Science.gov

Sample records for adult human subjects

  1. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  2. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study on acceptability, safety and efficacy of oral administration of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.) in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to assess acceptability and side-effects of consumption of sacha inchi oil, rich in α-linolenic acid and sunflower oil, rich in linoleic acid, in adult human subjects. Thirty subjects received 10 or 15ml daily of sacha inchi or sunflower oil for 4months. Acceptability was assessed with daily self-report and with a Likert test at the end of the study. Safety was assessed with self- recording of side-effects and with hepatic and renal markers. Primary efficacy variables were the change in lipid profile. Subjects reported low acceptability of sacha inchi oil at week-1 (37.5%). However, since week-6, acceptability was significantly increased to 81.25-93.75%. No differences were observed in acceptability with respect to sex or oil volume (P>0.05). Most frequent adverse effects during first weeks of consuming sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil were nauseas. The side-effects were reduced with time. Biochemical markers of hepatic and kidney function were maintained unchanged. Serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels and arterial blood pressure were lowered with both oils (P<0.05). Higher HDL-cholesterol was observed with sacha inchi oil at month-4. In conclusion, sacha inchi oil consumed has good acceptability after week-1 of consumption and it is safety. PMID:24389453

  3. Gastric digestion of α-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

    2014-08-28

    In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of α-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of α-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of α-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between α-LA and OA. PMID:24967992

  4. Human research subjects as human research workers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Holly Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. But in several ways, the regulatory scheme governing human subjects research is counter-intuitively less protective than the labor and employment laws applicable to many workers. This Article relies on analogical and legal reasoning to demonstrate that this should not be the case; in a number of ways, human research subjects ought to be fundamentally recast as human research workers. Like other workers protected under worklaw, biomedical research subjects often have interests that diverge from those in positions of control but little bargaining power for change. Bearing these important similarities in mind, the question becomes whether there is any good reason to treat subjects and protected workers differently as a matter of law. With regard to unrestricted payment, eligibility for a minimum wage, compensation for injury, and rights to engage in concerted activity, the answer is no and human subjects regulations ought to be revised accordingly. PMID:25051653

  5. Human metapneumovirus in adults.

    PubMed

    Haas, Lenneke E M; Thijsen, Steven F T; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  6. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  7. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  8. The Making of Entrepreneurial Subjectivity in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi; Brunila, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the idea of entrepreneurial subjectivity and the ways in which it is shaped by the entrepreneurial discourse in adult education. As a result, we argue that educational practices related to adults form a particular kind of ideal subjectivity that we refer to as entrepreneurial. In order to understand how this entrepreneurial…

  9. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION IN HUMAN SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty human subjects with asthma and chronic bronchitis and ten normal, healthy adults were exposed to 0.5 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for two hours in an environmental chamber. They engaged in one 15-minute, light to medium-exercise stint on a bicycle ergometer during this pe...

  10. Reassessing Subjectivity, Criticality, and Inclusivity: Marcuse's Challenge to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Although Herbert Marcuse did not write as an adult educator, his analysis of subjectivity, criticality, and inclusivity has implications for adult education. He demonstrated how apparently humanistic tolerance for diversity can be manipulated to reinforce dominant ideology, and he made a case for aesthetic education as a site for critical…

  11. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  12. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  13. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  14. Comparative estimates of density and species diversity in adult mosquito populations landing on a human subject and captured using light and suction traps.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative responses of 21 species of mosquitoes to light traps (LT) and suction traps (ST) and captured using the human landing collection method (HL) varied in accordance with collection technique but data analyses for most species revealed significant interaction between collection method and th...

  15. Unequal Treatment of Human Research Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Unequal treatment of human research subjects is a significant ethical concern, because justice requires that equals be treated equally. If two research subjects are the same in the relevant respects, they should be treated equally. However, not all human subjects are the same in relevant respects: people differ with respect to age, health, gender, race, mental abilities, socioeconomic status, and other characteristics. Disputes sometimes arise concerning the issue of whether subjects are the same in relevant respects and should therefore be treated equally. Allegedly unequal treatment occurs when subjects are treated differently and there is a serious dispute about whether subjects are the same in relevant respects. Patently unequal treatment occurs when there is no significant dispute about whether subjects are the same in relevant respects and they are treated unequally. Research regulations can help to minimize patently unequal treatment by providing rules for investigators, institutional review boards, institutions, and sponsors to follow. However, patently unequal treatment may still occur because the regulations are subject to interpretation. Additional guidance may be necessary to minimize patently unequal treatment of research subjects. PMID:24879129

  16. Human Subjects Research and the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubitskey, Beth W.; Thomsen, Marshall

    2012-09-01

    Physics Education Research is a form of social science research in that it uses human subjects. As physicists we need to be aware of the ethical and legal ramifications of performing this research, taking into account the fundamental differences between working with substances and working with people. For several decades, the federal government has regulated research involving human subjects. With current procedures, a proposal soliciting federal funds for a research project involving human subjects will be flagged by the applicants institution and checked for compliance with appropriate regulations. However, there is a large body of Physics Education Research that is not federally funded and thus may not be flagged. Nevertheless, there are ethical standards that apply to this research. This paper outlines the preliminary considerations for conducting such research.

  17. Protection of Human Subjects: Proposed Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1974

    1974-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 30, 1974, regulations were published as Part 46 of Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations providing generally for the protection of human subjects involved in research, development, or related activities supported by Department of Health, Education, and Welfare grants or contracts. This notice of proposed…

  18. Subjective benefit of communication aids evaluated by postlingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Rihkanen, H

    1990-06-01

    Three groups of postlingually deaf adults were selected, trained and followed for about 2 years. The subjects with residual hearing were fitted with a powerful hearing aid (HA group, N = 10), the rest were given a single channel vibrotactile aid (V group, N = 8) or received a single channel cochlear implant (CI group, N = 10). The subjects were asked to evaluate the subjective benefit, disadvantage and magnitude of hearing impairment after the rehabilitation. Although the HA group achieved the highest scores in the audiological tests, the interviews revealed that the CI group found the implant quite beneficial in everyday life and in changing their attitude towards the handicap. After 2 years of use, this group reported the highest index of benefit, the best discrimination of everyday sounds and used the device most frequently. The V group were not as satisfied with their devices as the CI and HA groups. PMID:2364187

  19. Photodegradation of carotenoids in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    Photodegradation of vitamins in vitro is responsible for large losses of these nutrients in foods, beverages, and semisynthetic liquid formula diets. In vivo photodegradation of vitamins has been reported for riboflavin in jaundiced infants exposed to blue light and for folate in patients with chronic psoriasis given photochemotherapy. Two recent studies of normal subjects have also shown that photodegradation of carotenoids in plasma occurs with cumulative exposure of the skin to an artificial light source having maximal spectral emission in the UVA range. Females showed a larger effect of the UV light on their plasma carotenoid levels than males. These observations have identified a need for further investigation of the role of sunlight exposure as a determinant of plasma carotenoid levels and vitamin A status in human subjects.

  20. Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, K. T.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Das, H.; Putcha, L.

    2005-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of symptoms associated with space motion sickness in astronauts. Side effects of PMZ include sedation, dizziness and cognitive performance impairment. In this study, we examined pharmacodynamics (PD) in human subjects and validated methods for evaluating cognitive performance effects of medications in space. METHODS: PMZ (12.5,25, and 50 mg) or placebo was administered by IM injection to human subjects in a randomized double-blind treatment design. Samples and data were collected for 72 h post dose. PD evaluation was performed using a battery of performance tests administered using WinSCAT (Windows based Space Cognitive Assessment Test) on a laptop computer, and ARES (ANAM Readiness Evaluation System) on a PDA, plasma concentrations of PMZ were measured using a LC-MS method. RESULTS: Results indicate a linear correlation between PMZ concentration and cognitive performance parameters (p<0.01). Test accuracy decreased and test completion time and response time increased significantly with increasing plasma PMZ concentration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a concentration dependent decrement in cognitive performance associated with PMZ. WinSCAT and ARES are sensitive tools for the assessment PMZ PD and may be applicable for such evaluations with other neurocognitive drugs.

  1. Assessment of food chemical intolerance in adult asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, L.; Yan, K. Y.; Loblay, R. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of food chemical intolerance in asthmatic subjects can be reliably assessed by changes in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in response to double blind, placebo controlled challenges on a strict elimination diet. However, this method is cumbersome and time consuming. A study was undertaken to determine whether changes in bronchial responsiveness to histamine following food chemical challenge without an elimination diet might be a faster, more convenient method. METHODS: Eleven adult asthmatic subjects were challenged twice with metabisulphite, aspirin, monosodium glutamate, artificial food colours, sodium nitrite/ nitrate, 0.5% citric acid solution (placebo), and sucrose (placebo) on separate days. During the first set of challenges subjects consumed a normal diet. Bronchial responsiveness to histamine was assessed 90 minutes after each challenge. A greater than twofold increase in bronchial responsiveness was considered positive. For one month prior to and during the second set of challenges subjects followed a strict elimination diet and FEV1 was monitored during and for two hours after each challenge. A fall in FEV1 of 20% or more was considered positive. RESULTS: Of the 77 food chemical challenges performed on an unmodified diet, 20 were positive (six placebo responses). In two subjects it was not possible to perform a histamine test after one of the chemical challenges because of poor spirometric function. Of the 77 food chemical challenges performed on an elimination diet, 11 were positive (no placebo responses). Excluding the two challenges in which there were no corresponding histamine tests, only on two occasions did the positive responses in both methods coincide, giving the unmodified diet method a sensitivity of 22%. CONCLUSIONS: Strict dietary elimination and measurement of FEV1 after double blind food chemical challenge remains the most reliable method for the detection of food chemical intolerance in

  2. Aspartame metabolism in normal adults, phenylketonuric heterozygotes, and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Filer, L J; Stegink, L D

    1989-01-01

    This study reviews clinical studies testing the effects of various doses of aspartame on blood levels of phenylalanine, aspartate, and methanol in normal subjects and known phenylketonuric heterozygotes. The effect of aspartame on the phenylalanine-to-large neutral amino acid ratio under various feeding situations is shown. The clinical studies of aspartame in diabetic subjects are limited to observations of its effects on blood levels of glucose, lipids, insulin, and glucagon. These studies clearly demonstrate the safety of this high-intensity sweetener for use by humans. PMID:2653751

  3. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  4. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  6. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  7. 48 CFR 352.270-4 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... following provision: Notice to Offerors of Requirements of 45 CFR Part 46, Protection of Human Subjects... protection of human subjects, 45 CFR Part 46, are available from the Office for Human Research Protections... directly regulated by 45 CFR Part 46. (c) Activities in which the only involvement of human subjects...

  8. 48 CFR 352.270-4 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following provision: Notice to Offerors of Requirements of 45 CFR Part 46, Protection of Human Subjects... protection of human subjects, 45 CFR Part 46, are available from the Office for Human Research Protections... directly regulated by 45 CFR Part 46. (c) Activities in which the only involvement of human subjects...

  9. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  10. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2016-01-01

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  11. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed. PMID:27517891

  12. The Human Brain Encodes Event Frequencies While Forming Subjective Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    d’Acremont, Mathieu; Schultz, Wolfram; Bossaerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To make adaptive choices, humans need to estimate the probability of future events. Based on a Bayesian approach, it is assumed that probabilities are inferred by combining a priori, potentially subjective, knowledge with factual observations, but the precise neurobiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we study whether neural encoding centers on subjective posterior probabilities, and data merely lead to updates of posteriors, or whether objective data are encoded separately alongside subjective knowledge. During fMRI, young adults acquired prior knowledge regarding uncertain events, repeatedly observed evidence in the form of stimuli, and estimated event probabilities. Participants combined prior knowledge with factual evidence using Bayesian principles. Expected reward inferred from prior knowledge was encoded in striatum. BOLD response in specific nodes of the default mode network (angular gyri, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex) encoded the actual frequency of stimuli, unaffected by prior knowledge. In this network, activity increased with frequencies and thus reflected the accumulation of evidence. In contrast, Bayesian posterior probabilities, computed from prior knowledge and stimulus frequencies, were encoded in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Here activity increased for improbable events and thus signaled the violation of Bayesian predictions. Thus, subjective beliefs and stimulus frequencies were encoded in separate cortical regions. The advantage of such a separation is that objective evidence can be recombined with newly acquired knowledge when a reinterpretation of the evidence is called for. Overall this study reveals the coexistence in the brain of an experience-based system of inference and a knowledge-based system of inference. PMID:23804108

  13. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  14. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  15. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  16. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  17. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  18. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  19. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  20. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  1. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  2. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  3. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  4. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  5. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  6. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  7. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  8. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately. PMID:22024809

  9. 48 CFR 1523.303-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....

  10. 48 CFR 352.270-4 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 352.270-4 Section 352.270-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.270-4 Protection of human subjects. (a) As...

  11. 48 CFR 352.270-4 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 352.270-4 Section 352.270-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.270-4 Protection of human subjects. (a) As...

  12. 48 CFR 352.270-4 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 352.270-4 Section 352.270-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.270-4 Protection of human subjects. (a) As...

  13. 48 CFR 1523.303-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....

  14. 48 CFR 1523.303-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....

  15. 48 CFR 1523.303-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....

  16. 48 CFR 1523.303-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human... Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-70 Protection of human subjects. Contracting Officers shall insert the contract clause at 1552.223-70 when the contract involves human test subjects....

  17. BIOAVAILABILITY OF HALOACETATES IN HUMAN SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to characterize the absorption, disposition and oral bioavailability of chlorinated and brominated haloacetates in human volunteers after consumption of drinking water containing a natural mixture of these compounds. We hypothesize that accurat...

  18. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1221e-3 and 3474) Cross reference: See 34 CFR part 97—Protection of Human Subjects. ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of...

  19. 48 CFR 1252.223-72 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 1252.223-72 Section 1252.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.223-72 Protection of human subjects....

  20. 48 CFR 1252.223-72 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 1252.223-72 Section 1252.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.223-72 Protection of human subjects....

  1. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 1552.223-70 Section 1552.223-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects....

  2. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  3. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  4. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  5. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  6. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  7. 48 CFR 3424.170 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... generalizable knowledge. (34 CFR 97.102(d)) Research is considered to involve human subjects when a researcher... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97. (b) The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452... exempt under the regulations, and the exemptions are in 34 CFR part 97. (a) The contracting officer...

  8. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1221e-3 and 3474) Cross reference: See 34 CFR part 97—Protection of Human Subjects. ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of...

  9. 48 CFR 3424.170 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... generalizable knowledge. (34 CFR 97.102(d)) Research is considered to involve human subjects when a researcher... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97. (b) The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452... exempt under the regulations, and the exemptions are in 34 CFR part 97. (a) The contracting officer...

  10. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1221e-3 and 3474) Cross Reference: See 34 CFR part 97—Protection of Human Subjects. ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of...

  11. 48 CFR 3424.170 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... generalizable knowledge. (34 CFR 97.102(d)) Research is considered to involve human subjects when a researcher... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97. (b) The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452... exempt under the regulations, and the exemptions are in 34 CFR part 97. (a) The contracting officer...

  12. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 1221e-3 and 3474) Cross Reference: See 34 CFR part 97—Protection of Human Subjects. ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of...

  13. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1221e-3 and 3474) Cross reference: See 34 CFR part 97—Protection of Human Subjects. ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of...

  14. 48 CFR 3424.170 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... generalizable knowledge. (34 CFR 97.102(d)) Research is considered to involve human subjects when a researcher... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97. (b) The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452... exempt under the regulations, and the exemptions are in 34 CFR part 97. (a) The contracting officer...

  15. Human pancreatic polypeptide in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, A; Chalew, S; Kowarski, A A

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of human pancreatic polypeptide may be useful for assessment of gastrointestinal function, integrity of the parasympathetic nervous system or screening for endocrine neoplasia. In adults hPP levels have been reported to increase with age. However hPP levels throughout childhood have not been well characterized in comparison with the adult range. We studied fasting human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) from 45 pediatric patients, from infancy - 15 years, and 18 older adolescents and adults aged 16-45 years. The mean hPP level of children (233 +/- 147 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that (113 +/- 35 pg/ml) of adults (P less than .0001). There was no difference in mean hPP levels of children with normal growth hormone secretion compared to growth hormone deficient patients. There was no effect of gender or body mass index on hPP levels. We conclude that fasting hPP levels must be interpreted with respect to the age of the subject, children particularly, in that preteens may have higher fasting levels than older teenagers and adults. PMID:2307392

  16. Interrelations between Subjective Health and Episodic Memory Change in Swedish and Canadian Samples of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B.; Backman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance,…

  17. Subject Retrieval from Full-Text Databases in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, John W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the problems involved in subject retrieval from full-text databases of secondary materials in the humanities. Ten such databases were studied and their search functionality evaluated, focusing on factors such as Boolean operators, document surrogates, limiting by subject area, proximity operators, phrase searching, wildcards,…

  18. Human Adult Cortical Reorganization and Consequent Visual Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Serences, John T.; Rosenau, Benjamin J.; Yantis, Steven; McCloskey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Neural and behavioral evidence for cortical reorganization in the adult somatosensory system after loss of sensory input (e.g., amputation) has been well documented. In contrast, evidence for reorganization in the adult visual system is far less clear: neural evidence is the subject of controversy, behavioral evidence is sparse, and studies combining neural and behavioral evidence have not previously been reported. Here, we report converging behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from a stroke patient (B.L.) in support of cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system. B.L.’s stroke spared the primary visual cortex (V1), but destroyed fibers that normally provide input to V1 from the upper left visual field (LVF). As a consequence, B.L. is blind in the upper LVF, and exhibits distorted perception in the lower LVF: stimuli appear vertically elongated, toward and into the blind upper LVF. For example, a square presented in the lower LVF is perceived as a rectangle extending upward. We hypothesized that the perceptual distortion was a consequence of cortical reorganization in V1. Extensive behavioral testing supported our hypothesis, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) confirmed V1 reorganization. Together, the behavioral and fMRI data show that loss of input to V1 after a stroke leads to cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system, and provide the first evidence that reorganization of the adult visual system affects visual perception. These findings contribute to our understanding of the human adult brain’s capacity to change and has implications for topics ranging from learning to recovery from brain damage. PMID:17804619

  19. 48 CFR 1352.235-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(a), insert the following provision: Protection... from 15 CFR Part 27. These categories may be found at 15 CFR 27.101(b). (c) In the event the human... Department of Commerce at 15 CFR Part 27, requires contractors to maintain appropriate policies...

  20. 48 CFR 1352.235-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... from 15 CFR part 27. These categories may be found at 15 CFR 27.101(b). (c) In the event the human... Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(a), insert the following provision: Protection... Department of Commerce at 15 CFR part 27, requires contractors to maintain appropriate policies...

  1. 48 CFR 1352.235-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(a), insert the following provision: Protection... from 15 CFR part 27. These categories may be found at 15 CFR 27.101(b). (c) In the event the human... Department of Commerce at 15 CFR part 27, requires contractors to maintain appropriate policies...

  2. 48 CFR 1352.235-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(a), insert the following provision: Protection... from 15 CFR part 27. These categories may be found at 15 CFR 27.101(b). (c) In the event the human... Department of Commerce at 15 CFR part 27, requires contractors to maintain appropriate policies...

  3. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  4. Decoding the visual and subjective contents of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Tong, Frank

    2005-05-01

    The potential for human neuroimaging to read out the detailed contents of a person's mental state has yet to be fully explored. We investigated whether the perception of edge orientation, a fundamental visual feature, can be decoded from human brain activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using statistical algorithms to classify brain states, we found that ensemble fMRI signals in early visual areas could reliably predict on individual trials which of eight stimulus orientations the subject was seeing. Moreover, when subjects had to attend to one of two overlapping orthogonal gratings, feature-based attention strongly biased ensemble activity toward the attended orientation. These results demonstrate that fMRI activity patterns in early visual areas, including primary visual cortex (V1), contain detailed orientation information that can reliably predict subjective perception. Our approach provides a framework for the readout of fine-tuned representations in the human brain and their subjective contents. PMID:15852014

  5. The place of the human subject in the operant laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Alan; Perone, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Although laboratory study of human behavior seems an obvious vehicle for strengthening the scientific base of behavior analysis, the place of the human subject within the operant laboratory remains problematic. The prevailing research strategy has been to link principles developed with animals to human affairs, either through interpretation of naturally occurring human behaviors or through application of the principles to the solution of human problems. The paucity of laboratory research on human operant behavior derives from several misconceptions: the possibility that experimental demand characteristics and pre-experimental behavioral dispositions of human subjects contaminate the results; that ethical considerations place undue constraint on research topics and experimental designs; and that uncontrollable variation in subjects' histories and other relevant personal characteristics prevents observation of reliable functional relations. We argue that these problems do not pose insurmountable obstacles to the experimental analysis of human behavior; that adequate methods of control and analysis are available; and that operant techniques, by emphasizing experimentally imposed contingencies, are well suited for the laboratory study of human behavior. PMID:22478566

  6. Adult Biography Reviews in "Booklist": Have the Subjects Changed in Twenty Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Timothy R.

    All adult biographies reviewed in "Booklist" in 1960 through 1964 and 1987 through 1989 were examined to see if the gender, racial or ethnic background, geographic setting, and occupation of the subjects changed over time. A total of 879 reviews from the 1960s and 1,103 reviews from the 1980s were examined. The analysis shows that subjects of…

  7. Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…

  8. Protecting Human Research Subjects: The Past Defines the Future

    PubMed Central

    Breault, Joseph L.

    2006-01-01

    The creation of Institutional Review Boards to assure the protection of research subjects came out of terrible research abuses that resulted in the Belmont Report and federal regulations establishing rules for federally funded research and its independent review. The Common Rule became widely accepted as the way to oversee human research that is funded by federal agencies, or used in FDA submissions. The Office of Human Research Protections, now under the Secretary of DHHS, created Federalwide Assurances with groups that receive federal funding and others, the vast majority of which have agreed to apply the same ethical rules to all research regardless of funding source. There are controversies over the best methods to protect human research subjects, confusion about how to handle some of the gray areas, increased regulatory burdens, and debates about the adequacy of the IRB system. New exciting directions have evolved and overall, research subjects appear better protected than ever. PMID:21765779

  9. The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630

  10. Exchange delays and impulsive choice in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Hyten, C; Madden, G J; Field, D P

    1994-09-01

    Choice responding by adult humans in a discrete-trial task was examined as a function of conditions that manipulated either the delay to point delivery or the delay between points and their exchange for money. In point-delay conditions, subjects chose between an "impulsive" alternative that provided a small amount of points immediately and a "self-control" alternative that provided a larger amount of points delayed by 15, 30, or 60 s. Points were exchanged for money immediately following the session. Subjects preferred the self-control alternative. In exchange-delay conditions, subjects chose between a small amount of points exchangeable for money immediately following the session and a larger amount of points exchangeable for money after 1 day, 3 weeks, or 6 weeks. A self-control preference observed for all subjects in the 1-day exchange-delay condition reversed to exclusive impulsive preference for 4 of the 6 subjects when choice conditions involved exchange delays of 3 or 6 weeks. These results show that human choice is sensitive to the manipulation of exchange delays and that impulsive preference can be obtained with exchange delays on the order of weeks. PMID:7964366

  11. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...

  12. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...

  13. Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Glenn J.; Best, John R.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality decreases with aging and thus sleep complaints are prevalent in older adults, particularly for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. For older adults, emerging evidence suggests poor sleep quality increases risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the aging population—and the impending economic burden associated with increasing numbers of dementia patients—there is pressing need to improve sleep quality among older adults. As such, research efforts have increased focus on investigating the association between age-related sleep changes and cognitive decline in older adults. Sleep quality is a complex construct to evaluate empirically, and yet the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is commonly used in studies as their only measure of sleep quality. Furthermore, the PSQI may not be the best sleep quality measure for older adults, due to its reliance on the cognitive capacity to reflect on the past month. Further study is needed to determine the PSQI's validity among older adults. Thus, the current study examined sleep quality for 78 community dwelling adults 55+ to determine the PSQI's predictive validity for objective sleep quality (as measured by actigraphy). We compared two subjective measures of sleep quality—the PSQI and Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD)—with actigraphy (MotionWatch 8©; camntech). Our results suggest perceived sleep quality is quite different from objective reality, at least for adults 55+. Importantly, we show this difference is unrelated to age, gender, education, or cognitive status (assessed using standard screens). Previous studies have shown the PSQI to be a valuable tool for assessing subjective sleep quality; however, our findings indicate for older adults the PSQI should not be used as a substitute for actigraphy, or vice versa. Hence, we conclude best practice is to include both subjective and objective measures when examining sleep quality in older adults (i.e., the PSQI, CSD, and

  14. Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Best, John R; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality decreases with aging and thus sleep complaints are prevalent in older adults, particularly for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. For older adults, emerging evidence suggests poor sleep quality increases risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the aging population-and the impending economic burden associated with increasing numbers of dementia patients-there is pressing need to improve sleep quality among older adults. As such, research efforts have increased focus on investigating the association between age-related sleep changes and cognitive decline in older adults. Sleep quality is a complex construct to evaluate empirically, and yet the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is commonly used in studies as their only measure of sleep quality. Furthermore, the PSQI may not be the best sleep quality measure for older adults, due to its reliance on the cognitive capacity to reflect on the past month. Further study is needed to determine the PSQI's validity among older adults. Thus, the current study examined sleep quality for 78 community dwelling adults 55+ to determine the PSQI's predictive validity for objective sleep quality (as measured by actigraphy). We compared two subjective measures of sleep quality-the PSQI and Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD)-with actigraphy (MotionWatch 8©; camntech). Our results suggest perceived sleep quality is quite different from objective reality, at least for adults 55+. Importantly, we show this difference is unrelated to age, gender, education, or cognitive status (assessed using standard screens). Previous studies have shown the PSQI to be a valuable tool for assessing subjective sleep quality; however, our findings indicate for older adults the PSQI should not be used as a substitute for actigraphy, or vice versa. Hence, we conclude best practice is to include both subjective and objective measures when examining sleep quality in older adults (i.e., the PSQI, CSD, and actigraphy). PMID

  15. Can Human Subject Pool Participation Benefit Sociology Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Lynn Gencianeo; Gibbs Stayte, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Instructors at non-research institutions are less able to expose their students to research firsthand. Utilizing human subject pools (HSPs) in class may be a solution. Given that HSPs tend to be used in introduction to psychology classes at research institutions, we examine a community college HSP to answer three questions: (1) Do community…

  16. 48 CFR 1352.235-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(a), insert the following provision: Protection... Department of Commerce at 15 CFR part 27, requires contractors to maintain appropriate policies and... from 15 CFR part 27. These categories may be found at 15 CFR 27.101(b). (c) In the event the...

  17. Pedagogy Without Humanism: Foucault and the Subject of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert J. J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the postmodern critique of the modern conception of human subjectivity and what it entails for our understanding of education, noting what this implies for educational practice. The paper refers to the work of Michel Foucault, discussing his ideas against the background of a distinction between education as manipulation and education as…

  18. 48 CFR 1252.223-72 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....223-72 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(b), insert the following... CFR 4.703. (h) Periodic reviews shall be conducted by the Contractor to assure, through appropriate... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of...

  19. 48 CFR 1252.223-72 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....223-72 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(b), insert the following... CFR 4.703. (h) Periodic reviews shall be conducted by the Contractor to assure, through appropriate... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of...

  20. 48 CFR 1252.223-72 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....223-72 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(b), insert the following... CFR 4.703. (h) Periodic reviews shall be conducted by the Contractor to assure, through appropriate... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of...

  1. The Internet Compendium: Subject Guides to Humanities Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Louis; And Others

    This guide describes and evaluates the Internet's humanities resources by subject. It offers information on a multitude of listservs; Usenet newsgroups; forums; electronic journals; topical mailing lists; text archives; Freenets; bulletin boards; FAQs; newsletters; real-time chats; databases; and library catalogs. Internet users can draw upon…

  2. Sleep Pattern Differences Between Older Adult Dementia Caregivers and Older Adult Noncaregivers Using Objective and Subjective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredeth A.; McCrae, Christina S.; Campbell, Judy M.; Pe Benito, Andrea; Cheng, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Informal caregivers of persons with dementia often complain about poor quality sleep; however, studies on caregivers have mixed results when examining sleep values. The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns in a subset of dementia caregivers who provide care during the night, and compare those patterns to noncaregiving adults. Methods: Data from a study on dementia caregivers and from a study of sleep in older adults were used. Both studies used objective and subjective methods to measure sleep in the home setting over a 7-day period. Participants were over 60 years old and relatively healthy. Results: Older dementia caregivers had worse objectively measured sleep than noncaregiving older adults, characterized by fewer minutes asleep and longer time to fall asleep. For subjectively measured sleep, depressive symptoms were the only predictive factor, with depressed participants reporting longer total sleep time, greater sleep onset latency, and wake after sleep onset. Caregivers' sleep had greater night-to-night variability. Conclusions: Caregivers consistently report poorer quality sleep and greater fatigue than noncaregivers. However, when sleep is measured objectively and subjectively, a mixed picture emerges regarding sleep deficits. Thus sleep changes are caused by a multitude of factors affecting sleep in a variety of ways. It is important for health care providers to assess sleep adequacy and depression in caregivers. Citation: Rowe MA; McCrae CS; Campbell JM; Benito AP; Cheng J. Sleep pattern differences between older adult dementia caregivers and older adult noncaregivers using objective and subjective measures. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(4):362–369. PMID:18763429

  3. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion hydrobromide and metabolites in healthy adolescent and adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Oh, D Alexander; Crean, Christopher S

    2015-09-01

    Data from 2 pediatric single-dose studies, conducted at the same center, were combined to evaluate exposure levels of bupropion and metabolites in adolescents 12-17 years old, compared with adults > 18 years. Pharmacokinetic analyses of bupropion and its metabolites were performed using normalization and pharmacological/convulsive weighting methods on exposure. When compared with adults (>18 years), subjects 12-14 years had an increase in weight-normalized exposure to bupropion (ie, Cmax , 78%; AUC0-t , 83%; and AUCinf , 85%). Variability in this younger age group was also higher, with observations of a 3- to 4-fold increase in exposure. When the changes in metabolites were accounted within pharmacological and convulsive-weighted exposures, the relative ratio of 12-14 years to adults in body weight-normalized Cmax was 127% and 110%, respectively. Subjects 15-17 years did not exhibit a difference in exposure compared with adults. The influence of age on bupropion pharmacokinetics demonstrates that, in general, healthy adolescent subjects cannot be considered smaller healthy adult subjects; the increase in exposure is inversely related to age and appears to be solely associated with bupropion, not with its metabolites. Because there are no clinical safety and efficacy data of bupropion in adolescents, this data may shift its risk-benefit profile. PMID:27137143

  4. Successful Isolation of Viable Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Human Adipose Tissue Subject to Long-Term Cryopreservation: Positive Implications for Adult Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics in Patients of Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Sean M.; Carter, Cynthia M.; Dierov, Raia; Weiss, Scott; Percec, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    We examined cell isolation, viability, and growth in adipose-derived stem cells harvested from whole adipose tissue subject to different cryopreservation lengths (2–1159 days) from patients of varying ages (26–62 years). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was excised during abdominoplasties and was cryopreserved. The viability and number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated were measured after initial isolation and after 9, 18, and 28 days of growth. Data were analyzed with respect to cryopreservation duration and patient age. Significantly more viable cells were initially isolated from tissue cryopreserved <1 year than from tissue cryopreserved >2 years, irrespective of patient age. However, this difference did not persist with continued growth and there were no significant differences in cell viability or growth at subsequent time points with respect to cryopreservation duration or patient age. Mesenchymal stem cell markers were maintained in all cohorts tested throughout the duration of the study. Consequently, longer cryopreservation negatively impacts initial live adipose-derived stem cell isolation; however, this effect is neutralized with continued cell growth. Patient age does not significantly impact stem cell isolation, viability, or growth. Cryopreservation of adipose tissue is an effective long-term banking method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells in patients of varying ages. PMID:25945096

  5. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subject's involvement will depend upon... involvement of human subjects. 97.118 Section 97.118 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED...

  6. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subject's involvement will depend upon... involvement of human subjects. 97.118 Section 97.118 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED...

  7. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subject's involvement will depend upon... involvement of human subjects. 97.118 Section 97.118 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED...

  8. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human... human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  9. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the...

  10. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human... human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  11. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human... human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  12. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the...

  13. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human... human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  14. Ethical issues in neonatal research involving human subjects.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    Research involving critically ill neonates creates many ethical challenges. Neonatal clinical research has always been hard to perform, is very expensive, and may generate some unique ethical concerns. This article describes some examples of historical and modern controversies in neonatal research, discusses the justification for research involving such vulnerable and fragile patients, clarifies current federal regulations that govern research involving neonates, and suggests ways that clinical investigators can develop and implement ethically grounded human subjects research. PMID:26804381

  15. Rethinking Adult Literacy Programs: A Humanities-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anania, Joanne

    The Roosevelt University Humanities Enrichment Program tries to acknowledge the adult part of adult literacy. Its instructional materials are of interest and value to the adult student and, therefore, provide incentives for reading and discussion instead of serving merely as skill-building exercises. The materials are drawn from literature,…

  16. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  17. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  18. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Comparisons, and the Subjective Assessment of Ambient Problems among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from adults age 65 and older in the District of Columbia and two adjoining counties in Maryland, we examine the association between community-level structural disadvantage and individuals' subjective assessments of neighborhood problems. In addition, we test whether or not perceptions of relative financial equality or inequality with…

  19. Help-Seeking Response to Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Toward a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begum, Aysha; Whitley, Rob; Banerjee, Sube; Matthews, David; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Subjective memory complaint is a term used to refer older adults who report memory problems. Extensive literature exists on its etiology and impact on long-term cognitive decline, and some physicians consider it important in the early detection of dementia. Despite the salient features reported by both patients and clinicians, few people…

  20. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Southern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, David; Alvarez, Rosa M.; Lobaton, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M.; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective…

  1. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  2. Assessment of the pharmacokinetic interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir-ritonavir in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wire, Mary B; McLean, Heidi B; Pendry, Carolyn; Theodore, Dickens; Park, Jung W; Peng, Bin

    2012-06-01

    Eltrombopag is an orally bioavailable thrombopoietin receptor agonist that is approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. It is being developed for other medical disorders that are associated with thrombocytopenia. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may suffer from thrombocytopenia as a result of their HIV disease or coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV medications, particularly ritonavir (RTV)-boosted HIV protease inhibitors, are involved in many drug interactions. This study evaluated the potential drug-drug interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir (LPV)/RTV. Forty healthy adult subjects enrolled in this open-label, three-period, single-sequence crossover study received a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag (period 1), LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg twice daily (BID) for 14 days (period 2), and LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg BID (2 doses) with a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag administered with the morning LPV/RTV dose (period 3). There was a 3-day washout between periods 1 and 2 and no washout between periods 2 and 3. Serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected during 72 h in periods 1 and 3 and during 12 h in period 2. The coadministration of 400/100 mg LPV/RTV BID with a single dose of 100 mg eltrombopag decreased the plasma eltrombopag area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) by 17%, on average, with no change in plasma LPV/RTV exposure. Adverse events (AEs) reported in period 2 were consistent with known LPV/RTV AEs, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rash, and fatigue. No subjects withdrew due to AEs, and no serious AEs were reported. These study results suggest that platelet counts should be monitored and the eltrombopag dose adjusted accordingly if LPV/RTV therapy is initiated or discontinued. PMID:22391553

  3. Assessment of the Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Eltrombopag and Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Heidi B.; Pendry, Carolyn; Theodore, Dickens; Park, Jung W.; Peng, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Eltrombopag is an orally bioavailable thrombopoietin receptor agonist that is approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. It is being developed for other medical disorders that are associated with thrombocytopenia. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may suffer from thrombocytopenia as a result of their HIV disease or coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV medications, particularly ritonavir (RTV)-boosted HIV protease inhibitors, are involved in many drug interactions. This study evaluated the potential drug-drug interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir (LPV)/RTV. Forty healthy adult subjects enrolled in this open-label, three-period, single-sequence crossover study received a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag (period 1), LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg twice daily (BID) for 14 days (period 2), and LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg BID (2 doses) with a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag administered with the morning LPV/RTV dose (period 3). There was a 3-day washout between periods 1 and 2 and no washout between periods 2 and 3. Serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected during 72 h in periods 1 and 3 and during 12 h in period 2. The coadministration of 400/100 mg LPV/RTV BID with a single dose of 100 mg eltrombopag decreased the plasma eltrombopag area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) by 17%, on average, with no change in plasma LPV/RTV exposure. Adverse events (AEs) reported in period 2 were consistent with known LPV/RTV AEs, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rash, and fatigue. No subjects withdrew due to AEs, and no serious AEs were reported. These study results suggest that platelet counts should be monitored and the eltrombopag dose adjusted accordingly if LPV/RTV therapy is initiated or discontinued. PMID:22391553

  4. Semantic image retrieval through human subject segmentation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanbing; Tao, Bo; Kei, Shun; Wolf, Wayne H.

    1997-01-01

    Video databases can be searched for visual content by searching over automatically extracted key frames rather than the complete video sequence. Many video materials used in the humanities and social sciences contain a preponderance of shots of people. In this paper, we describe our work in semantic image retrieval of person-rich scenes (key frames) for video databases and libraries. We use an approach called retrieval through segmentation. A key-frame image is first segmented into human subjects and background. We developed a specialized segmentation technique that utilizes both human flesh-tone detection and contour analysis. Experimental results show that this technique can effectively segment images in a low time complexity. Once the image has been segmented, we can then extract features or pose queries about both the people and the background. We propose a retrieval framework that is based on the segmentation results and the extracted features of people and background.

  5. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  6. Adult Education and Human Resource Development: A Symbiotic Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Robert E.; Hemby, K. Virginia; Conerly-Stewart, Donna L.

    1998-01-01

    Top-ranked competencies for graduate education in human resources development (HRD) identified by 55 (of 195) HRD practitioners were adult learning, presentation, facilitation, needs assessment, and human relations. Seven of the top 10 were allied with adult education graduate program content. (SK)

  7. Encephalitis-Associated Human Metapneumovirus Pneumonia in Adult, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mateevici, Cristina; Lin, Belinda; Chandra, Ronil V.; Chong, Victor H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus pneumonia, most commonly found in children, was diagnosed in an adult with encephalitis. This case suggests that testing for human metapneumovirus RNA in nasopharyngeal aspirate and cerebrospinal fluid samples should be considered in adults with encephalitis who have a preceding respiratory infection, PMID:26488420

  8. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  9. Examples of Lesson Plans in Elementary Subjects for Adults. Content Materials in Education for Adult Responsibilities. California Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Adult Education.

    Lesson plans prepared by Adult Basic Education teachers who attended one-day mini-workshops and the participants of a six-session course held at the University of Southern California are presented. The plans are in outline format. The content areas covered are: Consumer Education (Buying Foods, Bank Checking Accounts, Telephone and Directory,…

  10. 7 CFR 1c.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... human subjects. 1c.119 Section 1c.119 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later...

  11. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... human subjects. 97.119 Section 97.119 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving...

  12. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... human subjects. 745.119 Section 745.119 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve...

  13. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... involving human subjects. 225.119 Section 225.119 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  14. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 11.119 Section 11.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  15. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... human subjects. 745.119 Section 745.119 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve...

  16. 7 CFR 1c.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be reviewed and approved by an... human subjects. 1c.119 Section 1c.119 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In...

  17. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  18. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  19. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  20. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... human subjects. 745.119 Section 745.119 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve...

  1. 7 CFR 1c.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be reviewed and approved by an... human subjects. 1c.119 Section 1c.119 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In...

  2. 7 CFR 1c.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be reviewed and approved by an... human subjects. 1c.119 Section 1c.119 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In...

  3. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... later proposed to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be reviewed and... human subjects. 97.119 Section 97.119 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy...

  4. 10 CFR 745.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 745.118 Section 745.118 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects... projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of instruments, prior...

  5. 10 CFR 745.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 745.118 Section 745.118 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects... projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of instruments, prior...

  6. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... involving human subjects. 225.119 Section 225.119 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  7. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... involving human subjects. 225.119 Section 225.119 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  8. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... human subjects. 97.119 Section 97.119 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving...

  9. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 11.119 Section 11.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  10. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... human subjects. 745.119 Section 745.119 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve...

  11. 7 CFR 1c.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... human subjects. 1c.119 Section 1c.119 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later...

  12. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... human subjects. 745.119 Section 745.119 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve...

  13. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... human subjects. 97.119 Section 97.119 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving...

  14. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... human subjects. 97.119 Section 97.119 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving...

  15. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 11.119 Section 11.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  16. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... involving human subjects. 225.119 Section 225.119 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  17. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. PMID:26921056

  18. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. PMID:26868539

  19. Photographing human subjects in biomedical disciplines: an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Saidun, Salilah

    2013-02-01

    Visual recording of human subjects is commonly used in biomedical disciplines for clinical, research, legal, academic and even personal purposes. Guidelines on practice standards of biomedical recording have been issued by certain health authorities, associations and journals, but none of the literature discusses this from an Islamic perspective. This article begins with a discussion on the general rules associated with visual recording in Islam, followed by modesty issues in biomedical recording and issues of informed consent and confidentiality. In order to be deemed ethical from the Islamic perspective, all the aforementioned criteria must conform to, or not contradict, Islamic teaching. PMID:23038799

  20. Acetaminophen fails to inhibit ethanol-induced subjective effects in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, W B; Klein, S A; George, F R; Henningfield, J E

    1992-01-01

    In animals, ethanol causes some of its CNS effects by releasing prostaglandins (PG); this is demonstrated by reports that prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (PGSIs) diminish ethanol-induced effects. However, use of animals in these studies has precluded testing for subjective effects. We studied the interaction of ethanol and acetaminophen, a PGSI, in a double-blind crossover experiment. Six adult males were given no drug or acetaminophen (0, 325, 650, 1300 or 1950 mg) 75 min before ethanol (total dose = 0.625 g/kg; five divided doses). Physiologic, subjective and performance measures were collected. Compared to the no drug condition, ethanol significantly increased ratings of drug "liking," "drunk," "sluggish" and "drug strength" and decreased ratings of "sober." Ethanol increased heart rate and acetaminophen did not diminish or enhance this effect. The failure to antagonize ethanol-induced subjective and physiologic effects by acetaminophen in humans may be due to species differences or inadequate dosage of the PGSI. It is also possible that subjective and certain physiologic effects of ethanol in humans are not mediated by prostaglandin-dependent neural processes. Nevertheless, the finding that at greater than typical analgesic doses, acetaminophen failed to prevent subjective effects of ethanol is of clinical significance. PMID:1539069

  1. Subject-specific computational modeling of human phonation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong; Mittal, Rajat; Bielamowicz, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation of flow-structure interaction is carried out in a subject-specific larynx model to study human phonation under physiological conditions. The simulation results compare well to the established human data. The resulting glottal flow and waveform are found to be within the normal physiological ranges. The effects of realistic geometry on the vocal fold dynamics and the glottal flow are extensively examined. It is found that the asymmetric anterior-posterior laryngeal configuration produces strong anterior-posterior asymmetries in both vocal fold vibration and glottal flow which has not been captured in the simplified models. It needs to be pointed out that the observations from the current numerical simulation are only valid for the flow conditions investigated. The limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:24606281

  2. Effect of sildenafil on renin secretion in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yeong Jen; Reid, Ian A

    2002-09-01

    Sildenafil is a potent and selective inhibitor of the cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE5) that is very effective in the treatment of male impotence. It inhibits breakdown of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) formed in penile smooth muscle cells in response to stimulation by nitric oxide resulting in muscle relaxation. PDE5 is widely distributed in the body, being present in the vasculature, platelets, and kidneys. In the kidney, PDE5 is involved in the regulation of sodium excretion and renin secretion. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the effect of sildenafil, in doses used clinically, on renin secretion in human subjects. The studies were performed in two groups of healthy normotensive subjects: one in which sodium intake was unrestricted, and one in which sodium intake was restricted to 600 mg/day. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored throughout the study, and blood samples for the measurement of plasma cGMP and cAMP concentrations and plasma renin activity (PRA) were collected. After control measurements, the subjects ingested a capsule containing sildenafil or placebo. Cardiovascular measurements and blood sampling continued for the next 120 min. Sildenafil had only minor cardiovascular effects. Diastolic pressure tended to be lower and heart rate was generally higher after sildenafil than after placebo, but the differences were small. Sildenafil caused a prompt and sustained increase in plasma cGMP concentration and a more gradual increase in plasma cAMP concentration. After the subjects received placebo, there was a progressive decrease in PRA during the 2-hr observation period, presumably reflecting the circadian rhythm in renin secretion. In contrast, PRA failed to decrease after the subjects received sildenafil, thus indicating that sildenafil exerts a stimulatory action on renin secretion. This action on renin secretion may help explain why sildenafil only has minor effect on blood pressure despite the

  3. Human autonomic rhythms: vagal cardiac mechanisms in tetraplegic subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J.; Brown, T. E.; Beightol, L. A.; Ha, C. Y.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    1. We studied eight young men (age range: 20-37 years) with chronic, clinically complete high cervical spinal cord injuries and ten age-matched healthy men to determine how interruption of connections between the central nervous system and spinal sympathetic motoneurones affects autonomic cardiovascular control. 2. Baseline diastolic pressures and R-R intervals (heart periods) were similar in the two groups. Slopes of R-R interval responses to brief neck pressure changes were significantly lower in tetraplegic than in healthy subjects, but slopes of R-R interval responses to steady-state arterial pressure reductions and increases were comparable. Plasma noradrenaline levels did not change significantly during steady-state arterial pressure reductions in tetraplegic patients, but rose sharply in healthy subjects. The range of arterial pressure and R-R interval responses to vasoactive drugs (nitroprusside and phenylephrine) was significantly greater in tetraplegic than healthy subjects. 3. Resting R-R interval spectral power at respiratory and low frequencies was similar in the two groups. During infusions of vasoactive drugs, low-frequency R-R interval spectral power was directly proportional to arterial pressure in tetraplegic patients, but was unrelated to arterial pressure in healthy subjects. Vagolytic doses of atropine nearly abolished both low- and respiratory-frequency R-R interval spectral power in both groups. 4. Our conclusions are as follows. First, since tetraplegic patients have significant levels of low-frequency arterial pressure and R-R interval spectral power, human Mayer arterial pressure waves may result from mechanisms that do not involve stimulation of spinal sympathetic motoneurones by brainstem neurones. Second, since in tetraplegic patients, low-frequency R-R interval spectral power is proportional to arterial pressure, it is likely to be mediated by a baroreflex mechanism. Third, since low-frequency R-R interval rhythms were nearly abolished

  4. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be reviewed and approved by an IRB, as... involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human...

  5. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be reviewed and approved by an IRB, as... involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human...

  6. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  7. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  8. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  9. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed. PMID:12220049

  10. [The existence vomeronasal organ in adult humans].

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, Piotr; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Wojdas, Andrzej; Ratajczak, Jan; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    The influence of chemical substances (feromones) on human emotional and physical condition has fascinated psychologists, sexuologists and laryngologists since centurie. Literature conveys inconsistent information on vomeronasal organ (VNO) occurrence in humans. This organ is often called Jacobson's, and 2 symmetrical openings leading into it, located on both sides of septum, are called Ruyasch's ducts. The aim of the study was to analyze vomeronasal organ occurrence in humans in relation to age and sex. The study was conducted in a group of 634 patients, aged 18-80 years. All patients underwent routine ENT examination including rhinoscopy, nasal cavity examination with usage of 2.5x magnification lens (surgical glasses) and surgical microscope with 10x magnification. All persons had nasal cavities examined endoscopically. Every time presence of vomeronasal organ openings, along with localization, size and symmetry of these was noted. Subjects, who presented Jacobson's organ, were asked to fill a questionnaire concerning influence of smells on erotic sensations. Vomeronasal organ was fund in 312 persons, that is 49.21%. In 83.65% of cases vomeronasal organ opening size was smaller than 0.2 mm, what restricted its visibility to usage of magnifying lens, microscope, or endoscope. In 16.34% of cases only vomeronasal organ ducts openings were well visible in routine rhinoscopy without magnification. Vomeronasal organ was found more often in men than women. VNO was significantly more rare in patients with nasal septal deviation. In these cases, vomeronasal organ was usually found unilaterally, in all the cases on the concave side of deviated nasal septum. PMID:18260256

  11. Adult Human Neurogenesis: From Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of generating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases. PMID:21519376

  12. Effect of microneedle design on pain in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Harvinder S.; Denson, Donald D.; Burris, Brett A.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To design microneedles that minimize pain, this study tested the hypothesis that microneedles cause significantly less pain than a 26-gage hypodermic needle, and that decreasing microneedle length and the number of microneedles reduces pain in normal human subjects. Methods Single microneedles with lengths ranging from 480 to 1450 μm, widths from 160 to 465 μm, thicknesses from 30 to 100 μm and tip angles from 20° to 90°; and arrays containing 5 or 50 microneedles were inserted into the volar forearms of ten healthy, human subjects in a double-blinded, randomized study. Visual analog scale pain scores were recorded and compared to each other and to the pain from a 26-gage hypodermic needle. Results All microneedles investigated were significantly less painful than the hypodermic needle with microneedle pain scores varying from 5 to 40% of the hypodermic needle. Microneedle length had the strongest effect on pain, where a three-fold increase in length increased the pain score by seven fold. The number of microneedles also affected the pain score, where a 10-fold increase in the number of microneedles increased pain just over two-fold. Microneedle tip angle, thickness and width did not significantly influence pain. Discussion Microneedles are significantly less painful than a 26-gage hypodermic needle over the range of dimensions investigated. Decreasing microneedle length and number of microneedles reduces pain. PMID:18716497

  13. Bioavailability and Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, J. L.; Boster, B.; Wang, Z.; Shah, V.; Berens, K. L.; Sipes, W. E.; Anderson, K. E.; Putcha, L.

    2004-01-01

    The acute effects of exposure to microgravity include the development of space motion sickness, which usually requires therapeutic intervention. The current drug of choice, promethazine (PMZ), is available to astronauts in three different dosage forms during space flight; its side effects include nausea, dizziness, sedation and impaired psychomotor performance. This ground-based study is designed to validate flight-suitable methods for pharmacodynamic evaluation of PMZ and to estimate bioavailability and pharmacodynamics of PMZ. Experimental design consists of intramuscular administration of three doses of PMZ (12.5,25 and 50 mg) and placebo in a randomized double blind fashion to human subjects and collecting blood, urine and saliva samples for 72 h. Subjects also complete cognitive performance test batteries, WinSCAT (Windows based Space Cognitive Assessment Test) and ARES (ANAM Readiness Evaluation System). Preliminary results indicate a significant relationship (p=9.88e-05) between circulating PMZ levels and cognitive performance parameters. Time to accurately complete memory tasks increases significantly with concentrations; higher concentrations also increase response time and decrease accuracy of substitution and matching tasks. AUC and half-life estimates for PMZ ranged between 0.12 and 1.7 mg.h/L and 15 and 50 h, respectively. These preliminary results indicate that PMZ may exhibit dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in humans; also, WinSCAT and ARES are sensitive for pharmacodynamic assessment of PMZ, and may be applicable for assessing the pharmacodynamics of other neurocognitive drugs.

  14. Gait analysis parameters of healthy human subjects with asymmetric loads.

    PubMed

    Berceanu, C; Marghitu, D B; Gudavalli, M R; Raju, P K; Vikas, Y

    2016-06-01

    This article focuses on the analysis of gait parameters, ground reaction forces (GRF), and motion signals, for the various asymmetric loads carried by healthy human subjects during walking. Eight asymptomatic human volunteers were enrolled in this study. They were asked to walk, at self-selected pace, with various weights ranging from 0 to 11.33 kg (25 lbs) in 2.26 kg (5 lbs) increments, in one hand on a wooden area equipped with a force platform. Moreover, motion data were recorded from lumbar L1 vertebrae at a frequency of 120 Hz. Three trials of data have been recorded for each subject. In order to quantify the effect of increasing loads on the GRF we define the compression area, restitution area, and coefficient of restitution (COR) for GRF curves. We observe an increase in the compression area with respect to the load and almost constant values for the COR. For motion signals analysis we employ wavelet theory. The signals obtained from the lumbar L1 sensor of the spine vertebrae show a decrease in the wavelet detail energy, for the levels 3, 4, and 5, with respect to increasing loads. PMID:26274771

  15. Pancreatic enzyme synthesis and turnover in human subjects.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, S J; Bennet, W M; Zinsmeister, A R; Haymond, M W

    1994-05-01

    Animal studies have shown that pancreatic enzyme secretion is independent of enzyme synthesis. To investigate this relationship in humans, we have coinfused 14C-labeled leucine tracer with cholecystokinin octapeptide in nine healthy adults for 4 h and measured the rate of appearance of secreted and newly labeled enzymes in the duodenum. Enzyme secretion was well maintained throughout, but newly labeled enzymes only appeared in juice between 75 and 101 min (median time, 86 min), indicating that initial secretion was dependent on the release of zymogen stores and that the median production time for new enzymes was 86 min. Between 85 and 225 min there was a curvilinear increase in the enrichment of secreted enzymes with newly synthesized enzymes, suggesting a median turnover rate of zymogen stores of 29%/h (range 12-47%/h). In conclusion, our results suggest that in healthy humans, postprandial pancreatic enzyme secretion is maintained by the export of a large stored pool and is not rate limited by enzyme synthesis, since it takes approximately 86 min for newly synthesized enzymes to take part in the digestive process. PMID:7515573

  16. Subjective Memory Complaint and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Mónica; Costa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Older adults report subjective memory complaints (SMCs) but whether these are related to depression remains controversial. In this study we investigated the relationship between the SMCs and depression and their predictors in a sample of old adults. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 620 participants aged 55 to 96 years (74.04 ± 10.41). Outcome measures included a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, a SMC scale (QSM), a Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), a Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results. The QSM mean total score for the main results suggests that SMCs are higher in old adults with depressed symptoms, comparatively to nondepressed old adults. The GDS scores were positively associated with QSM but negatively associated with education, MMSE, and MoCA. GDS scores predicted almost 63.4% of variance. Scores on QSM and MoCA are significantly predicted by depression symptomatology. Conclusion. Depression symptoms, lower education level, and older age may be crucial to the comprehension of SMCs. The present study suggested that depression might play a role in the SMCs of the older adults and its treatment should be considered. PMID:26880907

  17. Medical students as human subjects in educational research

    PubMed Central

    Sarpel, Umut; Hopkins, Mary Ann; More, Frederick; Yavner, Steven; Pusic, Martin; Nick, Michael W.; Song, Hyuksoon; Ellaway, Rachel; Kalet, Adina L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Special concerns often arise when medical students are themselves the subjects of education research. A recently completed large, multi-center randomized controlled trial of computer-assisted learning modules for surgical clerks provided the opportunity to explore the perceived level of risk of studies where medical students serve as human subjects by reporting on: 1) the response of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at seven institutions to the same study protocol; and 2) the thoughts and feelings of students across study sites about being research subjects. Methods From July 2009 to August 2010, all third-year medical students at seven collaborating institutions were eligible to participate. Patterns of IRB review of the same protocol were compared. Participation burden was calculated in terms of the time spent interacting with the modules. Focus groups were conducted with medical students at each site. Transcripts were coded by three independent reviewers and analyzed using Atlas.ti. Results The IRBs at the seven participating institutions granted full (n=1), expedited (n=4), or exempt (n=2) review of the WISE Trial protocol. 995 (73% of those eligible) consented to participate, and 207 (20%) of these students completed all outcome measures. The average time to complete the computer modules and associated measures was 175 min. Common themes in focus groups with participant students included the desire to contribute to medical education research, the absence of coercion to consent, and the low-risk nature of the research. Discussion Our findings demonstrate that risk assessment and the extent of review utilized for medical education research vary among IRBs. Despite variability in the perception of risk implied by differing IRB requirements, students themselves felt education research was low risk and did not consider themselves to be vulnerable. The vast majority of eligible medical students were willing to participate as research subjects

  18. Dietary induced subclinical vitamin K deficiency in normal human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Ferland, G; Sadowski, J A; O'Brien, M E

    1993-01-01

    A subclinical vitamin K deficiency was induced in 32 healthy subjects (four groups of eight males and females) aged 20-40 and 60-80 yr residing in the Metabolic Research Unit of the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. Volunteers were initially fed (4 d) a baseline-period diet containing the recommended daily allowance for vitamin K which is equivalent to 80 micrograms/d of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). During the baseline period various parameters of vitamin K nutritional status were monitored. The baseline period was followed by a 13-d depletion period during which the subjects were fed a very low vitamin K1 diet (approximately 10 micrograms/d). After depletion, the subjects entered a 16-d repletion period (four stages lasting 4 d each) during which time they were repleted with 5, 15, 25, and 45 micrograms of vitamin K1 per day. Vitamin K1 depletion dramatically and significantly decreased plasma vitamin K1 levels (P < 0.0001) in both elderly and young groups to values 13-18% of day 1 (elderly 0.22 nM, young 0.14 nM). Repleting the subjects with up to 45 micrograms of vitamin K1 per day failed, in the case of the young subjects, to bring plasma vitamin K1 levels back into the normal range. Dietary vitamin K1 restriction induced different responses in the urinary excretion of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid between the young and the elderly subjects with values decreasing significantly (P < 0.03) in the young while remaining unchanged in the elderly. The vitamin K1 depletion period had no significant effect on either prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times, or Factor VII and protein C (as determined by antigenic and functional assays). By using a monoclonal antibody, decarboxy prothrombin was found to increase slightly but significantly in both groups (P < 0.05) as a consequence of the low vitamin K1 diet. This study clearly shows that a diet low in vitamin K1 can result in a functional subclinical deficiency of vitamin K

  19. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. Methods A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. Results We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. Conclusion The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables. PMID:25657583

  20. 22 CFR 225.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... plans for involvement of human subjects. 225.118 Section 225.118 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.118 Applications and proposals lacking...

  1. 16 CFR 1028.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... plans for involvement of human subjects. 1028.118 Section 1028.118 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.118 Applications and proposals...

  2. 10 CFR 745.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 745.118 Section 745.118 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects... responsibility; research training grants in which the activities involving subjects remain to be selected;...

  3. 16 CFR 1028.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... plans for involvement of human subjects. 1028.118 Section 1028.118 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.118 Applications and proposals...

  4. 15 CFR 27.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subject's involvement will depend upon... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 27.118 Section 27.118 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.118 Applications and proposals...

  5. 16 CFR 1028.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... plans for involvement of human subjects. 1028.118 Section 1028.118 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.118 Applications and proposals...

  6. 28 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.118 Applications and proposals...

  7. 10 CFR 745.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 745.118 Section 745.118 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects... responsibility; research training grants in which the activities involving subjects remain to be selected;...

  8. 15 CFR 27.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subject's involvement will depend upon... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 27.118 Section 27.118 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.118 Applications and proposals...

  9. 40 CFR 26.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 26.118 Section 26.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of...

  10. 28 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.118 Applications and proposals...

  11. 22 CFR 225.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... plans for involvement of human subjects. 225.118 Section 225.118 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.118 Applications and proposals lacking...

  12. 28 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.118 Applications and proposals...

  13. 22 CFR 225.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... plans for involvement of human subjects. 225.118 Section 225.118 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.118 Applications and proposals lacking...

  14. 40 CFR 26.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 26.118 Section 26.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of...

  15. 10 CFR 745.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 745.118 Section 745.118 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects... responsibility; research training grants in which the activities involving subjects remain to be selected;...

  16. 40 CFR 26.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 26.118 Section 26.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of...

  17. 15 CFR 27.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subject's involvement will depend upon... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 27.118 Section 27.118 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.118 Applications and proposals...

  18. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subjects, but it is later proposed to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention...

  19. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subjects, but it is later proposed to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention...

  20. 40 CFR 26.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 26.118 Section 26.118 Protection of Environment... plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend...

  1. 16 CFR 1028.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 1028.118 Section 1028.118 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend...

  2. 40 CFR 26.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 26.118 Section 26.118 Protection of Environment... plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend...

  3. 15 CFR 27.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 27.118 Section 27.118 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subject's involvement will depend...

  4. 28 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend...

  5. 28 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend...

  6. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 97.118 Section 97.118 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of... for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative agreements... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subject's involvement will depend...

  7. 15 CFR 27.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 27.118 Section 27.118 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subject's involvement will depend...

  8. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 97.118 Section 97.118 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of... for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative agreements... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subject's involvement will depend...

  9. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  11. Developing Resourceful Humans. Adult Education within the Economic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lynn Elen, Ed.

    This book, which explores the shifting paradigm from human resource development to developing resourceful humans, establishes the historical position of adult education within the economic context, discusses human capital propositions, and examines the learning dimensions of economic and educational change. The following chapters are included:…

  12. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. PMID:25219802

  13. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre- to post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, p ≤.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, p <.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. PMID:25219802

  14. Why Teach the Humanities to Adult Basic Education Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocker, Donald W., Ed.; Jones, William C., Ed.

    The publication contains an article on curriculum selection in adult basic education (ABE), three presentations on the humanities and ABE, and a concluding commentary. An introductory article, "Criteria for Selecting Curriculum in Adult Basic Education" by Donald Mocker, emphasizes the need for broader criteria for selection of ABE curriculum.…

  15. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  16. Humanizing Adult Education Research: Five Stories from the 1930's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Ronald

    Taken from the author's doctoral dissertation, this award-winning monograph describes a method for humanizing educational research in adult education and provides five stories of adult education efforts in the 1930's as examples of such research. The method described suggests valuing qualitative data as much as quantitative in the field of…

  17. Technology and the Adult Degree Program: The Human Element

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriquez, Frank G.; Nash, Susan Smith

    2004-01-01

    While technology has for many years been a critical component in programs for adults and calls to mind sophisticated gadgetry with expensive price tags, it is often the nexus where technology and humans intersect that proves most critical to the success and quality of adult degree programs.

  18. 45 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of...

  19. 45 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of...

  20. 45 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of...

  1. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.119 Research undertaken without...

  2. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... involving human subjects. 1028.119 Section 1028.119 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  3. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  4. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  5. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... later proposed to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be reviewed and... involving human subjects. 11.119 Section 11.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  6. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... later proposed to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be reviewed and... involving human subjects. 225.119 Section 225.119 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  7. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... later proposed to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be reviewed and... involving human subjects. 11.119 Section 11.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  8. 45 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Research Subjects § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human... projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of instruments, prior...

  9. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  10. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... involving human subjects. 1028.119 Section 1028.119 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  11. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... involving human subjects. 1028.119 Section 1028.119 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  12. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  13. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  14. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... involving human subjects. 1230.119 Section 1230.119 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  15. Conducting research with human subjects in international settings: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Sandra L

    2013-09-01

    Biomedical research in international settings is undergoing expansive growth and may potentially result in far-reaching benefits, such as direction of research resources toward solving basic health care needs of world populations. However, key ethical concerns surround this expansion and must be carefully considered by international researchers. International research is impacted by differences in language, culture, regulatory structures, financial resources, and possibly ethical standards. Local community leadership involvement in the planning stages of research is imperative. Especially in resource-poor countries, the research agenda must be designed to address local needs and provide local benefit. Capacity strengthening efforts, aimed at improving institutional support for ethical conduct of human subjects research, must continue to be supported by wealthier nations. PMID:24058306

  16. Probabilistic color matching and tracking of human subjects.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Abdeq M; Schmiedekamp, Mendel; Phoha, Shashi

    2010-09-10

    Pattern discovery algorithms based on the computational mechanics (CM) method have been shown to succinctly describe underlying patterns in data through the reconstruction of minimum probabilistic finite state automata (PFSA). We apply the CM approach toward the tracking of human subjects in real time by matching and tracking the underlying color pattern as observed from a fixed camera. Objects are extracted from a video sequence, and then raster scanned, decomposed with a one-dimensional Haar wavelet transform, and symbolized with the aid of a red-green-blue (RGB) color cube. The clustered causal state algorithm is then used to reconstruct the corresponding PFSA. Tracking is accomplished by generating the minimum PFSA for each subsequent frame, followed by matching the PFSAs to the previous frame. Results show that there is an optimum alphabet size and segmentation of the RGB color cube for efficient tracking. PMID:20830182

  17. DHHS human subjects protection: the new regulations revisited.

    PubMed

    Grunder, T M

    1983-01-01

    In January of 1981 DHHS released its revised regulations for the protection of human subjects. These new regulations established five categories of federally funded research--primarily in the educational, social and behavioral sciences--which, at local Institutional Review Board (IRB) US ISSN (0193-7758) 1168 option, could be made exempt from mandated peer review. A survey of the 562 member IRB system was conducted to determine, among other things, what policies individual review boards had established with regard to these optionally exempted categories. 341 (61%) of the IRBs responded to the survey. Results indicate that the IRBs have overwhelmingly opted to maintain review procedures at some level in each of the "exempted" categories and that these procedures, as well as the other DHHS standards, are being applied almost universally to all research regardless of funding source. This article presents data on IRBs and their implications for the educational, social and behavioral sciences. PMID:10263330

  18. Conducting Research with Human Subjects in International Settings: Ethical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical research in international settings is undergoing expansive growth and may potentially result in far-reaching benefits, such as direction of research resources toward solving basic health care needs of world populations. However, key ethical concerns surround this expansion and must be carefully considered by international researchers. International research is impacted by differences in language, culture, regulatory structures, financial resources, and possibly ethical standards. Local community leadership involvement in the planning stages of research is imperative. Especially in resource-poor countries, the research agenda must be designed to address local needs and provide local benefit. Capacity strengthening efforts, aimed at improving institutional support for ethical conduct of human subjects research, must continue to be supported by wealthier nations. PMID:24058306

  19. Toxicokinetics of inhaled bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301) in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, C. W.; Weir, F. W.; Williams-Cavender, K.; Tan, M. N.; Galen, T. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301, CBrF3), is used as a fire extinguishant in the Space Shuttle, where several scenarios, such as a fire or a faulty alarm, could lead to its discharge resulting in a Halon 1301 concentration of up to 1 percent in the cabin atmosphere. The effect of Halon 1301 on mental performance and physiologic function was investigated in a NASA-sponsored human inhalation study in which four pairs of male subjects were each exposed in a double-blind fashion for 24 hr to 1 percent Halon 1301 and to air in two exposures about 1 week apart. Blood and breath samples from the exposed subjects were collected to provide dosimetric and toxicokinetic information. Halon 1301 blood levels increased rapidly and approached a steady state within 2 hr of the beginning the exposure; the steady-state concentration was approximately 3-4.5 microg/ml. Breath samples collected during exposures closely reflected chamber concentrations. Analysis of postexposure blood samples revealed that Halon 1301 was eliminated biphasically with an average t(1/2) alpha and t(1/2) beta of 4.5 min and 200 min, respectively.

  20. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults. PMID:27159187

  1. Diclofenac delays micropore closure following microneedle treatment in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Brogden, Nicole K; Milewski, Mikolaj; Ghosh, Priyanka; Hardi, Lucia; Crofford, Leslie J; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2012-10-28

    Drugs absorbed poorly through the skin are commonly delivered via injection with a hypodermic needle, which is painful and increases the risk of transmitting infectious diseases. Microneedles (MNs) selectively and painlessly permeabilize the outermost skin layer, allowing otherwise skin-impermeable drugs to cross the skin through micron-sized pores and reach therapeutic concentrations. However, rapid healing of the micropores prevents further drug delivery, blunting the clinical utility of this unique transdermal technique. We present the first human study demonstrating that micropore lifetime can be extended following MN treatment. Subjects received one-time MN treatment and daily topical application of diclofenac sodium. Micropore closure was measured with impedance spectroscopy, and area under the admittance-time curve (AUC) was calculated. AUC was significantly higher at MN+diclofenac sodium sites vs. placebo, suggesting slower rates of micropore healing. Colorimetry measurements confirmed the absence of local erythema and irritation. This mechanistic human proof-of-concept study demonstrates that micropore lifetime can be prolonged with simple topical administration of a non-specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of subclinical inflammation in micropore healing. These results will allow for longer patch wear time with MN-enhanced delivery, thus increasing patient compliance and expanding the transdermal field to a wider variety of clinical conditions. PMID:22929967

  2. Stimulation of the cerebral cortex in the intact human subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merton, P. A.; Morton, H. B.

    1980-05-01

    One of the most fertile methods of investigating the brain is to stimulate a part of it electrically and observe the results. So far, however, use of the method in man has been restricted by the necessity of opening the skull surgically to apply the electrodes. Much could be done, both with healthy subjects and with neurological patients, if it were feasible to stimulate through electrodes on the scalp, although the localization of the stimulus on the cortex will always be much less sharp than with electrodes on the brain surface. In an intact man, however, the brain is protected from electricity by the skull and by the scalp, both of which normally offer considerable resistance. Furthermore, the cerebral cortex does not have a particularly low electrical threshold. It is probably for these reasons (despite an occasional contrary claim1) that attempts to stimulate the brain by applying stimuli from conventional stimulators to the scalp have been stopped by pain or have otherwise failed. These obstacles have now begun to yield. Recently, it was found that, on stimulating muscles in the human hand2 without any special preparation of the skin, the effective resistance fell to low values if brief but very high voltage shocks were used. Applying the same technique to the head, it has now proved possible at the first attempt to stimulate two areas of the human cortex, without undue discomfort.

  3. Dimensions of subjective well-being and effects of physical activity in Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Ku, Po-Wen; McKenna, Jim; Fox, Kenneth R

    2007-10-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) and its relationship with physical activity have not been systematically investigated in older Chinese people. This study explored these issues using qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 23 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 55-78 y, 12 women); 16 were physically active and 7 physically inactive. Using cross-case analyses, 7 dimensions of SWB emerged: physical, psychological, developmental, material, spiritual, sociopolitical, and social. Although elements of SWB may be shared across cultures, specific distinctions were identified. Active respondents reported the unique contributions of physical activity to the physical, psychological, developmental, and social elements of SWB. The findings suggest that physical activity could enhance the quality of life in Chinese older adults. PMID:18048943

  4. A comparison of older adults' subjective experiences with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semistructured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:24334299

  5. A comparison of older adults' subjective experience with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities

    PubMed Central

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semi-structured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t-tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:24334299

  6. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, McKee J.; Wallendal, Maggie S.; Hyde, Trevor F.; Larsen, Janet D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning. PMID:26317004

  7. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  8. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults.

    PubMed

    Khonsari, Shadi; Suganthy, Mayuran; Burczynska, Beata; Dang, Vu; Choudhury, Manika; Pachenari, Azra

    2016-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  9. Objective and subjective measurement of energy expenditure in older adults: A doubly-labeled water study

    PubMed Central

    Calabro, Miguel Andres; Kim, Youngwon; Franke, Warren D.; Stewart, Jeanne M.; Welk, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Objective and subjective measurement instruments have been used to estimate energy expenditure as alternatives to the doubly labeled water (DLW) methodology, but their relative validity for older adults remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to validate an objective monitor (Sense Wear Mini Armband) and a self-report instrument (7-Day Physical Activity Recall) relative to the doubly-labeled water (DLW) under free-living conditions in older adults. Subjects/Methods Twenty-nine older adults (60–78 yrs) each wore the Mini for 14 consecutive days, and completed two 7D-PARs after each week. For each measurement method, activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as total energy expenditure (TEE) – measured resting metabolic rate –diet induced thermogenesis (10% of TEE). TEE and AEE from the Mini and 7D-PAR were each compared to values from the DLW. Results Equivalence testing indicated that estimates of TEE from the Mini and the 7D-PAR were statistically equivalent to those measured with DLW; however, differences were evident for estimates of AEE. The Mini had smaller mean absolute percent error for TEE (8.0%) and AEE (28.4%) than the 7D-PAR (13.8% and 84.5%, respectively) and less systematic bias in the estimates. Conclusions The Mini and 7D-PAR provided reasonably valid estimates of TEE but large errors in estimating AEE. The Mini and 7D-PAR have the potential to accurately estimate TEE for older adults. PMID:25351651

  10. Simultaneous characterization of progenitor cell compartments in adult human liver.

    PubMed

    Porretti, Laura; Cattaneo, Alessandra; Colombo, Federico; Lopa, Raffaella; Rossi, Giorgio; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Battiston, Carlo; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Bertolini, Francesco; Rebulla, Paolo; Prati, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The human liver is a complex tissue consisting of epithelial, endothelial, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal elements that probably derive from multiple lineage-committed progenitors, but no comprehensive study aimed at identifying and characterizing intrahepatic precursors has yet been published. Cell suspensions for this study were obtained by enzymatic digestion of liver specimens taken from 20 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 multiorgan donors. Stem and progenitor cells were first isolated, amplified, and characterized ex vivo according to previously validated methods, and then optimized flow cytometry was used to assess their relative frequencies and characterize their immunophenotypes in the clinical specimens. Stem and progenitor cells committed to hematopoietic, endothelial, epithelial, and mesenchymal lineages were clearly identifiable in livers from both healthy and diseased subjects. Within the mononuclear liver cell compartment, epithelial progenitors [epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)(+)/CD49f(+)/CD29(+)/CD45(-)] accounted for 2.7-3.5% whereas hematopoietic (CD34(+)/CD45(+)), endothelial [vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (KDR)(+)/CD146(+)/CD45(-)], and mesenchymal [CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD90 (Thy-1)(+)/CD45 (-)] stem cells and progenitors accounted for smaller fractions (0.02-0.6%). The patients' livers had higher percentages of hematopoietic and endothelial precursors than those of the donors. In conclusion, we identified and characterized precursors committed to four different lineages in adult human liver. We also optimized a flow cytometry approach that will be useful in exploring the contribution of these cells to the pathogenesis of liver disease. PMID:19960544

  11. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p < 0.001). The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p = 0.020). No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance. Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality. PMID:27507944

  12. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Hollis C.; Stevens, Courtney J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Hutchison, Kent E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions. PMID:22899923

  13. Human Amygdala Represents the Complete Spectrum of Subjective Valence

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingwen; Zelano, Christina; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is a major locus for hedonic processing, how it encodes valence information is poorly understood. Given the hedonic potency of odor stimuli and the amygdala's anatomical proximity to the peripheral olfactory system, we combined high-resolution fMRI with pattern-based multivariate techniques to examine how valence information is encoded in the amygdala. Ten human subjects underwent fMRI scanning while smelling 9 odorants that systematically varied in perceived valence. Representational similarity analyses showed that amygdala codes the entire dimension of valence, ranging from pleasantness to unpleasantness. This unidimensional representation significantly correlated with self-reported valence ratings but not with intensity ratings. Furthermore, within-trial valence representations evolved over time, prioritizing earlier differentiation of unpleasant stimuli. Together, these findings underscore the idea that both spatial and temporal features uniquely encode pleasant and unpleasant odor valence in the amygdala. The availability of a unidimensional valence code in the amygdala, distributed in both space and time, would create greater flexibility in determining the pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli, providing a mechanism by which expectation, context, attention, and learning could influence affective boundaries for guiding behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our findings elucidate the mechanisms of affective processing in the amygdala by demonstrating that this brain region represents the entire valence dimension from pleasant to unpleasant. An important implication of this unidimensional valence code is that pleasant and unpleasant valence cannot coexist in the amygdale because overlap of fMRI ensemble patterns for these two valence extremes obscures their unique content. This functional architecture, whereby subjective valence maps onto a pattern continuum between pleasant and unpleasant poles, offers a robust mechanism by which context

  14. Assessing the abuse potential of methylphenidate in nonhuman and human subjects: a review.

    PubMed

    Kollins, S H; MacDonald, E K; Rush, C R

    2001-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. Methylphenidate is clearly effective for the treatment of ADHD, but there is controversy as to whether it has significant abuse potential like other psychostimulants (e.g., D-amphetamine and cocaine). In general, the drug is believed to be abused at rates much lower than those for other stimulants. The present review examines studies that investigated the behavioral pharmacological profile of methylphenidate and discusses how results from these studies address its abuse liability. Using MEDLINE search terms methylphenidate, drug discrimination, reinforcement, self-administration, subjective effects, subject-rated effects, abuse potential, and abuse liability, along with a review of the references from identified articles, 60 studies were located in which the reinforcing, discriminative-stimulus, or subjective effects of methylphenidate were directly assessed in nonhumans or humans. Forty-eight (80.0%) of the studies reviewed indicate that methylphenidate either functions in a manner similar to D-amphetamine or cocaine (e.g., functions as a reinforcer, substitutes fully in drug discrimination experiments), or produces a pattern of subjective effects suggestive of abuse potential. The results are discussed as they pertain to factors that may account for the apparent discrepancy in abuse rates between methylphenidate and other stimulants, including characterization of actual abuse rates, defining abuse and misuse, pharmacokinetic factors, and validity of abuse liability assays. PMID:11325419

  15. Facial soft tissue thickness among various vertical facial patterns in adult Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Waqar; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-12-01

    Facial reconstruction techniques are used to obtain an approximation of an individual's appearance thus helping identification of unidentified decedents from their dried skeletal remains. Many of these techniques rely on the sets of average facial soft tissue thickness (FST) values at different anatomical landmarks provided by the previous studies. FST is influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity and the body mass index of the individual. Recent literature has shown that the anthropological variations of the skull may also affect FST at certain points. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of such variations in vertical skull morphology on FST as around one third of different population groups have either a long or short facial pattern as compared to the average facial pattern. Moreover, this study also provides a FST database for the adult Pakistani subjects that may have potential implications in the facial reconstruction of the local subjects. A retrospective analysis of 276 lateral cephalograms of adult subjects having normal sagittal facial pattern was performed. Subjects were categorized into three vertical facial patterns (long face=95, average face=102, short face=79) according to the vertical dimensions of the skull and the FST was measured at 11 midline points. To compare the FST between males and females Mann-Whitney U test was used. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare FST among three vertical facial patterns. The results of our study revealed significant differences in FST at nine landmarks between males and females. These sex-based differences were more pronounced in the long and short facial patterns as compared to the average facial pattern. FST at stomion, pogonion, gnathion and menton was significantly greater in the short facial pattern as compared to the long facial pattern in both the sexes. The results of the present study highlight the importance of anthropological analysis of the skull and taking the vertical skeletal dimension

  16. 32 CFR 219.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 219.118 Section 219.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain...

  17. 7 CFR 1c.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 1c.118 Section 1c.118 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts...

  18. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in which the activities involving subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human... proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 16.118 Section 16.118 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.118...

  19. 49 CFR 11.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for involvement of human subjects. 11.118 Section 11.118 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative agreements, or...

  20. 7 CFR 1c.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 1c.118 Section 1c.118 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts...

  1. 49 CFR 11.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for involvement of human subjects. 11.118 Section 11.118 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative agreements, or...

  2. 49 CFR 11.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for involvement of human subjects. 11.118 Section 11.118 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative agreements, or...

  3. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in which the activities involving subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human... plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) § 1230.118...

  4. 32 CFR 219.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 219.118 Section 219.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain...

  5. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in which the activities involving subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human... proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 16.118 Section 16.118 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.118...

  6. 7 CFR 1c.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 1c.118 Section 1c.118 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts...

  7. 32 CFR 219.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 219.118 Section 219.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain...

  8. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA §...

  9. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involving human subjects. 219.119 Section 219.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  10. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  11. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving...

  12. 48 CFR 352.270-6 - Restriction on use of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....270-6 Restriction on use of human subjects. As prescribed in 370-304(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Restriction on Use of Human Subjects (January 2006) Pursuant to 45 CFR part... human subjects. 352.270-6 Section 352.270-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  13. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  14. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 1230.119 Section 1230.119 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of...

  15. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involving human subjects. 219.119 Section 219.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  16. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., but it is later proposed to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be... involving human subjects. 1028.119 Section 1028.119 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of...

  17. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... involving human subjects. 219.119 Section 219.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  18. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., but it is later proposed to involve human subjects in the research, the research shall first be... involving human subjects. 1028.119 Section 1028.119 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of...

  19. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  20. 32 CFR 219.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 219.118 Section 219.118 National Defense Department of Defense....118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types... human subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of instruments, prior animal studies,...

  1. 7 CFR 1c.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 1c.118 Section 1c.118 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of... projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of instruments, prior...

  2. 7 CFR 1c.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... involvement of human subjects. 1c.118 Section 1c.118 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of... projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of instruments, prior...

  3. 49 CFR 11.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for involvement of human subjects. 11.118 Section 11.118 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts... selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of...

  4. 49 CFR 11.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for involvement of human subjects. 11.118 Section 11.118 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts... selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of...

  5. 32 CFR 219.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 219.118 Section 219.118 National Defense Department of Defense....118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types... human subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of instruments, prior animal studies,...

  6. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... involving human subjects. 219.119 Section 219.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  7. 48 CFR 352.270-6 - Restriction on use of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....270-6 Restriction on use of human subjects. As prescribed in 370-304(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Restriction on Use of Human Subjects (January 2006) Pursuant to 45 CFR part... human subjects. 352.270-6 Section 352.270-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  8. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving...

  9. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  10. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  11. 14 CFR § 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of involving human subjects. § 1230.119 Section § 1230.119 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  12. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  13. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... involving human subjects. 219.119 Section 219.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  14. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  15. 48 CFR 352.270-6 - Restriction on use of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....270-6 Restriction on use of human subjects. As prescribed in 370-304(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Restriction on Use of Human Subjects (January 2006) Pursuant to 45 CFR part... human subjects. 352.270-6 Section 352.270-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  16. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  17. 10 CFR 35.6 - Provisions for the protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisions for the protection of human research subjects... Information § 35.6 Provisions for the protection of human research subjects. (a) A licensee may conduct research involving human research subjects only if it uses the byproduct materials specified on its...

  18. 48 CFR 352.270-6 - Restriction on use of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....270-6 Restriction on use of human subjects. As prescribed in 370-304(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Restriction on Use of Human Subjects (January 2006) Pursuant to 45 CFR part... human subjects. 352.270-6 Section 352.270-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  19. 48 CFR 352.270-6 - Restriction on use of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....270-6 Restriction on use of human subjects. As prescribed in 370-304(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Restriction on Use of Human Subjects (January 2006) Pursuant to 45 CFR part... human subjects. 352.270-6 Section 352.270-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  20. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  1. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving...

  2. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  3. Human paraoxonase polymorphism: Hungarian population studies in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Szabó, I; Róna, K; Czinner, A; Gachályi, B

    1991-06-01

    The paraoxonase phenotype distribution pattern was studied in a Hungarian population of 102 children and 100 adults. All the subjects were of Caucasian origin and are not related. The adult population showed the trimodality in phenotype distribution similar to other European population data. The gene frequencies obtained were statistically not significantly different either. There was no correlation between the activity of serum paraoxonase and activity of cholinesterase, sex, age and body weight. The phenotype distribution was trimodal in the children's population too. There was a significant difference in gene frequency, however, compared to data from adult population. PMID:1651288

  4. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  5. Heterogeneity of serum low density lipoproteins in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, M.M.S.; Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; Forte, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Equilibrium density gradient ultracentrifugation of serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) from twelve healthy human subjects was used to separate six subfractions with mean dinsity ranging from 1.0268 to 1.0597 g/ml. Mean corrected peak flotation rate (S/sup o//sub f/) measured by analytic ultracentrifugation, and mean particle diameter determined by negative staining electron microscopy, both declined significantly with increasing density of the subfractions. Major differences in chemical composition of the subfractions were noted, including a singnificantly lower triglyceride content and higher ratio of cholesteryl ester to triglyceride in the middle fractions compared with those of highest and lowest density. Concentration of fraction 2 correlated positively with HDL (P < 0.01) and negatively with VLDL (P < 0.001); concentration of fraction 4 correlated negatively with HDL (P < 0.05) and positively with VLDL (P < 0.001) and IDL (P < 0.01). LDL may thus include subspecies of differing structure and composition which might also have different metabolic and atherogenic roles.

  6. Humanities and the Adult Learner in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Dale; Kamholtz, Jonathan

    Humanities courses have often been given little attention in continuing education for adults, possibly because they have been viewed as not "practical" or not "job-oriented" enough in our career-oriented, technologically advanced society. However, the humanities should be an integral part of our culture and of the lives of educated persons--a…

  7. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline. PMID:26296609

  8. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  9. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  10. Short, Subjective Measures of Numeracy and General Health Literacy in an Adult Emergency Department Setting

    PubMed Central

    Wallston, Kenneth A.; Rothman, Russell L.; Marcovitz, David E.; Storrow, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the reliability and validity of brief subjective measures of numeracy and general health literacy in the adult emergency department setting. Methods A convenience sample of adult emergency department patients completed subjective measures of general health literacy (Short Literacy Screening questions, SLS) and numeracy (Subjective Numeracy Scale, SNS). These patients also completed two objective tests of literacy (the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, S-TOFHLA; and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, REALM) and an objective test of numeracy (WRAT4). Internal reliability of the subjective measures was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Construct validity of the subjective measures was assessed by correlating them against the S-TOFHLA, REALM, and WRAT4, using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, and hierarchical, multiple linear regression with adjustment for patient age, gender, race, and education. Results The median age of the 207 patients surveyed was 46 (interquartile range 32, 59); twenty-seven percent were African American. Sixty-one percent of patients reported their highest level of education was high school or below. As measured by the S-TOFHLA and REALM, most patients had adequate literacy levels (89% and 80%, respectively), while 44% of patients had below average numeracy skills on the WRAT4. Median SLS was 14 (IQR 12, 15) on a scale of 3 to 15; median SNS was 36 (IQR 30, 42) on a scale of 6 to 48. The SLS and SNS had good internal reliability, with Cronbach’s alphas of 0.74 and 0.82, respectively. The SLS Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient was 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.20, 0.45) for the S-TOFHLA, with a standardized beta coefficient of 0.36 (p<0.05) after adjustment for patient demographics. The SLS correlation coefficient was 0.26 (95% CI 0.13, 0.38) for the REALM, with a standardized beta coefficient of 0.38 (p<0.05) after

  11. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  12. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  13. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Dell, S.; Hensley, B.; Hall, J. W.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Antonelli, P. J.; Green, G. E.; Miller, J. M.; Guire, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is availability of an established clinical paradigm with real world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects. Design Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93–95 (n=10), 98–100 (n=11), or 100–102 (n=12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of four hours. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured prior to and after music exposure. Post-music tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and one week later. Results Changes in thresholds after the lowest level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a “notch” configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean=6.3±3.9dB; range=0–13 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hours post-exposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1-week post-exposure. Conclusions These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function following digital music player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be

  14. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT) effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition) and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT). The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory). Results The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging

  15. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report vs. Maternal Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 25 to 55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter’s QoL. PMID:26707626

  16. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report Versus Maternal Reports.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-04-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter's QoL. PMID:26707626

  17. 48 CFR 252.235-7004 - Protection of Human Subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information (32 CFR 219.102(f)). For example, this could include the use of human organs, tissue, and body... requirements of 32 CFR Part 219, as well as the terms of the assurance, which the Human Research Protection...) component (32 CFR 219.103). (2) Human Research Protection Official (HRPO) means the individual designated...

  18. 48 CFR 252.235-7004 - Protection of Human Subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information (32 CFR 219.102(f)). For example, this could include the use of human organs, tissue, and body... requirements of 32 CFR Part 219, as well as the terms of the assurance, which the Human Research Protection...) component (32 CFR 219.103). (2) Human Research Protection Official (HRPO) means the individual designated...

  19. 48 CFR 252.235-7004 - Protection of Human Subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information (32 CFR 219.102(f)). For example, this could include the use of human organs, tissue, and body... requirements of 32 CFR Part 219, as well as the terms of the assurance, which the Human Research Protection...) component (32 CFR 219.103). (2) Human Research Protection Official (HRPO) means the individual designated...

  20. 48 CFR 252.235-7004 - Protection of Human Subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information (32 CFR 219.102(f)). For example, this could include the use of human organs, tissue, and body... requirements of 32 CFR Part 219, as well as the terms of the assurance, which the Human Research Protection...) component (32 CFR 219.103). (2) Human Research Protection Official (HRPO) means the individual designated...

  1. 48 CFR 252.235-7004 - Protection of Human Subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information (32 CFR 219.102(f)). For example, this could include the use of human organs, tissue, and body... requirements of 32 CFR Part 219, as well as the terms of the assurance, which the Human Research Protection...) component (32 CFR 219.103). (2) Human Research Protection Official (HRPO) means the individual designated...

  2. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  3. [A survey of dental-periodontal pathology in a sample of blind adult subjects].

    PubMed

    Campisi, G; Cumbo, V

    1994-01-01

    The authors, after a short inquiry into the Italian epidemiological reality of blind subjects, explain the results of a study made on a sample of 105 blind adults (average age: 60.3 years) in order to check their oral health conditions. In particular, they have pointed out the DMFT index, the average number of permanent teeth present, the OHI-S index in its two components ID and IC, the CPITN index. The results of this study point is a high DMFT index, mainly owing to teeth extracted for periodontal disease. A high OHI-S index and the prevalence of the codes 2 e 3 of the CPITN index direct the therapeutical choice towards a professional oral hygiene and oral preventive protocols adequate to their sensorial deficiency. PMID:8170450

  4. Executive Functions in Older Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints.

    PubMed

    Davids, Roeliena C D; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J; Tucha, Oliver M; van Balkom, Ingrid D C

    2016-09-01

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (>50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as well as subjective complaints (self- and proxy reported BRIEF) in 36 ASD and 36 typically developed individuals (n = 72). High functioning older adults with ASD reported EF-impairments in metacognition, but did not deviate in EF task performance, except for a longer execution time of the Tower of London. The need for additional time to complete daily tasks may contribute to impairments in daily life and may be correlated to a higher level of experienced EF-difficulties in ASD. PMID:27278313

  5. EEG anomalies in adult ADHD subjects performing a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Missonnier, P; Hasler, R; Perroud, N; Herrmann, F R; Millet, P; Richiardi, J; Malafosse, A; Giannakopoulos, P; Baud, P

    2013-06-25

    Functional imaging studies have revealed differential brain activation patterns in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult patients performing working memory (WM) tasks. The existence of alterations in WM-related cortical circuits during childhood may precede executive dysfunctions in this disorder in adults. To date, there is no study exploring the electrophysiological activation of WM-related neural networks in ADHD. To address this issue, we carried out an electroencephalographic (EEG) activation study associated with time-frequency (TF) analysis in 15 adults with ADHD and 15 controls performing two visual N-back WM tasks, as well as oddball detection and passive fixation tasks. Frontal transient (phasic) theta event-related synchronization (ERS, 0-500 msec) was significantly reduced in ADHD as compared to control subjects. Such reduction was equally present in a task-independent manner. In contrast, the power of the later sustained (∼500-1200 msec) theta ERS for all tasks was comparable in ADHD and control groups. In active WM tasks, ADHD patients displayed lower alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD, ∼200-900 msec) and higher subsequent alpha ERS (∼900-2400 msec) compared to controls. The time course of alpha ERD/ERS cycle was modified in ADHD patients compared to controls, suggesting that they are able to use late compensatory mechanisms in order to perform this WM task. These findings support the idea of an ADHD-related dysfunction of neural generators sub-serving attention directed to the incoming visual information. ADHD cases may successfully face WM needs depending on the preservation of sustained theta ERS and prolonged increase of alpha ERS at later post-stimulus time points. PMID:23518223

  6. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p < 0.05); significantly lower condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p < 0.05). In the whole sample condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p < 0.01) as well as condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p < 0.01) were significantly higher in males than in females. Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population. PMID:23241136

  7. Successful Aging and Subjective Well-Being Among Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This research integrates successful aging and developmental adaptation models to empirically define the direct and indirect effects of 2 distal (i.e., education and past life experiences) and 5 proximal influences (i.e., physical functioning, cognitive functioning, physical health impairment, social resources, and perceived economic status) on subjective well-being. The proximal influences involved predictors outlined in most extant models of successful aging (e.g., Rowe & Kahn, 1998 [Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon Books.]). Our model extends such models by including distal impact as well as interactions between distal and proximal impacts. Design and Methods: Data were obtained from 234 centenarians and 72 octogenarians in the Georgia Centenarian Study. Structural equation modeling was conducted with Mplus 6.1. Results: Results showed significant direct effects of physical health impairment and social resources on positive aspects of subjective well-being among oldest-old adults. We also found significant indirect effects of cognitive functioning and education on positive affect among oldest-old adults. Social resources mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and social resources mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. In addition, physical health impairment mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and physical health impairment mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. Implications: Integrating 2 different models (i.e., successful aging and developmental adaptation) provided a comprehensive view of adaptation from a developmental perspective. PMID:25112594

  8. The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The energy requirement of species at each trophic level in an ecological pyramid is a function of the number of organisms and their average mass. Regarding human populations, although considerable attention is given to estimating the number of people, much less is given to estimating average mass, despite evidence that average body mass is increasing. We estimate global human biomass, its distribution by region and the proportion of biomass due to overweight and obesity. Methods For each country we used data on body mass index (BMI) and height distribution to estimate average adult body mass. We calculated total biomass as the product of population size and average body mass. We estimated the percentage of the population that is overweight (BMI > 25) and obese (BMI > 30) and the biomass due to overweight and obesity. Results In 2005, global adult human biomass was approximately 287 million tonnes, of which 15 million tonnes were due to overweight (BMI > 25), a mass equivalent to that of 242 million people of average body mass (5% of global human biomass). Biomass due to obesity was 3.5 million tonnes, the mass equivalent of 56 million people of average body mass (1.2% of human biomass). North America has 6% of the world population but 34% of biomass due to obesity. Asia has 61% of the world population but 13% of biomass due to obesity. One tonne of human biomass corresponds to approximately 12 adults in North America and 17 adults in Asia. If all countries had the BMI distribution of the USA, the increase in human biomass of 58 million tonnes would be equivalent in mass to an extra 935 million people of average body mass, and have energy requirements equivalent to that of 473 million adults. Conclusions Increasing population fatness could have the same implications for world food energy demands as an extra half a billion people living on the earth. PMID:22709383

  9. Expression of tmp21 in normal adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Yang, Yuan; Li, Jianbo; Hou, Jing; Xia, Kun; Song, Weihong; Liu, Shengchun

    2014-01-01

    TMP21, known as p23 protein, is one important member of the p24 protein families. The degradation of TMP21 is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, as with the other presenilin-associated γ-secretase complex members. NFAT plays a very important role in regulation of human TMP21 gene expression. Compared with the function of TMP21, the studies about the distribution of this protein in human tissues are limited. We collected 19 normal adult human tissues from a healthy adult man died in a traffic accident and did examination of all the tissues collected for ICH, western blot and RT-PCR. It was shown that the expression of TMP21 is at high levels in heart, liver, lung, kidney and adrenal gland; moderate levels in brain, pancreas, prostate gland, testicle, small intestine, colon, stomach, gall bladder, thyroid gland and trachea; low levels in skeletal muscle, skin and lymphonodus. TMP21 is widely existed in normal adult human tissues. The current study provided for the first time a comprehensive expression of TMP21 in normal adult human tissues. It will benefit on helping in the design and interpretation of future studies focused on expounding the function of TMP21. PMID:25356171

  10. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 16.118 Section 16.118 Pensions, Bonuses... and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications... subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of instruments, prior animal studies, or purification...

  11. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 16.118 Section 16.118 Pensions, Bonuses... and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications... subjects' involvement will depend upon completion of instruments, prior animal studies, or purification...

  12. Microwave life-detection systems for searching human subjects under earthquake rubble or behind barrier.

    PubMed

    Chen, K M; Huang, Y; Zhang, J; Norman, A

    2000-01-01

    A new sensitive microwave life-detection system which can be used to locate human subjects buried under earthquake rubble or hidden behind various barriers has been constructed. This system operating at 1150 MHz or 450 MHz can detect the breathing and heartbeat signals of human subjects through an earthquake rubble or a construction barrier of about 10-ft thickness. The basic physical principle for the operation of a microwave life-detection system is rather simple. When a microwave beam of appropriate frequency (L or S band) is aimed at a pile of earthquake rubble covering a human subject or illuminated through a barrier obstructing a human subject, the microwave beam can penetrate the rubble or the barrier to reach the human subject. When the human subject is illuminated by a microwave beam, the reflected wave from the human subject will be modulated by the subject's body movements, which include the breathing and the heartbeat. If the clutter consisting of the reflected wave from stationary background can be completely eliminated and the reflected wave from the human subject's body is properly modulated, the breathing and heartbeat signals of the subject can be extracted. Thus, a human subject buried under earthquake rubble or hidden behind barriers can be located. This system has been tested extensively in a simulated earthquake rubble in the laboratory and also in a field test using realistic earthquake rubble conducted by a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Task Force. PMID:10646285

  13. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

  14. Circular representation of human cortical networks for subject and population-level connectomic visualization

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Chambers, Micah C.; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Van, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical network architecture has predominantly been investigated visually using graph theory representations. In the context of human connectomics, such representations are not however always satisfactory because canonical methods for vertex–edge relationship representation do not always offer optimal insight regarding functional and structural neural connectivity. This article introduces an innovative framework for the depiction of human connectomics by employing a circular visualization method which is highly suitable to the exploration of central nervous system architecture. This type of representation, which we name a ‘connectogram’, has the capability of classifying neuroconnectivity relationships intuitively and elegantly. A multimodal protocol for MRI/DTI neuroimaging data acquisition is here combined with automatic image segmentation to (1) extract cortical and non-cortical anatomical structures, (2) calculate associated volumetrics and morphometrics, and (3) determine patient-specific connectivity profiles to generate subject-level and population-level connectograms. The scalability of our approach is demonstrated for a population of 50 adults. Two essential advantages of the connectogram are (1) the enormous potential for mapping and analyzing the human connectome, and (2) the unconstrained ability to expand and extend this analysis framework to the investigation of clinical populations and animal models. PMID:22305988

  15. Effect of hydration on nitrogen washout in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Conkin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Five subjects were tested to assess the influence of drinking hypotonic water (distilled water) on whole body tissue nitrogen washout. During the test, the subjects breathed aviators' oxygen for three hours. Each subject performed two baseline nitrogen washouts in a two-week period. The third washout, in the third week, was done under a transient hydrated condition. This was accomplished by having the subjects drink 1.5 liters of hypotonic water 30 minutes before the washout. Five-minute plots of tissue nitrogen removal from the three separate washouts were analyzed to ascertain if the hydration technique had any effect. Our results clearly indicate that the hydration technique did not alter the tissue nitrogen washout characteristics to any degree over three hours. An increase in tissue nitrogen washout under a transient hydrated condition using hypotonic fluid was not demonstrated to be the mechanism responsible for the reported benefit of this technique in preventing Type I altitude decompression pain in man.

  16. Novel surface markers directed against adult human gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Galivo, Feorillo H.; Dorrell, Craig S.; Grompe, Maria; Zhong, Yong-Ping; Streeter, Philip; Grompe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Novel cell surface-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated against extrahepatic biliary cells were developed for the isolation and characterization of different cell subsets from normal adult human gallbladder. Eleven antigenically distinct gallbladder subpopulations were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. They were classified into epithelial, mesenchymal, and pancreatobiliary (PDX1+SOX9+) subsets based on gene expression profiling. These antigenically distinct human gallbladder cell subsets could potentially also reflect different functional properties in regards to bile physiology, cell renewal and plasticity. Three of the novel monoclonal antibodies differentially labeled archival sections of primary carcinoma of human gallbladder relative to normal tissue. The novel monoclonal antibodies described herein enable the identification and characterization of antigenically diverse cell subsets within adult human gallbladder and are putative tumor biomarkers. PMID:26079872

  17. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  18. 48 CFR 1352.235-73 - Research involving human subjects-after initial contract award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(d), insert the following clause: Research Involving Human Subjects—After... Protection of Human Subjects (the “Common Rule”), adopted by the Department of Commerce at 15 CFR Part 27... categories are specified at 15 CFR 27.101(b). (d) In the event that human subjects research involves...

  19. 48 CFR 1352.235-73 - Research involving human subjects-after initial contract award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(d), insert the following clause: Research Involving Human Subjects—After... Protection of Human Subjects (the “Common Rule”), adopted by the Department of Commerce at 15 CFR part 27... categories are specified at 15 CFR 27.101(b). (d) In the event that human subjects research involves...

  20. 48 CFR 1352.235-73 - Research involving human subjects-after initial contract award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... categories are specified at 15 CFR 27.101(b). (d) In the event that human subjects research involves pregnant... prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(d), insert the following clause: Research Involving Human Subjects—After... Protection of Human Subjects (the “Common Rule”), adopted by the Department of Commerce at 15 CFR part...

  1. 48 CFR 1352.235-73 - Research involving human subjects-after initial contract award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(d), insert the following clause: Research Involving Human Subjects—After... Protection of Human Subjects (the “Common Rule”), adopted by the Department of Commerce at 15 CFR part 27... categories are specified at 15 CFR 27.101(b). (d) In the event that human subjects research involves...

  2. 76 FR 44512 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... than minimal risk? How should the characteristics of the study population (e.g. mental health patients... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... of the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in coordination with the...

  3. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890418

  4. From the Philosophy of Consciousness to the Philosophy of Difference: The Subject for Education after Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Biesta has suggested that education after humanism should be interested in existence, not essence, in what the subject can do, not in what the subject is--the truth about the subject--and this is the way inspired by Foucault and Levinas. In this article, I analyze Foucault's alleged deconstruction and reconfiguration of the subject and Levinas'…

  5. Dendritic cells in humans--from fetus to adult.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Naomi; Chan, Jerry K Y; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-02-01

    The human immune system evolves continuously during development from the embryo into the adult, reflecting the ever-changing environment and demands of our body. This ability of our immune system to sense external cues and adapt as we develop is just as important in the early tolerogenic environment of the fetus, as it is in the constantly pathogen-challenged adult. Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-sensing and antigen-presenting components of the immune system, play a crucial role in this process where they act as sentinels, both initiating and regulating immune responses. Here, we provide an overview of the human immune system in the developing fetus and the adult, with a focus on DC ontogeny and function during these discrete but intimately linked life stages. PMID:25323843

  6. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Inter-subject variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-02-01

    The biodynamic responses of the seated human body to whole-body vibration vary considerably between people, but the reasons for the variability are not well understood. This study was designed to determine how the physical characteristics of people affect their apparent mass and whether inter-subject variability is influenced by the magnitude of vibration and the support of a seat backrest. The vertical apparent masses of 80 seated adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) were measured at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with four backrest conditions (no backrest, upright rigid backrest, reclined rigid backrest, reclined foam backrest) and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Relationships between subject physical characteristics (age, gender, weight, and anthropometry) and subject apparent mass were investigated with multiple regression models. The strongest predictor of the modulus of the vertical apparent mass at 0.6 Hz, at resonance, and at 12 Hz was body weight, with other factors having only a marginal effect. After correction for other variables, the principal resonance frequency was most consistently associated with age and body mass index. As age increased from 18 to 65 years, the resonance frequency increased by up to 1.7 Hz, and when the body mass index was increased from 18 to 34 kg m -2 the resonance frequency decreased by up to 1.7 Hz. These changes were greater than the 0.9-Hz increase in resonance frequency between sitting without a backrest and sitting with a reclined rigid backrest, and greater than the 1.0-Hz reduction in resonance frequency when the magnitude of vibration increased from 0.5 to 1.5 m s -2 rms. It is concluded that the effects of age, body mass index, posture, vibration magnitude, and weight should be taken into account when defining the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body.

  7. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  8. The adult human brain harbors multipotent perivascular mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gesine; Özen, Ilknur; Christophersen, Nicolaj S; Reinbothe, Thomas; Bengzon, Johan; Visse, Edward; Jansson, Katarina; Dannaeus, Karin; Henriques-Oliveira, Catarina; Roybon, Laurent; Anisimov, Sergey V; Renström, Erik; Svensson, Mikael; Haegerstrand, Anders; Brundin, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels and adjacent cells form perivascular stem cell niches in adult tissues. In this perivascular niche, a stem cell with mesenchymal characteristics was recently identified in some adult somatic tissues. These cells are pericytes that line the microvasculature, express mesenchymal markers and differentiate into mesodermal lineages but might even have the capacity to generate tissue-specific cell types. Here, we isolated, purified and characterized a previously unrecognized progenitor population from two different regions in the adult human brain, the ventricular wall and the neocortex. We show that these cells co-express markers for mesenchymal stem cells and pericytes in vivo and in vitro, but do not express glial, neuronal progenitor, hematopoietic, endothelial or microglial markers in their native state. Furthermore, we demonstrate at a clonal level that these progenitors have true multilineage potential towards both, the mesodermal and neuroectodermal phenotype. They can be epigenetically induced in vitro into adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts but also into glial cells and immature neurons. This progenitor population exhibits long-term proliferation, karyotype stability and retention of phenotype and multipotency following extensive propagation. Thus, we provide evidence that the vascular niche in the adult human brain harbors a novel progenitor with multilineage capacity that appears to represent mesenchymal stem cells and is different from any previously described human neural stem cell. Future studies will elucidate whether these cells may play a role for disease or may represent a reservoir that can be exploited in efforts to repair the diseased human brain. PMID:22523602

  9. Human Service Planning as a Collective Adult Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Joan

    Based on a study by the Department of Community Service Education, Cornell University, to evaluate human service planning (HSP) nationwide, this paper discusses the premises that HSP may be defined as community learning and that the community (according to the Robert Boyd and Jerold Apps model for adult education) is both a beneficiary of and…

  10. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels. PMID:23666598

  11. Thirst perception and drinking in euhydrate and dehydrate human subjects.

    PubMed

    Obika, L F O; Idu, F K; George, G O; Ajayi, O I; Mowoe, R S

    2009-06-01

    Studies on how the body senses the need to correct extracellular and intracellular volumes and ionic concentration changes is relatively scanty. The present studies were designed to determine the effect of oral distilled water (DW) and saline loads, gargling with DW and DW preload on thirst perception (TP) and drinking in euhydrate and dehydrated subjects. The subjects were healthy male volunteers between the ages of 17 and 35 years. Group A subjects were given DW or various concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] orally. Subjects in groups B, C and D were dehydrated for 18 hours before the experiment. Group B gargled 500 ml of DW in divided volume of 50 ml at five minutes interval over a period of 50 minutes. Group C gargled with DW and different concentrations of NaCl. Group D were preloaded with four volumes of DW before ad libitum DW intake. TP was rated using the Visual Analogue Scale. Results showed that in Group A, drinking DW reduced TP, suggesting that baseline TP in normal euhydrate subjects is slightly elevated. Drinking DW reduced TP more than drinking NaCl solutions. Gargling resulted in a gradual fall in TP. The decrease in TP was statistically significant after 30 minutes of gargling. Gargling with different concentrations of NaCl solutions resulted in significant reductions in TP in all the groups. There was a significant decrease in TP in the group preloaded with 1000 ml of distilled water at 5 minutes of rehydration. At 20 minutes TP was abolished suggesting that approximately 1000 ml of water was needed for the rehydration. These results show that baseline TP in euhydrates is elevated and that TP increases in dehydrated subjects. Gargling reduces TP, but did not abolish thirst. It is suggested that a fall in plasma osmolality due to drinking may be responsible for abolishing thirst. PMID:19826461

  12. Adult attachment style is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability in humans.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Tuominen, Lauri; Hirvonen, Jussi; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Dunbar, Robin I M; Sams, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Human attachment behavior mediates establishment and maintenance of social relationships. Adult attachment characteristically varies on anxiety and avoidance dimensions, reflecting the tendencies to worry about the partner breaking the social bond (anxiety) and feeling uncomfortable about depending on others (avoidance). In primates and other mammals, the endogenous μ-opioid system is linked to long-term social bonding, but evidence of its role in human adult attachment remains more limited. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to reveal how variability in μ-opioid receptor (MOR) availability is associated with adult attachment in humans. We scanned 49 healthy subjects using a MOR-specific ligand [(11) C]carfentanil and measured their attachment avoidance and anxiety with the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised scale. The avoidance dimension of attachment correlated negatively with MOR availability in the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the frontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. No associations were observed between MOR availability and the anxiety dimension of attachment. Our results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may underlie interindividual differences in avoidant attachment style in human adults, and that differences in MOR availability are associated with the individuals' social relationships and psychosocial well-being. PMID:26046928

  13. Telocytes of the human adult trigeminal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Cretoiu, Dragos; Vrapciu, Alexandra Diana; Hostiuc, Sorin; Dermengiu, Dan; Manoiu, Vasile Sorin; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria; Mirancea, Nicolae

    2016-06-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are typically defined as cells with telopodes by their ultrastructural features. Their presence was reported in various organs, however little is known about their presence in human trigeminal ganglion. To address this issue, samples of trigeminal ganglia were tested by immunocytochemistry for CD34 and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that TCs are CD34 positive and form networks within the ganglion in close vicinity to microvessels and nerve fibers around the neuronal-glial units (NGUs). TEM examination confirmed the existence of spindle-shaped and bipolar TCs with one or two telopodes measuring between 15 to 53 μm. We propose that TCs are cells with stemness capacity which might contribute in regeneration and repair processes by: modulation of the stem cell activity or by acting as progenitors of other cells present in the normal tissue. In addition, further studies are needed to establish if they might influence the neuronal circuits. PMID:27147447

  14. Subjective valuation of cushioning in a human drop landing task as quantified by trade-offs in mechanical work.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Nathaniel E; Zelik, Karl E; Kuo, Arthur D

    2015-07-16

    Humans can perform motor tasks in a variety of ways, yet often favor a particular strategy. Some factors governing the preferred strategy may be objective and quantifiable, (e.g. metabolic energy or mechanical work) while others may be more subjective and less measurable, (e.g. discomfort, pain, or mental effort). Subjectivity can make it challenging to explain or predict preferred movement strategies. We propose that subjective factors might nevertheless be characterized indirectly by their trade-offs against more objective measures such as work. Here we investigated whether subjective costs that influence human movement during drop landings could be indirectly assessed by quantifying mechanical work performed. When landing on rigid ground, humans typically absorb much of the collision actively by bending their knees, perhaps to avoid the discomfort of stiff-legged landings. We measured how work performed by healthy adults (N=8) changed as a function of surface cushioning for drop landings (fixed at about 0.4m) onto varying amounts of foam. Landing on more foam dissipated more energy passively in the surface, thus reducing the net dissipation required of subjects, due to relatively fixed landing energy. However, subjects actually performed even less work in the dissipative collision, as well as in the subsequent active, positive work to return to upright stance (approximately linear decrease of about 1.52 J per 1 cm of foam thickness). As foam thickness increased, there was also a corresponding reduction in center-of-mass vertical displacement after initial impact by up to 43%. Humans appear to subjectively value cushioning, revealed by the extra work they perform landing without it. Cushioning is thus worth more than the energy it dissipates, in an amount that indicates the subjective discomfort of stiff landings. PMID:25979381

  15. Reproducibility of cerebral glucose metabolic measurements in resting human subjects.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, E J; Brodie, J D; Wolf, A P; Christman, D R; Laska, E; Meissner, M

    1988-08-01

    Positron emission tomography with 11C-2-deoxyglucose was used to determine the test-retest variability of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in 22 young normal right-handed men scanned twice in a 24-h period under baseline (resting) conditions. To assess the effects of scan order and time of day on variability, 12 subjects were scanned in the morning and afternoon of the same day (a.m.-p.m.) and 10 in the reverse order (p.m.-a.m.) with a night in between. The effect of anxiety on metabolism was also assessed. Seventy-three percent of the total subject group showed changes in whole brain metabolism from the first to the second measurement of 10% or less, with comparable changes in various cortical and subcortical regions. When a scaling factor was used to equate the whole brain metabolism in the two scans for each individual, the resulting average regional changes for each group were no more than 1%. This suggests that the proportion of the whole brain metabolism utilized regionally is stable in a group of subjects over time. Both groups of subjects had lower morning than afternoon metabolism, but the differences were slight in the p.m.-a.m. group. One measure of anxiety (pulse at run 1) was correlated with run 1 metabolism and with the percentage of change from run 1 to run 2. No significant run 2 correlations were observed. This is the first study to measure test-retest variability in cerebral glucose metabolism in a large sample of young normal subjects. It demonstrates that the deoxyglucose method yields low intrasubject variability and high stability over a 24-h period. PMID:3260593

  16. 45 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human... studies, or purification of compounds. These applications need not be reviewed by an IRB before an...

  17. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma.

    PubMed

    Accordini, Simone; Calciano, Lucia; Bombieri, Cristina; Malerba, Giovanni; Belpinati, Francesca; Lo Presti, Anna Rita; Baldan, Alessandro; Ferrari, Marcello; Perbellini, Luigi; de Marco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) study (www.geird.org), 326 subjects (aged 20-64) with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes) was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS) and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR). SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4) was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04), whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r2 = 0.94) in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09). Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1) or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A) only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever asthma

  18. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Accordini, Simone; Calciano, Lucia; Bombieri, Cristina; Malerba, Giovanni; Belpinati, Francesca; Lo Presti, Anna Rita; Baldan, Alessandro; Ferrari, Marcello; Perbellini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) study (www.geird.org), 326 subjects (aged 20–64) with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes) was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS) and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR). SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4) was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04), whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r2 = 0.94) in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09). Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1) or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A) only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever

  19. Adult human sarcomas. II. Medical oncology.

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2007-02-01

    Human sarcoma cells can be killed by radio- and chemotherapy, but tumor cells acquiring resistance frequently kill the patient. A keen understanding of the intracellular course of oncogenic cascades leads to the discovery of small molecular inhibitors of the involved phosphorylated kinases. Targeted therapy complements chemotherapy. Oncogene silencing is feasible by small interfering RNA. The restoration of some of the mutated or deleted tumor-suppressor genes (p53, Rb, PTEN, hSNF, INK/ARF and WT) by demethylation or reacetylation of their histones has been accomplished. Genetically engineered or naturally oncolytic viruses selectively lyse tumors and leave healthy tissues intact. Adeno- or retroviral vectors deliver genes of immunological costimulators, tumor antigens, chemo- or cytokines and/or tumor-suppressor proteins into tumor (sarcoma) cells. Suicide gene delivery results in apoptosis induction. Genes of enzymes that target prodrugs as their substrates render tumor cells highly susceptible to chemotherapy, with the prodrug to be targeted intracellularly. It will be combinations of sophisticated surgical removal of the nonencapsulated and locally invasive primary sarcomas, advanced forms of radiotherapy to the involved sites and immunotherapy with sarcoma vaccines that will cure primary sarcomas. Adoptive immunotherapy with immune lymphocytes will be operational in metastatic disease only when populations of regulatory T cells are controlled. Targeted therapy with small molecular inhibitors of oncogene cascades, the driving forces of sarcoma cells, alteration of the tumor stroma from a supportive to a tumor-hostile environment, reactivation or replacement of wild-type tumor-suppressor genes, and radio-chemotherapy (with much reduced toxicity) will eventually accomplish the cure of metastatic sarcomas. PMID:17288529

  20. Intra- and inter-subject variation in lower limb coordination during countermovement jumps in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coordination pattern and coordination variability (intra-subject and inter-subject) in children and adults during vertical countermovement jumps. Ten children (mean age: 11.5±1.8years) and ten adults (mean age: 26.1±4.9years) participated in the experiment. Lower body 3D-kinematics and kinetics from both legs were obtained during 9 vertical jumps of each subject. Coordination pattern and coordination variability of intra-limb and inter-limb coupling were established by modified vector coding and continuous relative phase. The adult group jumped higher and with less performance variability compared to the children. Group differences were mainly observed in the right-left foot coupling. The intra-subject coordination variability was higher in coupling of proximal segments in children compared to adults. No group differences were observed in inter-subject variability. Based on these results, it was concluded that the same movement solutions were available to both age groups, but the children were less able to consistently utilize the individually chosen coordination pattern. Thus, this ability appears to be developed through normal ontogenesis. PMID:26724430

  1. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  2. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-28

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population. PMID:26346363

  3. Functional localization of the auditory thalamus in individual human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Stecker, G. Christopher; Fine, Ione

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe an easily implemented protocol based on sparse MR acquisition and a scrambled ‘music’ auditory stimulus that allows for reliable measurement of functional activity within the medial geniculate body (MGB, the primary auditory thalamic nucleus) in individual subjects. We find that our method is equally accurate and reliable as previously developed structural methods, and offers significantly more accuracy in identifying the MGB than group based methods. We also find that lateralization and binaural summation within the MGB resembles that found in auditory cortex. PMID:23603350

  4. Perivascular mesenchymal progenitors in human fetal and adult liver.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Over, Patrick; Turner, Morris E; Thompson, Robert L; Foka, Hubert G; Chen, William C W; Péault, Bruno; Gridelli, Bruno; Schmelzer, Eva

    2012-12-10

    The presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been described in various organs. Pericytes possess a multilineage differentiation potential and have been suggested to be one of the developmental sources for MSCs. In human liver, pericytes have not been defined. Here, we describe the identification, purification, and characterization of pericytes in human adult and fetal liver. Flow cytometry sorting revealed that human adult and fetal liver contains 0.56%±0.81% and 0.45%±0.39% of CD146(+)CD45(-)CD56(-)CD34(-) pericytes, respectively. Of these, 41% (adult) and 30% (fetal) were alkaline phosphatase-positive (ALP(+)). In situ, pericytes were localized around periportal blood vessels and were positive for NG2 and vimentin. Purified pericytes could be cultured extensively and had low population doubling times. Immunofluorescence of cultures demonstrated that cells were positive for pericyte and mesenchymal cell markers CD146, NG2, CD90, CD140b, and vimentin, and negative for endothelial, hematopoietic, stellate, muscle, or liver epithelial cell markers von Willebrand factor, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD144, CD326, CK19, albumin, α-fetoprotein, CYP3A7, glial fibrillary acid protein, MYF5, and Pax7 by gene expression; myogenin and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression were variable. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of cultures confirmed surface expression of CD146, CD73, CD90, CD10, CD13, CD44, CD105, and ALP and absence of human leukocyte antigen-DR. In vitro differentiation assays demonstrated that cells possessed robust osteogenic and myogenic, but low adipogenic and low chondrogenic differentiation potentials. In functional in vitro assays, cells had typical mesenchymal strong migratory and invasive activity. In conclusion, human adult and fetal livers harbor pericytes that are similar to those found in other organs and are distinct from hepatic stellate cells. PMID:22931482

  5. Robot Tracking of Human Subjects in Field Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Jeffrey; Shillcutt, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    Future planetary exploration will involve both humans and robots. Understanding and improving their interaction is a main focus of research in the Intelligent Systems Branch at NASA's Johnson Space Center. By teaming intelligent robots with astronauts on surface extra-vehicular activities (EVAs), safety and productivity can be improved. The EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project was established to study the issues of human-robot teams, to develop a testbed robot to assist space-suited humans in exploration tasks, and to experimentally determine the effectiveness of an EVA assistant robot. A companion paper discusses the ERA project in general, its history starting with ASRO (Astronaut-Rover project), and the results of recent field tests in Arizona. This paper focuses on one aspect of the research, robot tracking, in greater detail: the software architecture and algorithms. The ERA robot is capable of moving towards and/or continuously following mobile or stationary targets or sequences of targets. The contributions made by this research include how the low-level pose data is assembled, normalized and communicated, how the tracking algorithm was generalized and implemented, and qualitative performance reports from recent field tests.

  6. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 16.118 Section 16.118 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans...

  7. 10 CFR 35.6 - Provisions for the protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisions for the protection of human research subjects. 35.6 Section 35.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.6 Provisions for the protection of human research subjects. (a) A licensee may...

  8. 10 CFR 35.6 - Provisions for the protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisions for the protection of human research subjects. 35.6 Section 35.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.6 Provisions for the protection of human research subjects. (a) A licensee may...

  9. 45 CFR 690.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.118... grants when selection of specific projects is the institution's responsibility; research training grants... for research exempted or waived under § 690.101 (b) or (i), no human subjects may be involved in...

  10. 16 CFR 1028.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1028.118 Section 1028.118 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants,...

  11. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  12. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  13. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 1230.119 Section 1230.119 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the...

  14. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  15. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 1230.119 Section 1230.119 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the...

  16. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and...

  17. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects. 17.85 Section 17.85 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... to human subjects. (a) VA medical facilities shall provide necessary medical treatment to a...

  18. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects. 17.85 Section 17.85 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... to human subjects. (a) VA medical facilities shall provide necessary medical treatment to a...

  19. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects. 17.85 Section 17.85 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... to human subjects. (a) VA medical facilities shall provide necessary medical treatment to a...

  20. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  1. GH safety workshop position paper: A critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, t...

  2. Impairment of auditory spatial localization in congenitally blind human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gori, Monica; Sandini, Giulio; Martinoli, Cristina; Burr, David C

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated enhanced auditory processing in the blind, suggesting that they compensate their visual impairment in part with greater sensitivity of the other senses. However, several physiological studies show that early visual deprivation can impact negatively on auditory spatial localization. Here we report for the first time severely impaired auditory localization in the congenitally blind: thresholds for spatially bisecting three consecutive, spatially-distributed sound sources were seriously compromised, on average 4.2-fold typical thresholds, and half performing at random. In agreement with previous studies, these subjects showed no deficits on simpler auditory spatial tasks or with auditory temporal bisection, suggesting that the encoding of Euclidean auditory relationships is specifically compromised in the congenitally blind. It points to the importance of visual experience in the construction and calibration of auditory spatial maps, with implications for rehabilitation strategies for the congenitally blind. PMID:24271326

  3. Impairment of auditory spatial localization in congenitally blind human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Monica; Sandini, Giulio; Martinoli, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated enhanced auditory processing in the blind, suggesting that they compensate their visual impairment in part with greater sensitivity of the other senses. However, several physiological studies show that early visual deprivation can impact negatively on auditory spatial localization. Here we report for the first time severely impaired auditory localization in the congenitally blind: thresholds for spatially bisecting three consecutive, spatially-distributed sound sources were seriously compromised, on average 4.2-fold typical thresholds, and half performing at random. In agreement with previous studies, these subjects showed no deficits on simpler auditory spatial tasks or with auditory temporal bisection, suggesting that the encoding of Euclidean auditory relationships is specifically compromised in the congenitally blind. It points to the importance of visual experience in the construction and calibration of auditory spatial maps, with implications for rehabilitation strategies for the congenitally blind. PMID:24271326

  4. Analysis of plasma and urinary tea polyphenols in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J; Wang, Z Y; Li, H; Chen, L; Sun, Y; Gobbo, S; Balentine, D A; Yang, C S

    1995-06-01

    Tea has been shown to inhibit chemically induced tumorigenesis in many animal models, but the effects of tea consumption on human carcinogenesis are not conclusive. In order to develop biomarkers for tea consumption, we developed methods for the analysis of tea polyphenols in human plasma and urine samples using HPLC with the coulochem electrode array detection system. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC) are the major polyphenols in green tea. Most of the tea polyphenols were in their conjugated forms in the plasma and urine. The samples were incubated with a mixture of beta-glucuronidase and sulfatase to generate the free form of tea polyphenols. After extraction into ethyl acetate and separation by reversed-phase chromatography, EGCG, EGC, and EC were identified on the basis of their retention times and electrochemical characteristics. Due to the high selectivity of the detection mode, interference was minimized. Good quantitative relationships were established for a large concentration range of tea polyphenols. The limits of detection for EGCG, EGC, ECG, and EC were from 0.5 to 1.5 ng/ml of plasma or urine sample. After ingestion of 1.2 g of decaffeinated green tea in warm water, the plasma samples collected at 1 h from 4 human volunteers contained 46-268 ng/ml of EGCG, 82-206 ng/ml of EGC, and 48-80 ng/ml of EC. ECG was not detected in plasma samples. The maximum urinary excretion of EGC and EC occurred at 3-6 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7655336

  5. Adult Daughters’ Influence on Mothers’ Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2010-01-01

    This study of mother–adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother–adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother–daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers’ ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms. PMID:19805795

  6. Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people “directly” did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it. PMID:23967061

  7. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it. PMID:23967061

  8. Physiology and biochemistry of human subjects during entrapment.

    PubMed

    Agapiou, A; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Giotaki, Z K; Kolostoumbis, D; Papageorgiou, C; Zorba, E; Spiliopoulou, C; Amann, A; Statheropoulos, M

    2013-03-01

    A classification of various categories of entrapped people under the ruins of collapsed buildings after earthquakes, technical failures or explosions is proposed. Type and degree of injury at the moment of building collapse and duration of entrapment are the two basic parameters in this classification. The aim is to provide sources and types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be used for establishing a new method for locating entrapped victims based on human chemical signatures. Potential target compounds, among others, are ammonia, acetone, isoprene, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and trimethylamine. In this context, the possible neuroendocrine, metabolic and physical responses of potential victims during the different types of entrapment are correlated with the sources of VOCs such as expired air, urine, blood and sweat. The proposed classification scheme was developed as part of an integrated research project which investigates the use of combined audio, video and chemical methods for the early location of entrapped people under the ruins of collapsed buildings. PMID:23318246

  9. Absorption and disposition kinetics of amoxicillin in normal human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Arancibia, A; Guttmann, J; González, G; González, C

    1980-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin were studied in healthy fasted subjects afqer both oral and intravenous administration of a single 500-mg dose. Serum levels and urinary excretion rates were determined at various time intervals by a microbiological method. The conventional two-compartment model with elimination occurring from the central compartment was used to analyze the data. Mean values were 3.40 h-1 for alpha and 0.68 h-1 for beta. Distribution constants kappa 12 and kappa 21 were 0.92 h-1 and 1.99 h-1, respectively. The rate constant for elimination from the central compartment, kappa 10, was 1.16 h-1. The volume of distribution was 20.2 liters (0.30 liter/kg), and the serum clearance was 13.3 liters/h. The absorption rate constant, kappa a, in the oral study, calculated by the Loo-Riegelman method, was 1.02 h-1, and the absorption half-life was 0.72 h. Absolute bioavailability after the oral dose was determined by comparing both the areas under the curve (AUC) and fractions of the antibiotic excreted unchanged in the urine. The AUC after oral administration was 77.4% of the intravenous AUC. On the other hand, recovery from the urine was 43.4% after the oral dose and 57.4% after the intravenous dose, indicating 76.5% bioavailability. PMID:7387142

  10. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  11. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function

  12. Individual differences in the neural signature of subjective value among older adults.

    PubMed

    Halfmann, Kameko; Hedgcock, William; Kable, Joseph; Denburg, Natalie L

    2016-07-01

    Some healthy older adults show departures from standard decision-making patterns exhibited by younger adults. We asked if such departures are uniform or if heterogeneous aging processes can designate which older adults show differing decision patterns. Thirty-three healthy older adults with varying decision-making patterns on a complex decision task (the Iowa Gambling Task) completed an intertemporal choice task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined whether value representation in the canonical valuation network differed across older adults based on complex decision-making ability. Older adults with advantageous decision patterns showed increased activity in the valuation network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and striatum. In contrast, older adults with disadvantageous decision patterns showed reduced or absent activation in the VMPFC and striatum, and these older adults also showed greater blood oxygen level dependent signal temporal variability in the striatum. Our results suggest that a reduced representation of value in the brain, possibly driven by increased neural noise, relates to suboptimal decision-making in a subset of older adults, which could translate to poor decision-making in many aspects of life, including finance, health and long-term care. Understanding the connection between suboptimal decision-making and neural value signals is a step toward mitigating age-related decision-making impairments. PMID:26089342

  13. Acute behavioural comparisons of toluene and ethanol in human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, D; Fine, L; Langolf, G; Schork, T; Sampaio, C

    1991-01-01

    A comparison of toluene and ethanol (EtOH) induced changes in central nervous system (CNS) function and symptoms were evaluated in two studies, and when possible the effects of toluene were expressed in EtOH equivalent units. The toluene concentrations were 0, 75, and 150 ppm, bracketing the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value (ACGIH TLV) of 100 ppm. The socially relevant EtOH doses were 0.00, 0.33, and 0.66 g EtOH/kg body weight, equivalent to two and four 3.5% 12 ounce beers. Forty two paid college students were used in each study. In the first study, subjects were exposed to toluene and an odour masking agent menthol (0.078 ppm) for seven hours over three days. In the second study EtOH or a placebo was administered at 1530 across three days also in the presence of menthol. Verbal and visual short term memory (Sternberg, digit span, Benton, pattern memory), perception (pattern recognition), psychomotor skill (simple reaction time, continuous performance, symbol-digit, hand-eye coordination, finger tapping, and critical tracking), manual dexterity (one hole), mood (profile on mood scales (POMS), fatigue (fatigue checklist), and verbal ability were evaluated at 0800, 1200, and 1600. Voluntary symptoms and observations of sleep were collected daily. A 3 x 3 latin square design evaluated solvent effects simultaneously controlling for learning and dose sequence. An analysis of variance and test for trend were performed on am-pm differences reflecting an eight hour workday and on pm scores for each solvent, in which subjects were their own control Intersubject variation in absorbance was monitored in breath. A 5 to 10% decrement was considered meaningful if consistent with a linear trend at p less than 0.05. At 150 ppm toluene, losses in performance were 6.0% for digit span, 12.1% for pattern recognition (latency), 5% for pattern memory (number correct), 6.5% for one hole, and 3% for critical tracking. The number of headaches

  14. Bioavailability and Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Flynn, Chris; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) is often treated in space with promethazine (PMZ). Anecdotal reports indicate that the common side effects of drowsiness and decrements in cognitive performance that are associated with PMZ administration (50 mg IM on the ground, are absent or less pronounced in space suggesting I that-the bioavailability and/or pharmacodynamic behavior of PMZ may be altered during space flight. There are limited flight opportunities available for clinical research in space, the NRA-99, therefore, solicits research required to improve, or answer specific questions about in-flight diagnosis, therapy, and post-flight rehabilitation. We propose here, to establish a noninvasive method for pharmacodynamic and therapeutic assessment of PMZ. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to, 1. Establish a saliva to plasma ratio of PMZ after administration, 2. Estimate the relative bioavailability of the three flight-specific dosage forms of PMZ, and 3. Establish the dose-response relationship of PMZ. We will estimate the bioavailability of intramuscular injection (IM), oral tablets and rectal suppositories in normal subjects during ambulatory and antiorthostatic; bed rest (ABR) conditions using novel stable isotope techniques. Drowsiness, cognitive performance and salivary flow rate will be measured as a function of circulating drug concentrations after administration of three IM doses of PMZ. We will compare and contrast the bioavailability of PMZ during normal and ABR conditions to examine whether or not ABR can simulate changes in drug, absorption and availability similar to those anticipated in a microgravity environment. Results of this study will validate methods for an approved study with this medication awaiting a flight opportunity for manifestation. These data will also provide the much needed information on the dynamics and therapeutic index. of this medication and their implications on crew fatigue and performance in space. Key words

  15. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  16. Lipolytic response to glucose infusion in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.

    1987-02-01

    The authors have determined the effect of various rates of glucose infusion on the rates of release of glycerol (R/sub a/ glycerol), free fatty acids (R/sub a/ FFA), and on energy metabolism in normal human volunteers. Plasma kinetics were determined with use of the stable isotopic tracers D-5-glycerol and (1- TC)palmitate, and energy metabolism was determined by indirect calorimetry. The effect of glucose infusion on R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA was dose-dependent. At 4 mg x kg x min , both R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA were suppressed; at 8 mg x kg x min , R/sub a/ FFA was even more depressed, but R/sub a/ glycerol was similar to the value during the 4 mg x kg x min infusion. At all infusion rates tested, the amount of potential energy available from the sum of the glucose infusion and endogenously mobilized fat was always greater than when no glucose was infused. Glucose decreased fat mobilization by both inhibiting lipolysis and stimulating reesterification, thus causing a significant increase in triglyceride-fatty acid substrate cycling within the adipose tissue. Plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay.

  17. Hysteretic pinching of human secondary osteons subjected to torsion.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Di Comite, Mariasevera; Mitov, Plamen; Kabo, John Michael

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of bone tissue's ultra- and micro- structure is fundamental to assessment of macroscopic bone mechanics. This paper explores the ultra-structural characteristics of human femoral tissue responsible for energy absorption of secondary osteons under mechanical loading. A novel mathematical interpretation of single osteon mechanics elucidates the behavior of the collagen-apatite interface. Fully calcified single osteon specimens were mechanically tested quasi-statically under cyclic torsional loading about their longitudinal axis. On each hysteretic diagram, all cycles after the initial monotonic cycle appear pinched and share two points. Stiffness degradation and pinching degradation were investigated on the torque versus deflection-angle-per-unit-length diagrams as the number of cycles increases, in relation to the appearance of osteons in cross-section under circularly polarized light microscopy. Material science's Bauschinger effect, originally defined for metals and later extended to structures reinforced with metal bars, is adapted to describe pinching. Material science's prying effect, defined as amplification of eccentric tensile load through lever action, is employed to explain pinching. The presence of the two points shared by all complete cycles is analyzed in terms of the mathematical fixed point theorem. The results allow formulation of the following conjectures: (1) the prying of carbonated apatite crystallites at the interface with the 40 nm long bands of non-calcified collagen fibrils causes pinching; (2) the prying effect increases with the increasing percentage of collagen-apatite elements that form a larger angle with the osteon axis; and (3) micro-cracks increase more in number than in length as the number of cycles increases. PMID:17399724

  18. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children. PMID:20032473

  19. How long have adult humans been consuming milk?

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Evershed, Richard P; Thomas, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose, and in most mammals, including most humans, lactase activity is down-regulated after the weaning period is completed. However, in about 35% of adults worldwide, lactase continues to be expressed throughout adulthood, a feature termed lactase persistence (LP). Genetic evidence indicates that LP is a recent human adaptation, and its current geographic distribution correlates with the relative historical importance of dairying in different human populations. Investigating archaeological evidence for fresh milk consumption has proved crucial in building an account of the joint evolution of LP and dairying. A powerful technique for investigating food processing, including milk processing, in ancient populations is lipid residue analysis on archaeological pottery. We review here the archaeological and genetic evidence available that have contributed to a better understanding of the gene-culture co-evolution of LP and dairying. PMID:24339181

  20. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    PubMed

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  1. Memory for Medication Side Effects in Younger and Older Adults: The Role of Subjective and Objective Importance

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael C.; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often experience memory impairments, but can sometimes use selective processing and schematic support to remember important information. The current experiments investigate to what degree younger and healthy older adults remember medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember. Participants studied a list of common side effects, and rated how negative these effects were if they were to experience them, and were then given a free recall test. In Experiment 1, the severity of the side effects ranged from mild (e.g., itching) to severe (e.g., stroke), and in Experiment 2, certain side effects were indicated as critical to remember (i.e., “contact your doctor if you experience this”). There were no age differences in terms of free recall of the side effects, and older adults remembered more severe side effects relative to mild effects. However, older adults were less likely to recognize critical side effects on a later recognition test, relative to younger adults. The findings suggest that older adults can selectively remember medication side effects, but have difficulty identifying familiar but potentially critical side effects, and this has implications for monitoring medication use in older age. PMID:25331278

  2. Reduced gene expression of UCP2 but not UCP3 in skeletal muscle of human obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Nordfors, L; Hoffstedt, J; Nyberg, B; Thörne, A; Arner, P; Schalling, M; Lönnqvist, F

    1998-08-01

    Massive overweight is an increasing health problem and underlies several complications which in turn result in premature death. The mechanisms underlying the imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, that lead to obesity in humans, are still only partly understood. In rodents, heat generation and the burning of calories by the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) are important for metabolic control. However, UCP1 is exclusively expressed in brown fat which is only present in limited amounts in human adults. The recent characterization of two new uncoupling proteins, UCP2 and UCP3, may elucidate potentially important pathways for energy expenditure regulation in man. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is accompanied by aberrations in UCP2 and UCP3 regulation. Expression of these two genes was examined using in situ hybridization in six lean and six obese, but otherwise healthy, men. The UCP2 expression was decreased by 28 % (p = 0.001) in the abdominal muscle of the obese subjects. No differences in UCP3 expression were observed between obese and control subjects, although there was great variation in the expression between subjects. In conclusion, these data suggest an impaired activity of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2, but probably not UCP3, in obese subjects. This may result in decreased energy expenditure and contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity. PMID:9726596

  3. Antibody responses to bacteriophage phi X-174 in human subjects exposed to the antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, W. T.; Lugg, D. J.; Rosenblatt, H. M.; Nickolls, P. M.; Sharp, R. M.; Reuben, J. M.; Ochs, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that exposure to long-term spaceflight conditions (stress, isolation, sleep disruption, containment, microbial contamination, and solar radiation) or to ground-based models of spaceflight will alter human immune responses, but specific antibody responses have not been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether exposure to the 8-month Antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight would alter human antibody responses. METHODS: During the 1999 Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions, 11 adult study subjects at Casey, Antarctica, and 7 control subjects at Macquarie Island, sub-Antarctica, received primary and secondary immunizations with the T cell-dependent neoantigen bacteriophage phi X-174. Periodic plasma samples were analyzed for specific antibody function. RESULTS: All of the subjects from Casey, Antarctica, cleared bacteriophage phi X-174 normally by 1 week after primary immunization, and all had normal primary and secondary antibody responses, including immunologic memory amplification and switch from IgM to IgG antibody production. One subject showed a high normal pattern, and one subject had a low normal pattern. The control subjects from Macquarie Island also had normal immune responses to bacteriophage phi X-174. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support the hypothesis that de novo specific antibody responses of subjects become defective during the conditions of the Antarctic winter-over. Because the Antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight lacks the important factors of microgravity and solar radiation, caution must be used in interpreting these data to anticipate normal antibody responses in long-term spaceflight.

  4. On the Effects of Intra- and Inter-Subject Variabilities on Human Inspiratory Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiwoong; Lin, Ching-Long; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of intra- and inter-subject variabilities on airflow patterns in the human central airways are investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). The anatomical airway models are reconstructed from multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) image data. The intra-subject study considers four models of the same human subject, including complete, partial, and no upper respiratory tract. Either pressure or velocity boundary conditions are specified at the mouth, mid pharynx, supraglottis, and tracheal entrance, respectively, with two different flow rates. The inter-subject study considers upper and intra-thoracic airways (up to 6 generations) of two human subjects. LES captures the turbulent laryngeal jet formed at the vocal cords. It is found that the use of a complete upper respiratory tract as well as the anatomically realistic airway geometry is essential to correctly reproduce the laryngeal jet behavior and turbulent coherent structures in particular.

  5. 45 CFR 690.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.118... project supported by these awards until the project has been reviewed and approved by the IRB, as...

  6. 45 CFR 690.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.118... project supported by these awards until the project has been reviewed and approved by the IRB, as...

  7. 45 CFR 690.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.118... project supported by these awards until the project has been reviewed and approved by the IRB, as...

  8. 45 CFR 690.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.118... project supported by these awards until the project has been reviewed and approved by the IRB, as...

  9. 22 CFR 225.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite... completion of instruments, prior animal studies, or purification of compounds. These applications need not...

  10. 22 CFR 225.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite... completion of instruments, prior animal studies, or purification of compounds. These applications need not...

  11. Experimental Infection of Adults With Recombinant Wild-Type Human Metapneumovirus

    PubMed Central

    Talaat, Kawsar R.; Karron, Ruth A.; Thumar, Bhagvanji; McMahon, Bridget A.; Schmidt, Alexander C.; Collins, Peter L.; Buchholz, Ursula J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) causes lower respiratory tract infections in young children. rHMPV-SHs is a recombinant HMPV (rHMPV) based on a biologically derived wild-type HMPV strain. We characterized its infectivity and immunogenicity in healthy adults to determine whether it would be suitable for use as the parent virus for the development of live attenuated rHMPV vaccines. Methods. Twenty-one healthy adults were inoculated intranasally with 106 plaque-forming units of rHMPV-SHs. Respiratory symptoms and shedding of challenge virus were assessed. Neutralizing antibody responses, serum immunoglobulin G and A, and nasal wash specimen immunoglobulin A antibody responses to the HMPV F protein were also measured. Induction of nasal cytokines was assessed with electrochemiluminescence assays. Results. Nine subjects (43%) were infected with challenge virus as determined by virus detection and/or ≥4-fold rise in serum antibody titers. Peak viral shedding occurred on days 7–9 after infection. Four weeks after inoculation, 35% of subjects had any antibody response. Six of 9 infected subjects had respiratory symptoms, and 3 had headache after inoculation. Cytokine patterns differed considerably between subjects with similar illness severity and viral shedding. Conclusions. The rHMPV-SHs virus is infectious and is a suitable parent virus for development of live-attenuated HMPV vaccine candidates. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01109329. PMID:23908489

  12. Socioemotional selectivity in older adults: Evidence from the subjective experience of angry memories.

    PubMed

    Uzer, Tugba; Gulgoz, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the phenomenological properties of younger and older adults' memories for emotional events. Some studies suggest that younger adults remember negative information more vividly than positive information whereas other studies suggest that positive emotion yields phenomenologically richer memories than negative emotion for both younger and older adults. One problem with previous studies is a tendency to treat emotion as a dichotomous variable. In contrast, emotional richness demands inclusion of assessments beyond just a positive and negative dimension (e.g., assessing specific emotions like anger, fear and happiness). The present study investigated different properties of autobiographical remembering as a function of discrete emotions and age. Thirty-two younger and thirty-one older adults participated by recalling recent and remote memories associated with six emotional categories and completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire for each. Results demonstrated that older adults' angry memories received lower ratings on some phenomenological properties than other emotional memories whereas younger adults' angry memories did not show this same pattern. These results are discussed within the context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:25029295

  13. (Un)veiling Desire: Re-Defining Relationships between Gendered Adult Education Subjects and Adult Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopra, Priti

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges constructions of the "gendered illiterate Indian villager" as a homogenous group of people who are empowered through acquiring literacy. I strive to displace homogeneous representations of gendered "illiterate" subjects through ethnographic accounts of diverse people's realities in different villages in Bihar, India. I argue…

  14. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 34 CFR part 97: Notice About Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a) Applicable... more of the categories set forth in 34 CFR 97.101(b)(1)-(6). However, if the research subjects are children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational...

  15. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects. (a) VA medical facilities shall provide necessary medical treatment to a research... research subjects under this section shall be provided in VA medical facilities. (1) If VA...

  16. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects. (a) VA medical facilities shall provide necessary medical treatment to a research... research subjects under this section shall be provided in VA medical facilities. (1) If VA...

  17. HUMAN SUBJECT AGE AND ACTIVITY LEVEL: FACTORS ADDRESSED IN A BIOMATHEMATICAL DEPOSITION PROGRAM FOR EXTRAPOLATION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic aerosol deposition model, previously validated by data from adult inhalation exposure experiments, is used to study factors affecting particle behavior within the developing human lung. ere, an age dependent lung morphology is presented in which the number of trac...

  18. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  19. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness (r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores (r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness. PMID:26715354

  20. Comparative Cognitive and Subjective Side Effects of Immediate Release Oxycodone in Healthy Middle Age and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherrier, M.; Amory, J.; Ersek, M.; Risler, L.; Shen, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study measured the objective and subjective neurocognitive effects of a single 10mg dose of immediate-release oxycodone in healthy, older (>65 years) and middle age (35 – 55 years) adults who were not suffering from chronic or significant daily pain. Seventy-one participants completed two separate study days and were blind to medication condition (placebo, 10 mg oxycodone). Plasma oxycodone concentration peaked between 60 and 90 min post dose (p<0.01) and pupil size, an indication of physiological effects of the medication peaked at approximately 90 to 120 min post dose (p<0.01). Significant declines in simple and sustained attention, working memory and verbal memory were observed at one hour post dose compared to baseline for both age groups with a trend toward return to baseline by five hours post dose. For almost all cognitive measures there were no medication by age interaction effects, which indicates that the two age groups exhibited a similar responses to the medication challenge. This study suggests that for healthy older adults who are not suffering from chronic pain, neurocognitive and pharmacodynamic changes in response to a 10 mg dose of immediate release oxycodone are similar to those observed for middle age adults. Perspective Study findings indicate that the metabolism, neurocognitive effects, and physical side effects of oral oxycodone are similar for healthy middle-age and older adults. Therefore, clinicians should not avoid prescribing oral opioids to older adults based on the belief that older adults are at higher risk for side effects than younger adults. PMID:19729346

  1. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST INHALATION BY HUMAN SUBJECTS WHILE AT REST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the effect of sulfuric acid aerosol exposure for 2 consecutive days on seven human biochemical blood parameters. A total of 20 human subjects were exposed to 100 micrograms per cu. m. sulfuric acid aerosol for 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. A total of 17 hum...

  2. 48 CFR 1352.235-71 - Protection of human subjects-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....235-71 Protection of human subjects—exemption. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(b), insert the... informed consent form for the exempt research, contractor must use the informed consent form contained in... protocol or informed consent form before proceeding. (c) No other research involving human subjects...

  3. 48 CFR 1352.235-71 - Protection of human subjects-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....235-71 Protection of human subjects—exemption. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(b), insert the... informed consent form for the exempt research, contractor must use the informed consent form contained in... protocol or informed consent form before proceeding. (c) No other research involving human subjects...

  4. Cohort Programming and Learning: Improving Educational Experiences for Adult Learners. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltiel, Iris M.; Russo, Charline S.

    This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for using the principles of cohort programming and learning to improve adult learners' educational experiences. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) cohort programming and learning (cohort programs defined;…

  5. Assessing Adult Learning: A Guide for Practitioners. Revised Edition. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Joseph J.

    This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for assessing adult learning. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) basic principles of informal assessment (relationship between learning and assessment activities; sequencing learning and assessment…

  6. Unique multipotent cells in adult human mesenchymal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; Kitada, Masaaki; Wakao, Shohei; Nishikawa, Kouki; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Makinoshima, Hideki; Goda, Makoto; Akashi, Hideo; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Niwa, Akira; Shigemoto, Taeko; Nabeshima, Yoko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Dezawa, Mari

    2010-01-01

    We found adult human stem cells that can generate, from a single cell, cells with the characteristics of the three germ layers. The cells are stress-tolerant and can be isolated from cultured skin fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells, or directly from bone marrow aspirates. These cells can self-renew; form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency; and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. When transplanted into immunodeficient mice by local or i.v. injection, the cells integrated into damaged skin, muscle, or liver and differentiated into cytokeratin 14-, dystrophin-, or albumin-positive cells in the respective tissues. Furthermore, they can be efficiently isolated as SSEA-3(+) cells. Unlike authentic ES cells, their proliferation activity is not very high and they do not form teratomas in immunodeficient mouse testes. Thus, nontumorigenic stem cells with the ability to generate the multiple cell types of the three germ layers can be obtained through easily accessible adult human mesenchymal cells without introducing exogenous genes. These unique cells will be beneficial for cell-based therapy and biomedical research. PMID:20421459

  7. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  8. Research ethics in Internet-enabled research: human subjects issues and methodological myopia.

    PubMed

    Walther, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    As Internet resources are used more frequently for research on social and psychological behavior, concerns grow about whether characteristics of such research affect human subjects protections. Early efforts to address such concerns have done more to identify potential problems than to evaluate them or to seek solutions, leaving bodies charged with human subjects oversight in a quagmire. This article critiques some of these issues in light of the US Code of Federal Regulations' policies for the Protection of Human Subjects, and argues that some of the issues have no pertinence when examined in the context of common methodological approaches that previous commentators failed to consider. By separating applicable contexts from those that are not, and by identifying cases where subjects' characteristics are irrelevant and/or impossible to provide, oversight committees may be able to consider research applications more appropriately, and investigators may be less ethically bound to ascertain and demonstrate those characteristics. PMID:15977362

  9. Assessment of Itch and Pain in Animal Models and Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tangmi; Li, Juan; Shen, Le; Zhang, Wanying; Wang, Tao; Xu, Yinyan; Zhu, Jie; Huang, Yuguang; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    For the past century, scientists have developed a variety of methods to evaluate itch and pain in both animal models and human subjects to throw light on some of the most important pathways mediating these unpleasant sensations. Discoveries in the mechanisms underlying itch and pain in both physiological and pathological conditions relied greatly upon these studies and may eventually lead to the discovery of new therapeutics. However, it was a much more complicated job to access itch and pain in animal models than in human subjects due to the subjective nature of these sensations. The results could be contradictory or even misleading when applying different methodologies in animal models, especially under pathological conditions with a mixed sensation of itch and pain. This chapter introduces and evaluates some of the classical and newly designed methodologies to access the sensation of itch and pain in animal models as well as human subjects. PMID:26900059

  10. High circulating irisin levels are associated with insulin resistance and vascular atherosclerosis in a cohort of nondiabetic adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Sesti, G; Andreozzi, F; Fiorentino, T V; Mannino, G C; Sciacqua, A; Marini, M A; Perticone, F

    2014-10-01

    Irisin, a novel myokine, was proposed to be able to regulate glucose homeostasis and obesity in mice. Whether irisin levels are associated with cardio-metabolic variables, insulin sensitivity, and vascular atherosclerosis in humans remain unsettled. To determine the associations between circulating irisin levels, cardio-metabolic variables, insulin sensitivity, and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an indicator of vascular atherosclerosis, a cross-sectional evaluation of circulating irisin levels and cardio-metabolic variables in 192 White adults was conducted. Insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Common carotid IMT was measured by ultrasound. After adjusting for age and gender, irisin levels were positively correlated with body fat mass (r = 0.12, P < 0.05), fasting (r = 0.17, P < 0.01), 2 h post-load insulin (r = 0.15, P < 0.02) levels, and IMT (r = 0.29, P < 0.0001) and were negatively correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (r = -0.18, P = 0.007), Matsuda index (r = -0.13, P < 0.04), disposition index (r = -0.278, P < 0.0001), and insulin clearance (r = -0.26, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, gender, and BMI, individuals in the highest tertile of irisin levels exhibited higher body fat mass (P < 0.01), fasting (P < 0.05), 2 h post-load (P < 0.01) insulin levels, carotid IMT (P < 0.001), lower insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (P < 0.001), Matsuda index (P < 0.01), disposition index (P < 0.01), and insulin clearance (P < 0.001) as compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of circulating irisin levels. Irisin is inversely associated with insulin sensitivity and positively associated with carotid IMT in humans, suggesting either increased release by adipose/muscle tissue in response to deterioration of insulin sensitivity or a compensatory increase in irisin to overcome an underlying irisin resistance. PMID:24619655

  11. Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future societies create "greater…

  12. Feeling Caught between Parents: Adult Children's Relations with Parents and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2006-01-01

    Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…

  13. Analysis of Exposure-Dose Variation of Inhaled Particles in Adult Subjects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although internal dose is a key factor for determining the health risk of inhaled pollutant particles, available dose information is largely limited to young healthy adults under a few typical exposure conditions. Extrapolation of the limited dose information to different populat...

  14. Paying human subjects in research: where are we, how did we get here, and now what?

    PubMed

    VanderWalde, Ari; Kurzban, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Both international and federal regulations exist to ensure that scientists perform research on human subjects in an environment free of coercion and in which the benefits of the research are commensurate with the risks involved. Ensuring that these conditions hold is difficult, and perhaps even more so when protocols include the issue of monetary compensation of research subjects. The morality of paying human research subjects has been hotly debated for over 40 years, and the grounds for this debate have ranged from discussion of legal rights, economic rights, philosophical principles of vulnerability and altruism to bioethical concepts of consent, best-interest determination, and justice theory. However, the thought surrounding these issues has evolved over time, and the way we think about the role of the human research subject today is markedly different than the way we thought in the past. Society first thought of the research subject as an altruist, necessarily giving of his time to benefit society as a whole. As time progressed, many suggested that the subject should not need to sacrifice himself for research: if something goes wrong, someone should compensate the subject for injuries. The concept of redress evolved into a system in which subjects were offered money as an inducement to participate in research, sometimes merely to offset the monetary costs of participation, but sometimes even to mitigate the risks of the study. This article examines ethical and legal conversations regarding compensation from the 1960s through today, examining theories of the ethics of compensation both comparatively and critically. In conclusion, we put forward an ethical framework for treating paid research subjects, with an attempt to use this framework as a means of resolving some of the more difficult problems with paying human subjects in research. PMID:21871049

  15. Trauma-relevant characteristics in a university human subjects pool population: gender, major, betrayal, and latency of participation.

    PubMed

    Barlow, M Rose; Cromer, Lisa Demarni

    2006-01-01

    This study of over 700 participants is the first to examine whether students in a university human subjects pool (HSP) population differ systematically by gender, major, and participation time (early versus late in the term) on characteristics relevant to trauma research. Males and females reported equal amounts of overall child and adult trauma, and equal amounts of low-betrayal trauma. Females reported more child and adult high-betrayal trauma (i.e., trauma perpetrated by someone close) than did males. Females also reported more current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than did males. Psychology majors reported more high-betrayal trauma and low-betrayal traumatic events in childhood, as well as more adult low-betrayal trauma, than did non-majors. Dissociation was correlated with all types of trauma. Current age was positively correlated with reporting trauma, regardless of age at which the trauma was experienced. Additionally, students who participated later in the term were, on average, more than a year older than those who participated earlier in the same term. There was no significant difference between early and late participants on any measure of trauma, PTSD symptoms, or dissociation. Implications for the use of HSPS in studying trauma and future research directions are addressed. PMID:16769666

  16. Daily Variations in Objective Nighttime Sleep and Subjective Morning Pain in Older Adults with Insomnia: Evidence of Covariation Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Williams, Jacob M.; Roditi, Daniela; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin; McNamara, Joseph; Dautovich, Natalie; Robinson, Michael E.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured nocturnal sleep and subjective report of morning pain in older adults with insomnia. The goal of the paper was to not only examine the sleep-pain association between-persons (mean-level over 14 days), but also to investigate the within-person, day-to-day association. Design Cross-sectional. Setting North-Central Florida. Participants Fifty community-dwelling older adults (Mage = 69.10 years, SDage = 7.02 years, range = 60 – 90 years) with insomnia participated in the study. Measurements This study employed daily home-based assessment utilizing nightly actigraphic measurement of sleep and daily self-report of pain. Measures were completed over fourteen consecutive days. Results Between persons, average sleep over 14 days was not associated with average levels of rated pain. However, following a night in which an older adult with insomnia experienced above-average total sleep time s/he subsequently reported below-average pain ratings. The model explained approximately 24% of the within-person and 8% of the between-person variance in pain ratings. Conclusions Sleep and pain show day-to-day associations (i.e., covary over time) in older adults with insomnia. Such associations may suggest that common physiological systems underlie both the experience of insomnia and pain. Future research should examine the crossover effects of sleep treatment on pain and of pain treatment on sleep. PMID:20406316

  17. Personal Exposure to Submicrometer Particles and Heart Rate Variability in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Shiao, Guang-Ming; Lin, Lian-Yu

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a study on two panels of human subjects—9 young adults and 10 elderly patients with lung function impairments—to evaluate whether submicrometer particulate air pollution was associated with heart rate variability (HRV). We measured these subjects’ electrocardiography and personal exposure to number concentrations of submicrometer particles with a size range of 0.02–1 μm (NC0.02–1) continuously during daytime periods. We used linear mixed-effects models to estimate the relationship between NC0.02–1 and log10-transformed HRV, including standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD), low frequency (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz), and high frequency (HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz), adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, tobacco exposure, and temperature. For the young panel, a 10,000-particle/cm3 increase in NC0.02–1 with 1–4 hr moving average exposure was associated with 0.68–1.35% decreases in SDNN, 1.85–2.58% decreases in r-MSSD, 1.32–1.61% decreases in LF, and 1.57–2.60% decreases in HF. For the elderly panel, a 10,000-particle/cm3 increase in NC0.02–1 with 1–3 hr moving average exposure was associated with 1.72–3.00% decreases in SDNN, 2.72–4.65% decreases in r-MSSD, 3.34–5.04% decreases in LF, and 3.61–5.61% decreases in HF. In conclusion, exposure to NC0.02–1 was associated with decreases in both time-domain and frequency-domain HRV indices in human subjects. PMID:15238278

  18. Air toxics and epigenetic effects: ozone altered microRNAs in the sputum of human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Rebecca C.; Rager, Julia E.; Bauer, Rebecca; Sebastian, Elizabeth; Peden, David B.; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a criteria air pollutant that is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including altered respiratory immune responses. Despite its deleterious health effects, possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying O3-induced health effects remain understudied. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are epigenetic regulators of genomic response to environmental insults and unstudied in relationship to O3 inhalation exposure. Our objective was to test whether O3 inhalation exposure significantly alters miRNA expression profiles within the human bronchial airways. Twenty healthy adult human volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm O3 for 2 h. Induced sputum samples were collected from each subject 48 h preexposure and 6 h postexposure for evaluation of miRNA expression and markers of inflammation in the airways. Genomewide miRNA expression profiles were evaluated by microarray analysis, and in silico predicted mRNA targets of the O3-responsive miRNAs were identified and validated against previously measured O3-induced changes in mRNA targets. Biological network analysis was performed on the O3-associated miRNAs and mRNA targets to reveal potential associated response signaling and functional enrichment. Expression analysis of the sputum samples revealed that O3 exposure significantly increased the expression levels of 10 miRNAs, namely miR-132, miR-143, miR-145, miR-199a*, miR-199b-5p, miR-222, miR-223, miR-25, miR-424, and miR-582-5p. The miRNAs and their predicted targets were associated with a diverse range of biological functions and disease signatures, noted among them inflammation and immune-related disease. The present study shows that O3 inhalation exposure disrupts select miRNA expression profiles that are associated with inflammatory and immune response signaling. These findings provide novel insight into epigenetic regulation of responses to O3 exposure. PMID:24771714

  19. The Biomechanics of the Pediatric and Adult Human Thoracic Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Lau, Sabrina; Riley, Patrick; Lamp, John; Kent, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature points out the relevance of the thoracic spine dynamics in understanding the thorax-restraint interaction as well as in determining the kinematics of the head and cervical spine. This study characterizes the dynamic response in bending of eight human spinal specimens (4 pediatric: ages 7 and 15 years, 4 adult: ages 48 and 52 years) from two sections along the thoracic spine (T2–T4 and T7–T9). Each specimen consisted of three vertebral bodies connected by the corresponding intervertebral discs. All ligaments were preserved in the preparation with the exception of the inter-transverse ligament. Specimens were exposed to a series of five dynamic bending ramp-and-hold tests with varying amplitudes at a nominal rate of 2 rad/s. After this battery of tests, failure experiments were conducted. The 7-year-old specimen showed the lowest tolerance to a moment (T2–T4: 12.1 Nm; T7–T9: 11.6 Nm) with no significant reduction of the relative rotation between the vertebrae. The 15-year-old failure tolerance was comparable to that of the adult specimens. Failure of the adult specimens occurred within a wide range at the T2–T4 thoracic section (23.3 Nm- 53.0 Nm) while it was circumscribed to the interval 48.3 Nm-52.5 Nm for the T7–T9 section. The series of dynamic ramp-and-hold were used to assess two different scaling methods (mass scaling and SAE scaling). Neither method was able to capture the stiffness, peak moment and relaxation characteristics exhibited by the pediatric specimens. PMID:22105396

  20. Gender specificity of sucrose induced analgesia in human adults.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Manasi; Bhatia, Renu; Mathur, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Sweet, palatable substances such as sucrose are reported to calm infants undergoing routine investigative procedures. The analgesic effect persists in pre pubertal children and adults with a hint of gender dependent variation in the analgesic response. The present study was therefore designed to explore gender specificity of sucrose induced analgesia in adult volunteers utilizing the nociceptive flexion reflex, an objective tool for pain assessment. Nociceptive flexion reflex was recorded, both before and after (up to 15 min) ingestion of 100 ml of 25% sucrose solution in 6 male and 6 female volunteers. In the male volunteers the maximum amplitude of the response was 20.8 +/- 7.7 microV before sucrose ingestion and 22.6 +/- 9.1 microV, 6.6 +/- 0.7 microV, 6.2 +/- 1.1 microV, 7.5 +/- 0.9 microV at 0, 5, 10 and 15 minutes post sucrose ingestion respectively. In female volunteers, the maximum amplitude of the response was 33.7 +/- 17.7 microV before sucrose ingestion and 43.6 +/- 17.2 microV, 7.1 +/- 1.2 microV, 25.9 +/- 16.1 microV, 50.6 +/- 16.3 microV at the same time intervals post sucrose ingestion. The maximum amplitude values were significantly lower in the males at 10 and 15 minutes after sucrose ingestion (P < 0.05). This is the first objective report of gender specificity in sucrose induced analgesia in adult humans. The gender dependent variation in sucrose induced analgesia is prolonged in male (15 min) and short lived in female (5 min) volunteers. This knowledge may have important implications in pain management. PMID:18476396

  1. Subjective Sexual Well-Being in Chilean Adults: Evaluation of a Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo

    2016-05-18

    Research on sexuality has traditionally focused on sexual satisfaction, with studies into subjective sexual well-being being a recent phenomenon. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior, happiness, health, and subjective sexual well-being. The data were collected from 862 people aged between 18 and 50 years in Santiago, Chile, and were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results showed that sexual behavioral indicators (sexual frequency, sexual caresses, and touching), happiness, and perception of health taken as a whole predicted 47.4% of subjective sexual well-being (SSWB). Analysis of the four items of subjective sexual well-being separately showed that the dimension of physical satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators with a prediction percentage of 33.5%, whereas emotional satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators and happiness, with a percentage of prediction of 43.3%. Satisfaction with sexual function was associated with perception of health and one sexual behavior indicator, with a prediction percentage of 29.2% of this variable. The importance of sex was associated with three sexual behavior variables that predicted 26.2% of this variable. The results confirm that subjective sexual well-being can be predicted and that its four dimensions present a different behavior compared to the study predictors. PMID:26020732

  2. [Citation, legitimation, affirmation. Notations of medical experiments on human subjects 1750-1840].

    PubMed

    Sabisch, Katja

    2009-09-01

    This paper deals with the problem of representing human subjects in experimental records and focuses the early experimentation on human beings between 1750 and 1840. Unlike the scientific fragmentation of the body since 1840, which coincides with a specific technique of writing down experiments on human subjects by making them disappear behind numbers and charts, a close reading of different experimental records before the 'vivisectional turn' shows the status of the experimental subject as a witness or even as an agreer. Based on the assumption that the individual played a crucial role in representing experimental practices until the middle of the nineteenth century, the paper wants to point out how this was linked to the discursive practice of citation, legitimation, and affirmation. PMID:20506737

  3. Anticipating risk for human subjects participating in clinical research: application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cody, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a method applied in various industries to anticipate and mitigate risk. This methodology can be more systematically applied to the protection of human subjects in research. The purpose of FMEA is simple: prevent problems before they occur. By applying FMEA process analysis to the elements of a specific research protocol, the failure severity, occurrence, and detection rates can be estimated for calculation of a "risk priority number" (RPN). Methods can then be identified to reduce the RPN to levels where the risk/benefit ratio favors human subject benefit, to a greater magnitude than existed in the pre-analysis risk profile. At the very least, the approach provides a checklist of issues that can be individualized for specific research protocols or human subject populations. PMID:16537191

  4. Coping flexibility in young adults: comparison between subjects with and without schizotypal personality features.

    PubMed

    Zong, Ji-gang; Chan, Raymond C K; Stone, William S; Hsi, Xiaolu; Cao, Xiao-yan; Zhao, Qing; Shi, Yan-fang; Wang, Yu-na; Wang, Ya

    2010-09-01

    The current study examined characteristics of coping patterns adopted by college students in mainland China. In particular, it examined the coping strategies adopted by subjects with schizotypal personality (SPD) features compared to those without SPD features, and compared the relative effectiveness of their coping. Four types of coping flexibility were identified among the college sample (n=427), including active-inflexible, passive-inflexible, active-inconsistent, and passive-inconsistent styles. The passive-inconsistent style was related to the worst outcomes. When comparing subjects with SPD features with those without SPD features, subjects with SPD features endorsed significantly more emotion-focused strategies in uncontrollable situations than those without SPD features. The SPD group experienced higher levels of trait anxiety, depression, paranoid ideation and general health problems. The SPD group also generally perceived more, less controllable stress than the non-SPD group and randomly used all four categories of coping strategies. PMID:20510586

  5. Human and animal subjects of research: the moral significance of respect versus welfare.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2006-01-01

    Human beings with diminished decision-making capacities are usually thought to require greater protections from the potential harms of research than fully autonomous persons. Animal subjects of research receive lesser protections than any human beings regardless of decision-making capacity. Paradoxically, however, it is precisely animals' lack of some characteristic human capacities that is commonly invoked to justify using them for human purposes. In other words, for humans lesser capacities correspond to greater protections but for animals the opposite is true. Without explicit justification, it is not clear why or whether this should be the case. Ethics regulations guiding human subject research include principles such as respect for persons-and related duties-that are required as a matter of justice while regulations guiding animal subject research attend only to highly circumscribed considerations of welfare. Further, the regulations guiding research on animals discount any consideration of animal welfare relative to comparable human welfare. This paper explores two of the most promising justifications for these differences between the two sets of regulations. The first potential justification points to lesser moral status for animals on the basis of their lesser capacities. The second potential justification relies on a claim about the permissibility of moral partiality as found in common morality. While neither potential justification is sufficient to justify the regulatory difference as it stands, there is possible common ground between supporters of some regulatory difference and those rejecting the current difference. PMID:16937022

  6. Presence of human herpesvirus 6 variants A and B in saliva and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy adults.

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, S W; Mandl, C W; Kunz, C; Popow-Kraupp, T

    1996-01-01

    Saliva and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 44 healthy young adults were tested for human herpesvirus 6 variants A and B (HHV-6A and -6B) DNA by a sensitive nested PCR. HHV-6B infection was ascertained in 98% of the subjects, and 95% were found to excrete variant B in their saliva. HHV-6A was found in the PBMCs of 16%, but was not detected in saliva samples. PMID:8940478

  7. Polarization sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry for blood glucose monitoring in human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Jitendra; Choudhary, Om Prakash; Sen, P.; Andrews, J. T.

    2013-07-01

    A device based on polarization sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry is developed to monitor blood glucose levels in human subjects. The device was initially tested with tissue phantom. The measurements with human subjects for various glucose concentration levels are found to be linearly dependent on the ellipticity obtainable from the home-made phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry device. The linearity obtained between glucose concentration and ellipticity are explained with theoretical calculations using Mie theory. A comparison of results with standard clinical methods establishes the utility of the present device for non-invasive glucose monitoring.

  8. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning. PMID:26983399

  9. A Method for Remotely Sensing Vital Signs of Human Subjects Outdoors.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Jin, Jingxi; Lv, Hao; Li, Sheng; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-01-01

    After chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions, finding survivors is a huge challenge. Although human bodies can be found by smart vehicles and drones equipped with cameras, it is difficult to verify if the person is alive or dead this way. This paper describes a continuous wave radar sensor for remotely sensing the vital signs of human subjects. Firstly, a compact and portable 24 GHz Doppler radar system is designed to conduct non-contact detection of respiration signal. Secondly, in order to improve the quality of the respiration signals, the self-correlation and adaptive line enhancer (ALE) methods are proposed to minimize the interferences of any moving objects around the human subject. Finally, the detection capabilities of the radar system and the signal processing method are verified through experiments which show that human respiration signals can be extracted when the subject is 7 m away outdoors. The method provided in this paper will be a promising way to search for human subjects outdoors. PMID:26115454

  10. A Method for Remotely Sensing Vital Signs of Human Subjects Outdoors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Jin, Jingxi; Lv, Hao; Li, Sheng; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-01-01

    After chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions, finding survivors is a huge challenge. Although human bodies can be found by smart vehicles and drones equipped with cameras, it is difficult to verify if the person is alive or dead this way. This paper describes a continuous wave radar sensor for remotely sensing the vital signs of human subjects. Firstly, a compact and portable 24 GHz Doppler radar system is designed to conduct non-contact detection of respiration signal. Secondly, in order to improve the quality of the respiration signals, the self-correlation and adaptive line enhancer (ALE) methods are proposed to minimize the interferences of any moving objects around the human subject. Finally, the detection capabilities of the radar system and the signal processing method are verified through experiments which show that human respiration signals can be extracted when the subject is 7 m away outdoors. The method provided in this paper will be a promising way to search for human subjects outdoors. PMID:26115454

  11. The Influence of Executive Functioning on Facial and Subjective Pain Responses in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is known to reduce reliability of subjective pain reports. Although facial expressions of pain are generally considered to be less affected by this decline, empirical support for this assumption is sparse. The present study therefore examined how cognitive functioning relates to facial expressions of pain and whether cognition acts as a moderator between nociceptive intensity and facial reactivity. Facial and subjective responses of 51 elderly participants to mechanical stimulation at three intensities levels (50 kPa, 200 kPa, and 400 kPa) were assessed. Moreover, participants completed a neuropsychological examination of executive functioning (planning, cognitive inhibition, and working memory), episodic memory, and psychomotor speed. The results showed that executive functioning has a unique relationship with facial reactivity at low pain intensity levels (200 kPa). Moreover, cognitive inhibition (but not other executive functions) moderated the effect of pressure intensity on facial pain expressions, suggesting that the relationship between pressure intensity and facial reactivity was less pronounced in participants with high levels of cognitive inhibition. A similar interaction effect was found for cognitive inhibition and subjective pain report. Consequently, caution is needed when interpreting facial (as well as subjective) pain responses in individuals with a high level of cognitive inhibition. PMID:27274618

  12. Abnormal force--EMG relations in paretic limbs of hemiparetic human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, A; Rymer, W Z

    1981-01-01

    The relations between surface EMG and isometric force generated by elbow flexor muscles were compared in normal and paretic limbs of 17 hemiparetic human subjects. Similar analyses were performed on both arms of 11 normal subjects. In almost half of the hemiparetic subjects examined (8/17), the slope of the relation between elbow flexion force and surface EMG, measured over the biceps-brachialis and brachioradialis muscle groups was increased in the paretic limb. A mechanism based on anomalous reductions in mean motor unit discharge rate in paretic muscles is advanced as the most likely cause of the findings. PMID:7299407

  13. Facial soft tissue thickness in individuals with different occlusion patterns in adult Turkish subjects.

    PubMed

    Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Pelin, Can; Ozener, Bariş; Zagyapan, Ragiba; Sahinoglu, Zahira; Yazici, Ayse Canan

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of variation in facial soft tissue thickness is important for forensic anthropologists, dentists, and plastic surgeons. Forensic anthropologists use such information as a guide in facial reconstruction and superimposition methods. The purpose of this study was to measure facial tissue thicknesses of adult males and females of Turkish origin across different types of occlusion, and to compare the results with each other and with values obtained for other populations. The study was conducted on 200 healthy individuals. The analysis of facial tissue thickness included 20 landmarks (10 dentoskeletal and 10 soft tissue) and 10 linear variables. Sex-based variation in facial tissue thickness was noted. The highest soft tissue thickness values were observed in the group with Class III occlusion type at Sn-A point for both the females (16.9, SD=2.4) and the males (17.8, SD=3.3). In the Class I group, the highest tissue depth was observed at Sn-A point (15.3, SD=2.1) in females, and at Li-Id point (17.1, SD=1.9) in males. In the Class II group, contrary to the findings for Class I, the highest soft tissue depth was at Li-Id point (16.0, SD=1.4) in females, and at Sn-A point (18.1, SD=2.6) in males. In conclusion, facial tissue thickness varied in adults depending on the sex and on the type of occlusion. PMID:21741647

  14. Correlation of respirator fit measured on human subjects and a static advanced headform.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael S; He, Xinjian; Joseph, Michael E; Zhuang, Ziqing; Heimbuch, Brian K; Shaffer, Ronald E; Choe, Melanie; Wander, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the correlation of N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) fit between a Static Advanced Headform (StAH) and 10 human test subjects. Quantitative fit evaluations were performed on test subjects who made three visits to the laboratory. On each visit, one fit evaluation was performed on eight different FFRs of various model/size variations. Additionally, subject breathing patterns were recorded. Each fit evaluation comprised three two-minute exercises: "Normal Breathing," "Deep Breathing," and again "Normal Breathing." The overall test fit factors (FF) for human tests were recorded. The same respirator samples were later mounted on the StAH and the overall test manikin fit factors (MFF) were assessed utilizing the recorded human breathing patterns. Linear regression was performed on the mean log10-transformed FF and MFF values to assess the relationship between the values obtained from humans and the StAH. This is the first study to report a positive correlation of respirator fit between a headform and test subjects. The linear regression by respirator resulted in R(2) = 0.95, indicating a strong linear correlation between FF and MFF. For all respirators the geometric mean (GM) FF values were consistently higher than those of the GM MFF. For 50% of respirators, GM FF and GM MFF values were significantly different between humans and the StAH. For data grouped by subject/respirator combinations, the linear regression resulted in R(2) = 0.49. A weaker correlation (R(2) = 0.11) was found using only data paired by subject/respirator combination where both the test subject and StAH had passed a real-time leak check before performing the fit evaluation. For six respirators, the difference in passing rates between the StAH and humans was < 20%, while two respirators showed a difference of 29% and 43%. For data by test subject, GM FF and GM MFF values were significantly different for 40% of the subjects. Overall, the advanced headform system has potential

  15. Correlation of Respirator Fit Measured on Human Subjects and a Static Advanced Headform

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Michael S.; He, Xinjian; Joseph, Michael E.; Zhuang, Ziqing; Heimbuch, Brian K.; Shaffer, Ronald E.; Choe, Melanie; Wander, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the correlation of N95 filtering face-piece respirator (FFR) fit between a Static Advanced Headform (StAH) and 10 human test subjects. Quantitative fit evaluations were performed on test subjects who made three visits to the laboratory. On each visit, one fit evaluation was performed on eight different FFRs of various model/size variations. Additionally, subject breathing patterns were recorded. Each fit evaluation comprised three two-minute exercises: “Normal Breathing,” “Deep Breathing,” and again “Normal Breathing.” The overall test fit factors (FF) for human tests were recorded. The same respirator samples were later mounted on the StAH and the overall test manikin fit factors (MFF) were assessed utilizing the recorded human breathing patterns. Linear regression was performed on the mean log10-transformed FF and MFF values to assess the relationship between the values obtained from humans and the StAH. This is the first study to report a positive correlation of respirator fit between a headform and test subjects. The linear regression by respirator resulted in R2 = 0.95, indicating a strong linear correlation between FF and MFF. For all respirators the geometric mean (GM) FF values were consistently higher than those of the GM MFF. For 50% of respirators, GM FF and GM MFF values were significantly different between humans and the StAH. For data grouped by subject/respirator combinations, the linear regression resulted in R2 = 0.49. A weaker correlation (R2 = 0.11) was found using only data paired by subject/respirator combination where both the test subject and StAH had passed a real-time leak check before performing the fit evaluation. For six respirators, the difference in passing rates between the StAH and humans was < 20%, while two respirators showed a difference of 29% and 43%. For data by test subject, GM FF and GM MFF values were significantly different for 40% of the subjects. Overall, the advanced headform system has

  16. Olfactory Sensitivity for Six Predator Odorants in CD-1 Mice, Human Subjects, and Spider Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafchi, Amir; Odhammer, Anna M. E.; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Laska, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Using a conditioning paradigm, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) for six sulfur-containing odorants known to be components of the odors of natural predators of the mouse. With all six odorants, the mice discriminated concentrations <0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with five of the six odorants the best-scoring animals were even able to detect concentrations <1 ppt (parts per trillion). Four female spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and twelve human subjects (Homo sapiens) tested in parallel were found to detect the same six odorants at concentrations <0.01 ppm, and with four of the six odorants the best-scoring animals and subjects even detected concentrations <10 ppt. With all three species, the threshold values obtained here are generally lower than (or in the lower range of) those reported for other chemical classes tested previously, suggesting that sulfur-containing odorants may play a special role in olfaction. Across-species comparisons showed that the mice were significantly more sensitive than the human subjects and the spider monkeys with four of the six predator odorants. However, the human subjects were significantly more sensitive than the mice with the remaining two odorants. Human subjects and spider monkeys significantly differed in their sensitivity with only two of the six odorants. These comparisons lend further support to the notion that the number of functional olfactory receptor genes or the relative or absolute size of the olfactory bulbs are poor predictors of a species’ olfactory sensitivity. Analysis of odor structure–activity relationships showed that in both mice and human subjects the type of alkyl rest attached to a thietane and the type of oxygen moiety attached to a thiol significantly affected olfactory sensitivity. PMID:24278296

  17. Dose-related Behavioral, Subjective, Endocrine and Psychophysiological Effects Of the Kappa Opioid Agonist Salvinorin A in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Mohini; Schnakenberg, Ashley; Skosnik, Patrick D.; Cohen, Bruce; Pittman, Brian; Sewell, R. Andrew; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Background Salvia divinorum (Salvia) is an increasingly popular recreational drug amongst adolescents and young adults. Its primary active ingredient, Salvinorin A (SA), a highly selective agonist at the kappa opiate receptor (KOR), is believed to be one of the most potent naturally occurring hallucinogens. However, there is little experimental data on the effects of SA in humans. Methods In a 3-day, double-blind, randomized, crossover, counterbalanced study, the behavioral, subjective, cognitive, psychophysiological and endocrine effects of 0 mg, 8 mg and 12 mg of inhaled SA were characterized in 10 healthy individuals who had previously used Salvia. Results SA produced psychotomimetic effects and perceptual alterations including dissociative and somaesthetic effects, increased plasma cortisol and prolactin and reduced resting EEG spectral power. SA administration was associated with a rapid increase of its levels in the blood. SA did not produce euphoria, cognitive deficits or changes in vital signs. The effects were transient and not dose-related. SA administration was very well tolerated without acute or delayed adverse effects. Conclusions SA produced a wide range of transient effects in healthy subjects. The perceptual altering effects and lack of euphoric effects would explain its intermittent use pattern. Such a profile would also suggest a low addictive potential similar to other hallucinogens and consistent with KOR agonism. Further work is warranted to carefully characterize a full spectrum of its effects in humans, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved and to explore the basis for individual variability in its effects. PMID:22817868

  18. Effects of visual demonstration, verbal instructions, and prompted verbal descriptions on the performance of human subjects in conditional discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Ribes-Iñesta, Emilio; Cepeda, Ma. Luisa; Hickman, Hortencia; Moreno, Diana; Peñalosa, Eduardo

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to confirm prior results concerning the role of prompted verbal descriptions of visually demonstrated stimulus relations in the acquisition and transfer of identity, difference, and similarity-matching relations (Ribes et al., 1988). Four groups of human adults were trained with these three matching relations under four different procedures: (1) visual demonstration without response requirement, (2) verbal instructions, (3) visual demonstration plus prompted verbal description, and (4) visual demonstration plus verbal instructions. These procedures were presented at the beginning of the training period before subjects could respond to the experimental task. Although most subjects in the four groups acquired the conditional discrimination under the three matching relations, only those in the two instruction-related groups showed some intramodal and extramodal transfer in tests with stimuli that had not been used in training. These results suggest the importance of measuring extra-situational and trans-situational generalization, and raise the need to distinguish between formal and functional verbal factors in the regulation of human behavior. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:22477044

  19. A policy in flux: New York State's evolving approach to human subjects research involving individuals who lack consent capacity.

    PubMed

    Koch, Valerie Gutmann

    2014-01-01

    American history has been rife with human subjects research scandals, particularly those that involve "vulnerable" populations. State and federal laws and regulations often do not provide any special oversight mechanisms or protections to ensure the ethical and safe inclusion of cognitively impaired adults in research. At the New York State level, repeated (and often unsuccessful) efforts have been made to regulate research involving individuals who lack consent capacity. In January 2014, the New York State Task Force on Life and the Law released its Report and Recommendations for Research with Human Subjects Who Lack Consent Capacity, which represents the most recent step in a decades-long process in the state to develop oversight mechanisms that are appropriately sensitive to the fine line between protecting a vulnerable population and impeding the advancement of research. These recommendations may serve as a model for research policy in other states and at the federal level, particularly in light of shifting societal concerns and changing political winds. PMID:25264095

  20. Human herpesvirus 7 is a constitutive inhabitant of adult human saliva.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, L S; Frenkel, N

    1992-01-01

    We report the frequent isolation of human herpesvirus 7 from the saliva of healthy adults. Virus isolates recovered from different individuals exhibited minimal restriction enzyme polymorphism, which was mostly confined to heterogeneous (het) sequences in the genome. DNAs of isolates recovered from the same individual over a period of several months showed the same characteristic het fragments, indicating the stability of the het sequences upon virus replication and shedding in vivo. In contrast to the results of previous reports, human herpesvirus 6, the causative agent of roseola infantum, could not be isolated from the saliva specimens, raising questions regarding oral transmission of human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 to young children. Images PMID:1348548

  1. Association of body fat distribution with proinflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Puchau, Blanca; Zulet, María Angeles; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) measurements have proved useful in recent studies to discern peripheral biomarkers for common complex diseases and for understanding host responses to drugs and nutrition in personalized medicine. Despite the initial promising data from PBMC, there is little information, however, on inflammatory and immune gene regulation in the context of body fat distribution and metabolic features in healthy adults. We investigated the putative association of body fat distribution and related-metabolic features with mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in PBMC. This study enrolled 136 healthy subjects (85 females/51 males; age: 21.5 +/- 2.5 years). Anthropometrical, clinical, metabolic, and proinflammatory variables were assessed with validated tools. Interestingly, in normal-weight subjects with lower truncal fat (TF) values, mRNA levels of ICAM1, IL1R1, IL6, and TNF-alpha in PBMC were lower (p < 0.05), compared to normal-weight individuals with higher TF (>58.5/50.2% for men/women, respectively) and overweight/obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2)]. After regression analyses were performed, individuals with the highest tertiles of TF and waist circumference displayed higher mRNA gene expressions as well as circulating proinflammatory (C-reactive protein and IL6) and metabolic (blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and LDL-c:HDL-c ratio) variables values (p < 0.05), independent from gender. Our findings collectively suggest that the mRNA expression of certain proinflammatory markers in PBMC is associated with body fat distribution in healthy adult subjects, which in turn, was also related to metabolic features and plasma proinflammatory markers concentrations. PMID:20450441

  2. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.

  3. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less

  4. Ossified Ligamentum Longitudinale Anterius in Adult Human Dry Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Venumadhav, Nelluri; KS, Siddaraju

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ligamentum longitudinale anterius is a broad and strong band of fibrous tissue that runs along the anterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae. Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius in adult dry human vertebra. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 95 sets of dry human vertebral columns irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery- Calicut, India. All the sets of vertebral columns were macroscopically inspected for the ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius. Results: It was observed that out of 95 sets of vertebral columns, 27 (28.42%) vertebral columns showed ossification. Out of 27 vertebral columns, 17 (17.89%) vertebral columns showed segmental type of ossification, 2 (2.11%) vertebral columns showed continuous type of ossification and 8 (8.42%) vertebral columns showed mixed type of ossification at different vertebral level. Conclusion: Such type of ossification will affect the biomechanics of the spine and may result in stiff neck, low back pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, compression of the brachial plexus, aphonia, immobility or mucosal thickening of larynx. Hence, knowledge of such abnormalities should be kept in mind to minimise serious complications in any surgical intervention or investigative procedures in the region. PMID:25302180

  5. The effect of inhaled bronchoconstrictors on transcutaneous gas tensions in normal adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Gray, B; Barnes, N

    1987-01-01

    The administration of histamine and leukotriene D4 (LTD4) by nebulised aerosol in logarithmically increasing doses to normal subjects resulted in significant bronchoconstriction. Transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO2) was monitored during and after the bronchial challenge tests. Following histamine challenge there was significant hypoxaemia in all subjects (mean fall in tcPO2, 20 mmHg). However, following LTD4 administration, there was a small and insignificant fall in tcPO2. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (tcPCO2) was also monitored throughout bronchial challenge, but showed no significant change. We suggest that the hypoxaemia following histamine challenge was due to increased ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching in the lung induced by histamine deposition. PMID:3673787

  6. Condylar growth after non-surgical advancement in adult subject: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    Background A defect of condylar morphology can be caused by several sources. Case report A case of altered condylar morphology in adult male with temporomandibular disorders was reported in 30-year-old male patient. Erosion and flattening of the left mandibular condyle were observed by panoramic x-ray. The patient was treated with splint therapy that determined mandibular advancement. Eight months after the therapy, reduction in joint pain and a greater opening of the mouth was observed, although crepitation sounds during mastication were still noticeable. Conclusion During the following months of gnatologic treatment, new bone growth in the left condyle was observed by radiograph, with further improvement of the symptoms. PMID:19619334

  7. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Contextual Dependency of Subjective Values: Converging Evidence from Monkeys and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Lebreton, Maël; Hollard, Guillaume; Richmond, Barry J.; Bouret, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for decision theory is to account for the instability of expressed preferences across time and context. Such variability could arise from specific properties of the brain system used to assign subjective values. Growing evidence has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) as a key node of the human brain valuation system. Here, we first replicate this observation with an fMRI study in humans showing that subjective values of painting pictures, as expressed in explicit pleasantness ratings, are specifically encoded in the VMPFC. We then establish a bridge with monkey electrophysiology, by comparing single-unit activity evoked by visual cues between the VMPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. At the neural population level, expected reward magnitude was only encoded in the VMPFC, which also reflected subjective cue values, as expressed in Pavlovian appetitive responses. In addition, we demonstrate in both species that the additive effect of prestimulus activity on evoked activity has a significant impact on subjective values. In monkeys, the factor dominating prestimulus VMPFC activity was trial number, which likely indexed variations in internal dispositions related to fatigue or satiety. In humans, prestimulus VMPFC activity was externally manipulated through changes in the musical context, which induced a systematic bias in subjective values. Thus, the apparent stochasticity of preferences might relate to the VMPFC automatically aggregating the values of contextual features, which would bias subsequent valuation because of temporal autocorrelation in neural activity. PMID:25653384

  8. Neural mechanisms underlying contextual dependency of subjective values: converging evidence from monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Lebreton, Maël; Hollard, Guillaume; Richmond, Barry J; Bouret, Sébastien; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    A major challenge for decision theory is to account for the instability of expressed preferences across time and context. Such variability could arise from specific properties of the brain system used to assign subjective values. Growing evidence has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) as a key node of the human brain valuation system. Here, we first replicate this observation with an fMRI study in humans showing that subjective values of painting pictures, as expressed in explicit pleasantness ratings, are specifically encoded in the VMPFC. We then establish a bridge with monkey electrophysiology, by comparing single-unit activity evoked by visual cues between the VMPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. At the neural population level, expected reward magnitude was only encoded in the VMPFC, which also reflected subjective cue values, as expressed in Pavlovian appetitive responses. In addition, we demonstrate in both species that the additive effect of prestimulus activity on evoked activity has a significant impact on subjective values. In monkeys, the factor dominating prestimulus VMPFC activity was trial number, which likely indexed variations in internal dispositions related to fatigue or satiety. In humans, prestimulus VMPFC activity was externally manipulated through changes in the musical context, which induced a systematic bias in subjective values. Thus, the apparent stochasticity of preferences might relate to the VMPFC automatically aggregating the values of contextual features, which would bias subsequent valuation because of temporal autocorrelation in neural activity. PMID:25653384

  9. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Andrew H; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject's whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference. PMID:26948153

  10. Human Subjects Protection: A Source for Ethical Service-Learning Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendler, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Human subjects research ethics were developed to ensure responsible conduct when university researchers learn by interacting with community members. As service-learning students also learn by interacting with community members, a similar set of principles may strengthen the ethical practice of service-learning. This article identifies ethical…

  11. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 34 CFR part 97: Notice About Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a) Applicable... to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” (34 CFR 97.102(d)). If an activity follows a... the individual, or obtains identifiable private information. (34 CFR 97.102(f)). The definition of...

  12. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 34 CFR part 97: Notice About Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a) Applicable... to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” (34 CFR 97.102(d)). If an activity follows a... the individual, or obtains identifiable private information. (34 CFR 97.102(f)). The definition of...

  13. CHROMOSOME STUDIES ON HUMAN SUBJECTS EXPOSED TO ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-year study was carried out on human subjects of various ages and backgrounds who have been drinking water containing 0.05 mg/l (0.05 ppm) or more arsenic for a period of at least 5 years. A control group that had been exposed to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations l...

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in human subjects with function-altering melanocortin-4 receptor variants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In rodents, hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression appears to be regulated by melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity. The impact of MC4R genetic variation on circulating BDNF in humans is unknown. The objective of this study is to compare BDNF concentrations of subjects wi...

  15. The Illinois White Paper: Improving the System for Protecting Human Subjects--Counteracting IRB "Mission Creep"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunsalus, C. K.; Bruner, Edward M.; Burbules, Nicholas C.; Dash, Leon; Finkin, Matthew; Goldberg, Joseph P.; Greenough, William T.; Miller, Gregory A.; Pratt, Michael G.; Iriye, Masumi; Aronson, Deb

    2007-01-01

    Our system of research self-regulation, designed to provide internal checks and balances for those who participate in research involving human subjects, is under considerable stress. Much of this crisis has been caused by what we call mission creep, in which the workload of IRBs has expanded beyond their ability to handle effectively. Mission…

  16. Education and the Labour Market: Subjective Aspects of Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeen, John; Turton, Richard; Diamond, Wayne; Dosnon, Odile; Wach, Monique

    1999-01-01

    Explores subjective aspects of human-capital investment decisions in education. Explores connections that 11th- and 13th-year British students perceive between their education and the labor market, and between qualifications mechanisms and life chances. Most students believe education plays a market-signaling role and a marginal role in raising…

  17. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 34 CFR part 97: Notice About Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a) Applicable... to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” (34 CFR 97.102(d)). If an activity follows a... the individual, or obtains identifiable private information. (34 CFR 97.102(f)). The definition of...

  18. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Research activities involving human subjects. 3452.224-72 Section 3452.224-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  19. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Dental Caries Research Using Human Subjects: Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Joanna

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research are discussed. It is concluded that dentistry must not uncritically accept guidelines meant for a broader class of research, that guidelines can be misapplied, and that researchers must educate themselves on the Commission…

  20. Abuses and apologies: irresponsible conduct of human subjects research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Aultman, Julie M

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the vulnerability of Latin American human subjects, and how their vulnerability is ignored due to the complexities and inconsistencies of oversight committees and institutional policies. Secondly, the concept of apology is examined and its meaning to victims of past research abuses. PMID:23581677

  1. Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, R; Bertocci, G

    2010-04-01

    Wheelchairs are primarily designed for mobility and are not necessarily intended for use as motor vehicle seats. However, many wheelchairs serve as vehicle seats for individuals unable to transfer to a vehicle seat. Subjecting wheelchairs to sled testing, in part establishes the crashworthiness of wheelchairs used as motor vehicle seats. Computer simulations provide a supplemental approach for sled testing, to assess wheelchair response and loading under crash conditions. In this study a nonlinear, dynamic, computer model was developed and validated to simulate a wheelchair and occupant subjected to a frontal impact test (ANSI/RESNA WC19). This simulation model was developed utilizing data from two frontal impact 20 g/48 km/h sled tests, which consisted of identical, adult manual wheelchairs secured with 4-point tiedowns, occupied with a 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test device (ATD), restrained with a 3-point occupant restraint system. Additionally, the model was validated against sled data using visual comparisons of wheelchair and occupant kinematics, along with statistical assessments of outcome measures. All statistical evaluations were found to be within the acceptance criteria, indicating the model's high predictability of the sled tests. This model provides a useful tool for the development of crashworthy wheelchair design guidelines, as well as the development of transit-safe wheelchair technologies. PMID:19251461

  2. Professional Fulfillment and Satisfaction of US and Canadian Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shari L.; Wiesenberg, Faye

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study explored the professional fulfillment and job satisfaction of US and Canadian college and university faculty in the fields of Adult Education and Human Resource Development. In Autumn 2001, we disseminated electronically "The Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty Survey" to a selected sample of Canadian and…

  3. Signals consistent with microbubbles detected in legs of normal human subjects after exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, J C; Phillips, S D; Donoghue, T G; Alvarenga, D L; Knaus, D A; Magari, P J; Buckey, J C

    2010-02-01

    Exercise may produce micronuclei (presumably gas-filled bubbles) in tissue, which could serve as nucleation sites for bubbles during subsequent decompression stress. These micronuclei have never been directly detected in humans. Dual-frequency ultrasound (DFU) is a resonance-based, ultrasound technique capable of detecting and sizing small stationary bubbles. We surveyed for bubbles in the legs of six normal human subjects (ages 28-52 yr) after exercise using DFU. Eleven marked sites on the left thigh and calf were imaged using standard imaging ultrasound. Subjects then rested in a reclining chair for 2 h before exercise. For the hour before exercise, a series of baseline measurements was taken at each site using DFU. At least six baseline measurements were taken at each site. Subjects exercised at 80% of their age-adjusted maximal heart rate for 30 min on an upright bicycle ergometer. After exercise, the subjects returned to the chair, and multiple postexercise measurements were taken at the marked sites. Measurements continued until no further signals consistent with bubbles were returned or 1 h had elapsed. All subjects showed signals consistent with bubbles after exercise at at least one site. The percentage of sites in a given subject showing signals significantly greater than baseline (P < 0.01) at first measurement ranged from 9.1 to 100%. Overall, 58% of sites showed signals consistent with bubbles at the first postexercise measurement. Signals decreased over time after exercise. These data strongly suggest that exercise produces bubbles detectable using DFU. PMID:19875715

  4. Naïve adult stem cells isolation from primary human fibroblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Vera; Roedl, Daniela; Ring, Johannes; Djabali, Karima

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, several adult stem cell populations have been identified in human skin (1-4). The isolation of multipotent adult dermal precursors was first reported by Miller F. D laboratory (5, 6). These early studies described a multipotent precursor cell population from adult mammalian dermis (5). These cells--termed SKPs, for skin-derived precursors-- were isolated and expanded from rodent and human skin and differentiated into both neural and mesodermal progeny, including cell types never found in skin, such as neurons (5). Immunocytochemical studies on cultured SKPs revealed that cells expressed vimentin and nestin, an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural and skeletal muscle precursors, in addition to fibronectin and multipotent stem cell markers (6). Until now, the adult stem cells population SKPs have been isolated from freshly collected mammalian skin biopsies. Recently, we have established and reported that a population of skin derived precursor cells could remain present in primary fibroblast cultures established from skin biopsies (7). The assumption that a few somatic stem cells might reside in primary fibroblast cultures at early population doublings was based upon the following observations: (1) SKPs and primary fibroblast cultures are derived from the dermis, and therefore a small number of SKP cells could remain present in primary dermal fibroblast cultures and (2) primary fibroblast cultures grown from frozen aliquots that have been subjected to unfavorable temperature during storage or transfer contained a small number of cells that remained viable (7). These rare cells were able to expand and could be passaged several times. This observation suggested that a small number of cells with high proliferation potency and resistance to stress were present in human fibroblast cultures (7). We took advantage of these findings to establish a protocol for rapid isolation of adult stem cells from primary fibroblast cultures that are

  5. Are human subject volunteers still players in aeromedical research as we enter the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Popper, S E; Morris, C E

    1997-08-01

    The U.S. Air Force has enjoyed the luxury of having dedicated human volunteer subjects for sustained and impact acceleration research for over 50 yr. However, with today's world economy and budgetary cutbacks, this may no longer be a viable option. The onslaught of advanced medical technology, combined with an increasing performance envelope for aircraft and their ejection systems, have created an environment where the validity of research data and the ethics of human-use research are being challenged. Now is an opportune time to reevaluate the way human-use aeromedical research is conducted. The validity of using nonpilots in lieu of pilots in aeromedical research is discussed in light of the following: a) the increased emphasis on performance metrics within sustained acceleration; b) the matching of human subjects (nonpilots) to pilots in the appropriate attributes to ensure validity of data; c) degree of medical screening required given the ethics of human-use research and concerns of pilots; and d) the challenge of evaluating the "value added" of new technology for medical screening. It is concluded that volunteer panels should be maintained with nonpilots matched with pilots physically and psychologically such that operational performance characteristics are similar. Medical screening should be similar so that research data from subjects can be applied to the target population (pilots). Longitudinal data collection (e.g., spinal X-rays) on pilots would also be of great value as a basis for studying the occupational hazards of flying. PMID:9262820

  6. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  7. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  8. Neural Correlates of Human Action Observation in Hearing and Deaf Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Corina, David; Chiu, Yi-Shiuan; Knapp, Heather; Greenwald, Ralf; Jose-Robertson, Lucia San; Braun, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested the existence of a human action recognition system involving inferior frontal, parietal, and superior temporal regions that may participate in both the perception and execution of actions. However, little is known about the specificity of this system in response to different forms of human action. Here we present data from PET neuroimaging studies from passive viewing of three distinct action types, intransitive self-oriented actions (e.g., stretching, rubbing one’s eyes, etc.), transitive object-oriented actions (e.g., opening a door, lifting a cup to the lips to drink), and the abstract, symbolic actions–signs used in American Sign Language. Our results show that these different classes of human actions engage a frontal/parietal/STS human action recognition system in a highly similar fashion. However, the results indicate that this neural consistency across motion classes is true primarily for hearing subjects. Data from deaf signers shows a non-uniform response to different classes of human actions. As expected, deaf signers engaged left-hemisphere perisylvian language areas during the perception of signed language signs. Surprisingly, these subjects did not engage the expected frontal/parietal/STS circuitry during passive viewing of non-linguistic actions, but rather reliably activated middle-occipital temporal-ventral regions which are known to participate in the detection of human bodies, faces, and movements. Comparisons with data from hearing subjects establish statistically significant contributions of middle-occipital temporal-ventral during the processing of non-linguistic actions in deaf signers. These results suggest that during human motion processing, deaf individuals may engage specialized neural systems that allow for rapid, online differentiation of meaningful linguistic actions from non-linguistic human movements. PMID:17459349

  9. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and cognition in subjects across the adult age span.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lucy Y; Murphy, Richard R; Hanscom, Brett; Li, Ge; Millard, Steven P; Petrie, Eric C; Galasko, Douglas R; Sikkema, Carl; Raskind, Murray A; Wilkinson, Charles W; Peskind, Elaine R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate central nervous system noradrenergic activity enhances cognition, but excessive noradrenergic activity may have adverse effects on cognition. Previous studies have also demonstrated that noradrenergic activity is higher in older than younger adults. We aimed to determine relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine (NE) concentration and cognitive performance by using data from a CSF bank that includes samples from 258 cognitively normal participants aged 21-100 years. After adjusting for age, gender, education, and ethnicity, higher CSF NE levels (units of 100 pg/mL) are associated with poorer performance on tests of attention, processing speed, and executive function (Trail Making A: regression coefficient 1.5, standard error [SE] 0.77, p = 0.046; Trail Making B: regression coefficient 5.0, SE 2.2, p = 0.024; Stroop Word-Color Interference task: regression coefficient 6.1, SE 2.0, p = 0.003). Findings are consistent with the earlier literature relating excess noradrenergic activity with cognitive impairment. PMID:23639207

  11. The Adult Learner. The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Malcolm S.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Swanson, Richard A.

    This book examines the core principles of adult learning and the roots of andragogy, advances in adult learning, and practice in adult learning. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 17 chapters: importance of learning theory; theories of learning (concept of part and whole models of development, theories based on elemental…

  12. [Subjective memory complaints in young adults: the influence of the emotional state].

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Porcar, Olga; Mirete-Fructuoso, Marcos; Molina-Rodríguez, Sergio; Soto-Amaya, Johnathan

    2014-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. Many young people today display memory complaints that are not linked to their real cognitive performance. A number of studies have sought to identify the factors involved in this problem, such as anxious-depressive symptoms, the variables of anxiety traditionally being measured as somatic or cognitive manifestations with an activation that is unspecific or not linked to any particular stimulus. AIMS. To perform an exploratory analysis to determine the role played by symptoms of depression and of various subtypes of specific and unspecific anxiety in memory complaints in young adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The sample used in this study was made of 193 university students, 71% of whom were females, with a mean age of 22.22 ± 3.67 years. The variable 'Memory complaints' was measured with the Memory Failures Questionnaire, and the Brief Symptom Check List was used to measure the variables 'Depression', 'Social anxiety', 'Obsessive-compulsive anxiety', 'Agoraphobic anxiety', 'Somatisation' and 'Insomnia'. RESULTS. The variables of specific anxiety show a greater correlation with memory complaints than unspecific anxiety. Multiple regression analysis explained 34.9% of the variance of memory complaints, although the only variable that made a significant contribution was 'Social anxiety', which alone explains 34.4%. CONCLUSIONS. A distinct influence between the different types of anxiety and memory complaints has been observed. The findings obtained are a novelty in this area of knowledge by pointing to a greater relevance of the variables of specific anxiety in comparison to unspecific anxiety in explaining memory complaints and the need to take a personalised approach. PMID:25501452

  13. Binational Substance Abuse Research and Internal Review Boards: Human Subject Risks and Suggestions for Protections

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Drug use research that involves transnational populations in their worksite nations and in their countries of origin requires special consideration for human subjects. These populations are exposed to similar, if not greater, research related risks than other vulnerable research subjects. If they are to be protected adequately, Internal Review Boards (IRBs) need to become familiar with transnational populations and the possible risks that their members face when participating in research that targets their drug use behaviors and practices. Addressed in this article are a number of challenges that IRBs in United States universities and research institutes encounter in assuring protections against possible research risks. Specific areas of concern are: the dearth of binational IRB reviews, IRB inexperience with transnational populations, mandatory written consent, limited research ethics training for researchers, the absence of a vulnerable population research advisory board, and the need for measures in case of a breach of confidentiality. The discourse of each one of these problem areas includes a recommendation for rectifying it. The article ends with five suggested measures that IRBs should consider in protecting transnational migrants from research related risks in the United States and in their homeland. The discussion of human subject problems and of the measures introduced to alleviate them are based on the author’s experiences with preparing human subjects protocols for his ethnographic substance abuse research in both the United States and Mexico. PMID:20539826

  14. Informed consent in human subject research: a comparison of current international and Nigerian guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Joseph O; Porteri, Corinna

    2010-03-01

    Informed consent is a basic requirement for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. Currently, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are widely accepted as international codes regulating human subject research and the informed consent sections of these documents are quite important. Debates on the applicability of these guidelines in different socio-cultural settings are ongoing and many workers have advocated the need for national or regional guidelines. Nigeria, a developing country, has recently adopted its national guideline regulating human subject research: the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC) code. A content analysis of the three guidelines was done to see if the Nigerian guidelines confer any additional protection for research subjects. The concept of a Community Advisory Committee in the Nigerian guideline is a novel one that emphasizes research as a community burden and should promote a form of "research friendship" to foster the welfare of research participants. There is also the need for a regular update of the NHREC code so as to address some issues that were not considered in its current version. PMID:20235864

  15. Adult somatic stem cells in the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J.; Wang, Bo; Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Tharp, Marla; Iyer, Harini; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide1. The etiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades2, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance. Although adult pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts, drive long-term homeostatic tissue maintenance in long-lived free-living flatworms3,4 (e.g., planarians), and neoblast-like cells have been described in some parasitic tapeworms5, little is known about whether similar cell types exist in any trematode species. Here, we describe a population of neoblast-like cells in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. These cells resemble planarian neoblasts morphologically and share their ability to proliferate and differentiate into derivatives of multiple germ layers. Capitalizing on available genomic resources6,7 and RNAseq-based gene expression profiling, we find that these schistosome neoblast-like cells express a fibroblast growth factor receptor ortholog. Using RNA interference we demonstrate that this gene is required for the maintenance of these neoblast-like cells. Our observations suggest that adaptation of developmental strategies shared by free-living ancestors to modern-day schistosomes likely contributed to the success of these animals as long-lived obligate parasites. We expect that future studies deciphering the function of these neoblast-like cells will have important implications for understanding the biology of these devastating parasites. PMID:23426263

  16. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  17. Predictive Modeling of Human Perception Subjectivity: Feasibility Study of Mammographic Lesion Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songhua; Tourassi, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    The majority of clinical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) studies disregard human perception subjectivity, aiming to duplicate the consensus expert assessment of the visual similarity on example cases. The purpose of our study is twofold: (i) discern better the extent of human perception subjectivity when assessing the visual similarity of two images with similar semantic content, and (ii) explore the feasibility of personalized predictive modeling of visual similarity. We conducted a human observer study in which five observers of various expertise were shown ninety-nine triplets of mammographic masses with similar BI-RADS descriptors and were asked to select the two masses with the highest visual relevance. Pairwise agreement ranged between poor and fair among the five observers, as assessed by the kappa statistic. The observers' self-consistency rate was remarkably low, based on repeated questions where either the orientation or the presentation order of a mass was changed. Various machine learning algorithms were explored to determine whether they can predict each observer's personalized selection using textural features. Many algorithms performed with accuracy that exceeded each observer's self-consistency rate, as determined using a cross-validation scheme. This accuracy was statistically significantly higher than would be expected by chance alone (two-tailed p-value ranged between 0.001 and 0.01 for all five personalized models). The study confirmed that human perception subjectivity should be taken into account when developing CBIR-based medical applications.

  18. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    PubMed Central

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  19. Body size and human energy requirements: Reduced mass-specific total energy expenditure in tall adults.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian resting energy expenditure (REE) increases as approximately weight(0.75) while mass-specific REE scales as approximately weight(-0.25). Energy needs for replacing resting losses are thus less relative to weight (W) in large compared with small mammals, a classic observation with biological implications. Human weight scales as approximately height(2) and tall adults thus have a greater weight than their short counterparts. However, it remains unknown if mass-specific energy requirements are less in tall adults; allometric models linking total energy expenditure (TEE) and weight with height (H) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that mass-specific energy requirements scale inversely to height in adults by evaluating TEE (doubly labeled water) data collected by the National Academy of Sciences. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated from TEE, REE (indirect calorimetry), and estimated diet-induced energy expenditure. Main analyses focused on nonmorbidly obese subjects < or =50 yrs of age with non-negative AEE values (n = 404), although results were directionally similar for all samples. Allometric models, including age as a covariate, revealed significantly (P < 0.05) greater REE, AEE, and TEE as a function of height (range H(1.5-1.7)) in both men and women. TEE/W scaled negatively to height ( approximately H(-0.7), P < 0.01) with predicted mass-specific TEE (kcal/kg/d) at +/-2 SD for US height lower in tall compared with short men (40.3 vs. 46.5) and women (37.7 vs. 42.7). REE/W also scaled negatively to height in men (P < 0.001) and women (P < 0.01). Results were generally robust across several different analytic strategies. These observations reveal previously unforeseen associations between human stature and energy requirements that have implications for modeling efforts and provide new links to mammalian biology as a whole. PMID:19856424

  20. Pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir when administered with mineral supplements in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Arya, Niki; Wynne, Brian; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    All commercially available integrase inhibitors are 2-metal binders and may be affected by co-administration with metal cations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium and iron supplements on dolutegravir pharmacokinetics and strategies (dose separation and food) to attenuate the effects if significant reductions in dolutegravir exposure were observed. This was an open-label, crossover study that randomized 24 healthy subjects into 1 of 2 cohorts to receive 4 treatments: (1) dolutegravir alone, fasting; (2) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting; (3) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate with a moderate-fat meal; (4) dolutegravir administered 2 hours before calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting. Plasma dolutegravir AUC(0-∞), Cmax , and C24 were reduced by 39%, 37%, and 39%, respectively, when co-administered with calcium carbonate while fasting and were reduced by 54%, 57%, and 56%, respectively, when co-administered with ferrous fumarate while fasting. Dolutegravir administration 2 hours before calcium or iron supplement administration (fasted), as well as administration with a meal, counteracted the effect. Dolutegravir and calcium or iron supplements can be co-administered if taken with a meal. Under fasted conditions, dolutegravir should be administered 2 hours before or 6 hours after calcium or iron supplements. PMID:25449994