nearly four teeth on average to 25.7. There were significant variations in oral health according to geography and social variables and smaller differences according to sex. The retention of 21 or more teeth is widely used as a way of defining a minimum functional dentition. The proportion of adults with 21+ teeth increased from 73% in 1978 to 86% in 2009. Further huge improvements are projected as younger generations age, assuming future tooth loss continues at current low rates. We might expect that over 90% of those aged 35-44 in 2009 have a realistic prospect of retaining a functional natural dentition of 21 or more teeth by age 80. PMID:23175081

  13. N-Acetyl Cysteine Depletes Reactive Oxygen Species and Prevents Dental Monomer-Induced Intrinsic Mitochondrial Apoptosis In Vitro in Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Liu, Qian; Liu, Ying; Song, Qian; Yu, Fan; Yu, Haohan; Liu, Huan; Huang, Li; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the involvement of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis in dental monomer-induced cytotoxicity and the influences of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on this process. Methods Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) were exposed to several dental monomers in the absence or presence of NAC, and cell viability, intracellular redox balance, morphology and function of mitochondria and key indicators of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis were evaluated using various commercial kits. Results Dental monomers exerted dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on hDPCs. Concomitant to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of glutathione (GSH), differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were detected. Apoptosis, as indicated by positive Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining and activation of caspase-3, was observed after dental monomer treatment. Dental monomers impaired the morphology and function of mitochondria, and induced intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis in hDPCs via up-regulation of p53, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. NAC restored cell viability, relieved oxidative stress and blocked the apoptotic effects of dental monomers. Conclusions Dental monomers induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis in hDPCs. NAC could reduce the oxidative stress and thus protect hDPCs against dental monomer-induced apoptosis. PMID:26808507

  14. Self-perceived loss of control and untreated dental decay in African American adults with and without sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Brian; Woods, Dexter; George, David; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Katz, Ralph; Lanzkron, Sophie; Diener-West, Marie; Powe, Neil

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between self-perceived loss of control as measured by dental external locus of control summary scores, with the amount of untreated dental decay in African American adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and African Americans adults without SCD. The sample included 102 subjects with SCD and 103 subjects without SCD matched on age, sex, and recruitment location (mean age of all subjects 35.4 years, 55.6% female). Subjects with SCD in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 2.58-fold (CI 1.05, 6.34) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) in multivariable analysis using the negative binomial regression model. For subjects without SCD, those in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 3.00-fold (CI 1.38, 6.49) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) using similar analysis. This study showed that higher dental external locus of control is associated with increased untreated tooth decay, both for African Americans with and without SCD and that the magnitude of the association did not differ across groups. PMID:16960327

  15. Income-related inequality in perceived oral health among adult Finns before and after a major dental subsidization reform.

    PubMed

    Raittio, Eero; Aromaa, Arpo; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-07-01

    Objectives In Finland, a dental subsidization reform, implemented in 2001-2002, abolished age restrictions on subsidized dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate income-related inequality in the perceived oral health and its determinants among adult Finns before and after the reform. Materials and methods Three identical cross-sectional nationally representative postal surveys, concerning perceived oral health and the use of dental services among people born before 1971, were conducted in 2001 (n = 2157), in 2004 (n = 1814) and in 2007 (n = 1671). Three measures of perceived oral health were used: toothache or oral discomfort during the past 12 months, current need for dental care and self-reported oral health status. Concentration index was used to analyse the income-related inequalities. Its decomposition was used to study factors related to the inequalities. Results The proportion of respondents reporting need for dental care decreased from 2001 to 2007, while no changes were seen in reports of toothache or self-reported oral health status. Income-related inequalities in reports of toothache and perceived need for care widened, while the inequality in self-reported oral health remained stable. Most of the inequalities were related to income itself, perceived general health and the time since the last visit to dental care. Conclusions It seems that the income-related inequalities in perceived oral health remained or even widened after the reform.

  16. Comparing adult users of public and private dental services in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studying the factors associated with the use of dental services can provide the necessary knowledge to understand the reasons why individuals seek out public healthcare services and the formulation of more appropriate public policies for the present-day reality. Methods This work was a cross-sectional epidemiological study consisting of a sample of adults found in a research databank concerning the conditions of the oral health of the population of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study examined both main oral health disorders and relevant socioeconomic aspects. The dependent variable was defined as the type of service used, categorized under public and private use. The independent variables were selected and grouped to be inserted in the analysis model according to an adaptation of the behavioral model described by Andersen and Davidson. A hierarchical model was used to analyze the data. The description of variables and bivariate analyses were performed in an attempt to verify possible associations. For each group of variables at each hierarchical level, the gross and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by means of logistic regression. The Complex Samples model from the SPSS statistics program, version 19.0, was used to analyze the sample framework. Results In the final model, the factors associated with the use of public healthcare services by adults were directly related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the individuals, including: being of a dark-skinned black race/color, belonging to families with more than four household residents and with a lower income level, residing in small towns, having more teeth that need treatment. Conclusions According to the findings from this study, socioeconomic and demographic factors, as well as normative treatment needs, are associated with the use of public dental services. PMID:25099268

  17. In vitro osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose-hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Focaroli, Stefano; Durante, Sandra; Mazzotti, Antonio; Dicarlo, Manuela; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Orsini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells from human dental pulp have been considered as an alternative source of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Recently, polysaccharide based hydrogels have become especially attractive as matrices for the repair and regeneration of a wide variety of tissues and organs. The incorporation of inorganic minerals as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can modulate the performance of the scaffolds with potential applications in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to verify the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) cultured on a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Human DPSCs were seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel and on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days. Cell viability assay and ultramorphological analysis were carried out to evaluate biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Real Time PCR was carried out to demonstrate the expression of osteogenic and odontogenic markers. Results showed a good adhesion and viability in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel, while a low adhesion and viability was observed in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel. Real Time PCR data demonstrated a temporal up-regulation of osteogenic and odontogenic markers in dental pulp stem cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. In conclusion, our in vitro data confirms the ability of DPSCs to differentiate toward osteogenic and odontogenic lineages in presence of a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Taken together, our results provide evidence that DPSCs and carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel could be considered promising candidates for dental pulp complex and periodontal tissue engineering. PMID:26578970

  18. [Aplication of demineralized human bone matrix in the surgical dental fusion treatment. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Mora-Rincones, Oscar A; Corona-Rodríguez, Julio C; Díaz-Carvajal, Alvaro L; Franco-Carrero, Isabel C

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a surgical alternative in the treatment of the dental fusions through the placement of demineralized human bone matrix (DHBM) (Grafton Putty)*, immediately after the separation and extraction of the fused tooth to the permanent one. The dental fusion is a dental anomaly of union, that consists in the union of two dental germs during development. It could happen at any of the dental germ evolution stages from the dental sheet or from more advanced processes of differentiation. For the clinical treatment, an allograft of DHBM with osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties was used. This had several factors of bone growth, it allowed the gradual growth of a new bone that helped to correct the bone defects post-extraction and to cover the exposed distal wall of the remaining permanent tooth. The clinic evaluation and the periapical and panoramic radiographies images were used for the clinical control. It can be concluded that the surgical separation and the extraction of the tooth with less anatomical likeness to the contralateral and the placement of the DHBM, represent a surgical treatment alternative of the dental fusion.

  19. A scoping review of the implications of adult obesity in the delivery and acceptance of dental care.

    PubMed

    Marshall, A; Loescher, A; Marshman, Z

    2016-09-01

    Background Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity within the general population it is presumed that the prevalence of overweight and obese adults accessing dental services will also increase. For this reason dentists need to be aware of implications of managing such patients.Methods A scoping review was carried out. Both Medline via OVID and Scopus databases were searched along with grey literature databases and the websites of key organizations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. The data were collected on a purpose-made data collection form and analysed descriptively.Results The review identified 28 relevant published articles and two relevant items of grey literature. Following review of this literature three themes relating to adult obesity in the delivery and acceptance of dental care emerged; clinical, service delivery and patient implications. The majority of the papers focused on the clinical implications.Conclusion On the topic of adult obesity and dental care, the majority of published and grey literature focuses on the clinical implications. Further research is needed on both the patients' perspectives of being overweight or obese and the delivery and acceptance of dental care and the service delivery implications. PMID:27608579

  20. The role of lysyl oxidase-like 2 in the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Hyang; Park, Hye-Jeong; Park, Eui-Kyun; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Shin, Hong-In; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2013-06-01

    Adult human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are a unique population of precursor cells those are isolated from postnatal dental pulp and have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types utilized for the formation of a reparative dentin-like complex. Using LC-MS/MS proteomics approaches, we identified the proteins secreted from the differentiating hDPSCs in mineralization media. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) was identified as a protein that was down-regulated in the hDPSCs that differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. The role of LOXL2 has not been studied in dental pulp stem cells. LOXL2 mRNA levels were reduced in differentiating hDPSCs, whereas the levels of other LOX family members including LOX, LOXL1, LOXL3, and LOXL4, are increased. The protein expression and secretion levels of LOXL2 were also decreased during odontogenic differentiation. Recombinant LOXL2 protein treatment to hDPSCs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the early differentiation and the mineralization accompanying with the lower levels of odontogenic markers such as DSPP, DMP-1 and ALP. These results suggest that LOXL2 has a negative effect on the differentiation of hDPSCs and blocking LOXL2 can promote the hDPSC differentiation to odontoblasts.

  1. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  2. Evaluation of the interaction between calcifying nanoparticles and human dental pulp cells: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Zeng, Jinfeng; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Xi; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs, previously called nanobacteria) are self-propagating, cultivable macromolecular complexes. Their extraordinary characteristic is that they can aggregate carbonate apatite on their envelope from soluble calcium and phosphorus at physiologic concentrations and display cytotoxic effects on murine and human fibroblast cell lines. The question arises whether CNPs contribute to the degeneration of pulp tissue and thus result in clinically significant human dental pulp stones as nidies. This study evaluates CNPs' effects upon human dental pulp cells (HDPCs, the host cells in pulp tissue). We observed the ultrastructural variation of HDPCs attacked by CNPs. The spatial relationship of HDPCs and CNPs after coculture was also identified by immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, it was verified by MTT viability assay that CNPs isolated from dental pulp stones exerted cytotoxic effect on HDPCs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the existence of CNPs might interfere with the normal physiologic function of the cells, and that might lead to dental pulp calcification. Elucidation of the cytotoxic characteristics of CNPs may offer a new perspective for understanding the etiology of human dental pulp stones. PMID:21289977

  3. The shortened dental arch: prevalence and normative treatment needs in a sample of older Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, R J

    1998-01-01

    The concept of the shortened dental arch (SDA) was used to classify the dentition status and normative treatment needs of older adults. From 1982 to 1992, a descriptive survey was conducted in North York, Canada, of 1531 dentate adults aged 65 and over; 69% were nursing home residents. Based on the SDA concept, a "good" guadrant was defined as one which contained all premolar and anterior teeth. A "good" arch was defined as one which had two "good" quadrants. Only 6.3% of nursing home subjects and 7.5% of independently living subjects were classified as having "good" upper and lower arches; these subjects were considered to have a "functional dentition" by the criteria of the SDA concept. For subjects of both residence types, a higher percentage had a "good" lower arch (20%, 30%) as compared with a "good" upper arch (9%, 13%), and a higher proportion of non-denture wearers had "good" arches and quadrants compared with denture wearers. The most common reason for failure to meet SDA criteria was due to the loss of one or more upper premolar teeth; loss of lower canines was least frequently the reason. For subjects of both residence types, normative need for tooth extraction and prosthetic care was significantly associated with having no "good" arches. This was found for both denture wearers and non-denture wearers. Among non-denture wearers of both residence types, the need for urgent care was significantly associated with having no "good" arches.

  4. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    PubMed

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  5. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Supragingival Plaques in Adults with Dental Health or Caries Revealed by 16S Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cuicui; Ran, Shujun; Huang, Zhengwei; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. α diversity analysis showed that the microbial diversity in healthy plaques exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups. Using LEfSe analysis, 25 differentially abundant taxa were identified as potential biomarkers. Key genera (27) that potentially contributed to the differential distributions of plaque microbiota between groups were identified by PLS-DA analysis. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function predictions were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed. PMID:27499752

  6. Transitioning from pediatric to adult dental care for adolescents with special health care needs: adolescent and parent perspectives (Part I)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Stephanie; Neff, John; Chi, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to understand transitions from pediatric dental care to adult dental care for adolescents with special health care needs (ASHCN) from the parent and adolescent perspectives. Methods We conducted focus groups and interviews with 59 parents and 13 adolescent-parent dyads to identify factors associated with transitions to adult-centered dental care for ASHCN. Results Most parents believed ASHCN were at-risk for caries, but ASHCN were not concerned about tooth decay. Parents of adolescents with complex SHCN believed it would be acceptable to continue seeing a pediatric dentist. Parents of Medicaid-enrolled ASHCN reported lower efficacy in transitioning. ASHCN desired personalized, adolescent-centered care and were motivated to transition when they felt out of place at the pediatric dentist office. Parents believed pediatric dentists have an important role in initiating and facilitating transitions. Conclusions Pediatric dentists are well-positioned to implement family- and adolescent-centered policies to ensure dental transitions for ASHCN and their families. PMID:26531087

  7. The Comparison of the Immunologic Properties of Stem Cells Isolated from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth, Dental Pulp, and Dental Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Selin; Zibandeh, Noushin; Genc, Deniz; Ozcan, Elif Merve; Goker, Kamil; Akkoc, Tunc

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To compare the effects of various mesenchymal stem cells, those isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), and dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Method. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from three sources in the orofacial region. Characterization and PCR analyses were performed. Lymphocytes were isolated from healthy peripheral venous blood. Lymphocytes were cocultured with stem cells in the presence and absence of IFN-γ and stimulated with anti-CD2, anti-CD3, and anti-CD28 for 3 days. Then, lymphocyte proliferation, the number of CD4+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells, and the levels of Fas/Fas ligand, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in the culture supernatant were measured. Results. The DFSCs exhibited an enhanced differentiation capacity and an increased number of CD4+FoxP3+ T lymphocytes and suppressed the proliferation and apoptosis of PBMCs compared with SHEDs and DPSCs. The addition of IFN-γ augmented the proliferation of DFSCs. Furthermore, the DFSCs suppressed IL-4 and IFN-γ cytokine levels and enhanced IL-10 levels compared with the other cell sources. Conclusion. These results suggest that IFN-γ stimulates DFSCs by inducing an immunomodulatory effect on the PBMCs of healthy donors while suppressing apoptosis and proliferation and increasing the number of CD4+FoxP3+ cells. PMID:26770205

  8. Radiographic dental implants recognition for geographic evaluation in human identification.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lusito, S; Solarino, B; Di Vella, G

    2008-06-01

    Dental implants for prosthetic rehabilitation with fixed crown or mobile partial/total dentures is a very common oral treatment among the population in Italy as elsewhere. There is a great number of implant systems of different designs. However, a catalogue of radiographic images and a description of the dental implants available in Italy would be useful in order to identify the manufacturer and the type of implant encountered in forensic casework. When an unidentified body is found with one or more implants in the jaws, and no dental record is available, clues gleaned from the type of implants used could give direction to the investigation. In this study Italian implant manufactures were contacted and asked to provide specimen implants. Digital radiographs were taken of all the implants donated at 0º, 30º, and 60º horizontal rotation, combined with -20º, -10º, 0º, +10º, and +20º vertical inclination relative to the radiographic beam and the X-ray sensor. A total of 15 images per implant were taken and examined to identify consistent, unique features that would aid in implant recognition. Only those observations made from radiographs between -10º and +10º vertical inclination would ever be used for definite identification of any implant. The information from this study should be considered a survey of the commercial distribution of dental implants in Italy through their digital radiographic images. It is also a starting point for a wider geographical evaluation of different manufacturers in other countries and continents. The radiographic images provided should help both the forensic odontologist and the prosthodontist to identify pre-existing implants which they may discover from their radiographic images. PMID:22689351

  9. Microcephalia with mandibular and dental dysplasia in adult Zmpste24-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    de Carlos, F; Varela, I; Germanà, A; Montalbano, G; Freije, J M P; Vega, J A; López-Otin, C; Cobo, J M

    2008-01-01

    ZMPSTE24 (also called FACE-1) is a zinc-metalloprotease involved in the post-translational processing of prelamin A to mature lamin A, a major component of the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the ZMPSTE24 gene or in that encoding its substrate prelamin A (LMNA) result in a series of human inherited diseases known collectively as laminopathies and showing regional or systemic manifestations (i.e. the Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome). Typically, patients suffering some laminopathies show craniofacial or mandible anomalies, aberrant dentition or facial features characteristic of aged persons. To analyse whether Zmpste24−/– mice reproduce the cranial phenotype observed in humans due to mutations in ZMPSTE24or LMNA, we conducted a craniometric study based on micro-computer tomography (µCT) images. Furthermore, using simple radiology, µCT, µCT-densitometry and scanning electron microscopy, we analysed the mandible and the teeth from Zmpste24−/– mice. Finally, the structure of the lower incisor was investigated using an H&E technique. The results demonstrate that Zmpste24−/– mice are microcephalic and show mandibular and dental dysplasia affecting only the mandible teeth. In all cases, the lower incisor of mice lacking Zmpste24 was smaller than in control animals, showed cylindrical morphology and a transverse fissure at the incisal edge, and the pulpal cavity was severely reduced. Structurally, the dental layers were normally arranged but cellular layers were disorganized. The inferior molars showed a reduced cusp size. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that Zmpste24−/– mice represent a good model to analyse the craniofacial and teeth malformations characteristic of lamin-related pathologies, and might contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events underlying these diseases. PMID:19014358

  10. Phenotype-independent effects of retroviral transduction in human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Egbuniwe, Obi; Grant, Andrew D; Renton, Tara; Di Silvio, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    An immortalized human dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) line of an odontoblastic phenotype is established to circumvent the normal programmed senescence and to maintain the cell line's usefulness as a tool for further study of cellular activity. DPSCs are isolated from human dental pulp tissues and transfected using hTERT. The influence of this process on the DPSC phenotype and the mRNA expression of oncogenes involved in cellular senescence is investigated. The results reveal an absence of altered DPSC morphology and phenotype following the exogenous introduction of the hTERT gene, which is coupled with a significant reduction in p16 mRNA expression. This provides insight into how to circumvent in vitro dental pulp stem cell death following the exogenous introduction of hTERT.

  11. The effect of cavity preparation on substance P expression in human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Caviedes-Bucheli, Javier; Correa-Ortíz, José Antonio; García, Leydy Viviana; López-Torres, Rocío; Lombana, Nelson; Muñoz, Hugo Roberto

    2005-12-01

    Substance P (SP) plays an important role during neurogenic inflammation of dental pulp. The purpose of this study was to use a radioimmunoassay for determining the effect of cavity preparation on SP expression in healthy human dental pulp. Ten pulp samples were obtained from healthy premolars where extraction was indicated for orthodontic reasons. Deep cavity preparation (<1 mm remaining dentine thickness) was performed before extraction in five of these bicuspids. All samples were processed and I-SP labeled; SP was quantified by competition assay. The results revealed SP expression in all human pulp samples. Mann-Whitney's U test revealed statistically significant higher expression in pulp from teeth where cavity preparation had been performed compared to control values (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that SP is released during common dental procedures (such as cavity preparation) and its expression may have an important clinical significance in terms of experiencing inflammation and pain.

  12. TAILS N-terminomic and proteomic datasets of healthy human dental pulp

    PubMed Central

    Eckhard, Ulrich; Marino, Giada; Abbey, Simon R.; Matthew, Ian; Overall, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The Data described here provide the in depth proteomic assessment of the human dental pulp proteome and N-terminome (Eckhard et al., 2015) [1]. A total of 9 human dental pulps were processed and analyzed by the positional proteomics technique TAILS (Terminal Amine Isotopic Labeling of Substrates) N-terminomics. 38 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) datasets were collected and analyzed using four database search engines in combination with statistical downstream evaluation, to yield the by far largest proteomic and N-terminomic dataset of any dental tissue to date. The raw mass spectrometry data and the corresponding metadata have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the PXD identifier ; Supplementary Tables described in this article are available via Mendeley Data (10.17632/555j3kk4sw.1). PMID:26587561

  13. TAILS N-terminomic and proteomic datasets of healthy human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Eckhard, Ulrich; Marino, Giada; Abbey, Simon R; Matthew, Ian; Overall, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    The Data described here provide the in depth proteomic assessment of the human dental pulp proteome and N-terminome (Eckhard et al., 2015) [1]. A total of 9 human dental pulps were processed and analyzed by the positional proteomics technique TAILS (Terminal Amine Isotopic Labeling of Substrates) N-terminomics. 38 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) datasets were collected and analyzed using four database search engines in combination with statistical downstream evaluation, to yield the by far largest proteomic and N-terminomic dataset of any dental tissue to date. The raw mass spectrometry data and the corresponding metadata have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the PXD identifier ; Supplementary Tables described in this article are available via Mendeley Data (10.17632/555j3kk4sw.1).

  14. [Determinants of dental services utilization by adults: a population-based study in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Camila Dal-Bó Coradini; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dental services utilization by adults and to identify associated socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral, and self-awareness factors. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with adults living in the urban area of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2009. Associations were tested between use of dental services and predisposing, enabling, and needs-based variables. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Poisson regression with estimates of prevalence ratios and was stratified by place of last dental appointment. Prevalence of dental services utilization was 66% (95%CI: 62.9-70.7). Dental visits were 20% more frequent among women and 72% more frequent among individuals with more schooling (the latter in both public and private dental services). Individuals with private dental plans used dental services 13% more than those without. Schooling was the most important variable in predicting utilization. The study's results show the importance of monitoring associated factors in order to promote more equitable use of dental services.

  15. Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Tissue Under Oscillatory Shear and Compression.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Burak; Bayrak, Ece; Erisken, Cevat

    2016-06-01

    Availability of material as well as biological properties of native tissues is critical for biomaterial design and synthesis for regenerative engineering. Until recently, selection of biomaterials and biomolecule carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been done randomly or based on experience mainly due to the absence of benchmark data for dental pulp tissue. This study, for the first time, characterizes the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of human dental pulp tissue harvested from wisdom teeth, under oscillatory shear and compression. The results revealed a gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps. Uniaxial compression tests generated peak normal stress and compressive modulus values of 39.1 ± 20.4 kPa and 5.5 ± 2.8 kPa, respectively. Taken collectively, the linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the human dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the better tailoring of biomaterials or biomolecule carriers to be employed in dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27093446

  16. Survival of Human Dental Plaque Flora in Various Transport Media

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Salam A.; Loesche, Walter J.

    1972-01-01

    Dental plaque samples from (i) subjects with no apparent oral disease, (ii) mentally retarded subjects with periodontal disease, and (iii) subjects with active caries were collected in three transport media viz. a dithiothreitol poised balanced mineral salt solution designated as reduced transport fluid (RTF), VMG II, and modified Stuart medium (SBL). The samples were dispersed by sonic treatment, diluted in the respective medium in which they were collected, and cultured on MM10 sucrose agar. The efficiency of the transport media in the survival of dental plaque flora was determined by comparing the quantitative recovery (expressed as percentage of the initial viable count) from the specimens stored for various lengths of time. The data showed a great variation in the recovery of the oral bacterial flora from the plaque samples. VMG II and SBL served better than RTF as storage media for non-disease-associated dental plaque cultured under strict anaerobic conditions. Recoveries of bacteria from periodontal plaque specimens stored in RTF were higher than SBL and VMG II under identical conditions. The organisms present in the carious plaque samples appeared to survive much better in RTF and VMG II than in SBL as determined by conventional anaerobic culturing technique. However, VMG II showed a higher recovery of organisms from these specimens with an increase in the storage period, suggesting multiplication of the plaque flora. RTF did not allow the growth of oral bacterial flora under all experimental conditions. On the basis of the relative performance of these media it is suggested that RTF is a satisfactory medium for the transport of oral bacteria present in the samples. PMID:4628799

  17. Thiamin requirement of the adult human.

    PubMed

    Sauberlich, H E; Herman, Y F; Stevens, C O; Herman, R H

    1979-11-01

    Young adult male subjects maintained on a metabolic ward were fed diets providing controlled intakes of thiamin and either 2800 or 3600 kcal. The higher level of calories was attained by an increased intake of carbohydrates. Constant weights were maintained by the subjects by adjusting daily activity and exercise schedules. Thiamin requirements were evaluated in terms of erythrocyte transketolase activity and urinary excretion of the vitamin. The results of the study revealed that a relationship exists between thiamin requirement and caloric intake and expenditure. Thus, when the calories being utilized were derived primarily from carbohydrate sources, the minimum adult male requirement for thiamin appeared to be 0.30 mg of thiamin per 1000 kcal. Urinary excretion of thiamin and erythrocyte transketolase activity appear to be reasonably reliable reflections of thiamin intakes and thiamin nutritional status. The use of these measurements in nutrition surveys appears justified. The microbiological assay (Lactobacillus viridescens) for measuring thiamin levels in urine samples appears to be a somewhat more sensitive but valid procedure as an alternate for the thiochrome method. Judged from the results of this study, the recommended intake for the adult human of 0.40 mg of thiamin per 1000 kcal by FAO/WHO and the recommended allowance of 0.5 mg per 1000 kcal by the Food and Nutrition Board of the NAS-NRC appear reasonable and amply allow for biological variations and other factors that may influence the requirement for this vitamin.

  18. Apoptotic and necrotic influence of dental resin polymerization initiators in human gingival fibroblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Masuki, Kouhei; Nomura, Yuji; Bhawal, Ujjal Kumar; Sawajiri, Masahiko; Hirata, Isao; Nahara, Yukinori; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and necrotic influence of four dental resin polymerization initiators--namely benzoyl peroxide (BPO), camphorquinone (CQ), dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and dimethyl-para-toluidine (DMPT)--on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. To this end, the growth inhibition of HGF cells with 1 mM BPO, CQ, and DMAEMA, and 500 microM DMPT was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8. Then, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry was used to assess propidium iodide-stained cells (distribution of cells in G0/G1, S, G2/M phases). All four dental resin polymerization initiators induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. As for the patterns of cell death (necrosis and/or apoptosis), they were analyzed using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining with flow cytometry. All four dental resin polymerization initiators most likely induced necrosis.

  19. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-05-18

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  20. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-01-01

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  1. Preferences for caries prevention agents in adult patients: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Amundson, Craig; Anderson, Gerald A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors that are significantly associated with dentists’ use of specific caries preventive agents in adult patients, and whether dentists who use one preventive agent are also more likely to use certain others. Methods Data were collected from 564 practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, a multi-region consortium of participating practices and dental organizations. Results In-office topical fluoride was the method most frequently used. Regarding at-home preventive agents, there was little difference in preference between non-prescription fluoride, prescription fluoride, or chlorhexidine rinse. Dentists who most frequently used caries prevention were also those who regularly perform caries risk assessment and individualize caries prevention at the patient level. Higher percentages of patients with dental insurance were significantly associated with more use of in-office prevention modalities. Female dentists and dentists with more-recent training were more likely to recommend preventive agents that are applied by the patient. Dentists who reported more-conservative decisions in clinical treatment scenarios were also more likely to use caries preventive agents. Groups of dentist who shared a common preference for certain preventive agents were identified. One group used preventive agents selectively, whereas the other groups predominately used either in-office or at-home fluorides. Conclusions Caries prevention is commonly used with adult patients. However, these results suggest that only a subset of dentists base preventive treatments on caries risk at the individual patient level. PMID:20560997

  2. Use of caries preventive agents on adult patients compared to pediatric patients by general practitioners: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Williams, O. Dale; Ritchie, Lloyd K.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that caries prevention reduces caries in adults. This study tested the frequency of recommended caries prevention agents for children compared to adult patients. Methods This study surveyed 467 Dental Practice-Based Research Network general dentists who practice within the United States and treat both pediatric and adult patients. Dentists were asked the percentage of their patients who are administered or recommended dental sealants, in-office and at-home fluoride, chlorhexidine rinse, and xylitol gum. Results Adults were less likely to receive in-office caries preventive agents compared to pediatric patients. However, the rate of recommendation for at-home preventive regimens was very similar. Dentists with a conservative approach to caries treatment were the most likely to use caries prevention at similar rates in adults as in children. In addition, practices with a greater number of patients with dental insurance were significantly less likely to provide in-office fluoride or sealants to adult patients than to their pediatric patients. Conclusion In-office caries prevention agents are more commonly used by general dentists for their pediatric patients compared to their adult patients. Practice Implications Some general dentists should consider providing additional in-office prevention agents for their adult patients who are at increased risk for dental caries. PMID:20516100

  3. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Supragingival Plaques in Adults with Dental Health or Caries Revealed by 16S Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Cuicui; Ran, Shujun; Huang, Zhengwei; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1–V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. α diversity analysis showed that the microbial diversity in healthy plaques exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups. Using LEfSe analysis, 25 differentially abundant taxa were identified as potential biomarkers. Key genera (27) that potentially contributed to the differential distributions of plaque microbiota between groups were identified by PLS-DA analysis. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function predictions were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed. PMID:27499752

  4. [PREVALENCE OF NON-CARIOUS CERVICAL LESIONS AND ABFRACTIONS OF DENTAL HARD TISSUES IN AN ADULT IN DIFFERENT AGES].

    PubMed

    Iordanishvili, A K; Chernyj, D A; Jankovskij, V V; Orlov, A K; Drobkova, K O

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to gerontostomatological and gender-specific prevalence of non-carious lesions of the hard tissue of teeth in adults. The paper presents data of epidemiological study on prevalence of non-carious lesions of dental hard tissues (high abrasion, erosion, wedge-shaped defects, hyperesthesia). Allocated to four age groups: young adults surveyed--from 22 to 39 years; middle ages--from 40 to 59 years; older--from 60 to 74 years of age; senile age--from 75 to 87 years. To determine the frequency of occurrence of different forms of non-carious lesions of the hard tissue of teeth we have used the following: general scientific and special methods: poll, dental examination, groupings, statistical and mathematical methods of processing sample. We have ranked low incidence of non-carious lesions of the hard tissue of the teeth in the sample surveyed: high abrasion, erosion, wedge-shaped defects of solid tissues, hyperesthesia. The features of clinical course of non-carious lesions have been determined. In particular a rare combined lesion of the teeth with advanced erasibility, wedge defects and erosion has been noted. Significant combination of the pathological processes of the hard tissue of teeth with their hyperesthesia has been found. Features of different forms of non-carious lesions of the hard tissue of teeth in different age periods of life have been determined. Noted that older people, due to non-carious esions of the hard tissue of teeth were more likely to require medical intervention aimed at addressing the ncreased sensitivity and loss of hard tissue of teeth by dental therapeutic activities or dental prosthetics. PMID:26856106

  5. Effect of uncontrolled freezing on biological characteristics of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli; Rattan, Vidya

    2015-12-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) hold great promise as a source of adult stem cells for utilization in regenerative medicine. Successful storage and post thaw recovery of DPSCs without loss of function is a key issue for future clinical application. Most of the cryopreservation methods use controlled rate freezing and vapor phase nitrogen to store stem cells. But these methods are both expensive and laborious. In this study, we isolated DPSCs from a patient undergoing impacted mandibular third molar extraction. We adopted eight different methods of cryopreservation at -80 °C for long term storage of the DPSC aliquots. Various parameters like proliferation, cell death, cell cycle, retention of stemness markers and differentiation potential were studied post cryopreservation period of 1 year. We observed successful recovery of stem cells in every method and a significant difference in proliferation potential and cell death between samples stored by different methods. However, post thaw, all cells retained their stemness markers. All DPSCs stored by different methods were able to differentiate into osteoblast like cells, adipocytes and neural cells. Based on these parameters we concluded that uncontrolled freezing at a temperature of -80 °C is as effective as controlled freezing using ethanol vessels and other cryopreservation methods. To the best of our knowledge, our study provides the first proof of concept that long term storage in uncontrolled freezing of cells at -80 °C in 10 % DMSO does not affect the revival capacity of hDPSCs. This implies that DPSCs may be used successfully for tissue engineering and cell based therapeutics even after long term, uncontrolled cryopreservation.

  6. Survival of Bacteria from Human Dental Plaque Under Various Transport Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Charles I.; Newbrun, Ernest

    1977-01-01

    The effects of transport media, temperature, and anaerobiosis on the survival of bacteria from human supragingival dental plaque were studied. Individual samples were obtained by passing sterile, unwaxed dental floss through the interproximal spaces. The plaque-bearing portion of floss was immediately placed in vials containing reduced transport fluid, viability-preserving microbistatic medium, or reduced salt solution transport fluid. Plaque samples were dispersed by ultrasonic oscillation, serially diluted, and plated in duplicate on MM10-sucrose-blood agar, mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and Rogosa tomato juice agar. Initial viable counts (time 0) were compared with viable count determinations after 48- and 72-h storage. Quantitative recovery (>30%) of various groups of oral bacteria was accomplished from both reduced transport fluid and viability-preserving microbistatic medium after 48- and 72-h storage. Storage of dental plaque in reduced salt solution proved unsatisfactory for most bacteria (less than 10% survival). Since growth of some bacteria may occur in viability-preserving microbistatic medium and the charcoal present interferes with colonly enumeration on low-dilution plates, we found reduced transport fluid to be the most suitable medium for transport and recovery of bacteria from supragingival dental plaque. Subzero storage (−196 and −40°C) did not enhance the survival of bacteria from dental plaque; storage at moderate (5 and 20°C) temperatures gave better recovery of viable bacteria. Survival after anaerobic or aerobic storage was comparable for total colony-forming units; however, anaerobic storage enhanced survival of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Since these organisms are specifically associated with dental caries, anaerobic techniques are preferred for caries activity testing of plaque. PMID:332708

  7. Survival of bacteria from human dental plaque under various transport conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoover, C I; Newbrun, E

    1977-09-01

    The effects of transport media, temperature, and anaerobiosis on the survival of bacteria from human supragingival dental plaque were studied. Individual samples were obtained by passing sterile, unwaxed dental floss through the interproximal spaces. The plaque-bearing portion of floss was immediately placed in vials containing reduced transport fluid, viability-preserving microbistatic medium, or reduced salt solution transport fluid. Plaque samples were dispersed by ultrasonic oscillation, serially diluted, and plated in duplicate on MM10-sucrose-blood agar, mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and Rogosa tomato juice agar. Initial viable counts (time 0) were compared with viable count determinations after 48- and 72-h storage. Quantitative recovery (>30%) of various groups of oral bacteria was accomplished from both reduced transport fluid and viability-preserving microbistatic medium after 48- and 72-h storage. Storage of dental plaque in reduced salt solution proved unsatisfactory for most bacteria (less than 10% survival). Since growth of some bacteria may occur in viability-preserving microbistatic medium and the charcoal present interferes with colonly enumeration on low-dilution plates, we found reduced transport fluid to be the most suitable medium for transport and recovery of bacteria from supragingival dental plaque. Subzero storage (-196 and -40 degrees C) did not enhance the survival of bacteria from dental plaque; storage at moderate (5 and 20 degrees C) temperatures gave better recovery of viable bacteria. Survival after anaerobic or aerobic storage was comparable for total colony-forming units; however, anaerobic storage enhanced survival of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Since these organisms are specifically associated with dental caries, anaerobic techniques are preferred for caries activity testing of plaque.

  8. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered.

  9. Tooth Tissue Engineering: The Importance of Blood Products as a Supplement in Tissue Culture Medium for Human Pulp Dental Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pisciolaro, Ricardo Luiz; Duailibi, Monica Talarico; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Pallos, Debora; Yelick, Pamela Crotty; Vacanti, Joseph Phillip; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Duailibi, Silvio Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    One of the goals in using cells for tissue engineering (TE) and cell therapy consists of optimizing the medium for cell culture. The present study compares three different blood product supplements for improved cell proliferation and protection against DNA damage in cultured human dental pulp stem cells for tooth TE applications. Human cells from dental pulp were first characterized as adult stem cells (ectomesenchymal mixed origin) by flow cytometry. Next, four different cell culture conditions were tested: I, supplement-free; II, supplemented with fetal bovine serum; III, allogeneic human serum; and IV, autologous human serum. Cultured cells were then characterized for cell proliferation, mineralized nodule formation, and colony-forming units (CFU) capability. After 28 days in culture, the comet assay was performed to assess possible damage in cellular DNA. Our results revealed that Protocol IV achieved higher cell proliferation than Protocol I (p = 0.0112). Protocols II and III resulted in higher cell proliferation than Protocol I, but no statistical differences were found relative to Protocol IV. The comet assay revealed less cell damage in cells cultured using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. The damage percentage observed on Protocol II was significantly higher than all other protocols. CFUs capability was highest using Protocol IV (p = 0.0018) and III, respectively, and the highest degree of mineralization was observed using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. Protocol IV resulted in significantly improved cell proliferation, and no cell damage was observed. These results demonstrate that human blood product supplements can be used as feasible supplements for culturing adult human dental stem cells.

  10. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  11. Rethinking Adult Literacy Programs: A Humanities-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anania, Joanne

    The Roosevelt University Humanities Enrichment Program tries to acknowledge the adult part of adult literacy. Its instructional materials are of interest and value to the adult student and, therefore, provide incentives for reading and discussion instead of serving merely as skill-building exercises. The materials are drawn from literature,…

  12. Ionizing radiation induces senescence and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Havelek, R; Soukup, T; Ćmielová, J; Seifrtová, M; Suchánek, J; Vávrová, J; Mokrý, J; Muthná, D; Řezáčová, M

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe. Many current anti-cancer treatments, including ionizing radiation, induce apoptosis via DNA damage. Unfortunately, such treatments are non-selective to cancer cells and produce similar toxicity in normal cells, including adult stem cells. One of the fundamental properties of an adult stem cell is that it does not have any tissue-specific structures that allow it to perform specialized functions. However, under certain stimuli, unspecialized adult stem cells can give rise to specialized cells to generate replacements for cells that are lost during one's life or due to injury or disease. Nevertheless, specialization of stem cells must be controlled by specific milieu and also initiated at the proper time, making the entire process beneficial for tissue recovery and maintaining it for a long time. In this paper we assess whether irradiated dental pulp stem cells have maintained open their options to mature into specialized cells, or whether they have lost their unspecialized (immature) state following irradiation. Our findings showed radiation-induced premature differentiation of dental pulp stem cells towards odonto-/osteoblast lineages in vitro. Matrix calcification was visualized from Day 6 or Day 9 following irradiation of cells expressing low or high levels of CD146, respectively.

  13. Gene expression changes in bioceramic paste-treated human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Torun, Deniz; Torun, Zeynep Ö; Demirkaya, Kadriye; Sarper, Meral; Elçi, Mualla P; Avcu, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the gene expression profiles of human dental pulp cells exposed to iRoot BP using microarray after 24 and 72 h. The results were verified using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. Of the 36,000 transcripts arrayed, 21 were up-regulated and 15 were down-regulated by more than two fold. The largest group of up-regulated genes included those involved in nucleobase-containing compound metabolic processes, cell communication, protein metabolic processes, developmental processes, and biological regulation. The largest groups of down-regulated genes were those involved in cell communication, development, and biological regulation processes. In conclusion, iRoot BP affects the expression of genes involved in different biological processes in human dental pulp cells. (J Oral Sci 58, 307-315, 2016). PMID:27665968

  14. The diversity of adult dental patterns in the United States and the implications for personal identification.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bradley J

    2003-05-01

    Few would argue about the individuality of dental radiographs for forensic identification, but when an antemortem/postmortem comparison is based strictly on dental treatment notes and/or charts it becomes less certain. In the past, attempts to validate the high diversity of dental patterns created by combinations of missing, filled, and unrestored teeth have been based on unfounded statistical assumptions. The goal of this research is to present a statistically valid method of assessing dental pattern diversity for the identification of missing individuals. Empirical observation of large reference datasets was found to be the best technique for assessing dental diversity. This technique is nearly identical to the procedure used for mitochondrial DNA casework. For the research presented in this paper, two large datasets were used, one composed of U.S. military personnel and one composed of U.S. civilians. Dental patterns were found to be very diverse on a scale that is comparable to mtDNA. In addition, it was found that the diversity values remain very consistent regardless of the level of detail present in the treatment records. Overall, combinations of missing, filled, and unrestored teeth were found to be very individualistic and an excellent source for forensic identification.

  15. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  16. Dental plaque development on a hydroxyapatite disk in young adults observed by using a barcoded pyrosequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Toru; Yasui, Masaki; Shibata, Yukie; Furuta, Michiko; Saeki, Yoji; Eshima, Nobuoki; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Dental plaque is a dynamic microbial biofilm ecosystem that comprises hundreds of species including difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. We observed the assembly of a plaque bacterial community through 16S rRNA gene analysis. Plaque samples that accumulated on a hydroxyapatite disk for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days with saliva on day 0 were collected from 19 young adults using a removable resin splint. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the total bacterial amount gradually increased and reached a plateau on day 4. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis revealed that the microbial richness and diversity particularly increased between days 5 and 7. A principal coordinate analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac showed the community assembly in a time-related manner, which became increasingly similar to the salivary microbiota. Facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Streptococcus, Neisseria, Abiotrophia, Gemella, and Rothia were predominant in the plaque bacterial community in the earlier days, whereas obligate anaerobes, such as Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, and Capnocytophaga showed increased dominance on later days. UniFrac analysis also demonstrated that dental caries experience had a significant effect on the assembly process. Our results reveal the development pattern of the plaque bacterial community as well as the inter-individual differences associated with dental caries experience. PMID:25633431

  17. Mineralized polycaprolactone nanofibrous matrix for odontogenesis of human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Bae, Won-Jung; Kim, Joung-Mok; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to fabricate mineralized polycaprolactone nanofibrous scaffold and investigate its ability to elicit odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells, compared to the pure polycaprolactone scaffold. Polycaprolactone nanofibrous scaffold was produced by electrospinning, and the surface was mineralized with apatite. Cellular behaviors on the mineralized polycaprolactone scaffold were assessed in terms of cell adhesion, growth, and odontoblastic differentiation. To evaluate the signal transduction of human dental pulp cells, mRNA expression was analyzed and Western blotting was performed. Mineralized polycaprolactone showed improved cell proliferation, mineralized nodule formation, and expression of odontoblastic marker genes including alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and dentin matrix protein-1, as compared with pure polycaprolactone. Although the cell adhesion on the mineralized polycaprolactone was similar to that of the polycaprolactone, the expression level of proteins including collagen type I and the key adhesion receptor (integrin components α1, α2, and β1) was upregulated in mineralized polycaprolactone compared to polycaprolactone. Especially, cells seeded onto mineralized polycaprolactone scaffolds showed significantly increased levels of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase, a marker of integrin activation, and downstream pathways, such as phosphor (p)-Akt, p-extracellular signal regulated kinase, p-c Jun N-terminal kinase, nuclear factor-kappa B, c-fos, and c-jun, compared with pure polycaprolactone. The mineralized polycaprolactone scaffold is attractive for dentin tissue engineering by promoting growth and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells through the integrin-mediated signaling pathway.

  18. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Human Adult Epithelial Stem Cells from the Periodontal Ligament.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou-Papaefthymiou, M; Papagerakis, P; Papagerakis, S

    2015-11-01

    We report a novel method for the isolation of adult human epithelial stem cells (hEpiSCs) from the epithelial component of the periodontal ligament-the human epithelial cell rests of Malassez (hERM). hEpiSC-rich integrin-α6(+ve) hERM cells derived by fluorometry can be clonally expanded, can grow organoids, and express the markers of pluripotency (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2), polycomb protein RING1B, and the hEpiSC supermarker LGR5. They maintain the growth profile of their originating hERM in vitro. Subcutaneous cotransplantation with mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp on poly-l-lactic acid scaffolds in nude mice gave rise to perfect heterotopic ossicles in vivo with ultrastructure of dentin, enamel, cementum, and bone. These remarkable fully mineralized ossicles underscore the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk in tissue regeneration using human progenitor stem cells, which may have already committed to lineage despite maintaining hallmarks of pluripotency. In addition, we report the clonal expansion and isolation of human LGR5(+ve) cells from the hERM in xeno-free culture conditions. The genetic profile of LGR5(+ve) cells includes both markers of pluripotency and genes important for secretory epithelial and dental epithelial cell differentiation, giving us a first insight into periodontal ligament-derived hEpiSCs. PMID:26392003

  20. Radiographic evaluation of dental age of adults using Kvaal’s method

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ridhima; Srivastava, Anurag

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is a well-known fact that the assessment of the dental development can be related to an individual’s age, but after the age of 21 years when the wisdom teeth also complete their development, there arises a need for an optimal age estimation procedure. With advancing age, there is a reduction in the size of the pulp due to secondary dentin deposition and a measurement of this reduction can also be used as a parameter to assess the age of the individuals, both in the living and dead. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of this approach in the estimation of age of adults, using Kvaal’s method in the set sample. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of the digital long-cone intraoral periapical radiographs from 50 subjects of either sex in the age group of 15–60 years, who were selected after evaluation for the set inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pulp width and length from radiographs of 6 selected teeth, namely, maxillary central incisor, lateral incisor, and second premolar and mandibular lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar of either right or left side were measured using the RVG trophy software [Trophy® Windows is a software program supplied by Trophy Radiologie (Trophy Windows Version 5.03, Copyright 1993-2002,Trophy RVG patented by Trophy, Chicago)]. In order to compensate for the differences in magnification and angulation, various ratios were calculated and the mean of all ratios (M) was taken as the first predictor, while the difference between the mean of 2 width ratios and the mean of 2 length ratios (W – L) was taken as the second predictor. Different regression formulae for all 6 teeth, 3 maxillary teeth, 3 mandibular teeth, and each of the individual teeth were derived and the age was assessed. The assessed age was then co-related with the actual age of the patient using the Student’s t test. Results: The results showed that the coefficient of determination

  1. Could adult hippocampal neurogenesis be relevant for human behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jason S.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2011-01-01

    Although the function of adult neurogenesis is still unclear, tools for directly studying the behavioral role of new hippocampal neurons now exist in rodents. Since similar studies are impossible to do in humans, it is important to assess whether the role of new neurons in rodents is likely to be similar to that in humans. One feature of adult neurogenesis that varies tremendously across species is the number of neurons that are generated, so a key question is whether there are enough neurons generated in humans to impact function. In this review we examine neuroanatomy and circuit function in the hippocampus to ask how many granule neurons are needed to impact hippocampal function and then discuss what is known about numbers of new neurons produced in adult rats and humans. We conclude that relatively small numbers of neurons could affect hippocampal circuits and that the magnitude of adult neurogenesis in adult rats and humans is probably larger than generally believed. PMID:21736900

  2. Comparative analysis of telomere length, telomerase and reverse transcriptase activity in human dental stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Byeong-Gyun; Kang, Eun-Ju; Kumar, B Mohana; Maeng, Geun-Ho; Ock, Sun-A; Kwack, Dae-Oh; Park, Bong-Wook; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells from dental tissues have been isolated and established for tooth regenerative applications. However, basic characterization on their biological properties still needs to be investigated before employing them for effective clinical trials. In this study, we compared the telomere length, relative telomerase activity (RTA), and relative reverse transcriptase activity (RRA) as well as the surface antigen profile and mesenchymal differentiation ability in human dental papilla stem cells (DPaSCs), dental pulp stem cells (DPuSCs), and dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow. Dental stem cells (DSCs) were strongly positive for cell surface markers, such as CD44 and CD90. However, slightly lower expression of CD105 was observed in DPaSCs and DPuSCs compared to DFSCs and MSCs. Following specific induction, DPaSCs, DFSCs, and MSCs were successfully differentiated into adipocytes and osteocytes. However, DPuSCS, in particular, were able to differentiate into adipocytes but failed to induce into osteogenic differentiation. Further, all DSCs, MSCs, and MRC-5 fibroblasts as control were investigated for telomere length by nonradioactive chemiluminescent assay, RTA by relative-quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (RQ-TRAP), and RRA by PCR-based assay. Mean telomere lengths in DPaSCs, DPuSCs, DFSCs, and MSCs was ∼11 kb, and the values did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) among the cells analyzed. RTA levels in DPaSCs were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in MSCs, DPuSCs, DFSCs, and MRC-5 fibroblasts and among DSCs, DFSCs showed a significantly (p < 0.05) lower RTA. Moreover, RRA levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in DPaSCs, DPuSCs, and MSCs than in DFSCs. Based on these observations, we conclude that among DSCs, DPaSCs possessed ideal characteristics on telomere length, telomerase activity and reverse transcriptase (RTase) activity, and may serve as suitable alternative candidates

  3. Human dental pulp stem cells cultured in serum-free supplemented medium

    PubMed Central

    Bonnamain, Virginie; Thinard, Reynald; Sergent-Tanguy, Solène; Huet, Pascal; Bienvenu, Géraldine; Naveilhan, Philippe; Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence show that human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) could provide a source of adult stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative pathologies. In this study, DPSCs were expanded and cultured with a protocol generally used for the culture of neural stem/progenitor cells. Methodology: DPSC cultures were established from third molars. The pulp tissue was enzymatically digested and cultured in serum-supplemented basal medium for 12 h. Adherent (ADH) and non-adherent (non-ADH) cell populations were separated according to their differential adhesion to plastic and then cultured in serum-free defined N2 medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Both ADH and non-ADH populations were analyzed by FACS and/or PCR. Results: FACS analysis of ADH-DPSCs revealed the expression of the mesenchymal cell marker CD90, the neuronal marker CD56, the transferrin receptor CD71, and the chemokine receptor CXCR3, whereas hematopoietic stem cells markers CD45, CD133, and CD34 were not expressed. ADH-DPSCs expressed transcripts coding for the Nestin gene, whereas expression levels of genes coding for the neuronal markers β-III tubulin and NF-M, and the oligodendrocyte marker PLP-1 were donor dependent. ADH-DPSCs did not express the transcripts for GFAP, an astrocyte marker. Cells of the non-ADH population that grew as spheroids expressed Nestin, β-III tubulin, NF-M and PLP-1 transcripts. DPSCs that migrated out of the spheroids exhibited an odontoblast-like morphology and expressed a higher level of DSPP and osteocalcin transcripts than ADH-DPSCs. Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that human DPSCs can be expanded and cultured in serum-free supplemented medium with EGF and bFGF. ADH-DPSCs and non-ADH populations contained neuronal and/or oligodendrocyte progenitors at different stages of commitment and, interestingly, cells from spheroid structures seem to be more engaged into the odontoblastic lineage than the ADH

  4. Sensitivity of human dental pulp cells to eighteen chemical agents used for endodontic treatments in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Morio; Tsutsui, Takeo W; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Ohno, Maki; Higo, Yukari; Inaba, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the adverse effects against human dental pulp tissue, the sensitivity of human dental pulp cells (D824 cells) to 18 chemical agents used for endodontic treatments in dentistry was examined. The cytotoxicity, as determined by a decrease in colony-forming ability of cells treated with the chemical agents, increased as the concentration increased. As a quantitative measure of the cytotoxic effect, LC(50), the concentration which induces a 50% lethality, was extrapolated from the concentration-response curves. The rank of the chemical agents according to their cytotoxic effect (LC(50)) was sodium arsenite > formaldehyde > hydrogen peroxide > zinc oxide > thymol ≈ iodoform ≈ eugenol > guaiacol > ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ≈ iodine > procaine > lidocaine ≈ chloramphenicol ≈ m-cresol > calcium hydroxide ≈ sodium hypochlorite ≈ phenol ≈ p-phenolsulfonic acid. To compare the cytotoxicity and the levels of apoptosis and mRNA expression of five genes related to the function of dental pulp tissue, D824 cells treated with the LC(50) concentrations of chemical agents were assayed by the TUNEL method and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. The inducibility of apoptotic cells and the level of mRNA expression of the genes varied with the chemical agents, indicating that both effects occurred independent of the rank of cytotoxic effect of the chemical agents. The results not only provide information concerning cytotoxicity of various chemical agents to human dental pulp cells, but also show an insight into the diversity of the pharmacodynamic action of the chemical agents.

  5. Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese rural adults with dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Cheng, R; Cheng, G; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) among residents of rural China with dental fluorosis aged 30-69 years. A village located in northern China in which dental fluorosis was common was selected. Some 1250 residents with fluorosis ranging in age from 30 to 69 years completed a structured questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. Diagnosis of DH was based on the combination of the subject's self-evaluation and clinical examination. Dental fluorosis was evaluated using Dean's index (DI). In the village, the fluoride concentration in drinking water was 1.15-1.50 mg L(-1) . The community fluorosis index was 1.47, and 74 (9.7%) of the participants with dental fluorosis were diagnosed with DH. There was no significant difference between men and women. DH was most commonly observed in the lower incisors, and the most common cause of DH was cold stimulation. Logistic regression analysis showed acid reflux to be the only risk factor for DH in the current study. Among subjects with DH, none took treatment measures, visited a hospital or clinic, or used antisensitivity toothpaste. The prevalence of DH in the selected subjects with dental fluorosis was 9.7%. Acid reflux was found to be a risk factor for DH in the current study.

  6. Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese rural adults with dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Cheng, R; Cheng, G; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) among residents of rural China with dental fluorosis aged 30-69 years. A village located in northern China in which dental fluorosis was common was selected. Some 1250 residents with fluorosis ranging in age from 30 to 69 years completed a structured questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. Diagnosis of DH was based on the combination of the subject's self-evaluation and clinical examination. Dental fluorosis was evaluated using Dean's index (DI). In the village, the fluoride concentration in drinking water was 1.15-1.50 mg L(-1) . The community fluorosis index was 1.47, and 74 (9.7%) of the participants with dental fluorosis were diagnosed with DH. There was no significant difference between men and women. DH was most commonly observed in the lower incisors, and the most common cause of DH was cold stimulation. Logistic regression analysis showed acid reflux to be the only risk factor for DH in the current study. Among subjects with DH, none took treatment measures, visited a hospital or clinic, or used antisensitivity toothpaste. The prevalence of DH in the selected subjects with dental fluorosis was 9.7%. Acid reflux was found to be a risk factor for DH in the current study. PMID:24484047

  7. BMP7 and EREG Contribute to the Inductive Potential of Dental Mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong; Pi, Caixia; Xu, Ruoshi; Wan, Mian; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Chengcheng; Sun, Jianxun; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenesis is accomplished by reciprocal signaling between the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments. It is generally accepted that the inductive mesenchyme is capable of inducing the odontogenic commitment of both dental and non-dental epithelial cells. However, the duration of this signal in the developing dental mesenchyme and whether adult dental pulp tissue maintains its inductive capability remain unclear. This study investigated the contribution of growth factors to regulating the inductive potential of the dental mesenchyme. Human oral epithelial cells (OEs) were co-cultured with either human dental mesenchymal/papilla cells (FDPCs) or human dental pulp cells (ADPCs) under 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional conditions. Odontogenic-associated genes and proteins were detected by qPCR and immunofluorescence, respectively, and significant differences were observed between the two co-culture systems. The BMP7 and EREG expression levels in FDPCs were significantly higher than in ADPCs, as indicated by human growth factor PCR arrays and immunofluorescence analyses. OEs co-cultured with ADPCs supplemented with BMP7 and EREG expressed ameloblastic differentiation genes. Our study suggests that BMP7 and EREG expression in late bell-stage human dental papilla contributes to the inductive potential of dental mesenchyme. Furthermore, adult dental pulp cells supplemented with these two growth factors re-established the inductive potential of postnatal dental pulp tissue. PMID:25952286

  8. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-08-09

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed.

  9. Atomic-scale compositional mapping reveals Mg-rich amorphous calcium phosphate in human dental enamel.

    PubMed

    La Fontaine, Alexandre; Zavgorodniy, Alexander; Liu, Howgwei; Zheng, Rongkun; Swain, Michael; Cairney, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Human dental enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, plays a vital role in protecting teeth from wear as a result of daily grinding and chewing as well as from chemical attack. It is well established that the mechanical strength and fatigue resistance of dental enamel are derived from its hierarchical structure, which consists of periodically arranged bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires. However, we do not yet have a full understanding of the in vivo HAP crystallization process that leads to this structure. Mg(2+) ions, which are present in many biological systems, regulate HAP crystallization by stabilizing its precursor, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), but their atomic-scale distribution within HAP is unknown. We use atom probe tomography to provide the first direct observations of an intergranular Mg-rich ACP phase between the HAP nanowires in mature human dental enamel. We also observe Mg-rich elongated precipitates and pockets of organic material among the HAP nanowires. These observations support the postclassical theory of amelogenesis (that is, enamel formation) and suggest that decay occurs via dissolution of the intergranular phase. This information is also useful for the development of more accurate models to describe the mechanical behavior of teeth. PMID:27617291

  10. Atomic-scale compositional mapping reveals Mg-rich amorphous calcium phosphate in human dental enamel

    PubMed Central

    La Fontaine, Alexandre; Zavgorodniy, Alexander; Liu, Howgwei; Zheng, Rongkun; Swain, Michael; Cairney, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Human dental enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, plays a vital role in protecting teeth from wear as a result of daily grinding and chewing as well as from chemical attack. It is well established that the mechanical strength and fatigue resistance of dental enamel are derived from its hierarchical structure, which consists of periodically arranged bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires. However, we do not yet have a full understanding of the in vivo HAP crystallization process that leads to this structure. Mg2+ ions, which are present in many biological systems, regulate HAP crystallization by stabilizing its precursor, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), but their atomic-scale distribution within HAP is unknown. We use atom probe tomography to provide the first direct observations of an intergranular Mg-rich ACP phase between the HAP nanowires in mature human dental enamel. We also observe Mg-rich elongated precipitates and pockets of organic material among the HAP nanowires. These observations support the postclassical theory of amelogenesis (that is, enamel formation) and suggest that decay occurs via dissolution of the intergranular phase. This information is also useful for the development of more accurate models to describe the mechanical behavior of teeth. PMID:27617291

  11. Atomic-scale compositional mapping reveals Mg-rich amorphous calcium phosphate in human dental enamel

    PubMed Central

    La Fontaine, Alexandre; Zavgorodniy, Alexander; Liu, Howgwei; Zheng, Rongkun; Swain, Michael; Cairney, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Human dental enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, plays a vital role in protecting teeth from wear as a result of daily grinding and chewing as well as from chemical attack. It is well established that the mechanical strength and fatigue resistance of dental enamel are derived from its hierarchical structure, which consists of periodically arranged bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires. However, we do not yet have a full understanding of the in vivo HAP crystallization process that leads to this structure. Mg2+ ions, which are present in many biological systems, regulate HAP crystallization by stabilizing its precursor, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), but their atomic-scale distribution within HAP is unknown. We use atom probe tomography to provide the first direct observations of an intergranular Mg-rich ACP phase between the HAP nanowires in mature human dental enamel. We also observe Mg-rich elongated precipitates and pockets of organic material among the HAP nanowires. These observations support the postclassical theory of amelogenesis (that is, enamel formation) and suggest that decay occurs via dissolution of the intergranular phase. This information is also useful for the development of more accurate models to describe the mechanical behavior of teeth.

  12. Atomic-scale compositional mapping reveals Mg-rich amorphous calcium phosphate in human dental enamel.

    PubMed

    La Fontaine, Alexandre; Zavgorodniy, Alexander; Liu, Howgwei; Zheng, Rongkun; Swain, Michael; Cairney, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Human dental enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, plays a vital role in protecting teeth from wear as a result of daily grinding and chewing as well as from chemical attack. It is well established that the mechanical strength and fatigue resistance of dental enamel are derived from its hierarchical structure, which consists of periodically arranged bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires. However, we do not yet have a full understanding of the in vivo HAP crystallization process that leads to this structure. Mg(2+) ions, which are present in many biological systems, regulate HAP crystallization by stabilizing its precursor, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), but their atomic-scale distribution within HAP is unknown. We use atom probe tomography to provide the first direct observations of an intergranular Mg-rich ACP phase between the HAP nanowires in mature human dental enamel. We also observe Mg-rich elongated precipitates and pockets of organic material among the HAP nanowires. These observations support the postclassical theory of amelogenesis (that is, enamel formation) and suggest that decay occurs via dissolution of the intergranular phase. This information is also useful for the development of more accurate models to describe the mechanical behavior of teeth.

  13. Odontoblastic inductive potential of epithelial cells derived from human deciduous dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ji-Won; Seo, You-Mi; Kim, Ha Hoon; Lee, Gene; Bae, Hyun-Sook; Park, Joo-Cheol

    2016-06-01

    For the dentin regeneration, dental epithelial cells are indispensible and must possess odontoblastic induction capability. Epithelial cell-like stem cells were recently identified in human deciduous dental pulp (DPESCs). However, their cellular characteristics remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to characterize DPESCs compared to HAT-7 ameloblastic cells. Expression levels of ameloblast-specific markers [odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (Odam), matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)-20, amelogenin, and ameloblastin] were detected in DPESCs. Co-culturing odontoblastic MDPC-23 cells with DPESCs increased expression of odontoblast differentiation markers (Dmp1 and Dspp) from days 4 to 10, while the expression of bone sialoprotein rapidly decreased. MDPC-23 cells cultured in DPESC-conditioned medium (CM) showed increased Dspp promoter activity compared with control MDPC-23 cultures. Mineralization was first observed in the CM groups from day 4 and proceeded rapidly until day 14, whereas mineralized nodules were found from day 7 in control media-cultured cells. In conclusion, DPESCs in human deciduous pulp possess ameloblast-like characteristics and differentiation properties, and substances derived from DPESCs promote odontoblastic differentiation. Thus, our results indicate that DPESCs can be a realistic epithelial source for use in odontoblastic induction and dentin formation of dental mesenchymal cells. PMID:27098651

  14. Cytotoxicity assessment of graphene-based nanomaterials on human dental follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Olteanu, Diana; Filip, Adriana; Socaci, Crina; Biris, Alexandru Radu; Filip, Xenia; Coros, Maria; Rosu, Marcela Corina; Pogacean, Florina; Alb, Camelia; Baldea, Ioana; Bolfa, Pompei; Pruneanu, Stela

    2015-12-01

    Graphene-oxide (GO) and its most encountered derivatives, thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) and nitrogen-doped graphene (N-Gr), were synthesized and structurally characterized by spectroscopic techniques, like Raman and (13)C MAS solid state NMR. Several biological effects (cytotoxicity, oxidative stress induction, and cellular and mithocondrial membrane alterations) induced by such graphene-based materials on human dental follicle stem cells were investigated. Graphene oxide shows the lowest cytotoxic effect, followed by the nitrogen-doped graphene, while thermally reduced graphene oxide exhibits high cytotoxic effects. Graphene oxide induces oxidative stress without causing cell membrane damage. Nitrogen-doped graphene shows a slight antioxidant activity; however, at high doses (20 and 40 μg/ml) it causes membrane damage. Both graphene oxide and nitrogen-doped graphene seem to be valuable candidates for usage in dental nanocomposites.

  15. Biocompatibility of Accelerated Mineral Trioxide Aggregate on Stem Cells Derived from Human Dental Pulp.

    PubMed

    Kulan, Pinar; Karabiyik, Ozge; Kose, Gamze T; Kargul, Betul

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several additives on the setting time and cytotoxicity of accelerated-set mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on stem cells of human dental pulp. ProRoot white MTA (WMTA) (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN) was mixed with various additives including distilled water, 2.5% disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany), K-Y Jelly (Johnson & Johnson, Markham, ON, Canada), and 5% and 10% calcium chloride (CaCl2) (Merck). The setting times were evaluated using a Vicat apparatus (Alsa Lab, Istanbul, Turkey). Human dental pulp stem cells were isolated and seeded into 48-well plates at 2 × 10(3) cells per well and incubated with MTA samples for 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days. Cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay. MTA mixed with 10% CaCl2 showed the lowest setting time (P < .05). According to the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium results on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th days, a statistically significant difference was found (P < .05) between MTA groups and the control group. MTA mixed with K-Y Jelly in all groups showed the lowest cell viability at all time points (P < .05). The cell viability of MTA mixed with distilled water, 5% CaCl2, 10% CaCl2, and Na2HPO4 increased significantly through time (P < .05). This in vitro study found MTA mixed with 5% and 10% CaCl2 and Na2HPO4 is biocompatible with dental pulp stem cells in terms of cell viability. Further in vitro and in vivo investigations are required to prove the clinical applications of MTA mixed with various additives.

  16. Adult Human Neurogenesis: From Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of generating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases. PMID:21519376

  17. Comparison of acceptance, preference and efficacy between pressure anesthesia and classical needle infiltration anesthesia for dental restorative procedures in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Makade, Chetana Sachin; Shenoi, Pratima R; Gunwal, Mohit K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Intraoral local anesthesia is essential for delivering dental care. Needless devices have been developed to provide anesthesia without injections. Little controlled research is available on its use in dental restorative procedures in adult patients. The aims of this study were to compare adult patients acceptability and preference for needleless jet injection with classical local infiltration as well as to evaluate the efficacy of the needleless anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Twenty non fearful adults with no previous experience of dental anesthesia were studied using split-mouth design. The first procedure was performed with classical needle infiltration anesthesia. The same amount of anesthetic solution was administered using MADA jet needleless device in a second session one week later, during which a second dental restorative procedure was performed. Patients acceptance was assessed using Universal pain assessment tool while effectiveness was recorded using soft tissue anesthesia and pulpal anesthesia. Patients reported their preference for the anesthetic method at the third visit. The data was evaluated using chi square test and student's t-test. Results: Pressure anesthesia was more accepted and preferred by 70% of the patients than traditional needle anesthesia (20%). Both needle and pressure anesthesia was equally effective for carrying out the dental procedures. Conclusion: Patients experienced significantly less pain and fear (p<0.01) during anesthetic procedure with pressure anesthesia. However, for more invasive procedures needle anesthesia will be more effective. PMID:24778516

  18. Adult stem cells properties in terms of commitment, aging and biological safety of grit-blasted and Acid-etched ti dental implants surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Bressan, Eriberto; Calvo-Guirado, José L; Degidi, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is one of the most widely used biomaterials for manufacturing dental implants. The implant surface properties strongly influence osseointegration. The aim of the present study was to in vitro investigate the characteristics of Ti dental implants in terms of mutagenicity, hemocompatibility, biocompatibility, osteoinductivity and biological safety. The Ames test was used to test the mutagenicity of the Ti dental implants, and the hemolysis assay for evaluating their hemocompatibility. Human adipose - derived stem cells (ADSCs) were then seeded onto these implants in order to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Gene expression analyzing with real-time PCR was carried out to investigate the osteoinductivity of the biomaterials. Finally, the genetic stability of the cells cultured onto dental implants was determined by karyotyping. Our results demonstrated that Ti dental implants are not mutagenic, do not cause hemolysis, and are biocompatible. The MTT assay revealed that ADSCs, seeded on Ti dental implants, proliferate up to 30 days in culture. Moreover, ADSCs loaded on Ti dental implants show a substantial expression of some osteoblast specific markers, such as COL1A1, OPN, ALPL, and RUNX2, as well as chromosomal stability after 30 days of culture in a medium without osteogenic factors. In conclusion, the grit-blasted and acid-etched treatment seems to favor the adhesion and proliferation of ADSCs and improve the osteoinductivity of Ti dental implant surfaces.

  19. Adult Stem Cells Properties in Terms of Commitment, Aging and Biological Safety of Grit-Blasted and Acid-Etched Ti Dental Implants Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Bressan, Eriberto; Calvo - Guirado, José L.; Degidi, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is one of the most widely used biomaterials for manufacturing dental implants. The implant surface properties strongly influence osseointegration. The aim of the present study was to in vitro investigate the characteristics of Ti dental implants in terms of mutagenicity, hemocompatibility, biocompatibility, osteoinductivity and biological safety. The Ames test was used to test the mutagenicity of the Ti dental implants, and the hemolysis assay for evaluating their hemocompatibility. Human adipose - derived stem cells (ADSCs) were then seeded onto these implants in order to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Gene expression analyzing with real-time PCR was carried out to investigate the osteoinductivity of the biomaterials. Finally, the genetic stability of the cells cultured onto dental implants was determined by karyotyping. Our results demonstrated that Ti dental implants are not mutagenic, do not cause hemolysis, and are biocompatible. The MTT assay revealed that ADSCs, seeded on Ti dental implants, proliferate up to 30 days in culture. Moreover, ADSCs loaded on Ti dental implants show a substantial expression of some osteoblast specific markers, such as COL1A1, OPN, ALPL, and RUNX2, as well as chromosomal stability after 30 days of culture in a medium without osteogenic factors. In conclusion, the grit-blasted and acid-etched treatment seems to favor the adhesion and proliferation of ADSCs and improve the osteoinductivity of Ti dental implant surfaces. PMID:25635249

  20. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed. PMID:27517891

  1. Correlation Between Dental Arch Width and Sagittal Dento-Skeletal Morphology in Untreated Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar; Etezadi, Tahura

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Dental arch form is one of the most important characteristics of dentition. However, this dimension usually receives less attention in diagnosis or treatment planning and orthodontic patients are traditionally classified with regard to their sagittal characteristics. The objectives of this study were to investigate if a relationship exists between the dental arch width (transverse dimension) and sagittal skeletal and dental parameters in orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: Dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 108 consecutive untreated Iranian patients (47 males and 61 females) between 16 and 31 years of age were evaluated. Arch width (AW) parameters including upper and lower inter-molar width (UIMW and LIMW) and upper and lower inter-canine width (UICW and LICW) were measured by a digital caliper. Sagittal parameters included SNA and SNB angle and Wits’ appraisal obtained from lateral cephalograms in addition to upper and lower arch length (UAL and LAL) obtained from dental casts. The correlation between the aforementioned parameters was evaluated applying Pearson correlation coefficients. Molar and canine relationship according to Angle’s classification was also recorded and the means of all parameters were compared between three occlusal relationship classes and two gender groups by means of two-way ANOVA. Results: According to statistical analysis a significant positive correlation between sagittal parameters and arch width measures exists between SNA and UICW and between LICW and LAL. Upper and lower ICW were significantly correlated, the relationship between upper and lower IMW and between UAL and LAL were significant. Among sagittal measures, both UAL and LAL were correlated with the ANB angle. The means of arch width parameters in three occlusal classes were not significantly different. Conclusion: The only significant correlation between arch width and sagittal parameters existed between UICW and SNA angle and between LICW and

  2. Prevalence of Dentin Hypersensitivity and Related Factors Among Adult Patients Visiting a Dental School in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Ram K, Chaitanya; Sirisha, N R; Sree Y, Sandhya; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Satti, Narayana Reddy; Thatimatla, Chandrasekar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a relatively common problem which may disturb the patient during eating, drinking, brushing and sometimes even breathing. It is a painful condition highly prevalent in the general adult population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of DH and to examine some associated factors such as initiating stimuli among adult patients. Materials and Methods: The study is done under two phases. In the first phase a cross-sectional study was carried out in 665 study volunteers. Only 212 adult patients who were meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conveniently selected to the study. A detailed demographic data and a structured questionnaire regarding type of response, sensitivity episodes, and duration of sensation, and stimulus for initiation were recorded by the examiner. Evidence of DH was confirmed by the use of air blast and water from the air-water jet of the dental chair and scratching the suspected tooth surfaces which is indicated by study subjects with a dental probe and noting the responses by using visual analog scale (VAS). In the second phase the related factors or characteristics of DH were surveyed. Statistical analysis preformed by using methods of descriptive statistics and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: The overall prevalence of DH was found to be 32%. The most common cause was consuming cold food or drinks (92%) and common predisposing factor was gingival recession (28%). Probe method yields a higher VAS score followed by Air at 10 seconds and Water at 10 seconds which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of DH in present study was 32% which is attributed to gingival recession as predisposing factor and cold stimuli. PMID:25386522

  3. Gustofacial and olfactofacial responses in human adults.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Romy; Ellgring, Heiner; Macht, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Adults' facial reactions in response to tastes and odors were investigated in order to determine whether differential facial displays observed in newborns remain stable in adults who exhibit a greater voluntary facial control. Twenty-eight healthy nonsmokers (14 females) tasted solutions of PROP (bitter), NaCl (salty), citric acid (sour), sucrose (sweet), and glutamate (umami) differing in concentration (low, medium, and high) and smelled different odors (banana, cinnamon, clove, coffee, fish, and garlic). Their facial reactions were video recorded and analyzed using the Facial Action Coding System. Adults' facial reactions discriminated between stimuli with opponent valences. Unpleasant tastes and odors elicited negative displays (brow lower, upper lip raise, and lip corner depress). The pleasant sweet taste elicited positive displays (lip suck), whereas the pleasant odors did not. Unlike newborns, adults smiled with higher concentrations of some unpleasant tastes that can be regarded as serving communicative functions. Moreover, adults expressed negative displays with higher sweetness. Except for the "social" smile in response to unpleasant tastes, adults' facial reactions elicited by tastes and odors mostly correspond to those found in newborns. In conclusion, adults' facial reactions to tastes and odors appear to remain stable in their basic displays; however, some additional reactions might reflect socialization influences.

  4. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria-Bolaños, Daniel; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Lombana-Sanchez, Nelson; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), β-endorphins (β-End), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons) were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg), which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg), which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain. PMID:26538838

  5. Translucency of human teeth and dental restorative materials and its clinical relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    The purpose was to review the translucency of human teeth and related dental materials that should be considered for the development of esthetic restorative materials. Translucency is the relative amount of light transmission or diffuse reflection from a substrate surface through a turbid medium. Translucency influences the masking ability, color blending effect, and the degree of light curing through these materials. Regarding the translucency indices, transmission coefficient, translucency parameter, and contrast ratio have been used, and correlations among these indices were confirmed. Translucency of human enamel and dentine increases in direct proportion to the wavelength of incident light in the visible light range. As for the translucency changes by aging, limited differences were reported in human dentine, while those for enamel proved to increase. There have been studies for the adjustment of translucency in dental esthetic restorative materials; the size and amount of filler and the kind of resin matrix were modified in resin composites, and the kind of ingredient and the degree of crystallization were modified in ceramics. Based on the translucency properties of human enamel and dentine, those of replacing restorative materials should be optimized for successful esthetic rehabilitation. Biomimetic simulation of the natural tooth microstructure might be a promising method.

  6. Translucency of human teeth and dental restorative materials and its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    The purpose was to review the translucency of human teeth and related dental materials that should be considered for the development of esthetic restorative materials. Translucency is the relative amount of light transmission or diffuse reflection from a substrate surface through a turbid medium. Translucency influences the masking ability, color blending effect, and the degree of light curing through these materials. Regarding the translucency indices, transmission coefficient, translucency parameter, and contrast ratio have been used, and correlations among these indices were confirmed. Translucency of human enamel and dentine increases in direct proportion to the wavelength of incident light in the visible light range. As for the translucency changes by aging, limited differences were reported in human dentine, while those for enamel proved to increase. There have been studies for the adjustment of translucency in dental esthetic restorative materials; the size and amount of filler and the kind of resin matrix were modified in resin composites, and the kind of ingredient and the degree of crystallization were modified in ceramics. Based on the translucency properties of human enamel and dentine, those of replacing restorative materials should be optimized for successful esthetic rehabilitation. Biomimetic simulation of the natural tooth microstructure might be a promising method.

  7. DIFFERENTIAL PATIENT RESPONSE TO INSTRUCTION, COUNSELING, AND DENTAL TREATMENT. PAPER PRESENTED AT A NATIONAL SEMINAR ON ADULT EDUCATION RESEARCH (CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 11-13, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LUPTON, DANIEL E.

    RESEARCH (1) ANALYZED SPECIFIC OUTCOMES OF COUNSELING, INSTRUCTION, AND DENTAL THERAPY, AND (2) DETERMINED THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF PATIENT EDUCATION FOR RELIEF OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (TMJ) DYSFUNCTION. SIXTY ADULT PATIENTS ATTENDING THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS TMJ RESEARCH CENTER WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO ONE OF THREE PROGRAMS--DENTISTRY,…

  8. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  9. Application of third molar development and eruption models in estimating dental age in Malay sub-adults.

    PubMed

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yusmiaidil Putera; Cauwels, Rita; Deschepper, Ellen; Martens, Luc

    2015-08-01

    The third molar development (TMD) has been widely utilized as one of the radiographic method for dental age estimation. By using the same radiograph of the same individual, third molar eruption (TME) information can be incorporated to the TMD regression model. This study aims to evaluate the performance of dental age estimation in individual method models and the combined model (TMD and TME) based on the classic regressions of multiple linear and principal component analysis. A sample of 705 digital panoramic radiographs of Malay sub-adults aged between 14.1 and 23.8 years was collected. The techniques described by Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Kohler) and Olze were employed to stage the TMD and TME, respectively. The data was divided to develop three respective models based on the two regressions of multiple linear and principal component analysis. The trained models were then validated on the test sample and the accuracy of age prediction was compared between each model. The coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated. In both genders, adjusted R² yielded an increment in the linear regressions of combined model as compared to the individual models. The overall decrease in RMSE was detected in combined model as compared to TMD (0.03-0.06) and TME (0.2-0.8). In principal component regression, low value of adjusted R(2) and high RMSE except in male were exhibited in combined model. Dental age estimation is better predicted using combined model in multiple linear regression models. PMID:26165657

  10. Application of third molar development and eruption models in estimating dental age in Malay sub-adults.

    PubMed

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yusmiaidil Putera; Cauwels, Rita; Deschepper, Ellen; Martens, Luc

    2015-08-01

    The third molar development (TMD) has been widely utilized as one of the radiographic method for dental age estimation. By using the same radiograph of the same individual, third molar eruption (TME) information can be incorporated to the TMD regression model. This study aims to evaluate the performance of dental age estimation in individual method models and the combined model (TMD and TME) based on the classic regressions of multiple linear and principal component analysis. A sample of 705 digital panoramic radiographs of Malay sub-adults aged between 14.1 and 23.8 years was collected. The techniques described by Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Kohler) and Olze were employed to stage the TMD and TME, respectively. The data was divided to develop three respective models based on the two regressions of multiple linear and principal component analysis. The trained models were then validated on the test sample and the accuracy of age prediction was compared between each model. The coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated. In both genders, adjusted R² yielded an increment in the linear regressions of combined model as compared to the individual models. The overall decrease in RMSE was detected in combined model as compared to TMD (0.03-0.06) and TME (0.2-0.8). In principal component regression, low value of adjusted R(2) and high RMSE except in male were exhibited in combined model. Dental age estimation is better predicted using combined model in multiple linear regression models.

  11. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice.

  12. Prevalence and risks of habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea symptoms in adult dental patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S.; Nazir, Mohammed A.; Al-Masoud, Naif N.; Alqahtani, Nasser D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among dental patients and investigate factors associated with high-risk OSA. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between October and December 2014. A total of 200 consecutive female and male dental patients were included in this study. Subjective and objective assessments were carried out. Habitual snoring and risk of OSA were assessed using the Arabic version of the Berlin questionnaire. Two trained investigators carried out the objective measurements of anthropometric data, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and clinical examination of upper-airway, and dental occlusion. Results: Habitual snoring was present in 18.2% of the females and 81.8% of the males (p<0.05). Breathing pauses during sleep of more than once a week occurred in 9% (n=17) of the sample. Of the males, 78.3% were at high risk of OSA compared with 21.7% of the females. Multivariate analysis for risk of OSA revealed that obese patients were almost 10 times more likely to report OSA symptoms than their non-obese counterparts (odds ratio: 9.9, 95% confidence intervals: 4.4-22.1). Tongue indentations, tonsil size, and a high Epworth Sleepiness Scale score were also independent risks of OSA. Conclusion: Tongue indentations and tonsil grades III and IV were significantly associated with risk of OSA. This validates the important role of dentists in the recognition of the signs and symptoms of OSA. PMID:26837402

  13. Role of MSX1 in Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Sakiko; Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Noshiro, Mitsuhide; Shukunami, Chisa; Kozai, Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1) encodes a transcription factor implicated in embryonic development of limbs and craniofacial tissues including bone and teeth. Although MSX1 regulates osteoblast differentiation in the cranial bone of young animal, little is known about the contribution of MSX1 to the osteogenic potential of human cells. In the present study, we investigate the role of MSX1 in osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells isolated from deciduous teeth. When these cells were exposed to osteogenesis-induction medium, runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, increased on days 4–12, and thereafter the matrix was calcified on day 14. However, knockdown of MSX1 with small interfering RNA abolished the induction of the osteoblast-related gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcification. Interestingly, DNA microarray and PCR analyses revealed that MSX1 knockdown induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) transcriptional factor and its downstream target genes in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis enhances osteoblast differentiation of various mesenchymal cells. Thus, MSX1 may downregulate the cholesterol synthesis-related genes to ensure osteoblast differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

  14. Role of MSX1 in Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Goto, Noriko; Fujimoto, Katsumi; Fujii, Sakiko; Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Ohshima, Hayato; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Noshiro, Mitsuhide; Shukunami, Chisa; Kozai, Katsuyuki; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1) encodes a transcription factor implicated in embryonic development of limbs and craniofacial tissues including bone and teeth. Although MSX1 regulates osteoblast differentiation in the cranial bone of young animal, little is known about the contribution of MSX1 to the osteogenic potential of human cells. In the present study, we investigate the role of MSX1 in osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells isolated from deciduous teeth. When these cells were exposed to osteogenesis-induction medium, runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, increased on days 4-12, and thereafter the matrix was calcified on day 14. However, knockdown of MSX1 with small interfering RNA abolished the induction of the osteoblast-related gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcification. Interestingly, DNA microarray and PCR analyses revealed that MSX1 knockdown induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) transcriptional factor and its downstream target genes in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis enhances osteoblast differentiation of various mesenchymal cells. Thus, MSX1 may downregulate the cholesterol synthesis-related genes to ensure osteoblast differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells. PMID:27648077

  15. Role of MSX1 in Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Sakiko; Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Noshiro, Mitsuhide; Shukunami, Chisa; Kozai, Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1) encodes a transcription factor implicated in embryonic development of limbs and craniofacial tissues including bone and teeth. Although MSX1 regulates osteoblast differentiation in the cranial bone of young animal, little is known about the contribution of MSX1 to the osteogenic potential of human cells. In the present study, we investigate the role of MSX1 in osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells isolated from deciduous teeth. When these cells were exposed to osteogenesis-induction medium, runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, increased on days 4–12, and thereafter the matrix was calcified on day 14. However, knockdown of MSX1 with small interfering RNA abolished the induction of the osteoblast-related gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcification. Interestingly, DNA microarray and PCR analyses revealed that MSX1 knockdown induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) transcriptional factor and its downstream target genes in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis enhances osteoblast differentiation of various mesenchymal cells. Thus, MSX1 may downregulate the cholesterol synthesis-related genes to ensure osteoblast differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells. PMID:27648077

  16. Microtomography evaluation of dental tissue wear surface induced by in vitro simulated chewing cycles on human and composite teeth.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Rossella; Pecci, Raffaella; Notarangelo, Gianluca; Zuppante, Francesca; Persico, Salvatore; Di Carlo, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    In this study a 3D microtomography display of tooth surfaces after in vitro dental wear tests has been obtained. Natural teeth have been compared with prosthetic teeth, manufactured by three different polyceramic composite materials. The prosthetic dental element samples, similar to molars, have been placed in opposition to human teeth extracted by paradontology diseases. After microtomography analysis, samples have been subjected to in vitro fatigue test cycles by servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine. After the fatigue test, each sample has been subjected again to microtomography analysis to obtain volumetric value changes and dental wear surface images. Wear surface images were obtained by 3D reconstruction software and volumetric value changes were measured by CT analyser software. The aim of this work has been to show the potential of microtomography technique to display very clear and reliable wear surface images. Microtomography analysis methods to evaluate volumetric value changes have been used to quantify dental tissue and composite material wear. PMID:22456018

  17. Microtomography evaluation of dental tissue wear surface induced by in vitro simulated chewing cycles on human and composite teeth.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Rossella; Pecci, Raffaella; Notarangelo, Gianluca; Zuppante, Francesca; Persico, Salvatore; Di Carlo, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    In this study a 3D microtomography display of tooth surfaces after in vitro dental wear tests has been obtained. Natural teeth have been compared with prosthetic teeth, manufactured by three different polyceramic composite materials. The prosthetic dental element samples, similar to molars, have been placed in opposition to human teeth extracted by paradontology diseases. After microtomography analysis, samples have been subjected to in vitro fatigue test cycles by servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine. After the fatigue test, each sample has been subjected again to microtomography analysis to obtain volumetric value changes and dental wear surface images. Wear surface images were obtained by 3D reconstruction software and volumetric value changes were measured by CT analyser software. The aim of this work has been to show the potential of microtomography technique to display very clear and reliable wear surface images. Microtomography analysis methods to evaluate volumetric value changes have been used to quantify dental tissue and composite material wear.

  18. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  19. Is dental amalgam safe for humans? The opinion of the scientific committee of the European Commission

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    It was claimed by the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR)) in a report to the EU-Commission that "....no risks of adverse systemic effects exist and the current use of dental amalgam does not pose a risk of systemic disease..." [1, available from: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scenihr/docs/scenihr_o_016.pdf]. SCENIHR disregarded the toxicology of mercury and did not include most important scientific studies in their review. But the real scientific data show that: (a) Dental amalgam is by far the main source of human total mercury body burden. This is proven by autopsy studies which found 2-12 times more mercury in body tissues of individuals with dental amalgam. Autopsy studies are the most valuable and most important studies for examining the amalgam-caused mercury body burden. (b) These autopsy studies have shown consistently that many individuals with amalgam have toxic levels of mercury in their brains or kidneys. (c) There is no correlation between mercury levels in blood or urine, and the levels in body tissues or the severity of clinical symptoms. SCENIHR only relied on levels in urine or blood. (d) The half-life of mercury in the brain can last from several years to decades, thus mercury accumulates over time of amalgam exposure in body tissues to toxic levels. However, SCENIHR state that the half-life of mercury in the body is only "20-90 days". (e) Mercury vapor is about ten times more toxic than lead on human neurons and with synergistic toxicity to other metals. (f) Most studies cited by SCENIHR which conclude that amalgam fillings are safe have severe methodical flaws. PMID:21232090

  20. Surface nanomorphology of human dental enamel irradiated with an Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ţălu, Ş.; Contreras–Bulnes, R.; Morozov, I. A.; Rodríguez-Vilchis, L. E.; Montoya-Ayala, G.

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on the surface nanomorphology of human dental enamel. Materials and methods: five samples of human dental enamel were divided into five groups: (a) I and II were irradiated with Er:YAG & water irrigation (12.7 J cm-2 and 25.5 J cm-2, respectively); (b) III and IV were Er:YAG laser irradiated & no water irrigation (12.7 J cm-2 and 25.5 J cm-2, respectively); (c) V or control (no laser irradiation). Nanomorphological changes were observed on 1 μm  ×  1 μm areas by AFM (contact mode and air). The partition functions and multifractal spectra were calculated. The graphical results showed that the larger the spectrum width Δα (Δα  =  α max  -  α min) of the multifractal spectra f(α) the more non-uniform the surface nanomorphology. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed (P  <  0.05) to distinguish significant differences between the groups. All the investigated surfaces exhibited multifractal behavior. The computational algorithm indicated that the multifractal spectra differ significantly from each other for the different groups. AFM (atomic force microscopy), the statistical surface roughness parameters, and multifractal analysis provided useful information about the surface nanomorphology and optimal surface characteristics. This approach could be extended to other enamel surfaces in order to characterize its structural 3D microrelief.

  1. Determination of optical properties of oxidative bleaching human dental tissue samples using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Y. R.; Guo, Z. Y.; Shu, S. Y.; Zeng, C. C.; Zhong, H. Q.; Chen, B. L.; Liu, Z. M.; Bao, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Oxidative bleaching changes of human teeth induced changes in the optical properties of dental tissue. We introduced 1310 nm wavelengths of optical coherence tomography (OCT) attenuation coefficient method which is a relatively novel and rarely reported methodology to measure the correlation coefficient during the teeth oxidative bleaching procedure. And the quantitative parameters of enamel optical thickness and disruption of the entrance signal (DES) were extracted from the OCT images. The attenuation coefficient of the bleached tissue is 6.2 mm-1 which is significant (p < 0.001) higher than that unbleached sample is 1.4 mm-1. But attenuation coefficient varied significantly (p < 0.001) between 5.9 and 1.5 mm-1 in dentine which is downtrend. Furthermore, the persistence of bleaching oxidation in 35% hydrogen peroxide-induced optical thickness of enamel is similar with unbleached tissue which may indicate the refractive index of enamel is unchanged. Moreover, disruption of the entrance signal (DES) analysis showed that remarkable difference was appeared at enamel surface. The results indicate that optical properties of oxidative bleaching human dental tissue can be determined by attenuation coefficient using OCT system.

  2. Effects of Dental Methacrylates on Oxygen Consumption and Redox Status of Human Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nocca, Giuseppina; Callà, Cinzia; Martorana, Giuseppe Ettore; Cicillini, Loredana; Lupi, Alessandro; Cordaro, Massimo; Luisa Gozzo, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have already demonstrated that the incomplete polymerization of resin-based dental materials causes the release of monomers which might affect cell metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate on (1) cellular energy metabolism, evaluating oxygen consumption rate, glucose consumption, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lactate production, and (2) cellular redox status, through the evaluation of glutathione concentration and of the activities of enzymes regulating glutathione metabolism. Methods. Human pulp cells were used and oxygen consumption was measured by means of a Clark electrode. Moreover, reactive oxygen species production was quantified. Enzymatic activity and glucose and lactate concentrations were determined through a specific kit. Results. Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate induced a decrease in oxygen consumption rate, an enhancement of glucose consumption, and lactate production, whilst glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity were not significantly modified. Moreover, the monomers induced an increase of reactive oxygen species production with a consequent increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. A depletion of both reduced and total glutathione was also observed. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that dental monomers might alter energy metabolism and glutathione redox balance in human pulp cells. PMID:24693541

  3. Plasmin is involved in inflammation via protease-activated receptor-1 activation in human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Naoto; Hashizume, Hideki; Nakao, Sumi; Matsushima, Kiyoshi; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2008-05-15

    Plasmin is a proteolytic enzyme produced from plasminogen by plasminogen activators. We investigated the function of plasmin in human dental pulp fibroblast-like cells. Plasmin induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of mRNA for protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) was detected, and the PAR-1 activating peptide SFLLRN induced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in the cells. The plasmin-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. Plasmin stimulated the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) release, which are involved in inflammation. These effects of plasmin on expression of IL-8 mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) release were inhibited in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. These results suggest that plasmin activates PAR-1 and is involved in inflammation in human dental pulp. PMID:18384756

  4. Culture medium modulates the behaviour of human dental pulp-derived cells: technical note.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Cazaux, S; Bluteau, G; Magne, D; Lieubeau, B; Guicheux, J; Alliot-Licht, B

    2006-01-01

    In vitro approaches have extensively been developed to study reparative dentinogenesis. While dental pulp is a source of unidentified progenitors able to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells, we investigated the effect of two media; MEM (1.8 mM Ca and 1 mM Pi) and RPMI 1640 (0.8 mM Ca and 5 mM Pi) on the behaviour of human dental pulp cells. Our data indicate that MEM significantly increased cell proliferation and markedly enhanced the proportion of alpha-smooth muscle actin positive cells, which represent a putative source of progenitors able to give rise to odontoblast-like cells. In addition, MEM strongly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and was found to induce expression of transcripts encoding dentin sialophosphoprotein, an odontoblastic marker, without affecting that of parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein-receptor and osteonectin. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate that not only proliferation but also differentiation into odontoblast-like cells was induced by rich calcium and poor phosphate medium (MEM) as compared to RPMI 1640. This study provides important data for the determination of the optimal culture conditions allowing odontoblast-like differentiation in human pulp cell culture.

  5. WNT5A inhibits human dental papilla cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, L.; Ye, L.; Dong, G.; Ren, L.B.; Wang, C.L.; Xu, P.; Zhou, X.D.

    2009-12-18

    WNT proteins are a large family of cysteine-rich secreted molecules that are linked to both canonical and non-canonical signal pathways, and have been implicated in oncogenesis and tissue development. Canonical WNT proteins have been proven to play critical roles in tooth development, while little is known about the role of non-canonical WNT proteins such as WNT5A. In this study, WNT5A was localized to human dental papilla tissue and human dental papilla cells (HDPCs) cultured in vitro, using immunochemistry and RT-PCR. Recombinant adenovirus encoding full-length Wnt5a cDNA was constructed to investigate the biological role of WNT5A on HDPCs. The BrdU incorporation assay, the MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis showed that over-expression of Wnt5a strongly inhibited the proliferation of HDPCs in vitro. Wound healing and transwell migration assays indicated that over-expression of WNT5A reduced migration of HDPCs. In conclusion, our results showed that WNT5A negatively regulates both proliferation and migration of HDPCs, suggesting its important role in odontogenesis via controlling the HDPCs.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and performance of dental students in relation to sterilization/disinfection methods of extracted human teeth

    PubMed Central

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Mozafarinia, Romina; Mirzadeh, Azin; Aramon, Moien; Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein Gandjalikhan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental students use extracted human teeth to learn practical and technical skills before they enter the clinical environment. In the present research, knowledge, performance, and attitudes toward sterilization/disinfection methods of extracted human teeth were evaluated in a selected group of Iranian dental students. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study the subjects consisted of fourth-, fifth- and sixth-year dental students. Data were collected by questionnaires and analyzed by Fisher's exact test and Chi-squared test using SPSS 11.5. Results: In this study, 100 dental students participated. The average knowledge score was 15.9 ± 4.8. Based on the opinion of 81 students sodium hypochlorite was selected as suitable material for sterilization and 78 students believed that oven sterilization is a good way for the purpose. The average performance score was 4.1 ± 0.8, with 3.9 ± 1.7 and 4.3 ± 1.1 for males and females, respectively, with no significant differences between the two sexes. The maximum and minimum attitude scores were 60 and 25, with an average score of 53.1 ± 5.2. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that knowledge, performance and attitude of dental students in relation to sterilization/disinfection methods of extracted human teeth were good. However, weaknesses were observed in relation to teaching and materials suitable for sterilization. PMID:24130583

  7. Neural stem cells in the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    For decades, it was believed that the adult brain was a quiescent organ unable to produce new neurons. At the beginning of the1960's, this dogma was challenged by a small group of neuroscientists. To date, it is well-known that new neurons are generated in the adult brain throughout life. Adult neurogenesis is primary confined to the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus within the hippocampus. In both the human and the rodent brain, the primary progenitor of adult SVZ is a subpopulation of astrocytes that have stem-cell-like features. The human SVZ possesses a peculiar cell composition and displays important organizational differences when compared to the SVZ of other mammals. Some evidence suggests that the human SVZ may be not only an endogenous source of neural precursor cells for brain repair, but also a source of brain tumors. In this review, we described the cytoarchitecture and cellular composition of the SVZ in the adult human brain. We also discussed some clinical implications of SVZ, such as: stem-cell-based therapies against neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a source of malignant cells. Understanding the biology of human SVZ and its neural progenitors is one of the crucial steps to develop novel therapies against neurological diseases in humans. PMID:23181200

  8. Humanities and the Adult Learner in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Dale; Kamholtz, Jonathan

    Humanities courses have often been given little attention in continuing education for adults, possibly because they have been viewed as not "practical" or not "job-oriented" enough in our career-oriented, technologically advanced society. However, the humanities should be an integral part of our culture and of the lives of educated persons--a…

  9. The Caries Management System: an evidence-based preventive strategy for dental practitioners. Application for adults.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W; Pakdaman, A; Dennison, P J; Howe, E L C

    2008-03-01

    In the absence of effective caries preventive methods, operative care became established as the means for caries control in general practice. Water fluoridation resulted in a declining caries incidence which decreased further following the advent of fluoridated toothpaste. The challenge today is to develop a non-invasive model of practice that will sustain a low level of primary caries experience in the younger generation and reduce risk of caries experience in the older generations. The Caries Management System is a ten step non-invasive strategy to arrest and remineralize early lesions. The governing principle of this system is that caries management must include consideration of the patient at risk, the status of each lesion, patient management, clinical management and monitoring. Both dental caries risk and treatment are managed according to a set of protocols that are applied at various steps throughout patient consultation and treatment. The anticipated outcome of implementing the Caries Management System in general dental practice is reduction in caries incidence and increased patient satisfaction. Since the attainment and maintenance of oral health is determined mainly by controlling both caries and periodontal disease, the implementation of the Caries Management System in general practice will promote both outcomes.

  10. The dental health of a group of adults approaching retirement age in Hertfordshire, England.

    PubMed

    Clouting, D W

    1989-12-01

    A socio-dental investigation involving a clinical examination and structured interview was carried out during 1986 on a sample of 83 people aged between 55 and 64 years in Hertfordshire. The sample was not representative of the population; subjects were employed on the staff of two retailing chains. The main purpose of the study was to estimate likely future needs of older people in such a sample. The clinical examination showed a proportion of individuals with natural and heavily restored teeth. Most subjects had one or more exposed non-carious root surfaces. The periodontal condition of the sample was favourable. Problems could occur in the future as this group ages if their currently favourable dental health deteriorates and root surfaces become carious in large numbers or the periodontal condition worsens. Conservative treatment, if required in the future, especially for housebound people, may be a problem unless domiciliary services are planned to this end. A preventive approach may help to limit operative requirements. PMID:2696575

  11. Oral impact on daily performance: need and use of dental prostheses among Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Ilha, L; Martins, A B; Abegg, C

    2016-02-01

    Although there is a large amount of evidence that demonstrates the relationship between oral health status and oral impact daily performance, there are few studies that have evaluated the impact of prosthetic status, particularly the need for a dental prosthesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between need and use of dental prostheses and the prevalence of oral impact on daily performance. A sample of 720 subjects, aged between 50 and 74 years, was evaluated using a cross-sectional study. Participants were selected through a multistage proportional random sampling. The impact of oral health status on daily performance (oral impact on daily performance--OIDP) and socio-demographic data was assessed using a standardised questionnaire, and clinical data were assessed by oral examination. The outcome was the prevalence of impact. The association between the explanatory variables and the outcome was analysed through two models of multivariate Poisson regression. In the adjusted model, the variables need of upper and lower prosthesis and use of lower prosthesis maintained a statistically significant association. No statistically relevant relation between socio-demographic variables and outcomes was found. Findings show that the need and use and of a prosthesis are related to oral health quality of life.

  12. Teaching Human Rights: Grades 7 through Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David A.

    This curriculum resource on human rights is rooted in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and seeks to help students understand the issues involved. Using the rights categories suggested by the Universal Declaration, this book offers new ways of teaching about familiar themes. The book contains activities to encourage students…

  13. Human sciences in the first semester of the dental undergraduate course at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Röding, K

    1999-08-01

    The first 9 weeks of the dental undergraduate education at the Karolinska Institutet comprises a transition course, designed to introduce students to university studies leading to professional qualifications in patient-related health sciences. 1 week has been set aside for the theme Man and Society, highlighting the importance of the human sciences for the development of behavioural skills necessary for achieving professionalism and a holistic patient concept. Some essential ethical questions are addressed: intercultural communication, empathy, professional demeanour and the development of professional competence, and group dynamics. In this context, more specific subjects are considered, such as the emergence of the multicultural society and its implications for health services, interpersonal skills and patient communication in the health and medical fields. There are several reasons for including this theme, which forms the basis for the ethical and communicative strands throughout the entire curriculum. As 30-40% of freshmen dental students are of non-Swedish origin, it is essential to include cultural awareness seminars. Another reason is that within the EU, cultural and communicative skills are recognised proficiencies for health professionals; it is also acknowledged that effective delivery of health care may be impeded by misunderstandings in communication and conflict in ethical beliefs. Group discussions are scheduled during the week in order to allow the students to discuss their own experiences related to the theme. The students are also given a written assignment in relation to one of the seminars; the report is assessed as a part of the examination. The week is concluded by a plenum discussion summarising the group discussions. To date, 4 course evaluations, with a response rate of 92.5%, show that 97.3% of the students were positive to the theme as a whole or to specific seminars held during the week, especially intercultural communication, ethics and

  14. Estimated tooth loss based on number of present teeth in Japanese adults using national surveys of dental disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Koichi; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Fukai, Kakuhiro; Takiguchi, Toru; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Oral health instruction for adults should take into account the potential effect of tooth loss, as this has been suggested to predict further tooth loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether further tooth loss could be predicted from the number of present teeth (PT). We employed the same method as in our previous study, this time using two national surveys of dental disease, which were deemed to represent a generational cohort. Percentiles were estimated using the cumulative frequency distribution of PT from the two surveys. The first was a survey of 704 participants aged 50-59 years conducted in 2005, and the second was a survey of 747 participants aged 56-65 years conducted in 2011. The 1st to 100th percentiles of the number of PT were calculated for both age groups. Using these percentiles and a generational cohort analysis based on the two surveys, the number of teeth lost per year could be calculated. The distribution of number of teeth lost generated a convex curve. Peak tooth loss occurred at around 12-14 PT, with 0.54 teeth being lost per year. The percentage of teeth lost (per number of PT) increased as number of PT decreased. The results confirmed that tooth loss promotes further tooth loss. These data should be made available for use in adult oral health education.

  15. Urethane dimethacrylate induces cytotoxicity and regulates cyclooxygenase-2, hemeoxygenase and carboxylesterase expression in human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Chang, Mei-Chi; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Huang, Guay-Fen; Lee, Yuan-Ling; Wang, Yin-Lin; Chan, Chiu-Po; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Tseng, Shuei-Kuen; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2014-02-01

    The toxic effect of urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), a major dental resin monomer, on human dental pulp is not fully clear. In this study, we investigated the influence of UDMA on the cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and related gene expression of dental pulp cells. The role of reactive oxygen species, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and carboxylesterase (CES) in UDMA cytotoxicity, was evaluated. UDMA induced morphological changes of pulp cells and decreased cell viability by 29-49% at concentrations of 0.1-0.35 mM. UDMA induced G0/G1, G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The expression of cdc2, cyclinB1 and cdc25C was inhibited by UDMA. Moreover, UDMA stimulated COX-2, HO-1 and CES2 mRNA expression of pulp cells. The cytotoxicity of UDMA was attenuated by N-acetyl-l-cysteine, catalase and esterase, but was enhanced by Zn-protoporphyrin (HO-1 inhibitor), BNPP (CES inhibitor) and loperamide (CES2 inhibitor). Exposure of UDMA may potentially induce the inflammation and toxicity of dental pulp. These findings are important for understanding the clinical response of human pulp to resin monomers after operative restoration and pulp capping, and also provide clues for improvement of dental materials. PMID:24140606

  16. TET1 knockdown inhibits the odontogenic differentiation potential of human dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Li-Jia; Yi, Bai-Cheng; Li, Qi-Meng; Xu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) possess the capacity to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and generate reparative dentin in response to exogenous stimuli or injury. Ten–eleven translocation 1 (TET1) is a novel DNA methyldioxygenase that plays an important role in the promotion of DNA demethylation and transcriptional regulation in several cell lines. However, the role of TET1 in the biological functions of hDPCs is unknown. To investigate the effect of TET1 on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation potential of hDPCs, a recombinant shRNA lentiviral vector was used to knock down TET1 expression in hDPCs. Following TET1 knockdown, TET1 was significantly downregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Proliferation of the hDPCs was suppressed in the TET1 knockdown groups. Alkaline phosphatase activity, the formation of mineralized nodules, and the expression levels of DSPP and DMP1 were all reduced in the TET1-knockdown hDPCs undergoing odontogenic differentiation. Based on these results, we concluded that TET1 knockdown can prevent the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, which suggests that TET1 may play an important role in dental pulp repair and regeneration. PMID:27357322

  17. X-ray scattering evaluation of ultrastructural changes in human dental tissues with thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Sandholzer, Michael A; Sui, Tan; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Walmsley, Anthony Damien; Lumley, Philip J; Landini, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Micro- and ultrastructural analysis of burned skeletal remains is crucial for obtaining a reliable estimation of cremation temperature. Earlier studies mainly focused on heat-induced changes in bone tissue, while this study extends this research to human dental tissues using a novel quantitative analytical approach. Twelve tooth sections were burned at 400-900°C (30-min exposure, increments of 100°C). Subsequent combined small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) experiments were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron facility, where 28 scattering patterns were collected within each tooth section. In comparison with the control sample, an increase in mean crystal thickness was found in burned dentine (2.8-fold) and enamel (1.4-fold), however at a smaller rate than reported earlier for bone tissue (5-10.7-fold). The results provide a structural reference for traditional X-ray scattering methods and emphasize the need to investigate bone and dental tissues separately to obtain a reliable estimation of cremation temperature.

  18. TET1 knockdown inhibits the odontogenic differentiation potential of human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Li-Jia; Yi, Bai-Cheng; Li, Qi-Meng; Xu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) possess the capacity to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and generate reparative dentin in response to exogenous stimuli or injury. Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) is a novel DNA methyldioxygenase that plays an important role in the promotion of DNA demethylation and transcriptional regulation in several cell lines. However, the role of TET1 in the biological functions of hDPCs is unknown. To investigate the effect of TET1 on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation potential of hDPCs, a recombinant shRNA lentiviral vector was used to knock down TET1 expression in hDPCs. Following TET1 knockdown, TET1 was significantly downregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Proliferation of the hDPCs was suppressed in the TET1 knockdown groups. Alkaline phosphatase activity, the formation of mineralized nodules, and the expression levels of DSPP and DMP1 were all reduced in the TET1-knockdown hDPCs undergoing odontogenic differentiation. Based on these results, we concluded that TET1 knockdown can prevent the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, which suggests that TET1 may play an important role in dental pulp repair and regeneration. PMID:27357322

  19. Efficiency of Various Growth Media in Recovering Oral Bacterial Flora from Human Dental Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Salam A.; Loesche, Walter J.

    1973-01-01

    MM10 sucrose blood agar (MM10 SB agar), N2C agar, Schaedler agar (SH agar), and mitis salivarius agar (MS agar) were tested for their ability to recover human dental plaque flora by a continuous anaerobic procedure and by a conventional anaerobic method. MM10 SB agar yielded higher recovery of bacteria from plaque samples as determined by the enumeration of colony-forming units (CFU). The CFU on N2C agar, SH agar, and MS agar were lower than MM10 SB agar when the continuous anaerobic procedure was used. The superior performance of MM10 SB agar was much more apparent when used for the cultivation of dental plaque by the conventional anaerobic method. Under these conditions the counts were consistently higher on MM10 SB agar as compared to the other media tested. However, the differential counts of Streptococcus sanguis and S. mutans from carious plaque samples were in general comparable on all culture media. Deletion of blood from MM10 SB agar did not lower counts. The elimination of dithiothreitol from this medium resulted in a significantly lower recovery of bacteria from the plaque samples when cultured by the conventional anaerobic method. The storage of MM10 SB agar for varying periods of time aerobic conditions did not seem to affect its performance. These findings suggest that MM10 SB agar is an ideal culture medium for the isolation, nonselective enumeration, and differential counts of bacteria present in normal and disease-associated plaques. PMID:4584588

  20. X-ray scattering evaluation of ultrastructural changes in human dental tissues with thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Sandholzer, Michael A; Sui, Tan; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Walmsley, Anthony Damien; Lumley, Philip J; Landini, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Micro- and ultrastructural analysis of burned skeletal remains is crucial for obtaining a reliable estimation of cremation temperature. Earlier studies mainly focused on heat-induced changes in bone tissue, while this study extends this research to human dental tissues using a novel quantitative analytical approach. Twelve tooth sections were burned at 400-900°C (30-min exposure, increments of 100°C). Subsequent combined small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) experiments were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron facility, where 28 scattering patterns were collected within each tooth section. In comparison with the control sample, an increase in mean crystal thickness was found in burned dentine (2.8-fold) and enamel (1.4-fold), however at a smaller rate than reported earlier for bone tissue (5-10.7-fold). The results provide a structural reference for traditional X-ray scattering methods and emphasize the need to investigate bone and dental tissues separately to obtain a reliable estimation of cremation temperature. PMID:24502378

  1. Effect of different calcium phosphate scaffold ratios on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    AbdulQader, Sarah Talib; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Rahman, Ismail Ab; Ismail, Hanafi; Mahmood, Zuliani

    2015-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H2PO4) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sintered at 1000°C for 2h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration.

  2. New neurons in the adult striatum: from rodents to humans

    PubMed Central

    Inta, Dragos; Cameron, Heather A.; Gass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Most neurons are generated during development and are not replaced during adulthood, even if they are lost to injury or disease. It is firmly established, however, that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of virtually all adult mammals, including humans [1]. Many questions still remain, however, regarding adult neurogenesis in other brain regions and particularly in humans, where standard birthdating methods are not generally feasible. Exciting recent evidence indicates that calretinin-expressing interneurons are added to the adult human striatum at a substantial rate [2]. The role of new neurons is unknown, but studies in rodents will be able to further elucidate their identity and origin and then begin to understand their regulation and function. PMID:26298770

  3. Impact of dental treatment under general anesthesia on the oral health-related quality of life of adolescents and adults with special needs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Juhea; Patton, Lauren L; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the perception of the family's primary caregiver on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and the impact on family dynamics, of dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA) in adolescent and adult patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and neurocognitive disorders. Self-administered questionnaires were completed, before dental treatment, by 116 primary family caregivers of patients who received dental treatment under GA, and 102 (88%) of these caregivers completed the same questionnaires within 4 wk after treatment. The Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) and the Family Impact Scale (FIS) were shortened to a 14-item COHIP (COHIP-14) and a 12-item FIS (FIS-12) based on the limitations of patients' communication. The COHIP-14 and FIS-12 scores and each subscale improved after treatment. The baseline scores varied based on certain characteristics of the patients, such as age, disabilities, medications, caregivers, meal types, cooperation levels, and treatment needs. The postoperative improvement in OHRQoL was significant in the patients who were older than 30 yr of age, originally eating soft meals, displaying no or very low levels of cooperation, or receiving endodontic treatment. Based on the primary caregiver perceptions, the OHRQoL of adolescents and adults with IDD and neurocognitive disorders was improved by dental treatment under GA.

  4. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD.

  5. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  6. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the

  7. Dental Amalgam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  8. Cytotoxic effects of bulk fill composite resins on human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Şişman, Reyhan; Aksoy, Ayça; Yalçın, Muhammet; Karaöz, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Five bulk fill composite resins, including SDR, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEC), X-trafil (XTF), Sonic Fill (SF), Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF), were used in this study. Human dental pulp stem cells were cultured in 12-well culture dishes (3 × 104 cells per cm(2)) and stored in an incubator at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 1 day. On days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of co-culture, viable cells were measured using a WST-1 assay. Lower cell viability was observed with XTF and SDR bulk fill composite resins compared to the control group during the WST-1 assay. Although bulk fill composite resins provide advantages in practical applications, they are limited by their cytotoxic properties. (J Oral Sci 58, 299-305, 2016).

  9. Cytotoxic effects of bulk fill composite resins on human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Şişman, Reyhan; Aksoy, Ayça; Yalçın, Muhammet; Karaöz, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Five bulk fill composite resins, including SDR, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEC), X-trafil (XTF), Sonic Fill (SF), Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF), were used in this study. Human dental pulp stem cells were cultured in 12-well culture dishes (3 × 104 cells per cm(2)) and stored in an incubator at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 1 day. On days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of co-culture, viable cells were measured using a WST-1 assay. Lower cell viability was observed with XTF and SDR bulk fill composite resins compared to the control group during the WST-1 assay. Although bulk fill composite resins provide advantages in practical applications, they are limited by their cytotoxic properties. (J Oral Sci 58, 299-305, 2016). PMID:27665967

  10. A possible mechanism of acquired acid resistance of human dental enamel by laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Oho, T; Morioka, T

    1990-01-01

    A possible mechanism of acquired acid resistance of lased enamel was proposed on the basis of the investigations of optical properties, compositional and structural changes and permeability of lased and unlased human dental enamel. Lased enamel showed a high positive birefringence, suggesting the formation of 'microspaces' in enamel. No new products were found, though a decrease of lattice strain and a slight a-axis contraction were recognized in lased enamel compared with unlased enamel. The contents of water, carbonate and organic substances were reduced in lased enamel. Gradual changes of birefringence were observed in lased enamel during treatment with acid solutions, and this change was attributed to mineralization of the microspaces. The ions released by an acid decalcification would be trapped in the microspaces in lased enamel, whereas such ions diffuse to the surrounding solution in unlased enamel.

  11. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Silorane and Methacrylate based Dental Composites using Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Dilip G; Kotian, Ravindra; Padma, Divya; Srikant, N; Bhat, Kumar M.R

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The effects of leached substances from the restorative dental materials may induce local and systemic adverse effects. Thus the biological and toxic properties of the restorative dental materials must be compatible with the oral tissues or with general health. Therefore, the need for biocompatible restorative dental material implies the necessity of toxicity testing. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine and compare the possible toxic effect of silorane based composite (Filtek P90) on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) in vitro using cytotoxicity measuring parameters (MTT assay) in comparison with its methacrylate counterpart (Z100) for their viability, proliferation rate. Materials and Methods: Fresh healthy biopsy specimens of human gingival tissue of patients were obtained. For HGF, cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium and grown to sub confluent monolayers. After attaining confluence, cells were treated with different doses of the Filtek P90 or Z 100 for different time point. HGF cells were observed for their proliferation, viability by MTT assay. Results: The results of the cytotoxicity assay showed that, the percentage of viable cells was very good in the first 24h and marginally decreased in the next 48h period in all groups. However, the proliferation rate was never below 84% in all the groups, at any given concentration. Filtek P90 and Z100 treated cells exhibited insignificant decrease in the cell proliferation both in 24h and 48h exposure when compared to significant decrease in the cell survival rate in the positive control (Mitomycin C 250 μg/ml).) Comparison of the toxicity between Filtek P90 and Z100 in 24h & 48h separately showed that there was no significant difference (p<0.05) between these two composites in 24h and 48h’ time period at all concentrations of the composites. Conclusion: To conclude, the new silorane based restorative composite showed comparable cytotoxic characteristics to clinically

  12. The effect of scaffold architecture on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Haiyun; Jin, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiang; Liu, Xiaohua; Ni, Longxing; Ma, Peter X

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have shown the superiority of nanofibrous (NF) poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds in supporting the osteogenic differentiation of a few cell types and bone regeneration. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether NF-PLLA scaffolds are advantageous for the odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) over solid-walled (SW) PLLA scaffolds. The in vitro studies demonstrated that, compared with SW scaffolds, NF scaffolds enhanced attachment and proliferation as well as odontogenic differentiation of human DPSCs. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of odontogenic genes of human DPSCs were increased on NF scaffolds compared with that on SW scaffolds. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on the NF scaffolds, as demonstrated by von Kossa staining, calcium content measurement and scanning electron microscopy. Consistent with the in vitro studies, NF scaffolds promoted odontogenic differentiation and hard tissue formation compared with SW scaffolds after 8 weeks of ectopic transplantation in nude mice, as confirmed by von Kossa staining, Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemical staining for dentin sialoprotein. In conclusion, NF-PLLA scaffolds enhanced the odontogenic differentiation of human DPSCs and mineralization both in vitro and in vivo, and are promising scaffolds for dentin regeneration.

  13. [Healing Dental and Oral Problems by Remedies of Animal and of Human Origin].

    PubMed

    Kaán, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Use of matierials of animal or human origin in dentistry (and generally in medicine) these days is regarded as an unusal way of intervention. However in earlier times, different tissues, parts, products and organs of animals were frequently used in healing. Some of these methods were rooted in magical thinking. As analogical treatments--based on similarity or analogy--e.g. powder of horn or teeth of pike was used for the treatment of decayed teeth and different worms, maggots, veenies were applied against "toothworm". By difficult eruption of primary teeth bone marrow or brain mixed with cockridge-blood and goatmilk was a widely used medicine. Butter and honey were able to help the growing of teeth, as well. Parts of frog (fe: flippers) were also components of curing materials. Egg as the symbol of life was often an ingredient of medicaments. For the treatment of inflamed gum different animal materials were used, like chin and teeth of wolf, pike, crayfish, milk, honey, human saliva etc. Animal or human stools, mucks (containing enzymes) did one's bit in healing of oral and dental illnesses and were applied as fomentation or swathing. Placing a leech on the inflamed face was a common procedure in the past even as the use of earwax in lipnook. In our days tissues, parts or products of animals (or human beings) usually never allowed to get into contact with the body of patients. It's a much safer routine, at the same time however a precious traditional knowledge vanishes forever. PMID:26875294

  14. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

  15. Inflammatory response of human dental pulp to at-home and in-office tooth bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Maysa Magalhães; Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; Cardoso, Paula Carvalho; de Souza, João Batista; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Nádia Lago; Torres, Érica Miranda; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tooth bleaching is a technique of choice to obtain a harmonious smile, but bleaching agents may damage the dental pulp. Objective: This study evaluated the inflammatory responses of human dental pulp after the use of two bleaching techniques. Material and Methods: Pulp samples were collected from human third molars extracted for orthodontic reasons and divided into three groups: control - no tooth bleaching (CG) (n=7); at-home bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide (AH) (n = 10), and in-office bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide (IO) (n=12). Pulps were removed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic analysis of inflammation intensity, collagen degradation, and pulp tissue organization. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect mast cells (tryptase+), blood vessels (CD31+), and macrophages (CD68+). Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at p<.05. Results: The inflammation intensity and the number of macrophages were significantly greater in IO than in AH and CG (p<0.05). The results of CD31+ (blood vessels per mm2) were similar in CG (61.39±20.03), AH (52.29±27.62), and IO (57.43±8.69) groups (p>0.05). No mast cells were found in the pulp samples analyzed. Conclusion: In-office bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide resulted in more intense inflammation, higher macrophages migration, and greater pulp damage then at-home bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide, however, these bleaching techniques did not induce migration of mast cells and increased the number of blood vessels. PMID:27812622

  16. Noncontact, nondestructive elasticity evaluation of sound and demineralized human dental enamel using a laser ultrasonic surface wave dispersion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Fleming, Simon; Lee, Yung-Chun; Law, Susan; Swain, Michael; Xue, Jing

    2009-09-01

    Laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been proposed to replace conventional in vivo dental clinical diagnosis tools that are either destructive or incapable of quantifying the elasticity of human dental enamel. In this work, a laser NDE system that can perform remote measurements on samples of small dimensions is presented. A focused laser line source is used to generate broadband surface acoustic wave impulses that are detected with a simplified optical fiber interferometer. The measured surface wave velocity dispersion spectrum is in turn used to characterize the elasticity of the specimen. The NDE system and the analysis technique are validated with measurements of different metal structures and then applied to evaluate human dental enamel. Artificial lesions are prepared on the samples to simulate different states of enamel elasticity. Measurement results for both sound and lesioned regions, as well as lesions of different severity, are clearly distinguishable from each other and fit well with physical expectations and theoretical value. This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that a laser-based surface wave velocity dispersion technique is successfully applied on human dental enamel, demonstrating the potential for noncontact, nondestructive in vivo detection of the development of carious lesions.

  17. Novel surface markers directed against adult human gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Galivo, Feorillo H; Dorrell, Craig; Grompe, Maria T; Zhong, YongPing; Streeter, Philip R; Grompe, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Novel cell surface-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated against extrahepatic biliary cells were developed for the isolation and characterization of different cell subsets from normal adult human gallbladder. Eleven antigenically distinct gallbladder subpopulations were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. They were classified into epithelial, mesenchymal, and pancreatobiliary (PDX1(+)SOX9(+)) subsets based on gene expression profiling. These antigenically distinct human gallbladder cell subsets could potentially also reflect different functional properties in regards to bile physiology, cell renewal and plasticity. Three of the novel monoclonal antibodies differentially labeled archival sections of primary carcinoma of human gallbladder relative to normal tissue. The novel monoclonal antibodies described herein enable the identification and characterization of antigenically diverse cell subsets within adult human gallbladder and are putative tumor biomarkers.

  18. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Smale, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  19. [The existence vomeronasal organ in adult humans].

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, Piotr; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Wojdas, Andrzej; Ratajczak, Jan; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    The influence of chemical substances (feromones) on human emotional and physical condition has fascinated psychologists, sexuologists and laryngologists since centurie. Literature conveys inconsistent information on vomeronasal organ (VNO) occurrence in humans. This organ is often called Jacobson's, and 2 symmetrical openings leading into it, located on both sides of septum, are called Ruyasch's ducts. The aim of the study was to analyze vomeronasal organ occurrence in humans in relation to age and sex. The study was conducted in a group of 634 patients, aged 18-80 years. All patients underwent routine ENT examination including rhinoscopy, nasal cavity examination with usage of 2.5x magnification lens (surgical glasses) and surgical microscope with 10x magnification. All persons had nasal cavities examined endoscopically. Every time presence of vomeronasal organ openings, along with localization, size and symmetry of these was noted. Subjects, who presented Jacobson's organ, were asked to fill a questionnaire concerning influence of smells on erotic sensations. Vomeronasal organ was fund in 312 persons, that is 49.21%. In 83.65% of cases vomeronasal organ opening size was smaller than 0.2 mm, what restricted its visibility to usage of magnifying lens, microscope, or endoscope. In 16.34% of cases only vomeronasal organ ducts openings were well visible in routine rhinoscopy without magnification. Vomeronasal organ was found more often in men than women. VNO was significantly more rare in patients with nasal septal deviation. In these cases, vomeronasal organ was usually found unilaterally, in all the cases on the concave side of deviated nasal septum. PMID:18260256

  20. Dental Calculus Stimulates Interleukin-1β Secretion by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Mouse Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro Raudales, Jorge Luis; Yoshimura, Atsutoshi; SM, Ziauddin; Kaneko, Takashi; Ozaki, Yukio; Ukai, Takashi; Miyazaki, Toshihiro; Latz, Eicke; Hara, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit associated with periodontitis. The bacterial components contained in dental calculus can be recognized by host immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and induce transcription of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β. Studies have shown that cellular uptake of crystalline particles may trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to the cleavage of the IL-1β precursor to its mature form. Phagocytosis of dental calculus in the periodontal pocket may therefore lead to the secretion of IL-1β, promoting inflammatory responses in periodontal tissues. However, the capacity of dental calculus to induce IL-1β secretion in human phagocytes has not been explored. To study this, we stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with dental calculus collected from periodontitis patients, and measured IL-1β secretion by ELISA. We found that calculus induced IL-1β secretion in both human PMNs and PBMCs. Calculus also induced IL-1β in macrophages from wild-type mice, but not in macrophages from NLRP3- and ASC-deficient mice, indicating the involvement of NLRP3 and ASC. IL-1β induction was inhibited by polymyxin B, suggesting that LPS is one of the components of calculus that induces pro-IL-1β transcription. To analyze the effect of the inorganic structure, we baked calculus at 250°C for 1 h. This baked calculus failed to induce pro-IL-1β transcription. However, it did induce IL-1β secretion in lipid A-primed cells, indicating that the crystalline structure of calculus induces inflammasome activation. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite crystals, a component of dental calculus, induced IL-1β in mouse macrophages, and baked calculus induced IL-1β in lipid A-primed human PMNs and PBMCs. These results indicate that dental calculus stimulates IL-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasome in human and mouse phagocytes, and that the crystalline structure has a partial role in

  1. Dental Calculus Stimulates Interleukin-1β Secretion by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Mouse Phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Montenegro Raudales, Jorge Luis; Yoshimura, Atsutoshi; Sm, Ziauddin; Kaneko, Takashi; Ozaki, Yukio; Ukai, Takashi; Miyazaki, Toshihiro; Latz, Eicke; Hara, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit associated with periodontitis. The bacterial components contained in dental calculus can be recognized by host immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and induce transcription of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β. Studies have shown that cellular uptake of crystalline particles may trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to the cleavage of the IL-1β precursor to its mature form. Phagocytosis of dental calculus in the periodontal pocket may therefore lead to the secretion of IL-1β, promoting inflammatory responses in periodontal tissues. However, the capacity of dental calculus to induce IL-1β secretion in human phagocytes has not been explored. To study this, we stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with dental calculus collected from periodontitis patients, and measured IL-1β secretion by ELISA. We found that calculus induced IL-1β secretion in both human PMNs and PBMCs. Calculus also induced IL-1β in macrophages from wild-type mice, but not in macrophages from NLRP3- and ASC-deficient mice, indicating the involvement of NLRP3 and ASC. IL-1β induction was inhibited by polymyxin B, suggesting that LPS is one of the components of calculus that induces pro-IL-1β transcription. To analyze the effect of the inorganic structure, we baked calculus at 250°C for 1 h. This baked calculus failed to induce pro-IL-1β transcription. However, it did induce IL-1β secretion in lipid A-primed cells, indicating that the crystalline structure of calculus induces inflammasome activation. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite crystals, a component of dental calculus, induced IL-1β in mouse macrophages, and baked calculus induced IL-1β in lipid A-primed human PMNs and PBMCs. These results indicate that dental calculus stimulates IL-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasome in human and mouse phagocytes, and that the crystalline structure has a partial role in

  2. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  3. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries: A Model for Niche Adaptation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Caufield, P W; Schön, C N; Saraithong, P; Li, Y; Argimón, S

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity.

  4. Progressive plateau root form dental implant osseointegration: A human retrieval study.

    PubMed

    Gil, Luiz F; Suzuki, Marcelo; Janal, Malvin N; Tovar, Nick; Marin, Charles; Granato, Rodrigo; Bonfante, Estevam A; Jimbo, Ryo; Gil, Jose N; Coelho, Paulo G

    2015-08-01

    Although preclinical and sparse human histology retrieval studies have shown that the interface between implant and bone is constantly remodeling, no human retrieval database has been developed to determine the effect of functional loading time and other clinical/implant design variables on osseointegration. The present study tested the hypothesis that bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO) increase over functional loading time around dental implants. Due to prosthetic retreatment reasons, 93 human implant retrievals from the same manufacturer (Bicon LLC, Boston, MA, USA) were obtained over a period of approximately 15 years. The retrieved implants were under functional loading from 120 days to ∼18 years and were histomorphologic/metrically evaluated. BIC/BAFO were assessed as a function of multiple independent variables: implant surface type, diameter, length, jaw (maxilla/mandible), region (anterior/posterior), and time of functional loading. The results showed that both BIC and BAFO increased over time independently of implant design/clinical variables, supporting the postulated hypothesis.

  5. Effect of the Acidic Dental Resin Monomer 10-methacryloyloxydecyl Dihydrogen Phosphate on Odontoblastic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Haejin; Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-11-01

    Although 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) is frequently used as an acidic resin monomer in dental adhesives, its effect on dental pulp cells (DPCs) has been rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10-MDP on the inflammatory response and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs at minimally toxic concentrations. We found that 10-MDP caused the release of inflammatory cytokines including NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 10-MDP reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization nodule formation and mRNA expression of odontoblastic differentiation markers such as dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1, osterix and Runx2 in a concentration-dependent manner with low toxicity. In addition, 10-MDP induced activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target gene, haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We evaluated whether the effect of 10-MDP was related to the induction of HO-1 and found that treatment with a selective inhibitor of HO-1 reversed the production of 10-MDP-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inhibition of differentiation markers. Pre-treatment with either a GSH synthesis inhibitor or antioxidants blocked 10-MDP-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways. Taken together, the results of this study showed that minimally toxic concentrations of 10-MDP promoted an inflammatory response and suppressed odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction through MAPK and NF-κB signalling.

  6. Odontogenic stimulation of human dental pulp cells with bioactive nanocomposite fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga-Hyun; Park, Yong-Duk; Lee, So-Youn; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a composite nanofibrous matrix made of biopolymer blend polycaprolactone-gelatin (BP) and mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNs) on the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). BGN-BP nanomatrices, with BGN content of up to 20 wt%, were produced via electrospinning. The differentiation of the HDPCs was evaluated by using an ALP activity assay, calcified nodule formation, and mRNA expression for markers. Integrin and its underlying signal pathways were assessed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Although cell growth and attachment on the BGN-BP nanomatrix was similar to that on BP, ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation, and mRNA, expressions involving ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix protein-1 were greater on BGN-BP. BGN-BP upregulated the key adhesion receptors (integrin components α1, α2, α5, and β1) and activated integrin downstream pathways, such as phosphorylated-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), and p-paxillin. In addition, BGN-BP activated BMP receptors, BMP-2 mRNA, and p-Smad 1/5/8, and such activation was blocked by the BMP antagonist, noggin. Furthermore, BGN-BP induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, protein kinase 38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases and activated expression of the transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix in HDPCs. Collectively, the results indicated for the first time that a BGN-BP composite nanomatrix promoted odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs through the integrin, BMP, and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway. Moreover, the nanomatrix is considered to be promising scaffolds for the culture of HDPCs and dental tissue engineering.

  7. Human pancreatic polypeptide in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, A; Chalew, S; Kowarski, A A

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of human pancreatic polypeptide may be useful for assessment of gastrointestinal function, integrity of the parasympathetic nervous system or screening for endocrine neoplasia. In adults hPP levels have been reported to increase with age. However hPP levels throughout childhood have not been well characterized in comparison with the adult range. We studied fasting human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) from 45 pediatric patients, from infancy - 15 years, and 18 older adolescents and adults aged 16-45 years. The mean hPP level of children (233 +/- 147 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that (113 +/- 35 pg/ml) of adults (P less than .0001). There was no difference in mean hPP levels of children with normal growth hormone secretion compared to growth hormone deficient patients. There was no effect of gender or body mass index on hPP levels. We conclude that fasting hPP levels must be interpreted with respect to the age of the subject, children particularly, in that preteens may have higher fasting levels than older teenagers and adults.

  8. Human pancreatic polypeptide in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, A; Chalew, S; Kowarski, A A

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of human pancreatic polypeptide may be useful for assessment of gastrointestinal function, integrity of the parasympathetic nervous system or screening for endocrine neoplasia. In adults hPP levels have been reported to increase with age. However hPP levels throughout childhood have not been well characterized in comparison with the adult range. We studied fasting human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) from 45 pediatric patients, from infancy - 15 years, and 18 older adolescents and adults aged 16-45 years. The mean hPP level of children (233 +/- 147 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that (113 +/- 35 pg/ml) of adults (P less than .0001). There was no difference in mean hPP levels of children with normal growth hormone secretion compared to growth hormone deficient patients. There was no effect of gender or body mass index on hPP levels. We conclude that fasting hPP levels must be interpreted with respect to the age of the subject, children particularly, in that preteens may have higher fasting levels than older teenagers and adults. PMID:2307392

  9. No known hominin species matches the expected dental morphology of the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Polly, P. David

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in paleoanthropology is the identity of the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans ([N-MH]LCA). Recently developed analytical techniques now allow this problem to be addressed using a probabilistic morphological framework. This study provides a quantitative reconstruction of the expected dental morphology of the [N-MH]LCA and an assessment of whether known fossil species are compatible with this ancestral position. We show that no known fossil species is a suitable candidate for being the [N-MH]LCA and that all late Early and Middle Pleistocene taxa from Europe have Neanderthal dental affinities, pointing to the existence of a European clade originated around 1 Ma. These results are incongruent with younger molecular divergence estimates and suggest at least one of the following must be true: (i) European fossils and the [N-MH]LCA selectively retained primitive dental traits; (ii) molecular estimates of the divergence between Neanderthals and modern humans are underestimated; or (iii) phenotypic divergence and speciation between both species were decoupled such that phenotypic differentiation, at least in dental morphology, predated speciation. PMID:24145426

  10. Predictors of food preferences in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Logue, A W; Smith, M E

    1986-06-01

    Predictors of preferences for a wide variety of foods were examined in 303 male and female human subjects ranging from 14-68 years of age. The subjects completed questionnaires which requested information on the subject's sex, age, thinness, sensation seeking and ethnic background, as well as on the subjects' food preferences. Largely consistent with previous studies, female subjects reported higher preferences for low-calorie foods, candy and wine, and lower preferences for meat, beer, spicy foods and milk. Younger subjects reported higher preferences for sweet foods and lower preferences for foods such as chili pepper that are considered acquired tastes. Thinner subjects tended to rate both sweet foods and meat lower than did other subjects. Preferences for spicy foods or foods likely to cause illness were positively correlated with sensation seeking while preferences for sweet or bland foods or foods unlikely to cause illness were negatively correlated with sensation seeking. Subjects for whom the primary cuisine on which they were raised was Oriental cuisine preferred alcoholic beverages and non-Oriental foods less than did other subjects. A factor analysis of the food preferences yielded ten factors including those for meat and potatoes, alcohol, spices and junk food. Data on predictors of food preferences can assist research on the determinants of food preferences, however much of the variance in food preferences remains to be explained.

  11. Human Adult Cortical Reorganization and Consequent Visual Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Serences, John T.; Rosenau, Benjamin J.; Yantis, Steven; McCloskey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Neural and behavioral evidence for cortical reorganization in the adult somatosensory system after loss of sensory input (e.g., amputation) has been well documented. In contrast, evidence for reorganization in the adult visual system is far less clear: neural evidence is the subject of controversy, behavioral evidence is sparse, and studies combining neural and behavioral evidence have not previously been reported. Here, we report converging behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from a stroke patient (B.L.) in support of cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system. B.L.’s stroke spared the primary visual cortex (V1), but destroyed fibers that normally provide input to V1 from the upper left visual field (LVF). As a consequence, B.L. is blind in the upper LVF, and exhibits distorted perception in the lower LVF: stimuli appear vertically elongated, toward and into the blind upper LVF. For example, a square presented in the lower LVF is perceived as a rectangle extending upward. We hypothesized that the perceptual distortion was a consequence of cortical reorganization in V1. Extensive behavioral testing supported our hypothesis, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) confirmed V1 reorganization. Together, the behavioral and fMRI data show that loss of input to V1 after a stroke leads to cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system, and provide the first evidence that reorganization of the adult visual system affects visual perception. These findings contribute to our understanding of the human adult brain’s capacity to change and has implications for topics ranging from learning to recovery from brain damage. PMID:17804619

  12. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alana de Cássia Silva; Alves, Nathalia Zanini; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Rocha, Marcos; Cameriere, Roberto; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women) that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women) and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older). The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004) and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80) years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78) years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26) years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54) years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere's formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults. PMID:25590504

  13. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alana de Cássia Silva; Alves, Nathalia Zanini; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Rocha, Marcos; Cameriere, Roberto; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women) that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women) and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older). The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004) and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80) years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78) years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26) years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54) years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere's formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults.

  14. The Dynamic Behavior of the Early Dental Caries Lesion in Caries-active Adults and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J P; Amaechi, B T; Bader, J D; Shugars, D; Vollmer, W M; Chen, C; Gilbert, G H; Esterberg, E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the full range of behavior of the visible, non-cavitated, early caries lesion in caries-active adults with substantial fluoride exposure, and to consider implications. Methods The data were from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), collected annually for 33 months using condensed ICDAS caries threshold criteria. Individual tooth surfaces having a non-cavitated caries lesion were included and the Patterns of transition to each subsequent annual clinical examination to sound, non-cavitated or cavitated, filled or crowned were determined. The resulting sets of Patterns for an individual tooth surface, looking forward from its first appearance as a non-cavitated lesion, were combined into one of four behavior Profiles classified as Reversing, Stable, Oscillating or continuously Progressing, or were excluded if not part of the caries continuum. The distributions of Profile types were assessed using the Rao-Scott Chi square test, which adjusts for clustering of tooth surfaces within teeth. Results Inter-and intra-examiner Kappa scores demonstrated acceptable calibration at baseline and annually. 8084 tooth surfaces from 543 subjects were included. The distribution of Profile types differed significantly between coronal and root surfaces. Overall two-thirds of all coronal non-cavitated lesions were first seen at baseline, half Reversed, over a fifth were Stable, 15% Oscillated and only 8.3% progressed to cavitation, filled or crowned in 33 months or less. (6.3% consistently Progressed plus 2.0% inconsistently, a subset of Oscillating, which oscillated before progressing to cavitation). Approximal, smooth and occlusal coronal surfaces each were significantly different in their individual distributions of Profile types. Xylitol showed no significant and consistent effect on this distribution by tooth surface type. This was in keeping with the X-ACT Trial’s lack of effect of xylitol at the non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion thresholds combined

  15. Morphological variation of major human populations based on nonmetric dental traits.

    PubMed

    Hanihara, Tsunehiko

    2008-06-01

    The patterns of inter- and intra-regional variation among 12 major geographical groups from around the world were investigated based on 15 nonmetric dental traits. The R-matrix method was applied using a pooled within-group variance-covariance matrix estimated with the maximum likelihood method (tetrachoric correlation matrix) and the threshold value for each trait estimated by univariate probit analysis. Using average heritability rates that range from 0.40 to 1.00, the inter-regional variation represented by Fst falls between 7.19% and 16.23% of the total variance. This range of variation is compatible with those obtained by genetic, craniometric, and odontometric data. Subsaharan Africans show the largest intra-regional diversity among the groups compared. The degree of intra-regional variation shows, moreover, rough clinalities from subsaharan Africa to peripheral regions. The relationship between regional variation and geographic distance from subsaharan Africa supports serial bottlenecks and the founder effect of ancient populations originating in Africa. The variation of East/Northeast Asians is relatively large, suggesting a complex population history such as possible earlier divergence and multiple migrations from outside sources. The present findings are in agreement with both the recent African model for the origin of anatomically modern humans and the current scenario for human migration history suggested by genetic analyses. PMID:18257017

  16. Dental implants in edentulous adults with cognitive disabilities: report of a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Durham, Timothy M; King, Thomas; Salinas, Thomas; Franco, Theodore; Ross, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with cognitive disabilities face many barriers to oral care, often suffering from partial or complete edentulism. While the use of implant reconstruction is becoming more common in the general population, such care is still being used infrequently in individuals with intellectual impairment. A pilot project in 1995 surgically placed and restored implant-supported prostheses in six edentulous adults who had varying degrees of cognitive impairment. This report presents the dentists' reconstruction experiences and the patients' follow-up care, and discusses the results in relationship to current literature. Experiences from these patients suggest that behavior during the restorative process, prosthetic complications post placement, and patients' oral hygiene practices should influence patient selection and prosthetic design. Anteriorly placed fixtures and removable designs, which make self-care and repair easier, can be used to treat an edentulous population. PMID:16703934

  17. Artificial Saliva Formulations versus Human Saliva Pretreatment in Dental Erosion Experiments.

    PubMed

    Batista, Graziela Ribeiro; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosion-preventive effect of different artificial saliva formulations and human saliva in vitro compared to human saliva in situ. In the in vitro experiment, bovine enamel and dentin specimens were stored in artificial saliva (4 different formulations, each n = 20), deionized water (n = 20) or human saliva (n = 6 enamel and dentin specimens/volunteer) for 120 min. In the in situ experiment, each of the 6 enamel and dentin specimens was worn intraorally by 10 volunteers for 120 min. The specimens were then eroded (HCl, pH 2.6, 60 s). Half of the specimens were subjected to microhardness analysis (enamel) and the determination of calcium release into the acid (enamel and dentin), while the other half were again placed in the respective medium or worn intraorally, respectively, for 120 min before a second erosion was performed. Knoop microhardness of enamel and the calcium release of enamel and dentin into the acid were again determined. Statistical analysis was conducted by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA or two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Enamel microhardness was not significantly different between all test groups after the first and the second erosive challenge, respectively. Enamel calcium loss was significantly lower in situ compared to the in vitro experiment, where there was no significant difference between all test groups. Dentin calcium loss was significantly lower than deionized water only after the first and than all except one artificial saliva after the second erosion. Under the conditions of this experiment, the use of artificial saliva formulations and human saliva in vitro does not reflect the intraoral situation in dental erosion experiments adequately.

  18. Digital imaging methods as an aid in dental identification of human remains.

    PubMed

    Bowers, C Michael; Johansen, Raymond J

    2002-03-01

    The physical comparison of known (K) and questioned (Q) evidence samples is an accepted tool in numerous forensic identification disciplines (1). A subset of this process is the use of antemortem and postmortem dental radiographs to identify unidentified human remains. This method has been generally accepted for decades (2). The outcome is performed with a considerable degree of accuracy, due in part to a finite pool of possible candidates for identification derived via the NCIC database, passenger lists, and law enforcement Missing Persons reports. This paper describes a dental identification comparison protocol that incorporated digital imaging technology in this process. The computer was used to create digital exemplars of the K and Q evidence that were spatially and quantitatively compared (3). The digital mode allowed direct metric and morphologic comparison through the aid of a digital camera, desktop computer, monitor, and printer. The well-known computer program Adobe Photoshop 5.0 (4) was used to process the digital information in two forensic cases described in this paper. It is a commercially available digital imaging editing program that is operated on laptop and desktop computers possessing sufficient chip speed and RAM (Pentium II or equivalent and at least 76MB RAM) to open the large-size files generated by high-resolution digital capture devices. This program accepts raster-based image formats (e.g. .JPG, .BMP). Photoshop is noted for its diverse imaging functions, which allow the computer monitor to be used as a comparison microscope when Q and K sample images are tiled side-by-side and/or superimposed. Two and three-dimensional Q and K evidence samples can be individually digitized and then independently resized to allow two-dimensional comparison. The investigator also has the ability to create magnified images (200% to 300%) when the original digital image has been captured at near photoquality resolution (300 dpi). The visual comparison of

  19. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  20. Training adults and children with an autism spectrum disorder to be compliant with a clinical dental assessment using a TEACCH-based approach.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Lorena M; Martínez-Sanchis, Sonia; Silvestre, Francisco J

    2014-04-01

    The specific neuropsychological and sensory profile found in persons with autism spectrum disorders complicate dental procedures and as a result of this, most are treated under general anesthesia or unnecessary sedation. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a short treatment and education of autistic and related communication-handicapped children-based intervention program (five sessions) to facilitate a 10-component oral assessment in children (n = 38, aged 4-9 years) and adults (n = 34, aged 19-41) with autism spectrum disorder (with or without associated intellectual disability). The assessment ranges from entering into the examination room to the evaluation of the dental occlusion. There were statistically significant differences in the number of components reached and in compliance before and after the training program.

  1. [Generation of new nerve cells in the adult human brain].

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Meyer, Morten; Rasmussen, Jens Zimmer

    2003-03-31

    Generation of new nerve cells (neurogenesis) is normally considered to be limited to the fetal and early postnatal period. Thus, damaged nerve cells are not expected to be replaced by generation of new cells. The brain is, however, more plastic than previously assumed. This also includes neurogenesis in the adult human brain. In particular two brain regions show continuous division of neural stem and progenitor cells generating neurons and glial cells, namely the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zones of the lateral ventricles. From the latter region newly generated neuroblasts (immature nerve cells) migrate toward the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into neurons. In the dentate gyrus the newly generated neurons become functionally integrated in the granule cell layer, where they are believed to be of importance to learning and memory. It is at present not known whether neurogenesis in the adult human brain can be manipulated for specific repair after brain damage.

  2. A comparison of the dental status and treatment needs of older adults with and without chronic mental illness in Sevilla, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Córdoba-Arenas, Sara; Jiménez-Guerra, Alvaro; Monsalve-Guil, Loreto; López-López, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the dental status and treatment needs of institutionalized older adults with chronic mental illness compared to a non-psychiatric control sample. Study Design: The sample size was 100, in which 50 were psychogeriatric patients (study group; SG) classified according to DSM-IV, with a mean age of 69.6 ± 6.7 years, and 50 non-psychiatric patients (control group; CG), with a mean age of 68.3 ± 6.9 years. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted and caries were recorded clinically using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMFT). Results were analyzed statistically using the Student’s t-test or analysis of variance. Results: Caries prevalence was 58% and 62% in SG and CG, respectively. DMFT index was 28.3 ± 6.6 in SG and 21.4 ± 6.07 in CG (p < 0.01). Mean number of decayed teeth was higher in SG (3.1) compared to CG (1.8) (p=0.047). Mean number of missing teeth were 25.2 and 16.4 in SG and CG respectively (p<0.05). DMFT scores were higher in SG in all the age groups (p < 0.01). Mean number of teeth per person needing treatment was 3.4 in SG and 1.9 in CG (p= 0.037). The need for restorative dental care was significantly lower in the SG (0.8 teeth per person) than in the CG (1.7 teeth per person) (p = 0.043). Conclusions: Institutionalized psychiatric patients have significantly worse dental status and more dental treatment needs than non-psychiatric patients. Key words:Gerodontology, oral health, older adult, psychiatric patients, schizophrenia. PMID:23229258

  3. Non-Traumatic Dental Condition-Related Emergency Department Visits and Associated Costs for Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Sy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Masterson, Erin E.; Chi, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 2010 U.S. National Emergency Department Sample data and ran regression models to test the hypotheses that individuals with ASD are more likely to have non-traumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related emergency department (ED) visits and to incur greater costs for these visits than those without ASD. There were nearly 2.3 million NTDC-related ED visits in 2010. Less than 1.0% (children) and 2.1% (adults) of all ED visits were for NTDC. There was no significant difference in NTDC-related ED visits or costs for children by ASD status. Adults with ASD had significantly lower odds of NTDC-related ED visits (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.52; P<0.001) but incurred significantly greater mean costs for NTDC-related ED visits (P<0.006) than did adults without ASD. PMID:25374135

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor in adult human dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huerta, J J; Diaz-Trelles, R; Naves, F J; Llamosas, M M; Del Valle, M E; Vega, J A

    1996-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) enhances neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. It binds a membrane protein, denominated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr). EGFr has been localized in developing and adult human DRG. However, it remains to be elucidated whether all DRG neurons express EGFr or whether differences exist among neuronal subtypes. This study was undertaken to investigate these topics in adult human DRG using immunoblotting, and combined immunohistochemistry and image analysis techniques. A mouse monoclonal antibody (clone F4) mapping within the intracytoplasmic domain of EGFr was used. Immunoblotting revealed two main proteins with estimated molecular masses of approximately/equal to 65 kDa and 170 kDa, and thus consistent with the full-length EGFr. Additional protein bands were also encountered. Light immunohistochemistry revealed specific immunoreactivity (IR) for EGFr-like proteins in most (86%) primary sensory neurons, the intensity of immunostaining being stronger in the small- and intermediate-sized ones. Furthermore, EGFr-like IR was also observed in the satellite glial cells of the ganglia as well as in the intraganglionic and dorsal root Schwann cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that EGFr, and other related proteins containing the epitope labeled with the antibody F4, are responsible for the EGFr IR reported in DRG. Furthermore, we demonstrated heterogeneity in the expression of EGFr-like IR in adult human primary sensory neurons, which suggests different responsiveness to their ligands.

  5. The corono-apically varying ultrasonic velocity in human hard dental tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christoph

    2004-07-01

    The speed of ultrasound at 20 MHz is measured for hard dental tissues inside human teeth. This includes the cementum, for which no data are available. The spatial distribution, extrema, and means of the longitudinal ultrasound velocity (LUV) are determined with an emphasis on the apical thirds and an extended spectrum. Tissue areas are investigated by optical means and by acoustical scanning, in order to compare apical regions-of-interest with the complete mineralized wet porous tissue that lies beneath the enamel cap. The maximal LUV in a single dentin specimen varies from 3903 m/s to 4226 m/s. The dentin's frequency distribution of LUV at 20 °C exhibits a predominant peak feature comprising several Voigt functions. Introducing standardized relative tooth width portions, the corono-apical decrease in LUV of 21 specimens is approximated by LUV=4224-(257 * ln(y)) along reduced distances in dentin. Abnormal teeth require a higher resolution and an approximate equation of the form LUV=(∑(ai * yi))/(1+∑(bi+1 * y(i+1))). It can be used each time the corono-apical variation has to be quantified in each of the three tissues. Ten coefficients are numerically exemplified. An error evaluation is performed, which denotes errors of 0.2%+/-1.3% (enamel), -0.1%+/-1.6% (cementum), and acceptable residual errors for dentin.

  6. Nanofibrous spongy microspheres enhance odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Rong; Zhang, Zhanpeng; Jin, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiang; Gupte, Melanie J; Ni, Longxing; Ma, Peter X

    2015-09-16

    Dentin regeneration is challenging due to its complicated anatomical structure and the shortage of odontoblasts. In this study, a novel injectable cell carrier, nanofibrous spongy microspheres (NF-SMS), is developed for dentin regeneration. Biodegradable and biocompatible poly(l-lactic acid)-block-poly(l-lysine) are synthesized and fabricated into NF-SMS using self-assembly and thermally induced phase separation techniques. It is hypothesized that NF-SMS with interconnected pores and nanofibers can enhance the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), compared to nanofibrous microspheres (NF-MS) without pore structure and conventional solid microspheres (S-MS) with neither nanofibers nor pore structure. During the first 9 d in culture, hDPSCs proliferate significantly faster on NF-SMS than on NF-MS or S-MS (p < 0.05). Following in vitro odontogenic induction, all the examined odontogenic genes (alkaline phosphatase content, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, collagen 1, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)), calcium content, and DSPP protein content are found significantly higher in the NF-SMS group than in the control groups. Furthermore, 6 weeks after subcutaneous injection of hDPSCs and microspheres into nude mice, histological analysis shows that NF-SMS support superior dentin-like tissue formation compared to NF-MS or S-MS. Taken together, NF-SMS have great potential as an injectable cell carrier for dentin regeneration.

  7. Nanofibrous spongy microspheres enhance odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Rong; Zhang, Zhanpeng; Jin, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiang; Gupte, Melanie J; Ni, Longxing; Ma, Peter X

    2015-09-16

    Dentin regeneration is challenging due to its complicated anatomical structure and the shortage of odontoblasts. In this study, a novel injectable cell carrier, nanofibrous spongy microspheres (NF-SMS), is developed for dentin regeneration. Biodegradable and biocompatible poly(l-lactic acid)-block-poly(l-lysine) are synthesized and fabricated into NF-SMS using self-assembly and thermally induced phase separation techniques. It is hypothesized that NF-SMS with interconnected pores and nanofibers can enhance the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), compared to nanofibrous microspheres (NF-MS) without pore structure and conventional solid microspheres (S-MS) with neither nanofibers nor pore structure. During the first 9 d in culture, hDPSCs proliferate significantly faster on NF-SMS than on NF-MS or S-MS (p < 0.05). Following in vitro odontogenic induction, all the examined odontogenic genes (alkaline phosphatase content, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, collagen 1, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)), calcium content, and DSPP protein content are found significantly higher in the NF-SMS group than in the control groups. Furthermore, 6 weeks after subcutaneous injection of hDPSCs and microspheres into nude mice, histological analysis shows that NF-SMS support superior dentin-like tissue formation compared to NF-MS or S-MS. Taken together, NF-SMS have great potential as an injectable cell carrier for dentin regeneration. PMID:26138254

  8. Mesoscopic modeling of the response of human dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila Verde, Ana; Ramos, Marta; Stoneham, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    Ablation of human dental enamel, a composite biomaterial with water pores, is of significant importance in minimally invasive laser dentistry but progress in the area is hampered by the lack of optimal laser parameters. We use mesoscopic finite element models of this material to study its response to mid-infrared radiation. Our results indicate that the cost-effective, off-the-shelf CO2 laser at λ = 10.6 μm may in fact ablate enamel precisely, reproducibly and with limited unwanted side effects such as cracking or heating, provided that a pulse duration of 10 μs is used. Furthermore, our results also indicate that the Er:YAG laser (λ = 2.94 μm), currently popular for laser dentistry, may in fact cause unwanted deep cracking in the enamel when regions with unusually high water content are irradiated, and also provide an explanation for the large range of ablation threshold values observed for this material. The model may be easily adapted to study the response of any composite material to infrared radiation and thus may be useful for the scientific community.

  9. Effects of GPNMB on proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Liang; Hu, Ye-Jia; Zhang, Feng-He

    2015-01-01

    Glycoprotein (transmembrane) nonmetastatic melanoma protein b (GPNMB) plays crucial roles in odontogenesis. However, the role of GPNMB in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expression and function of the GPNMB in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs. Cells were cultured in odontoblast differentiation-inducing medium; the expression of the GPNMB was assessed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. We performed gene knockdown of GPNMB in hDPCs using lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA)-GPNMB. The proliferation of cells was measured by the MTT assay, and the differentiation of cells was detected with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to determine the expression levels of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1). The expression level of GPNMB was significantly increased during odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs. Suppression of GPNMB expression by siRNA-GPNMB obviously promoted the proliferation of hDPCs. Furthermore, siRNA-GPNMB significantly inhibited the activity of ALP and expression levels of DSPP and DMP-1 during odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs. Our results show that GPNMB plays an important role in regulating the expression of key pluripotency genes in hDPCs and modifying odontogenic differentiation. PMID:26261527

  10. Derivation of iPSCs after culture of human dental pulp cells under defined conditions.

    PubMed

    Takeda-Kawaguchi, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Ken; Chikusa, Shunji; Iida, Kazuki; Aoki, Hitomi; Tamaoki, Naritaka; Hatakeyama, Daijiro; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Fusaki, Noemi; Tezuka, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) are a promising resource for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and can be used for derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, current protocols use reagents of animal origin (mainly fetal bovine serum, FBS) that carry the potential risk of infectious diseases and unwanted immunogenicity. Here, we report a chemically defined protocol to isolate and maintain the growth and differentiation potential of hDPCs. hDPCs cultured under these conditions showed significantly less primary colony formation than those with FBS. Cell culture under stringently defined conditions revealed a donor-dependent growth capacity; however, once established, the differentiation capabilities of the hDPCs were comparable to those observed with FBS. DNA array analyses indicated that the culture conditions robustly altered hDPC gene expression patterns but, more importantly, had little effect on neither pluripotent gene expression nor the efficiency of iPSC induction. The chemically defined culture conditions described herein are not perfect serum replacements, but can be used for the safe establishment of iPSCs and will find utility in applications for cell-based regenerative medicine. PMID:25521610

  11. The rate of RNA degradation in human dental pulp reveals post-mortem interval.

    PubMed

    Poór, Viktor S; Lukács, Dénes; Nagy, Tamás; Rácz, Evelin; Sipos, Katalin

    2016-05-01

    Post-mortem interval (PMI) is the amount of time elapsed since the time of death. Over the years, many methods were developed to assess PMI, but their precision and time frame of applicability are often limited. Our present pilot study aimed to prove if RNA degradation of human dental pulp can be used for PMI estimation. RNA was isolated from the pulps of healthy wisdom teeth and premolars. RNA degradation was determined as RNA integrity number (RIN) with Agilent Bioanalyzer and subsequently by amplification of different length products by PCR after reverse transcription. The RNA integrity analysis allowed us to determine the time of post-mortem interval with high confidence level in the first 21 days. With the PCR-based method, we were able to perform a crude estimation of incubation time of teeth between 20 and 42 days post extraction. These results show that this method might be a promising new tool for PMI estimation despite the limitations. PMID:26608472

  12. Vitamin D Promotes Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells via ERK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Su-Mi; Lim, Hae-Soon; Jeong, Kyung-Yi; Kim, Seon-Mi; Kim, Won-Jae; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The active metabolite of vitamin D such as 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) is a well-known key regulatory factor in bone metabolism. However, little is known about the potential of vitamin D as an odontogenic inducer in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 metabolite, 1α,25(OH)2D3, on odontoblastic differentiation in HDPCs. HDPCs extracted from maxillary supernumerary incisors and third molars were directly cultured with 1α,25(OH)2D3 in the absence of differentiation-inducing factors. Treatment of HDPCs with 1α,25(OH)2D3 at a concentration of 10 nM or 100 nM significantly upregulated the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein1 (DMP1), the odontogenesis-related genes. Also, 1α,25(OH)2D3 enhanced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization in HDPCs. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), whereas the ERK inhibitor U0126 ameliorated the upregulation of DSPP and DMP1 and reduced the mineralization enhanced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. These results demonstrated that 1α,25(OH)2D3 promoted odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs via modulating ERK activation. PMID:26062551

  13. LPS promote the odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells via MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Wenxi; Wang, Zhihua; Luo, Zhirong; Yu, Qing; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Yaqing; Zhou, Zeyuan; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) show significant potential for exploitation in novel regeneration strategies, although lack of understanding of their responses to bacterial challenge constrains their application. The present study aimed to investigate whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major pathogenic factor of Gram-negative bacteria, regulates the differentiation of hDPSCs and which intracellular signaling pathways may be involved. LPS treatment significantly promoted the differentiation of hDPSCs demonstrable by increased mineralized nodule formation and mRNA expression of several odontoblastic markers in a dose-dependent manner. While inhibition of TLR4, p38, and ERK signaling markedly antagonized LPS-mediated differentiation of hDPSCs. The inhibition of JNK and NF-κB signaling had no detectable effect on LPS activation of hDPSCs. LPS stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, IκB-α, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in DPSCs in a time-dependent manner, which was markedly suppressed by their specific inhibitors, respectively. Data demonstrated that LPS promoted odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs via TLR4, ERK, and P38 MAPK signaling pathways, but not NF-κB signaling.

  14. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction characterization of healthy and fluorotic human dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaço, M. V.; Barroso, R. C.; Porto, I. M.; Gerlach, R. F.; Costa, F. N.; Braz, D.; Droppa, R.; de Sousa, F. B.

    2012-10-01

    With the introduction of fluoride as the main anticaries agent used in preventive dentistry, and perhaps an increase in fluoride in our food chain, dental fluorosis has become an increasing world-wide problem. Visible signs of fluorosis begin to become obvious on the enamel surface as opacities, implying some porosity in the tissue. The mechanisms that conduct the formation of fluorotic enamel are unknown, but should involve modifications in the basic physical-chemistry reactions of demineralization and remineralisation of the enamel of the teeth, which is the same reaction of formation of the enamel's hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the maturation phase. The increase of the amount of fluoride inside of the apatite will result in gradual increase of the lattice parameters. The aim of this work is to characterize the healthy and fluorotic enamel in human tooth using Synchrotron X-ray diffraction. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory—LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. X-ray diffraction experiments were performed both in powder samples and polished surfaces. The powder samples were analyzed to obtain the characterization of a typical healthy enamel pattern. The polished surfaces were analyzed in specific areas that have been identified as fluorotic ones. X-ray diffraction data were obtained for all samples and these data were compared with the control samples and also with the literature data.

  15. Genetic Comparison of Stemness of Human Umbilical Cord and Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chung-Min; Kim, Hyunok; Song, Je Seon; Choi, Byung-Jai; Kim, Seong-Oh; Jung, Han-Sung; Moon, Seok-Jun; Choi, Hyung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on gene expression patterns and functions in human umbilical cord (UC) and dental pulp (DP) containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). DP tissues were collected from 25 permanent premolars. UC tissue samples were obtained from three newborns. Comparative gene profiles were obtained using cDNA microarray analysis and the expression of tooth development-associated and MSC-related genes was assessed by the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Genes related to cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and immune responses were expressed at higher levels in UC, whereas genes related to growth factor and receptor activity and signal transduction were more highly expressed in DP. Although UC and DP tissues exhibited similar expression of surface markers for MSCs, UC showed higher expression of CD29, CD34, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD146, and CD166. qRT-PCR analysis showed that CD146, CD166, and MYC were expressed 18.3, 8.24, and 1.63 times more highly in UC, whereas the expression of CD34 was 2.15 times higher in DP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant differences in the expression of genes (DSPP, DMP1, and CALB1) related to odontogenesis and angiogenesis in DP. DP and UC tissue showed similar gene expression, with the usual MSC markers, while they clearly diverged in their differentiation capacity. PMID:27087814

  16. Comparison of dental measurement systems for taxonomic assignment of Neanderthal and modern human lower second deciduous molars.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Fornai, Cinzia; Bayle, Priscilla; Coquerelle, Michael; Kullmer, Ottmar; Mallegni, Francesco; Weber, Gerhard W

    2011-09-01

    Traditional morphometric approaches for taxonomic assignment of Neanderthal and modern human dental remains are mainly characterized by caliper measurements of tooth crowns. Several studies have recently described differences in dental tissue proportions and enamel thickness between Neanderthal and modern human teeth. At least for the lower second deciduous molar (dm(2)), a three-dimensional lateral relative enamel thickness index has been proposed for separating the two taxa. This index has the advantage over other measurements of being applicable to worn teeth because it ignores the occlusal aspect of the crown. Nevertheless, a comparative evaluation of traditional crown dimensions and lateral dental tissue proportion measurements for taxonomic assignment of Neanderthal and modern human dm(2)s has not yet been performed. In this study, we compare various parameters gathered from the lateral aspects of the crown. These parameters include crown diameters, height of the lateral wall of the crown (lateral crown height = LCH), lateral enamel thickness, and dentine volume of the lateral wall, including the volume of the coronal pulp chamber (lateral dentine plus pulp volume = LDPV), in a 3D digital sample of Neanderthal and modern human dm(2)s to evaluate their utility in separating the two taxa. The LDPV and the LCH allow us to discriminate between Neanderthals and modern humans with 88.5% and 92.3% accuracy, respectively. Though our results confirm that Neanderthal dm(2)s have lower relative enamel thickness (RET) index compared with modern humans (p = 0.005), only 70% of the specimens were correctly classified on the basis of the RET index. We also emphasize that results of the lateral enamel thickness method depend on the magnitude of the interproximal wear. Accordingly, we suggest using the LCH or the LDPV to discriminate between Neanderthal and modern human dm(2)s. These parameters are more independent of interproximal wear and loss of lateral enamel.

  17. Differential expression of basal microRNAs’ patterns in human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthan, Punitha; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Musa, Sabri; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate translation of mRNA into protein and play a crucial role for almost all biological activities. However, the identification of miRNAs from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), especially from dental pulp, is poorly understood. In this study, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were characterized in terms of their proliferation and differentiation capacity. Furthermore, 104 known mature miRNAs were profiled by using real-time PCR. Notably, we observed 19 up-regulated miRNAs and 29 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in DPSCs in comparison with bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs). The 19 up-regulated miRNAs were subjected to ingenuity analysis, which were composed into 25 functional networks. We have chosen top 2 functional networks, which comprised 10 miRNA (hsa-miR-516a-3p, hsa-miR-125b-1-3p, hsa-miR-221-5p, hsa-miR-7, hsa-miR-584-5p, hsa-miR-190a, hsa-miR-106a-5p, hsa-mir-376a-5p, hsa-mir-377-5p and hsa-let-7f-2-3p). Prediction of target mRNAs and associated biological pathways regulated by each of this miRNA was carried out. We paid special attention to hsa-miR-516a-3p and hsa-miR-7-5p as these miRNAs were highly expressed upon validation with qRT-PCR analysis. We further proceeded with loss-of-function analysis with these miRNAs and we observed that hsa-miR-516a-3p knockdown induced a significant increase in the expression of WNT5A. Likewise, the knockdown of hsa-miR-7-5p increased the expression of EGFR. Nevertheless, further validation revealed the role of WNT5A as an indirect target of hsa-miR-516a-3p. These results provide new insights into the dynamic role of miRNA expression in DPSCs. In conclusion, using miRNA signatures in human as a prediction tool will enable us to elucidate the biological processes occurring in DPSCs. PMID:25475098

  18. Effects of the CO II laser combined with fluoridated toothpaste on human dental enamel demineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla; Alvarez Vidigal, Evelyn; Silva Soares, Luís Eduardo; Abrahão Martin, Airton; Brugnera-Júnior, Aldo; Aparecida Zanin, Fátima Antonia; Nobre dos Santos, Marinês

    2006-02-01

    This in vitro pilot study investigated the CO II laser effects on demineralization inhibition in sound human dental enamel. Thirty six human enamel specimens were used and randomly assigned to 6 groups, as follows: I) Control; II) 1W; III) 2W; IV) 3W; V) 4W; VI) 5W. Group I one was kept as control and others were irradiated using a pulsed CO II laser (λ=10.6 μm) with low crescent potencies. Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of specimens after irradiation. One specimen from each group was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and the remaining ones were submitted to an 8-day pH cycling model with use of fluoridated toothpaste twice a day. After pH-cycling, the cross-sectional microhardness was performed for mineral loss (ΔZ) quantification. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tuckey test (α=0.05). No changes were found either in SEM photomicrographies or RAMAN Spectra of the specimens in all groups. The ΔZ values (n=5; mean+/-SD) for I-VI groups were: 1741.6+/-725.3a 1782.7+/-639.0a 1427.2+/-237.0a 1780.6+/-552.4a 1385.2+/-602.2a 943.1+/-228.1a respectively. The highest percentage of caries inhibition was found in group VI (45.8%); however the differences between ΔZ of the groups were not statistically significant. The use of CO II laser with low fluencies did not prevent more caries development than the use of fluoridated toothpaste, even though group VI had present good results in caries inhibition. Energy densities higher than 0.0125 J/cm 2 should be used to promote chemical or morphological changes on enamel surface, which are able of inhibiting mineral.

  19. Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Dopaminergic Neuron-like Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chun, So Young; Soker, Shay; Jang, Yu-Jin; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Yoo, Eun Sang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the potential of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro as an autologous stem cell source for Parkinson's disease treatment. The hDPSCs were expanded in knockout-embryonic stem cell (KO-ES) medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on gelatin-coated plates for 3-4 days. Then, the medium was replaced with KO-ES medium without LIF to allow the formation of the neurosphere for 4 days. The neurosphere was transferred into ITS medium, containing ITS (human insulin-transferrin-sodium) and fibronectin, to select for Nestin-positive cells for 6-8 days. The cells were then cultured in N-2 medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF-8b, sonic hedgehog-N, and ascorbic acid on poly-l-ornithine/fibronectin-coated plates to expand the Nestin-positive cells for up to 2 weeks. Finally, the cells were transferred into N-2/ascorbic acid medium to allow for their differentiation into dopaminergic neurons for 10-15 days. The differentiation stages were confirmed by morphological, immunocytochemical, flow cytometric, real-time PCR, and ELISA analyses. The expressions of mesenchymal stem cell markers were observed at the early stages. The expressions of early neuronal markers were maintained throughout the differentiation stages. The mature neural markers showed increased expression from stage 3 onwards. The percentage of cells positive for tyrosine hydroxylase was 14.49%, and the amount was 0.526 ± 0.033 ng/mL at the last stage. hDPSCs can differentiate into dopaminergic neural cells under experimental cell differentiation conditions, showing potential as an autologous cell source for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  20. [Multipotency of adult stem cells derived from human amnion].

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingxia; Li, Weijia; Li, Bingzong; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunhua

    2009-05-01

    Adult stem cells are drawing more and more attention due to the potential application in degenerative medicine without posing any moral problem. There is growing evidence showing that the human amnion contains various types of adult stem cell. Since amniotic tissue is readily available, it has the potential to be an important source of regenerative medicine material. In this study we tried to find multipotent adult stem cells in human amnion. We isolated stem cells from amniotic mesenchymal cells by limiting dilution assay. Similar to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, these cells displayed a fibroblast like appearance. They were positive for CD105, CD29, CD44, negative for haematopoietic (GlyA, CD31, CD34, CD45) and epithelial cell (pan-CK) markers. These stem cells had the potential to differentiate not only into osteogenic, adipogenic and endothelial lineages, but also hepatocyte-like cells and neural cells at the single-cell level depending on the culture conditions. They had the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation even after being expanded for more than 30 population doublings in vitro. So they may be an ideal stem cell source for inherited or degenerative diseases treatment.

  1. Cytotoxic effect of silorane and methacrylate based composites on the human dental pulp stem cells and fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Attar, Armin; Alavi, Ali A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effect of a methacrylate-based and a silorane-based composite on the human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) versus human dental pulp fibroblasts (DPFs). Study Design: Samples of the Filtek Z250 and P90 were polymerized and immersed in the culture medium to obtain extracts after incubation for one, seven and 14 days. Magnetic cell sorting based on the CD146 expression was performed to purify DPSCs and DPFs. After incubation of both cells with the extracts, cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT test. Results: For the extracts of first and seventh day, both composites showed significantly lower cytotoxicity on DPSCs than DPFs (p=0.003). In addition, there was a significant difference in the time-group interaction of both materials indicating different cytotoxic behaviours (p=0.014). In contrast to Z250, exposure to the 14th day extract of P90 resulted in higher cell viability compared to that of day seven. Conclusions: DPSCs are less susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of the composites than DPFs. Compared to Z250, the cytotoxic effect of silorane-based composite decreases as the time passes on. This difference should be considered, particularly in deep cavities, in order to preserve the regenerative capacity of the pulp. Key words:Composite resins, Dental pulp, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Silorane, Toxicology. PMID:24608214

  2. Early transplantation of human immature dental pulp stem cells from baby teeth to golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs: Local or systemic?

    PubMed Central

    Kerkis, Irina; Ambrosio, Carlos E; Kerkis, Alexandre; Martins, Daniele S; Zucconi, Eder; Fonseca, Simone AS; Cabral, Rosa M; Maranduba, Carlos MC; Gaiad, Thais P; Morini, Adriana C; Vieira, Natassia M; Brolio, Marina P; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo A; Miglino, Maria A; Zatz, Mayana

    2008-01-01

    Background The golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs represent the best available animal model for therapeutic trials aiming at the future treatment of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have obtained a rare litter of six GRMD dogs (3 males and 3 females) born from an affected male and a carrier female which were submitted to a therapeutic trial with adult human stem cells to investigate their capacity to engraft into dogs muscles by local as compared to systemic injection without any immunosuppression. Methods Human Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hIDPSC) were transplanted into 4 littermate dogs aged 28 to 40 days by either arterial or muscular injections. Two non-injected dogs were kept as controls. Clinical translation effects were analyzed since immune reactions by blood exams and physical scores capacity of each dog. Samples from biopsies were checked by immunohistochemistry (dystrophin markers) and FISH for human probes. Results and Discussion We analyzed the cells' ability in respect to migrate, engraftment, and myogenic potential, and the expression of human dystrophin in affected muscles. Additionally, the efficiency of single and consecutive early transplantation was compared. Chimeric muscle fibers were detected by immunofluorescence and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using human antibodies and X and Y DNA probes. No signs of immune rejection were observed and these results suggested that hIDPSC cell transplantation may be done without immunosuppression. We showed that hIDPSC presented significant engraftment in GRMD dog muscles, although human dystrophin expression was modest and limited to several muscle fibers. Better clinical condition was also observed in the dog, which received monthly arterial injections and is still clinically stable at 25 months of age. Conclusion Our data suggested that systemic multiple deliveries seemed more effective than local injections. These findings open important avenues for further

  3. Indigenous hydroxyapatite coated and bioactive glass coated titanium dental implant system – Fabrication and application in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Surajit; Kundu, Debabrata; Datta, Someswar; Basu, Debabrata; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram

    2011-01-01

    Background: The use of different bioactive materials as coating on dental implant to restore tooth function is a growing trend in modern Dentistry. In the present study, hydroxyapatite and the bioactive glass-coated implants were evaluated for their behavior in osseous tissue following implantation in 14 patients. Materials and Methods: Bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite formulated and prepared for coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Hydroxyapatite coating was applied on the implant surface by air plasma spray technique and bioactive glass coating was applied by vitreous enameling technique. Their outcome was assessed after 6 months in vivo study in human. Results: Hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass coating materials were nontoxic and biocompatible. Uneventful healing was observed with both types of implants. Conclusion: The results showed bioactive glass is a good alternative coating material for dental implant. PMID:22028507

  4. How long have adult humans been consuming milk?

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Evershed, Richard P; Thomas, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose, and in most mammals, including most humans, lactase activity is down-regulated after the weaning period is completed. However, in about 35% of adults worldwide, lactase continues to be expressed throughout adulthood, a feature termed lactase persistence (LP). Genetic evidence indicates that LP is a recent human adaptation, and its current geographic distribution correlates with the relative historical importance of dairying in different human populations. Investigating archaeological evidence for fresh milk consumption has proved crucial in building an account of the joint evolution of LP and dairying. A powerful technique for investigating food processing, including milk processing, in ancient populations is lipid residue analysis on archaeological pottery. We review here the archaeological and genetic evidence available that have contributed to a better understanding of the gene-culture co-evolution of LP and dairying. PMID:24339181

  5. How long have adult humans been consuming milk?

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Evershed, Richard P; Thomas, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose, and in most mammals, including most humans, lactase activity is down-regulated after the weaning period is completed. However, in about 35% of adults worldwide, lactase continues to be expressed throughout adulthood, a feature termed lactase persistence (LP). Genetic evidence indicates that LP is a recent human adaptation, and its current geographic distribution correlates with the relative historical importance of dairying in different human populations. Investigating archaeological evidence for fresh milk consumption has proved crucial in building an account of the joint evolution of LP and dairying. A powerful technique for investigating food processing, including milk processing, in ancient populations is lipid residue analysis on archaeological pottery. We review here the archaeological and genetic evidence available that have contributed to a better understanding of the gene-culture co-evolution of LP and dairying.

  6. Dental wear patterns in early modern humans from Skhul and Qafzeh: A response to Sarig and Tillier.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar

    2015-10-01

    The use of teeth as tools for manipulating objects and simple food-processing methods was common among prehistoric and modern hunter-gatherer human populations. Paramasticatory uses of teeth frequently produce enamel chipping and distinctive types of dental wear that can readily be related to specific tool functions. In particular, the presence of unusual occlusal wear areas (named para-facets) on maxillary teeth of prehistoric, historic and modern hunter-gatherers has been associated with cultural habits involving extensive use of teeth (Fiorenza et al., 2011; Fiorenza and Kullmer, 2013). However, Sarig and Tillier (2014) believe that this wear had been caused by pathological occlusal relationships rather than by the use of teeth as tools. In this contribution, we show how occlusal contacts are created and how it is possible to distinguish between masticatory and non-masticatory wear facets by using an innovative digital approach called Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis. Statistical results from the analysis of comparative modern samples clearly demonstrate that described para-facets in Skhul and Qafzeh could not have been produced by dental occlusal anomalies such as malocclusions and crossbites. Moreover, dental pathologies in prehistoric humans were extremely rare. Only with the adoption of the modern lifestyle between 18th and 19th centuries, did the emergence of malocclusions become significantly more common. Because more than 50% of the Skhul and Qafzeh individuals analysed in our study are characterised by this distinctive type of wear, it is highly unlikely that their para-facets occurred as a result of dental pathologies. PMID:26048367

  7. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity.

  8. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity. PMID:27672500

  9. Neurons in the White Matter of the Adult Human Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Solá, M. Luisa; González-Delgado, Francisco J.; Pueyo-Morlans, Mercedes; Medina-Bolívar, O. Carolina; Hernández-Acosta, N. Carolina; González-Gómez, Miriam; Meyer, Gundela

    2009-01-01

    The white matter (WM) of the adult human neocortex contains the so-called “interstitial neurons”. They are most numerous in the superficial WM underlying the cortical gyri, and decrease in density toward the deep WM. They are morphologically heterogeneous. A subgroup of interstitial neurons display pyramidal-cell like morphologies, characterized by a polarized dendritic tree with a dominant apical dendrite, and covered with a variable number of dendritic spines. In addition, a large contingent of interstitial neurons can be classified as interneurons based on their neurochemical profile as well as on morphological criteria. WM- interneurons have multipolar or bipolar shapes and express GABA and a variety of other neuronal markers, such as calbindin and calretinin, the extracellular matrix protein reelin, or neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and nitric oxide synthase. The heterogeneity of interstitial neurons may be relevant for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia. Interstitial neurons are most prominent in human brain, and only rudimentary in the brain of non-primate mammals. These evolutionary differences have precluded adequate experimental work on this cell population, which is usually considered as a relict of the subplate, a transient compartment proper of development and without a known function in the adult brain. The primate-specific prominence of the subplate in late fetal stages points to an important role in the establishment of interstitial neurons. Neurons in the adult WM may be actively involved in coordinating inter-areal connectivity and regulation of blood flow. Further studies in primates will be needed to elucidate the developmental history, adult components and activities of this large neuronal system. PMID:19543540

  10. Effect of dentin treatment on proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minjeong; Pang, Nan-Sim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is an excellent bactericidal agent, but it is detrimental to stem cell survival, whereas intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) promote the survival and proliferation of stem cells. This study evaluated the effect of sequential NaOCl and Ca[OH]2 application on the attachment and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Materials and Methods DPSCs were obtained from human third molars. All dentin specimens were treated with 5.25% NaOCl for 30 min. DPSCs were seeded on the dentin specimens and processed with additional 1 mg/mL Ca[OH]2, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment, file instrumentation, or a combination of these methods. After 7 day of culture, we examined DPSC morphology using scanning electron microscopy and determined the cell survival rate with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. We measured cell adhesion gene expression levels after 4 day of culture and odontogenic differentiation gene expression levels after 4 wk using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results DPSCs did not attach to the dentin in the NaOCl-treated group. The gene expression levels of fibronectin-1 and secreted phosphoprotein-1 gene in both the Ca[OH]2- and the EDTA-treated groups were significantly higher than those in the other groups. All Ca[OH]2-treated groups showed higher expression levels of dentin matrix protein-1 than that of the control. The dentin sialophosphoprotein level was significantly higher in the groups treated with both Ca[OH]2 and EDTA. Conclusions The application of Ca[OH]2 and additional treatment such as EDTA or instrumentation promoted the attachment and differentiation of DPSCs after NaOCl treatment. PMID:26587415

  11. Biocompatibility and bioactivity of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers in human dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    MESTIERI, Leticia Boldrin; GOMES-CORNÉLIO, Ana Lívia; RODRIGUES, Elisandra Márcia; SALLES, Loise Pedrosa; BOSSO-MARTELO, Roberta; GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; TANOMARU, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate-based material. New sealers have been developed based on calcium silicate as MTA Fillapex and MTA Plus. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate biocompatibility and bioactivity of these two calcium silicate-based sealers in culture of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Material and Methods The cells were isolated from third molars extracted from a 16-year-old patient. Pulp tissue was sectioned into fragments with approximately 1 mm3 and kept in supplemented medium to obtain hDPCs adherent cultures. Cell characterization assays were performed to prove the osteogenic potential. The evaluated materials were: MTA Plus (MTAP); MTA Fillapex (MTAF) and FillCanal (FC). Biocompatibility was evaluated with MTT and Neutral Red (NR) assays, after hDPCs exposure for 24 h to different dilutions of each sealer extract (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4). Unexposed cells were the positive control (CT). Bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymatic assay in cells exposed for one and three days to sealer extracts (1:4 dilution). All data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post-test (p≤0.05%). Results MTT and NR results showed suitable cell viability rates for MTAP at all dilutions (90-135%). Cells exposed to MTAF and FC (1:2 and 1:4 dilutions) showed significant low viability rate when compared to CT in MTT. The NR results demonstrated cell viability for all materials tested. In MTAP group, the cells ALP activity was similar to CT in one and three days of exposure to the material. MTAF and FC groups demonstrated a decrease in ALP activity when compared to CT at both periods of cell exposure. Conclusions The hDPCs were suitable for the evaluation of new endodontic materials in vitro. MTAP may be considered a promising material for endodontic treatments. PMID:26537716

  12. An Optimized Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold Supports Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Viability and Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Jones, T. D.; Kefi, A.; Sun, S.; Cho, M.; Alapati, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. HyStem-C™ is a commercially available injectable hydrogel composed of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), hyaluronan (HA), and gelatin (Gn). These components can be mechanically tuned to enhance cell viability and spreading. Methods. The concentration of PEGDA with an added disulfide bond (PEGSSDA) was varied from 0.5 to 8.0% (w/v) to determine the optimal concentration for injectable clinical application. We evaluated the cell viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) embedded in 2% (w/v) PEGSSDA-HA-Gn hydrogels. Volume ratios of HA : Gn from 100 : 0 to 25 : 75 were varied to encourage hDPSC spreading. Fibronectin (Fn) was added to our model to determine the effect of extracellular matrix protein concentration on hDPSC behavior. Results. Our preliminary data suggests that the hydrogel gelation time decreased as the PEGSSDA cross-linker concentration increased. The PEGSSDA-HA-Gn was biocompatible with hDPSCs, and increased ratios of HA : Gn enhanced cell viability for 14 days. Additionally, cell proliferation with added fibronectin increased significantly over time at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μg/mL in PEGDA-HA-Gn hydrogels, while cell spreading significantly increased at Fn concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that PEG-based injectable hydrogels maintain hDPSC viability and facilitate cell spreading, mainly in the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. PMID:27294191

  13. Effects of epicatechin, a crosslinking agent, on human dental pulp cells cultured in collagen scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eun-su; Lim, Myung-Jin; Min, Kyung-San; Kwon, Young-Sun; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Hong, Chan-Ui; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological effects of epicatechin (ECN), a crosslinking agent, on human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured in collagen scaffolds. Material and Method To evaluate the effects of ECN on the proliferation of hDPCs, cell counting was performed using optical and fluorescent microscopy. Measurements of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, and real-time polymerase chain reactions were performed to assess odontogenic differentiation. The compressive strength and setting time of collagen scaffolds containing ECN were measured. Differential scanning calorimetry was performed to analyze the thermal behavior of collagen in the presence of ECN. Results Epicatechin increased ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation, and the mRNA expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), a specific odontogenic-related marker. Furthermore, ECN upregulated the expression of DSPP in hDPCs cultured in collagen scaffolds. Epicatechin activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the treatment with an ERK inhibitor (U0126) blocked the expression of DSPP. The compressive strength was increased and the setting time was shortened in a dose-dependent manner. The number of cells cultured in the ECN-treated collagen scaffolds was significantly increased compared to the cells in the untreated control group. Conclusions Our results revealed that ECN promoted the proliferation and differentiation of hDPCs. Furthermore, the differentiation was regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. Changes in mechanical properties are related to cell fate, including proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, our study suggests the ECN treatment might be desirable for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. PMID:27008260

  14. Effects of extracts of Salvadora persica on proliferation and viability of human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Fahimeh sadat; Moezizadeh, Maryam; Javand, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Efficacy of an ideal antimicrobial agent depends on its ability to eliminate microorganisms while causing minimal toxicity to host cells. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ethanolic and water extracts of Salvadora persica (SP) on proliferation and viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, the effects of seven concentrations of ethanolic and water extracts of SP (ranging from 5.75 mg/ml to 0.08 mg/ml) on hDPSCs were evaluated using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Water extract of SP only had cytotoxic effect at 5.75 mg/ml concentration; and caused significant cell proliferation at 1.43-0.08 mg/ml concentrations at 24 h (P < 0.05). At 48 h, only 0.17 and 0.08 mg/ml concentrations caused significant cell proliferation (P < 0.05). Ethanolic extract of SP at 5.75-1.43 mg/ml concentrations showed severe cytotoxic effects at 24 and 48 h. Other concentrations had no significant effects on cells (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The highest concentrations of both water and ethanolic extracts of SP had cytotoxic effects on hDPSCs. Water extract of SP has favorable effects on cell proliferation at specific concentrations in a time-dependent manner. PMID:26180418

  15. Matching the optical properties of direct esthetic dental restorative materials to those of human enamel and dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragain, James Carlton, Jr.

    One of the goals of the restorative dentist is to restore the appearance of the natural dentition. Clinical matching of teeth and restorative materials are seldom accurate and shade selection techniques are subjective. The first specific aim of this research was to characterize the optical absorption and scattering that occurs within enamel, dentin, and composite resin and compomer restorative materials and to relate those phenomena to translucency and color. The second aim was to evaluate small color differences among composite restorative materials which would be detectable by humans. The last aim was to lay the foundation for developing an improved model of specifying layers of dental restorative materials in order to match the translucency and color to those of human enamel. The Kubelka-Munk theory was validated for enamel, dentin, and the restorative materials. These tissues and materials were then characterized in terms of their color parameters. Tooth cores were also characterized in terms of color space parameters. Human subjects were evaluated for their abilities to discriminate small color differences in the dental composite resin materials. The following conclusions were derived from this study: (1) Kubelka-Munk theory accurately predicts the diffuse reflectance spectra of enamel, dentin, and the direct esthetic dental restorative materials studied. (2) Scattering and absorption coefficients of the dental tissues and esthetic restorative materials can be directly calculated from diffuse reflectance measurements of a uniformly thick slab of tissue/material using black and white backings and the appropriate refractive index. (3) For tooth cores, there is a positive correlation between L* and b* and a negative correlation between L* and a*. (4) The range of translucency parameters for the restorative materials studied does not match those of enamel and dentin. (5) None of the shades of the dental composite resin restorative materials studied fit into the

  16. Novel Management of Acute or Secondary Biliary Liver Conditions Using Hepatically Differentiated Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishkitiev, Nikolay; Imai, Toshio; Tanaka, Tomoko; Fushimi, Naho; Mitev, Vanyo; Okada, Mio; Tominaga, Noriko; Ono, Sachie; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The current definitive treatment for acute or chronic liver condition, that is, cirrhosis, is liver transplantation from a limited number of donors, which might cause complications after donation. Hence, bone marrow stem cell transplantation has been developed, but the risk of carcinogenesis remains. We have recently developed a protocol for hepatic differentiation of CD117+ stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). In the present study, we examine whether SHED hepatically differentiated (hd) in vitro could be used to treat acute liver injury (ALI) and secondary biliary cirrhosis. The CD117+ cell fraction was magnetically separated from SHED and then differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. The cells were transplanted into rats with either ALI or induced secondary biliary cirrhosis. Engraftment of human liver cells was determined immunohistochemically and by in situ hybridization. Recovery of liver function was examined by means of histochemical and serological tests. Livers of transplanted animals were strongly positive for human immunohistochemical factors, and in situ hybridization confirmed engraftment of human hepatocytes. The tests for recovery of liver function confirmed the presence of human hepatic markers in the animals' blood serum and lack of fibrosis and functional integration of transplanted human cells into livers. No evidence of malignancy was found. We show that in vitro hdSHED engraft morphologically and functionally into the livers of rats having acute injury or secondary biliary cirrhosis. SHED are readily accessible adult stem cells, capable of proliferating in large numbers before differentiating in vitro. This makes SHED an appropriate and safe stem cell source for regenerative medicine. PMID:25234861

  17. Dental Implant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  18. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  19. Retrieving chronological age from dental remains of early fossil hominins to reconstruct human growth in the past

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A chronology of dental development in Pan troglodytes is arguably the best available model with which to compare and contrast reconstructed dental chronologies of the earliest fossil hominins. Establishing a time scale for growth is a requirement for being able to make further comparative observations about timing and rate during both dento-skeletal growth and brain growth. The absolute timing of anterior tooth crown and root formation appears not to reflect the period of somatic growth. In contrast, the molar dentition best reflects changes to the total growth period. Earlier initiation of molar mineralization, shorter crown formation times, less root length formed at gingival emergence into functional occlusion are cumulatively expressed as earlier ages at molar eruption. Things that are similar in modern humans and Pan, such as the total length of time taken to form individual teeth, raise expectations that these would also have been the same in fossil hominins. The best evidence there is from the youngest fossil hominin specimens suggests a close resemblance to the model for Pan but also hints that Gorilla may be a better developmental model for some. A mosaic of great ape-like features currently best describes the timing of early hominin dental development. PMID:20855313

  20. Manufacturing of dental pulp cell-based products from human third molars: current strategies and future investigations

    PubMed Central

    Ducret, Maxime; Fabre, Hugo; Degoul, Olivier; Atzeni, Gianluigi; McGuckin, Colin; Forraz, Nico; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric; Perrier-Groult, Emeline; Farges, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, mesenchymal cell-based products have been developed to improve surgical therapies aimed at repairing human tissues. In this context, the tooth has recently emerged as a valuable source of stem/progenitor cells for regenerating orofacial tissues, with easy access to pulp tissue and high differentiation potential of dental pulp mesenchymal cells. International guidelines now recommend the use of standardized procedures for cell isolation, storage and expansion in culture to ensure optimal reproducibility, efficacy and safety when cells are used for clinical application. However, most dental pulp cell-based medicinal products manufacturing procedures may not be fully satisfactory since they could alter the cells biological properties and the quality of derived products. Cell isolation, enrichment and cryopreservation procedures combined to long-term expansion in culture media containing xeno- and allogeneic components are known to affect cell phenotype, viability, proliferation and differentiation capacities. This article focuses on current manufacturing strategies of dental pulp cell-based medicinal products and proposes a new protocol to improve efficiency, reproducibility and safety of these strategies. PMID:26300779

  1. Manufacturing of dental pulp cell-based products from human third molars: current strategies and future investigations.

    PubMed

    Ducret, Maxime; Fabre, Hugo; Degoul, Olivier; Atzeni, Gianluigi; McGuckin, Colin; Forraz, Nico; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric; Perrier-Groult, Emeline; Farges, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, mesenchymal cell-based products have been developed to improve surgical therapies aimed at repairing human tissues. In this context, the tooth has recently emerged as a valuable source of stem/progenitor cells for regenerating orofacial tissues, with easy access to pulp tissue and high differentiation potential of dental pulp mesenchymal cells. International guidelines now recommend the use of standardized procedures for cell isolation, storage and expansion in culture to ensure optimal reproducibility, efficacy and safety when cells are used for clinical application. However, most dental pulp cell-based medicinal products manufacturing procedures may not be fully satisfactory since they could alter the cells biological properties and the quality of derived products. Cell isolation, enrichment and cryopreservation procedures combined to long-term expansion in culture media containing xeno- and allogeneic components are known to affect cell phenotype, viability, proliferation and differentiation capacities. This article focuses on current manufacturing strategies of dental pulp cell-based medicinal products and proposes a new protocol to improve efficiency, reproducibility and safety of these strategies.

  2. Effects of xylitol on the acid production activity from sorbitol by Streptococcus mutans and human dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, N; Topitsoglou, V; Frostell, G

    1983-01-01

    -A method for the determination of acid production from 20-25 mg (wet weight) of Streptococcus mutans and 12-33 mg (wet weight) of human dental plaque is described. After endogenous acid production had been followed, either sorbitol or xylitol or a mixture of sorbitol and xylitol (2:1) was added. After about ten minutes glucose, sucrose or Palatinose were added for a vitality test. Addition of xylitol to the bacterial suspension caused inhibition of acid production from sorbitol by Streptococcus mutans grown on sorbitol or a mixture of sorbitol and glucose. It was also observed that it had a similar effect on acid production from sorbitol in suspensions of dental plaque with few exceptions. On the other hand, Streptococcus mutans cells grown on glucose, sucrose and xylitol media, produced no or insignificant amounts of acid from sorbitol. Streptococcus mutans cells grown on media containing glucose, sucrose, sorbitol and a mixture of sorbitol and glucose generally formed a large amount of acid from glucose and sucrose after the addition of sorbitol and xylitol. However, Streptococcus mutans cells grown on a medium containing xylitol and the mixture of sorbitol and xylitol formed less acid from glucose. The acid production activity from sorbitol in suspensions of dental plaque after the xylitol addition was somewhat lower than the acid production from sorbitol alone (p less than 0.02).

  3. Manufacturing of dental pulp cell-based products from human third molars: current strategies and future investigations.

    PubMed

    Ducret, Maxime; Fabre, Hugo; Degoul, Olivier; Atzeni, Gianluigi; McGuckin, Colin; Forraz, Nico; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric; Perrier-Groult, Emeline; Farges, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, mesenchymal cell-based products have been developed to improve surgical therapies aimed at repairing human tissues. In this context, the tooth has recently emerged as a valuable source of stem/progenitor cells for regenerating orofacial tissues, with easy access to pulp tissue and high differentiation potential of dental pulp mesenchymal cells. International guidelines now recommend the use of standardized procedures for cell isolation, storage and expansion in culture to ensure optimal reproducibility, efficacy and safety when cells are used for clinical application. However, most dental pulp cell-based medicinal products manufacturing procedures may not be fully satisfactory since they could alter the cells biological properties and the quality of derived products. Cell isolation, enrichment and cryopreservation procedures combined to long-term expansion in culture media containing xeno- and allogeneic components are known to affect cell phenotype, viability, proliferation and differentiation capacities. This article focuses on current manufacturing strategies of dental pulp cell-based medicinal products and proposes a new protocol to improve efficiency, reproducibility and safety of these strategies. PMID:26300779

  4. Dental care - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluoride helps strengthen tooth enamel and helps prevent tooth decay. Replace your toothbrush every 3 to 4 months or sooner if needed. A worn-out toothbrush will not clean your teeth as well. Eat a healthy diet. You are less likely to get gum disease ...

  5. Mandibular Jaw Bone Regeneration Using Human Dental Cell-Seeded Tyrosine-Derived Polycarbonate Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weibo; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Shuang; Macri, Lauren; Kohn, Joachim; Yelick, Pamela C

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a new model for alveolar jaw bone regeneration, which uses human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) combined with tyrosine-derived polycarbonate polymer scaffolds [E1001(1k)] containing beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) [E1001(1k)/β-TCP]. E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds (5 mm diameter × 1 mm thickness) were fabricated to fit a 5 mm rat mandibular ramus critical bone defect. Five experimental groups were examined in this study: (1) E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with a high density of hDPCs, 5.0 × 10(5) hDPCs/scaffold (CH); (2) E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with a lower density of hDPCs, 2.5 × 10(5) hDPCs/scaffold (CL); (3) acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds (SA); (4) acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds supplemented with 4 μg recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP); and (5) empty defects (EDs). Replicate hDPC-seeded and acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds were cultured in vitro in osteogenic media for 1 week before implantation for 3 and 6 weeks. Live microcomputed tomography (μCT) imaging at 3 and 6 weeks postimplantation revealed robust bone regeneration in the BMP implant group. CH and CL groups exhibited similar uniformly distributed mineralized tissue coverage throughout the defects, but less than the BMP implants. In contrast, SA-treated defects exhibited sparse areas of mineralized tissue regeneration. The ED group exhibited slightly reduced defect size. Histological analyses revealed no indication of an immune response. In addition, robust expression of dentin and bone differentiation marker expression was observed in hDPC-seeded scaffolds, whereas, in contrast, BMP and SA implants exhibited only bone and not dentin differentiation marker expression. hDPCs were detected in 3-week but not in 6-week hDPC-seeded scaffold groups, indicating their survival for at least 3 weeks. Together, these results show that hDPC-seeded E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds support the rapid regeneration of osteo

  6. Mandibular Jaw Bone Regeneration Using Human Dental Cell-Seeded Tyrosine-Derived Polycarbonate Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weibo; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Shuang; Macri, Lauren; Kohn, Joachim; Yelick, Pamela C

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a new model for alveolar jaw bone regeneration, which uses human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) combined with tyrosine-derived polycarbonate polymer scaffolds [E1001(1k)] containing beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) [E1001(1k)/β-TCP]. E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds (5 mm diameter × 1 mm thickness) were fabricated to fit a 5 mm rat mandibular ramus critical bone defect. Five experimental groups were examined in this study: (1) E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with a high density of hDPCs, 5.0 × 10(5) hDPCs/scaffold (CH); (2) E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with a lower density of hDPCs, 2.5 × 10(5) hDPCs/scaffold (CL); (3) acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds (SA); (4) acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds supplemented with 4 μg recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP); and (5) empty defects (EDs). Replicate hDPC-seeded and acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds were cultured in vitro in osteogenic media for 1 week before implantation for 3 and 6 weeks. Live microcomputed tomography (μCT) imaging at 3 and 6 weeks postimplantation revealed robust bone regeneration in the BMP implant group. CH and CL groups exhibited similar uniformly distributed mineralized tissue coverage throughout the defects, but less than the BMP implants. In contrast, SA-treated defects exhibited sparse areas of mineralized tissue regeneration. The ED group exhibited slightly reduced defect size. Histological analyses revealed no indication of an immune response. In addition, robust expression of dentin and bone differentiation marker expression was observed in hDPC-seeded scaffolds, whereas, in contrast, BMP and SA implants exhibited only bone and not dentin differentiation marker expression. hDPCs were detected in 3-week but not in 6-week hDPC-seeded scaffold groups, indicating their survival for at least 3 weeks. Together, these results show that hDPC-seeded E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds support the rapid regeneration of osteo

  7. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  8. Modulation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cell and human gingival fibroblast behavior by micropatterned silica coating surfaces for zirconia dental implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laranjeira, Marta S.; Carvalho, Ângela; Pelaez-Vargas, Alejandro; Hansford, Derek; Ferraz, Maria Pia; Coimbra, Susana; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Monteiro, Fernando Jorge

    2014-04-01

    Dental ceramic implants have shown superior esthetic behavior and the absence of induced allergic disorders when compared to titanium implants. Zirconia may become a potential candidate to be used as an alternative to titanium dental implants if surface modifications are introduced. In this work, bioactive micropatterned silica coatings were produced on zirconia substrates, using a combined methodology of sol-gel processing and soft lithography. The aim of the work was to compare the in vitro behavior of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) on three types of silica-coated zirconia surfaces: flat and micropatterned (with pillars and with parallel grooves). Our results showed that cells had a higher metabolic activity (HGF, HDMEC) and increased gene expression levels of fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and collagen type I (COL I) on surfaces with pillars. Nevertheless, parallel grooved surfaces were able to guide cell growth. Even capillary tube-like networks of HDMEC were oriented according to the surface geometry. Zirconia and silica with different topographies have shown to be blood compatible and silica coating reduced bacteria adhesion. All together, the results indicated that microstructured bioactive coating seems to be an efficient strategy to improve soft tissue integration on zirconia implants, protecting implants from peri-implant inflammation and improving long-term implant stabilization. This new approach of micropatterned silica coating on zirconia substrates can generate promising novel dental implants, with surfaces that provide physical cues to guide cells and enhance their behavior.

  9. Dental Sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data & Statistics > Find Data by Topic > Dental Sealants Dental Sealants Main Content Dental sealants are thin plastic coatings that protect the chewing surfaces of children’s back teeth from tooth decay. Overall, the prevalence of sealants ...

  10. Measurement for natural dental neck data of normal adults and its clinical significance on guiding implant restoration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingxu; Gu, Fang; Wang, Junjun; Zhou, Chengyuan; Xia, Junnan; Qin, Hongwei; Yang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Provide reference basis for the clinical implant restoration to select implant diameter through measuring each data of 7 teeth in the dental neck of bilateral upper and lower jaws of the young volunteers with normal dentition. Methods: Select 30 healthy young volunteers with complete dentition but no malocclusion, take cone beam CT (CBCT), measure the mesiodistal and buccolingual distance of the tooth root at 1.5 mm from 14 teeth (bilateral upper and lower jaws) to alveolar crest, trace out the outline of each tooth neck in this layer, calculate the cross sectional area and roundness of each tooth neck according to pixel value calibration, and then carry out statistical processing. Results: Complete the data collection and processing of mesiodistal length, buccolingual width, cross sectional area, and cross sectional roundness of the dental neck at 1.5 mm from these seven teeth of the bilateral upper and lower jaws to the alveolar crest of 30 volunteers, and calculate the mean value, variance, and reference value range of medical science of each index. Conclusion: CBCT can effectively obtain the image information of the dental neck. Through mimics 10.0 and Photoshop CS3, it is possible to accurately calculate the dental neck length and width, and cross sectional area of each tooth according to CBCT image information. This result can provide reference basis for the implant restoration of the clinical teeth. PMID:26628955

  11. Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Gingival Fibroblasts Seeded into Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Have the Same Ability in Attracting Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Woloszyk, Anna; Buschmann, Johanna; Waschkies, Conny; Stadlinger, Bernd; Mitsiadis, Thimios A.

    2016-01-01

    Neovascularization is one of the most important processes during tissue repair and regeneration. Current healing approaches based on the use of biomaterials combined with stem cells in critical-size bone defects fail due to the insufficient implant vascularization and integration into the host tissues. Therefore, here we studied the attraction, ingrowth, and distribution of blood vessels from the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane into implanted silk fibroin scaffolds seeded with either human dental pulp stem cells or human gingival fibroblasts. Perfusion capacity was evaluated by non-invasive in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging while the number and density of blood vessels were measured by histomorphometry. Our results demonstrate that human dental pulp stem cells and gingival fibroblasts possess equal abilities in attracting vessels within silk fibroin scaffolds. Additionally, the prolonged in vitro pre-incubation period of these two cell populations favors the homogeneous distribution of vessels within silk fibroin scaffolds, which further improves implant survival and guarantees successful healing and regeneration. PMID:27148078

  12. Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Gingival Fibroblasts Seeded into Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Have the Same Ability in Attracting Vessels.

    PubMed

    Woloszyk, Anna; Buschmann, Johanna; Waschkies, Conny; Stadlinger, Bernd; Mitsiadis, Thimios A

    2016-01-01

    Neovascularization is one of the most important processes during tissue repair and regeneration. Current healing approaches based on the use of biomaterials combined with stem cells in critical-size bone defects fail due to the insufficient implant vascularization and integration into the host tissues. Therefore, here we studied the attraction, ingrowth, and distribution of blood vessels from the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane into implanted silk fibroin scaffolds seeded with either human dental pulp stem cells or human gingival fibroblasts. Perfusion capacity was evaluated by non-invasive in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging while the number and density of blood vessels were measured by histomorphometry. Our results demonstrate that human dental pulp stem cells and gingival fibroblasts possess equal abilities in attracting vessels within silk fibroin scaffolds. Additionally, the prolonged in vitro pre-incubation period of these two cell populations favors the homogeneous distribution of vessels within silk fibroin scaffolds, which further improves implant survival and guarantees successful healing and regeneration. PMID:27148078

  13. Depletion of MEIS2 inhibits osteogenic differentiation potential of human dental stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhifang; Wang, Jinsong; Dong, Rui; Wang, Liping; Fan, Zhipeng; Liu, Dayong; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Dental mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable and promising cell source for the regeneration of tooth,bone and other tissues . However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their differentiation are still largely unknown, which restricts their further wide application. Here, we investigate regulatory function of homeobox gene MEIS2 in the osteogenic differentiation potential of MSCs using stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) by loss-of-function experiments. Our findings demonstrated that knockdown of MEIS2 in SCAPs and DPSCs decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization, and inhibited the mRNA expression of ALP, bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OCN). Besides, depletion of MEIS2 resulted in reduced expression of the key osteogenesis-related transcription factor, osterix (OSX) but not in the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Furthermore, MEIS2 expression significantly increased during osteogenic induction and was strongly upregulated by BMP4 stimulation. Taken together, these results indicated that MEIS2 played an essential role in maintaining osteogenic differentiation potential of dental tissue- derived MSCs. These findings will provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying directed differentiation of MSCs, and identify a potential target gene in dental tissues derived MSCs for promoting the tissue regeneration. PMID:26221261

  14. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures. PMID:27482994

  15. The marginal leakage of some dental cements in humans: a PIXE-microbeam approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zadro, A.; Passi, P.; Cavalleri, G.; Galassini, S.; Moschini, G.; Rossi, P.

    1999-06-10

    The marginal leakage and water absorption of dental cements and restorative materials has been investigated by many authors with several techniques, some of which led to valid results. However, no technique could give, by itself, information both on leakage and water absorption, as these measurements usually need different investigations. PIXE micro beam offers the possibility of investigating these two aspects at the same time, since it is possible to map a proper marker element. In the present study, cavities were made on 50 extracted human molars, then filled with five different temporary cements (IRM, Cavit W, Kalsogen, Fermit N, SuperEBA). The filled teeth were placed into a 5% silver nitrate solution, and after three days, one, two, three and four weeks were examined. The samples for microPIXE were prepared after embedding the teeth in epoxy resin, and sectioning and grinding them down to a thickness of about 1 mm. The sections were placed on metal holders, and examined with a scanning proton {mu}beam, in Legnaro (Italy) at the AN2000 LAB of INFN National Laboratories. The beam consisted of 2.4 MeV protons, it had a cross section of 1.5 micron in diameter and typical currents of the order of some {mu}A were used. The maps were obtained by an 'ad hoc' software with a McIntosh personal computer. Mapping of silver allowed to evaluate both the marginal leakage and the water absorption for each cement. The samples filled with Cavit W showed a great infiltration, as the tracing element was found in the cement bulk, along the margins and inside the cavity, while those filled with IRM and Kalsogen presented only a deposition of the tracing solution on the cement surface. SuperEBA showed a poor resistance against microleakage, because the marker element was only detected along the cavity margins. Fermit N showed the best marginal integrity, and on its surface no traces of siver were found. In this case the better resistance may be due to the resin present in the

  16. The marginal leakage of some dental cements in humans: a PIXE-microbeam approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadro, A.; Cavalleri, G.; Galassini, S.; Moschini, G.; Rossi, P.; Passi, P.

    1999-06-01

    The marginal leakage and water absorption of dental cements and restorative materials has been investigated by many authors with several techniques, some of which led to valid results. However, no technique could give, by itself, information both on leakage and water absorption, as these measurements usually need different investigations. PIXE micro beam offers the possibility of investigating these two aspects at the same time, since it is possible to map a proper marker element. In the present study, cavities were made on 50 extracted human molars, then filled with five different temporary cements (IRM, Cavit W, Kalsogen, Fermit N, SuperEBA). The filled teeth were placed into a 5% silver nitrate solution, and after three days, one, two, three and four weeks were examined. The samples for microPIXE were prepared after embedding the teeth in epoxy resin, and sectioning and grinding them down to a thickness of about 1 mm. The sections were placed on metal holders, and examined with a scanning proton μbeam, in Legnaro (Italy) at the AN2000 LAB of INFN National Laboratories. The beam consisted of 2.4 MeV protons, it had a cross section of 1.5 micron in diameter and typical currents of the order of some μA were used. The maps were obtained by an "ad hoc" software with a McIntosh personal computer. Mapping of silver allowed to evaluate both the marginal leakage and the water absorption for each cement. The samples filled with Cavit W showed a great infiltration, as the tracing element was found in the cement bulk, along the margins and inside the cavity, while those filled with IRM and Kalsogen presented only a deposition of the tracing solution on the cement surface. SuperEBA showed a poor resistance against microleakage, because the marker element was only detected along the cavity margins. Fermit N showed the best marginal integrity, and on its surface no traces of siver were found. In this case the better resistance may be due to the resin present in the

  17. Human amygdala activation by the sound produced during dental treatment: A fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Hong, Hsiang-Hsi; Kuo, Song-Bor; Wu, Chung-De; Wai, Yau-Yau; Chen, Yi-Fen; Peng, Ying-Chin

    2015-01-01

    During dental treatments, patients may experience negative emotions associated with the procedure. This study was conducted with the aim of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to visualize cerebral cortical stimulation among dental patients in response to auditory stimuli produced by ultrasonic scaling and power suction equipment. Subjects (n = 7) aged 23-35 years were recruited for this study. All were right-handed and underwent clinical pure-tone audiometry testing to reveal a normal hearing threshold below 20 dB hearing level (HL). As part of the study, subjects initially underwent a dental calculus removal treatment. During the treatment, subjects were exposed to ultrasonic auditory stimuli originating from the scaling handpiece and salivary suction instruments. After dental treatment, subjects were imaged with fMRI while being exposed to recordings of the noise from the same dental instrument so that cerebral cortical stimulation in response to aversive auditory stimulation could be observed. The independent sample confirmatory t-test was used. Subjects also showed stimulation in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, indicating that the ultrasonic auditory stimuli elicited an unpleasant response in the subjects. Patients experienced unpleasant sensations caused by contact stimuli in the treatment procedure. In addition, this study has demonstrated that aversive auditory stimuli such as sounds from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece also cause aversive emotions. This study was indicated by observed stimulation of the auditory cortex as well as the amygdala, indicating that noise from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece was perceived as an aversive auditory stimulus by the subjects. Subjects can experience unpleasant sensations caused by the sounds from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece based on their auditory stimuli.

  18. Human amygdala activation by the sound produced during dental treatment: A fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Hong, Hsiang-Hsi; Kuo, Song-Bor; Wu, Chung-De; Wai, Yau-Yau; Chen, Yi-Fen; Peng, Ying-Chin

    2015-01-01

    During dental treatments, patients may experience negative emotions associated with the procedure. This study was conducted with the aim of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to visualize cerebral cortical stimulation among dental patients in response to auditory stimuli produced by ultrasonic scaling and power suction equipment. Subjects (n = 7) aged 23-35 years were recruited for this study. All were right-handed and underwent clinical pure-tone audiometry testing to reveal a normal hearing threshold below 20 dB hearing level (HL). As part of the study, subjects initially underwent a dental calculus removal treatment. During the treatment, subjects were exposed to ultrasonic auditory stimuli originating from the scaling handpiece and salivary suction instruments. After dental treatment, subjects were imaged with fMRI while being exposed to recordings of the noise from the same dental instrument so that cerebral cortical stimulation in response to aversive auditory stimulation could be observed. The independent sample confirmatory t-test was used. Subjects also showed stimulation in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, indicating that the ultrasonic auditory stimuli elicited an unpleasant response in the subjects. Patients experienced unpleasant sensations caused by contact stimuli in the treatment procedure. In addition, this study has demonstrated that aversive auditory stimuli such as sounds from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece also cause aversive emotions. This study was indicated by observed stimulation of the auditory cortex as well as the amygdala, indicating that noise from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece was perceived as an aversive auditory stimulus by the subjects. Subjects can experience unpleasant sensations caused by the sounds from the ultrasonic scaling handpiece based on their auditory stimuli. PMID:26356376

  19. Trends in Dentistry and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valachovic, Richard W.; Weaver, Richard G.; Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Haden, N. Karl

    2001-01-01

    Compiled from many of the surveys that the American Dental Education Association routinely publishes, along with data from surveys conducted by the American Dental Association and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, presents statistical tables and descriptive text on trends among dental patients, among dental practitioners, and in dental…

  20. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6390 - Dental floss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental floss. 872.6390 Section 872.6390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6390 Dental floss. (a) Identification. Dental floss is...

  3. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  4. Gustatory reaction time to various sweeteners in human adults.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Kato, T; Matsuo, R; Kawamura, Y; Yoshida, M

    1985-09-01

    Reaction times to recognize the sweet taste of 12 sweeteners at various concentrations were measured in 48 human adults. The reaction time (T) decreased with increasing concentration (C) of each sweetener applied to the anterior dorsal tongue. The relationships between T and C, and T and logC were well described by a rectangular hyperbola formula for each of the 12 sweeteners. Reaction times to discriminate sweet taste quality between pairs of sweeteners were measured, then a similarity index was calculated. Factor analysis based on correlation coefficients between pairs of sweeteners which were obtained by the similarity indices has indicated classification of the sweeteners. Sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose, sorbitol and aspartame tend to group together. Na-cyclamate and Na-saccharin form another group. DL-alanine, stevioside and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone are rather independent and do not belong to any group.

  5. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Volponi, A A; Gentleman, E; Fatscher, R; Pang, Y W Y; Gentleman, M M; Sharpe, P T

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications.

  6. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Volponi, A.A.; Gentleman, E.; Fatscher, R.; Pang, Y.W.Y.; Gentleman, M.M.; Sharpe, P.T.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications. PMID:26253190

  7. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: Accuracy of age predictions not using country specific information.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Alqerban, A; Asaumi, J; Kahveci, F; Kaur, J; Kim, Y K; Pittayapat, P; Van Vlierberghe, M; Zhang, Y; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    Unquestionable forensic age investigations are based on statistical models constructed on a sample containing subjects of identical origin as the examined individual. In cases where corresponding models are unavailable, the established report has to describe the possible effects of this unrelated information on the predicted age outcome. The aim of this study is to collect country specific databases of third molar development and to verify how the related dental age estimations are influenced if we were to use dental developmental information only from Belgium or from all collected countries together. Data containing third molar developmental stages scored following Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Köhler) were collected from 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India). Age predictions were obtained from a training dataset and validated on a test dataset. Bayes rule using the repeated third molar scores is applied to get age predictions and prediction intervals. Three age predictions were compared for males and females separately. For the first prediction, the training dataset contains only Belgian subjects. For the second prediction, the training dataset for each country consists only of subjects of the country itself. For the final prediction, subjects from all countries are pooled into one common training dataset. Besides the (absolute) difference between the chronological age and the predicted age, specific interest lies in the juvenile-adult distinction. In the age range from 16 to 22 years 6982 subjects (3189 male and 3793 female) were analyzed. Using information on third molar development from Belgium compared to information from the country specific databases hardly increased the mean absolute differences (MAD) and mean squared errors (MSE): the MAD and MSE increased on average with 0.5 and 2.5 months with maximal increases of, respectively 1.6 and 7.3 months. Using information from all

  8. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: Accuracy of age predictions not using country specific information.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Alqerban, A; Asaumi, J; Kahveci, F; Kaur, J; Kim, Y K; Pittayapat, P; Van Vlierberghe, M; Zhang, Y; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    Unquestionable forensic age investigations are based on statistical models constructed on a sample containing subjects of identical origin as the examined individual. In cases where corresponding models are unavailable, the established report has to describe the possible effects of this unrelated information on the predicted age outcome. The aim of this study is to collect country specific databases of third molar development and to verify how the related dental age estimations are influenced if we were to use dental developmental information only from Belgium or from all collected countries together. Data containing third molar developmental stages scored following Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Köhler) were collected from 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India). Age predictions were obtained from a training dataset and validated on a test dataset. Bayes rule using the repeated third molar scores is applied to get age predictions and prediction intervals. Three age predictions were compared for males and females separately. For the first prediction, the training dataset contains only Belgian subjects. For the second prediction, the training dataset for each country consists only of subjects of the country itself. For the final prediction, subjects from all countries are pooled into one common training dataset. Besides the (absolute) difference between the chronological age and the predicted age, specific interest lies in the juvenile-adult distinction. In the age range from 16 to 22 years 6982 subjects (3189 male and 3793 female) were analyzed. Using information on third molar development from Belgium compared to information from the country specific databases hardly increased the mean absolute differences (MAD) and mean squared errors (MSE): the MAD and MSE increased on average with 0.5 and 2.5 months with maximal increases of, respectively 1.6 and 7.3 months. Using information from all

  9. Overexpression of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Human Dental Pulp Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tancharoen, Salunya; Tengrungsun, Tassanee; Suddhasthira, Theeralaksna; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Vechvongvan, Nuttavun; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2014-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nonhistone DNA-binding protein, is released into the extracellular space and promotes inflammation. HMGB1 binds to related cell signaling transduction receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which actively participate in vascular and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether RAGE and HMGB1 are involved in the pathogenesis of pulpitis and investigate the effect of Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on RAGE and HMGB1 expression in odontoblast-like cells (OLC-1). RAGE and HMGB1 expression levels in clinically inflamed dental pulp were higher than those in healthy dental pulp. Upregulated expression of RAGE was observed in odontoblasts, stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells, and endothelial-like cell lining human pulpitis tissue. Strong cytoplasmic HMGB1 immunoreactivity was noted in odontoblasts, whereas nuclear HMGB1 immunoreactivity was seen in stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells in human pulpitis tissue. LPS stimulated OLC-1 cells produced HMGB1 in a dose-dependent manner through RAGE. HMGB1 translocation towards the cytoplasm and secretion from OLC-1 in response to LPS was inhibited by TPCA-1, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that RAGE and HMGB1 play an important role in the pulpal immune response to oral bacterial infection. PMID:25114379

  10. Human tooth wear in the past and the present: tribological mechanisms, scoring systems, dental and skeletal compensations.

    PubMed

    d'Incau, Emmanuel; Couture, Christine; Maureille, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    This review of human tooth wear describes the fundamental mechanisms underlying this process. Using the tribological approach they can be systematised and this in turn aids our understanding of them. In past populations wear was ubiquitous, intense, abrasive and physiological as it was related to their food and their technologies. In these populations, it affected the proximal surfaces, and the occlusal surfaces which modified the occlusal plane profoundly. To categorise this wear many different classification systems are used, from which we can determine diet, cultural changes and the age at death of individuals. They also illustrate the evolution of certain functional dental and skeletal compensations in the masticatory apparatus such as continuous dental eruption, mesial drift of the arches and incisor lingual tipping which can then be monitored. These physiological adaptations related mainly to function and ontogenesis can also be found in present-day populations where wear is moderate, although they are much less obtrusive. Apart from certain pathological cases associated with a specific parafunction, iatrogenic tooth brushing or an eating disorder and encouraged by an acid environment, they are the result of a physiological process that should not be halted. To ensure this, it is essential to prevent lesions related to tooth wear, to detect them early and establish a reliable diagnosis. Types of tooth wear that had remained unchanged since the origin of humanity have undergone profound changes in a very short space of time. Today's tribochemical pathological model has replaced the abrasive physiological model of the past. PMID:21920497

  11. Mathematical definition of the shape of dental arches in human permanent healthy dentitions.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Tartaglia, G

    1994-08-01

    Dental arch shape was studied in 50 men and 45 women aged 20-27 years with sound dentitions. Maxillary and mandibular arches were reconstructed by a fourth-order polynomial and a 'mixed' elliptical (anterior teeth), plus parabolic (post-canine teeth) interpolation of buccal cusp tips (central incisor to second molar). The maxillary arch resulted wider than the mandibular arch regardless of gender. Gender differences were found especially in the maxillary arch, where they reflect more a size discrepancy than a shape difference. The polynomial interpolation allowed the evaluation of arch asymmetry, which resulted negligible in all the subjects. The elliptical plus parabolic interpolation gave mean plots which were well superimposable to the ones obtained by the polynomial interpolation. These curves are geometrically simple and can be used for the mathematical description of dental arch shape in non-patient subjects. Moreover, they allow separate analysis of teeth with a different functional meaning.

  12. Lessons in health and human rights: providing dental care to torture survivors.

    PubMed

    Keller, Allen S; Weiss, June; Resnick, Steve; Berkowitz, Leonard; Soeprono, Aaron; Sullivan, Melba J Nicholson; Granski, Megan; Cere, Eva; Wolff, Mark

    2014-01-01

    New York City has a large number of individuals seeking asylem who are victims of torture. In addition to dental needs, which include cases of severe trauma to the mouth, these individuasl require special support because of their fear of contact by those they do not know. A cooperative program between the New York University College of Dentistry and Bellevue NYU, known as the Program for Survivors of Torture, is described.

  13. An in vitro study of the microstructure, composition and nanoindentation mechanical properties of remineralizing human dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsecularatne, J. A.; Hoffman, M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the results of an in vitro investigation on the interrelations among microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of remineralizing human dental enamel. Polished enamel samples have been demineralized for 10 min in an acetic acid solution (at pH 3) followed by remineralization in human saliva for 30 and 120 min. Microstructure variations of sound, demineralized and remineralized enamel samples have been analysed using focused ion beam, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, while their compositions have been analysed using energy dispersive x-ray. Variations in the mechanical properties of enamel samples have been assessed using nanoindentation. The results reveal that, under the selected conditions, only partial remineralization of the softened enamel surface layer occurs where some pores remain unrepaired. As a result, while the nanoindentation elastic modulus shows an improvement following remineralization, hardness does not.

  14. Forensic odontology: age determination from adult human teeth.

    PubMed

    Lampe, H; Roetzscher, K

    1994-01-01

    Dentistry has several recognized specialities. Age, race and sex determination together with dental identification and facial reconstruction on skeletal material are procedures that the forensic odontologist has to master. The use of Gustafson's method to determine age in an examination of 350 teeth of living and/or dead males and females from the Heidelberg area, Germany is discussed. PMID:7772197

  15. In vitro comparison of the radiopacity of cavity lining materials with human dental structures

    PubMed Central

    Pires de Souza, Fernanda CP; Pardini, Luiz C; Cruvinel, Diogo R; Hamida, Hisham M; Garcia, Lucas FR

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the optical densities (OD) of calcium hydroxide (CH) and glass ionomer cement with the same thicknesses of the dental structures. Materials and Methods: Eighteen specimens of each material, with thicknesses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm were made in a Teflon matrix. To compare the radiopacity of the materials with the dental structures, dental cuts of the first molars, increasing in thickness from 0.5 to 3.0 mm, were obtained. To standardize the radiographs, a transparent acrylic matrix (Standardizing Device) was developed and used. Thirty radiographs were taken, five for each tested material. Results: Statistical analysis (Two-way ANOVA - Bonferroni, P < 0.05) demonstrated that when the materials were compared, there was statistically significant difference between the ODs, only for the thickness of 1.0 mm (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The thickness of the material contributed to its radiopacity, and these materials had to be used in a thickness between 1.5 and 2.0 mm. PMID:20859477

  16. Pattern of dental caries in the historical human population of Kujawy in the Polish lowland (north-central Poland).

    PubMed

    Kurek, Marta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata; Mazurkiewicz, Julia; Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Joanna; Zadzińska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dental caries rates in the skeletal human population who lived in north-central Poland in modern times (16th-18th century). The material consisted of 297 skeletons (4,783 permanent teeth) from the archeological site of K. Compared material was coming from two different sites located in the same region: early mediaeval Kolonia--39 skeletons and Swiety Duch (dating to the same historical period as K population)--417 skeletons. All three series are part of the osteological collection of the Department of Anthropology. For each skeletal sample, caries rates were calculated by individual (frequency index) and by tooth count (intensity index). Dental caries was scored also according to a procedure in which the initiation sites are recorded. The highest frequency of dental caries was observed in Swiety Duch (70%) and the lowest in the early mediaeval sample (almost 59%). The intensity of caries fluctuated from above 8% observed in Kolonia to 22% observed in the sample from Swiety Duch. However, in all three samples the caries initiation site was most often noticed on fissure and pits (type 1) the K population was characterised by a different caries pattern (chi2=17.88, p<0.05 when compared with that of Kolonia; chi2=218.73, p<0.01 when compared with that of Swiety Duch), which could be the effect of diet (high frequency of CEJ caries probably means starch-rich plant food diet), oral hygiene, fluoride level, economic status or genetic factors (resistance/sensitivity to cariogenic bacteria).

  17. An Ex Vivo Model in Human Femoral Heads for Histopathological Study and Resonance Frequency Analysis of Dental Implant Primary Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Cortés, Pedro; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés; Ortega-Oller, Inmaculada; Salas-Pérez, José; Gómez-Sánchez, Rafael; Aguilar, Mariano; Aguilar, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to explore relationships of resonance frequency analysis (RFA)—assessed implant stability (ISQ values) with bone morphometric parameters and bone quality in an ex vivo model of dental implants placed in human femoral heads and to evaluate the usefulness of this model for dental implant studies. Material and Methods. This ex vivo study included femoral heads from 17 patients undergoing surgery for femoral neck fracture due to osteoporosis (OP) (n = 7) or for total prosthesis joint replacement due to severe hip osteoarthrosis (OA) (n = 10). Sixty 4.5 × 13 mm Dentsply Astra implants were placed, followed by RFA. CD44 immunohistochemical analysis for osteocytes was also carried out. Results. As expected, the analysis yielded significant effects of femoral head type (OA versus OA) (P < 0.001), but not of the implants (P = 0.455) or of the interaction of the two factors (P = 0.848). Bonferroni post hoc comparisons showed a lower mean ISQ for implants in decalcified (50.33 ± 2.92) heads than in fresh (66.93 ± 1.10) or fixated (70.77 ± 1.32) heads (both P < 0.001). The ISQ score (fresh) was significantly higher for those in OA (73.52 ± 1.92) versus OP (67.13 ± 1.09) heads. However, mixed linear analysis showed no significant association between ISQ scores and morphologic or histomorphometric results (P > 0.5 in all cases), and no significant differences in ISQ values were found as a function of the length or area of the cortical layer (both P > 0.08). Conclusion. Although RFA-determined ISQ values are not correlated with morphometric parameters, they can discriminate bone quality (OP versus OA). This ex vivo model is useful for dental implant studies. PMID:24995307

  18. 38 CFR 52.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dental services. 52.170... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.170 Dental services. (a) Program... (2) By arranging for transportation to and from the dental services. (b) Program management...

  19. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    DOE PAGES

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less

  20. Comprehensive cellular‐resolution atlas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Joshua J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A.C.; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet‐Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A.; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Fischl, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole‐brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high‐resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large‐format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto‐ and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127–3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  1. Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song-Lin; Royall, Joshua J; Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A C; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H Ronald; Hohmann, John G; Jones, Allan R; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hof, Patrick R; Fischl, Bruce; Lein, Ed S

    2016-11-01

    Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  2. Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song-Lin; Royall, Joshua J; Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A C; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H Ronald; Hohmann, John G; Jones, Allan R; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hof, Patrick R; Fischl, Bruce; Lein, Ed S

    2016-11-01

    Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.

  4. Dental age assessment of adolescents and emerging adults in United Kingdom Caucasians using censored data for stage H of third molar roots.

    PubMed

    Boonpitaksathit, Teelana; Hunt, Nigel; Roberts, Graham J; Petrie, Aviva; Lucas, Victoria S

    2011-10-01

    The root of the third permanent molar is the only dental structure that continues development after completion of growth of the second permanent molar. It is claimed that the lack of a clearly defined end point for completion of growth of the third permanent molar means that this tooth cannot be used for dental age assessment. The aim of this study was to estimate the mean age of attainment of the four stages (E, F, G, and H) of root development of the third molar. The way in which the end point of completion of stage H can be identified is described. A total of 1223 dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) available in the archives of the Eastman Dental Hospital, London, were used for this study. The ages of the subjects ranged from 12.6 to 24.9 years with 63 per cent of the sample being female. Demirjan's tooth development stages (TDSs), for the first and second molars, were applied to the third molars by a single examiner. For each of stages E, F, and G and for stage H censored data, the mean ages of the males and females were compared, separately within each tooth morphology type using the two sample t-test (P < 0.01). The same test was used to compare the mean ages of the upper and lower third molars on each side, separately for each gender. The mean age of attainment and the 99 per cent confidence interval (CI) for each TDS were calculated for each third molar. The final stage H data were appropriately censored to exclude data above the age of completion of root growth. The results showed that, for each gender, the age in years at which individuals attained each of the four TDSs was approximately normally distributed. The mean age for appropriately censored data was always lower than the corresponding mean age of the inappropriately censored data for stage H (male UR8 19.57, UL8 19.53, LL8 19.91, and LR8 20.02 and female UR8 20.08, UL8 20.13, LL8 20.78, and LR8 20.70). This inappropriately censored data overestimated the mean age for stage H. The appropriately

  5. Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Dental Pulp Cells via Generation of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Wang, Yirong; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Sun, Jinlong; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    The polymerizable antibacterial monomer methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) has provided an effective strategy to combat dental caries. However, the application of such material raises the question about the biological safety and the question remains open. The mechanism of this toxic action, however, is not yet clearly understood. The present study aims at providing novel insight into the possible causal link between cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis in human dental pulp cells exposed to DMAE-CB. The enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione, as well as differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in DMAE-CB-treated cells indicated oxidative stress. By using substances that can alter GSH synthesis, we found that GSH was the key component in the regulation of cell response towards oxidative stress induced by DMAE-CB. The increase in oxidative stress-sensitive 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content, formation of γ-H2AX and cell cycle G1 phase arrest indicated that DNA damage occurred as a result of the interaction between DNA base and ROS beyond the capacities of antioxidant mechanisms in cells exposed to DMAE-CB. Such oxidative DNA damage thus triggers the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signaling, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and destruction of mitochondrial morphology and function. PMID:27143955

  6. Influence of buffered and unbuffered acetylsalicylic acid on dental enamel and dentine in human teeth: an in vitro pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rogalla, K; Finger, W; Hannig, M

    1992-06-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the erosive effect of buffered and unbuffered acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on dental enamel and dentine in human teeth by scanning electron microscopy. In order to standardize the specimens and to improve comparability the dental enamel and dentine were superficially abraded. The enamel and dentine specimens were therefore particularly sensitive to the influences of acid agents. Concentrated solution of buffered chewable ASA tablets (500 mg ASA and 300 mg calcium carbonate in 5 ml water) showed no changes in the enamel surface structure after exposure times of 1 min, 5 min and 60 min. In contrast, minimal corrosive effects were already seen after exposure of the enamel surface to the unbuffered ASA solutions for 1 min. After exposure times of 5 min and 60 min erosion of the enamel was more pronounced. Immersion in the unbuffered ASA solution led to clearly visible micromorphological changes on the dentine surfaces even after exposure for 1 min. Exposure of the dentine specimens to the buffered ASA solutions led to only very slight changes in the surface morphology. Therefore, the scanning electron micrograph after exposure to buffered ASA is comparable to the picture of untreated dentine. PMID:1513188

  7. Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Dental Pulp Cells via Generation of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Wang, Yirong; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Sun, Jinlong; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    The polymerizable antibacterial monomer methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) has provided an effective strategy to combat dental caries. However, the application of such material raises the question about the biological safety and the question remains open. The mechanism of this toxic action, however, is not yet clearly understood. The present study aims at providing novel insight into the possible causal link between cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis in human dental pulp cells exposed to DMAE-CB. The enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione, as well as differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in DMAE-CB-treated cells indicated oxidative stress. By using substances that can alter GSH synthesis, we found that GSH was the key component in the regulation of cell response towards oxidative stress induced by DMAE-CB. The increase in oxidative stress-sensitive 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content, formation of γ-H2AX and cell cycle G1 phase arrest indicated that DNA damage occurred as a result of the interaction between DNA base and ROS beyond the capacities of antioxidant mechanisms in cells exposed to DMAE-CB. Such oxidative DNA damage thus triggers the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signaling, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and destruction of mitochondrial morphology and function. PMID:27143955

  8. The Adult Learner. The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Malcolm S.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Swanson, Richard A.

    This book examines the core principles of adult learning and the roots of andragogy, advances in adult learning, and practice in adult learning. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 17 chapters: importance of learning theory; theories of learning (concept of part and whole models of development, theories based on elemental…

  9. Bacteria and archaea paleomicrobiology of the dental calculus: a review.

    PubMed

    Huynh, H T T; Verneau, J; Levasseur, A; Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G

    2016-06-01

    Dental calculus, a material observed in the majority of adults worldwide, emerged as a source for correlating paleomicrobiology with human health and diet. This mini review of 48 articles on the paleomicrobiology of dental calculus over 7550 years discloses a secular core microbiota comprising nine bacterial phyla - Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, TM7, Synergistetes, Chloroflexi, Fusobacteria, Spirochetes - and one archaeal phylum Euryarchaeota; and some accessory microbiota that appear and disappear according to time frame. The diet residues and oral microbes, including bacteria, archaea, viruses and fungi, consisting of harmless organisms and pathogens associated with local and systemic infections have been found trapped in ancient dental calculus by morphological approaches, immunolabeling techniques, isotope analyses, fluorescent in situ hybridization, DNA-based approaches, and protein-based approaches. These observations led to correlation of paleomicrobiology, particularly Streptococcus mutans and archaea, with past human health and diet. PMID:26194817

  10. Neural Crest Stem Cells from Dental Tissues: A New Hope for Dental and Neural Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ibarretxe, Gaskon; Crende, Olatz; Aurrekoetxea, Maitane; García-Murga, Victoria; Etxaniz, Javier; Unda, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Several stem cell sources persist in the adult human body, which opens the doors to both allogeneic and autologous cell therapies. Tooth tissues have proven to be a surprisingly rich and accessible source of neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), which may be employed to repair disease-affected oral tissues in advanced regenerative dentistry. Additionally, one area of medicine that demands intensive research on new sources of stem cells is nervous system regeneration, since this constitutes a therapeutic hope for patients affected by highly invalidating conditions such as spinal cord injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. However, endogenous adult sources of neural stem cells present major drawbacks, such as their scarcity and complicated obtention. In this context, EMSCs from dental tissues emerge as good alternative candidates, since they are preserved in adult human individuals, and retain both high proliferation ability and a neural-like phenotype in vitro. In this paper, we discuss some important aspects of tissue regeneration by cell therapy and point out some advantages that EMSCs provide for dental and neural regeneration. We will finally review some of the latest research featuring experimental approaches and benefits of dental stem cell therapy. PMID:23093977

  11. Dental Fear and Delayed Dental Care in Appalachia-West Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The people of Appalachia-West Virginia are culturally unique and are known to have oral health disparities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental fear in relation to delayed dental care as a factor influencing oral health behaviors within this culture. Methods A cross sectional study design was used. Participants were urgent care patients in a university dental clinic. The sample included 140 adults over age 18 years. The Dental Fear Survey was used to determine dental fear level. Self-report of delayed dental care was provided by the participants. The Dental Fear Survey was dichotomized at score 33, with higher scores indicating dental fear. Results The prevalence of dental fear was 47.1% (n=66). There was a significant association of dental fear and dental delay. The unadjusted odds ratio was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.17, 7.04; p=0.021). The adjusted odds ratio was 3.83 (95%CI: 1.14, 12.82; p=0.030), controlling for tobacco use, perceived oral health status, pain, and last dental visit. A difference in dental delay between men and women was not present in this sample. The only significant variable in delayed dental care was dental fear. Conclusion In Appalachia-West Virginia , there remains a high level of dental fear, despite advances in dental care, techniques, and procedures. PMID:26304952

  12. Adult somatic stem cells in the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J.; Wang, Bo; Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Tharp, Marla; Iyer, Harini; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide1. The etiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades2, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance. Although adult pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts, drive long-term homeostatic tissue maintenance in long-lived free-living flatworms3,4 (e.g., planarians), and neoblast-like cells have been described in some parasitic tapeworms5, little is known about whether similar cell types exist in any trematode species. Here, we describe a population of neoblast-like cells in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. These cells resemble planarian neoblasts morphologically and share their ability to proliferate and differentiate into derivatives of multiple germ layers. Capitalizing on available genomic resources6,7 and RNAseq-based gene expression profiling, we find that these schistosome neoblast-like cells express a fibroblast growth factor receptor ortholog. Using RNA interference we demonstrate that this gene is required for the maintenance of these neoblast-like cells. Our observations suggest that adaptation of developmental strategies shared by free-living ancestors to modern-day schistosomes likely contributed to the success of these animals as long-lived obligate parasites. We expect that future studies deciphering the function of these neoblast-like cells will have important implications for understanding the biology of these devastating parasites. PMID:23426263

  13. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Leggett, R; Giussani, A

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on data for pertechnetate TcO(-)(4) the most commonly encountered form of technetium and the form expected to be present in body fluids. The model is intended as a default model for occupational or environmental intake of technetium, i.e. applicable in the absence of form- or site-specific information. Tissues depicted explicitly in the model include thyroid, salivary glands, stomach wall, right colon wall, liver, kidneys, and bone. Compared with the ICRP's current biokinetic model for occupational or environmental intake of technetium (ICRP 1993, 1994), the proposed model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the systemic behaviour of technetium and is based on a broader set of experimental and medical data. For acute input of (99m)Tc (T(1/2) = 6.02 h) to blood, the ratios of cumulative (time-integrated) activity predicted by the current ICRP model to that predicted by the proposed model range from 0.4-7 for systemic regions addressed explicitly in both models. For acute input of (99)Tc (T(1/2) = 2.1 × 10(5) year) to blood, the corresponding ratios range from 0.2-30.

  14. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  15. Bone-forming capacity of adult human nasal chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pippenger, Benjamin E; Ventura, Manuela; Pelttari, Karoliina; Feliciano, Sandra; Jaquiery, Claude; Scherberich, Arnaud; Walboomers, X Frank; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Nasal chondrocytes (NC) derive from the same multipotent embryological segment that gives rise to the majority of the maxillofacial bone and have been reported to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells in vitro. In this study, we assessed the capacity of adult human NC, appropriately primed towards hypertrophic or osteoblastic differentiation, to form bone tissue in vivo. Hypertrophic induction of NC-based micromass pellets formed mineralized cartilaginous tissues rich in type X collagen, but upon implantation into subcutaneous pockets of nude mice remained avascular and reverted to stable hyaline-cartilage. In the same ectopic environment, NC embedded into ceramic scaffolds and primed with osteogenic medium only sporadically formed intramembranous bone tissue. A clonal study could not demonstrate that the low bone formation efficiency was related to a possibly small proportion of cells competent to become fully functional osteoblasts. We next tested whether the cues present in an orthotopic environment could induce a more efficient direct osteoblastic transformation of NC. Using a nude rat calvarial defect model, we demonstrated that (i) NC directly participated in frank bone formation and (ii) the efficiency of survival and bone formation by NC was significantly higher than that of reference osteogenic cells, namely bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. This study provides a proof-of-principle that NC have the plasticity to convert into bone cells and thereby represent an easily available cell source to be further investigated for craniofacial bone regeneration. PMID:25689393

  16. Coinsurance effects on dental prices.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Conrad, D A

    1986-01-01

    For many Americans the cost of dental services represents a barrier to receiving regular dental care and maintaining proper oral health. The recent growth of the dental insurance industry, however, may partly offset this price barrier among insureds. Our purpose is to examine the relationship between coinsurance and dental prices for 16 dental services among a sample of Pennsylvania Blue Shield (PBS) adult insureds. The dependent price measure is the annual average gross price paid for 16 specific preventive, restorative, periodontic, endodontic, prosthodontic, and surgical dental services. Independent variables in the price model include the insured's age, education, coinsurance rates, time costs, market area, non-wage income, oral health status, area dentist-population ratio and usual source of care. Data sources are 1980 PBS claims and coinsurance rate data and a mail survey of sampled insureds. OLS regression analysis reveals that the model's independent variables explain little dental price variation. No variable is consistently significant across services, but market area, coinsurance rates, and time costs alternately dominate across equations. These results suggest that, among adult insureds, coinsurance and time costs influence dental fees in a minority of dental services. Insurance reduces the patient's sensitivity to money price, and non-price factors correspondingly seem to become more important in patient search.

  17. Human dental arch shape evaluated by euclidean-distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Tartaglia, G

    1993-04-01

    Form differences between biological structures can be evaluated using several approaches. When landmark data are available, a recently proposed method (euclidean-distance matrix analysis) seems to be able to differentiate between size and shape differences. This method also localizes those areas which differ most between the two structures. We have applied it to analyze the sexual dimorphism in dental arch form in a sample of 50 men and 45 women. Subjects ranged in age between 20 and 27 years, and had sound dentitions. Fourteen landmarks, corresponding to the centers of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar), were individualized on the dental casts of subjects. All the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth were computed, thus creating four mean form matrices (one for each arch within sex). Gender differences were tested by using euclidean-distance matrix analysis. No significant differences were demonstrated in the shape of arches, while male arches proved to be slightly bigger than female arches.

  18. Dental therapists in general dental practices: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Heffley, Dennis R; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-08-01

    Dental access disparities are well documented and have been recognized as a national problem. Their major cause is the lack of reasonable Medicaid reimbursement rates for the underserved. Specifically, Medicaid reimbursement rates for children average 40 percent below market rates. In addition, most state Medicaid programs do not cover adults. To address these issues, advocates of better oral health for the underserved are considering support for a new allied provider--a dental therapist--capable of providing services at a lower cost per service and in low-income and rural areas. Using a standard economic analysis, this study estimated the potential cost, price, utilization, and dentist's income effects of dental therapists employed in general dental practices. The analysis is based on national general dental practice data and the broadest scope of responsibility for dental therapists that their advocates have advanced, including the ability to provide restorations and extractions to adults and children, training for three years, and minimum supervision. Assuming dental therapists provide restorative, extraction, and pulpal services to patients of all ages and dental hygienists continue to deliver all hygiene services, the mean reduction in a general practice costs ranges between 1.57 and 2.36 percent. For dental therapists treating children only, the range is 0.31 to 0.47 percent. The effects on price and utilization are even smaller. In addition, the effects on most dentists' gross income, hours of work, and net income are negative. The estimated economic impact of dental therapists in the United States on private dental practice is very limited; therefore, the demand for dental therapists by private practices also would probably be very limited.

  19. Human dental age estimation by calculation of pulp-tooth volume ratios yielded on clinically acquired cone beam computed tomography images of monoradicular teeth.

    PubMed

    Star, Hazha; Thevissen, Patrick; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Fieuws, Steffen; Solheim, Tore; Willems, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Secondary dentine is responsible for a decrease in the volume of the dental pulp cavity with aging. The aim of this study is to evaluate a human dental age estimation method based on the ratio between the volume of the pulp and the volume of its corresponding tooth, calculated on clinically taken cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from monoradicular teeth. On the 3D images of 111 clinically obtained CBCT images (Scanora(®) 3D dental cone beam unit) of 57 female and 54 male patients ranging in age between 10 and 65 years, the pulp-tooth volume ratio of 64 incisors, 32 canines, and 15 premolars was calculated with Simplant(®) Pro software. A linear regression model was fit with age as dependent variable and ratio as predictor, allowing for interactions of specific gender or tooth type. The obtained pulp-tooth volume ratios were the strongest related to age on incisors.

  20. Human dental pulp stem cells respond to cues from the rat retina and differentiate to express the retinal neuronal marker rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Bray, A F; Cevallos, R R; Gazarian, K; Lamas, M

    2014-11-01

    Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are self-renewing stem cells that originate from the neural crest during development and remain within the dental pulp niche through adulthood. Due to their multi-lineage differentiation potential and their relative ease of access they represent an exciting alternative for autologous stem cell-based therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. In animal models, DPSCs transplanted into the brain differentiate into functional neurons or astrocytes in response to local environmental cues that appear to influence the fate of the surviving cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that DPSCs might be able to respond to factors present in the retina enabling the regenerative potential of these cells. We evaluated the response of DPSCs to conditioned media from organotypic explants from control and chemically damaged rat retinas. To evaluate cell differentiation, we analyzed the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), early neuronal and retinal markers (polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM); Pax6; Ascl1; NeuroD1) and the late photoreceptor marker rhodopsin, by immunofluorescence and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Exposure of DPSC cultures to conditioned media from control retinas induced a 39% reduction on the number of DPSCs that expressed GFAP; the expression of Pax6, Ascl1, PSA-NCAM or NeuroD1 was undetectable or did not change significantly. Expression of rhodopsin was not detectable in control or after exposure of the cultures with retinal conditioned media. By contrast, 44% of DPSCs exposed to conditioned media from damaged retinas were immunopositive to this protein. This response could not be reproduced when conditioned media from Müller-enriched primary cultures was used. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR was performed to compare the relative expression of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain

  1. Differences in Functional Outcomes for Adult Patients with Prosthodontically-Treated and -Untreated Shortened Dental Arches: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saadika; Musekiwa, Alfred; Chikte, Usuf M. E.; Omar, Ridwaan

    2014-01-01

    This review examined differences in functional outcomes and patient satisfaction when shortened dental arches are left untreated compared to their restoration to complete arch lengths with different prosthodontic interventions. Methods A protocol was developed according to the criteria for a systematic review. All relevant databases were searched to identify appropriate clinical trials regardless of language or publication status. Predetermined eligibility criteria were applied, trial quality assessed and data extracted for each study. Relevant outcomes assessed were: functioning ability, patient satisfaction and harmful effects on oral structures. Results Searches yielded 101 articles: 81 from electronic databases and 20 from reference lists of retrieved articles (PEARLing searches). Sixty-nine citations were assessed for eligibility after removing 32 duplicate records. After reading titles and abstracts, a total of 41 records were excluded and the full-texts of the remaining 28 records were read. Only 21 records were included for the SR because 7 records were excluded after reading the full-text reports. These 21 records report the outcomes of four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and one non-randomized clinical trial (CT) which were pre-specified and used for this review. No on-going studies were found and no eligible studies were excluded for failure to report the reviewer’s pre-specified outcomes. Outcomes were reported in the retrieved 21 articles. A narrative explanation of the pre-specified outcomes is reported for the 3 comparison groups (which were based on the different interventions used for the individual clinical trials). The shortened dental arch as a treatment option is encouraging in terms of functioning, patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. By using only high quality studies it was expected that the results would be more reliable when making conclusions and recommendations, but some of the included studies had to be downgraded due to

  2. Dental Hygienists

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy, patient management, and periodontics, which is the study of gum disease. High school students interested in becoming dental hygienists should take courses in biology, chemistry, and math. Most dental hygiene programs also require applicants to have completed at ...

  3. Dental sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants Are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  4. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Nutrition Education--1973. Part 6--Phosphate Research and Dental Decay. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., April 16, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate include testimony on the subject of research into the use of phosphates to prevent dental decay. The purpose of the hearing was to explore certain dental health questions raised during the committee's recent hearings on the Television Advertising of…

  5. Adult Education and the Human Environment: Transactions of a Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Quartey, K. A. B., Ed.; And Others

    The document comprises a collection of speeches and seminar reports arising from the 25th anniversary celebration of the Institute of Adult Education at the University of Ghana. The theme of the celebration, introduced in the first chapter, was Adult Education and Man's Environment--the Next Quarter-Century. The second chapter comprises the…

  6. Radiation Dosimetry Study in Dental Enamel of Human Tooth Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Tania; Romanyukha, Alex; Pass, Barry; Misra, Prabhakar

    2009-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry of tooth enamel is used for individual dose reconstruction following radiation accidents. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid, minimally invasive technique of obtaining a sample of dental enamel small enough to not disturb the structure and functionality of a tooth and to improve the sensitivity of the spectral signals using X-band (9.4 GHz) and Q-band (34 GHz) EPR technique. In this study EPR measurements in X-band were performed on 100 mg isotropic powdered enamel samples and Q-band was performed on 4 mg, 1×1×3 mm enamel biopsy samples. All samples were obtained from discarded teeth collected during normal dental treatment. To study the variation of the Radiation-Induced Signal (RIS) at different orientations in the applied magnetic field, samples were placed in the resonance cavity for Q-band EPR. X-band EPR measurements were performed on 100 mg isotropic powdered enamel samples. In X-band spectra, the RIS is distinct from the "native" radiation-independent signal only for doses >0.5 Gy. Q-band, however, resolves the RIS and "native" signals and improves sensitivity by a factor of 20, enabling measurements in 2-4 mg tooth enamel samples, as compared to 100 mg for X-band. The estimated lower limit of Q-band dose measurement is 0.5 Gy. Q-band EPR enamel dosimetry results in greater sensitivity and smaller sample size through enhanced spectral resolution. Thus, this can be a valuable technique for population triage in the event of detonation of a radiation dispersal device ("dirty" bomb) or other radiation event with massive casualties. Further, the small 4 mg samples can be obtained by a minimally-invasive biopsy technique.

  7. Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

    2013-01-01

    Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

  8. Human postmortem device retrieval and analysis--orthopaedic, cardiovascular, and dental systems.

    PubMed

    Lemons, J; Brott, B; Eberhardt, A

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of decades of analyzing implant devices, tissues, and clinical records from revision surgical explants (called device failure), studies now include postmortem donors and in situ conditions (called success). A key issue has been information exchange from an interdisciplinary team where basic physical and biological studies complement details of the clinical conditions for each device. Overall, the summary information has shown that most revisions were based on factors associated with the patient health, disease, and compliance, with few outcomes directly correlated with technology and device-specific factors. However, because of the large numbers of devices implanted annually (millions), any sampling that reveals adverse circumstances could result in a high level of importance and the need for additional studies of this type. Experience from prior retrieval and analysis demonstrates significant value where peer reviewed results from investigations have altered the discipline and have improved the quality and longevity of health care associated with implanted devices. This report summarizes completed and ongoing studies of cardiovascular, dental, and orthopaedic systems. Endovascular stents from autopsies showed damage including fretting and corrosion from overlapping and intersecting conditions, plus some corrosion and element transfers to tissues from individual stents. Studies are proposed to increase numbers to evaluate clinical significance. Dental implants from postmortem donors that functioned more than 10 years provided evaluations of cobalt alloy devices and calcium phosphate bone graft substitutes originally investigated in the 1970s. Tissue integration and stability correlated with data from prior laboratory in vitro and in vivo investigations. Studies of articulation and fixation from orthopaedic total joint arthroplasties showed some limitations related to surface changes of YTZ zirconia, specific damage due to implantation procedures, which

  9. Transcriptional profiling of adult neural stem-like cells from the human brain.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33-60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6), foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1) and human brain tissues (n = 12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate.

  10. Transcriptional Profiling of Adult Neural Stem-Like Cells from the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O.; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33–60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6), foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1) and human brain tissues (n = 12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate. PMID

  11. A modern human pattern of dental development in Lower Pleistocene hominids from Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez de Castro, J. M.; Rosas, A.; Carbonell, E.; Nicolás, M. E.; Rodríguez, J.; Arsuaga, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The study of life history evolution in hominids is crucial for the discernment of when and why humans have acquired our unique maturational pattern. Because the development of dentition is critically integrated into the life cycle in mammals, the determination of the time and pattern of dental development represents an appropriate method to infer changes in life history variables that occurred during hominid evolution. Here we present evidence derived from Lower Pleistocene human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 level (Aurora stratum) of the Gran Dolina site in the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain. These hominids present a pattern of development similar to that of Homo sapiens, although some aspects (e.g., delayed M3 calcification) are not as derived as that of European populations and people of European origin. This evidence, taken together with the present knowledge of cranial capacity of these and other late Early Pleistocene hominids, supports the view that as early as 0.8 Ma at least one Homo species shared with modern humans a prolonged pattern of maturation. PMID:10097189

  12. A modern human pattern of dental development in lower pleistocene hominids from Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Rosas, A; Carbonell, E; Nicolás, M E; Rodríguez, J; Arsuaga, J L

    1999-03-30

    The study of life history evolution in hominids is crucial for the discernment of when and why humans have acquired our unique maturational pattern. Because the development of dentition is critically integrated into the life cycle in mammals, the determination of the time and pattern of dental development represents an appropriate method to infer changes in life history variables that occurred during hominid evolution. Here we present evidence derived from Lower Pleistocene human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 level (Aurora stratum) of the Gran Dolina site in the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain. These hominids present a pattern of development similar to that of Homo sapiens, although some aspects (e.g., delayed M3 calcification) are not as derived as that of European populations and people of European origin. This evidence, taken together with the present knowledge of cranial capacity of these and other late Early Pleistocene hominids, supports the view that as early as 0.8 Ma at least one Homo species shared with modern humans a prolonged pattern of maturation.

  13. Germline stem cells and neo-oogenesis in the adult human ovary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifei; Wu, Chao; Lyu, Qifeng; Yang, Dongzi; Albertini, David F; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2007-06-01

    It remains unclear whether neo-oogenesis occurs in postnatal ovaries of mammals, based on studies in mice. We thought to test whether adult human ovaries contain germline stem cells (GSCs) and undergo neo-oogenesis. Rather than using genetic manipulation which is unethical in humans, we took the approach of analyzing the expression of meiotic marker genes and genes for germ cell proliferation, which are required for neo-oogenesis, in adult human ovaries covering an age range from 28 to 53 years old, compared to testis and fetal ovaries served as positive controls. We show that active meiosis, neo-oogenesis and GSCs are unlikely to exist in normal, adult, human ovaries. No early meiotic-specific or oogenesis-associated mRNAs for SPO11, PRDM9, SCP1, TERT and NOBOX were detectable in adult human ovaries using RT-PCR, compared to fetal ovary and adult testis controls. These findings are further corroborated by the absence of early meiocytes and proliferating germ cells in adult human ovarian cortex probed with markers for meiosis (SCP3), oogonium (OCT3/4, c-KIT), and cell cycle progression (Ki-67, PCNA), in contrast to fetal ovary controls. If postnatal oogenesis is confirmed in mice, then this species would represent an exception to the rule that neo-oogenesis does not occur in adults.

  14. A comparison of erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase activity from human foetuses and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Strange, R C; Johnston, J D; Coghill, D R; Hume, R

    1980-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in partially purified haemolysates of erythrocytes from human foetuses and adults. Enzyme activity was present in erythrocytes obtained between 12 and 40 weeks of gestation. The catalytic properties of the enzyme from foetal cells were similar to those of the enzyme from adult erythrocytes, indicating that probably only one form of the erythrocytes enzyme exists throughout foetal and adult life. PMID:7396875

  15. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  16. Dental arch asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, canine-molar distance and incisal-molar distance, which represent the dental arch segmental measurements. Results: When applying “t-test” at P < 0.05, no significant differences were found between the right and left canine-molar, incisal-canine and incisal-molar distances in both dental arches for both sexes. The greater variation (0.30 mm) was observed between right and left canine-molar distance in the maxillary dental arch in male and the smaller (0.04 mm) in the mandibular dental arch between the right and left canine-molar distance in females. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed a symmetrical pattern of dental arches, since the right and left sides showed no statistically significant difference. In general, it can be observed that the measurements related to the central incisors and canines have the widest range of reading and give the impression that the location of central incisor and canines to each other and to other teeth is the strongest factor in determining the dental arch asymmetry. PMID:24966774

  17. Adult Continuing Education and Human Resource Development: Present Competitors, Potential Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Adult Continuing Education (ACE) and Human Resource Development (HRD) have grown tremendously in the last quarter century. ACE experienced tremendous growth in the 60s and 70s, with over 17 million attending colleges and universities, and local school and community adult education programs by the end of the 1970s. More ACE programs were started…

  18. Reaching beyond the United States: Adventures in International Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henschke, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience of how travel and adult education merged, for him, into a major emphasis in international adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD). International ventures have been some of the most exciting and learning-filled aspects of the author's career in AE and HRD. His involvement in…

  19. Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Differentiate into Oligodendrocyte Progenitors Using the Expression of Olig2 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Askari, Nahid; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Shamsara, Mehdi; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig2 is essential for lineage determination of oligodendrocytes. Differentiation of stem cells into oligodendrocytes and transplanting them is a novel strategy for the repair of different demyelination diseases. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are of great interest in regenerative medicine due to their potential for repairing damaged tissues. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from human third molars and transfected with the human Olig2 gene as a differentiation inducer for the oligodendrogenic pathway. Following the differentiation procedure, the expression of Sox2, NG2, PDGFRα, Nestin, MBP, Olig2, Oct4, glial fibrillary acidic protein and A2B5 as stage-specific markers was studied by real-time RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. The cells were transplanted into a mouse model of local sciatic damage by lysolecithin as a model for demyelination. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) actively remyelinated and recovered the lysolecithin-induced damages in the sciatic nerve as revealed by treadmill exercise, the von Frey filament test and hind paw withdrawal in response to a thermal stimulus. Recovery of behavioral reflexes occurred 2-6 weeks after OPC transplantation. The results demonstrate that the expression of Olig2 in DPSCs reduces the expression of stem cell markers and induces the development of oligodendrocyte progenitors as revealed by the emergence of oligodendrocyte markers. DPSCs could be programmed into oligodendrocyte progenitors and considered as a simple and valuable source for the cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25966902

  20. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease.

    PubMed

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health. PMID:26053410

  1. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease

    PubMed Central

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health. PMID:26053410

  2. Dental arch asymmetry in young healthy human subjects evaluated by Euclidean distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Serrao, G

    1993-03-01

    Form differences between biological structures can be evaluated using several approaches. A recently proposed method (Euclidean distance matrix analysis; EDMA) seems to be able to differentiate between size and shape differences. Here it has been applied to study the asymmetry of mandibular and maxillary arches in 50 men and 45 women with sound dentitions. The centres of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar) were individualized on the dental casts of subjects. The form of the right and left maxillary and mandibular hemi-arches was separately assessed by calculating all the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth within arch and side. Side differences were tested by EDMA. In men, the maxillary and the mandibular arches were both symmetrical (i.e. there were no significant differences in size or shape between the left and right hemi-arches). In women, the mandibular arch was symmetrical, but in the maxillary arch the two antimeres had a significantly different shape. No size differences were found between the left and right female hemi-arches.

  3. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease.

    PubMed

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health.

  4. Human dental age estimation combining third molar(s) development and tooth morphological age predictors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Galiti, D; Willems, G

    2012-11-01

    In the subadult age group, third molar development, as well as age-related morphological tooth information can be observed on panoramic radiographs. The aim of present study was to combine, in subadults, panoramic radiographic data based on developmental stages of third molar(s) and morphological measurements from permanent teeth, in order to evaluate its added age-predicting performances. In the age range between 15 and 23 years, 25 gender-specific radiographs were collected within each age category of 1 year. Third molar development was classified and registered according the 10-point staging and scoring technique proposed by Gleiser and Hunt (1955), modified by Köhler (1994). The Kvaal (1995) measuring technique was applied on the indicated teeth from the individuals' left side. Linear regression models with age as response and third molar-scored stages as explanatory variables were developed, and morphological measurements from permanent teeth were added. From the models, determination coefficients (R (2)) and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated. Maximal-added age information was reported as a 6 % R² increase and a 0.10-year decrease of RMSE. Forensic dental age estimations on panoramic radiographic data in the subadult group (15-23 year) should only be based on third molar development.

  5. The Transcription Factor DLX3 Regulates the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Follicle Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Viale-Bouroncle, Sandra; Felthaus, Oliver; Schmalz, Gottfried; Brockhoff, Gero; Reichert, Torsten E

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor DLX3 plays a decisive role in bone development of vertebrates. In neural-crest derived stem cells from the dental follicle (DFCs), DLX3 is differentially expressed during osteogenic differentiation, while other osteogenic transcription factors such as DLX5 or RUNX2 are not highly induced. DLX3 has therefore a decisive role in the differentiation of DFCs, but its actual biological effects and regulation are unknown. This study investigated the DLX3-regulated processes in DFCs. After DLX3 overexpression, DFCs acquired a spindle-like cell shape with reorganized actin filaments. Here, marker genes for cell morphology, proliferation, apoptosis, and osteogenic differentiation were significantly regulated as shown in a microarray analysis. Further experiments showed that DFCs viability is directly influenced by the expression of DLX3, for example, the amount of apoptotic cells was increased after DLX3 silencing. This transcription factor stimulates the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs and regulates the BMP/SMAD1-pathway. Interestingly, BMP2 did highly induce DLX3 and reverse the inhibitory effect of DLX3 silencing in osteogenic differentiation. However, after DLX3 overexpression in DFCs, a BMP2 supplementation did not improve the expression of DLX3 and the osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, DLX3 influences cell viability and regulates osteogenic differentiation of DFCs via a BMP2-dependent pathway and a feedback control. PMID:22107079

  6. Technical note: The two step procedure (TSP) for the determination of age at death of adult human remains in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Baccino, Eric; Sinfield, Laura; Colomb, Sophie; Baum, Thierry Pascal; Martrille, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the principles and results of TSP (the two step procedure), a comprehensive (combined) method of age estimation in mature human skeletal remains. The first step consists of the examination of the pubic symphysis using the Suchey-Brooks system for a "pre-choice". Then for SBS phases I, II, III, (young adults up to about 40) the age estimate is given using the chronological interval corresponding to each phase. For SBS phase is IV, V or VI (mature adults, about 40 to 60), then (second step) the dental method of Lamendin (using single rooted tooth) will be applied alone. Both methods are fast, easy to learn and to use (requiring no preparation except cleaning soft tissues from the pubic bone) and are not expensive, making TSP usable by all pathologists or anthropologists in any Forensic unit. It is also of great practical use in mass disaster and mass grave situation. After 15 years of use, a literature review and four evaluation studies we confirm that TSP is more accurate than any single method for aging adults and at least as good as more complicated combined methods. Despite its advantages TSP is, like all other aging methods, not efficient in adults over 65 years of age.

  7. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Chaubron, Franck; De Vos, John; Cuisinier, Frédéric J

    2015-08-26

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues (dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat.

  8. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Chaubron, Franck; De Vos, John; Cuisinier, Frédéric J

    2015-01-01

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues (dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat. PMID:26328017

  9. Assessment of exposures and potential risks to the US adult population from the leaching of elements from gold and ceramic dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Richardson, G Mark; James, Kyle Jordan; Peters, Rachel Elizabeth; Clemow, Scott Richard; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the 2001 to 2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) on the number and placement of tooth restorations in adults, we quantified daily doses due to leaching of elements from gold (Au) alloy and ceramic restorative materials. The elements with the greatest leaching rates from these materials are often the elements of lowest proportional composition. As a result, exposure due to wear will predominate for those elements of relatively high proportional composition, while exposure due leaching may predominate for elements of relatively low proportional composition. The exposure due to leaching of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) from Au alloys exceeded published reference exposure levels (RELs) for these elements when multiple full surface crowns were present. Six or more molar crowns would result in exceeding the REL for Ag, whereas three or more crowns would be necessary to exceed the REL for Pd. For platinum (Pt), the majority of tooth surfaces, beyond just molar crowns, would be necessary to exceed the REL for Pd. Exposures due to leaching of elements from ceramic dental materials were less than published RELs for all components examined here, including having all restorations composed of ceramic.

  10. Self-renewal and multipotency coexist in a long-term cultured adult rat dental pulp stem cell line: an exception to the rule?

    PubMed

    Sprio, Andrea E; Di Scipio, Federica; Raimondo, Stefania; Salamone, Paolina; Pagliari, Francesca; Pagliari, Stefania; Folino, Anna; Forte, Giancarlo; Geuna, Stefano; Di Nardo, Paolo; Berta, Giovanni N

    2012-12-10

    The stemness state is characterized by self-renewal and differentiation properties. However, stem cells are not able to preserve these characteristics in long-term culture because of the intrinsic fragility of their phenotype easily undergoing senescence or neoplastic transformation. Furthermore, although isolated from the same original tissue using similar protocols, adult stem cells can display dissimilar phenotypes and important cell clone/species contamination. Finally, the lack of a clear standardization contributes to complicate the comprehension about the stemness condition. In this context, cell lines displaying a particularly stable phenotype must be identified to define one or multiple benchmarks against which other stem cell lines could be reliably assessed. The present paper demonstrates that it is possible to isolate from the rat dental pulp a stem cell line (MUR-1) that does not display neoplastic transformation in long-term culture. MUR-1 cells stably express a broad range of stemness markers and are able to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic, and cardiomyogenic lineages independently of the culture passages. Moreover, serial in vitro passages have not changed their immunophenotype, proliferation capacity, or differentiation potential. The uniqueness of these characteristics candidates MUR-1 as a model to reliably improve the understanding of the mechanisms governing the stem cell fate in the same as well as in other stem cell populations.

  11. Newborn human skin fibroblasts senesce in vitro without acquiring adult growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of human fibroblasts were prepared from chest skin obtained either from newborns (less than 3 months old) or adults (more than 35 years old) and maintained in vitro until they senesced. Adult cells grew logarithmically in medium supplemented with whole blood serum but not with platelet-poor plasma. Early passage cells obtained from newborns grew equally well in either plasma- or serum-supplemented medium. The difference in growth factor requirements between adult and newborn cells persisted through the lifespan of the cells; i.e., newborn cells did not develop adult hormonal requirements when maintained in culture. Thus, in vitro cellular aging can be distinguished from some types of differentiation.

  12. Brain, Craniofacial, and Dental Lesions of a Free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Implicated in a Human Attack in Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Schwabenlander, Marc; Stepaniuk, Kevin; Carstensen, Michelle; Armién, Aníbal G

    2016-01-01

    We describe significant brain, craniofacial, and dental lesions in a free-ranging wolf (Canis lupus) involved in a human attack. On postmortem examination, the wolf presented asymmetric atrophy and bone remodeling affecting the mandible, incisive, maxilla, lacrimal, palatine, frontal, and ethmoid bones. There was an asymmetrical skeletal malocclusion and dental abnormalities including rotated, malpositioned, partially erupted teeth, and an odontogenic cyst associated with an unerupted canine tooth. Brain changes were bilateral loss and atrophy of extensive cortex regions including olfactory bulb, peduncles, and tract, and the frontal lobe. We highlight the relevance of a thorough postmortem examination of wildlife to elucidate disease-based abnormal behavior as the reason for human-animal conflict. PMID:26540333

  13. Brain, Craniofacial, and Dental Lesions of a Free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Implicated in a Human Attack in Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Schwabenlander, Marc; Stepaniuk, Kevin; Carstensen, Michelle; Armién, Aníbal G

    2016-01-01

    We describe significant brain, craniofacial, and dental lesions in a free-ranging wolf (Canis lupus) involved in a human attack. On postmortem examination, the wolf presented asymmetric atrophy and bone remodeling affecting the mandible, incisive, maxilla, lacrimal, palatine, frontal, and ethmoid bones. There was an asymmetrical skeletal malocclusion and dental abnormalities including rotated, malpositioned, partially erupted teeth, and an odontogenic cyst associated with an unerupted canine tooth. Brain changes were bilateral loss and atrophy of extensive cortex regions including olfactory bulb, peduncles, and tract, and the frontal lobe. We highlight the relevance of a thorough postmortem examination of wildlife to elucidate disease-based abnormal behavior as the reason for human-animal conflict.

  14. Influence of different types of pulp treatment during isolation in the obtention of human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Viña-Almunia, Jose; Borras, Consuelo; Gambini, Juan; El Alamy, Marya; Viña, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Different methods have been used in order to isolate dental pulp stem cells. The aim of this study was to study the effect of different types of pulp treatment during isolation, under 3% O2 conditions, in the time needed and the efficacy for obtaining dental pulp stem cells. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty dental pulps were used to isolate dental pulp stem cells treating the pulp tissue during isolation using 9 different methods, using digestive, disgregation, or mechanical agents, or combining them. The cells were positive for CD133, Oct4, Nestin, Stro-1, CD34 markers, and negative for the hematopoietic cell marker CD-45, thus confirming the presence of mesenchymal stem cells. The efficacy of dental pulp stem cells obtention and the minimum time needed to obtain such cells comparing the 9 different methods was analyzed. Results Dental pulp stem cells were obtained from 97 of the 120 pulps used in the study, i.e. 80.8% of the cases. They were obtained with all the methods used except with mechanical fragmentation of the pulp, where no enzymatic digestion was performed. The minimum time needed to isolate dental pulp stem cells was 8 hours, digesting with 2mg/ml EDTA for 10 minutes, 4mg/ml of type I collagenase, 4mg/ml of type II dispase for 40 minutes, 13ng/ml of thermolysine for 40 minutes and sonicating the culture for one minute. Conclusions Dental pulp stem cells were obtained in 97 cases from a series of 120 pulps. The time for obtaining dental pulp stem cells was reduced maximally, without compromising the obtention of the cells, by combining digestive, disgregation, and mechanical agents. Key words:Dental pulp stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, isolation method. PMID:26946201

  15. Clinical and microbiological findings on newly inserted hydroxyapatite-coated and pure titanium human dental implants.

    PubMed

    Rams, T E; Roberts, T W; Feik, D; Molzan, A K; Slots, J

    1991-01-01

    The clinical and microbiologic features of 30 hydroxyapatite-coated root-form endosseous dental implants (Tri-Stage) were compared to 10 similar pure titanium implants without hydroxyapatite coatings. In 7 of 9 partially edentulous patients studied, pure titanium fixtures were placed adjacent to hydroxyapatite-coated implants. Implants in the maxilla were submerged beneath mucosal tissues after implant placement for a minimum of 6 months, and in the mandible for at least 4 months. All patients were prescribed short-term beta-lactam antibiotic therapy after fixture placement, and 8 of 9 used chlorhexidine mouthrinses after fixture exposure. Clinical and microbiological examination was carried out 7-10 months after fixed prosthetic loading of the implants. Clinical measurements included the gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing and peri-implant probing depths determined with the Florida Probe system. Subgingival microbial samples were collected with paper points and transported in VMGA III. Specimens were examined by direct phase-contrast microscopy and were plated onto nonselective and selective culture media for anaerobic and aerobic incubation. No significant mean clinical or microbiological differences were found between the implant types, although one hydroxyapatite-coated implant exhibited deep probing depths, bleeding on probing and marked radiographic crestal bone loss. Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis were the most predominant organisms recovered from clinically stable implants, whereas high proportions of Fusobacterium species and Peptostreptococcus prevotii were isolated from the ailing hydroxyapatite-coated implant. One or more implants in 8 of the study subjects yielded enteric rods, pseudomonads, enterococci or staphylococci. The prognosis of implants with varying early microbiotas needs to be established in longitudinal studies. PMID:1843465

  16. [Biomechanics of single dental implants].

    PubMed

    Zagorskiĭ, V A; Zagorskiĭ, V V

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissues of human skull, jawbones and hard dental tissues were formed formed by the influence of chewing loads which are functional irritants used for maintaining their physical qualities. Knowledge of tensions and deformations in bony structures allows to increase their joint work with dental implants installed.

  17. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1)...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1)...

  1. Investigation of genes important in neurodevelopment disorders in adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Maussion, Gilles; Diallo, Alpha B; Gigek, Carolina O; Chen, Elizabeth S; Crapper, Liam; Théroux, Jean-Francois; Chen, Gary G; Vasuta, Cristina; Ernst, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are caused by mutations in genes expressed in fetal brain, but little is known about these same genes in adult human brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that genes associated with NDDs continue to have a role in adult human brain to explore the idea that NDD symptoms may be partially a result of their adult function rather than just their neurodevelopmental function. To demonstrate adult brain function, we performed expression analyses and ChIPseq in human neural stem cell(NSC) lines at different developmental stages and adult human brain, targeting two genes associated with NDDs, SATB2 and EHMT1, and the WNT signaling gene TCF7L2, which has not been associated with NDDs. Analysis of DNA interaction sites in neural stem cells reveals high (40-50 %) overlap between proliferating and differentiating cells for each gene in temporal space. Studies in adult brain demonstrate that consensus sites are similar to NSCs but occur at different genomic locations. We also performed expression analyses using BrainSpan data for NDD-associated genes SATB2, EHMT1, FMR1, MECP2, MBD5, CTNND2, RAI1, CHD8, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, TCF4, SCN2A, and DYRK1A and find high expression of these genes in adult brain, at least comparable to developing human brain, confirming that genes associated with NDDs likely have a role in adult tissue. Adult function of genes associated with NDDs might be important in clinical disease presentation and may be suitable targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26194112

  2. Investigation of genes important in neurodevelopment disorders in adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Maussion, Gilles; Diallo, Alpha B; Gigek, Carolina O; Chen, Elizabeth S; Crapper, Liam; Théroux, Jean-Francois; Chen, Gary G; Vasuta, Cristina; Ernst, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are caused by mutations in genes expressed in fetal brain, but little is known about these same genes in adult human brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that genes associated with NDDs continue to have a role in adult human brain to explore the idea that NDD symptoms may be partially a result of their adult function rather than just their neurodevelopmental function. To demonstrate adult brain function, we performed expression analyses and ChIPseq in human neural stem cell(NSC) lines at different developmental stages and adult human brain, targeting two genes associated with NDDs, SATB2 and EHMT1, and the WNT signaling gene TCF7L2, which has not been associated with NDDs. Analysis of DNA interaction sites in neural stem cells reveals high (40-50 %) overlap between proliferating and differentiating cells for each gene in temporal space. Studies in adult brain demonstrate that consensus sites are similar to NSCs but occur at different genomic locations. We also performed expression analyses using BrainSpan data for NDD-associated genes SATB2, EHMT1, FMR1, MECP2, MBD5, CTNND2, RAI1, CHD8, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, TCF4, SCN2A, and DYRK1A and find high expression of these genes in adult brain, at least comparable to developing human brain, confirming that genes associated with NDDs likely have a role in adult tissue. Adult function of genes associated with NDDs might be important in clinical disease presentation and may be suitable targets for therapeutic intervention.

  3. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

  4. Teaching Adults with Learning Disabilities. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    This book is designed to show teachers how to reach out to adults and adolescents with learning disabilities and employ specific strategies for helping them to compensate for the disabilities and acquire literacy skills. The ways in which specific differences in brain structure inhibit the mastery of reading, spelling, handwriting, phonics, and…

  5. Hg, Bi, Cu and Zn distribution in human teeth treated by dental amalgam measured by synchrotron microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Marques, J. P.; Brito, J.; Casaca, C.; Cunha, A. S.

    2002-11-01

    Human teeth restored with dental amalgam were analysed by a synchrotron microprobe to evaluate the diffusion of its major constituents, Cu, Zn and Hg, throughout the tooth structures. We measured the elemental distribution inside the tooth from the root to the enamel, specially the region around the amalgam, after its total removal. Hg is present only in restored teeth and concentration profiles show strongly increased levels of this element close to the amalgam region, reaching 500 μg g -1 in one or two cases, decreasing strongly to the inner part of the tooth. Pb concentration profiles do not seem to be affected by metallic amalgam. Very high concentrations of Bi were found in one of the restored teeth, reaching more than 2000 μg g -1, decreasing sharply to the outer regions. The distribution of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn was also determined in order to evaluate elemental influences by amalgam components. No significant changes in elemental concentrations were detected for Mn and Fe between healthy and restored teeth. However, the levels of Zn and Cu are increased in restored teeth. An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, 100 μm of spatial resolution and an energy of 18 keV, installed at LURE synchrotron (France) was used.

  6. A computer-designed scaffold for bone regeneration within cranial defect using human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeon Kwon, Doo; Seon Kwon, Jin; Hun Park, Seung; Hun Park, Ji; Hee Jang, So; Yun Yin, Xiang; Yun, Jeong-Ho; Ho Kim, Jae; Hyun Min, Byoung; Hee Lee, Jun; Kim, Wan-Doo; Suk Kim, Moon

    2015-01-01

    A computer-designed, solvent-free scaffold offer several potential advantages such as ease of customized manufacture and in vivo safety. In this work, we firstly used a computer-designed, solvent-free scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to regenerate neo-bone within cranial bone defects. The hDPSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers and served as an abundant source of stem cells with a high proliferation rate. In addition, hDPSCs showed a phenotype of differentiated osteoblasts in the presence of osteogenic factors (OF). We used solid freeform fabrication (SFF) with biodegradable polyesters (MPEG-(PLLA-co-PGA-co-PCL) (PLGC)) to fabricate a computer-designed scaffold. The SFF technology gave quick and reproducible results. To assess bone tissue engineering in vivo, the computer-designed, circular PLGC scaffold was implanted into a full-thickness cranial bone defect and monitored by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histology of the in vivo tissue-engineered bone. Neo-bone formation of more than 50% in both micro-CT and histology tests was observed at only PLGC scaffold with hDPSCs/OF. Furthermore, the PLGC scaffold gradually degraded, as evidenced by the fluorescent-labeled PLGC scaffold, which provides information to tract biodegradation of implanted PLGC scaffold. In conclusion, we confirmed neo-bone formation within a cranial bone defect using hDPSCs and a computer-designed PLGC scaffold. PMID:26234712

  7. Multiwall carbon nanotubes/polycaprolactone scaffolds seeded with human dental pulp stem cells for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cedillo, M L; Alvarado-Estrada, K N; Pozos-Guillén, A J; Murguía-Ibarra, J S; Vidal, M A; Cervantes-Uc, J M; Rosales-Ibáñez, R; Cauich-Rodríguez, J V

    2016-02-01

    Conventional approaches to bone regeneration rarely use multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) but instead use polymeric matrices filled with hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses. In this study, we prepared composites of MWCNTs/polycaprolactone (PCL) for bone regeneration as follows: (a) MWCNTs randomly dispersed on PCL, (b) MWCNTs aligned with an electrical field to determine if the orientation favors the growing of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs), and (c) MWCNTs modified with β-glycerol phosphate (BGP) to analyze its osteogenic potential. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of MWCNTs and BGP on PCL, whereas the increase in crystallinity by the addition of MWCNTs to PCL was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. A higher elastic modulus (608 ± 4.3 MPa), maximum stress (42 ± 6.1 MPa) and electrical conductivity (1.67 × 10(-7) S/m) were observed in non-aligned MWCNTs compared with the pristine PCL. Cell viability at 14 days was similar in all samples according to the live/dead assay, but the 21 day cell proliferation, measured by MTT was higher in MWCNTs aligned with BGP. Von Kossa and Alizarin red showed larger amounts of mineral deposits on MWCNTs aligned with BGP, indicating that at 21 days, this scaffold promotes osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs.

  8. Morphological alterations associated with the cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of citric acid on cultured human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, C P; Jeng, J H; Hsieh, C C; Lin, C L; Lei, D; Chang, M C

    1999-05-01

    Citric acid exerts potential harmful effects on the pulp when used for root surface demineralization, smear layer removal, and dentin etching. Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, we found that incubation of cultured human dental pulp cells in medium containing 0.5% (pH 4.74) or 1.0% (pH 3.42) of citric acid for 2 h lead to 25% and 48% of cell death, respectively. Cytotoxicity of citric acid was associated with its acidity. Exposure of cells to pure 1% citric acid (pH 2.26) for 60 s lead to immediate cell death. Cytotoxicity was usually preceded by cell retraction, cell surface blebbing, and finally uptake of trypan blue, implicating the presence of cell membrane damage. A medium containing 0.05% citric acid can retard the growth of pulp cells. These results indicate that adequate protection of the pulp is important, especially when the remaining dentin is thin in deep carious lesions or in the presence of accessory canals on the root surface.

  9. Multiwall carbon nanotubes/polycaprolactone scaffolds seeded with human dental pulp stem cells for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cedillo, M L; Alvarado-Estrada, K N; Pozos-Guillén, A J; Murguía-Ibarra, J S; Vidal, M A; Cervantes-Uc, J M; Rosales-Ibáñez, R; Cauich-Rodríguez, J V

    2016-02-01

    Conventional approaches to bone regeneration rarely use multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) but instead use polymeric matrices filled with hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses. In this study, we prepared composites of MWCNTs/polycaprolactone (PCL) for bone regeneration as follows: (a) MWCNTs randomly dispersed on PCL, (b) MWCNTs aligned with an electrical field to determine if the orientation favors the growing of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs), and (c) MWCNTs modified with β-glycerol phosphate (BGP) to analyze its osteogenic potential. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of MWCNTs and BGP on PCL, whereas the increase in crystallinity by the addition of MWCNTs to PCL was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. A higher elastic modulus (608 ± 4.3 MPa), maximum stress (42 ± 6.1 MPa) and electrical conductivity (1.67 × 10(-7) S/m) were observed in non-aligned MWCNTs compared with the pristine PCL. Cell viability at 14 days was similar in all samples according to the live/dead assay, but the 21 day cell proliferation, measured by MTT was higher in MWCNTs aligned with BGP. Von Kossa and Alizarin red showed larger amounts of mineral deposits on MWCNTs aligned with BGP, indicating that at 21 days, this scaffold promotes osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs. PMID:26704552

  10. A computer-designed scaffold for bone regeneration within cranial defect using human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Doo Yeon; Kwon, Jin Seon; Park, Seung Hun; Park, Ji Hun; Jang, So Hee; Yin, Xiang Yun; Yun, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jae Ho; Min, Byoung Hyun; Lee, Jun Hee; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Moon Suk

    2015-08-03

    A computer-designed, solvent-free scaffold offer several potential advantages such as ease of customized manufacture and in vivo safety. In this work, we firstly used a computer-designed, solvent-free scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to regenerate neo-bone within cranial bone defects. The hDPSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers and served as an abundant source of stem cells with a high proliferation rate. In addition, hDPSCs showed a phenotype of differentiated osteoblasts in the presence of osteogenic factors (OF). We used solid freeform fabrication (SFF) with biodegradable polyesters (MPEG-(PLLA-co-PGA-co-PCL) (PLGC)) to fabricate a computer-designed scaffold. The SFF technology gave quick and reproducible results. To assess bone tissue engineering in vivo, the computer-designed, circular PLGC scaffold was implanted into a full-thickness cranial bone defect and monitored by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histology of the in vivo tissue-engineered bone. Neo-bone formation of more than 50% in both micro-CT and histology tests was observed at only PLGC scaffold with hDPSCs/OF. Furthermore, the PLGC scaffold gradually degraded, as evidenced by the fluorescent-labeled PLGC scaffold, which provides information to tract biodegradation of implanted PLGC scaffold. In conclusion, we confirmed neo-bone formation within a cranial bone defect using hDPSCs and a computer-designed PLGC scaffold.

  11. Dental Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain Fixed Bridges Porcelain Veneers Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth- ...

  12. The human function compunction: teleological explanation in adults.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-04-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for why different phenomena occur. Judgments occurred in one of three conditions: fast speeded, moderately speeded, or unspeeded. Participants in speeded conditions judged significantly more scientifically unwarranted teleological explanations as correct (e.g., "the sun radiates heat because warmth nurtures life"), but were not more error-prone on control items (e.g., unwarranted physical explanations such as "hills form because floodwater freezes"). Study 2 extended these findings by examining the relationship between different aspects of adults' "promiscuous teleology" and other variables such as scientific knowledge, religious beliefs, and inhibitory control. Implications of these findings for scientific literacy are discussed. PMID:19200537

  13. Photodynamic Inactivation of Root Canal Bacteria by Light Activation through Human Dental Hard and Simulated Surrounding Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cieplik, Fabian; Pummer, Andreas; Leibl, Christoph; Regensburger, Johannes; Schmalz, Gottfried; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Maisch, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PIB) may be a supportive antimicrobial approach for use in endodontics, but sufficient activation of photosensitizers (PS) in root canals is a critical point. Therefore, aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of PS absorbing blue (TMPyP) or red light (Methylene Blue; MB) for light activation through human dental hard and simulated surrounding tissue to inactivate root canal bacteria. Methods: A tooth model was fabricated with a human premolar and two molars in an acrylic resin bloc simulating the optical properties of a porcine jaw. The distal root canal of the first molar was enlarged to insert a glass tube (external diameter 2 mm) containing PS and stationary-phase Enterococcus faecalis. Both PS (10 μM) were irradiated for 120 s with BlueV (20 mW/cm2; λem = 400–460 nm) or PDT 1200L (37.8 mW/cm2; λem = 570–680 nm; both: Waldmann Medizintechnik), respectively. Irradiation parameters ensured identical numbers of photons absorbed by each PS. Three setups were chosen: irradiating the glass pipette only (G), the glass pipette inside the single tooth without (GT) and with (GTM) simulated surrounding tissues. Colony forming units (CFU) were evaluated. Transmission measurements of the buccal halves of hemisected mandibular first molars were performed by means of a photospectrometer. Results: PIB with both PS led to reduction by ≥ 5 log10 of E. faecalis CFU for each setup. From transmission measurements, a threshold wavelength λth for allowing an amount of light transmission for sufficient activation of PS was determined to be 430 nm. Conclusion: This study can be seen as proof of principle that light activation of given intra-canal PS from outside a tooth may be possible at wavelengths ≥ 430 nm, facilitating clinical application of PIB in endodontics. PMID:27379059

  14. The effect of UV-Vis to near-infrared light on the biological response of human dental pulp cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadis, Mohammed A.; Cooper, Paul R.; Milward, Michael R.; Gorecki, Patricia; Tarte, Edward; Churm, James; Palin, William M.

    2015-03-01

    Human dental pulp cells (DPCs) were isolated and cultured in phenol-red-free α-MEM/10%-FCS at 37ºC in 5% CO2. DPCs at passages 2-4 were seeded (150μL; 25,000 cell/ml) in black 96-microwell plates with transparent bases. 24h post-seeding, cultures were irradiated using a bespoke LED array consisting of 60 LEDs (3.5mW/cm2) of wavelengths from 400-900nm (10 wavelengths, n=6) for time intervals of up to 120s. Metabolic and mitochondrial activity was assessed via a modified MTT assay. Statistical differences were identified using multi-factorial analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey tests (P=0.05). The biological responses were significantly dependent upon post-irradiation incubation period, wavelength and exposure time (P<0.05). At shorter wavelength irradiances (400nm), a reduction in mitochondrial activity was detected although not significant, whereas longer wavelength irradiances (at 633, 656, 781 and 799nm) significantly increased mitochondrial activity (P<0.05) in DPCs. At these wavelengths, mitochondrial activity was generally increased for exposures less than 90s with 30s exposures being most effective with 24h incubation. Increasing the post-irradiation incubation period increased the measured response and identified further significance (P<0.05). The biological responses of human DPCs were wavelength, exposure-time and incubation period dependent. The optimisation of irradiation parameters will be key to the successful application of LLLT in dentistry.

  15. Reforming the mission of public dental services.

    PubMed

    Wright, F A C; List, P F

    2012-10-01

    Australia has a complex history of providing public dental services to its communities. From the early days of Colonial settlement, the provision of dental care to the Australian public has largely been driven and influenced by organized groups and associations of dentists. The Constitution of Australia, under Section 51 xxiii A, allows for the Commonwealth to provide for medical and dental services. Unlike the United Kingdom, however, dental services have not been embedded into a universal national health service agenda. In 1974, that the Australian Government through the Australian School Dental Program provided the first funding and national direction for public dental services - and that, limited to children. The Commonwealth Dental Health Program 1993-1997 was the second national endeavor to provide public dental services, this time to financially disadvantaged adults. Since that time, public dental service responsibility has been shuttled between States/Territories and the Commonwealth. A new paradigm for public dental services in Australia requires strong Commonwealth leadership, as well as the commitment of State and Territories and the organized dental profession. The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission provided the most recent scenario for a radical change in mission. This paper canvases the competing roles of strategic, functional, and structural issues in relationship to social network and policy issues, which must be recognized if Australians truly seek to reform public dental services. PMID:22998313

  16. Reforming the mission of public dental services.

    PubMed

    Wright, F A C; List, P F

    2012-10-01

    Australia has a complex history of providing public dental services to its communities. From the early days of Colonial settlement, the provision of dental care to the Australian public has largely been driven and influenced by organized groups and associations of dentists. The Constitution of Australia, under Section 51 xxiii A, allows for the Commonwealth to provide for medical and dental services. Unlike the United Kingdom, however, dental services have not been embedded into a universal national health service agenda. In 1974, that the Australian Government through the Australian School Dental Program provided the first funding and national direction for public dental services - and that, limited to children. The Commonwealth Dental Health Program 1993-1997 was the second national endeavor to provide public dental services, this time to financially disadvantaged adults. Since that time, public dental service responsibility has been shuttled between States/Territories and the Commonwealth. A new paradigm for public dental services in Australia requires strong Commonwealth leadership, as well as the commitment of State and Territories and the organized dental profession. The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission provided the most recent scenario for a radical change in mission. This paper canvases the competing roles of strategic, functional, and structural issues in relationship to social network and policy issues, which must be recognized if Australians truly seek to reform public dental services.

  17. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Dental Caries Research Using Human Subjects: Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Joanna

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research are discussed. It is concluded that dentistry must not uncritically accept guidelines meant for a broader class of research, that guidelines can be misapplied, and that researchers must educate themselves on the Commission…

  18. The Adult Learning Disabled Employee: The Organization's Hidden Human Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomber, Janet A.

    This paper describes an experiment with background material designed to promote problem (learning disabled) employees as human resources rather than rejects. The material is presented in the form of the transcript of a fictional advisory committee meeting attended by the human resources manager, assistant corporate counsel, training director, line…

  19. Adult Education and Human Capital: Leadership from the Fortune 500.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Teresa M.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 333 Fortune 500 firms received 81 replies indicating that (1) two-thirds formally recognized the value of human resources; (2) most had changed corporate policy regarding human capital; and (3) most training was provided in the ares of new employee orientation, current job needs, customer relations, personal development, and…

  20. Effects of microenvironment on growth and differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datko, Laura Christine

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have recently been described as a potential stem cell source for various regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. They appear to be multipotent, however more characterization is necessary to determine the true potential of these cells. An important aspect of using DPSCs, or any stem cell type, tissue engineering application is the microenvironment within the construct. The microenvironment could include construct mechanical properties, construct composition, and 3D dynamic conditions in vivo. This work aims to study those specific microenvironment effects on DPSCs. To determine the effects of mechanical properties of the substrate on DPSCs, they were seeded on polyacrylamide (PA) gels of different elastic moduli. These gels ranged from 3 kPa to 75 kPa and a glass coverslip was used as a control. They were also exposed to either standard stem cell media or an osteogenic differentiation media, to determine the potential of the DPSCs for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation. The cultures were analyzed for morphological changes, osteopontin production, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production, and mineralization. The results showed that the DPSCs adhered well to the PA gels for the first few days in culture, but by day 7, they were starting to detach from the PA gels and only remain viable in gel defects or along the edges. This selective growth was also reflected in the mineralization, which only occurred in areas of confluence for the cells on the PA gels. Interestingly, all cultures produced osteopontin and ALP, however by the end of the experiment, the cells cultured on glass had the highest ALP production. It appeared that without the addition of growth factors to induce other cell lineages, DPSCs defaulted to an osteogenic/odontogenic lineage. To determine the effect of mineral composition, preliminary studies were done on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and 7F2 osteoblasts. These two cell types were exposed to

  1. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  2. Investigation of the structure of human dental tissue at multiple length scales using high energy synchrotron X-ray SAXS/WAXS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Tan; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2011-10-01

    High energy (>50keV) synchrotron X-ray scattering experiments were carried out on beamline I12 JEEP at the Diamond Light Source (DLS, Oxford, UK). Although a complete human tooth could be studied, in the present study attention was focused on coupons from the region of the Dentin-Enamel Junction (DEJ). Simultaneous high energy SAXS/WAXS measurements were carried out. Quantitative analysis of the results allows multiple length scale characterization of the nano-crystalline structure of dental tissues. SAXS patterns analysis provide insight into the mean thickness and orientation of hydroxyapatite particles, while WAXS (XRD) patterns allow the determination of the crystallographic unit cell parameters of the hydroxyapatite phase. It was found that the average particle thickness determined from SAXS interpretation varies as a function of position in the vicinity of the DEJ. Most mineral particles are randomly orientated within dentin, although preferred orientation emerges and becomes stronger on approach to the enamel. Within the enamel, texture is stronger than anywhere in the dentin, and the determination of lattice parameters can be accomplished by Pawley refinement of the multiple peak diffraction pattern. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using high energy synchrotron X-ray beams for the characterization of human dental tissues. This opens up the opportunity of studying thick samples (e.g., complete teeth) in complex sample environments (e.g., under saline solution). This opens new avenues for the application of high energy synchrotron X-ray scattering to dental research.

  3. [Dental and health law 4. The treatment of minors and of adults who are unable to give informed consent].

    PubMed

    Brands, W G; van der Ven, J M; Brands-Bottema, G W

    2013-01-01

    When minors are treated, a complex triangular relationship can emerge among dentist, patient and the individual legally responsible for the patient. Generally speaking, both parents are those legally responsible for a child. This might not be the case if the parents are not married to each other or have divorced, or when there is a question of a child protection ruling. The governing rule is that dentists are required to honour the obligations to the legal representatives thatfollow from the patients' rights concerning the treatment of children under the age of 12. In the case of patients between the ages of 12 and 16, dentists are required to act in accordance with their obligations to both those legally responsible and to the patients. Finally, in the case ofpatients who are 16 and older, dentists are required to act only in accordance with their obligations to the patients. There are, however, various exceptions to this governing rule. One of the most common examples is the patient who is a minor of 16 or older who is unable to determine what is in his own best interest. That criterium is also used in determining the capability to give informed consent in adults.

  4. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  5. Dental visits, dental health status and need for dental treatment in a Danish industrial population.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the utilization of dental services, the distribution of dental diseases and treatment needs in a Danish industrial population. The study covered the male population at a Danish shipyard, and a sample of 988 workers and clerical and managerial staff was drawn by stratified random sampling. 841 persons were interviewed regarding dental visits and attitudes towards dental health services and data on dental health and treatment needs were collected. 61% of the participants aged 15-64 years made regular dental visits at least once a year. The percentages of regular visitors varied according to age and occupation, from 68 to 82% among clerical staff to 34 to 51% among workers. The mean DMF-T increased from 16.6 in the age group 15-24 to 27.0 among the 55-64-year-olds. Untreated dental decay was predominant among workers and persons never seeing a dentist, whereas there were more filled teeth and fewer missing teeth among staff and regular visitors. The periodontal status was less satisfactory in the older age groups and among workers, and most denture wearers were found in the age group 35-64 and among workers. Concordant to the findings on dental health status, dental treatment needs due to caries and periodontal disease as well as prosthetic treatment needs varied according to age, occupation and dental visits. More radical treatment types were needed in the older age groups, among workers and non-regular visitors. The present study seems to indicate that dental diseases in the adult Danish population are not under control.

  6. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia.

  7. Vinegar as a disinfectant of extracted human teeth for dental educational use

    PubMed Central

    Tijare, Manisha; Smitha, D; Kasetty, Sowmya; Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Gupta, Sandeep; Amith, HV

    2014-01-01

    Context: Extracted human teeth are routinely used in dentistry to learn technical and preclinical skills. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has adopted guidelines for infection control of extracted teeth used for research and teaching, requiring that teeth be sterilized before use. Many of the proposed disinfection methods starting from use of formalin, sodium hypochlorite and to autoclaving have their own drawbacks and may not be practical. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of vinegar for disinfection/sterilization of extracted human teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 extracted non-carious human teeth were kept in seven disinfectant media—10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 70% alcohol, vinegar, neem extract and normal saline. Ten samples were placed in each disinfectant individually for a period of 7 days, at room temperature. In all, 10 teeth were treated with microwave irradiation at 650 W for 3 min. Later, teeth from each group were placed individually in separate test tubes containing 10 ml of tryptic soy broth at 37°C for 48 h to observe the evidence of growth of microorganisms. Semiquantitative analysis of all the samples was done in Clade agar at 37°C for 48 h. Statistical Analysis Used: The number of teeth disinfected in each group was compared using Chi square test. Results: 10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide and vinegar were totally effective. The result was statistically significant with a Chi square value of 61.414 and P < 0.001. Conclusions: Vinegar can be used as an effective disinfectant medium for extracted human teeth. PMID:24959031

  8. Effect of acidity upon attrition-corrosion of human dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun-Qi; Arsecularatne, Joseph A; Hoffman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Attrition-corrosion is a synthesized human enamel wear process combined mechanical effects (attrition) with corrosion. With the rising consumption of acidic food and beverages, attrition-corrosion is becoming increasingly common. Yet, research is limited and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, in vitro wear loss of human enamel was investigated and the attrition-corrosion process and wear mechanism were elucidated by the analysis of the wear scar and its subsurface using focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human enamel flat-surface samples were prepared with enamel cusps as the wear antagonists. Reciprocating wear testing was undertaken under load of 5N at the speed of 66 cycle/min for 2250 cycles with lubricants including citric acid (at pH 3.2 and 5.5), acetic acid (at pH 3.2 and 5.5) and distilled water. All lubricants were used at 37°C. Similar human enamel flat-surface samples were also exposed to the same solutions as a control group. The substance loss of enamel during wear can be linked to the corrosion potential of a lubricant used. Using a lubricant with very low corrosion potential (such as distilled water), the wear mechanism was dominated by delamination with high wear loss. Conversely, the wear mechanism changed to shaving of the softened layer with less material loss in an environment with medium corrosion potential such as citric acid at pH 3.2 and 5.5 and acetic acid at pH 5.5. However, a highly corrosive environment (e.g., acetic acid at pH 3.2) caused the greatest loss of substance during wear. PMID:25594367

  9. Effect of acidity upon attrition-corrosion of human dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun-Qi; Arsecularatne, Joseph A; Hoffman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Attrition-corrosion is a synthesized human enamel wear process combined mechanical effects (attrition) with corrosion. With the rising consumption of acidic food and beverages, attrition-corrosion is becoming increasingly common. Yet, research is limited and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, in vitro wear loss of human enamel was investigated and the attrition-corrosion process and wear mechanism were elucidated by the analysis of the wear scar and its subsurface using focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human enamel flat-surface samples were prepared with enamel cusps as the wear antagonists. Reciprocating wear testing was undertaken under load of 5N at the speed of 66 cycle/min for 2250 cycles with lubricants including citric acid (at pH 3.2 and 5.5), acetic acid (at pH 3.2 and 5.5) and distilled water. All lubricants were used at 37°C. Similar human enamel flat-surface samples were also exposed to the same solutions as a control group. The substance loss of enamel during wear can be linked to the corrosion potential of a lubricant used. Using a lubricant with very low corrosion potential (such as distilled water), the wear mechanism was dominated by delamination with high wear loss. Conversely, the wear mechanism changed to shaving of the softened layer with less material loss in an environment with medium corrosion potential such as citric acid at pH 3.2 and 5.5 and acetic acid at pH 5.5. However, a highly corrosive environment (e.g., acetic acid at pH 3.2) caused the greatest loss of substance during wear.

  10. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.

  11. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  12. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  13. [Dietary phytoestrogen and its potential benefits in adult human health].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Argelia; de la Maza, María Pía; Valladares, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Human diet contains a series of bioactive vegetal compounds that can improve human health. Among these, there has been a special interest for phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence about the potential benefits of phytoestrogens for human health. Forty eight manuscripts were selected for their study design and relevance to human health. The cell growth inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens and their implication in breast cancer are reviewed. Also the effects of these compounds on serum lipid levels and the effectiveness of a phytoestrogen derivate, ipriflavone, on the prevention of osteoporosis are analyzed. Although these compounds have a great potential for improving health, there is still not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of phytoestrogens.

  14. Cold Preservation of Human Adult Hepatocytes for Liver Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Duret, Cedric; Moreno, Daniel; Balasiddaiah, Anangi; Roux, Solene; Briolotti, Phillipe; Raulet, Edith; Herrero, Astrid; Ramet, Helene; Biron-Andreani, Christine; Gerbal-Chaloin, Sabine; Ramos, Jeanne; Navarro, Francis; Hardwigsen, Jean; Maurel, Patrick; Aldabe, Rafael; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatic failure, hepatocellular deficiency, and genetic metabolic disorders. Hypothermic preservation of isolated human hepatocytes is potentially a simple and convenient strategy to provide on-demand hepatocytes in sufficient quantity and of the quality required for biotherapy. In this study, first we assessed how cold storage in three clinically safe preservative solutions (UW, HTS-FRS, and IGL-1) affects the viability and in vitro functionality of human hepatocytes. Then we evaluated whether such cold-preserved human hepatocytes could engraft and repopulate damaged livers in a mouse model of liver failure. Human hepatocytes showed comparable viabilities after cold preservation in the three solutions. The ability of fresh and cold-stored hepatocytes to attach to a collagen substratum and to synthesize and secrete albumin, coagulation factor VII, and urea in the medium after 3 days in culture was also equally preserved. Cold-stored hepatocytes were then transplanted in the spleen of immunodeficient mice previously infected with adenoviruses containing a thymidine kinase construct and treated with a single dose of ganciclovir to induce liver injury. Engraftment and liver repopulation were monitored over time by measuring the blood level of human albumin and by assessing the expression of specific human hepatic mRNAs and proteins in the recipient livers by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our findings show that cold-stored human hepatocytes in IGL-1 and HTS-FRS preservative solutions can survive, engraft, and proliferate in a damaged mouse liver. These results demonstrate the usefulness of human hepatocyte hypothermic preservation for cell transplantation. PMID:25622096

  15. A new era in palaeomicrobiology: prospects for ancient dental calculus as a long-term record of the human oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The field of palaeomicrobiology is dramatically expanding thanks to recent advances in high-throughput biomolecular sequencing, which allows unprecedented access to the evolutionary history and ecology of human-associated and environmental microbes. Recently, human dental calculus has been shown to be an abundant, nearly ubiquitous, and long-term reservoir of the ancient oral microbiome, preserving not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris. Modern investigations of native human microbiota have demonstrated that the human microbiome plays a central role in health and chronic disease, raising questions about changes in microbial ecology, diversity and function through time. This paper explores the current state of ancient oral microbiome research and discusses successful applications, methodological challenges and future possibilities in elucidating the intimate evolutionary relationship between humans and their microbes. PMID:25487328

  16. A new era in palaeomicrobiology: prospects for ancient dental calculus as a long-term record of the human oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J

    2015-01-19

    The field of palaeomicrobiology is dramatically expanding thanks to recent advances in high-throughput biomolecular sequencing, which allows unprecedented access to the evolutionary history and ecology of human-associated and environmental microbes. Recently, human dental calculus has been shown to be an abundant, nearly ubiquitous, and long-term reservoir of the ancient oral microbiome, preserving not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris. Modern investigations of native human microbiota have demonstrated that the human microbiome plays a central role in health and chronic disease, raising questions about changes in microbial ecology, diversity and function through time. This paper explores the current state of ancient oral microbiome research and discusses successful applications, methodological challenges and future possibilities in elucidating the intimate evolutionary relationship between humans and their microbes.

  17. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-07-26

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  18. A century of trends in adult human height

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  19. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T T; Kirkeby, L P; Poulsen, K; Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal microbiota was dominated by species of the genera Corynebacterium, Aureobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, including S. epidermis, S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis and S. warneri. These studies show that the microbiota of the nasal cavity of adults is strikingly different from that of the pharynx, and that the nasal cavity is a primary habitat for several species of diphtheroids recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Under special circumstances, single species, including IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, may become predominant in a restricted area of the nasal mucosa. PMID:11200821

  20. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. PMID:27458798

  1. Hesperetin induces melanin production in adult human epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Usach, Iris; Taléns-Visconti, Raquel; Magraner-Pardo, Lorena; Peris, José-Esteban

    2015-06-01

    One of the major sources of flavonoids for humans are citrus fruits, hesperidin being the predominant flavonoid. Hesperetin (HSP), the aglycon of hesperidin, has been reported to provide health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. However, the effect of HSP on skin pigmentation is not clear. Some authors have found that HSP induces melanogenesis in murine B16-F10 melanoma cells, which, if extrapolated to in vivo conditions, might protect skin against photodamage. Since the effect of HSP on normal melanocytes could be different to that observed on melanoma cells, the described effect of HSP on murine melanoma cells has been compared to the effect obtained using normal human melanocytes. HSP concentrations of 25 and 50 µM induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to control melanocytes, 25 µM HSP increased melanin production and tyrosinase activity 1.4-fold (p < 0.01) and 1.1-fold (p < 0.01), respectively, and the corresponding increases in the case of 50 µM HSP were 1.9-fold (p < 0.001) and 1.3-fold (p < 0.001). Therefore, HSP could be considered a valuable photoprotective substance if its capacity to increase melanin production in human melanocyte cultures could be reproduced on human skin.

  2. [Effect of irradiation with dental polymerized lamps on human Langerhans cells: a study made on human skin transplanted to nude mice].

    PubMed

    Bonding, N

    1992-04-01

    Light polymerized composite resin materials are now widely used in dentistry. Most resins are polymerized by light sources which have a powerful emission of visible light and a small emission in the ultraviolet light A spectrum (UV-A 320-400 mm). Possible eye damage, induced by such light, has been investigated, but the effects on the oral mucosa, which is directly exposed to the light, have been examined in only one animal study. Langerhans cells (LC) are dendritic non-epithelial cells which form a network within stratified epithelia. LC have features of macrophages, functions as antigen-presenting cells, and play an important role in the immune system associated with skin and oral mucosa. Pilot studies on human skin transplanted to nude mice showed that radiation with small therapeutic doses from a dental light curing unit (DLU) having only a small fraction of UV-light can reduce or deplete the OKT6 surface marker of LC in human epithelium. Further investigation of the photobiologic mechanisms involved spectral analyses of the emmission from the lamps and construction of a suitable light source for establishing an action spectrum for LC in the UV-A range. The action spectrum for LC in the UV-A range was obtained by exposing human skin, grafted to nude mice, to monochromatic light with a band pass of 5-10 nm. Criterion for threshold doses was total depletion of LC, visualized by staining with known LC-markers, monoclonal antibodies OKT6, DAKO-Vimentin, DAKO-HLA-DR and DAKO-S-100. The action spectrum for LC consisted of a biphasic curve, with a non-linear, strong wave-length dependency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1412043

  3. 38 CFR 52.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dental services. 52.170 Section 52.170 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.170 Dental services. (a)...

  4. 38 CFR 52.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dental services. 52.170 Section 52.170 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.170 Dental services. (a)...

  5. 38 CFR 52.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dental services. 52.170 Section 52.170 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.170 Dental services. (a)...

  6. 38 CFR 52.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dental services. 52.170 Section 52.170 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.170 Dental services. (a)...

  7. Concentration- and time-dependent response of human gingival fibroblasts to fibroblast growth factor 2 immobilized on titanium dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qianli; Wang, Wei; Chu, Paul K; Mei, Shenglin; Ji, Kun; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Yumei

    2012-01-01

    Background Titanium (Ti) implants are widely used clinically, but peri-implantitis remains one of the most common and serious complications. Healthy integration between gingival tissue and the implant surface is critical to long-term success in dental implant therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate how different concentrations of immobilized fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on the titania nanotubular surface influence the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Methods Pure Ti metal was anodized at 20 V to form a vertically organized titanium dioxide nanotube array on which three concentrations of FGF2 (250 ng/mL, 500 ng/mL, or 1000 ng/mL) were immobilized by repeated lyophilization. Surface topography was observed and FGF2 elution was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The bioactivity changes of dissolvable immobilized FGF2 were measured by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay. Behavior of HGFs was evaluated using adhesion and methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide assays. Results The FGF2 remained for several days on the modified surface on which HGFs were cultured. Over 90% of the dissolvable immobilized FGF2 had been eluted by Day 9, whereas the FGF2 activity was found to diminish gradually from Day 1 to Day 9. The titania nanotubular surface with an optimal preparing concentration (500 ng/mL) of FGF2 immobilization exhibited improved HGF functions such as cellular attachment, proliferation, and extracellular matrix-related gene expression. Moreover, significant bidirectional as well as concentration- and time-dependent bioactivity was observed. Conclusion Synergism of the FGF2-impregnated titanium dioxide nanotubular surface revealed good gingival-implant integration, indicating that these materials might have promising applications in dentistry and other biomedical devices. PMID:22619534

  8. Hypoxia Promotes CEMP1 Expression and Induces Cementoblastic Differentiation of Human Dental Stem Cells in an HIF-1-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hwajung; Jin, Hexiu; Kim, Jin-Young; Lim, Ki-Taek; Choung, Han-Wool; Park, Joo-Young

    2014-01-01

    Cementum covering the tooth root provides attachment for the tooth proper to the surrounding alveolar bone via non-mineralized periodontal ligament (PDL). Cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) has been shown to induce a cementoblastic phenotype in cementoblast precursors cells of PDL. Oxygen availability is a critical signal for correct development of many tissues; however, its role in tooth root and periodontium development remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that reduced oxygen tension increased CEMP1 expression, mineral deposition, and alkaline phosphatase activity in human dental stem cells such as PDL stem cells and periapical follicular stem cells. Since an oxemic state is transduced by the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), we performed experiments to determine whether this protein was responsible for the observed changes. We noted that when HIF-1 was activated by gene introduction or chemically, CEMP1 expression and mineralization increased. In contrast, when HIF-1α was silenced, CEMP1 expression and mineralization did not increase in vitro. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that mouse tooth root and periodontium development occurs partly under hypoxic conditions, particularly at the apical part and latently at the PDL space in vivo. Desferrioxamine, an HIF-1 stimulator, enhances CEMP1 expression in the mouse PDL space, suggesting that hypoxia affects cementogenesis of PDL cells lining the surface of the developing tooth root in an HIF-1-dependent manner. These results suggest that HIF-1 activators may have the ability to stimulate regeneration of the tooth root and cementum formation. PMID:24117017

  9. Aseptic Raman spectroscopy can detect changes associated with the culture of human dental pulp stromal cells in osteoinductive culture

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Adam; Ashton, Lorna; Yang, Xuebin B.; Goodacre, Royston; Tomlinson, Matthew J.; Smith, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for the non-invasive characterisation of stem cells to facilitate the translation of cell-based therapies. Raman spectroscopy has proven utility in stem cell characterisation but as yet no method has been reported capable of taking repeated Raman measurements of living cells aseptically over time. The aim of this study was to determine if Raman spectroscopy could be used to monitor changes in a well characterised cell population (human dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs)) by taking repeated Raman measurements from the same cell populations in osteoinductive culture over time and under aseptic conditions. DPSCs were isolated from extracted premolar teeth from 3 consenting donors. Following in vitro expansion, DPSCs were maintained for 28 days in osteo-inductive medium. Raman spectra were acquired from the cells at days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14 and 28. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to assess if there was any temporal spectral variation. At day 28, osteoinduction was confirmed using alizarin red staining and qRT-PCR for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Alizarin red staining was positive in all samples at day 28 and significant increases in alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.001) and osteocalcin (p < 0.05) gene expression were also observed compared with day 0. PCA of the Raman data demonstrated trends in PC1 from days 0–10, influenced by protein associated features and PC2 from days 10–28, influenced by DNA/RNA associated features. We conclude that spectroscopy can be used to monitor changes in Raman signature with time associated with the osteoinduction of DPSCs using repeated measurements via an aseptic methodology. PMID:26374253

  10. Chitosan scaffolds induce human dental pulp stem cells to neural differentiation: potential roles for spinal cord injury therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinlong; Lu, Xiaohui; Feng, Guijuan; Gu, Zhifeng; Sun, Yuyu; Bao, Guofeng; Xu, Guanhua; Lu, Yuanzhou; Chen, Jiajia; Xu, Lingfeng; Feng, Xingmei; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based transplantation strategies hold great potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. Chitosan scaffolds have therapeutic benefits for spinal cord regeneration. Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are abundant available stem cells with low immunological incompatibility and can be considered for cell replacement therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of chitosan scaffolds in the neural differentiation of DPSCs in vitro and to assess the supportive effects of chitosan scaffolds in an animal model of SCI. DPSCs were incubated with chitosan scaffolds. Cell viability and the secretion of neurotrophic factors were analyzed. DPSCs incubated with chitosan scaffolds were treated with neural differentiation medium for 14 days and then neural genes and protein markers were analyzed by Western blot and reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction. Our study revealed a higher cell viability and neural differentiation in the DPSC/chitosan-scaffold group. Compared with the control group, the levels of BDNF, GDNF, b-NGF, and NT-3 were significantly increased in the DPSC/chitosan-scaffold group. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway played a key role in the neural differentiation of DPSCs combined with chitosan scaffolds. Transplantation of DPSCs together with chitosan scaffolds into an SCI rat model resulted in the marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Thus, chitosan scaffolds were non-cytotoxic and provided a conducive and favorable microenvironment for the survival and neural differentiation of DPSCs. Transplantation of DPSCs might therefore be a suitable candidate for treating SCI and other neuronal degenerative diseases. PMID:27147262

  11. TrAmplification of Human Dental Follicle Cells by piggyBac Transposon - Mediated Reversible Immortalization System

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Feng, Ge; Song, Jinlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yong; Huang, Lan; Zheng, Leilei; Deng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Dental follicle cells (DFCs) are the precursor cells of periodontium. Under certain differentiation conditions, DFCs can be induced to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic cells. However, DFCs has limited lifespan in vitro, so it’s difficult to harvest enough cells for basic research and translational application. pMPH86 is a piggyBac transposon-mediated vector which contains SV40 T-Ag cassette that can be removed by flippase recognition target (FRT) recombinase. Here we demonstrated the pMPH86 can effectively amplify human DFCs through reversible immortalization. The immortalized DFCs (iDFCs) exhibit higher proliferate activity, which can be reversed to its original level before immortalization when deimmortalized by FLP recombinase. The iDFCs and deimmortalized DFCs (dDFCs) express most DFC markers and maintain multiple differentiation potential in vitro as they can be induced by BMP9 to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic cells evidenced by gene expression and protein marker. We also proved telomerase activity of iDFCs are significantly increased and maintained at a high level, while the telomerase activity of primary DFCs was relatively low and decreased with every passage. After SV40 T-Ag was removed to deimmortalize the cells, telomerase activity was reduced to its original level before immortalization and decreased with passages just the same as primary DFCs. These results suggest that piggyBac immortalization system could be a potential strategy to amplify primary cells, which is critical for regenerative research and further clinical application. PMID:26172849

  12. Effect of low-level laser irradiation on proliferation and viability of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zaccara, Ivana Maria; Ginani, Fernanda; Mota-Filho, Haroldo Gurgel; Henriques, Águida Cristina Gomes; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão

    2015-12-01

    A positive effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the proliferation of some cell types has been observed, but little is known about its effect on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). The aim of this study was to identify the lowest energy density able to promote the proliferation of DPSCs and to maintain cell viability. Human DPSCs were isolated from two healthy third molars. In the third passage, the cells were irradiated or not (control) with an InGaAlP diode laser at 0 and 48 h using two different energy densities (0.5 and 1.0 J/cm²). Cell proliferation and viability and mitochondrial activity were evaluated at intervals of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the first laser application. Apoptosis- and cell cycle-related events were analyzed by flow cytometry. The group irradiated with an energy density of 1.0 J/cm² exhibited an increase of cell proliferation, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the control group at 72 and 96 h. No significant changes in cell viability were observed throughout the experiment. The distribution of cells in the cell cycle phases was consistent with proliferating cells in all three groups. We concluded that LLLI, particularly a dose of 1.0 J/cm², contributed to the growth of DPSCs and maintenance of its viability. This fact indicates this therapy to be an important future tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involving stem cells.

  13. Magnetic Nanocomposite Scaffold-Induced Stimulation of Migration and Odontogenesis of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Integrin Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Lee, Eui-Suk; Kim, Mi-joo; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-cheol

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is an intriguing physical cue that can alter the behaviors of a broad range of cells. Nanocomposite scaffolds that exhibit magnetic properties are thus considered useful 3D matrix for culture of cells and their fate control in repair and regeneration processes. Here we produced magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds made of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and polycaprolactone (PCL), and the effects of the scaffolds on the adhesion, growth, migration and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were investigated. Furthermore, the associated signaling pathways were examined in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms in the cellular events. The magnetic scaffolds incorporated with MNPs at varying concentrations (up to 10%wt) supported cellular adhesion and multiplication over 2 weeks, showing good viability. The cellular constructs in the nanocomposite scaffolds played significant roles in the stimulation of adhesion, migration and odontogenesis of HDPCs. Cells were shown to adhere to substantially higher number when affected by the magnetic scaffolds. Cell migration tested by in vitro wound closure model was significantly enhanced by the magnetic scaffolds. Furthermore, odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs, as assessed by the alkaline phosphatase activity, mRNA expressions of odontogenic markers (DMP-1, DSPP,osteocalcin, and ostepontin), and alizarin red staining, was significantly stimulated by the magnetic scaffolds. Signal transduction was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy. The magnetic scaffolds upregulated the integrin subunits (α1, α2, β1 and β3) and activated downstream pathways, such as FAK, paxillin, p38, ERK MAPK, and NF-κB. The current study reports for the first time the significant impact of magnetic scaffolds in stimulating HDPC behaviors, including cell migration and odontogenesis, implying the potential usefulness of the magnetic scaffolds for dentin-pulp tissue engineering.

  14. ICP-MS multielemental determination of metals potentially released from dental implants and articular prostheses in human biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-González, Alejandro; Marchante-Gayón, Juan Manuel; Tejerina-Lobo, José María; Paz-Jiménez, José; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2005-06-01

    A sector field high-resolution (HR)-ICP-MS and an octapole reaction system (ORS)-ICP-MS have been compared for the simultaneous determination of traces of metals (Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Mo) released from dental implants and articular prostheses in human biological fluids. Optimum sample treatments were evaluated to minimize matrix effects in urine and whole blood. Urine samples were diluted tenfold with ultrapure water, whereas whole blood samples were digested with high-purity nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and finally diluted tenfold with ultrapure water. In both matrices, internal standardization (Ga and Y) was employed to avoid potential matrix interferences and ICP-MS signal drift. Spectral interferences arising from the plasma gases or the major components of urine and whole blood were identified by (HR)-ICP-MS at 3,000 resolving power. The capabilities of (HR)-ICP-MS and (ORS)-ICP-MS for the removal of such spectral interferences were evaluated and compared. Results indicate that polyatomic interferences, which hamper the determination of such metallic elements in these biological samples, could be overcome by using a resolving power of 3,000. Using (ORS)-ICP-MS, all those elements could be quantified except Ti and V (due to the polyatomic ions 31P16O and 35Cl16O, respectively). The accuracy of the proposed methodologies by (HR)- and (ORS)-ICP-MS was checked against two reference materials. Good agreement between the given values and the concentrations obtained for all the analytes under scrutiny was found except for Ti and V when analyzed by (ORS)-ICP-MS. PMID:15877222

  15. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S.; Kukurba, Kim R.; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Seibold, Max A.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  16. Division of labor by sex and age in Neandertals: an approach through the study of activity-related dental wear.

    PubMed

    Estalrrich, Almudena; Rosas, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of activity-related dental wear patterns in prehistoric anatomically modern humans and modern hunter-gatherers has shown sex differences attributable to a gendered division of labor. Neandertals are known to have extensive anterior dental wear related to the use of their front teeth as a tool. In this study we analyze the i) cultural striations (scratches on the labial surface of the anterior teeth with a cut-mark morphology), and ii) dental chipping (ante-mortem microfracture involving enamel or both enamel and dentine) in 19 Neandertal individuals from the l'Hortus (France), Spy (Belgium), and El Sidrón (Spain) sites, and compare the characteristics of those traits with the age and sex estimation for the individuals and among samples. The study reveals that all individuals have cultural striations, but those detected on the adult females are longer than the striations found in adult males. Regarding the distribution of dental chipping, the prevalence of this trait is higher in the maxillary dentition of males whereas females have the majority of dental chipping on their mandibular teeth. The differences detected on the overall activity-related dental wear pattern denote a difference or a division of labor by age and sex in Neandertals while using the mouth as a third hand, i.e., in activities other than the provisioning of food, and provide new evidence for the lifestyle of this Pleistocene fossil human species. PMID:25681013

  17. Division of labor by sex and age in Neandertals: an approach through the study of activity-related dental wear.

    PubMed

    Estalrrich, Almudena; Rosas, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of activity-related dental wear patterns in prehistoric anatomically modern humans and modern hunter-gatherers has shown sex differences attributable to a gendered division of labor. Neandertals are known to have extensive anterior dental wear related to the use of their front teeth as a tool. In this study we analyze the i) cultural striations (scratches on the labial surface of the anterior teeth with a cut-mark morphology), and ii) dental chipping (ante-mortem microfracture involving enamel or both enamel and dentine) in 19 Neandertal individuals from the l'Hortus (France), Spy (Belgium), and El Sidrón (Spain) sites, and compare the characteristics of those traits with the age and sex estimation for the individuals and among samples. The study reveals that all individuals have cultural striations, but those detected on the adult females are longer than the striations found in adult males. Regarding the distribution of dental chipping, the prevalence of this trait is higher in the maxillary dentition of males whereas females have the majority of dental chipping on their mandibular teeth. The differences detected on the overall activity-related dental wear pattern denote a difference or a division of labor by age and sex in Neandertals while using the mouth as a third hand, i.e., in activities other than the provisioning of food, and provide new evidence for the lifestyle of this Pleistocene fossil human species.

  18. Stem cells: Sources, and regenerative therapies in dental research and practice

    PubMed Central

    Aly, Lobna Abdel Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are considered to be among the principle scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century for the future of medicine, and considered to be an important weapon to fight against diseases, particularly those that have resisted the efforts of science for a long time. Human dental tissues have limited potentials to regenerate but the discovery of dental stem cells have developed new and surprising scenario in regenerative dentistry. Stem cell treatments are one example of the possibility using adult cells sourced from patients’ own bodies’ means that it can be expected that in the near future such treatments may become routine at dental practices. The hope is that it will become possible to regenerate bone and dental tissues including the periodontal ligament, dental pulp and enamel, and that the creation of new teeth may also become feasible. In view of this possibility of achieving restoration with regenerative medicine, it can be considered that a new era of dentistry is beginning. Thus the aim of this review is to give dental professionals a brief overview of different stem cells sources and the latest findings and their implications for improving oral health and treating certain conditions of the human mouth and face. PMID:26328020

  19. Environmental effects on skeletal versus dental development II: further testing of a basic assumption in human osteological research.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E L N; Cardoso, H F V

    2011-03-01

    This study further tests the general assumption that skeletal development is more sensitive to socioeconomic factors than dental development in a sample of modern immature Portuguese skeletons (N = 41) of known sex, age, and socioeconomic background. Skeletal development was assessed from skeletal maturation of the knee and dental development was assessed from schedules of tooth formation. Discrepancies between physiological age (skeletal and dental age) and chronological age were used as a measure of developmental status. A positive score indicates that physiological age is in advance of chronological age, whereas a negative score indicates the reverse. Two socioeconomic groups, one of low and the other of high socioeconomic status, were created based on the occupation of the father and on the place of residence, and developmental status was compared between the two socioeconomic groups. Results confirm previous studies by showing that dental development is less affected by environmental insults than skeletal maturation. While socioeconomic differences in skeletal maturation range from 1.20 to 1.22 years (15-18% of chronological age), socioeconomic differences in dental maturation range from 0.51 to 0.53 years (4-9% of chronological age). Compared to a previous study, results also suggest that skeletal maturation is more affected than skeletal growth. Additionally, an adaptation of the radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the knee is proposed for use with dry skeletal material.

  20. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  1. Three-Dimensional Human Cell Cultures for Cytotoxicity Testing of Dental Filling Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gröppl, Franziska; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Galler, Kerstin M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives So far, bovine immortalized pulp cells have been used as three dimensional cultures for cytotoxicity testing of filling materials in the dentin barrier test (DBT). In this study, the use of human pulp-derived cells was evaluated, which would better simulate the clinical situation, and a composite material with a new resin base was tested. Materials and Methods SV40-transfected human pulp cells (tHPC) were cultured in hydrogels (fibrin, peptide, collagen) and mechanical properties and cell viability (MTT or WST-1) were determined. For cell cultures in collagen, a four week - proliferation assay was performed (WST-1). After 14 days of three-dimensional culture in collagen, tHPC were introduced into the DBT with 200 µm dentin disks. After a 24-hour incubation under perfusion (0.3 ml/h), the following materials were applied according to the manufacturers’ instructions (1) President (Coltene): negative (non-toxic) control, (2) CaGPG14 (ISO 7405): positive (toxic) control, (3) Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent) with Clearfil SEBond (Kuraray, reference material), (4) N´Durance (Sepodont, test material), (5) N´Durance with Clearfil SEBond. Cell viability was determined after 24-hour incubation (WST-1). The percentage of relative viability was calculated (negative control=100%) and statistically analyzed (Kruskal-Wallis-test, p<0.05). Results Fibrin and peptide gels had insufficient mechanical properties for the DBT Collagen and appeared suitable for three-dimensional cell culture of tHPC for up to 21 days. The cultures could be transferred to the DBT device and results for controls were similar to previous tests with bovine cells. The DBT using tHPC in the collagen showed no statistically significant difference between the test material with and without the adhesive and the reference resin composite. Conclusions tHPC in collagen can replace bovine cells in the DBT. The tested filling material is not likely to cause pulp damage, if the pulp is covered by an

  2. Three-Dimensional Human Cell Cultures for Cytotoxicity Testing of Dental Filling Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gröppl, Franziska; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Galler, Kerstin M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives So far, bovine immortalized pulp cells have been used as three dimensional cultures for cytotoxicity testing of filling materials in the dentin barrier test (DBT). In this study, the use of human pulp-derived cells was evaluated, which would better simulate the clinical situation, and a composite material with a new resin base was tested. Materials and Methods SV40-transfected human pulp cells (tHPC) were cultured in hydrogels (fibrin, peptide, collagen) and mechanical properties and cell viability (MTT or WST-1) were determined. For cell cultures in collagen, a four week - proliferation assay was performed (WST-1). After 14 days of three-dimensional culture in collagen, tHPC were introduced into the DBT with 200 µm dentin disks. After a 24-hour incubation under perfusion (0.3 ml/h), the following materials were applied according to the manufacturers’ instructions (1) President (Coltene): negative (non-toxic) control, (2) CaGPG14 (ISO 7405): positive (toxic) control, (3) Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent) with Clearfil SEBond (Kuraray, reference material), (4) N´Durance (Sepodont, test material), (5) N´Durance with Clearfil SEBond. Cell viability was determined after 24-hour incubation (WST-1). The percentage of relative viability was calculated (negative control=100%) and statistically analyzed (Kruskal-Wallis-test, p<0.05). Results Fibrin and peptide gels had insufficient mechanical properties for the DBT Collagen and appeared suitable for three-dimensional cell culture of tHPC for up to 21 days. The cultures could be transferred to the DBT device and results for controls were similar to previous tests with bovine cells. The DBT using tHPC in the collagen showed no statistically significant difference between the test material with and without the adhesive and the reference resin composite. Conclusions tHPC in collagen can replace bovine cells in the DBT. The tested filling material is not likely to cause pulp damage, if the pulp is covered by an

  3. 77 FR 74676 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, One Democracy Plaza, Room 670,...

  4. 77 FR 14816 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated below... National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research, including consideration of personnel...

  5. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... of Dental and Craniofacial Research, One Democracy Plaza, Room 670, Bethesda, MD 20892-4878,...

  6. 78 FR 56902 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special..., Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, One Democracy Plaza,...

  7. 75 FR 993 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Review Branch, National Inst of Dental & Craniofacial Research, NIH 6701 Democracy Blvd., Room 672,...

  8. 76 FR 80953 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research.... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Dental and Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Dental and Craniofacial Research Council....

  9. 77 FR 8268 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research,...

  10. 77 FR 40369 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Rm. 676,...

  11. 77 FR 6812 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research,...

  12. 78 FR 24761 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Design and Development of Novel Dental Composite Restorative Systems Review Panel....

  13. 76 FR 79202 - National Institute Of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special..., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Inst of Dental & Craniofacial...

  14. 75 FR 39547 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Review Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, One Democracy Plaza, Room...

  15. 76 FR 5184 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special..., Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, 6701 Democracy Blvd.,...

  16. 76 FR 22111 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated below... National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research, including consideration of personnel...

  17. 75 FR 28031 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special....gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis...

  18. 76 FR 1444 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Insitutes of Health, 6701 Democracy Blvd, Room 664,...

  19. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special...: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Review of R01 &...

  20. 76 FR 28793 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... Review Branch, National Inst of Dental & Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Agenda: Review...

  1. 75 FR 2146 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special..., Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research/NIH, 6701 Democracy...

  2. 76 FR 66077 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated below... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & CRANIOFACIAL RESEARCH, including consideration of personnel...

  3. 75 FR 7486 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental...

  4. 76 FR 57061 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Kelly, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Inst of Dental &...

  5. 75 FR 7485 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special..., National Inst of Dental & Craniofacial Research, NIH 6701 Democracy Blvd., Room 672, MSC 4878, Bethesda,...

  6. 75 FR 26762 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. ] Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special..., National Inst of Dental & Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Democracy, Rm...

  7. 78 FR 67178 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special...., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial...

  8. 76 FR 28996 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Branch, National Inst of Dental & Craniofacial Research, NIH, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Room 672, MSC...

  9. 77 FR 2987 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Review Officer, Natl Inst of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health,...

  10. 78 FR 24762 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated below... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DENTAL & CRANIOFACIAL RESEARCH, including consideration of personnel...

  11. 76 FR 20693 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special..., National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, One Democracy Plaza, Room 670, Bethesda, MD...

  12. 77 FR 59202 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Branch, National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  13. 77 FR 10539 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial, Research, 6701 Democracy Blvd.,...

  14. 77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated below... National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research, including consideration of personnel...

  15. 75 FR 58409 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, ] National Inst of Dental & Craniofacial Research, NIH...

  16. 77 FR 10539 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National In