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Sample records for adult human volunteers

  1. Adult Academy Volunteer Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cora, Marie T., Ed.; Wood, Nicole R., Ed.

    This handbook was written specifically for volunteer tutors but is appropriate for teachers, student interns, coordinators, and others working with Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) adult learners. It presents an overview of adult and non-traditional education models, some principles of reading and writing, a…

  2. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  3. Handbook for Volunteers: Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, C. Russell

    Designed for volunteers in Olympic College's Adult Education Volunteer Classroom Assistant Project, this handbook discusses volunteer tutors' roles, characteristics of Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) students, suggested teaching techniques, tips for working with instructors, and college policies and regulations.…

  4. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  5. Cryptosporidium muris: Infectivity and Illness in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Although Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis cause the majority of human cryptosporidiosis cases, other Cryptosporidium species are also capable of infecting humans, particularly when individuals are immunocompromised. Ten C. muris cases have been reported, primarily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients with diarrhea. However, asymptomatic cases were reported in two HIV-negative children, and in another case, age and immune status were not described. This study examines the infectivity of C. muris in six healthy adults. Volunteers were challenged with 105 C. muris oocysts and monitored for 6 weeks for infection and/or illness. All six patients became infected. Two patients experienced a self-limited diarrheal illness. Total oocysts shed during the study ranged from 6.7 × 106 to 4.1 × 108, and the number was slightly higher in volunteers with diarrhea (2.8 × 108) than asymptomatic shedders (4.4 × 107). C. muris-infected subjects shed oocysts longer than occurred with other species studied in healthy volunteers. Three volunteers shed oocysts for 7 months. Physical examinations were normal, with no reported recurrence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal complaints. Two persistent shedders were treated with nitazoxanide, and the infection was resolved. Thus, healthy adults are susceptible to C. muris, which can cause mild diarrhea and result in persistent, asymptomatic infection. PMID:25311695

  6. Engaging Older Adult Volunteers in National Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Amanda Moore; Greenfield, Jennifer C.; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lee, Yung Soo; McCrary, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    Volunteer-based programs are increasingly designed as interventions to affect the volunteers and the beneficiaries of the volunteers' activities. To achieve the intended impacts for both, programs need to leverage the volunteers' engagement by meeting their expectations, retaining them, and maximizing their perceptions of benefits. Programmatic…

  7. The Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Volunteering on Secondary School Completion and Adult Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and completion of secondary school were measured. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescent volunteering was associated with an increased likelihood of volunteering in young adulthood (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.20 - 1.39; N = 2,648) and of Grade 12 completion (OR 1.14; CI 1.03 - 1.28; N = 2,648), after controlling for family socioeconomic status and adolescent school adjustment. These findings suggest that adolescent volunteering may lead to further involvement in young adult volunteering and have a positive effect on school completion.

  8. A randomized controlled trial to promote volunteering in older adults.

    PubMed

    Warner, Lisa M; Wolff, Julia K; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Volunteering is presumed to confer health benefits, but interventions to encourage older adults to volunteer are sparse. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial with 280 community-dwelling older German adults was conducted to test the effects of a theory-based social-cognitive intervention against a passive waiting-list control group and an active control intervention designed to motivate physical activity. Self-reports of weekly volunteering minutes were assessed at baseline (5 weeks before the intervention) as well as 2 and 6 weeks after the intervention. Participants in the treatment group increased their weekly volunteering minutes to a greater extent than participants in the control groups 6 weeks after the intervention. We conclude that a single, face-to-face group session can increase volunteering among older community-dwelling adults. However, the effects need some time to unfold because changes in volunteering were not apparent 2 weeks after the intervention.

  9. Antimalarial efficacy of a quantified extract of Nauclea pobeguinii stem bark in human adult volunteers with diagnosed uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Part 1: a clinical phase IIA trial.

    PubMed

    Mesia, Kahunu; Tona, Lutete; Mampunza, Ma Miezi; Ntamabyaliro, Nsengi; Muanda, Tsobo; Muyembe, Tamfum; Cimanga, Kanyanga; Totté, Jozef; Mets, Tony; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold J

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this phase IIA clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of an 80 % ethanolic quantified extract (containing 5.6 % strictosamide as the putative active constituent) from Nauclea pobeguinii stem bark denoted as PR 259 CT1 in a small group of adult patients diagnosed with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Results obtained from a phase I clinical trial on healthy male volunteers indicated that the oral administration during meals of two 500 mg capsules three times daily (each eight hours) during seven days was well tolerated and showed only mild and self-resolving adverse effects. This PR 259 CT1 drug regimen was obtained by mathematical conversion of animal doses obtained in several in vivo studies in mice to human equivalent doses as in falciparum malaria patients. The phase IIA study was an open cohort study in eleven appraisable adult patients suffering from proven Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The study was specifically designed to assess the efficacy of PR 259 CT1 administered with a dose regimen of two 500 mg capsules three times daily for three days, followed by outpatient treatment of one 500 mg capsule three times daily for the next four days, in order to prove that this therapeutic dose, which was calculated from animal doses, was effective to treat adult malaria patients and consequently useful for a future Phase IIB clinical trial. This study would then substitute a dose-escalating trial, which in general is used to find the appropriate dose for clinical studies. The phase IIA clinical trial was carried out according to the WHO 2003 14-day test, and the results revealed that all eleven patients were completely cleared of parasitemia and fever on days 3, 7, and 14 except for one patient, who experienced a recurrence of parasitemia at days 7 until 14. Besides this adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR), this trial also demonstrated that PR 259 CT1 was well tolerated with only mild and self-resolving adverse effects

  10. Challenge studies of human volunteers: ethical issues

    PubMed Central

    Hope, T; McMillan, J

    2004-01-01

    There is a long history of medical research that involves intentionally infecting healthy people in order to study diseases and their treatments. Such research—what might be called "human challenge studies"—are an important strand of much current research—for example, in the development of vaccinations. The many international and national guidelines about the proper conduct of medical research do not specifically address human challenge studies. In this paper we review the guidelines on the risk of harm that healthy volunteers may be exposed to in the course of medical research. We examine the ethical arguments that are implicit or explicit in these guidelines. We then ask whether there is reason for limiting such studies on grounds independent of risk of harm. We conclude that the major ethical concern with challenge studies is that of risk of harm and that the fact that a study is a challenge study is not a wrong in itself. PMID:14872087

  11. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  12. Case Report: Successful Sporozoite Challenge Model in Human Volunteers with Plasmodium vivax Strain Derived from Human Donors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Report: Successful Sporozoite Challenge Model in Human Volunteers with Plasmodium vivax Strain Derived from Human Donors Sócrates Herrera...Switzerland Abstract. Successful establishment of a Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge model in humans is described. Eighteen healthy adult...among groups (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.70). One volunteer exposed to eight mosquito bites did not develop a parasitemia. No dif- ferences in parasite

  13. Factors Related to Motivating Adult Somalis with Refugee Status to Volunteer for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mitchell D.; Ouellette, Kristy L.

    2016-01-01

    Focus group interviews were held with adult Somali immigrants to assess their likelihood of volunteering for 4-H in Maine. This qualitative study was undertaken to identify best practices for engaging the growing Somali-Mainer population as a volunteer base. Results of the study demonstrate that Somali immigrant adults are willing to volunteer for…

  14. Nickel absorption and kinetics in human volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Hopfer, S.M. ); Sweeney, K.R. ); Marcus, A.H.; Creason, J. ); Most, B.M. )

    1989-05-01

    Mathematical modeling of the kinetics of nickel absorption, distribution, and elimination was performed in healthy human volunteers who ingested NiSO{sub 4} drinking water (Experiment 1) or added to food (Experiment 2). Nickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum, urine, and feces collected during 2 days before and 4 days after a specified NiSO{sub 4} dose (12 {mu}g of nickel/kg, n = 4; 18 {mu}g of nickel/kg, n = 4; or 50 {mu}g of nickel/kg, n = 1). Absorbed nickel averaged 27 {plus minus} 17% (mean {plus minus} SD) of the dose ingested in water vs. 0.7 {plus minus} 0.4% of the same dose ingested in food (a 40-fold difference); rate constants for nickel absorption, transfer, and elimination were not significantly influenced by the oral vehicle. The elimination half-time for absorbed nickel averaged 28 {plus minus} 9 hr. Renal clearance of nickel averaged 8.3 {plus minus} 2.0 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} in Experiment 1 and 5.8 {plus minus} 4.3 ml/min/1.73 m{sub 2} in Experiment 2. This study confirms that dietary constituents profoundly reduce the bioavailability of Ni{sup 2+} for alimentary absorption; approximately one-quarter of nickel ingested in drinking water after an over-night fast is absorbed from the human intestine and excreted in urine, compared with only 1% of nickel ingested in food. The compartmental model and kinetic parameters provided by this study will reduce the uncertainty of toxicologic risk assessments of human exposures to nickel in drinking water and food.

  15. Racial Differences in Volunteer Engagement by Older Adults: An Empowerment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Copeland, Valire Carr; Wexler, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Volunteering is viewed as an empowerment process whereby older adults actively participate in the community and improve their well-being and health. Yet little is known about racial differences in volunteering, and even less in terms of perceived benefits from volunteering as a means of empowerment. The present study addresses this research gap by…

  16. A Reason To Rise Each Morning: The Meaning of Volunteering in the Lives of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Dana Burr

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value that volunteering by older adults brings to individual lives and the benefits to society. Suggests that volunteering provides an enhanced sense of purpose by doing things for others and that understanding why elders volunteer will help identify better ways to support their efforts. (JOW)

  17. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose trazodone: a randomized, two-period, cross-over trial in healthy, adult, human volunteers under fed condition

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Prashant; Agrawal, Yadvendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the bioequivalence of single dose trazodone hydrochloride USP 100 mg tablets administered as an oral dose under fed condition. Methods:This study was an open-label, balanced, randomized, two-sequence, two-treatment, two-period, single oral dose, crossover bioequivalence study in healthy, adult, human subjects under fed conditions. After an overnight fast of at least 10 h, the subjects were served a high fat and high calorie vegetarian breakfast, which they were required to consume within 30 min. A single oral dose (100 mg) of either the test or the reference product was administered to the subjects. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0−t) and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0−∞) were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean (gMean) ratios for Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80–125%, in accordance with regulatory requirements. Results:For the test formulation, the trazodone gMean Cmax was 1480.9 ng/mL (vs. 1520.2 ng/mL for reference), AUC0−t was 18193.0 ng·h/mL (vs. 18209.8 ng·h/mL) and AUC0−∞ was 19346.3 ng·h/mL (vs. 19393.4 ng·h/mL). The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference) were 93.0–102.0% for Cmax, 96.7–103.2% for AUC0−t and 96.1–103.5% for AUC0−∞. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the conduct of the study. Conclusion:Test product when compared with the Reference product meets the bioequivalence criteria with respect to the extent of absorption of trazodone under fed condition. PMID:26483693

  18. Potential for intensive volunteering to promote the health of older adults in fair health.

    PubMed

    Barron, Jeremy S; Tan, Erwin J; Yu, Qilu; Song, Meilin; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P

    2009-07-01

    Volunteer service opportunities for older adults may soon be expanded. Although volunteering is thought to provide health benefits for healthier older adults, it is not known whether older adults in less than very good health are suitable candidates for high-intensity volunteering and can derive health benefits. This manuscript presents a prospective analysis of 174 older adult volunteers serving in Experience Corps Baltimore, a high-intensity senior volunteer program in Baltimore, Maryland. Volunteers served > or =15 h per week, for a full school year, in elementary schools helping children with reading and other skills between 1999 and 2002. Volunteers were assessed with standardized questionnaires and performance-based testing including grip strength, walking speed, chair stand speed, and stair-climbing speed prior to school volunteering and at the end of the school year. Results were stratified by health status. Among 174 volunteers, 55% initially reported "good" and 12% "fair" or "poor" health status. At baseline, those in fair health reported higher frequencies of disease and disability than volunteers in excellent or very good health. After volunteering, a majority of volunteers in every baseline health status category described increased strength and energy. Those in fair health were significantly more likely to display improved stair-climbing speed than those in good or excellent/very good health (100.0% vs. 53.4% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.05), and many showed clinically significant increases in walking speed of >0.5 m/s. Satisfaction and retention rates were high for all health status groups. Clinicians should consider whether their patients in fair or good health, as well as those in better health, might benefit from high-intensity volunteer programs. Productive activity such as volunteering may be an effective community-based approach to health promotion for older adults.

  19. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19) years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml) for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184) and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections. PMID:22196482

  20. Leaving home: how older adults prepare for intensive volunteering.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Cheryl; Piercy, Kathleen W; Grainger, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Using the concepts in the Fogg Behavioral Model, 37 volunteers aged 50 and older described their preparation for intensive volunteering with faith-based organizations. Their multistage preparation process included decision points where respondents needed to choose whether to drop out or continue preparation. Ability was a stronger determinant of serving than motivation, particularly in terms of health and finances. This model can facilitate understanding of the barriers to volunteering and aid organizations in tailoring support at crucial points for potential older volunteers in intensive service.

  1. Project SAVE (State Adult Volunteers in Education). Organizing a Community Based Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizemore, Mamie, Ed.

    This handbook provides administrators and staffs of adult education programs with general information on volunteerism in adult education; information on specific programs and strategies, specifically Project SAVE (State Adult Volunteers in Education); and guidelines for program implementation. An overview of the impact of adult illiteracy precedes…

  2. Goals and Personal Resources that Contribute to the Development and Agency Attachment of Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Alayna A.; Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Maitland, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the volunteer service contribution of older adults (N = 100) to volunteer role development and agency attachment. Informed by a developmental regulation framework and socio-emotional selectivity theory, we tested a twofold hypothesis for the premise that greater role development and agency attachment would be experienced by (1) older…

  3. Factors Affecting Volunteering among Older Rural and City Dwelling Adults in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Jeni; Stirling, Christine

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of large scale Australian studies of volunteering among older adults, this study compared the relevance of two theoretical approaches--social capital theory and sociostructural resources theory--to predict voluntary activity in relation to a large national database. The paper explores volunteering by older people (aged 55+) in order…

  4. Volunteering among Older Spanish Adults: Does the Type of Organization Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celdran, Montserrat; Villar, Feliciano

    2007-01-01

    This study in Spain explored three aspects of older adult volunteering (motivations, satisfaction, and perceptions of benefits and drawbacks) and examines to what extent these aspects are influenced by the type of organization and other factors (sociodemographic variables and level of volunteering). The sample consisted of 88 older adults…

  5. NASOPHARYNGEAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HUMAN VOLUNTEER BREATHING ACETONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to examine the absorption of a common chemical into the nasopharyngeal region in humans, a 57 year old male volunteer inhaled uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at 1.4 ppm for 30 min while performing different breathing maneuvers; nose inhale, nose exhale (NINE); mouth ...

  6. A Case Study of a Volunteer-Based Literacy Class with Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine participants' perspectives on how a volunteer-based adult literacy class supports the learning of adults with developmental/intellectual disabilities. Interviews were conducted with four tutors, three adult learners, and two coordinators and observations of the class occurred over a 6-month period during…

  7. Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Scarpelini, S; Rhind, S G; Nascimento, B; Tien, H; Shek, P N; Peng, H T; Huang, H; Pinto, R; Speers, V; Reis, M; Rizoli, S B

    2009-12-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG parameters analyzed were R, K, alpha, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer's normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, alpha: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity). Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer's normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer's recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG.

  8. Diurnal variation in the quantitative EEG in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, L; Dane, A; Rhodes, J; Lynch, P; Hughes, A M

    2000-01-01

    Aims To define the change in power in standard waveband frequencies of quantitative cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) data over a 24 h period, in a drug free representative healthy volunteer population. Methods This was an open, non randomised study in which 18 volunteers (9 male and 9 female) were studied on 1 study day, over a 24 h period. Volunteers had a cortical EEG recording taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 h. Each recording lasted for 6 min (3 min eyes open, 3 min eyes closed). All EEG recordings were taken in a quietened ward environment with the curtains drawn round the bed and the volunteer supine. During the 3 min eyes open, volunteers were asked to look at a red circle on a screen at the foot of the bed, and refrain from talking. Results Plots produced of geometric mean power by time of the standard wave band frequencies gave some indication of a circadian rhythm over the 24 h period for θ (4.75–6.75 Hz), α1 (7.0–9.5 Hz) and β1 (12.75–18.50 Hz) wavebands. Mixed models were fitted to both the eyes open and eyes closed data which confirmed a change in mean waveband power with time with statistical significance at the conventional 5% level (P < 0.05). Conclusions These data indicate the presence of a diurnal variation in the cortical quantitative EEG. They support the use of a placebo control group when designing clinical trials which utilize quantitative EEG to screen for central nervous system (CNS) activity of pharmaceutical agents, to control for the confounding variable of time of day at which the EEG recordings were made. PMID:10886113

  9. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.

  10. Volunteers in Specialist Palliative Care: A Survey of Adult Services in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Burbeck, Rachel; Low, Joe; Sampson, Elizabeth L.; Bravery, Ruth; Hill, Matthew; Morris, Sara; Ockenden, Nick; Payne, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Worldwide, the demand for specialist palliative care is increasing but funding is limited. The role of volunteers is underresearched, although their contribution reduces costs significantly. Understanding what volunteers do is vital to ensure services develop appropriately to meet the challenges faced by providers of palliative care. Objective: The study's objective is to describe current involvement of volunteers with direct patient/family contact in U.K. specialist palliative care. Design: An online survey was sent to 290 U.K. adult hospices and specialist palliative care services involving volunteers covering service characteristics, involvement and numbers of volunteers, settings in which they are involved, extent of involvement in care services, specific activities undertaken in each setting, and use of professional skills. Results: The survey had a 67% response rate. Volunteers were most commonly involved in day care and bereavement services. They entirely ran some complementary therapy, beauty therapy/hairdressing, and pastoral/faith-based care services, and were involved in a wide range of activities, including sitting with dying patients. Conclusions: This comprehensive survey of volunteer activity in U.K. specialist palliative care provides an up-to-date picture of volunteer involvement in direct contact with patients and their families, such as providing emotional care, and the extent of their involvement in day and bereavement services. Further research could focus on exploring their involvement in bereavement care. PMID:24475743

  11. Case Report: Successful Sporozoite Challenge Model in Human Volunteers with Plasmodium vivax Strain Derived from Human Donors

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sócrates; Fernández, Olga; Manzano, María R.; Murrain, Bermans; Vergara, Juana; Blanco, Pedro; Palacios, Ricardo; Vélez, Juan D.; Epstein, Judith E.; Chen-Mok, Mario; Reed, Zarifah H.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Successful establishment of a Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge model in humans is described. Eighteen healthy adult, malaria-naïve volunteers were randomly allocated to Groups A–C and exposed to 3 ± 1, 6 ± 1, and 9 ± 1 bites of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes infected with P. vivax, respectively. Seventeen volunteers developed signs and symptoms consistent with malaria, and geometric mean prepatent periods of 11.1 days (9.3–11) for Group A; 10.8 days (9.8–11.9) for Group B; and 10.6 days (8.7–12.4) for Group C, with no statistically significant difference among groups (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.70). One volunteer exposed to eight mosquito bites did not develop a parasitemia. No differences in parasite density were observed and all individuals successfully recovered after anti-malarial treatment. None of the volunteers developed parasite relapses within an 18-month follow-up. In conclusion, malaria-naive volunteers can be safely and reproducibly infected with bites of 2–10 An. albimanus mosquitoes carrying P. vivax sporozoites. This challenge method is suitable for vaccine and anti-malarial drug testing. PMID:19861603

  12. Volunteering by older adults and risk of mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Yeung, Ellen WanHeung; Brown, Stephanie

    2013-06-01

    Organizational volunteering has been touted as an effective strategy for older adults to help themselves while helping others. Extending previous reviews, we carried out a meta-analysis of the relation between organizational volunteering by late-middle-aged and older adults (minimum age = 55 years old) and risk of mortality. We focused on unadjusted effect sizes (i.e., bivariate relations), adjusted effect sizes (i.e., controlling for other variables such as health), and interaction effect sizes (e.g., the joint effect of volunteering and religiosity). For unadjusted effect sizes, on average, volunteering reduced mortality risk by 47%, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 38% to 55%. For adjusted effect sizes, on average, volunteering reduced mortality risk by 24%, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 16% to 31%. For interaction effect sizes, we found preliminary support that as public religiosity increases, the inverse relation between volunteering and mortality risk becomes stronger. The discussion identifies several unresolved issues and directions for future research.

  13. Connecting Socially Isolated Older Rural Adults with Older Volunteers through Expressive Arts.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation.

  14. Fostering Social Ties through a Volunteer Role: Implications for Older-Adults' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rook, Karen S.; Sorkin, Dara H.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects on older adults' psychological health of participation in a volunteer role that afforded opportunities to form friendships with age peers and to express nurturance toward another person. Access to these important social provisions was expected, in turn, to contribute to greater self-esteem, less loneliness, and less…

  15. A One-to-One Programme for At-Risk Readers Delivered by Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn; Kearns, Noreen; Devaney, Carmel; Canavan, John; Russell, Dan; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; O'Brien, Aoife

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation of a reading programme delivered by older adult volunteers for at-risk early readers. Wizards of Words (WoW) was targeted at socially disadvantaged children in first and second grade experiencing delays in reading but who were not eligible for formal literacy supports. The…

  16. A Community-based Education Project: Intertidal Surveys With Student and Adult Volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Parker, G.; Bingham, B. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Fidalgo Learning about the Intertidal Project (FLIP) brought together scientists, educators, students and adult volunteers (20-30 total individuals) to conduct studies of the intertidal zone of a section of Fidalgo Island, Wa. in 2003 and 2004. The project goals were to: 1) obtain basic data on diversity and abundance of intertidal species in different habitats, 2) promote public awareness and appreciation of the intertidal zone, and 3) develop a model program for volunteer participation in scientific surveys. The 2-week program began with 2 days of workshops on local intertidal organisms to teach the FLIP participants how to classify and identify the different organisms and substrates they were likely to encounter in the surveys. We provided general lectures on intertidal habitats and on the importance of the intertidal zone to coastal resources. The FLIP participants worked together on identifying organisms, practicing the use of quadrats and data collection before the surveys began. Following 4 days of field surveys, the participants signed up for workshops that included compilation and analysis of the data, photography, nature writing and algae pressing. The final activity was a public tour of the intertidal day held at a local park. 50-60 people of all ages participated. The goal was to educate the public in plant and animal identification and habitat variability as well as "beach etiquette." Successful model program elements included self-selected volunteers and attention to the composition of each survey team, with one scientist/leader per team and one adult and two students or two adults and one student per team (4-5 teams, each completing one transect per site). Program flexibility was also crucial; FLIP volunteers were not required to attend every single day and post-survey workshops were optional. Volunteers participated to different extents and for different lengths of time depending on their abilities and interests. Project ownership was important

  17. Uncommon Human Resources: The Newberry Library Volunteer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyly, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Discusses issues in the management of volunteers in research libraries, outlining the benefits to volunteers and libraries, as well as potential hazards. The volunteer program at Chicago's Newberry Library is described, focusing on recruitment, job assignments, motivation, staff attitudes, retention and library benefits. (26 references) (EA)

  18. Successful application of large microneedle patches by human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ripolin, Anastasia; Quinn, James; Larrañeta, Eneko; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2017-02-16

    We describe, for the first time, the design, production and evaluation of large microneedle patches. Such systems, based on 16 individual microneedle arrays (needle height 600μm), were prepared from aqueous blends of 15% w/w Gantrez(®) S97 and 7.5% w/w poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000Da. Ester-based crosslinking was confirmed by FTIR and mechanical strength was good. Insertion depths in a validated skin model were approximately 500μm. Ten human volunteers successfully self-inserted the microneedles of these larger patches in their skin, following appropriate instruction, as confirmed by transepidermal water loss measurements. The mean insertion depth ranged between 300 and 450μm over the area of the large patches. That this was not significantly different to a single unit MN patch self-applied by the same volunteers is encouraging. Microneedle patch sizes much larger than the 1-2cm(2) will be required if this technology is to be successfully translated to clinic for delivery of drug substances. The work described here suggests that use of such larger patches by patients can be successful, potentially opening up the possibility for a significant expansion of the size of the market for transdermal drug delivery.

  19. Effects of a midazolam-ketamine admixture in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Kanri, Tomio

    2004-01-01

    As the ideal sedative does not exist for all situations, we examined the effect of a midazolam-ketamine sedoanalgesic admixture in human volunteers. Ten ASA physical status I volunteers were administered loading doses of 0.07 mg/kg of midazolam followed by 0.7 mg/kg of ketamine. The same amount of midazolam and ketamine was then infused constantly over 1 hour via a 60 drops (gtts)/mL i.v. infusion set. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma catecholamine levels. Respiration rate and oxygen saturation did not alter significantly from baseline levels. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure remained stable with an increase of 15% in heart rate and 6% in systolic blood pressure only at 10 minutes following the bolus loading. Diastolic blood pressure did not alter significantly from baseline levels (P < .05). Plasma catecholamines levels remained stable except for an increase in epinephrine (38%) and norepinephrine (19%) 10 minutes following the bolus injections. Plasma dopamine levels remained unchanged. There were no cases of unpleasant dreaming, dysphoria, or emergence-type reactions. This combined nonnarcotic sedoanalgesic technique maintains spontaneous ventilation and stable cardiorespiratory parameters and may be considered as an alternative to traditional conscious sedation or general anesthesia.

  20. Effects of a midazolam-ketamine admixture in human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Kanri, Tomio

    2004-01-01

    As the ideal sedative does not exist for all situations, we examined the effect of a midazolam-ketamine sedoanalgesic admixture in human volunteers. Ten ASA physical status I volunteers were administered loading doses of 0.07 mg/kg of midazolam followed by 0.7 mg/kg of ketamine. The same amount of midazolam and ketamine was then infused constantly over 1 hour via a 60 drops (gtts)/mL i.v. infusion set. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma catecholamine levels. Respiration rate and oxygen saturation did not alter significantly from baseline levels. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure remained stable with an increase of 15% in heart rate and 6% in systolic blood pressure only at 10 minutes following the bolus loading. Diastolic blood pressure did not alter significantly from baseline levels (P < .05). Plasma catecholamines levels remained stable except for an increase in epinephrine (38%) and norepinephrine (19%) 10 minutes following the bolus injections. Plasma dopamine levels remained unchanged. There were no cases of unpleasant dreaming, dysphoria, or emergence-type reactions. This combined nonnarcotic sedoanalgesic technique maintains spontaneous ventilation and stable cardiorespiratory parameters and may be considered as an alternative to traditional conscious sedation or general anesthesia. PMID:15497296

  1. Volunteering is Prospectively Associated with Health Care Use Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Konrath, Sara H.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Although observational and experimental studies have shown that volunteering is linked with better mental health, physical health, and health behaviors, no studies have examined whether volunteering is associated with patterns of health care use. Objective The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether volunteering was associated with a greater use of preventive health care services, but fewer doctor visits and nights spent in the hospital. Methods Participants (n=7,168) were drawn from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 51, and tracked for one wave (2 years). Logistic regression and generalized linear models were used for analyses. Results. In analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic factors and baseline health, volunteers were 30% more likely to receive flu shots (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.16–1.47), 47% more likely to receive cholesterol tests (OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.24–1.74); female volunteers were 53% more likely to receive mammograms/x-rays (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.28–1.83) and 21% more likely to receive Pap smears (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03–1.41); male volunteers were 59% more likely to receive prostate exams (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.29–1.95). In a model that adjusted for sociodemographic factors, volunteers spent 38% fewer nights in the hospital (RR=0.62, 95% CI=0.52–0.76), however volunteering was not associated with frequency of doctor visits (RR=0.94, 95% CI=0.87–1.02). The association between volunteering and number of nights spent in the hospital was minimally affected after adjusting for potential confounding (baseline health) and explanatory variables (health behaviors, social integration, stress, positive psychological factors, personality). Conclusion This is the first known study to examine the association between volunteering and health care use. If future studies replicate these findings, the results may be used to inform the development of new

  2. Invisible civic engagement among older adults: valuing the contributions of informal volunteering.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Iveris L; Crooks, Donneth; Kim, Kristen S; Tanner, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    There is a growing call for civic engagement, largely in the form of formal volunteering, among older adults in America. This call is a response to the aging of the baby boom population, believed to be the healthiest and wealthiest cohort of older adults to date. It also coincides with the devolution of welfare programs. We argue that current discussions of civic engagement are too narrow and may exclude important informal contributions that older adults make to civic society, and put undue stress on, and devalue those who may not contribute to society due to poor health, poverty or other barriers. We draw on data collected from older adults of lower socio-economic status and diverse ethnic backgrounds in Baltimore City using focus groups to explore their definitions of volunteering and barriers which they face. Through a discussion of existing barriers and motivators for engagement, we critically assess the use of these terms and advance discussions on how to facilitate and value contributions of all older adults. We conclude that civic engagement includes more than formal volunteering and that significant barriers need to be removed to facilitate greater participation of all elders in both formal and informal activities.

  3. Precursors to suicidality and violence on antidepressants: systematic review of trials in adult healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeldt, Andreas Ø; Danborg, Pia B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the risk of suicidality and violence when selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are given to adult healthy volunteers with no signs of a mental disorder. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Main outcome measure Harms related to suicidality, hostility, activation events, psychotic events and mood disturbances. Setting Published trials identified by searching PubMed and Embase and clinical study reports obtained from the European and UK drug regulators. Participants Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adult healthy volunteers that reported on suicidality or violence or precursor events to suicidality or violence. Results A total of 5787 publications were screened and 130 trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trials were generally uninformative; 97 trials did not report the randomisation method, 75 trials did not report any discontinuations and 63 trials did not report any adverse events or lack thereof. Eleven of the 130 published trials and two of 29 clinical study reports we received from the regulatory agencies presented data for our meta-analysis. Treatment of adult healthy volunteers with antidepressants doubled their risk of harms related to suicidality and violence, odds ratio 1.85 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 3.08, p = 0.02, I2 = 18%). The number needed to treat to harm one healthy person was 16 (95% confidence interval 8 to 100; Mantel-Haenszel risk difference 0.06). There can be little doubt that we underestimated the harms of antidepressants, as we only had access to the published articles for 11 of our 13 trials. Conclusions Antidepressants double the occurrence of events in adult healthy volunteers that can lead to suicide and violence. PMID:27729596

  4. Bioavailability of a new generic formulation of mycophenolate mofetil MMF 500 versus CellCept in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Masri, M A; Rizk, S; Attia, M L E; Barbouch, H; Rost, M

    2007-05-01

    Several studies have revealed a decreased incidence of early graft rejection with the use of mycophenate mofetil (MMF). The cost of the drug is, however, prohibitive especially in developing countries with limited resources. We compared the pharmacokinetic profile of a new MMF generic formulation (MMF 500 batch number: 06T3001; Medis Tunis) with those of Cellcept, (batch number: M1427; Hoffmann La Roche, Switzerland) in healthy volunteers. The study was double-blinded to investigator and volunteers. It had a balanced randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, single-dose, crossover, comparative oral bioavailability design in adult healthy human volunteers. The study was designed, performed, and monitored by CRO Transmedical s.a.l International (Beirut, Lebanon) in accordance with the Basic Principals defined in the US 21 CFR Part 312.20, and the principals enunciated in the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. We included nonsmoking healthy volunteers between the ages of 22 and 45 years. The subjects were admitted to the hospital one night prior to blood sampling. After volunteers received the same dinner, they were fasted overnight and for 2 hours postdosing. At 8 am each person received a single oral dose of 500 mg of either formulation. Blood samples were collected to construct the pharmacokinetic profiles as follows: 0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 minutes and 1, 1.15, 1.30, 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Water and food intake were the same for all volunteers during the whole study period. Following an 8-day washout period, the subjects were crossed over. Plasma mycophenolic acid concentrations were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method (TransMedical, Beirut Lebanon). Physical examinations, hematology, urinanalysis, serum chemistry tests, and liver enzymes were performed at screening and at the end of each period. Subjects were monitored for safety and adverse events

  5. Engaging Older Adults in High Impact Volunteering that Enhances Health: Recruitment and Retention in the Experience Corps® Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin; Glass, Thomas A.; Carlson, Michelle; Tanner, Elizabeth; Ricks, Michelle; Fried, Linda P.

    2006-01-01

    Engagement in social and generative activities has benefits for the well-being of older adults; hence, methods for broadly engaging them in such activities are desired. Experience Corps Baltimore, a social model for health promotion for older adult volunteers in public schools, offers insight to such successful recruitment and retention. We report on data over a 4-year period in Baltimore City, Maryland, and describe a five-stage screening process implemented to recruit a diverse group of senior volunteers who would remain in the program for at least 1 year. The sample consisted of 443 older adults expressing an interest in and screened for volunteering. Comparisons were made with Chi-square and Fisher’s t-test between those who entered the program and those who did not and those who were retained in the program. Gender, race, age group, and prior volunteering were significant in ultimate volunteer service in the schools. Overall, 38% of 443 persons recruited entered the schools; 94% of participants were over 60 years (p = 0.05) with a mean age of 69 years; 90% were women (p = 0.03), and 93% African-American (p = 0.005); 57% had not volunteered in the past year (p = 0.004). Ninety-two percent were retained in the first year; 80% returned a second year. Among the latter, 83% had <12 years of education (p = 0.001). Participants remained in the program for a second year of volunteering regardless of baseline MMSE score, self-reported health, and motivation for volunteering. In conclusion, it is possible to recruit and retain a diverse pool of older adults to participate in a high-intensity volunteer program, including non-traditional volunteers. Of special note is the success in recruiting African-American women and those with lower education, who may particularly benefit from health promotion. PMID:16758336

  6. Engaging older adults in high impact volunteering that enhances health: recruitment and retention in The Experience Corps Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Iveris L; Frick, Kevin; Glass, Thomas A; Carlson, Michelle; Tanner, Elizabeth; Ricks, Michelle; Fried, Linda P

    2006-09-01

    Engagement in social and generative activities has benefits for the well-being of older adults; hence, methods for broadly engaging them in such activities are desired. Experience Corps Baltimore, a social model for health promotion for older adult volunteers in public schools, offers insight to such successful recruitment and retention. We report on data over a 4-year period in Baltimore City, Maryland, and describe a five-stage screening process implemented to recruit a diverse group of senior volunteers who would remain in the program for at least 1 year. The sample consisted of 443 older adults expressing an interest in and screened for volunteering. Comparisons were made with Chi-square and Fisher's t-test between those who entered the program and those who did not and those who were retained in the program. Gender, race, age group, and prior volunteering were significant in ultimate volunteer service in the schools. Overall, 38% of 443 persons recruited entered the schools; 94% of participants were over 60 years (p = 0.05) with a mean age of 69 years; 90% were women (p = 0.03), and 93% African-American (p = 0.005); 57% had not volunteered in the past year (p = 0.004). Ninety-two percent were retained in the first year; 80% returned a second year. Among the latter, 83% had <12 years of education (p = 0.001). Participants remained in the program for a second year of volunteering regardless of baseline MMSE score, self-reported health, and motivation for volunteering. In conclusion, it is possible to recruit and retain a diverse pool of older adults to participate in a high-intensity volunteer program, including non-traditional volunteers. Of special note is the success in recruiting African-American women and those with lower education, who may particularly benefit from health promotion.

  7. Conditioned flavour preference negatively reinforced by caffeine in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, M R; Spetch, H; Rogers, P J

    1998-06-01

    This study examined whether 100 mg caffeine could reinforce preference for the flavour of a novel drink in moderate caffeine users, both after overnight caffeine abstinence and 2 h after receiving 100 mg caffeine, using a two-stage between-groups procedure with 36 volunteers. In the first stage, liking for a test drink (fruit tea) was assessed at breakfast following overnight caffeine abstinence, with half the subjects receiving caffeine. Liking for the tea increased significantly over four trials for subjects receiving caffeine, and decreased significantly in those without caffeine. These effects were greatest in subjects who rated the drink as highly novel. In stage two, subjects evaluated a second drink (fruit-juice) 2 h after receiving the tea, and again half the subjects received caffeine Those subjects who received caffeine in stage two but not stage one showed a significant increase in liking for the fruit-juice over the 4 test days, whereas subjects who did not receive caffeine at either stage showed a progressive decrease in liking for this drink. In contrast, no significant change in liking for the fruit-juice was seen at stage two for subjects who had received caffeine in stage one, regardless of the presence or absence of caffeine at stage two. Caffeine at breakfast increased ratings of energetic and lively, and energetic ratings also increased following caffeine in the fruit-juice in subjects who had not had caffeine at breakfast. Overall, these data are consistent with a negative reinforcement model of caffeine reinforcement, and demonstrate further the utility of the conditioned flavour preference method for evaluating reinforcing effects of drugs in humans.

  8. Human metapneumovirus in adults.

    PubMed

    Haas, Lenneke E M; Thijsen, Steven F T; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A

    2013-01-08

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination.

  9. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  10. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource...

  11. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource...

  12. Privacy Act System of Records: Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers, EPA-34

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.

  13. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Medical & Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System collects demographic and medical information on subjects who participate in research. Learn how this data is collected, used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  14. Volunteering as a Pathway to Productive and Social Engagement among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lee, Yung Soo; McCrary, Stacey; McBride, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research on outcomes of volunteering in later life largely focuses on the health of volunteers. This is in contrast to studies of youth, where attention is directed toward the effects of volunteering on subsequent productive and citizen behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of volunteering on subsequent social and civic…

  15. Oral and dermal pharmacokinetics of triclopyr in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, N G; Nolan, R J; Perkins, J M; Davies, R; Warrington, S J

    1989-11-01

    Blood levels and urinary excretion of triclopyr, the active ingredient in Garlon herbicides, were followed in six volunteers given single oral doses of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Five of these volunteers later received dermal applications of Garlon 4 herbicide formulation equivalent to 3.7 mg triclopyr/kg body weight applied to the forearm. Following oral administration blood levels peaked at 2-3 h and declined to undetectable levels within 48 h; more than 80% of the dose was found as unchanged triclopyr in the urine. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was used to describe the time-course of triclopyr clearance; half-lives for the rapid initial and slower terminal phases were 1.3 h and 5.1 h respectively, and were independent of dose. Due to the slow half-life for dermal absorption (t1/2 = 16.8 h) the rapid initial elimination phase was obscured and the pharmacokinetics could be simplified by a one-compartment model. An average of 1.37% of the applied dose was recovered in the urine; when corrected for recovery after oral administration this was equivalent to an absorption of 1.65%. Triclopyr is slowly absorbed through skin and is rapidly eliminated. It has very low potential to accumulate in man or to be absorbed through the skin in acutely toxic amounts.

  16. Marketing Public Health Through Older Adult Volunteering: Experience Corps as a Social Marketing Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Xue, Qian-Li; Rebok, George W.; Frick, Kevin D.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Wang, Tao; Piferi, Rachel L.; McGill, Sylvia; Whitfield, Keith E.; Fried, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We present a social marketing conceptual framework for Experience Corps Baltimore City (EC) in which the desired health outcome is not the promoted product or behavior. We also demonstrate the feasibility of a social marketing–based recruitment campaign for the first year of the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial (BECT), a randomized, controlled trial of the health benefits of EC participation for older adults. Methods. We recruited older adults from the Baltimore, MD, area. Participants randomized to the intervention were placed in public schools in volunteer roles designed to increase healthy behaviors. We examined the effectiveness of a recruitment message that appealed to generativity (i.e., to make a difference for the next generation), rather than potential health benefits. Results. Among the 155 participants recruited in the first year of the BECT, the average age was 69 years; 87% were women and 85% were African American. Participants reported primarily generative motives as their reason for interest in the BECT. Conclusions. Public health interventions embedded in civic engagement have the potential to engage older adults who might not respond to a direct appeal to improve their health. PMID:20167888

  17. Measurement and validation of GHz-band whole-body average SAR in a human volunteer using reverberation chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianqing; Suzuki, Tokio; Fujiwara, Osamu; Harima, Katsushige

    2012-12-01

    The World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommendation on the need for further research for radio-frequency dosimetry has promoted studies on the whole-body average-specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) in various kinds of anatomical-based numerical models. For experimental validation of GHz-band WBA-SARs in a real human, however, there have not so far been any published papers, despite the fact that, in 1982, Hill measured WBA-SARs at frequencies less than 40 MHz in human volunteers using a TEM-cell exposure system. In this study, we provide a measurement technique with a reverberation chamber for validating numerical dosimetry results on GHz-band WBA-SARs in living humans. We measured WBA-SARs at 1, 1.5 and 2 GHz for a 22 year old male volunteer, with a height of 173 cm and a weight of 73 kg, in the reverberation chamber, and compared the results with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The reverberation chamber was excited by using a signal generator through an amplifier with an output power of 30-40 mW, which produced inside the chamber with the volunteer an average electric field strength of 5 V m-1 equivalent to an average power spectral density of 6.6 μW cm-2. The WBA-SARs were obtained from the measured S11 and S21 together with the power density. On the other hand, the WBA-SARs have been calculated using the FDTD method for an adult male model with almost the same physique as that of the volunteer exposed to the electromagnetic field in the reverberation chamber. From the comparison between the measured and the calculated WBA-SARs, we could confirm that the measured GHz-band WBA-SARs approximately agree with the FDTD calculated results.

  18. To Make Their Journey Better: Research-Focused Aspirations for Preparing Adult Volunteers for Facilitating Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joshua Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This basic interpretive qualitative research study explored the personal and professional backgrounds, training experiences, perspectives, and perceptions held by adult volunteers serving as crew advisors in the Venturing program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Venturing is the BSA's adventure oriented youth development program for coeds age…

  19. Nutrition Risk in Home-Bound Older Adults: Using Dietician-Trained and Supervised Nutrition Volunteers for Screening and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laforest, Sophie; Goldin, Benita; Nour, Kareen; Roy, Marie-Andree; Payette, Helene

    2007-01-01

    Nutrition screening and early intervention in home-bound older adults are key to preventing unfavourable health outcomes and functional decline. This pilot study's objectives were (a) to test the reliability of the Elderly Nutrition Screening Tool (ENS [C]) when administered by dietician-trained and supervised nutrition volunteers, and (b) to…

  20. The Feasibility of Creating Partnerships Between Palliative Care Volunteers and Healthcare Providers to Support Rural Frail Older Adults and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Connell, Braydon; Warner, Grace; Weeks, Lori E

    2016-01-01

    Background/Question: Volunteers are important in the support of frail older adults requiring palliative care, especially in rural areas. However, there are challenges associated with volunteer supports related to training, management and capacity to work in partnership with healthcare providers (HCP). This review addresses the question: What is the feasibility of a volunteer-HCP partnership to support frail older adults residing in rural areas, as they require palliative care?

  1. Social Background, Personality and Attitudinal Factors Influencing the Decision to Volunteer and Level of Involvement among Adult 4-H Leaders. Summary of Research 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohs, Frederick R.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study was conducted to investigate, using a portion of Smith's Sequential Specificity Model, the relationship between social background, personality, and attitudinal factors and the participation of adult volunteers in the 4-H program in Ohio. Data were collected from a sample of 300 adult 4-H volunteers in Ohio through a mailed questionnaire; a…

  2. Empirical and theoretical dosimetry in support of whole body resonant RF exposure (100 MHz) in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stewart J; Adair, Eleanor R; Mylacraine, Kevin S; Hurt, William; Ziriax, John

    2003-10-01

    This study reports the dosimetry performed to support an experiment that measured physiological responses of volunteer human subjects exposed to the resonant frequency for a seated human adult at 100 MHz. Exposures were performed in an anechoic chamber which was designed to provide uniform fields for frequencies of 100 MHz or greater. A half wave dipole with a 90 degrees reflector was used to optimize the field at the subject location. The dosimetry plan required measurement of transmitter harmonics, stationary probe drift, field strengths as a function of distance, electric and magnetic field maps at 200, 225, and 250 cm from the dipole antenna, and specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements using a human phantom, as well as theoretical predictions of SAR with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. On each exposure test day, a measurement was taken at 225 cm on the beam centerline with a NBS E field probe to assure consistently precise exposures. A NBS 10 cm loop antenna was positioned 150 cm to the right, 100 cm above, and 60 cm behind the subject and was read at 5 min intervals during all RF exposures. These dosimetry measurements assured accurate and consistent exposures. FDTD calculations were used to determine SAR distribution in a seated human subject. This study reports the necessary dosimetry for work on physiological consequences of human volunteer exposures to 100 MHz.

  3. Active secretion and protective effect of salivary nitrate against stress in human volunteers and rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Luyuan; Qin, Lizheng; Xia, Dengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Gu, Liankun; He, Junqi; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

    2014-01-01

    Up to 25% of the circulating nitrate in blood is actively taken up, concentrated, and secreted into saliva by the salivary glands. Salivary nitrate can be reduced to nitrite by the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity or stomach and then further converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, which may play a role in gastric protection. However, whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings has not yet been determined. This study was designed to determine whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings as an acute stress response and what role salivary nitrate plays in stress-induced gastric injury. To observe salivary nitrate function under stress conditions, alteration of salivary nitrate and nitrite was analyzed among 22 healthy volunteers before and after a strong stress activity, jumping down from a platform at the height of 68m. A series of stress indexes was analyzed to monitor the stress situation. We found that both the concentration and the total amount of nitrate in mixed saliva were significantly increased in the human volunteers immediately after the jump, with an additional increase 1 h later (p < 0.01). Saliva nitrite reached a maximum immediately after the jump and was maintained 1 h later. To study the biological functions of salivary nitrate and nitrite in stress protection, we further carried out a water-immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) assay in male adult rats with bilateral parotid and submandibular duct ligature (BPSDL). Intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO; gastric mucosal blood flow; and gastric ulcer index (UI) were monitored and nitrate was administrated in drinking water to compensate for nitrate secretion in BPSDL animals. Significantly decreased levels of intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO and gastricmucosal blood flow were measured in BPSDL rats during the WIRS assay compared to sham control rats (p < 0.05). Recovery was observed in the BPSDL rats upon nitrate administration. The WIRS-induced UI was

  4. Active secretion and protective effect of salivary nitrate against stress in human volunteers and rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Luyuan; Qin, Lizheng; Xia, Dengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Gu, Liankun; He, Junqi; Ambudkar, Indu S; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

    2013-04-01

    Up to 25% of the circulating nitrate in blood is actively taken up, concentrated, and secreted into saliva by the salivary glands. Salivary nitrate can be reduced to nitrite by the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity or stomach and then further converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, which may play a role in gastric protection. However, whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings has not yet been determined. This study was designed to determine whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings as an acute stress response and what role salivary nitrate plays in stress-induced gastric injury. To observe salivary nitrate function under stress conditions, alteration of salivary nitrate and nitrite was analyzed among 22 healthy volunteers before and after a strong stress activity, jumping down from a platform at the height of 68 m. A series of stress indexes was analyzed to monitor the stress situation. We found that both the concentration and the total amount of nitrate in mixed saliva were significantly increased in the human volunteers immediately after the jump, with an additional increase 1h later (p<0.01). Saliva nitrite reached a maximum immediately after the jump and was maintained 1h later. To study the biological functions of salivary nitrate and nitrite in stress protection, we further carried out a water-immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) assay in male adult rats with bilateral parotid and submandibular duct ligature (BPSDL). Intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO; gastric mucosal blood flow; and gastric ulcer index (UI) were monitored and nitrate was administrated in drinking water to compensate for nitrate secretion in BPSDL animals. Significantly decreased levels of intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO and gastric mucosal blood flow were measured in BPSDL rats during the WIRS assay compared to sham control rats (p<0.05). Recovery was observed in the BPSDL rats upon nitrate administration. The WIRS-induced UI was

  5. Repeated dose pharmacokinetics of pancopride in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Salva, P; Costa, J; Pérez-Campos, A; Martínez-Tobed, A

    1994-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of pancopride after repeated oral dose administration of 20 mg pancopride in tablet form once a day for 5 d in 12 healthy male volunteers. Plasma levels were measured by HPLC using a solid phase extraction method and automated injection. The minimum quantification limit of pancopride in plasma was 2 ng mL-1. The maximum plasma concentration (mean +/- SD) after the first dose was 92.5 +/- 41.5 ng ML-1 and tmax was 1.7 +/- 0.9 h. The elimination half-life (t1/2) was 14.3 +/- 6.9 h. The area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC) was 997 +/- 396 ng h mL-1. The maximum plasma concentration (mean +/- SD) at steady state (day 5) was 101.8 +/- 36.9 ng mL-1 and tmax was 2.2 +/- 1.2 h. The elimination half-life (t1/2) was 16.3 +/- 2.7 h and the minimum plasma concentration (Cssmin) was 16.6 +/- 6.9 ng mL-1. The area under the concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUCss tau) was 995 +/- 389 ng h mL-1. The average plasma concentration at steady state (Cssav) was 43.3 +/- 16.1 ng mL-1 and the experimental accumulation ratio (RAUC) was 1.34 +/- 0.19, whereas the mean theoretical value (R) was 1.40 +/- 0.29. The results obtained showed a good correlation between the experimental plasma levels and the expected values calculated using a repeated dose two-compartment model assessed by means of the Akaike value. It is concluded that the pharmacokinetics of pancopride are not modified after repeated dose administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Effects of midazolam on cerebral blood flow in human volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, A.; Juge, O.; Morel, D.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of intravenously administered midazolam on cerebral blood flow were evaluated in eight healthy volunteers using the /sup 133/Xe inhalation technique. Six minutes after an intravenous dose of 0.15 mg/kg midazolam, the cerebral blood flow decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from a value of 40.6 +/- 3.3 to a value of 27.0 +/- 5.0 ml . 100 g-1 . min-1. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) increased from 2.8 +/- 0.2 to 3.9 to 0.6 mmHg/(ml . 100 g-1 . min-1)(P less than 0.001). Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) from 117 +/- 8 to 109 +/- 9 mmHg and arterial carbon dioxide tension increased from 33.9 +/- 2.3 to 38.6 +/- 3.2 mmHg (P less than 0.05). Arterial oxygen tension remained stable throughout the study, 484 +/- 95 mmHg before the administration of midazolam and 453 +/- 76 mmHg after. All the subjects slept after the injection of the drug and had anterograde amnesia of 24.5 +/- 5 min. The decrease in mean arterial blood pressure was probably not important since it remained in the physiologic range for cerebral blood flow autoregulation. The increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension observed after the midazolam injection may have partially counteracted the effect of this new benzodiazepine on cerebral blood flow. Our data suggest that midazolam might be a safe agent to use for the induction of anethesia in neurosurgical patients with intracranial hypertension.

  7. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  8. Establishing the Biodynamics Data Resource (BDR): Human Volunteer Impact Acceleration Research Data in the BDR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    using special procedures. One such study focused on the effects of added head mass during an impact acceleration. In these tests, volunteers would...11  Special test series...unique motion devices, including horizontal and vertical accelerators, when conducting research on the effects of mechanical forces on humans. Several

  9. Diesel Exhaust Modulates Ozone-induced Lung Function Decrements in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...

  10. Volunteer Magic: Finding and Keeping Library Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Offers suggestions for a successful volunteer program in a school setting. Topics include recruitment strategies, including advertising for parents, grandparents, other groups, and students; training programs for adult volunteers and for students; how to keep volunteers; how to afford rewards; and helpful resources. (LRW)

  11. Validity of 24-hour dietary recall interviews conducted among volunteers in an adult working community.

    PubMed

    Kahn, H A; Whelton, P K; Appel, L J; Kumanyika, S K; Meneses, J L; Hebert, P R; Woods, M

    1995-11-01

    There is considerable uncertainty regarding the validity of dietary data collected from free-living populations. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to validate dietary assessment instruments. To address this issue, we compared average daily protein intake estimated from 24-hour dietary recall interviews to protein intake estimated from urinary nitrogen excretion in 24-hour samples. Among 244 community-dwelling adults who volunteered for a hypertension study, men (n = 139) overreported dietary protein intake by 12 to 19%. In contrast, women (n = 105) reported a dietary protein intake almost exactly in agreement with estimates based on urinary nitrogen levels. Thin men reported about one-third more protein intake than was reflected in their urinary nitrogen measurements. Our results suggest that the accuracy of dietary recall estimates may vary across subgroups of the population. Additional information from sufficiently large validation studies would be helpful in determining the role of dietary assessment instruments which are already in wide use in epidemiologic research. Until such information is obtained, doubts will remain regarding the validity of inferences drawn from nutritional epidemiologic studies.

  12. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (< 20 µg/m³). Health effects were evaluated in relation to rated changes in symptoms and environmental perception using a computerized questionnaire and a potentiometer. Subjective symptoms were generally weak, but when combining the effect of each of the symptoms into categorical symptom indices, significant effects were found for "environmental perception" (p = 0.0007), "irritative body perceptions" (p = 0.0127), "psychological/neurological effects" (p = 0.0075) and "weak inflammatory responses" (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating and caused irritated mucosas in humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure.

  13. Hair cadmium level of smoker and non-smoker human volunteers in and around Calcutta City

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Samaddar, K.R. ); Joshi, H.C. )

    1990-08-01

    In recent years considerable interest has arisen concerning cadmium accumulation in man. In general, the body burden of cadmium of an urban population is due to occupational exposure, as well as non-occupational contamination. Several reports indicate that cadmium body burden of cigarette smokers or tobacco users is more than of non-smokers. Measurement of cadmium in human hair has been suggested as an indicator of body burden. Most industrialized countries have regular monitoring programs for measuring cadmium accumulation in humans. There has been little or no work done thus far in India regarding the level of cadmium in humans. The objective of this investigation was to survey the levels of cadmium in hair of random samples of human volunteers. The influences of smoking habits, urban or rural life and age of the volunteers on the level of cadmium in hair were examined.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of experimental pentavalent antimony after intramuscular administration in adult volunteers*

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Laura; Scorza Dagert, José V.; Scorza, José V.; Vicuña-Fernández, Nelson; de Peña, Yaneira Petit; López, Sabrina; Bendezú, Herminia; Rojas, Elina; Vásquez, Libia; Pérez, Belén

    2006-01-01

    Background: Pentavalent antimony (SbV) has demonstrated therapeuticeffectiveness against clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by Leishmania, a genus of flagellate protozoa comprising parasites of worldwide distribution. Approximately 1.8 million new cases are reported annually. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of the investigational generic SbV, Ulamina (pentachloride of antimony + N-methylglucamine), in healthy adult volunteers. Methods: In this study, SbV was administered IM as a single 5-mg/kg dose.Blood samples were collected at 0.25, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after administration; urine samples were collected at 6-hour intervals during the 24-hour postadministration period. Determination of trivalent antimony, SbV, and total antimony concentrations in blood and urine samples was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. Clinical history was reviewed and the subjects were monitored before and after administration of SbV using physical examination, weight, and hepatic- and renal-function studies. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated were Cmax, Tmax, absorption constant (Ka), elimination constant (Kel), AUC2–24h, AUC0-∞, elimination phase (t½β), volume of distribution (Vd), and urinary excretion rate. Results: Five subjects (3 men, 2 women; mean age, 28 years [range, 18–34 years]) were included in the study. One hour after drug administration the following values were obtained: Cmax, 1.1 μg/mL; Tmax, 1.3 hours; Ka, 1.87 hours; Kel, 0.043 hours; AUC0–24h, 12.26 μg/mL · h; AUC0-∞, 19.84 μg/mL · h; t½β, 17.45 hours; Vd, 6.6 L/kg; and urinary excretion rate, 2.8 μg/h; these were mean values for the entire study group. The single dose was well tolerated by all subjects. Conclusions: The investigational generic SbV, Ulamina, was associated with linearelimination after IM administration of a single 5-mg/kg dose. A 2-compartment pharmacokinetic model was observed in

  15. Occupant kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests: Human volunteers, Hybrid III ATD, and PMHS.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Franck, Christopher T; Loftus, Stephen C

    2012-07-01

    A total of 34 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed, 17 low (2.5g, Δv=4.8kph) and 17 medium (5.0g, Δv=9.7kph), with five male human volunteers of approximately 50th percentile height and weight, a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD, and three male PMHS. Each volunteer was exposed to two impulses at each severity, one relaxed and one braced prior to the impulse. A total of four tests were performed at each severity with the ATD and one trial was performed at each severity with each PMHS. A Vicon motion analysis system, 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D kinematics (±1mm) (1kHz). Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. The forward excursions of the select anatomical regions generally increased with increasing severity. The forward excursions of relaxed human volunteers were significantly larger than those of the ATD for nearly every region at both severities. The forward excursions of the upper body regions of the braced volunteers were generally significantly smaller than those of the ATD at both severities. Forward excursions of the relaxed human volunteers and PMHSs were fairly similar except the head CG response at both severities and the right knee and C7 at the medium severity. The forward excursions of the upper body of the PMHS were generally significantly larger than those of the braced volunteers at both severities. Forward excursions of the PMHSs exceeded those of the ATD for all regions at both severities with significant differences within the upper body regions. Overall human volunteers, ATD, and PMHSs do not have identical biomechanical responses in low-speed frontal sled tests but all contribute valuable data that can be used to refine and validate computational models and ATDs used to assess injury risk in automotive collisions.

  16. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  17. Assessing biofidelity of the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) against historic human volunteer data.

    PubMed

    Newby, Nate; Somers, Jeffrey T; Caldwell, Erin E; Perry, Chris; Littell, Justin; Gernhardt, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in characterizing the responses of THOR (test device for human occupant restraint) anthropometric test device (ATD) to representative loading acceleration pulses. Test conditions were selected both for their applicability to anticipated NASA landing scenarios, and for comparison to human volunteer data previously collected by the United States Air Force (USAF). THOR impact testing was conducted in the fore-to-aft frontal (-x) and in the upward spinal (-z) directions with peak sled accelerations ranging from 8 to 12 G and rise times of 40, 70, and 100ms. Each test condition was paired with historical human data sets under similar test conditions that were also conducted on the HIA. A correlation score was calculated for each THOR to human comparison using CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) software. A two-parameter beta distribution model fit was obtained for each dependent variable using maximum likelihood estimation. For frontal impacts, the THOR head x-acceleration peak response correlated with the human response at 8 and 10G 100ms, but not 10G 70ms. The phase lagged the human response. Head z-acceleration was not correlated. Chest x-acceleration was in phase, had a higher peak response, and was well correlated with lighter subjects (Cora = 0.8 for 46 kg vs. Cora = 0.4 for 126kg). Head x-displacement had a leading phase. Several subjects responded with the same peak displacement, but the mean of the group was lower. The shoulder x-displacement was in phase but had higher peaks than the human response. For spinal impacts, the THOR head x-acceleration was not well correlated. Head and chest z-acceleration was in phase, but had a higher peak response. Chest z-acceleration was highly correlated with heavier subjects at lower G pulses (Cora = 0.86 for 125kg at 8G). The human response was variable in should z-displacement, but the THOR was in phase and was comparable to the mean peak response. Head x

  18. Pharmacokinetics of an extended release formulation of alprazolam (Xanax XR) in healthy normal adolescent and adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Glue, Paul; Fang, Annie; Gandelman, Kuan; Klee, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of single doses of an extended release formulation of alprazolam (Xanax XR) in adolescent and adult healthy volunteers. This was a randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-period crossover study. Twelve adolescent healthy volunteers (13-17 years) and 12 adult healthy volunteers (20-45 years) received single doses of Xanax XR 1 mg or 3 mg tablets. Blood samples were obtained predose and for 48 hours postdose. Plasma samples were assayed for alprazolam and its two active metabolites alpha-hydroxy-alprazolam and 4-hydroxy-alprazolam using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Safety assessments included clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and adverse event monitoring. At both dose levels, mean plasma concentration-time profiles of alprazolam, alpha-hydroxy-alprazolam, and 4-hydroxy-alprazolam were similar in adolescent and adult subjects. The ratios of estimated geometric means for AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax between adolescents and adults for both dose levels were 115% (95% CI: [93, 143]) and 111% (95% CI: [95, 129]), respectively. An assessment of dose proportionality between the 3 mg and 1 mg alprazolam doses within both age groups indicated that the AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax were both within 80-125% equivalence limits. Parent-metabolite ratios were similar in both age groups and were consistent with those previously reported. Alprazolam was well tolerated by both age groups. The most common adverse event was somnolence, which occurred in a dose-related manner. Based on the similar pharmacokinetic profiles, dosing of Xanax XR should be similar in adolescents and adults.

  19. Hemodynamics Associated with Breathing Through an Inspiratory Impedance Threshold Device in Human Volunteers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Hemodynamics associated with breathing through an inspiratory impedance threshold device in human volunteers Victor A. Convertino, PhD; Duane A...and animals (6–13). Building on this concept, an inspiratory impedance threshold de- vice (ITD) was designed to create a vac- uum within the chest each...associ- ated with the elevated blood pressure during inspiratory resistance (16). How- ever, stroke volume during resistance breathing with an ITD set at

  20. Clearance of soluble aggregates of human immunoglobulin G in healthy volunteers and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Lobatto, S; Daha, M R; Voetman, A A; Evers-Schouten, J H; Van Es, A A; Pauwels, E K; Van Es, L A

    1987-07-01

    Using aggregates of IgG (AIgG) obtained by heat aggregation of a 16 g% human IgG solution, we sought a method for measuring the function of the mononuclear phagocyte system with a probe that bears more resemblance to soluble immune complexes than erythrocytes coated with anti-rhesus IgG (EIgG). It was found that intravenous administration of 10 micrograms AIgG/kg body weight did not cause any detectable side effects in chimpanzees. In nine healthy volunteers, a dose of 10 micrograms AIgG/kg body weight was used without any adverse reactions. AIgG is cleared from the human circulation with a t1/2 of 26 +/- 8 min (mean +/- SD). The site of clearance is predominantly the liver, as shown by an average liver spleen uptake ratio of 230:100. In whole blood obtained from the volunteers, it was found that erythrocytes bound significant amounts of AIgG, suggesting that CR1 on erythrocytes is involved in the clearance of complement activating immune complexes in humans. In five of the volunteers, clearance studies with EIgG had been done in a previous study. EIgG was cleared from the circulation with a t1/2 of 30 +/- 6.2 min (mean +/- SD). The predominant site of clearance of EIgG was the spleen. These data indicate that sensitized red blood cells are cleared from the circulation differently from soluble IgG aggregates.

  1. Volunteer feedback and perceptions after participation in a phase I, first-in-human Ebola vaccine trial: An anonymous survey

    PubMed Central

    Dayer, Julie-Anne; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Huttner, Angela

    2017-01-01

    The continued participation of volunteers in clinical trials is crucial to advances in healthcare. Few data are available regarding the satisfaction and impressions of healthy volunteers after participation in phase I trials, many of which lead to unexpected adverse events. We report feedback from over 100 adult volunteers who took part in a first-in-human trial conducted in a high-income country testing an experimental Ebola vaccine causing significant reactogenicity, as well as unexpected arthritis in one fifth of participants. The anonymous, internet-based satisfaction survey was sent by email to all participants upon their completion of this one-year trial; it asked 24 questions concerning volunteers’ motivations, impressions of the trial experience, and overall satisfaction. Answers were summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 115 trial participants, 103 (90%) filled out the survey. Fifty-five respondents (53%) were male. Thirty-five respondents (34%) were healthcare workers, many of whom would deploy to Ebola-affected countries. All respondents cited scientific advancement as their chief motivation for participation, while 100/103 (97%) and 61/103 (59%) reported additional “humanitarian reasons” and potential protection from Ebolavirus, respectively. Although investigators had documented adverse events in 97% of trial participants, only 74 of 103 respondents (72%) recalled experiencing an adverse event. All reported an overall positive experience, and 93/103 (90%) a willingness to participate in future trials. Given the high level of satisfaction, no significant associations could be detected between trial experiences and satisfaction, even among respondents reporting adverse events lasting weeks or months. Despite considerable reactogenicity and unexpected vaccine-related arthritis, all survey respondents reported overall satisfaction. While this trial’s context was unique, the positive feedback is likely due at least in part to the intense

  2. Volunteers Help Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Isolde Chapin

    A discussion of ways in which both adult and young Americans are volunteering to aid in the positive development of young people is presented in this booklet. The wide variety of programs that are designed to use volunteers and the need for additional volunteers are described. These programs are discussed under the following topic headings: School…

  3. Sufentanil does not increase cerebral blood flow in healthy human volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, N.; Weinstabl, C.; Podreka, I.; Spiss, C.K. )

    1990-08-01

    The effect of sufentanil on human cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in seven unpremedicated, healthy volunteers 31 +/- 3.5 yr of age (mean +/- SD) and either sex. CBF (ml.100 g-1.min-1) was measured noninvasively with the 133Xe clearance technique and a scintillation camera before and after sufentanil 0.5 micrograms/kg administered intravenously. This technique provides values for global blood flow and for gray and white matter blood flow, and from 13 preselected regions in one hemisphere. After the administration of sufentanil, the volunteers were stimulated verbally in order to prevent their loss of consciousness and hypercarbia. Heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and end-tidal CO2 ETCO2 were recorded during the measurements. Neither global CBF (46.1 +/- 1.6 control and 43 +/- 1.9 after sufentanil, mean +/- SEM) nor gray (76.5 +/- 3.2 and 70.9 +/- 6.1) or white (22.7 +/- 1.5 and 24.2 +/- 1.6) matter blood flow changed significantly after sufentanil administration. As well, no significant differences in HR (72 +/- 4 control and 79 +/- 4 beats per min after sufentanil) and ETCO2 (39.8 +/- 1.4 and 41.1 +/- 1.1 mmHg) were observed. It is concluded that sufentanil has no significant effect on CBF in healthy human volunteers.

  4. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in several parameters of visual memory and attention due to AS ingestion. We also found statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508

  5. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuwatari, Yasushi; Okumura, Ko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Furukawa, Mai; Ohno, Naohito; Mori, Kazu; Gao, Ming; Motoi, Masuro

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food. PMID:18604247

  6. Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B(1) pharmacokinetics in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jubert, Carole; Mata, John; Bench, Graham; Dashwood, Roderick; Pereira, Cliff; Tracewell, William; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Williams, David; Bailey, George

    2009-12-01

    Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats. These findings were partially extended to humans, where CHL reduced excretion of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-DNA repair products in Chinese unavoidably exposed to dietary AFB(1). However, neither AFB(1) pharmacokinetics nor Chla effects were examined. We conducted an unblinded crossover study to establish AFB(1) pharmacokinetic parameters among four human volunteers, and to explore possible effects of CHL or Chla cotreatment in three of those volunteers. For protocol 1, fasted subjects received an Institutional Review Board-approved dose of 14C-AFB(1) (30 ng, 5 nCi) by capsule with 100 mL water, followed by normal eating and drinking after 2 hours. Blood and cumulative urine samples were collected over 72 hours, and 14C- AFB(1) equivalents were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry. Protocols 2 and 3 were similar except capsules also contained 150 mg of purified Chla or CHL, respectively. Protocols were repeated thrice for each volunteer. The study revealed rapid human AFB(1) uptake (plasma k(a), 5.05 + or - 1.10 h(-1); T(max), 1.0 hour) and urinary elimination (95% complete by 24 hours) kinetics. Chla and CHL treatment each significantly impeded AFB(1) absorption and reduced Cmax and AUCs (plasma and urine) in one or more subjects. These initial results provide AFB(1) pharmacokinetic parameters previously unavailable for humans, and suggest that Chla or CHL co-consumption may limit the bioavailability of ingested aflatoxin in humans, as they do in animal models.

  7. Are human subject volunteers still players in aeromedical research as we enter the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Popper, S E; Morris, C E

    1997-08-01

    The U.S. Air Force has enjoyed the luxury of having dedicated human volunteer subjects for sustained and impact acceleration research for over 50 yr. However, with today's world economy and budgetary cutbacks, this may no longer be a viable option. The onslaught of advanced medical technology, combined with an increasing performance envelope for aircraft and their ejection systems, have created an environment where the validity of research data and the ethics of human-use research are being challenged. Now is an opportune time to reevaluate the way human-use aeromedical research is conducted. The validity of using nonpilots in lieu of pilots in aeromedical research is discussed in light of the following: a) the increased emphasis on performance metrics within sustained acceleration; b) the matching of human subjects (nonpilots) to pilots in the appropriate attributes to ensure validity of data; c) degree of medical screening required given the ethics of human-use research and concerns of pilots; and d) the challenge of evaluating the "value added" of new technology for medical screening. It is concluded that volunteer panels should be maintained with nonpilots matched with pilots physically and psychologically such that operational performance characteristics are similar. Medical screening should be similar so that research data from subjects can be applied to the target population (pilots). Longitudinal data collection (e.g., spinal X-rays) on pilots would also be of great value as a basis for studying the occupational hazards of flying.

  8. High School Community Service as a Predictor of Adult Voting and Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.; Youniss, James; Atkins, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The influences of high school community service participation, extracurricular involvement, and civic knowledge on voting and volunteering in early adulthood were examined using the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The major finding in this study is that both voluntary and school-required community service in high school were strong…

  9. Changes in Social Participation and Volunteer Activity among Recently Widowed Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A.; Hinterlong, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood eliminates a key source of support that may trigger greater involvement in social activities and volunteer participation, which are related to better late-life health and functioning. We reexamine and build upon 2 recent studies exploring recent widowhood and social participation. Using different data, we perform a…

  10. Empowering Adults to Value Teenage Youth as Volunteer Resources for Delivering Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Judy M.

    Whether the label for teen problems is "generation gap" or "lack of self-esteem," youth are not given the respect or consideration they deserve. Loftquist (1987) reports three styles that represent the attitudes of adults toward working with youth. In style 1, adults view youth as objects. In style 2, adults view youth as…

  11. Experimental infection of human volunteers with Haemophilus ducreyi: fifteen years of clinical data and experience.

    PubMed

    Janowicz, Diane M; Ofner, Susan; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2009-06-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, which facilitates transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. To better understand the biology of H. ducreyi, we developed a human inoculation model. In the present article, we describe clinical outcomes for 267 volunteers who were infected with H. ducreyi. There was a relationship between papule formation and estimated delivered dose. The outcome (either pustule formation or resolution) of infected sites for a given subject was not independent; the most important determinants of pustule formation were sex and host effects. When 41 subjects were infected a second time, their outcomes segregated toward their initial outcome, confirming the host effect. Subjects with pustules developed local symptoms that required withdrawal from the study after a mean of 8.6 days. There were 191 volunteers who had tissue biopsy performed, 173 of whom were available for follow-up analysis; 28 (16.2%) of these developed hypertrophic scars, but the model was otherwise safe. Mutant-parent trials confirmed key features in H. ducreyi pathogenesis, and the model has provided an opportunity to study differential human susceptibility to a bacterial infection.

  12. A human volunteer study to assess the impact of confectionery sweeteners on the gut microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Beards, Emma; Tuohy, Kieran; Gibson, Glenn

    2010-09-01

    Sweeteners are being sourced to lower the energetic value of confectionery including chocolates. Some, especially non-digestible carbohydrates, may possess other benefits for human health upon their fermentation by the colonic microbiota. The present study assessed non-digestible carbohydrate sweeteners, selected for use in low-energy chocolates, for their ability to beneficially modulate faecal bacterial profiles in human volunteers. Forty volunteers consumed a test chocolate (low-energy or experimental chocolate) containing 22.8 g of maltitol (MTL), MTL and polydextrose (PDX), or MTL and resistant starch for fourteen consecutive days. The dose of the test chocolates was doubled every 2 weeks over a 6-week period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria significantly increased with all the three test treatments. Chocolate containing the PDX blend also significantly increased faecal lactobacilli (P = 0.00 001) after the 6 weeks. The PDX blend also showed significant increases in faecal propionate and butyrate (P = 0.002 and 0.006, respectively). All the test chocolates were well tolerated with no significant change in bowel habit or intestinal symptoms even at a daily dose of 45.6 g of non-digestible carbohydrate sweetener. This is of importance not only for giving manufacturers a sugar replacement that can reduce energetic content, but also for providing a well-tolerated means of delivering high levels of non-digestible carbohydrates into the colon, bringing about improvements in the biomarkers of gut health.

  13. Effect of allopurinol, sulphasalazine, and vitamin C on aspirin induced gastroduodenal injury in human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    McAlindon, M E; Muller, A F; Filipowicz, B; Hawkey, C J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The mechanisms of aspirin induced gastroduodenal injury are not fully understood. Aspirin induces the release of reactive oxygen metabolites in animal models, which may contribute to mucosal injury. AIMS--To investigate the effects of aspirin administered with placebo or antioxidants on gastric mucosal reactive oxygen metabolite release and gastroduodenal injury in human volunteers. SUBJECTS--Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in the study (seven male; mean age 27 years, range 20-40). METHODS--In a double blind, randomised, crossover study, volunteers received aspirin 900 mg twice daily and either placebo, allopurinol 100 mg twice daily, sulphasalazine 1 g twice daily or vitamin C 1 g twice daily for three days. Injury was assessed endoscopically and by quantifying mucosal reactive oxygen metabolite release by measuring chemiluminescence before and after each treatment. The effect on prostanoids was determined by measuring ex vivo antral prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2). RESULTS--No drug reduced any parameter of gastric injury but vitamin C reduced duodenal injury assessed by Lanza score (p < 0.005). Chemiluminescence increased after aspirin both with placebo (p < 0.05) and vitamin C (p < 0.05). Post-treatment chemiluminescence was lower in subjects taking allopurinol (p < 0.05) or sulphasalazine (p < 0.005) than in those taking placebo with aspirin. CONCLUSIONS--In this study, aspirin induced gastric injury was associated with reactive oxygen metabolite release. This was reduced by sulphasalazine and allopurinol, although macroscopic injury was not affected. Vitamin C, however, was shown to have a previously unrecognised protective effect against aspirin induced duodenal injury. PMID:8707080

  14. The effect of titrated fentanyl on suppressed cough reflex in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kelly, H E; Shaw, G M; Brett, C N; Greenwood, F M; Huckabee, M L

    2016-05-01

    Cough suppression is part of the pharmacodynamic profile of opioids. We investigated the impact of clinical doses of fentanyl on suppressing the cough reflex. Thirteen volunteers received 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl in a divided administration protocol. Three minutes after each administration and at 10 min intervals during washout, suppressed cough reflex testing with nebulised citric acid was performed and compared with fentanyl effect-site concentration. Mean (SD) citric acid concentration provoking cough increased from 0.5 (0.28) mol.l(-1) at baseline to 1.2 (0.50) mol.l(-1) after 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl (p = 0.01). Mean (SD) fentanyl effect-site concentration after the final dose of fentanyl was 1.89 (0.05) ng.ml(-1) . A strong positive correlation was found between suppressed cough reflex thresholds and fentanyl effect-site concentrations during both fentanyl administration and washout phases of the study (r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.01). The mean (SD) length of time for return of suppressed cough response was 44.6 (18.8) min. Clinically relevant doses of fentanyl produced cough reflex suppression in healthy volunteers.

  15. Head excursion of restrained human volunteers and hybrid III dummies in steady state rollover tests.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Edward; Hare, Barry; Hughes, Raymond; Lewis, Lance; Iiyama, Hiroshi; Curzon, Anne; Cooper, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    Seatbelts provide substantial benefits in rollover crashes, yet occupants still receive head and neck injuries from contacting the vehicle roof interior when the roof exterior strikes the ground. Prior research has evaluated rollover restraint performance utilizing anthropomorphic test devices (dummies), but little dynamic testing has been done with human volunteers to learn how they move during rollovers. In this study, the vertical excursion of the head of restrained dummies and human subjects was measured in a vehicle being rotated about its longitudinal roll axis at roll rates from 180-to-360 deg/sec and under static inversion conditions. The vehicle's restraint design was the commonly used 3-point seatbelt with continuous loop webbing and a sliding latch plate. This paper presents an analysis of the observed occupant motion and provides a comparison of dummy and human motion under similar test conditions. Thirty-five tests (eighteen static and seventeen dynamic) were completed using two different sizes of dummies and human subjects in both near and far-side roll directions. The research indicates that far-side rollovers cause the restrained test subjects to have greater head excursion than near-side rollovers, and that static inversion testing underestimates head excursion for far-side occupants. Human vertical head excursion of up to 200 mm was found at a roll rate of 220 deg/sec. Humans exhibit greater variability in head excursion in comparison to dummies. Transfer of seatbelt webbing through the latch plate did not correlate directly with differences in head excursion.

  16. Evaluation of Head and Brain Injury Risk Functions using Sub-Injurious Human Volunteer Data.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Erin J; Gabler, Lee F; McGhee, James S; Olszko, Ardyn V; Chancey, Valeta Carol; Crandall, Jeff; Panzer, Matthew B

    2017-03-30

    Risk assessment models are developed to estimate the probability of brain injury during head impact using mechanical response variables such as head kinematics and brain tissue deformation. Existing injury risk functions have been developed using different datasets based on human volunteer and scaled animal injury responses to impact. However, many of these functions have not been independently evaluated with respect to laboratory-controlled human response data. In this study, the specificity of fourteen existing brain injury risk functions was assessed by evaluating their ability to correctly predict non-injurious response using previously conducted sled tests with well-instrumented human research volunteers. Six degree-of-freedom head kinematics data were obtained for 335 sled tests involving subjects in frontal, lateral, and oblique sled conditions up to 16 Gs peak sled acceleration. A review of the medical reports associated with each individual test indicated no clinical diagnosis of mild or moderate brain injury in any of the cases evaluated. Kinematic-based head and brain injury risk probabilities were calculated directly from the kinematic data, while strain-based risks were determined through finite element model simulation of the 335 tests. Several injury risk functions sub¬stanti¬ally over pre¬dict the likelihood of concussion and diffuse axonal injury; proposed maximum principal strain (MPS)-based injury risk functions predicted nearly 80 concussions and 14 cases of severe diffuse axonal injury out of the 335 non-injurious cases. This work is an important first step in assessing the efficacy of existing brain risk functions and highlights the need for more predictive injury assessment models.

  17. Evaluation of depigmenting activity by 8-hydroxydaidzein in mouse B16 melanoma cells and human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tai, Sorgan Shou-Ku; Lin, Ching-Gong; Wu, Mon-Han; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2009-11-20

    In our previous study, 8-hydroxydaidzein (8-OHDe) was demonstrated to be a potent and unique suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. In this study, the compound was evaluated for in vitro cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory activities in mouse B16 melanoma cells and for in vivo skin-whitening activity in human volunteers. Tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in the cell culture incubated with 10 microM of 8-OHDe were decreased to 20.1% and 51.8% of control, respectively, while no obvious cytotoxicity was observed in this concentration. In contrast, a standard tyrosinase inhibitor, kojic acid, showed 69.9% and 71.3% of control in cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis activity, respectively, at a concentration as high as 100 microM. Hence, 8-OHDe exhibited more than an inhibitory effects on melanin production in B16 cells 10-fold stronger than kojic acid. In addition, when a cream containing 4% 8-OHDe was applied to human skin in an in vivo study, significant increases in the dL*-values were observed after three weeks. Moreover, the increase in the dL*-values after 8-week treatment with 4% 8-OHDe (from -0.57 to 1.94) is stronger than those of 2% 8-OHDe treatment (from 0.26 to 0.94) and 2% ascorbic acid-2-glucoside treatment (from 0.07 to 1.54). From the results of the study, it was concluded that 8-OHDe, the potent suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase, has depigmenting activities in both mouse melanoma cells and in human volunteers. Thus, the compound has significant potential for use in cosmetics as a skin-whitening ingredient.

  18. Effect of oral spiramycin on the faecal and oral bacteria in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Andremont, A; Trancrède, C; Desnottes, J F

    1991-03-01

    Six healthy adult volunteers were treated with 1 g of oral spiramycin twice daily for five days, and their oral and faecal microbial flora were studied. Mean saliva and serum concentrations of the antibiotic never exceeded 2.1 +/- 1.1 mg/l. The number of volunteers whose oral cavity was colonized by Enterobacteriaceae, group D streptococci, staphylococci, and fungi remained unchanged following treatment. The mean count of anaerobic faecal bacteria was 10.3 +/- 0.6 log10 cfu/g initially. This did not change significantly during the treatment, nor did the composition of the predominant anaerobic flora. Mean counts of group D streptococci were 1000 times lower than those of anaerobes before treatment, and also remained unchanged during therapy. No overgrowth of fungi, staphylococci, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed. No significant modifications occurred in the mean total count of faecal Enterobacteriaceae (7.9 +/- 0.4 versus 7.4 +/- 1.0 log10 cfu/g of faeces before and during treatment respectively). However, faecal concentrations of highly spiramycin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MIC greater than or equal to 512 mg/l) increased from 4.8 +/- 1.2 to 7.0 +/- 1.8 log10 cfu/g during treatment. The MIC50 value of spiramycin for anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and group D streptococci were 0.125, 64, and 0.5 mg/l respectively before treatment, and these increased to 1024, 512 and 1024 mg/l respectively during treatment. This was attributed to the rise in the faecal concentrations of spiramycin, which reached 689 +/- 48 micrograms/g of faeces on the fifth day of treatment. These concentrations decreased rapidly on cessation of treatment.

  19. EFFECT OF NEGATIVE ION ATMOSPHERIC LOADING ON COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, A. Chitra; Fernandes, Charlotte; Verghese, Leila; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    1992-01-01

    Negative ion atmospheric loading has been reported to affect a range of psychological functions, from alertness to circadian rhythms, and has been suggested to benefit a variety of medical conditions, from allergies to migraine. In a double-blind study planned to assess the effect of negative ions on cognitive performance in human volunteers, 65 female graduate course students were randomized into ionized atmosphere (n = 34) and control (n = 31) groups. The following cognitive tasks were administered: Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Addition Test, Visual Memory (Complex Figure) Test, Verbal Memeory (Complex Passage) Test, Ideational Fluency Test and Clerical Speed and Accuracy test. On all but the last two tests, the negative ion groupperfonned significantly better (to a 15-40% extent) than controls. It is concluded that negative ionization of the atmosphere by artificial means may be of benefit in certain common, practical situation in which depletion of these ions occurs. PMID:21776128

  20. The lipolytic effect of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor activation in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Haffner, C A; Kendall, M J; Maxwell, S; Hughes, B

    1993-01-01

    1. We investigated the effect of activation beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors on the process of lipolysis in human volunteers. Ten male subjects underwent a single-blind randomized cross-over trial using infusions of terbutaline (a specific beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist), xamoterol (a partial beta 1-agonist with beta 2-adrenoceptor blocking activity) and saline (placebo control). The effect of these infusions on plasma potassium, glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) (total and individual) and insulin levels was studied. 2. Terbutaline infusion induced a significant rise in plasma glucose and a fall in plasma potassium in keeping with its beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulant properties. Xamoterol infusion had no significant effect on these values. Terbutaline infusion caused a greater rise in total and individual FFA than xamoterol, but both effects were significantly different from placebo. 3. The possible reasons for these results and their implications on the beta-adrenergic control of lipolysis are discussed. PMID:8383517

  1. Effect of sildenafil citrate on intraocular pressure and blood pressure in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gerometta, Rosana; Alvarez, Lawrence J; Candia, Oscar A

    2011-07-01

    Anecdotal reports have suggested that the vasodilator, sildenafil citrate, which evokes its effect via a select inhibition of PDE5, has the potential to increase intraocular pressure (IOP) in some individuals. An ocular hypertensive effect by sildenafil was also recently described in a sheep animal model. In contrast, clinical studies have not found a direct association between sildenafil ingestion (commonly consumed as Viagra) and changes in IOP. However, some such studies also reported no effects of sildenafil on systemic blood pressure (BP) at the time of the IOP determination. Given this surprising result, our purpose was to repeat a study in human volunteers in the city of Corrientes, Argentina to corroborate the effects of sildenafil on human IOP and systemic BP. For the present study, 9 healthy volunteers (male and female, 18-74 years old) were selected as subjects after ophthalmic and cardiovascular evaluation indicated that they exhibited normal parameters for their age. In a masked, placebo-controlled study, the subjects ingested 100 mg sildenafil citrate (provided as Vorst from Laboratorios Bernabo, Argentina) in one session, and a placebo on a second separate occasion. IOP was measured with a Goldman applanation tonometer by an ophthalmologist, and BP by a second physician, neither of whom witnessed the tablet ingestion by the volunteers, nor provided with information on the nature of the test compounds. A third individual administered the tablets. The average baseline IOP of this group of 9 was 13.1 ± 0.6 mm Hg. Subsequent to sildenafil ingestion, IOP increased by 26% to 16.5 ± 0.8 mm Hg 60 min later (P < 0.005, as paired data), and returned to control values within 2 h. Both systolic and diastolic BP were significantly reduced by sildenafil ingestion. At the point of maximal systemic hypotension (90 min), the systolic and diastolic pressures declined by 15% and 13%, respectively. No significant changes in IOP or BP were recorded after

  2. Effect of Resveratrol Treatment on the Pharmacokinetics of Diclofenac in Healthy Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bedada, Satish Kumar; Yellu, Narsimha Reddy; Neerati, Prasad

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of resveratrol (RSV) treatment on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac (DIC) in healthy human volunteers. The open-label, two period, sequential study was conducted in 12 healthy human volunteers. A single dose of RSV 500 mg was administered daily for 10 days during treatment phase. A single dose of DIC 100 mg was administered during control and after treatment phases under fasting conditions. The blood samples were collected after DIC dosing and analyzed by HPLC. Treatment with RSV significantly enhanced maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) (1.73 to 2.91 µg/mL), area under the curve (AUC) (5.05 to 9.95 g h/mL), half life (T1/2) (1.12 to 1.76 h) and significantly decreased elimination rate constant (Kel ) (0.71 to 0.41 h(-1)), apparent oral clearance (CL/F) (14.58 to 6.48 L/h) of DIC as compared to control. The geometric mean ratios for Cmax, AUC, T1/2, Kel and CL/F of DIC were 1.75, 2.12, 1.65, 0.61 and 0.47, respectively were outside the limits of 0.8-1.25, which indicates clinically significant interaction between DIC and RSV. The results suggest that the altered pharmacokinetics of DIC might be attributed to RSV mediated inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme. Therefore, combination therapy of DIC along with RSV may represent a novel approach to reduce dosage and results in reduced gastrointestinal side effects of DIC.

  3. America's Teenagers as Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knauft, E. B.

    Two national in-home interview surveys conducted by the Gallup Organization and information from a national workshop conference attended by 70 teen volunteers from 28 states and 200 teachers and adult leaders indicate that about three-fifths of youth aged 12 to 17 volunteer an average of just over 3 hours a week. The most frequent volunteer…

  4. First human study of a chimeric anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Misty W; Henry, Ralph L; Owens, S Michael; Schutz, Ralph; Gentry, W Brooks

    2014-01-01

    This first-in-human study examined the safety and pharmacokinetics of ch-mAb7F9, an anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody, in healthy volunteers. Single, escalating doses of ch-mAb7F9 over the range of 0.2 to 20 mg/kg were administered to 42 subjects who were followed for 147 d. Safety was measured by physical examinations, adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiograms, and clinical laboratory testing. Serum ch-mAb7F9 concentration and immunogenicity analyses were performed. There were no serious adverse reactions or discontinuations from the study due to adverse events. No trends emerged in the frequency, relatedness, or severity of adverse events with increased dose or between active and placebo treated subjects. Ch-mAb7F9 displayed expected IgG pharmacokinetic parameters, including a half-life of 17-19 d in the 3 highest dose groups and volume of distribution of 5-6 L, suggesting the antibody is confined primarily to the vascular compartment. Four (12.5%) of the 32 subjects receiving ch-mAb7F9 were confirmed to have developed a human anti-chimeric antibody response by the end of the study; however, this response did not appear to be dose related. Overall, no apparent safety or tolerability concerns were identified; a maximum tolerated dose was not reached in this Phase 1 study. Ch-mAb7F9 therefore appears safe for human administration.

  5. Amphetamine sensitisation and memory in healthy human volunteers: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    O'Daly, Owen G; Joyce, Daniel; Tracy, Derek K; Stephan, Klaas E; Murray, Robin M; Shergill, Sukhwinder

    2014-09-01

    Amphetamine sensitisation (AS) is an established animal model of the hypersensitivity to psychostimulants seen in patients with schizophrenia. AS also models the dysregulation of mesolimbic dopamine signalling which has been implicated in the development of psychotic symptoms. Recent data suggest that the enhanced excitability of mesolimbic dopamine neurons in AS is driven by a hyperactivity of hippocampal (subiculum) neurons, consistent with a strong association between hippocampal dysfunction and schizophrenia. While AS can be modelled in human volunteers, its functional consequences on dopaminoceptive brain regions (i.e. striatum and hippocampus) remains unclear. Here we describe the effects of a sensitising dosage pattern of dextroamphetamine on the neural correlates of motor sequence learning in healthy volunteers, within a randomised, double-blind, parallel-groups design. Behaviourally, sensitisation was characterised by enhanced subjective responses to amphetamine but did not change performance (i.e. learning rate) during an explicit sequence learning task. In contrast, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements showed that repeated intermittent amphetamine exposure was associated with increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) (subiculum/entorhinal cortex) and midbrain, in the vicinity of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) during sequence encoding. Importantly, MTL hyperactivity correlated with the sensitisation of amphetamine-induced attentiveness. The MTL-midbrain hyperactivity reported here mirrors observations in sensitised rodents and is consistent with contemporary models of schizophrenia and behavioural sensitisation. These findings of meso-hippocampal hyperactivity during AS thus link pathophysiological concepts of dopamine dysregulation to cognitive models of psychosis.

  6. Evaluation of Trigeminal Sensitivity to Ammonia in Asthmatics and Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Maja; Diamond, Jeanmarie; Schuster, Benno; Dalton, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthmatics often report the triggering or exacerbation of respiratory symptoms following exposure to airborne irritants, which in some cases may result from stimulation of irritant receptors in the upper airways inducing reflexive broncho-constriction. Ammonia (NH3) is a common constituent of commercially available household products, and in high concentration has the potential to elicit sensory irritation in the eyes and upper respiratory tract of humans. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the irritation potential of ammonia in asthmatics and healthy volunteers and to determine whether differences in nasal or ocular irritant sensitivity to ammonia between these two groups could account for the exacerbation of symptoms reported by asthmatics following exposure to an irritant. Methods 25 healthy and 15 mild/moderate persistent asthmatic volunteers, with reported sensitivity to household cleaning products, were evaluated for their sensitivity to the ocular and nasal irritancy of NH3. Lung function was evaluated at baseline and multiple time points following exposure. Results Irritation thresholds did not differ between asthmatics and healthy controls, nor did ratings of odor intensity, annoyance and irritancy following exposure to NH3 concentrations at and above the irritant threshold for longer periods of time (30 sec).Importantly, no changes in lung function occurred following exposure to NH3 for any individuals in either group. Conclusion Despite heightened symptom reports to environmental irritants among asthmatics, the ocular and nasal trigeminal system of mild-moderate asthmatics does not appear to be more sensitive or more reactive than that of non-asthmatics, nor does short duration exposure to ammonia at irritant levels induce changes in lung function. At least in brief exposures, the basis for some asthmatics to experience adverse responses to volatile compounds in everyday life may arise from factors other than trigeminally

  7. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  9. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. Volunteering Among Young People. CIRCLE Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Volunteering rates among young people are generally higher than they are among adults 26 and older. However, measuring volunteer rates among all adults is a difficult task. In recent years, efforts at measuring volunteering have produced widely different estimates, largely because of the methods employed to measure volunteering. For example, the…

  11. Induction of T helper type 1 and 2 responses to 19-kilodalton merozoite surface protein 1 in vaccinated healthy volunteers and adults naturally exposed to malaria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edwin A M; Palmer, Dupeh R; Flanagan, Katie L; Reece, William H H; Odhiambo, Kennedy; Marsh, Kevin; Pinder, Margaret; Gravenor, Michael B; Keitel, Wendy A; Kester, Kent E; Diggs, Carter; Kaslow, David; Apostolopoulos, V; Ballou, W Ripley; Hill, Adrian V S; Krzych, Urszula; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2002-03-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of death in the tropics. The 19-kDa subunit of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1(19)), a major blood stage vaccine candidate, is the target of cellular and humoral immune responses in animals and humans. In this phase I trial of MSP-1(19), immunization of nonexposed human volunteers with either of the two allelic forms of recombinant MSP-1(19) induced high levels of antigen-specific Th1 (gamma interferon) and Th2 (interleukin 4 [IL-4] and IL-10) type lymphokines. The adjustment of the antigen dose and number of immunizations regulated the level of specificity of immune responses and Th1/Th2 bias of responses induced by vaccination. Novel conserved and allelic T-cell epitopes which induced cross-strain immune responses were identified. Importantly, responses to many of these novel epitopes were also present in adults exposed to malaria, both in east (Kenya) and west Africa (The Gambia). These data suggest that epitope-specific naturally acquired MSP-1(19) immune responses in endemic populations can be boosted by vaccination.

  12. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES INDUCE PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN HEALTHY HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of healthy volunteers to concentrated ambient particles (CAPS) is associated with an influx of inflammatory cells into the lower respiratory tract. Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed to either filtered air or particles concentrated fro...

  13. A Randomized Phase 1 Dose Escalation Study to Evaluate Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Trabodenoson in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Laties, Alan; Rich, Cadmus C.; Stoltz, Randall; Humbert, Vernon; Brickman, Chaim; McVicar, William

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of trabodenoson, a highly selective adenosine mimetic targeting the adenosine A1 receptor. Methods: In Part 1, 60 healthy adult volunteers were randomized to 14 days of twice-daily topical monocular application of placebo or trabodenoson (200, 400, 800, 1,600, 2,400, or 3,200 μg). In Part 2, 10 subjects were randomized to placebo or 8 escalating doses of bilateral trabodenoson (total daily doses: 1,800–6,400 μg). Results: The incidence of treatment-related adverse events in Part 1 was similar in the trabodenoson (27.8%) and placebo (25.0%) groups. Most were mild in intensity. The most common adverse events (AEs) for trabodenoson and placebo were headache (25.0% vs. 33%, respectively) and eye pain (11.1% vs. 4.2%, respectively). Ocular AEs were infrequent (16.7% and 17.9%, respectively), were self-limited, lasted <24 h, and were typically mild in intensity. The most common ocular AE was eye pain (9.5% and 3.6%, respectively), with a single observation of ocular hyperemia (200 μg trabodenoson). Trabodenoson was rapidly absorbed [median time to maximum concentration (tmax): ∼0.08 to 0.27 h] and eliminated (t½: 0.48–2.0 h), with no evidence of drug accumulation. Systemic exposure to topical trabodenoson was dose related but not dose proportional, with a plateau effect at doses ≥2,400 mg per eye. No clinically significant treatment-related systemic AEs were observed, and increasing systemic exposure had no effect on heart rate or blood pressure. Conclusions: Ocular doses of trabodenoson up to 3,200 μg per eye were safe and well tolerated in the eye and resulted in no detectable systemic effects in healthy adult volunteers. PMID:27046445

  14. Human neural tuning estimated from compound action potentials in normal hearing human volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschooten, Eric; Desloovere, Christian; Joris, Philip X.

    2015-12-01

    The sharpness of cochlear frequency tuning in humans is debated. Evoked otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical measurements suggest sharper tuning in humans than in laboratory animals [15], but this is disputed based on comparisons of behavioral and electrophysiological measurements across species [14]. Here we used evoked mass potentials to electrophysiologically quantify tuning (Q10) in humans. We combined a notched noise forward masking paradigm [9] with the recording of trans tympanic compound action potentials (CAP) from masked probe tones in awake human and anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta). We compare our results to data obtained with the same paradigm in cat and chinchilla [16], and find that CAP-Q10values in human are ˜1.6x higher than in cat and chinchilla and ˜1.3x higher than in monkey. To estimate frequency tuning of single auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in humans, we derive conversion functions from ANFs in cat, chinchilla, and monkey and apply these to the human CAP measurements. The data suggest that sharp cochlear tuning is a feature of old-world primates.

  15. A Real-time Method to Evaluate the Nasal Deposition and Clearance of Acetone in the Human Volunteer

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, Karla D. ); Schwartz, Ronald E.; Weitz, Karl K. ); Soelberg, Jolen J. ); Foureman, Gary L.; Prah, James D.; Timchalk, Charles

    2003-05-01

    Nasal dosimetry models have become increasingly quantitative as insights into tissue deposition/clearance and computational fluid dynamics have become available. Validation of these models requires sufficient experimental data. However, investigations into respiratory deposition, particularly in human volunteers, have been historically limited due to methodological limitations. To overcome this, a method for evaluating the nasal wash-in, wash-out phenomena of a highly water-soluble compound in human volunteers was developed and characterized. This methodology was assessed using controlled human inhalation exposures to uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at approximately 1 ppm concentration for 30 minutes under different breathing maneuvers (inhale nose/exhale nose; inhale nose/exhale mouth; inhale mouth/exhale nose). A small-diameter air-sampling probe inserted in the nasopharyngeal cavity of the volunteer was connected directly to an ion-trap mass spectrometer capable of sampling every 0.8 sec. A second ion-trap mass spectrometer simultaneously sampled from the volunteer?s exhaled breath stream via a breath-inlet device interface. Together, the two mass spectrometers provided real-time appraisal of the 13C-acetone concentrations in the nasopharyngeal region and in the exhaled breath stream before, during, and after the different breathing maneuvers. The breathing cycle (depth and frequency) and heart rate were concurrently monitored throughout the exposure using a heart rate monitor and a human plethysmograph to differentiate inhalation and exhalation. Graphical overlay of the plethysmography results with the mass spectrometer measurements show clear quantifiable differences in 13C-acetone levels at the nasal probe as a function of breathing maneuvers. Breath-by-breath analysis of 13C-acetone concentrations indicate that between 40-75% of the compound is absorbed upon inhalation and nearly all of that absorbed released back into the breath stream during exhalation.

  16. Electromyography responses of pediatric and young adult volunteers in low-speed frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Emily A; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Seacrist, Thomas; Maltese, Matthew R; Sterner, Robert; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2013-10-01

    No electromyography (EMG) responses data exist of children exposed to dynamic impacts similar to automotive crashes, thereby, limiting active musculature representation in computational occupant biomechanics models. This study measured the surface EMG responses of three neck, one torso and one lower extremity muscles during low-speed frontal impact sled tests (average maximum acceleration: 3.8g; rise time: 58.2ms) performed on seated, restrained pediatric (n=11, 8-14years) and young adult (n=9, 18-30years) male subjects. The timing and magnitude of the EMG responses were compared between the two age groups. Two normalization techniques were separately implemented and evaluated: maximum voluntary EMG (MVE) and neck cross-sectional area (CSA). The MVE-normalized EMG data indicated a positive correlation with age in the rectus femoris for EMG latency; there was no correlation with age for peak EMG amplitudes for the evaluated muscles. The cervical paraspinous exhibited shorter latencies compared with the other muscles (2-143ms). Overall, the erector spinae and rectus femoris peak amplitudes were relatively small. Neck CSA-normalized peak EMG amplitudes negatively correlated with age for the cervical paraspinous and sternocleidomastoid. These data can be useful to incorporate active musculature in computational models, though it may not need to be age-specific in low-speed loading environments.

  17. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam; McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline; Berger, Bernard; Pittet, Anne-Cecile; Sultana, Shamima; Krause, Lutz; Huq, Sayeda; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruttin, Anne; Reuteler, Gloria; Bruessow, Harald

    2012-12-20

    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  18. Nerve compression and pain in human volunteers with narrow vs wide tourniquets

    PubMed Central

    Kovar, Florian M; Jaindl, Manuela; Oberleitner, Gerhard; Endler, Georg; Breitenseher, Julia; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Kutscha-Lissberg, Florian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical effects and the morphological grade of nerve compression. METHODS: In a prospective single-center randomized, open study we assessed the clinical effects and the morphological grade of nerve compression during 20 min of either a silicon ring (group A) or pneumatic tourniquet (group B) placement variantly on the upper non-dominant limb in 14 healthy human volunteers. Before and during compression, the median and radial nerves were visualized in both groups by 3 Tesla MR imaging, using high resolutional (2.5 mm slice thickness) axial T2-weighted sequences. RESULTS: In group A, Visual analog pain scale was 5.4 ± 2.2 compared to results of group B, 2.9 ± 2.5, showing a significant difference (P = 0.028). FPS levels in group A were 2.6 ± 0.9 compared to levels in group B 1.6 ± 1, showing a significant difference (P = 0.039). Results related to measureable effect on median and radial nerve function were equal in both groups. No undue pressure signs on the skin, redness or nerve damage occurred in either group. There was no significant difference in the diameters of the nerves without and under compression in either group on T2 weighted images. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, no differences between narrow and wide tourniquets were identified. Silicon ring tourniquets can be regarded as safe for short time application. PMID:25992317

  19. A Haemophilus ducreyi CpxR deletion mutant is virulent in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Dodd, Dana; Fortney, Kate R; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P; Janowicz, Diane M; Spinola, Stanley M; Hansen, Eric J

    2011-06-15

    Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP contains a homolog of the CpxRA 2-component signal transduction system, which controls the cell envelope stress response system in other gram-negative bacteria and regulates some important H. ducreyi virulence factors. A H. ducreyi cpxR mutant was compared with its parent for virulence in the human challenge model of experimental chancroid. The pustule formation rate in 5 volunteers was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-65.3%) at 15 parent sites and 40% (95% CI, 18.1%-61.9%) at 15 mutant sites (P = .35). Thus, the cpxR mutant was not attenuated for virulence. Inactivation of the H. ducreyi cpxR gene did not reduce the ability of this mutant to express certain proven virulence factors, including the DsrA serum resistance protein and the LspA2 protein, which inhibits phagocytosis. These results expand our understanding of the involvement of the CpxRA system in regulating virulence expression in H. ducreyi.

  20. Decrease of plasma and urinary oxidative metabolites of acetaminophen after consumption of watercress by human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Mohr, S N; Yang, C S

    1996-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the consumption of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), a cruciferous vegetable, on acetaminophen metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen and its metabolites were studied in a crossover trial of human volunteers. A single oral dose of acetaminophen (1 gm) was given 10 hours after ingestion of watercress homogenates (50 gm). In comparison with acetaminophen only, the ingestion of watercress resulted in a significant reduction in the area under the plasma cysteine acetaminophen (Cys-acetaminophen) concentration-time curve and in the peak plasma Cys-acetaminophen concentration by 28% +/- 3% and by 21% +/- 4% (mean +/- SE; n = 7; p < 0.005), respectively. Correspondingly, the Cys-acetaminophen formation rate constant and Cys-acetaminophen formation fraction were decreased by 55% +/- 9% and 52% +/- 7% (p < 0.01), respectively. Consistent with the results obtained from the plasma, the total urinary excretion of Cys-acetaminophen in 24 hours was also reduced. A decrease of mercapturate acetaminophen, a Cys-acetaminophen metabolite, was also shown in the plasma and urine samples. However, the plasma pharmacokinetic processes and the urinary excretions of acetaminophen, acetaminophen glucuronide, and acetaminophen sulfate were not altered significantly by the watercress treatment. These results suggest that the consumption of watercress causes a decrease in the levels of oxidative metabolites of acetaminophen, probably due to inhibition of oxidative metabolism of this drug.

  1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis in Peace Corps volunteers with intradermal human diploid cell rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rosa, F W

    1983-04-01

    The Peace Corps has had approximately 60 000 person/years of experience with rabies pre-exposure duck embryo vaccine (DEV) immunizations, which are required in 80% of volunteer assignments. Rabies exposure treatment rate is much higher in these areas than in the United States. One death from rabies has occurred despite pre-exposure injections. One death also occurred from serum hepatitis contracted in local emergency management of an anaphylactic reaction to duck embryo vaccine. A query to the Peace Corps field medical offices obtained reports of 21 serious reactions in approximately 8000 duck embryo immunizations. Two thirds of the reactions occurred with the first injection. Only a third of titres measured after four injections of DEV achieved a protective level of greater than or equal to 1:16. Because of these problems human diploid intracellular vaccine (HDCV) was studied in areas where it was available. Because of the high cost and initial short supply, intradermal injections of 0.1 ml HDCV were given. 567 of 570 persons achieved adequate titres. No systemic reactions were reported with intradermal HDCV.

  2. Validation of the simplified UVB model to assess the pharmacodynamics of analgesics in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ing Lorenzini, Kuntheavy; Besson, Marie; Daali, Youssef; Salomon, Denis; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules

    2012-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study was conducted in healthy human volunteers with the primary objective of exploring the existence of a positive interaction between paracetamol 1 g and ketorolac 20 mg intravenously on experimental pain models. Further, the simplified UVB model was validated as a screening tool for analgesics or a combination of analgesics in clinical drug development. It was observed that the UVB irradiation induced primary hyperalgesia, evidenced by significant decreases of the heat pain threshold from (mean ± SD) 46.9 ± 1.1 °C to 40.1 ± 1.7 °C (p <0.001) and of the mechanical pain threshold (62% decrease). A small intra- and inter-individual variability was observed as well as consistent intra-day stability for the heat pain threshold. The UVB irradiation also resulted in the development of an area of secondary hyperalgesia of 21.3 ± 11.3 cm(2). The mechanical pain threshold and area of secondary hyperalgesia showed small intra-individual variability and consistent intra-day stability. However, a greater variability was observed between subjects, which suggests that a crossover design would allow limiting the number of subjects.

  3. LPS infusion suppresses serum FGF21 levels in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina; Møller, Niels; Bjerre, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Context During the inflammatory acute phase response, plasma glucose and serum triglycerides are increased in humans. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 has plasma glucose and lipid-reducing actions, but its role in the acute inflammatory response in human is unknown. Objective To investigate circulating levels of FGF21 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. Design Two randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials were used. Setting The studies were performed at a university hospital clinical research center. Patients and interventions Study 1 (LPS bolus): Eight young, healthy, lean males were investigated two times: (1) after isotonic saline injection and (2) after LPS injection (bolus of 1 ng/kg). Each study day lasted 4 h. Study 2 (continuous LPS infusion): Eight, healthy males were investigated two times: (1) during continuously isotonic saline infusion and (2) during continuous LPS infusion (0.06 ng/kg/h). Each study day lasted 4 h. Circulating FGF21 levels were quantified every second hour by an immunoassay. Results A LPS bolus resulted in a late suppression (t = 240 min) of serum FGF21 (P = 0.035). Continuous LPS infusion revealed no significant effects on FGF21 levels (P = 0.82). Conclusions Our studies show that a bolus of LPS results in decreased FGF21 levels 4 h from exposure. PMID:28069899

  4. Metabolic fate of radiolabeled prostaglandin D2 in a normal human male volunteer

    SciTech Connect

    Liston, T.E.; Roberts, L.J. 2d.

    1985-10-25

    50 microCi of (TH)prostaglandin D2 tracer (100 Ci/mmol) was infused intravenously into a normal human male volunteer. 75% of the infused radioactivity was excreted into the urine within 5 h. This urine was added to urine obtained from two mastocytosis patients with marked overproduction of prostaglandin D2. Radiolabeled prostaglandin D2 urinary metabolites were chromatographically isolated and purified and subsequently identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 25 metabolites were identified. 23 of these compounds comprising 37% of the recovered radioactivity had prostaglandin F-ring structures, and only two metabolites comprising 2.7% of the recovered radioactivity retained the prostaglandin D-ring structure. The single most abundant metabolite identified was 9,11-dihydroxy-15-oxo-2,3,18,19-tetranorprost-5-ene-1,20-dioic acid which was isolated in a tricyclic form as a result of formation of a lower side chain hemiketal followed by lactonization of the terminal carboxyl and the hemiketal hydroxyl. Different isomeric forms of several prostaglandin F-ring metabolites were identified. An isomer of prostaglandin F2 alpha was also excreted intact into the urine as a metabolite of prostaglandin D2. 15 PGF-ring compounds were treated with n-butylboronic acid and 13 failed to form a boronate derivative, suggesting that the orientation of the hydroxyl group at C-11 in these 13 metabolites is beta. This study documents that prostaglandin D2 is metabolized to prostaglandin F-ring metabolites in vivo in humans. These results also bring into question the accuracy of quantifying prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolites as a specific index of endogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha biosynthesis, as well as quantifying urinary prostaglandin F2 alpha as an accurate index of renal production of prostaglandin F2 alpha.

  5. Ethanol toxicokinetics resulting from inhalation exposure in human volunteers and toxicokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Dumas-Campagna, Josée; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Haddad, Sami

    2014-02-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the validity of a previously developed physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) for inhaled ethanol in humans to predict the blood levels of ethanol (BLE) at low level exposures (<1000 ppm). Thus, the objective of this study is to document the BLE resulting from low levels exposures in order to refine/validate this PBPK model. Human volunteers were exposed to ethanol vapors during 4 h at 5 different concentrations (125-1000 ppm), at rest, in an inhalation chamber. Blood and exhaled air were sampled. Also, the impact of light exercise (50 W) on the BLE was investigated. There is a linear relationship between the ethanol concentrations in inhaled air and (i) BLE (women: r²= 0.98/men: r²= 0.99), as well as (ii) ethanol concentrations in the exhaled air at end of exposure period (men: r²= 0.99/women: r²= 0.99). Furthermore, the exercise resulted in a net and significant increase of BLE (2-3 fold). Overall, the original model predictions overestimated the BLE for all low exposures performed in this study. To properly simulate the toxicokinetic data, the model was refined by adding a description of an extra-hepatic biotransformation of high affinity and low capacity in the richly perfused tissues compartment. This is based on the observation that total clearance observed at low exposure levels was much greater than liver blood flow. The results of this study will facilitate the refinement of the risk assessment associated with chronic inhalation of low levels of ethanol in the general population and especially among workers.

  6. Retired RNs: perceptions of volunteering.

    PubMed

    Cocca-Bates, Katherine C; Neal-Boylan, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore the perceptions of volunteering among retired registered nurses (RNs) in Kansas. Participants were volunteers in formal nursing roles or were using their nursing knowledge and experience in non-nursing roles, such as church work. Regardless of the type of volunteer position, retired RNs reported that they use what they have learned as nurses when they volunteer. Volunteering benefits include enhanced self-worth, intellectual stimulation, reduced social isolation, and opportunities to help others. Increased paperwork, new technology, difficulty finding nursing-specific volunteer opportunities, resistance from health care organizations, and a lack of respect for what these nurses know are challenges and barriers to volunteering. Retired RNs have accumulated years of clinical nursing experience and can be helpful to employed nurses. Health care organizations should launch targeted efforts to recruit and utilize retired RN volunteers. Health care professionals who care for older adults should recommend volunteering as a healthful endeavor.

  7. Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Active Components After Oral Administration of a Kampo Medicine, Shakuyakukanzoto, to Healthy Adult Japanese Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sadakane, Chiharu; Watanabe, Junko; Fukutake, Miwako; Nisimura, Hiroaki; Maemura, Kazuya; Kase, Yoshio; Kono, Toru

    2015-11-01

    Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT), a traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has been used by patients with muscle cramps and abdominal pains. In this trial, we analyzed plasma concentrations of active components after SKT was administered as a single oral dose of 2.5 or 5.0 g/day per person. The study was a randomized, open-label, two-arm, two-period, crossover trial conducted in healthy Japanese volunteers. Albiflorin (ALB), paeoniflorin (PAE), glycycoumarin (GCM), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), glycyrrhetic acid (GA), and glycyrrhetic acid-3-O-monoglucuronide were targeted, and the plasma concentration of each component was measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the linearity was assessed. All targeted components were detected in the plasma after oral administration of SKT. ALB, PAE, GCM, and ILG were detected at an early stage. The linearity was observed for the maximum plasma concentration of GCM, ILG, and GA and for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of GA. In this trial, we demonstrated for the first time in humans that these components were absorbed into the blood after oral administration of SKT. The results of this pharmacokinetic trial in humans are also important and useful for understanding the mechanism of action of SKT, verifying the active components predicted in basic research, and conducting pharmacokinetics and safety studies in the future.

  8. Peer volunteers in an integrative pain management program for frail older adults with chronic pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is common among the older population. A literature review on pain management program showed that exercise, yoga, massage therapy, Tai Chi, and music therapy could significantly reduce pain. In spite of the proven benefits of pain management programs, these intervention programs were effective only in the short term, and older adults would resume their old habits. It has been suggested that interventions comprising some type of social support have great potential to increase the participation of older adults. Therefore, we propose the inclusion of peer volunteers in an integrated pain management program to relieve pain among frail older adults. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of an integrated pain management program supplemented with peer volunteers in improving pain intensity, functional mobility, physical activity, loneliness levels, happiness levels, and the use of non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods among frail older adults with chronic pain. Methods/Design We intend to recruit 30 nursing home residents and 30 peer volunteers from the Institute of Active Ageing in Hong Kong in a group trial for an 8-week group-based integrated pain management program. There will be 16 sessions, with two 1-hour sessions each week. The primary outcome will be pain levels, while secondary outcomes will be assessed according to functional mobility, physical activity, loneliness levels, happiness levels, the use of non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods, and through a questionnaire for volunteers. Discussion In view of the high prevalence of chronic pain among older adults and its adverse impacts, it is important to provide older adults with tools to control their pain. We propose the use of peer volunteers to enhance the effects of an integrated pain management program. It is expected that pain can be reduced and improvements can be achieved among older adults in the areas of physical activity, functional mobility, loneliness levels

  9. Toxicity of Lunar and Martian Dust Simulants to Alveolar Macrophages Isolated from Human Volunteers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latch, Judith N.; Hamilton, Raymond F., Jr.; Holian, Andrij; James, John T.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is planning to build a habitat on the Moon and use the Moon as a stepping stone to Mars. JSC-1, an Arizona volcanic ash that has mineral properties similar to lunar soil, is used to produce lunar environments for instrument and equipment testing. NASA is concerned about potential health risks to workers exposed to these fine dusts in test facilities. The potential toxicity of JSC-1 and a Martian soil simulant (JSC-Mars-1, a Hawaiian volcanic ash) was evaluated using human alveolar macrophages (HAM) isolated from volunteers; titanium dioxide and quartz were used as reference dusts. This investigation is a prerequisite to studies of actual lunar dust. HAM were treated in vitro with these test dusts for 24 h; assays of cell viability and apoptosis showed that JSC-1 and TiO2 were comparable, and more toxic than saline control, but less toxic than quartz. HAM treated with JSC-1 or JSC-Mars 1 showed a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. To elucidate the mechanism by which these dusts induce apoptosis, we investigated the involvement of the scavenger receptor (SR). Pretreatment of cells with polyinosinic acid, an SR blocker, significantly inhibited both apoptosis and necrosis. These results suggest HAM cytotoxicity may be initiated by interaction of the dust particles with SR. Besides being cytotoxic, silica is known to induce shifting of HAM phenotypes to an immune active status. The immunomodulatory effect of the simulants was investigated. Treatment of HAM with either simulant caused preferential damage to the suppressor macrophage subpopulation, leading to a net increase in the ratio of activator (RFD1+) to suppressor (RFD1+7+) macrophages, a result similar to treatment with silica. It is recommended that appropriate precautions be used to minimize exposure to these fine dusts in large-scale engineering applications.

  10. Novel encapsulation improves recovery of probiotic strains in fecal samples of human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mai, Volker; Waugh, Sheldon; Byrd, Doratha; Simpson, Damion; Ukhanova, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Probiotic supplements can contribute to maintaining health and ameliorating various disease symptoms. Probiotics can be delivered in many forms with crucial differences in their survival during gastrointestinal (GI) passage. Previously, a novel encapsulation, Probiotic Pearls™ Acidophilus, Integrative Therapeutics, LLC, USA (Pearls), was shown to increase survival in vitro after exposure to gastric conditions. Here, we compare fecal recovery in human volunteers consuming Pearls or a conventional hard-shelled gelatin capsule. We performed a randomized double-blinded, two-armed trial, with six healthy subjects in each 12-day study arm. In fecal samples collected at baseline, twice during the intervention period, and after washout, we compared colony counts between the two encapsulation methods. The identity of the colonies was confirmed by colony morphology, strain-specific PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We further performed a comprehensive 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based analysis to identify differential effects on overall microbiota composition. We detected an average log increase in bifidobacteria of 0.152 cfu/g with gelatin and 0.651 cfu/g with Pearls capsules (p > 0.05). Total lactobacilli counts increased in both groups with no difference between the groups. However, the supplemented Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM decreased to baseline levels within 7 days after end of supplementation with gelatin capsules while 3.11 log cfu/g higher counts compared to baseline (p = 0.05) remained for Pearls. Targeted qPCR largely confirmed the trends observed by viable plate counts. Protecting the probiotic strains by Pearls encapsulation results in higher recovery rates of the supplemented lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in fecal samples and increased persistence, suggesting an improved survival and viability that might increase efficacy towards achieving desired health benefits.

  11. Toxicity of lunar and martian dust simulants to alveolar macrophages isolated from human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Latch, Judith N; Hamilton, Raymond F; Holian, Andrij; James, John T; Lam, Chiu-wing

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning to build a habitat on the Moon and use the Moon as a stepping stone to Mars. JSC-1, an Arizona volcanic ash that has mineral properties similar to those of lunar soil, is used to produce lunar environments for instrument and equipment testing. NASA is concerned about potential health risks to workers exposed to these fine dusts in test facilities. The potential toxicity of JSC-1 lunar soil simulant and a Martian soil simulant (JSC-Mars-1, a Hawaiian volcanic ash) was evaluated using human alveolar macrophages (HAM) isolated from volunteers; titanium dioxide and quartz were used as reference dusts. This investigation is a prerequisite to studies of actual lunar dust. HAM were treated in vitro with these test dusts for 24 h; assays of cell viability and apoptosis showed that JSC-1 and TiO2 were comparable, and more toxic than saline control but less toxic than quartz. HAM treated with JSC-1 or JSC-Mars 1 showed a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. To elucidate the mechanism by which these dusts induce apoptosis, we investigated the involvement of scavenger receptors (SR). Pretreatment of cells with polyinosinic acid, an SR blocker, significantly inhibited both apoptosis and necrosis. These results suggest HAM cytotoxicity may be initiated by interaction of the dust particles with SR. Besides being cytotoxic, silica is known to induce shifting of HAM phenotypes to an immune active status. The immunomodulatory effect of the dust simulants was investigated. Treatment of HAM with either simulant caused preferential damage to the suppressor macrophage subpopulation, leading to a net increase in the ratio of activator (RFD1+) to suppressor (RFD1+7+) macrophages, an effect similar to that of treatment with silica. It is recommended that appropriate precautions be used to minimize exposure to these fine dusts in large-scale engineering applications.

  12. Kinematic Comparison of Pediatric Human Volunteers and the Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Anthropomorphic Test Device

    PubMed Central

    Seacrist, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Sriram; García-España, J. Felipe; Maltese, Matthew R.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD has been benchmarked against adult-scaled component level tests but the lack of biomechanical data hinders the effectiveness of the procedures used to scale the adult data to the child. Whole body kinematic validation of the pediatric ATD through limited comparison to post mortem human subjects (PMHS) of similar age and size has revealed key differences attributed to the rigidity of the thoracic spine. As restraint systems continue to advance, they may become more effective at limiting peak loads applied to occupants, leading to lower impact environments for which the biofidelity of the ATD is not well established. Consequently, there is a growing need to further enhance the assessment of the pediatric ATD by evaluating its biofidelity at lower crash speeds. To this end, this study compared the kinematic response of the Hybrid III 6 year old ATD against size-matched male pediatric volunteers (PVs) (6–9 yrs) in low-speed frontal sled tests. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of markers at seven locations on the ATD and PVs (head top, opisthocranion, nasion, external auditory meatus, C4, T1, and pelvis). Angular velocity of the head, seat belt forces, and reaction forces on the seat pan and foot rest were also measured. The ATD exhibited significantly greater shoulder and lap belt, foot rest, and seat pan normal reaction loads compared to the PVs. Contrarily, PVs exhibited significantly greater seat pan shear. The ATD experienced significantly greater head angular velocity (11.4 ± 1.7 rad/s vs. 8.1 ± 1.4 rad/s), resulting in a quicker time to maximum head rotation (280.4 ± 2.5 ms vs 334.2 ± 21.7 ms). The ATD exhibited significantly less forward excursions of the nasion (171.7 ± 7.8 mm vs. 199.5 ± 12.3 mm), external auditory meatus (194.5 ± 11.8 mm vs. 205.7 ± 10.3 mm), C4 (127.0 ± 5.2 mm vs. 183.3 ± 12.8 mm) and T1 (111.1 ± 6.5 mm vs. 153.8 ± 10.5 mm) compared to the PVs. These analyses

  13. Reasons Why Canadian Seniors Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Prince, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    A study examined types of and reasons for volunteering among Canadian adults over 64 (n=1,569) and compared them with those given by adults aged 45-64 (n=5,563). Results indicate that the older group volunteers out of self-interest and are more likely to volunteer because of a feeling of obligation and social value than those aged 45-64. (JOW)

  14. Impact of AQP3 inducer treatment on cultured human keratinocytes, ex vivo human skin and volunteers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, N; Gondran, C; Menon, G; Mur, L; Oberto, G; Guerif, Y; Dal Farra, C; Domloge, N

    2011-10-01

    One of the main functions of the skin is to protect the organism against environmental threats, such as thermal stress. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) facilitates water and glycerol transport across cell membranes and therefore regulates osmotic balance in different situations of stress. This mechanism seems to be particularly important for the resistance of different organisms to cold stress. Consequently, we were interested in investigating the effect of cold and osmotic stress on AQP3 expression in normal human keratinocytes. We developed a new active ingredient to stimulate aquaporins in skin and demonstrated the partial restoration of AQP3 expression in keratinocytes transfected with AQP3 siRNA. Moreover, we examined the effect of cold stress on cell morphology and the impact of a pre-treatment with the active ingredient. Our results indicated that induction of AQP3 helped maintain a correct organization of the actin cytoskeleton, preserving cell morphology and preventing cells from rounding. Immunofluorescent staining revealed cytoplasmic localization of AQP3 and its translocation to the cell membrane following osmotic stress. Histological ex vivo studies of skin under different conditions, such as cold environment and tape-stripping, indicated that increase in AQP3 expression appears to be involved in skin protection and showed that the pattern of AQP3 expression was more enhanced in the active ingredient-treated samples. In vivo confocal microscopy by Vivascope showed a generally healthier appearance of the skin in the treated areas. These results attest to the potential value of the active ingredient in optimizing environmental stress resistance and protecting the skin from stratum corneum damage.

  15. Have I Ever Done Anything Like This Before? Older Adults Solving Ill-Defined Problems in Intensive Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Cheryl; Piercy, Kathleen W; Kohlenberg, Meranda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the ways in which individuals over 50 years old solved problems while volunteering in intensive humanitarian and disaster relief service. Thirty-seven men and women in the sample were sponsored by three religious organizations well known for providing humanitarian and disaster relief service. Semistructured interviews yielded data that were analyzed qualitatively, using McCracken's five-step process for analysis. We found that volunteers used three different abilities to solve problems: drawing upon experience to create strategies, maintaining emotional stability in the midst of trying circumstances, and applying strategies in a context-sensitive manner. These findings illustrate that these factors, which are comparable to those used in solving everyday problems, are unique in the way they are applied to intensive volunteering. The volunteers' sharing of knowledge, experience, and support with each other were also noticeable in their accounts of their service. This sharing contributed strongly to their sense of emotional stability and effectiveness in solving problems.

  16. Volunteering among Young People. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet presents information on the frequency of volunteering, trends in volunteering, and the organizations for which young people volunteer, utilizing data from multiple sources. Unlike many surveys, it shows that volunteering rates among young people are generally higher than they are among adults 26 and older. Findings of the Civic and…

  17. Diesel exhaust modulates ozone-induced lung function decrements in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min) intermittently on two consecutive days. Day 1 exposures were either to filtered air, DE (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.300 ppm), or the combination of both pollutants. On Day 2 all exposures were to O3 (0.300 ppm), and Day 3 served as a followup observation day. Lung function was assessed by spirometry just prior to, immediately after, and up to 4 hr post-exposure on each exposure day. Functional pulmonary responses to the pollutants were also characterized based on stratification by glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) genotype. On Day 1, exposure to air or DE did not change FEV1 or FVC in the subject population (n = 15). The co-exposure to O3 and DE decreased FEV1 (17.6%) to a greater extent than O3 alone (9.9%). To test for synergistic exposure effects, i.e., in a greater than additive fashion, FEV1 changes post individual O3 and DE exposures were summed together and compared to the combined DE and O3 exposure; the p value was 0.057. On Day 2, subjects who received DE exposure on Day 1 had a larger FEV1 decrement (14.7%) immediately after the O3 exposure than the individuals’ matched response following a Day 1 air exposure (10.9%). GSTM1 genotype did not affect the magnitude of lung function changes in a significant fashion. These data suggest that altered respiratory responses to the combination of O3 and DE exposure can be observed showing a greater than additive manner. In addition, O3-induced lung function decrements are greater with a prior exposure to DE compared to a prior exposure to filtered air. Based on the joint occurrence of these pollutants in the ambient environment, the potential exists for interactions in more than an additive fashion affecting lung physiological

  18. Plasma from human volunteers subjected to remote ischemic preconditioning protects human endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced cell damage.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nina C; Riedemann, Isabelle; Smit, Kirsten F; Zitta, Karina; van de Vondervoort, Djai; Zuurbier, Coert J; Hollmann, Markus W; Preckel, Benedikt; Albrecht, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Short repeated cycles of peripheral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can protect distant organs from subsequent prolonged I/R injury; a phenomenon known as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). A RIPC-mediated release of humoral factors might play a key role in this protection and vascular endothelial cells are potential targets for these secreted factors. In the present study, RIPC-plasma obtained from healthy male volunteers was tested for its ability to protect human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) from hypoxia-induced cell damage. 10 healthy male volunteers were subjected to a RIPC-protocol consisting of 4 × 5 min inflation/deflation of a blood pressure cuff located at the upper arm. Plasma was collected before (T0; control), directly after (T1) and 1 h after (T2) the RIPC procedure. HUVEC were subjected to 24 h hypoxia damage and simultaneously incubated with 5% of the respective RIPC-plasma. Cell damage was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-measurements. Western blot experiments of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1alpha), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2) were performed. Furthermore, the concentrations of hVEGF were evaluated in the RIPC-plasma by sandwich ELISA. Hypoxia-induced cell damage was significantly reduced by plasma T1 (p = 0.02 vs T0). The protective effect of plasma T1 was accompanied by an augmentation of the intracellular HIF1alpha (p = 0.01 vs T0) and increased phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 (p = 0.03 vs T0). Phosphorylation of AKT and STAT5 remained unchanged. Analysis of the protective RIPC-plasma T1 showed significantly reduced levels of hVEGF (p = 0.01 vs T0). RIPC plasma protects endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced cell damage and humoral mediators as well as intracellular HIF1alpha may be involved.

  19. Empirical and theoretical dosimetry in support of whole body radio frequency (RF) exposure in seated human volunteers at 220 MHz.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stewart J; Adair, Eleanor R; Mylacraine, Kevin S; Hurt, William; Ziriax, John

    2005-09-01

    This study reports the dosimetry performed to support an experiment that measured physiological responses of seated volunteer human subjects exposed to 220 MHz fields. Exposures were performed in an anechoic chamber which was designed to provide uniform fields for frequencies of 100 MHz or greater. A vertical half-wave dipole with a 90 degrees reflector was used to optimize the field at the subject's location. The vertically polarized E field was incident on the dorsal side of the phantoms and human volunteers. The dosimetry plan required measurement of stationary probe drift, field strengths as a function of distance, electric and magnetic field maps at 200, 225, and 250 cm from the dipole antenna, and specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements using a human phantom, as well as theoretical predictions of SAR with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. A NBS (National Bureau of Standards, now NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO) 10 cm loop antenna was positioned 150 cm to the right, 100 cm above and 60 cm behind the subject (toward the transmitting antenna) and was read prior to each subject's exposure and at 5 min intervals during all RF exposures. Transmitter stability was determined by measuring plate voltage, plate current, screen voltage and grid voltage for the driver and final amplifiers before and at 5 min intervals throughout the RF exposures. These dosimetry measurements assured accurate and consistent exposures. FDTD calculations were used to determine SAR distribution in a seated human subject. This study reports the necessary dosimetry to precisely control exposure levels for studies of the physiological consequences of human volunteer exposures to 220 MHz.

  20. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age

    PubMed Central

    Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the “normal” metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the “normal” metabolome and its main sources of variation. PMID:28278231

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus infection among Peace Corps volunteers in Zaire. No evidence for unusual modes of transmission.

    PubMed

    Cappello, M; Bernard, K W; Jones, B; Francis, H; van der Vlugt, T

    1991-07-01

    A prospective study of US Peace Corps volunteers (PCVs) serving in Zaire, central Africa, was undertaken to determine the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus infection in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-aware expatriate population living in an area of high endemicity for both diseases. Of the 338 PCVs who served in Zaire between October 1985 and May 1988, 282 (83%) were enrolled, representing 7776 volunteer-months of service. Analyses of serum samples for HIV and hepatitis B virus were performed on enrollment and at completion of service. All PCVs received extensive education and counseling regarding HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome throughout their stay in Zaire. There were no documented seroconversions to HIV among 282 PCVs who lived in Zaire for periods ranging from 1 to 81 months, with a mean length of stay of 27.4 months. Of the 14 (6.2%) of 226 PCVs tested who had at least one positive serologic marker for infection with hepatitis B virus, none was documented to have seroconverted during service. During the study period, the rate of all sexually transmitted diseases among PCVs in Africa decreased from 131 to 68 per 1000 study population per year, and there were 52 cases of confirmed malaria among volunteers in Zaire. These data suggest that the risk of acquiring infection with HIV or hepatitis B virus in PCVs in Zaire is very low, and there is no evidence for unusual modes of transmission.

  2. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age.

    PubMed

    Trabado, Séverine; Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the "normal" metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the "normal" metabolome and its main sources of variation.

  3. Protective effects of citrus and rosemary extracts on UV-induced damage in skin cell model and human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, A; Barrajón-Catalán, E; Caturla, N; Castillo, J; Benavente-García, O; Alcaraz, M; Micol, V

    2014-07-05

    Ultraviolet radiation absorbed by the epidermis is the major cause of various cutaneous disorders, including photoaging and skin cancers. Although topical sunscreens may offer proper skin protection, dietary plant compounds may significantly contribute to lifelong protection of skin health, especially when unconsciously sun UV exposed. A combination of rosemary and citrus bioflavonoids extracts was used to inhibit UV harmful effects on human HaCaT keratinocytes and in human volunteers after oral intake. Survival of HaCaT cells after UVB radiation was higher in treatments using the combination of extracts than in those performed with individual extracts, indicating potential synergic effects. The combination of extracts also decreased UVB-induced intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) and prevented DNA damage in HaCaT cells by comet assay and decreased chromosomal aberrations in X-irradiated human lymphocytes. The oral daily consumption of 250 mg of the combination by human volunteers revealed a significant minimal erythema dose (MED) increase after eight weeks (34%, p<0.05). Stronger protection was achieved after 12 weeks (56%, p<0.01). The combination of citrus flavonoids and rosemary polyphenols and diterpenes may be considered as an ingredient for oral photoprotection. Their mechanism of action may deserve further attention.

  4. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    PubMed

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  5. EDUCATION IN THE PEACE CORPS, EVOLVING CONCEPTS OF VOLUNTEER TRAINING. NOTES AND ESSAYS ON EDUCATION FOR ADULTS, 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PAGANO, JULES

    THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER TRAINING--TOTAL CULTURAL IMMERSION--IS ACHIEVED THROUGH DIRECT TEACHING AND FIELD EXPERIENCE. TRAINEES LEARN LANGUAGE (THROUGH INTENSIVE AUDIOLINGUAL METHODS, BRINGING LANGUAGE LEARNING INTO EVERY ASPECT OF LIFE AT THE TRAINING SITE), CUSTOMS (THROUGH ROLE PLAYING AND CROSS CULTURAL STUDIES), AND…

  6. The effect of encapsulated glutamine on gut peptide secretion in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Claire L.; Lewis, Hannah B.; Vergese, Bensi; Park, Adrian; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Context Weight loss and improved blood glucose control after bariatric surgery have been attributed in part to increased ileal nutrient delivery with enhanced release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Non-surgical strategies to manage obesity are required. The aim of the current study was to assess whether encapsulated glutamine, targeted to the ileum, could increase GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance or reduce meal size. Methods A single-center, randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was performed in 24 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with type 2 diabetes. Fasting participants received a single dose of encapsulated ileal-release glutamine (3.6 or 6.0 g) or placebo per visit with blood sampling at baseline and for 4 h thereafter. Glucose tolerance and meal size were studied using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and ad libitum meal respectively. Results In healthy volunteers, ingestion of 6.0 g glutamine was associated with increased GLP-1 concentrations after 90 min compared with placebo (mean 10.6 pg/ml vs 6.9 pg/ml, p = 0.004), increased insulin concentrations after 90 min (mean 70.9 vs 48.5, p = 0.048), and increased meal size at 120 min (mean 542 g eaten vs 481 g, p = 0.008). Ingestion of 6.0 g glutamine was not associated with significant differences in GLP-1, glucose or insulin concentrations after a glucose tolerance test in healthy or type 2 diabetic participants. Conclusions Single oral dosing of encapsulated glutamine did not provoke consistent increases in GLP-1 and insulin secretion and was not associated with beneficial metabolic effects in healthy volunteers or patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26541888

  7. Lanreotide inhibits human jejunal secretion induced by prostaglandin E1 in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sobhani, I; René, E; Ramdani, A; Bayod, F; Sabbagh, L C; Thomas, F; Mignon, M

    1996-02-01

    1. Somatostatin inhibits hormonal secretions in the gastrointestinal tract. Somatostatin analogues are used in the treatment of VIPome-related watery diarrhoea. In addition, more than 10% of patients with AIDS suffer from diarrhoea likely due to the increased intestinal secretion of water and ions. However, the direct effect of somatostatin on the flux of water and ions in the intestine has not been, so far, analyzed in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lanreotide, a somatostatin analogue, on the movements of water and ions in the jejunum in man. 2. Accordingly, 10 healthy volunteers (age 18-35 years, mean 27) and two patients with AIDS (26 and 33 years) suffering from water diarrhoea (> 800 ml day-1) underwent intestinal perfusion using a four lumen tube with proximal occluding balloon. The segment tested was 25 cm long. The jejunum was infused by an isotonic control saline solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as nonabsorbable marker. Basal jejunal secretions were measured in all subjects. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was administered intraluminally to stimulate jejunal secretion in healthy volunteers. The effect of intravenous lanreotide on the jejunal PGE1-induced secretions of water and electrolytes was analysed in healthy subjects and on the basal secretions in AIDS patients. Each period was analyzed on the basis of three (10 min) successive intestinal juice collections after 20-30 min equilibration time. The antisecretory effect of lanreotide was evaluated in each subject as the difference between fluxes compared to the control period. 3. In healthy volunteers, PGE1 induced secretion of H2O, Na+, K+ and Cl- in the jejunum and lanreotide reduced significantly PGE1-induced response. In both AIDS patients basal fluxes of water and ions were reduced by lanreotide in a dose-dependent manner. 4. Somatostatin can reduce stimulated-jejunal secretion of ions and water in normal subjects and may improve water diarrhoea in AIDS

  8. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: preliminary results from study of five male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Holstein, H; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2015-03-01

    The radionuclide (210)Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested radioactive polonium ((209)Po as a bio-tracer for (210)Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10 Bq (209)Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7 mBq (209)Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance of ingested polonium peaking at 0.001-0.01% d(-1) of the ingested amount, thereafter decreasing mono-exponentially, corresponding to a biological half-time of 10-20 days. For the case of protracted intake a mono-exponential build-up was observed with a half-time of 40 ± 5 d. In addition, after cessation of intake, a short-term component (74%) with a biological half-time of 16 ± 4 d, and a long-term component (26%) with a half-time of 93 ± 53 d were observed. It is concluded that hair can be used to detect not only the amount of ingested polonium but also whether the intake was protracted or acute.

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Rasayana drugs in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kuchewar, Vaishali V.; Borkar, Mangal A.; Nisargandha, Milind A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly being realized that many of today's diseases are due to “oxidative stress” that results from an imbalance between formation and neutralization of free radicals. Rasayana Chikitsa is a unique branch of Ayurveda. The word Rasayana means the way for attaining excellent Rasadi Dhatus. Several medicinal plants have been described as Rasayanas in Ayurveda. Ashwagandha and Guduchi are the best among the Rasayanas described by Charaka. Aim: To study the efficacy of Ashwagandha and Guduchi in oxidative stress in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 30 healthy volunteers after obtaining written informed consent. They were randomly distributed in three groups. Each group was treated with three different colored capsules containing Ashwagandha, Guduchi and placebo in the dose of 1 capsule (500 mg) twice a day for 6 months. The parameters such as hemoglobin%, Erythorcyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Super-Oxide Dismutase (SOD) level, etc., were assessed before and after treatment. The Student's t-test was applied to assess significant variations in all of the studied parameters. Results: In this study, there was a significant increase in SOD level and decrease in MDA level in Ashwagandha and Guduchi groups. Conclusion: Ashwagandha and Guduchi may be helpful in preventing the oxidative stress and premature aging. PMID:25364199

  10. Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B1 pharmacokinetics in human volunteers: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Jubert, C; Mata, J; Bench, G; Dashwood, R; Pereira, C; Tracewell, W; Turteltaub, K; Williams, D; Bailey, G

    2009-04-20

    Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats. These findings were partially extended to humans (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 14601-14606 (2001)), where CHL reduced excretion of aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-DNA repair products in Chinese unavoidably exposed to dietary AFB{sub 1}. However, neither AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetics nor Chla effects were examined. We conducted a small unblinded crossover study to establish AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters in human volunteers, and to explore possible effects of CHL or Chla co-treatment on those parameters. For protocol 1, fasted subjects received an IRB-approved dose of 14C-AFB{sub 1} (30 ng, 5 nCi) by capsule with 100 ml water, followed by normal eating and drinking after hr 2. Blood and cumulative urine samples were collected over 72 hr, and {sup 14}C-AFB{sub 1} equivalents were determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Protocols 2 and 3 were similar except capsules also contained 150 mg of purified Chla, or CHL, respectively. All protocols were repeated 3 times for each of three volunteers. The study revealed rapid human AFB{sub 1} uptake (plasma ka 5.05 {+-} 1.10 hr-1, Tmax 1.0 hr) and urinary elimination (95% complete by 24 hr) kinetics. Chla and CHL treatment each significantly impeded AFB{sub 1} absorption and reduced Cmax and AUC's (plasma and urine) in one or more subjects. These initial results provide AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters previously unavailable for humans, and suggest that Chla or CHL co-consumption may limit the bioavailability of ingested aflatoxin in humans, as they do in animal models.

  11. Uniquely hominid features of adult human astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Oberheim, Nancy Ann; Takano, Takahiro; Han, Xiaoning; He, Wei; Lin, Jane H C; Wang, Fushun; Xu, Qiwu; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Pilcher, Webster; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Ransom, Bruce R; Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2009-03-11

    Defining the microanatomic differences between the human brain and that of other mammals is key to understanding its unique computational power. Although much effort has been devoted to comparative studies of neurons, astrocytes have received far less attention. We report here that protoplasmic astrocytes in human neocortex are 2.6-fold larger in diameter and extend 10-fold more GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-positive primary processes than their rodent counterparts. In cortical slices prepared from acutely resected surgical tissue, protoplasmic astrocytes propagate Ca(2+) waves with a speed of 36 microm/s, approximately fourfold faster than rodent. Human astrocytes also transiently increase cystosolic Ca(2+) in response to glutamatergic and purinergic receptor agonists. The human neocortex also harbors several anatomically defined subclasses of astrocytes not represented in rodents. These include a population of astrocytes that reside in layers 5-6 and extend long fibers characterized by regularly spaced varicosities. Another specialized type of astrocyte, the interlaminar astrocyte, abundantly populates the superficial cortical layers and extends long processes without varicosities to cortical layers 3 and 4. Human fibrous astrocytes resemble their rodent counterpart but are larger in diameter. Thus, human cortical astrocytes are both larger, and structurally both more complex and more diverse, than those of rodents. On this basis, we posit that this astrocytic complexity has permitted the increased functional competence of the adult human brain.

  12. A phase I clinical trial of a multi-epitope polypeptide TAB9 combined with Montanide ISA 720 adjuvant in non-HIV-1 infected human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Toledo, H; Baly, A; Castro, O; Resik, S; Laferté, J; Rolo, F; Navea, L; Lobaina, L; Cruz, O; Míguez, J; Serrano, T; Sierra, B; Pérez, L; Ricardo, M E; Dubed, M; Lubián, A L; Blanco, M; Millán, J C; Ortega, A; Iglesias, E; Pentón, E; Martín, Z; Pérez, J; Díaz, M; Duarte, C A

    2001-07-20

    A phase I clinical trial was performed to examine the safety and immunogenicity of a multi-epitope polypeptide comprising the central 15 amino acids of the V3 loop from six HIV-1 isolates. This protein called TAB9 was emulsified in Montanide ISA720 (Seppic, Paris) and administered intramuscularly at doses of 0, 0.2 and 1 mg to 24 healthy, HIV-1 seronegative adult males. Three immunisations were given at months 0, 1 and 6 in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. The placebo was generally well tolerated. However, severe local reactions were observed in TAB9 vaccinated subjects after the second and third inoculations. Seven out of eight volunteers from the lower dose group showed moderate or severe local inflammation, while four out of eight subjects from the higher dose group developed granulomas and sterile abscesses. In general, the reactogenicity depended on the number of inoculations given and the dose of TAB9. Both doses were immunogenic, all immunised volunteers seroconverted and antibodies were broadly reactive against the V3 peptides included in the protein. All vaccine's sera reacted against gp120 in Western blot and 50% of them also neutralised at least one out of five laboratory isolates tested. No differences between doses were found. Anti TAB9 lymphoproliferative responses were observed, being more intense in the high dose group. Due to the strong local reactions that were found in this study, a change in the formulation will be required for further trials with this vaccine candidate in humans.

  13. Bioavailability of (-)-epicatechin upon intake of chocolate and cocoa in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Baba, S; Osakabe, N; Yasuda, A; Natsume, M; Takizawa, T; Nakamura, T; Terao, J

    2000-11-01

    We evaluated the levels of (-)-epicatechin (EC) and its metabolites in plasma and urine after intake of chocolate or cocoa by male volunteers. EC metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and LC/MS after glucuronidase and/or sulfatase treatment. The maximum levels of total EC metabolites in plasma were reached 2 hours after either chocolate or cocoa intake. Sulfate, glucuronide, and sulfoglucuronide (mixture of sulfate and glucuronide) conjugates of nonmethylated EC were the main metabolites present in plasma rather than methylated forms. Urinary excretion of total EC metabolites within 24 hours after chocolate or cocoa intake was 29.8+/-5.3%'; and 25.3+/-8.1% of total EC intake. EC in chocolate and cocoa was partly absorbed and was found to be present as a component of various conjugates in plasma, and these were rapidly excreted in urine.

  14. Advances in experimental psychopatholinguistics: What can we learn from simulation of disorder-like symptoms in human volunteers?

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    For more than a century, work on patients with acquired or developmental language disorders has informed psycholinguistic models of normal linguistic processing in healthy persons. On the other hand, such models of healthy language processing have been used as blue-prints to gain further insights into the impairments of patients with language pathologies. Against the exemplary background of language production, the first part of this paper reflects this relationship and formulates a desideratum for naturalistic albeit controlled experimental settings. Two recent examples of behavioural and neurofunctional research are presented in which aphasia-like speech symptoms were elicited in healthy control subjects. In the second part, this idea to investigate disorder-like symptoms which are being experimentally induced for the course of the study is further pursued in the field of reading and dyslexia research. Here, it is argued, again on the basis of behavioural and neurofunctional data, that such an approach is advantageous in at least two respects: 1. It allows a much more stringent control of experimental factors and confounds than could be potentially achieved in a clinical setting. 2. It allows in-extenso piloting of experiments with healthy volunteers before actually recruiting selected (and sometimes rare) patients. It will be concluded that the experimental simulation of disorder-like symptoms in easily accessible healthy volunteers may be a useful approach to understand novel aspects of a language disorder on the basis of a human neurocognitive model of this disorder. PMID:23833697

  15. A DltA mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi Is partially attenuated in its ability to cause pustules in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Janowicz, Diane; Leduc, Isabelle; Fortney, Kate R; Katz, Barry P; Elkins, Christopher; Spinola, Stanley M

    2006-02-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi produces two outer membrane proteins, called DltA (H. ducreyi lectin A) and DsrA (H. ducreyi serum resistance A), that contribute to the ability of the organism to evade complement-mediated serum killing. In contrast to their isogenic parent strain, 35000HP, the DsrA mutant FX517 exhibits 0% survival in 50% normal human serum and the DltA mutant FX533 exhibits 23% survival. Compared to 35000HP, FX517 does not cause pustule formation in human volunteers. To test whether DltA was required for virulence in humans, seven volunteers were experimentally infected with 35000HP and FX533. Four subjects were inoculated with fixed doses of 35000HP (101 CFU or 130 CFU) at three sites on one arm and escalating doses of FX533 (range, 46 CFU to 915 CFU) at three sites on the other arm. Pustules only developed at mutant-injected sites at doses nearly twofold higher than that of the parent, suggesting that FX533 was partially attenuated. Three subjects were inoculated with similar doses of the parent (67 CFU) and mutant (104 CFU) at three sites. Pustules formed at five of nine parent sites and one of nine mutant sites. Overall, the papule and pustule formation rates for 35000HP and FX533 were similar for the trial. However, for the five subjects who received similar doses of the parent and mutant, pustules developed at 7 of 15 sites (46.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 76.5%) inoculated with the parent and at 1 of 15 (6.7%; 95% CI, 0.1% to 18.4%) sites inoculated with the mutant (P = 0.043). We concluded that the DltA mutant was attenuated in its ability to cause disease at doses similar to that of the parent.

  16. Incidence of associated events during the performance of invasive procedures in healthy human volunteers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highstead, R. Grant; Tipton, Kevin D.; Creson, Daniel L.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Ferrando, Arny A.

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic investigations often utilize arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. These investigations represent some risk to the subject. We examined 369 studies performed in the General Clinical Research Center between January 1994 and May 2003 for events related to femoral catheterization and muscle biopsies. Incidents were further examined by age (younger: 18-59 yr, n=133; and older: 60-76 yr, n=28). There were no clinically defined major complications associated with either procedure. The incidence of femoral catheter repositioning or reinsertion was higher in the older group (25.5 vs. 9.7%). There was no difference in the incidence of premature removal of catheters, ecchymosis or hematoma, or the persistence of pain after discharge. The occurrence of all incidents did not increase with multiple catheterizations. Muscle biopsy was associated with infrequent ecchymosis or hematoma in both groups (1.1 and 3.6% in younger and older groups, respectively). Both procedures entail a small likelihood of a vagallike response (3.3% overall), resulting in nausea, dizziness, and rarely a loss of consciousness. These results indicate that, in skilled hands and a defined clinical setting, the incidents associated with femoral catheterization and muscle biopsy in healthy volunteers are reasonable and largely controllable.

  17. Tolerance of rising dietary concentrations of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) among human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, David H

    2015-10-01

    A solid form of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) was administered to 16 healthy male volunteers in butter-like spread and baked goods, resulting in intakes that rose in 30-g increments from 30 to 150 g; each level was administered on a single day, followed by a 2-day washout period. Elevated serum transaminase (ALT and/or AST) and lower HDL cholesterol levels were noted at 60 g and greater, possibly related to changes in the diet (high-carbohydrate and increasingly low-fat), rather than to EPG itself. There was no apparent association between EPG consumption and adverse effects reported. In general, EPG had no effect on bowel function, except in a single subject, who reported increased frequency of movements during the 2 days that followed consumption of 150 g EPG. All abnormal values returned to normal after the study, and subjects were otherwise asymptomatic. Accordingly, the effects on transaminase and HDL levels observed in this study were considered possibly adaptive and not clinically significant. Experimental animal studies, including lifetime studies, had shown no effects on these parameters. More importantly, the effect was associated with intakes of 60-150 g EPG, which exceeds the approximate intake of 20 g/day or less expected from currently intended commercial food uses.

  18. Trained Community Volunteers Improve Tuberculosis Knowledge and Attitudes Among Adults in a Periurban Community in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Balogun, Mobolanle; Sekoni, Adekemi; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onajole, Adebayo; Longe-Peters, Olukemi; Ogunsola, Folasade; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria has the world's 10th largest tuberculosis (TB) burden. Targeted community-based interventions can potentially help reduce TB incidence. We designed an intervention in a periurban community where 10 community volunteers were trained to provide community TB education and also detect and refer TB suspects to a nearby clinic. To determine the effect of the intervention on knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices of TB, we compared results from a pre-intervention survey with those of a post-intervention survey. Pre-intervention, respondents had a mean knowledge score of 10.6 ± 7.0 of a possible 34, a mean attitude score of 5.8 ± 3.3 of a possible 10, and a mean practice score of 5.3 ± 1.4 of a possible 7. The intervention significantly increased the mean knowledge score to 16 ± 5.4 (P < 0.001) and mean attitude score to 7.0 ± 1.8 (P < 0.001); however, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean practice score. Eight TB suspects were referred to the clinic, and one suspect was subsequently diagnosed with TB. The use of trained community volunteers to share information on TB improved the overall knowledge and attitudes of respondents. Continued empowerment of the community should be encouraged to promote TB prevention and care. PMID:25510722

  19. Induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity in human volunteers immunized with a candidate leprosy vaccine consisting of killed Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Gill, H. K.; Mustafa, A. S.; Godal, T.

    1986-01-01

    A killed armadillo-derived Mycobacterium leprae vaccine was examined for its ability to induce a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in purified protein derivative (PPD)-positive human volunteers living in a leprosy non-endemic country. Four groups of individuals aged between 23 and 28 years were given 1.5 × 107, 5 × 107, 1.5 × 108 and 5 × 108 M. leprae intradermally. A marked increase in reactivity to the M. leprae-derived skin test antigen (MLSA) was observed in the vaccinated groups receiving the three highest doses of vaccine while there was very little change observed in their PPD reactivity. No unacceptable side-effects attributable to the vaccine were observed. The killed armadillo-derived M. leprae vaccine thus appears to be able to induce a DTH response in man at doses which do not cause unacceptable side-effects. PMID:3524883

  20. Integrated Safety Assessment of 2′-O-Methoxyethyl Chimeric Antisense Oligonucleotides in NonHuman Primates and Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Crooke, Stanley T; Baker, Brenda F; Kwoh, T Jesse; Cheng, Wei; Schulz, Dan J; Xia, Shuting; Salgado, Nelson; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Hart, Christopher E; Burel, Sebastien A; Younis, Husam S; Geary, Richard S; Henry, Scott P; Bhanot, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    The common chemical and biological properties of antisense oligonucleotides provide the opportunity to identify and characterize chemical class effects across species. The chemical class that has proven to be the most versatile and best characterized is the 2′-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotides. In this report we present an integrated safety assessment of data obtained from controlled dose-ranging studies in nonhuman primates (macaques) and healthy human volunteers for 12 unique 2′-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotides. Safety was assessed by the incidence of safety signals in standardized laboratory tests for kidney and liver function, hematology, and complement activation; as well as by the mean test results as a function of dose level over time. At high doses a number of toxicities were observed in nonhuman primates. However, no class safety effects were identified in healthy human volunteers from this integrated data analysis. Effects on complement in nonhuman primates were not observed in humans. Nonhuman primates predicted safe doses in humans, but over predicted risk of complement activation and effects on platelets. Although limited to a single chemical class, comparisons from this analysis are considered valid and accurate based on the carefully controlled setting for the specified study populations and within the total exposures studied. PMID:27357629

  1. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult human testis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Sabine; Renninger, Markus; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Wiesner, Tina; Just, Lothar; Bonin, Michael; Aicher, Wilhelm; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Mattheus, Ulrich; Mack, Andreas; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Minger, Stephen; Matzkies, Matthias; Reppel, Michael; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Skutella, Thomas

    2008-11-20

    Human primordial germ cells and mouse neonatal and adult germline stem cells are pluripotent and show similar properties to embryonic stem cells. Here we report the successful establishment of human adult germline stem cells derived from spermatogonial cells of adult human testis. Cellular and molecular characterization of these cells revealed many similarities to human embryonic stem cells, and the germline stem cells produced teratomas after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. The human adult germline stem cells differentiated into various types of somatic cells of all three germ layers when grown under conditions used to induce the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. We conclude that the generation of human adult germline stem cells from testicular biopsies may provide simple and non-controversial access to individual cell-based therapy without the ethical and immunological problems associated with human embryonic stem cells.

  2. Comparison of central and peripheral pharmacologic effects of biperiden and trihexyphenidyl in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, S K; Manzey, L; Scott, D; Giordani, B; Tandon, R

    2000-02-01

    In this double-blind, randomized study, indices of central (memory, sedation) and peripheral (salivation, ratio of R-R interval on electrocardiogram) muscarinic function were evaluated in 14 healthy volunteers who received trihexyphenidyl, biperiden, and placebo. Additionally, serum drug levels were obtained 2 hours after oral administration. All subjects participated in three study sessions. During each session, subjects received two doses of biperiden (4 mg), trihexyphenidyl (5 mg), or placebo, and four series of tests were administered. The tests included the determination of cardiac response to standing (R-R ratio), mouth salivation, finger-tapping speed, digit span (forward and backward), a selective reminding task, and visual analog scales (VAS). On the VAS, subjects rated biperiden as significantly more sedating than either trihexyphenidyl or placebo, and both biperiden and trihexyphenidyl were associated with more dizziness than was placebo. Saliva production was significantly reduced by both trihexyphenidyl and biperiden compared with placebo. Digit span performance was significantly decreased in only the backward direction. The selective reminding task revealed highly significant decrements in the number of words recalled and consistent long-term retrieval after both biperiden and trihexyphenidyl. Delayed recall was significantly decreased by both active drugs. Both trihexyphenidyl and biperiden caused a significant increase in the R-R ratio comparison with placebo. With the exception of the VAS measurement of sedation, the effects caused by biperiden and trihexyphenidyl did not differ. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that the side effect profile of biperiden is significantly different from that of trihexyphenidyl.

  3. The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research (Military Medical Ethics. Volume 2, Chapter 19)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    produce generaliz- able results suitable for critical evaluation, confirmation, or refutation. The more recent report of the National Bioethics Advisory...Research Involving Human Participants, Vol. I: Report and Recommendations. Bethesda, Md: National Bioethics Advisory Commission; 2001 (3) The Human...barracks are subjected to legal interventions to prevent consumption of alcohol, these could be considered harms. Respect for Social Mores Disregard of

  4. Effect of age, gender and exercise on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone circadian rhythm profile in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Al-Turk, Walid; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2016-02-01

    There has been a lot of effort by scientists to elucidate the multi functions of the naturally occurring hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). However, to plan research experiments optimally, it is important first to characterize the diurnal rhythm in healthy individuals. The aim of this research was to investigate the daily circadian rhythms of DHEA among the 2 genders, and the effect of age and exercise on salivary DHEA circadian rhythms. Volunteers (20-39 and 40-60 years) were recruited for 2 studies investigating the salivary DHEA circadian rhythm. The first study looked at the effect of gender and age on DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days, and the second study explored the effect of exercise on DHEA circadian rhythm in males. DHEA levels were estimated by a sensitive and specific ELISA method. The results showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants groups, however the profile was flatter in the older female group. There was a significant difference between age and gender groups particularly at 8.00 h. In young males DHEA reduced from 541.1 ± 101.3 (mean ± sd) at 8.00 h to 198.9 ± 90.7 pg/mL at 18.00 h; p<0.0001, and young females from 401.6 ± 149.5 to 215.4 ± 95.3 pg/mL; p<0.001. In older males DHEA reduced from 267.5 ± 32.4 to 132.5 ± 46.7 pg/mL; p<0.001, and older females from 147.7 ± 78.1 to 89.5 ± 29.1 pg/mL; p=0.05. DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days showed some variations but this was not significant. Aerobic exercise has significantly increased DHEA levels at 2 time points of the day (p=0.05) in male subjects. In conclusion, our study showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants was observed, but the profile was flatter in the older groups.

  5. Latent inhibition in human adults without masking.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Martha; Arcediano, Francisco; Miller, Ralph R

    2003-09-01

    Latent inhibition refers to attenuated responding to Cue X observed when the X-outcome pairings are preceded by X-alone presentations. It has proven difficult to obtain in human adults unless the preexposure (X-alone) presentations are embedded within a masking (i.e., distracting) task. The authors hypothesized that the difficulty in obtaining latent inhibition with unmasked tasks is related to the usual training procedures, in which the preexposure and conditioning experiences are separated by a set of instructions. Experiment 1 reports latent inhibition without masking in a task in which preexposure and conditioning occur without interruption. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that this attenuation in responding to target Cue X does not pass a summation test for conditioned inhibition and is context specific, thereby confirming that it is latent inhibition. Experiments 3 and 4 confirm that introducing instructions between preexposure and conditioning disrupts latent inhibition.

  6. In vitro testing of tensides employing monolayer cultures: a comparison with results of patch tests on human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Benassi, L; Bertazzoni, G; Seidenari, S

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the irritant potential of new products or ingredients prior to human testing is generally performed in vivo on animals. However, according to the 6th amendment and following updates of the European Community directive on cosmetic products (93/35/EEC), animal testing will be banned when suitable substitutes will be available. To know whether in vitro tests for assessment of skin irritancy provide results approaching human conditions, comparisons have to be made between data deriving from in vitro tests and skin response in humans. The aim of our study was to assess the validity of the monolayer culture system of normal human keratinocytes as a model for the evaluation of the irritant effects of detergents, by comparing in vitro cell culture data to in vivo acute skin irritancy effects of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), an amphoteric compound, Tween 20 (TW20) (polysorbate 20) and Tween 80 (TW80) (polysorbate 80), representing nonionic compounds, applied to the skin of 24 healthy volunteers at a concentration similar to that employed in commercial products. As parameters for cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, cell membrane integrity and cell metabolism were assessed by cell counts, thymidine incorporation, MTT conversion, and Neutral Red uptake. In order to increase the sensitivity of the in vivo evaluation, bioengineering methods for assessment of the effects of test products on the skin were employed. Whereas all 4 in vitro methods ranked the tensides according to their toxicity in the following order: CAPB>SLS>TW20>TW80, both in vivo methods agreed in identifying SLS as the most irritating substance. Moreover, as compared with the irritation potential on human skin, all 4 in vitro tests overestimated the toxicity of CAPB. This suggests that the keratinocyte monolayer cell culture technique cannot directly replace in vivo methods, and that data obtained by this method should be interpreted cautiously.

  7. Validation of minimally invasive measurement of myocardial perfusion using electron beam computed tomography and application in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, M; Lerman, L; Rumberger, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To measure myocardial perfusion using an estimate of intramyocardial vascular volume obtained by electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) in an animal model; to assess the feasibility and validity of measuring regional myocardial perfusion in human volunteers using the techniques developed and validated in the animal studies.
METHODS—Measurements of myocardial perfusion with EBCT employing intravenous contrast injections were compared with radioactive microsphere measurements (flow 57 to 346 ml/100 g/min) in seven closed chest dogs. Fourteen human volunteers then underwent EBCT scans using intravenous contrast injections.
RESULTS—Mean (SEM) global intramyocardial vascular volume by EBCT was 7.6 (1.1)%. The correlation between global EBCT (y) and microsphere (x) perfusion was y = 0.59x + 15.56 (r = 0.86) before, and y = 0.72x + 6.06 (r = 0.88) after correcting for intramyocardial vascular volume. Regional perfusion correlation was y = 0.75x + 23.84 (r = 0.82). Corresponding improvements in agreement between the two techniques were also seen using Bland-Altman plots. In the human subjects, mean resting global myocardial flow was 98 (6) ml/100 g/min, with homogeneous flow across all regions. In 10 of these subjects, perfusion was studied during coronary vasodilatation using intravenous adenosine. Global flow increased from 93 (5) ml/100 g/min at rest to 250 (19) ml/100 g/min during adenosine (p < 0.001), with an average perfusion reserve ratio of 2.8 (0.2). Similar changes in regional perfusion were observed and were uniform throughout all regions, with a mean regional perfusion reserve ratio of 2.8 (0.3).
CONCLUSIONS—Accounting for intramyocardial vascular volume improves the accuracy of EBCT measurements of myocardial perfusion when using intravenous contrast injections. The feasibility of providing accurate measurements of global and regional myocardial perfusion and perfusion reserve in people using this

  8. Effects of combinations of diesel exhaust and ozone exposure on lung function in human volunteers.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) exposure induces changes in human lung function, typically seen as a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Because people are usually exposed to other ambient air pollutants simultaneously with 03, there may be interact...

  9. Acute effects of a low-dose atropine/scopolamine mixture as a food contaminant in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Perharič, Lucija; Juvan, Katja Ažman; Stanovnik, Lovro

    2013-09-01

    To verify the assumptions in our previous risk assessment of an atropine/scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study in 20 healthy, adult volunteers. The volunteers ingested a traditional Slovenian buckwheat meal, made of boiled buckwheat flour to which alkaloids were added. In addition to the placebo they ingested 0.12/0.10, 0.37/0.29, 1.22/0.95, 3.58/2.81 and 12.10/9.50 µg kg(-1) body mass (BM) of the atropine/scopolamine mixture. The changes in body temperature, heart rate, salivary and sweat secretion, pupil size, near-point vision and subjective symptoms were recorded regularly for 4 h after the ingestion. Decreased salivary and sweat secretion, increased heart rate and pupil size and reduced near-point vision accompanied by characteristic subjective symptoms were observed at 12.10/9.50 µg kg(-1) BM. At doses of 0.37/0.29 and 1.22/0.95 µg kg(-1) BM, a significant decrease in the heart rate was noted, which we consider to be a critical effect of a low-dose exposure to the atropine/scopolamine mixture. Although this did not have any clinical relevance in our subjects, it may have serious implications if it occurred in people with pre-existent cardiac conditions or those on medications that may cause bradycardia. No significant changes in the observed end points were noted at 0.12/0.10 µg kg(-1) BM. We estimate that the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) for the atropine/scopolamine mixture lies between the lower two administered doses. Applying the uncertainty factor of 10, we propose a new provisional Acute Reference Doses (ARfDs) of the mixture, i.e. 0.01 µg kg(-1) BM for each alkaloid, and a further refinement using higher-tier approaches.

  10. Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses to Sublingual or Intramuscular Human Papilloma Virus Antigens in Healthy Female Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Giemza, Raphaela; Beddows, Simon; Oeser, Clarissa; Lewis, David J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The sublingual route has been proposed as a needle-free option to induce systemic and mucosal immune protection against viral infections. In a translational study of systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses to sublingual or systemically administered viral antigens, eighteen healthy female volunteers aged 19–31 years received three immunizations with a quadravalent Human Papilloma Virus vaccine at 0, 4 and 16 weeks as sublingual drops (SL, n = 12) or intramuscular injection (IM, n = 6). IM antigen delivery induced or boosted HPV-specific serum IgG and pseudovirus-neutralizing antibodies, HPV-specific cervical and vaginal IgG, and elicited circulating IgG and IgA antibody secreting cells. SL antigens induced ∼38-fold lower serum and ∼2-fold lower cervical/vaginal IgG than IM delivery, and induced or boosted serum virus neutralizing antibody in only 3/12 subjects. Neither route reproducibly induced HPV-specific mucosal IgA. Alternative delivery systems and adjuvants will be required to enhance and evaluate immune responses following sublingual immunization in humans. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00949572 PMID:22438987

  11. Astrocitary niches in human adult medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Dermengiu, Dan; Loreto, Carla; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius; Pop, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Astrocytes are considered as neuromodulators of the CNS. Whereas experimental studies on astrocitary functions are gaining importance, the anatomy of the astrocitary niches in the human CNS has been overlooked. The study was performed on the brainstem of 10 adult cadavers. We aimed to determine astrocitary niches in the human medulla oblongata using immunohistochemical labeling with vimentin and also CD34 immunostaining to accurately diagnose associated microvessels. Niches rich in astrocytes were identified as follows: (a) the superficial layer of astrocytes, ventral and ventrolateral, in the rostral medulla oblongata; (b) the median raphe; (c) medullary nuclei: arcuate nucleus, area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract; (d) the subependymal zone (SEZ, caudal medulla) and subventricular zone (SVZ, rostral medulla). Astrocytes were scarce in the ventrolateral medulla, and mostly present within the pyramidal tract and the olivary nucleus. Apart from the SEZ and SVZ, the brainstem niches of astrocytes mostly overlap those regions known to perform roles as central respiratory chemoreceptors. The astrocytes of the SEZ and SVZ, which are known as stem cell niches, are related to an increased microvascular density.

  12. Project LOVE (Let Older Volunteers Educate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Sally; Weinrich, Martin C.

    The effect of contact with older adult volunteers on the attitudes of elementary school students was investigated by twice administering questionnaires to all first-, third-, and fourth-grade students at Chapin Elementary School, Chapin, South Carolina. Teachers first administered the questionnaire before the older adults began volunteer work in…

  13. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  14. Encephalitis-Associated Human Metapneumovirus Pneumonia in Adult, Australia.

    PubMed

    Fok, Anthony; Mateevici, Cristina; Lin, Belinda; Chandra, Ronil V; Chong, Victor H T

    2015-11-01

    Human metapneumovirus pneumonia, most commonly found in children, was diagnosed in an adult with encephalitis. This case suggests that testing for human metapneumovirus RNA in nasopharyngeal aspirate and cerebrospinal fluid samples should be considered in adults with encephalitis who have a preceding respiratory infection.

  15. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  16. How can surgeonfish help pediatric surgeons? A pilot study investigating the antinociceptive effect of fish aquariums in adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Matthieu; Delpont, Marion; Bachy, Manon; Kabbaj, Reda; Annequin, Daniel; Vialle, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple distraction strategies have been proposed to reduce the incidence of anxiety and pain in children. Animal-assisted therapy is acknowledged and used in children as an adjunctive treatment with cognitive, physical, psychosocial and spiritual benefits. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of fish aquarium animal-assisted therapy (FA-AAT) on pain perception in a cohort of healthy volunteers. METHODS: Sixty-nine healthy subjects (mean age 27.3 years) were exposed to >20 different species of soft or hard corals and >25 fish in a 1000 L saltwater aquarium. Pain perception was assessed using an electrical stimulation device, the Pain Matcher (Cefar Medical AB, Sweden), after 5 min, 10 min, 20 min and 30 min of continuous aquarium viewing. The measurements were repeated 10 min after stopping aquarium viewing. RESULTS: A statistically significant pain perception threshold augmentation was observed after a 5 min aquarium viewing. This threshold augmentation was also increased after 10 min, 20 min and 30 min of FA-AAT. A remnant effect was noted up to 10 min after exposure. This short post-viewing time period could be useful in clinical practice to perform certain painful procedures in children, such as those involving needles, under improved conditions immediately after aquarium exposure. CONCLUSIONS: In the authors’ department, FA-AAT is now used as a nonpharmacological antinociceptive technique in association with a protocol of inhalated oxygen/nitrous oxide mixtures for needle-related procedures. Children and parents are invited to watch the aquarium during the 10 min to 20 min before venous punctures. PMID:25222572

  17. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders.

  18. The dynamics of adult neurogenesis in human hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Ihunwo, Amadi O.; Tembo, Lackson H.; Dzamalala, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of adult neurogenesis is now an accepted occurrence in mammals and also in humans. At least two discrete places house stem cells for generation of neurons in adult brain. These are olfactory system and the hippocampus. In animals, newly generated neurons have been directly or indirectly demonstrated to generate a significant amount of new neurons to have a functional role. However, the data in humans on the extent of this process is still scanty and such as difficult to comprehend its functional role in humans. This paper explores the available data on as extent of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in humans and makes comparison to animal data. PMID:28197172

  19. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki

    2004-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  20. Development of gastroretentive drug delivery system for cefuroxime axetil: in vitro and in vivo evaluation in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bomma, Ramesh; Veerabrahma, Kishan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop the cefuroxime axetil sustained-release floating tablets to prolong the gastric residence time and compare their pharmacokinetic behavior with marketed conventional tablets (Zocef). The floating tablets were developed using polymers like HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M alone, and polymer combination of HPMC K4M and Polyox WSR 303 by effervescent technique. Tablets were prepared by slugging method and evaluated for their physical characteristics, in vitro drug release, and buoyancy lag time. The best formulation (F10) was selected based on in vitro characteristics and used in vivo radiographic and bioavailability studies in healthy human volunteers. All the formulations could sustain drug release for 12 h. The dissolution profiles were subjected to various kinetic release models and it was found that the mechanism of drug release followed Peppas model. The in vivo radiographic studies revealed that the tablets remained in stomach for 225 ± 30 min. Based on in vivo performance, the developed floating tablets showed superior bioavailability than Zocef tablet. Based on in vivo performance significant difference was observed between Cmax, tmax, t1/2, AUC0-∞, and mean residence time of test and reference (p<0.05). The increase in relative bioavailability of test was 1.61 fold when compared to reference.

  1. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Modulates Heat Nociception in the Human Brain - An fMRI Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Becerra, Lino; Larsson, Henrik B. W.; Borsook, David; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Intravenous infusion of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) provokes headache and migraine in humans. Mechanisms underlying CGRP-induced headache are not fully clarified and it is unknown to what extent CGRP modulates nociceptive processing in the brain. To elucidate this we recorded blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the brain by functional MRI after infusion of CGRP in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of 27 healthy volunteers. BOLD-signals were recorded in response to noxious heat stimuli in the V1-area of the trigeminal nerve. In addition, we measured BOLD-signals after injection of sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D antagonist). Results Brain activation to noxious heat stimuli following CGRP infusion compared to baseline resulted in increased BOLD-signal in insula and brainstem, and decreased BOLD-signal in the caudate nuclei, thalamus and cingulate cortex. Sumatriptan injection reversed these changes. Conclusion The changes in BOLD-signals in the brain after CGRP infusion suggests that systemic CGRP modulates nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal pain pathways in response to noxious heat stimuli. PMID:26990646

  2. Transfusion of human volunteers with older, stored red blood cells produces extravascular hemolysis and circulating non-transferrin-bound iron.

    PubMed

    Hod, Eldad A; Brittenham, Gary M; Billote, Genia B; Francis, Richard O; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Jhang, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Joseph; Sharma, Shruti; Sheth, Sujit; Sireci, Anthony N; Stephens, Hannah L; Stotler, Brie A; Wojczyk, Boguslaw S; Zimring, James C; Spitalnik, Steven L

    2011-12-15

    Transfusions of RBCs stored for longer durations are associated with adverse effects in hospitalized patients. We prospectively studied 14 healthy human volunteers who donated standard leuko-reduced, double RBC units. One unit was autologously transfused "fresh" (3-7 days of storage), and the other "older" unit was transfused after 40 to 42 days of storage. Of the routine laboratory parameters measured at defined times surrounding transfusion, significant differences between fresh and older transfusions were only observed in iron parameters and markers of extravascular hemolysis. Compared with fresh RBCs, mean serum total bilirubin increased by 0.55 mg/dL at 4 hours after transfusion of older RBCs (P = .0003), without significant changes in haptoglobin or lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, only after the older transfusion, transferrin saturation increased progressively over 4 hours to a mean of 64%, and non-transferrin-bound iron appeared, reaching a mean of 3.2μM. The increased concentrations of non-transferrin-bound iron correlated with enhanced proliferation in vitro of a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (r = 0.94, P = .002). Therefore, circulating non-transferrin-bound iron derived from rapid clearance of transfused, older stored RBCs may enhance transfusion-related complications, such as infection.

  3. Detection of novel Chlamydiae and Legionellales from human nasal samples of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Venditti, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiae are intracellular bacterial parasites of eukaryotes, ranging from amoebae to humans. They comprise many novel members and are investigated as emerging pathogens. Environmental studies highlighted similarities between the ecologies of chlamydiae and legionellae, both groups being important agents of respiratory infections. Herein, we analyzed nasal samples from healthy persons, searching for the presence of amoebae, chlamydiae and legionellae. From a total of 25 samples, we recovered by PCR eight samples positive to chlamydiae and six samples positive to legionellae. Among these samples, four were positive to both organisms. The sequencing of 16S rDNAs allowed to identify (i) among Chlamydiae: Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, Chlamydophila psittaci, Chlamydophila felis, and members of Rhabdochlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae and E6 lineage and (ii) among Legionellaceae: Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii and Legionella impletisoli. Unexpectedly, we also recovered Diplorickettsia sp. Amoebae collected from nasal mucosae, Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba, were endosymbiont-free, and chlamydiae revealed refractory to amoeba coculture. This study shows common exposure to chlamydiae and legionellae and suggests open air activities like gardening as a probable additional source of infection.

  4. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-06-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species.

  5. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    PubMed Central

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species. PMID:27265207

  6. Chronic cigarette smoking alters erythrocyte membrane lipid composition and properties in male human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Pannuru; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Kavitha, Godugu; Paramahamsa, Maturu; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2010-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle factor influencing the health of human beings. The present study investigates smoking induced alterations on the erythrocyte membrane lipid composition, fluidity and the role of nitric oxide. Thirty experimental and control subjects (age 35+/-8) were selected for the study. Experimental subjects smoke 12+/-2 cigarettes per day for 7-10 years. In smokers elevated nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma and red cell lysates were observed. Smokers showed increased hemolysis, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, C/P ratio (cholesterol and phospholipid ratio), anisotropic (gamma) value with decreased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and sulfhydryl groups. Alterations in smokers erythrocyte membrane individual phospholipids were also evident from the study. Red cell lysate nitric oxide positively correlated with C/P ratio (r=0.565) and fluorescent anisotropic (gamma) value (r=0.386) in smokers. Smoking induced generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species might have altered erythrocyte membrane physico-chemical properties.

  7. A combined stress hormone infusion decreases in vivo protein synthesis in human T lymphocytes in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A; Essén, P; McNurlan, M A; Ringdén, O; Garlick, P J; Wernerman, J

    2001-11-01

    In vivo protein synthesis decreases in mononuclear cells following a combined stress hormone infusion given to healthy volunteers as a human trauma model. Here, the purpose was to further investigate this finding and to measure in vivo protein synthesis in isolated T lymphocytes. Furthermore, the effects of stress hormones on the lymphocyte subpopulations and mononuclear cells, characterized by flow cytometry and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced and unstimulated proliferative responses in vitro, were elucidated. Healthy volunteers (n = 16) were randomized into 2 groups to receive either a stress hormone or a saline infusion for 6 hours. In vivo protein synthesis was studied before and after the treatment by measuring the incorporation of stable isotopically-labeled phenylalanine into lymphocyte and mononuclear cell proteins. Protein synthesis decreased after stress hormone infusion in both cell populations: in T lymphocytes from 13.0% +/- 0.7%/d (mean +/- SD) to 8.6% +/- 2.1%/d (P <.01) and in mononuclear cells from 13.3% +/- 1.2%/d to 6.3 +/- 2.0%/d (P <.001). No change in proliferative responsiveness in vitro was observed. The stress hormone infusion produced a decrease in the percentage of T helper CD3/CD4 from 41% to 18% (P <.001), T cytotoxic CD3/CD8 from 27% to 15% (P <.001), as well as total T CD3 cells from 69% to 35% (P <.001). There was an increase in the percentage of natural killer (NK) cells CD16/CD56 from 17% to 55% (P <.001). Determination of phenotypes expressed on activated T lymphocytes showed that CD3/HLA-DR was unchanged and CD3/CD25 decreased from 14% to 7% (P <.01) in the stress hormone group. The study showed that the decrease of in vivo protein synthesis was 34% in T lymphocytes as compared with 53% in mononuclear cells, when determined immediately after a 6-hour stress hormone infusion. This change was associated with a pronounced decrease in all lymphocyte subpopulations, except for the NK cells, which increased substantially.

  8. [Constipation after tilidine/naloxone and tramadol in comparison to codeine. A dose response study in human volunteers].

    PubMed

    Freye, E; Rosenkranz, B; Neruda, B

    1996-10-28

    Tramadol, a mixed mu-opioid agonist and a monoamine-reuptake blocking analgesic, has been supposed to have little effect on propulsive gastrointestinal motility. However, this has not been specifically studied in man. Following institutional approval, 18 human volunteers were given 50 mg of tramadol, tilidine/naloxone, and codeine, respectively, in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. Additionally, 12 further volunteers were given 100 mg of each opioid in a double-blind, randomised fashion, followed by measurement of gastrocoecal transit time. Gastrointestinal transit time was measured using the lactulose H(2)-breath test. A threefold increase in end-expiratory hydrogen when compared to the control value was considered the end point of gastrocoecal transit. At the low dose (50 mg) the three opioids did not differ significantly with regard to their effect on gastrointestinal motility. Gastrocoecal transit time was 90.8 (+/- 10.1 SEM) min for tramadol, 100.6 (+/- 9.8 SEM) min for tilidine/naloxone, and 104.2 (+/- 8.7 SEM) min for codeine. Doubling the dose of each opioid resulted in an increase in mean gastrocoecal transit, namely 97.8 (+/- 11.2 SEM) min for tramadol, 129.2 (+/- 12.2 SEM) min for tilidine/naloxone and 135.9 (+/- 9.2 SEM) min for codeine. The increase in gastrocoecal transit time was significant (P < 0.01) for high doses of tilidine/naloxone and codeine in contrast to the effect of the low doses. This lesser constipation effect may be due to the reduced affinity of tramadol to the mu-opioid receptor. Sedation was significantly higher for codeine after 50 mg (P < 0.05) and 100 mg (P < 0.005) than for tilidine/naloxone and tramadol. Vertigo was significantly higher after 50 mg (P < 0.05) and 100 mg (P < 0.005) of tilidine/naloxone and codeine than after tramadol. Perspiration was significantly higher after tramadol 100 mg (P < 0.005) than after tilidine/naloxone and codeine. Sedation is considered a typical symptom of analgesics interacting with

  9. Neck posture and muscle activity are different when upside down: a human volunteer study.

    PubMed

    Newell, Robyn S; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Street, John; Cripton, Peter A; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2013-11-15

    Rollover crashes are dynamic and complex events in which head impacts with the roof can cause catastrophic neck injuries. Ex vivo and computational models are valuable in understanding, and ultimately preventing, these injuries. Although neck posture and muscle activity influence the resulting injury, there is currently no in vivo data describing these parameters immediately prior to a head-first impact. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the in vivo neck vertebral alignment and muscle activation levels when upside down, a condition that occurs during a rollover. Eleven human subjects (6F, 5M) were tested while seated upright and inverted in a custom-built apparatus. Vertebral alignment was measured using fluoroscopy and muscle activity was recorded using surface and indwelling electrodes in eight superficial and deep neck muscles. In vivo vertebral alignment and muscle activation levels differed between the upright and inverted conditions. When inverted and relaxed, the neck was more lordotic, C1 was aligned posterior to C7, the Frankfort plane was extended, and the activity of six muscles increased compared to upright and relaxed. When inverted subjects were asked to look forward to eliminate head extension, flexor muscle activity increased, C7 was more flexed, and C1 was aligned anterior to C7 versus upright and relaxed. Combined with the large inter-subject variability observed, these findings indicate that cadaveric or computational models designed to study injuries and prevention devices while inverted need to consider a variety of postures and muscle conditions to be relevant to the in vivo situation.

  10. Bioavailability of a Lipidic Formulation of Curcumin in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Yogesh B.; Munjal, Bhushan; Arora, Saurabh; Karwa, Manoj; Kohli, Gunjan; Paliwal, Jyoti K.; Bansal, Arvind K.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous publications have reported the significant pharmacodynamic activity of Curcumin (CRM) despite low or undetectable levels in plasma. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed pharmacokinetic evaluation of CRM after the oral administration of a highly bioavailable lipidic formulation of CRM (CRM-LF) in human subjects. Cmax, Tmax and AUC0–∞ were found to be 183.35 ± 37.54 ng/mL, 0.60 ± 0.05 h and 321.12 ± 25.55 ng/mL respectively, at a dose of 750 mg. The plasma profile clearly showed three distinct phases, viz., absorption, distribution and elimination. A close evaluation of the primary pharmacokinetic parameters provided valuable insight into the behavior of the CRM after absorption by CRM-LF. CRM-LF showed a lag time (Tlag) of 0.18 h (around 12 min). Pharmacokinetic modeling revealed that CRM-LF followed a two-compartment model with first order absorption, lag time and first order elimination. A high absorption rate constant (K01, 4.51/h) signifies that CRM-LF ensured rapid absorption of the CRM into the central compartment. This was followed by the distribution of CRM from the central to peripheral compartment (K12, 2.69/h). The rate of CRM transfer from the peripheral to central compartment (K21, 0.15/h) was slow. This encourages higher tissue levels of CRM as compared with plasma levels. The study provides an explanation of the therapeutic efficacy of CRM, despite very low/undetectable levels in the plasma. PMID:24300368

  11. Correlation of T cell response and bacterial clearance in human volunteers challenged with Helicobacter pylori revealed by randomised controlled vaccination with Ty21a-based Salmonella vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Aebischer, T; Bumann, D; Epple, H J; Metzger, W; Schneider, T; Cherepnev, G; Walduck, A K; Kunkel, D; Moos, V; Loddenkemper, C; Jiadze, I; Panasyuk, M; Stolte, M; Graham, D Y; Zeitz, M; Meyer, T F

    2008-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori remains a global health hazard, and vaccination would be ideal for its control. Natural infection appears not to induce protective immunity. Thus, the feasibility of a vaccine for humans is doubtful. Methods: In two prospective, randomised, double-blind, controlled studies (Paul Ehrlich Institute application nos 0802/02 and 1097/01), live vaccines against H pylori were tested in human volunteers seronegative for, and without evidence of, active H pylori infection. Volunteers (n = 58) were immunised orally with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a expressing H pylori urease or HP0231, or solely with Ty21a, and then challenged with 2×105 cagPAI− H pylori. Adverse events, infection, humoral, cellular and mucosal immune response were monitored. Gastric biopsies were taken before and after vaccination, and postchallenge. Infection was terminated with antibiotics. Results: Vaccines were well tolerated. Challenge infection induced transient, mild to moderate dyspeptic symptoms, and histological and transcriptional changes in the mucosa known from chronic infection. Vaccines did not show satisfactory protection. However, 13 of 58 volunteers, 8 vaccinees and 5 controls, became breath test negative and either cleared H pylori (5/13) completely or reduced the H pylori burden (8/13). H pylori-specific T helper cells were detected in 9 of these 13 (69%), but only in 6 of 45 (13%) breath test-positive volunteers (p = 0.0002; Fisher exact test). T cells were either vaccine induced or pre-existing, depending on the volunteer. Conclusion: Challenge infection offers a controlled model for vaccine testing. Importantly, it revealed evidence for T cell-mediated immunity against H pylori infection in humans. PMID:18417532

  12. Ethosomes for skin delivery of ammonium glycyrrhizinate: in vitro percutaneous permeation through human skin and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Donatella; Lucania, Giuseppe; Mardente, Domenico; Alhaique, Franco; Fresta, Massimo

    2005-08-18

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of various ethosomal suspensions made up of water, phospholipids and ethanol at various concentrations for their potential application in dermal administration of ammonium glycyrrhizinate, a useful drug for the treatment of various inflammatory-based skin diseases. Physicochemical characterization of ethosomes was carried out by photon correlation spectroscopy and freeze fracture electron microscopy. The percutaneous permeation of ammonium glycyrrhizinate/ethosomes was evaluated in vitro through human stratum corneum and epidermis membranes by using Franz's cells and compared with the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Reflectance spectrophotometry was used as a non-invasive technique to evaluate the carrier toxicity, the drug permeation and the anti-inflammatory activity of ammonium glycyrrhizinate in a model of skin erythema in vivo on human volunteers. Ethosomal suspensions had mean sizes ranging from 350 nm to 100 nm as a function of ethanol and lecithin quantities, i.e., high amounts of ethanol and a low lecithin concentration provided ethosome suspensions with a mean size of approximately 100 nm and a narrow size distribution. In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out by using an ethosome formulation made up of ethanol 45% (v/v) and lecithin 2% (w/v). The ethosome suspension showed a very good skin tolerability in human volunteers, also when applied for a long period (48 h). Ethosomes elicited an increase of the in vitro percutaneous permeation of both methylnicotinate and ammonium glycyrrhizinate. Ethosomes were able to significantly enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of ammonium glycyrrhizinate compared to the ethanolic or aqueous solutions of this drug. Some in vivo experiments also showed the ability of ethosome to ensure a skin accumulation and a sustained release of the ammonium glycyrrhizinate.

  13. Plasma levels of intermedin (adrenomedullin-2) in healthy human volunteers and patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bell, David; Gordon, Brian J; Lavery, Anita; Megaw, Katie; Kinney, Michael O; Harbinson, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 (IMD) is a member of the adrenomedullin/CGRP peptide family. Less is known about the distribution of IMD than for other family members within the mammalian cardiovascular system, particularly in humans. The aim was to evaluate plasma IMD levels in healthy subjects and patients with chronic heart failure. IMD and its precursor fragments, preproIMD(25-56) and preproIMD(57-92), were measured by radioimmunoassay in 75 healthy subjects and levels of IMD were also compared to those of adrenomedullin (AM) and mid-region proadrenomedullin(45-92) (MRproAM(45-92)) in 19 patients with systolic heart failure (LVEF<45%). In healthy subjects, plasma levels (mean+SE) of IMD (6.3+0.6 pg ml(-1)) were lower than, but correlated with those of AM (25.8+1.8 pg ml(-1); r=0.49, p<0.001). Plasma preproIMD(25-56) (39.6+3.1 pg ml(-1)), preproIMD(57-92) (25.9+3.8 pg ml(-1)) and MRproAM(45-92) (200.2+6.7 pg ml(-1)) were greater than their respective bioactive peptides. IMD levels correlated positively with BMI but not age, and were elevated in heart failure (9.8+1.3 pg ml(-1), p<0.05), similarly to MRproAM(45-92) (329.5+41.9 pg ml(-1), p<0.001) and AM (56.8+10.9 pg ml(-1), p<0.01). IMD levels were greater in heart failure patients with concomitant renal impairment (11.3+1.8 pg ml(-1)) than those without (6.5+1.0 pg ml(-1); p<0.05). IMD and AM were greater in patients receiving submaximal compared with maximal heart failure drug therapy and were decreased after 6 months of cardiac resynchronization therapy. In conclusion, IMD is present in the plasma of healthy subjects less abundantly than AM, but is similarly correlated weakly with BMI. IMD levels are elevated in heart failure, especially with concomitant renal impairment, and tend to be reduced by high intensity drug or pacing therapy.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of a novel adhesive containing chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) against the resident microflora in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Neal; Wibaux, Anne; Ward, Colleen; Paulson, Daryl S.; Johnson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a new, transparent composite film dressing, whose adhesive contains chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), against the native microflora present on human skin. Methods CHG-containing adhesive film dressings and non-antimicrobial control film dressings were applied to the skin on the backs of healthy human volunteers without antiseptic preparation. Dressings were removed 1, 4 or 7 days after application. The bacterial populations underneath were measured by quantitative cultures (cylinder-scrub technique) and compared with one another as a function of time. Results The mean baseline microflora recovery was 3.24 log10 cfu/cm2. The mean log reductions from baseline measured from underneath the CHG-containing dressings were 0.87, 0.78 and 1.30 log10 cfu/cm2 on days 1, 4 and 7, respectively, compared with log reductions of 0.67, −0.87 and −1.29 log10 cfu/cm2 from underneath the control film dressings. There was no significant difference between the log reductions of the two treatments on day 1, but on days 4 and 7 the log reduction associated with the CHG adhesive was significantly higher than that associated with the control adhesive. Conclusions The adhesive containing CHG was associated with a sustained antimicrobial effect that was not present in the control. Incorporating the antimicrobial into the adhesive layer confers upon it bactericidal properties in marked contrast to the non-antimicrobial adhesive, which contributed to bacterial proliferation when the wear time was ≥4 days. PMID:24722839

  15. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the histamine H3 receptor antagonist, ABT-288, in healthy young adults and elderly volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Zhang, Jun; Dutta, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Aim The objective of this work was to characterize the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288, a highly selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, in healthy young adults and elderly subjects following single and multiple dosing in a phase 1 setting. Methods Single doses (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 and 40 mg ABT-288) and multiple doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6 mg ABT-288 once-daily for 14 days) were evaluated in young adults and multiple doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 5 mg ABT-288 once-daily for 12 days) were evaluated in elderly subjects using randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study designs. The effect of food on ABT-288 pharmacokinetics (5 mg single dose) was evaluated using an open label, randomized, crossover design. Results ABT-288 safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics were comparable in young and elderly subjects. Single doses up to 40 mg and multiple doses up to 3 mg once-daily were generally safe and well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events were hot flush, headache, abnormal dreams, insomnia, nausea and dizziness. ABT-288 exposure (AUC) was dose-proportional over the evaluated dose ranges. The mean elimination half-life ranged from 40 to 61 h across dose groups. Steady state was achieved by day 10 of once-daily dosing with 3.4- to 4.2-fold accumulation. Food did not have a clinically meaningful effect on ABT-288 exposure. Conclusions Based on the above results, 1 and 3 mg once-daily doses of ABT-288 were advanced to phase 2 evaluation in Alzheimer's patients. PMID:23016924

  16. Adult Human Neurogenesis: From Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of generating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases. PMID:21519376

  17. Adult human neurogenesis: from microscopy to magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of generating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases.

  18. The Contribution of Social Resources To Volunteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John; Musick, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a theory of how social capital contributes to volunteering, hypothesizing that social capital has a stronger effect on volunteering among people with more human capital and socioeconomic status. Specifies a test (of the effects) of social capital on volunteering and discusses the findings (of the test) in detail. (CMK)

  19. Developing Resourceful Humans. Adult Education within the Economic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lynn Elen, Ed.

    This book, which explores the shifting paradigm from human resource development to developing resourceful humans, establishes the historical position of adult education within the economic context, discusses human capital propositions, and examines the learning dimensions of economic and educational change. The following chapters are included:…

  20. A Live Attenuated Chimeric West Nile Virus Vaccine, rWN/DEN4Δ30, Is Well Tolerated and Immunogenic in Flavivirus-Naive Older Adult Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Kristen K; Whitehead, Stephen S; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Grier, Palmtama L; Jarvis, Adrienne; Kenney, Heather; Carmolli, Marya P; Reynolds, Cynthia; Tibery, Cecilia M; Lovchik, Janece; Janiak, Anna; Luke, Catherine J; Durbin, Anna P; Pletnev, Alexander G

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a major cause of mosquito-borne illness in the United States. Human disease ranges from mild febrile illness to severe fatal neurologic infection. Adults aged >60 years are more susceptible to neuroinvasive disease accompanied by a high mortality rate or long-lasting neurologic sequelae. A chimeric live attenuated West Nile virus vaccine, rWN/DEN4Δ30, was shown to be safe and immunogenic in healthy adults aged 18-50 years. This study evaluated rWN/DEN4Δ30 in flavivirus-naive adults aged 50-65 years and found it to be safe and immunogenic. Outbreaks of WNV infection tend to be unpredictable, and a safe and effective vaccine will be an important public health tool.

  1. Nanosizing of a poorly soluble drug: technique optimization, factorial analysis, and pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Abdelbary, Aly Ahmed; Elshafeey, Ahmed Hassen

    2014-01-01

    Context Diacerein (DCN) has low aqueous solubility (3.197 mg/L) and, consequently, low oral bioavailability (35%–56%). To increase both the solubility and dissolution rate of DCN while maintaining its crystalline nature, high pressure homogenization was used but with only a few homogenization cycles preceded by a simple bottom-up technique. Methods The nanosuspensions of DCN were prepared using a combined bottom-up/top-down technique. Different surfactants – polyvinyl alcohol, sodium deoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate – with different concentrations were used for the stabilization of the nanosuspensions. Full factorial experimental design was employed to investigate the influence of formulation variables on nanosuspension characteristics using Design-Expert® Software. Particle size (PS), zeta potential, saturation solubility, in vitro dissolution, and drug crystallinity were studied. Moreover, the in vivo performance of the optimized formula was assessed by bioavailability determination in healthy human volunteers. Results The concentration of surfactant had a significant effect on both the PS and polydispersity index values. The 1% surfactant concentration showed the lowest PS and polydispersity index values compared with other concentrations. Both type and concentration of surfactant had significant effects on the zeta potential. Formula F8 (containing 1% sodium deoxycholate) and Formula F12 (containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate) had the highest desirability values (0.952 and 0.927, respectively). Hence, they were selected for further characterization. The saturated solubility and mean dissolution time, in the case of F8 and F12, were significantly higher than the coarse drug powder. Techniques utilized in the nanocrystals’ preparation had no effect on DCN crystalline state. The selected formula (F12) showed a higher bioavailability compared to the reference market product with relative bioavailability of 131.4%. Conclusion The saturation

  2. Additional oxidized and alkyl chain breakdown metabolites of the plasticizer DINCH in urine after oral dosage to human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Schütze, André; Otter, Rainer; Modick, Hendrik; Langsch, Angelika; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2017-01-01

    Hexamoll(®) DINCH(®) (diisononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a new high molecular weight plasticizer and a non-aromatic phthalate substitute. In this follow-up study, we further investigated the extensive oxidative metabolism of Hexamoll(®) DINCH(®) after oral dosage of 50 mg to three male volunteers (0.552-0.606 mg/kg body weight). Urine samples were consecutively collected over 48 h post-dose. Chemical analysis was carried out by HPLC-MS/MS with labeled internal standards. New metabolites were tentatively identified and quantified via fragmentation analogies and new standard substances. In addition to the five urinary DINCH metabolites previously reported by us, we identified two groups of extensively oxidized metabolites characterized (a) by multiple side chain oxidation and breakdown and (b) by hydroxylation at the cyclohexane ring. The five newly identified carboxylated breakdown metabolites represented in sum 5.12 ± 0.49 % of the applied dose. MCHxCH (cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid mono carboxyhexyl ester) was identified as a major metabolite (2.71 ± 0.34 %) and thus represents the second most important specific metabolite of DINCH after OH-MINCH (10.7 ± 2.1 %). Less than 1 % was excreted as ring-hydroxylated metabolites (four metabolites identified). Based upon a new reference standard, we can also update oxo-MINCH to 2.6 % of the applied dose. This follow-up study increases the total amount of the recovered dose from 39.2 to 45.7 % and describes a new major metabolite (MCHxCH) of DINCH that can be used as an additional valuable and specific biomarker to assess DINCH(®) exposure in future human biomonitoring studies.

  3. Effects of Inspiratory Impedance on Hemodynamic Responses to a Squat-stand Test in Human Volunteers: Implications for Treatment of Orthostatic Hypotension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-28

    impedance on hemodynamic responses to a squat–stand test in human volunteers: implications for treatment of orthostatic hypotension Accepted: 14...Convertino et al. 1998; Fig. 3 ). In the present study, we used the beat-to-beat measurements of hemodynamic responses during the initial 10-s time interval of...to maintaining adequate cerebral blood perfusion as indicated by the significant amelio- ration of subjective symptoms. Clinical implications Breathing

  4. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  5. Haemophilus ducreyi Seeks Alternative Carbon Sources and Adapts to Nutrient Stress and Anaerobiosis during Experimental Infection of Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth; Fortney, Kate R; Gao, Hongyu; Holley, Concerta L; Munson, Robert S; Liu, Yunlong; Spinola, Stanley M

    2016-05-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid in adults and cutaneous ulcers in children. In humans, H. ducreyi resides in an abscess and must adapt to a variety of stresses. Previous studies (D. Gangaiah, M. Labandeira-Rey, X. Zhang, K. R. Fortney, S. Ellinger, B. Zwickl, B. Baker, Y. Liu, D. M. Janowicz, B. P. Katz, C. A. Brautigam, R. S. Munson, Jr., E. J. Hansen, and S. M. Spinola, mBio 5:e01081-13, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01081-13) suggested that H. ducreyi encounters growth conditions in human lesions resembling those found in stationary phase. However, how H. ducreyi transcriptionally responds to stress during human infection is unknown. Here, we determined the H. ducreyi transcriptome in biopsy specimens of human lesions and compared it to the transcriptomes of bacteria grown to mid-log, transition, and stationary phases. Multidimensional scaling showed that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth. Compared to the inoculum (mid-log-phase bacteria), H. ducreyi harvested from pustules differentially expressed ∼93 genes, of which 62 were upregulated. The upregulated genes encode homologs of proteins involved in nutrient transport, alternative carbon pathways (l-ascorbate utilization and metabolism), growth arrest response, heat shock response, DNA recombination, and anaerobiosis. H. ducreyi upregulated few genes (hgbA, flp-tad, and lspB-lspA2) encoding virulence determinants required for human infection. Most genes regulated by CpxRA, RpoE, Hfq, (p)ppGpp, and DksA, which control the expression of virulence determinants and adaptation to a variety of stresses, were not differentially expressed in vivo, suggesting that these systems are cycling on and off during infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth and that adaptation to nutrient stress and anaerobiosis is crucial for H. ducreyi survival in humans.

  6. A Phase I Clinical Study of a Live Attenuated Bordetella pertussis Vaccine - BPZE1; A Single Centre, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalating Study of BPZE1 Given Intranasally to Healthy Adult Male Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Thorstensson, Rigmor; Trollfors, Birger; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Jahnmatz, Maja; Bergström, Jakob; Ljungman, Margaretha; Törner, Anna; Wehlin, Lena; Van Broekhoven, Annie; Bosman, Fons; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Locht, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Background Acellular pertussis vaccines do not control pertussis. A new approach to offer protection to infants is necessary. BPZE1, a genetically modified Bordetella pertussis strain, was developed as a live attenuated nasal pertussis vaccine by genetically eliminating or detoxifying 3 toxins. Methods We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of BPZE1 given intranasally for the first time to human volunteers, the first trial of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine specifically designed for the respiratory tract. 12 subjects per dose group received 103, 105 or 107 colony-forming units as droplets with half of the dose in each nostril. 12 controls received the diluent. Local and systemic safety and immune responses were assessed during 6 months, and nasopharyngeal colonization with BPZE1 was determined with repeated cultures during the first 4 weeks after vaccination. Results Colonization was seen in one subject in the low dose, one in the medium dose and five in the high dose group. Significant increases in immune responses against pertussis antigens were seen in all colonized subjects. There was one serious adverse event not related to the vaccine. Other adverse events were trivial and occurred with similar frequency in the placebo and vaccine groups. Conclusions BPZE1 is safe in healthy adults and able to transiently colonize the nasopharynx. It induces immune responses in all colonized individuals. BPZE1 can thus undergo further clinical development, including dose optimization and trials in younger age groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01188512 PMID:24421886

  7. Consistent Safety and Infectivity in Sporozoite Challenge Model of Plasmodium vivax in Malaria-Naive Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sócrates; Solarte, Yezid; Jordán-Villegas, Alejandro; Echavarría, Juan Fernando; Rocha, Leonardo; Palacios, Ricardo; Ramírez, Óscar; Vélez, Juan D.; Epstein, Judith E.; Richie, Thomas L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    A safe and reproducible Plasmodium vivax infectious challenge method is required to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. Seventeen healthy Duffy (+) and five Duffy (−) subjects were randomly allocated into three (A–C) groups and were exposed to the bites of 2–4 Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium vivax derived from three donors. Duffy (−) subjects were included as controls for each group. Clinical manifestations of malaria and parasitemia were monitored beginning 7 days post-challenge. All Duffy (+) volunteers developed patent malaria infection within 16 days after challenge. Prepatent period determined by thick smear, was longer for Group A (median 14.5 d) than for Groups B and C (median 10 d/each). Infected volunteers recovered rapidly after treatment with no serious adverse events. The bite of as low as two P. vivax-infected mosquitoes provides safe and reliable infections in malaria-naive volunteers, suitable for assessing antimalarial and vaccine efficacy trials. PMID:21292872

  8. Volunteers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Richard; Johnson, Judith

    The results of nine studies evaluating the effectiveness of volunteer programs in the schools were reviewed in an attempt to answer three questions: What is the value of volunteers to schools? Why do people volunteer to work in classrooms? What is the effect of volunteering on the volunteer? The studies involved were originally intended to…

  9. Working with Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Virginia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This special section features research concluding that volunteers find the time because they believe they have more time to help (Rowland); an extension program using volunteer master teachers (Feather); use of volunteer marketing professionals (Fromer); retaining volunteers through leadership training (Balliette, Smith); "problem" volunteers and…

  10. The effect of pretensioning and age on torso rollout in restrained human volunteers in far-side lateral and oblique loading.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Mathews, Emily A; Seacrist, Thomas; Maltese, Matthew R; Hammond, Rachel; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Kent, Richard W; Tanji, Hiromasa; St Lawrence, Schuyler; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2012-10-01

    Far-side side impact loading of a seat belt restrained occupant has been shown to lead to torso slip out of the shoulder belt. A pretensioned seat belt may provide an effective countermeasure to torso rollout; however the effectiveness may vary with age due to increased flexibility of the pediatric spine compared to adults. To explore this effect, low-speed lateral (90°) and oblique (60°) sled tests were conducted using male human volunteers (20 subjects: 9-14 years old, 10 subjects: 18-30 years old), in which the crash pulse safety envelope was defined from an amusement park bumper-car impact. Each subject was restrained by a lap and shoulder belt system equipped with an electromechanical motorized seat belt retractor (EMSR) and photo- reflective targets were attached to a tight-fitting headpiece or adhered to the skin overlying key skeletal landmarks. Each subject was randomly assigned to either the 60° or 90° direction and was exposed to 4 test conditions - arms up (with hands on their knees) with EMSR on, arms down (with hands low on the hips) with EMSR on, arms up with EMSR off, arms down with EMSR off. The effect of age and pretensioning on the following outcomes was quantified: 1) lateral and forward displacement of the torso, 2) torso rollout angle projected onto three orthogonal planes, and 3) resultant belt-sternal distance. The effect of pretensioning on torso containment within the shoulder belt was strong in both impact directions across all metrics evaluated. EMSR activation significantly reduced lateral displacement of the suprasternal notch (~100 mm, p<0.0001), coronal projection of the torso rollout angle (~15°, p<0.0001), and belt sternal distance when the arms were down (~50 mm, p<0.05). The benefit of pretensioning was achieved by early engagement of the torso by the shoulder belt. An added benefit of pretensioning was the ability to make similar the torso kinematics across a range of anthropometries as assessed within and across age groups

  11. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  12. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  13. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy.

    PubMed

    Cassola, V F; Lima, V J de Melo; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  14. Volunteering and Volunteers: Benefit-Cost Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Femida; Mook, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of volunteering from a benefit-cost perspective. Both the individual making a decision to volunteer and the organization making a decision to use volunteer labor face benefits and costs of their actions, yet these costs and benefits almost always remain unarticulated, perhaps because the common perception of…

  15. Why Volunteer? Understanding Motivations for Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Clare

    2010-01-01

    The profile of volunteering in English Higher Education (HE) has been enhanced in recent years through various initiatives that have not only funded activities, but have sought to expand the range of volunteering opportunities available to students and recognise the contribution that volunteering can make to students' employability. This expansion…

  16. Effect of Short-Term Drinking Water Exposure to Dichloroacetate on its Pharmacokinetics and Oral Bioavailability in Human Volunteers: A Stable Isotope Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irv R.; Shangraw, Robert E.

    2006-06-21

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) is a by-product of drinking water disinfection, a known rodent hepatocarcinogen and is also used therapeutically to treat a variety of metabolic disorders in humans. We measured DCAA bioavailability in 16 human volunteers (8 male, 8 female) after simultaneous administration of oral and iv DCAA doses. Volunteers consumed DCAA-free bottled water for 2 weeks to wash out background effects of DCAA. Subsequently, each subject drank 12C-DCAA (2 mg/kg) in 500 ml water over three minutes. Five minutes after the start of the 12C-DCAA consumption, 13C-labeled DCAA (0.3 mg/kg) was administered iv over 20 seconds, and plasma 12C/13C-DCAA concentrations measured at predetermined time points over 4 h. Volunteers subsequently consumed DCAA 0.02 mg/kg/day in 500 ml water for 14 consecutive days to simulate a low-level chronic DCAA intake. Afterwards, the 12C/13C-DCAA administrations was repeated. Study endpoints were calculation of AUC0??, apparent volume of distribution (Vss), total body clearance (Clb), plasma elimination half-life (t?,?), oral absorption rate (Ka), and oral bioavailability. Oral bioavailability was estimated from dose-adjusted AUC ratios, and by using a compartmental pharmacokinetic model after simultaneous fitting of oral and iv DCAA concentration-time profiles. DCAA bioavailability had large inter-individual variation, ranging from 28 ? 100 %. In the absence of prior DCAA intake, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in any pharmacokinetic parameters between male and female volunteers, although there was a trend that women absorbed DCAA was more rapidly (increased Ka), and cleared DCAA more slowly (decreased Clb), than men. Only women were affected by previous 14 d DCAA exposure, which increased the AUC0?? for both oral and i.v. DCAA doses (P<0.04; 0.014 respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the Clb.

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics between a microdose and therapeutic dose for clarithromycin, sumatriptan, propafenone, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and phenobarbital in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Graham; Shishikura, Yoko; Jochemsen, Roeline; Weaver, Richard John; Gesson, Charlotte; Brian Houston, J; Oosterhuis, Berend; Bjerrum, Ole J; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Alder, Jane; Rowland, Malcolm; Garner, Colin

    2011-06-14

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of a microdose (100 μg) to predict the human pharmacokinetics (PK) following a therapeutic dose of clarithromycin, sumatriptan, propafenone, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and phenobarbital, both within the study and by reference to the existing literature on these compounds and to explore the source of any nonlinearity if seen. For each drug, 6 healthy male volunteers were dosed with 100 μg (14)C-labelled compound. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan, and propafenone this labelled dose was administered alone, i.e. as a microdose, orally and intravenously (iv) and as an iv tracer dose concomitantly with an oral non-labelled therapeutic dose, in a 3-way cross over design. The oral therapeutic doses were 250, 50, and 150 mg, respectively. Paracetamol was given as the labelled microdose orally and iv using a 2-way cross over design, whereas phenobarbital was given only as the microdose orally. Plasma concentrations of total (14)C and parent drug were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) or HPLC followed by AMS. Plasma concentrations following non-(14)C-labelled oral therapeutic doses were measured using either HPLC-electrochemical detection (clarithromycin) or HPLC-UV (sumatriptan, propafenone). For all five drugs an oral microdose predicted reasonably well the PK, including the shape of the plasma profile, following an oral therapeutic dose. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan, and propafenone, one parameter, oral bioavailability, was marginally outside of the normally acceptable 2-fold prediction interval around the mean therapeutic dose value. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan and propafenone, data obtained from an oral and iv microdose were compared within the same cohort of subjects used in the study, as well as those reported in the literature. For paracetamol (oral and iv) and phenobarbital (oral), microdose data were compared with those reported in the literature only. Where 100 μg iv (14)C-doses were

  18. Classroom Supervision of Volunteers: Handbook for Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, C. Russell

    Designed for Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) instructors at Olympic College, this handbook provides information on the college's efforts to train volunteers as classroom assistants in ABE/ESL education, as well as guidelines for working with volunteers. The first section of the handbook provides background on the…

  19. Humanities and the Adult Learner in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Dale; Kamholtz, Jonathan

    Humanities courses have often been given little attention in continuing education for adults, possibly because they have been viewed as not "practical" or not "job-oriented" enough in our career-oriented, technologically advanced society. However, the humanities should be an integral part of our culture and of the lives of…

  20. Haemophilus ducreyi Seeks Alternative Carbon Sources and Adapts to Nutrient Stress and Anaerobiosis during Experimental Infection of Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth; Fortney, Kate R.; Gao, Hongyu; Holley, Concerta L.; Munson, Robert S.; Liu, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid in adults and cutaneous ulcers in children. In humans, H. ducreyi resides in an abscess and must adapt to a variety of stresses. Previous studies (D. Gangaiah, M. Labandeira-Rey, X. Zhang, K. R. Fortney, S. Ellinger, B. Zwickl, B. Baker, Y. Liu, D. M. Janowicz, B. P. Katz, C. A. Brautigam, R. S. Munson, Jr., E. J. Hansen, and S. M. Spinola, mBio 5:e01081-13, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01081-13) suggested that H. ducreyi encounters growth conditions in human lesions resembling those found in stationary phase. However, how H. ducreyi transcriptionally responds to stress during human infection is unknown. Here, we determined the H. ducreyi transcriptome in biopsy specimens of human lesions and compared it to the transcriptomes of bacteria grown to mid-log, transition, and stationary phases. Multidimensional scaling showed that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth. Compared to the inoculum (mid-log-phase bacteria), H. ducreyi harvested from pustules differentially expressed ∼93 genes, of which 62 were upregulated. The upregulated genes encode homologs of proteins involved in nutrient transport, alternative carbon pathways (l-ascorbate utilization and metabolism), growth arrest response, heat shock response, DNA recombination, and anaerobiosis. H. ducreyi upregulated few genes (hgbA, flp-tad, and lspB-lspA2) encoding virulence determinants required for human infection. Most genes regulated by CpxRA, RpoE, Hfq, (p)ppGpp, and DksA, which control the expression of virulence determinants and adaptation to a variety of stresses, were not differentially expressed in vivo, suggesting that these systems are cycling on and off during infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth and that adaptation to nutrient stress and anaerobiosis is crucial for H. ducreyi survival in humans. PMID:26930707

  1. Expression of the LspA1 and LspA2 proteins by Haemophilus ducreyi is required for virulence in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Janowicz, Diane M; Fortney, Kate R; Katz, Barry P; Latimer, Jo L; Deng, Kaiping; Hansen, Eric J; Spinola, Stanley M

    2004-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi colocalizes with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages and evades phagocytosis during experimental infection of human volunteers. H. ducreyi contains two genes, lspA1 and lspA2, which encode predicted proteins of 456 and 543 kDa, respectively. Compared to its wild-type parent, an lspA1 lspA2 double mutant does not inhibit phagocytosis by macrophage and myelocytic cell lines in vitro and is attenuated in an experimental rabbit model of chancroid. To test whether expression of LspA1 and LspA2 was necessary for virulence in humans, six volunteers were experimentally infected. Each volunteer was inoculated with three doses (ranging from 85 to 112 CFU) of the parent (35000HP) in one arm and three doses (ranging from 60 to 822 CFU) of the mutant (35000HP Omega 12) in the other arm. The papule formation rates were 88% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 76.8 to 99.9%) at 18 parent sites and 72% (95% CI, 44.4 to 99.9%) at 18 mutant sites (P = 0.19). However, papules were significantly smaller at mutant sites (mean size, 24.8 mm(2)) than at parent sites (mean size, 39.1 mm(2)) 24 h after inoculation (P = 0.0002). The pustule formation rates were 44% (95% CI, 5.8 to 77.6%) at parent sites and 0% (95% CI, 0 to 39.4%) at mutant sites (P = 0.009). With the caveat that biosafety regulations preclude testing of a complemented mutant in human subjects, these results indicate that expression of LspA1 and LspA2 facilitates the ability of H. ducreyi to initiate disease and to progress to pustule formation in humans.

  2. Clonally related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), human volunteers, and a bayfront cetacean rehabilitation facility.

    PubMed

    Hower, Suzanne; Phillips, Matthew C; Brodsky, Micah; Dameron, Adrienne; Tamargo, Manuel A; Salazar, Norma C; Jackson, Charlene R; Barrett, John B; Davidson, Maureen; Davis, Johnnie; Mukherjee, Sampa; Ewing, Ruth Y; Gidley, Maribeth L; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Johns, Lisa; Johnson, Frank E; Adebanjo, Olufunmilola; Plano, Lisa R W

    2013-05-01

    In May of 2011, a live mass stranding of 26 short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) occurred in the lower Florida Keys. Five surviving whales were transferred from the original stranding site to a nearby marine mammal rehabilitation facility where they were constantly attended to by a team of volunteers. Bacteria cultured during the routine clinical care of the whales and necropsy of a deceased whale included methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA). In order to investigate potential sources or reservoirs of MSSA and MRSA, samples were obtained from human volunteers, whales, seawater, and sand from multiple sites at the facility, nearby recreational beaches, and a canal. Samples were collected on 3 days. The second collection day was 2 weeks after the first, and the third collection day was 2 months after the last animal was removed from the facility. MRSA and MSSA were isolated on each day from the facility when animals and volunteers were present. MSSA was found at an adjacent beach on all three collection days. Isolates were characterized by utilizing a combination of quantitative real-time PCR to determine the presence of mecA and genes associated with virulence, staphylococcal protein A typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Using these methods, clonally related MRSA were isolated from multiple environmental locations as well as from humans and animals. Non-identical but genetically similar MSSA and MRSA were also identified from distinct sources within this sample pool. PFGE indicated that the majority of MRSA isolates were clonally related to the prototype human strain USA300. These studies support the notion that S. aureus may be shed into an environment by humans or pilot whales and subsequently colonize or infect exposed new hosts.

  3. Intranasal Human Growth Hormone (hGH) Induces IGF-1 Levels Comparable With Subcutaneous Injection With Lower Systemic Exposure to hGH in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Andrew L.; Patel, Tina; Jeffery, Kirk; King, Gareth; Savage, Martin; Shalet, Stephen; Illum, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Context: The development of an improved, efficacious human GH (hGH) product administered by a noninjectable route of delivery such as the nasal route is highly desirable. We have developed a novel nasal hGH product (CP024) that showed excellent nasal absorption in animal models; however, the translation of these results into the clinical setting is essential because past attempts to develop such formulations by other groups have been unable to induce IGF-1 in man. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of CP024 compared with a sc hGH injection. Design: This was a single-center, nonrandomized placebo-controlled, open-label, five-way crossover study in eight healthy volunteers. Setting: The study was carried out at a contract research organization, Quotient Bioresearch. Volunteers: Eight healthy male volunteers, given an iv infusion of octreotide to suppress the endogenous GH secretion during the study period, participated in the study. No volunteers were withdrawn due to side effects. Main Outcome Measures: Measurement of hGH and IGF-1 levels and tolerability of the drug product was performed. Results: No serious adverse events were reported and no subjects withdrawn from study due to the treatment. After the nasal administration of CP024, 3-fold higher hGH blood levels were obtained as compared with hGH nasal control. The relative bioavailability was about 3%. CP024 (given twice daily) induced a significant increase in IGF-1 levels up to 19 hours after administration, with no significant difference to those obtained after the sc injection of hGH. Conclusions: The study indicates that CP024 is a promising candidate for an efficacious nasal product for the treatment of GH deficiency due to induction of IGF-1 similar to that after a sc injection, despite the lower plasma hGH concentration obtained. A dose-response study is needed to evaluate the optimal nasal dose. PMID:26425883

  4. The healthcare volunteer.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, H P; Chang, C F

    1994-01-01

    Every year, volunteers contribute billions of dollars worth of time to the healthcare industry. Despite their contributions, however, little is known about who these volunteers are, what they do, why they volunteer, as well as the costs and benefits they bring to institutions. This article examines these and other characteristics of the healthcare volunteer.

  5. A Volunteer Training Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslandes, Moira; Rogers, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Volunteering SA (VSA) has responded to the need to revise and expand the training offered to volunteers. It has developed a volunteer training framework to provide structure and guidance for the sector in making policy and financial decisions about directions and type of training that volunteers require and desire, where the training can lead and…

  6. The Virtues of Volunteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Personnel Journal, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents 10 basic steps to use as guidelines in setting up a corporate volunteer program: develop a philosophy, survey the community and employees, isolate a need and outline program functions, recruit volunteers, motivate employees, place volunteers carefully, monitor and evaluate program and volunteers, review goals and results, and consider…

  7. When Volunteers Attack!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    Working with alumni volunteers shouldn't create horror and suspense. Following a few key steps can help maintain a smooth relationship between alumni volunteers and the alumni relations office staff. In this article, the author discusses how to manage volunteers and keep the alumni volunteer relationship on track.

  8. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, β cells.

    PubMed

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; O'Donnell, Charles W; Deng, Francis; Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia Walton; DiIorio, Philip; Rezania, Alireza; Gifford, David K; Melton, Douglas A

    2014-02-25

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic β cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts are essential to validate hPSC-derived cells. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of sorted insulin-expressing (INS(+)) cells derived from three independent hPSC lines, human fetal pancreata, and adult human islets points to two major conclusions: (i) Different hPSC lines produce highly similar INS(+) cells and (ii) hPSC-derived INS(+) (hPSC-INS(+)) cells more closely resemble human fetal β cells than adult β cells. This study provides a direct comparison of transcriptional programs between pure hPSC-INS(+) cells and true β cells and provides a catalog of genes whose manipulation may convert hPSC-INS(+) cells into functional β cells.

  9. In Vivo Transfer of the vanA Resistance Gene from an Enterococcus faecium Isolate of Animal Origin to an E. faecium Isolate of Human Origin in the Intestines of Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Camilla H.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Sørensen, Thomas Lund; Monnet, Dominique L.; Hammerum, Anette M.

    2006-01-01

    Transient colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci of animal origin has been documented in the intestines of humans. However, little is known about whether transfer of the vanA gene occurs in the human intestine. Six volunteers ingested a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate of chicken origin, together with a vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium recipient of human origin. Transconjugants were recovered in three of six volunteers. In one volunteer, not only was vancomycin resistance transferred, but also quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance. This study shows that transfer of the vanA gene from an E. faecium isolate of animal origin to an E. faecium isolate of human origin can occur in the intestines of humans. It suggests that transient intestinal colonization by enterococci carrying mobile elements with resistance genes represents a risk for spread of resistance genes to other enterococci that are part of the human indigenous flora, which can be responsible for infections in certain groups of patients, e.g., immunocompromised patients. PMID:16436715

  10. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

  11. Development Strategies for Online Volunteer Training Modules: A Team Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Vogel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Volunteers are central to the delivery of 4-H programs, and providing quality, relevant training is key to volunteer success. Online, asynchronous modules are an enhancement to a training delivery menu for adult volunteers, providing consistent, accessible options traditionally delivered primarily face to face. This article describes how Minnesota…

  12. Handbook for Coordinators of ABE/ESL Classroom Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, C. Russell

    Designed for volunteer coordinators in Olympic College's Adult Education Volunteer Classroom Assistant Project, this handbook provides a rationale for each of the coordinators' responsibilities and details procedures for carrying out these functions. Section I provides an overview of the role of the volunteer coordinators, who are responsible for…

  13. A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the hemagglutinin globular head of H1 and H9 influenza A viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Panthong, Sumolrat; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Phuygun, Siripaporn; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Prachasupap, Apichai; Yasugi, Mayo; Ono, Ken-ichiro; and others

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • A human monoclonal antibody against influenza virus was produced from a volunteer. • The antibody was generated from the PBMCs of the volunteer using the fusion method. • The antibody neutralized heterosubtypically group 1 influenza A viruses (H1 and H9). • The antibody targeted a novel epitope in globular head region of the hemagglutinin. • Sequences of the identified epitope are highly conserved among H1 and H9 subtypes. - Abstract: Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses.

  14. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Skin irritation to glass wool or continuous glass filaments as observed by a patch test among human Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Masashi; Kido, Takamasa; Mogi, Sachiyo; Sugiura, Yumiko; Miyajima, Eriko; Kudo, Yuichiro; Kumazawa, Tatenao; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical.

  16. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  17. Effects of cocoa extract and dark chocolate on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in human endothelial cells and healthy volunteers--a nutrigenomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ingrid A L; Persson, Karin; Hägg, Staffan; Andersson, Rolf G G

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cocoa from the bean of Theobroma cacao L. has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if cocoa extract and dark chocolate influence angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and nitric oxide (NO) in human endothelial cells (in vitro) and in healthy volunteers (in vivo). ACE activity was analyzed with a commercial radioenzymatic assay and measured in human endothelial cells from umbilical veins (HUVEC) after 10 minutes of incubation with cocoa extract. NO was measured after 24 hours of incubation. ACE activity and NO were measured at baseline and after 30, 60, and 180 minutes in 16 healthy volunteers after a single intake of 75 g of dark chocolate containing 72% cocoa. Significant inhibition of ACE activity (P < 0.01) and significant increase of NO (P < 0.001) were seen in HUVEC. In the study subjects, a significant inhibition of ACE activity (mean 18%) 3 hours after intake of dark chocolate was seen, but no significant change in NO was seen. According to ACE genotype, significant inhibition of ACE activity was seen after 3 hours in individuals with genotype insertion/insertion and deletion/deletion (mean 21% and 28%, respectively). Data suggest that intake of dark chocolate containing high amount of cocoa inhibits ACE activity in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Maps of the adult human hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Nezzar, Hachemi; Sakka, Laurent; Boirie, Yves; Fontaine, Denys; Coste, Aurélien; Coll, Guillaume; Sontheimer, Anna; Sarret, Catherine; Gabrillargues, Jean; De Salles, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The human hypothalamus is a small deeply located region placed at the crossroad of neurovegetative, neuroendocrine, limbic, and optic systems. Although deep brain stimulation techniques have proven that it could be feasible to modulate these systems, targeting the hypothalamus and in particular specific nuclei and white bundles, is still challenging. Our goal was to make a synthesis of relevant topographical data of the human hypothalamus, under the form of magnetic resonance imaging maps useful for mastering its elaborated structure as well as its neighborhood. As from 1.5 Tesla, Inversion-Recovery sequence allows locating the hypothalamus and most of its components. Spotting hypothalamic compartments is possible according to specific landmarks: the anterior commissure, the mammillary bodies, the preoptic recess, the infundibular recess, the crest between the preoptic and the infundibular recesses, the optical tract, the fornix, and the mammillo-thalamic bundle. The identification of hypothalamus and most of its components could be useful to allow the quantification of local pathological processes and to target specific circuitry to alleviate severe symptoms, using physical or biological agents. PMID:23682342

  19. Measuring the Impacts of a Volunteer-Based Community Development Program in Developing Volunteers' Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…

  20. Effect of short-term drinking water exposure to dichloroacetate on its pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability in human volunteers: a stable isotope study.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Irvin R; Shangraw, Robert E

    2006-07-01

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) is a by-product of drinking water disinfection, is a known rodent hepatocarcinogen, and is also used therapeutically to treat a variety of metabolic disorders in humans. We measured DCAA bioavailability in 16 human volunteers (eight men, eight women) after simultaneous administration of oral and iv DCAA doses. Volunteers consumed DCAA-free bottled water for 2 weeks to wash out background effects of DCAA. Subsequently, each subject consumed (12)C-DCAA (2 mg/kg) dissolved in 500 ml water over a period of 3 min. Five minutes after the start of the (12)C-DCAA consumption, (13)C-labeled DCAA (0.3 mg/kg) was administered iv over 20 s and plasma (12)C/(13)C-DCAA concentrations measured at predetermined time points over 4 h. Volunteers subsequently consumed for 14 consecutive days DCAA 0.02 microg/kg/day dissolved in 500 ml water to simulate a low-level chronic DCAA intake. Afterward, the (12)C/(13)C-DCAA administrations were repeated. Study end points were calculation of AUC(0-->infinity), apparent volume of distribution (V(ss)), total body clearance (Cl(b)), plasma elimination half-life (t((1/2),beta)), oral absorption rate (K(a)), and oral bioavailability. Oral bioavailability was estimated from dose-adjusted AUC ratios and by using a compartmental pharmacokinetic model after simultaneous fitting of oral and iv DCAA concentration-time profiles. DCAA bioavailability had large interindividual variation, ranging from 27 to 100%. In the absence of prior DCAA intake, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in any pharmacokinetic parameters between male and female volunteers, although there was a trend that women absorbed DCAA more rapidly (increased K(a)), and cleared DCAA more slowly (decreased Cl(b)), than men. Only women were affected by previous 14-day DCAA exposure, which increased the AUC(0-->infinity) for both oral and iv DCAA doses (p < 0.04 and p < 0.014, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the Cl(b).

  1. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of 14C/13C-labeled ortho-phenylphenol formation following dermal application to human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Timchalk, C; Selim, S; Sangha, G; Bartels, M J

    1998-08-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of uniformly labeled 14C/13C-ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) were followed in six human male volunteers given a single 8 h dermal dose of 6 microg OPP/kg body weight formulated as a 0.4% (w/v) solution in isopropyl alcohol. The application site was covered with a non-occlusive dome allowing free movement of air, but preventing the loss of radioactivity due to physical contact. At 8 h post-exposure the non-occlusive dome was removed, the dose site was wiped with isopropyl alcohol containing swabs and the skin surface repeatedly stripped with tape. Blood specimens, urine, and feces were collected from each volunteer over a 5 day post-exposure period and were analyzed for radioactivity and metabolites (urine only). 2. Following dermal application, peak plasma levels of radioactivity were obtained within 4 h post-exposure and rapidly declined with virtually all of the absorbed dose rapidly excreted into the urine within 24 h post-exposure. A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was used to describe the time-course of OPP absorption and clearance in male human volunteers. Approximately 43% of the dermally applied dose was absorbed through the skin with an average absorption half-life of 10 h. Once absorbed the renal clearance of OPP was rapid with an average half-life of 0.8 h. The rate limiting step for renal clearance was the relatively slower rate of dermal absorption; therefore the pharmacokinetics of OPP in humans was described by a 'flip-flop' single compartment model. Overall, the pharmacokinetics were similar between individuals, and the model parameters were in excellent agreement with the experimental data. 3. Approximately 73% of the total urinary radioactivity was accounted for as free OPP, OPP-sulfate and OPP-glucuronide conjugates. The sulfate conjugate was the major metabolite (approximately 69%). Therefore, total urinary OPP equivalents (acid-labile conjugates+free OPP) can be used to estimate the systemically absorbed

  2. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Causes Perturbation of the Human Gut Microbiome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Gan, Han-Ming; Lee, Yin-Peng; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Francois, Fritz; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Loke, Mun-Fai; Goh, Khean-Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori protects against some metabolic and immunological diseases in which the development of these diseases coincide with temporal or permanent dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori eradication on the human gut microbiome. Methods As part of the currently on-going ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths) study, we collected stool samples from 17 H. pylori-positive young adult (18–30 years-old) volunteers. The same cohort was followed up 6, 12 and 18 months-post H. pylori eradication. The impact of H. pylori on the human gut microbiome pre- and post-eradication was investigated using high throughput 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) sequencing using the Illumina Miseq followed by data analysis using Qiime pipeline. Results We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities in the fecal microbiome of the H. pylori-positive volunteers, before and after H. pylori eradication therapy. The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced at an average of 150,000–170,000 reads/sample. The microbial diversity were similar pre- and post-H. pylori eradication with no significant differences in richness and evenness of bacterial species. Despite that the general profile of the gut microbiome was similar pre- and post-eradication, some changes in the bacterial communities at the phylum and genus levels were notable, particularly the decrease in relative abundance of Bacterioidetes and corresponding increase in Firmicutes after H. pylori eradication. The significant increase of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-producing bacteria genera could also be associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders. Conclusions Our preliminary stool metagenomics study shows that eradication of H. pylori caused perturbation of the gut microbiome and may indirectly affect the health of human. Clinicians should be aware of the effect of broad spectrum antibiotics used in H. pylori eradication regimen

  3. Airflow Dynamics of Coughing in Healthy Human Volunteers by Shadowgraph Imaging: An Aid to Aerosol Infection Control

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Julian W.; Nicolle, Andre; Pantelic, Jovan; Koh, Gerald C.; Wang, Liang De; Amin, Muhammad; Klettner, Christian A.; Cheong, David K. W.; Sekhar, Chandra; Tham, Kwok Wai

    2012-01-01

    Cough airflow dynamics have been previously studied using a variety of experimental methods. In this study, real-time, non-invasive shadowgraph imaging was applied to obtain additional analyses of cough airflows produced by healthy volunteers. Twenty healthy volunteers (10 women, mean age 32.2±12.9 years; 10 men, mean age 25.3±2.5 years) were asked to cough freely, then into their sleeves (as per current US CDC recommendations) in this study to analyze cough airflow dynamics. For the 10 females (cases 1–10), their maximum detectable cough propagation distances ranged from 0.16–0.55 m, with maximum derived velocities of 2.2–5.0 m/s, and their maximum detectable 2-D projected areas ranged from 0.010–0.11 m2, with maximum derived expansion rates of 0.15–0.55 m2/s. For the 10 males (cases 11–20), their maximum detectable cough propagation distances ranged from 0.31–0.64 m, with maximum derived velocities of 3.2–14 m/s, and their maximum detectable 2-D projected areas ranged from 0.04–0.14 m2, with maximum derived expansion rates of 0.25–1.4 m2/s. These peak velocities were measured when the visibility of the exhaled airflows was optimal and compare favorably with those reported previously using other methods, and may be seen as a validation of these previous approaches in a more natural setting. However, the propagation distances can only represent a lower limit due to the inability of the shadowgraph method to visualize these cough airflows once their temperature cools to that of the ambient air, which is an important limitation of this methodology. The qualitative high-speed video footage of these volunteers coughing into their sleeves demonstrates that although this method rarely completely blocks the cough airflow, it decelerates, splits and redirects the airflow, eventually reducing its propagation. The effectiveness of this intervention depends on optimum positioning of the arm over the nose and mouth during coughing, though unsightly stains

  4. Ethanol increases plasma Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels and subjective effects after marihuana smoking in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lukas, S E; Orozco, S

    2001-10-01

    Marihuana and alcohol are often used together, yet little is known about why they are combined. Male volunteers were assigned to one marihuana treatment group (placebo, low or moderate dose Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) and, on three separate study days, they also drank a different dose of ethanol (placebo, 0.35 or 0.7 g/kg). Plasma THC levels and changes in subjective mood states were recorded for 90 min after smoking. For many of the drug combinations, when subjects consumed ethanol they detected marihuana effects more quickly, reported more episodes of euphoria and had higher plasma THC levels than when they consumed placebo ethanol. These data suggest that ethanol may increase the absorption of THC resulting in an increase in the positive subjective mood effects of smoked marihuana and contributing to the popularity of this drug combination.

  5. Development of tolerance after repeated administration of a selective muscarinic M1 antagonist biperiden in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Salin-Pascual, R J; Granados-Fuentes, D; Galicia-Polo, L; Nieves, E; Gillin, J C

    1993-02-01

    The muscarinic antagonist biperiden produces a dose-dependent inhibition of (REM) sleep on acute administration. The present study addressed the possibility of pharmacological tolerance after repeated biperiden administration. Six healthy volunteers were studied under sleep laboratory conditions in the following situations: one acclimatization, night, two baseline (that were averaged), 4 nights of biperiden administration, and 4 nights of placebo recovery administration. Six milligrams of biperiden and placebo were administered in identical capsules. Volunteers and technicians were blind to the order of the administration of the capsules. REM sleep time was reduced during the first and the second night, but was not significantly different in comparison with baseline by the third night. During placebo recovery nights, REM sleep time was not different from baseline. REM sleep latency was increased during the first and second nights of biperiden administration, but tolerance to this effect was observed by the third night. On placebo nights a dramatic shortening of REM latency was observed. The present findings support the hypothesis that anticholinergic drugs, even a selective M1 antagonist such as biperiden, induce tolerance soon after administration. A similar effect has been reported with scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic antagonist, but the main difference is that biperiden withdrawal was not followed by an REM sleep rebound. The observed effect on REM sleep latency during placebo administration may be related to a supersensitivity to muscarinic M-1 receptors that trigger the first REM sleep period. Because short REM latency has been the main finding in the sleep of depressed patients, some implications of the present findings are discussed.

  6. Volunteering, income and health

    PubMed Central

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income. PMID:28273163

  7. Role played by CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T Cells in suppression of host responses to Haemophilus ducreyi during experimental infection of human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Racz, Paul; Janowicz, Diane M; Fortney, Kate R; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2010-06-15

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease. Among human volunteers, the majority of experimentally infected individuals fail to clear the infection and form pustules. Here, we investigated the role played by CD4(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells in the formation of pustules. In pustules, there was a significant enrichment of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T cells, compared with that in peripheral blood. The majority of lesional FOXP3(+) T cells were CD4(+), CD25(+), CD127(lo/-), and CTLA-4(+). FOXP3(+) T cells were found throughout pustules but were most abundant at their base. Significantly fewer lesional CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T cells expressed interferon gamma, compared with lesional CD4(+)FOXP3(-) effector T cells. Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from the peripheral blood of infected and uninfected volunteers significantly enhanced proliferation of H. ducreyi-reactive CD4(+) T cells. Our results indicate that the population of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo/-)FOXP3(+) T(reg) cells are expanded at H. ducreyi-infected sites and that these cells may play a role in suppressing the host immune response to the bacterium.

  8. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics to Explore the Bioavailability of the Secoiridoids from a Seed/Fruit Extract (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) in Human Healthy Volunteers: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Fança-Berthon, Pascale; Roller, Marc; Zafrilla, Pilar; Issaly, Nicolas; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2015-12-11

    The bark, seeds, fruits and leaves of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae) which contain a wide range of phytochemicals, mostly secoiridoid glucosides, have been widely used in folk medicine against a number of ailments, yet little is known about the metabolism and uptake of the major Fraxinus components. The aim of this work was to advance in the knowledge on the bioavailability of the secoiridoids present in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl seed/fruit extract using both targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses. Plasma and urine samples from nine healthy volunteers were taken at specific time intervals following the intake of the extract and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF. Predicted metabolites such as tyrosol and ligstroside-aglycone glucuronides and sulfates were detected at low intensity. These compounds reached peak plasma levels 2 h after the intake and exhibited high variability among the participants. The ligstroside-aglycone conjugates may be considered as potential biomarkers of the Fraxinus secoiridoids intake. Using the untargeted approach we additionally detected phenolic conjugates identified as ferulic acid and caffeic acid sulfates, as well as hydroxybenzyl and hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde sulfate derivatives which support further metabolism of the secoiridoids by phase I and (or) microbial enzymes. Overall, the results of this study suggest low uptake of intact secoiridoids from a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extract in healthy human volunteers and metabolic conversion by esterases, glycosidases, and phase II sulfo- and glucuronosyl transferases to form smaller conjugated derivatives.

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to evaluate analgesic activity of Terminalia chebula in healthy human volunteers using a mechanical pain model

    PubMed Central

    Pokuri, Venkata Kishan; Kumar, Chiranjeevi Uday; Pingali, Usharani

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: To evaluate analgesic activity and safety of single oral dose (1000 mg) of Terminalia chebula using a mechanical pain model in healthy human volunteers. Material and Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were randomized to receive either single oral dose of 2 capsules of T. chebula 500 mg each or identical placebo capsules in a double-blinded manner. Mechanical pain was assessed using Ugo basile analgesy meter (Randall–Selitto test) before and 3 h after administration of test drug. The parameters evaluated were pain threshold force and time; pain tolerance force and time. A washout period of 1-week was given for crossover between active drug and placebo. Results: Terminalia chebula significantly increased the mean percentage change for pain threshold force and time, and pain tolerance force and time compared to placebo (P < 0.001). The mean percentage change for pain threshold force and time (20.8% and 21.0%) was increased more than that of pain tolerance force and time (13.4% and 13.4%). No adverse drug reaction was reported with either of the study medications during the study period. Conclusion: T. chebula significantly increased pain threshold and pain tolerance compared to placebo. Both the study medications were well tolerated. Further multiple dose studies may be needed to establish the analgesic efficacy of the drug in patients suffering from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other painful conditions. PMID:27625480

  10. 45 CFR 1306.22 - Volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Volunteers. 1306.22 Section 1306.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...) Special efforts must be made to have volunteer participation, especially parents, in the classroom...

  11. No Effects of Acute Exposure to Wi-Fi Electromagnetic Fields on Spontaneous EEG Activity and Psychomotor Vigilance in Healthy Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zentai, Norbert; Csathó, Árpád; Trunk, Attila; Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo; Thuróczy, György; Hernádi, István

    2015-12-01

    Mobile equipment use of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) signal modulation has increased exponentially in the past few decades. However, there is inconclusive scientific evidence concerning the potential risks associated with the energy deposition in the brain from Wi-Fi and whether Wi-Fi electromagnetism interacts with cognitive function. In this study we investigated possible neurocognitive effects caused by Wi-Fi exposure. First, we constructed a Wi-Fi exposure system from commercial parts. Dosimetry was first assessed by free space radiofrequency field measurements. The experimental exposure system was then modeled based on real geometry and physical characteristics. Specific absorption rate (SAR) calculations were performed using a whole-body, realistic human voxel model with values corresponding to conventional everyday Wi-Fi exposure (peak SAR10g level was 99.22 mW/kg with 1 W output power and 100% duty cycle). Then, in two provocation experiments involving healthy human volunteers we tested for two hypotheses: 1. Whether a 60 min long 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi exposure affects the spectral power of spontaneous awake electroencephalographic (sEEG) activity (N = 25); and 2. Whether similar Wi-Fi exposure modulates the sustained attention measured by reaction time in a computerized psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) (N = 19). EEG data were recorded at midline electrode sites while volunteers watched a silent documentary. In the PVT task, button press reaction time was recorded. No measurable effects of acute Wi-Fi exposure were found on spectral power of sEEG or reaction time in the psychomotor vigilance test. These results indicate that a single, 60 min Wi-Fi exposure does not alter human oscillatory brain function or objective measures of sustained attention.

  12. Who Benefits from Volunteering? Variations in Perceived Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…

  13. Bacteriology of moderate (chronic) periodontitis in mature adult humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1983-01-01

    A total of 171 taxa was represented among 1,900 bacterial isolates from 60 samples of sites affected with moderate periodontitis in 22 mature adult humans. The composition of the subgingival sulcus flora was statistically significantly different from that of the adjacent supragingival flora and the subgingival flora of 14 people with healthy gingiva, but was not significantly different from that of sulci affected with severe periodontitis in 21 young human adults. The sulcus floras of moderate periodontitis and severe periodontitis shared many of their predominant bacterial species, but there were differences in the relative proportions of some of these species. Similar relationships were found for seven taxa of treponemes that were cultured from the samples. PMID:6642641

  14. Lymphatic Stomata in the Adult Human Pulmonary Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Masahiro; Iobe, Hiroaki; Kudo, Tomoo; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Aoba, Takaaki; Okudela, Koji; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Yoshida, Maki; Nagao, Toshitaka; Nakaya, Takeo; Kurata, Atsushi; Ohtani, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lymphatic stomata are small lymphatic openings in the serosal membrane that communicate with the serosal cavity. Although these stomata have primarily been studied in experimental mammals, little is known concerning the presence and properties of lymphatic stomata in the adult human pleura. Thus, adult human pleurae were examined for the presence or absence of lymphatic stomata. Methods and Results: A total of 26 pulmonary ligaments (13 left and 13 right) were obtained from 15 adult human autopsy cases and examined using electron and light microscopy. The microscopic studies revealed the presence of apertures fringed with D2-40-positive, CD31-positive, and cytokeratin-negative endothelial cells directly communicating with submesothelial lymphatics in all of the pulmonary ligaments. The apertures' sizes and densities varied from case to case according to the serial tissue section. The medians of these aperture sizes ranged from 2.25 to 8.75 μm in the left pulmonary ligaments and from 2.50 to 12.50 μm in the right pulmonary ligaments. The densities of the apertures ranged from 2 to 9 per mm2 in the left pulmonary ligaments and from 2 to 18 per mm2 in the right pulmonary ligaments. However, no significant differences were found regarding the aperture size (p=0.359) and density (p=0.438) between the left and the right pulmonary ligaments. Conclusions: Our study revealed that apertures exhibit structural adequacy as lymphatic stomata on the surface of the pulmonary ligament, thereby providing evidence that lymphatic stomata are present in the adult human pleura. PMID:25526320

  15. Substance P-induced skin inflammation is not modulated by a single dose of sitagliptin in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Grouzmann, Eric; Bigliardi, Paul; Appenzeller, Monique; Pannatier, André; Buclin, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    Substance P (SP), an undecapeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, is released during the activation of sensory nerves, and causes vasodilation, edema and pain through activation of tissular Neurokinin 1 receptors. SP proinflammatory effects are terminated by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP), while the aminopeptidase dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV) can also play a role. The aim of this randomized, crossover, double-blind study was to assess the cutaneous vasoreactivity (flare and wheal reaction, burning pain sensation) to intradermal injection of ascending doses of SP in six volunteers receiving a single therapeutic dose of the DPPIV inhibitor sitagliptin or a matching placebo. Cutaneous SP challenges produced the expected, dose-dependent flare and wheal response, while eliciting mild to moderate local pain sensation with little dose dependency. However, no differences were shown in the responses observed under sitagliptin compared with placebo, while the study would have been sufficiently powered to detect a clinically relevant increase in sensitivity to SP. The results of this pilot study are in line with proteolytic cleavage of SP by ACE and NEP compensating the blockade of DPPIV to prevent an augmentation of its proinflammatory action.

  16. Pharmacoscintigraphic and pharmacokinetic evaluation on healthy human volunteers of sustained-release floating minitablets containing levodopa and carbidopa.

    PubMed

    Goole, J; Van Gansbeke, B; Pilcer, G; Deleuze, Ph; Blocklet, D; Goldman, S; Pandolfo, M; Vanderbist, F; Amighi, K

    2008-11-19

    In this study, scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted on 10 healthy, fed volunteers. Two concepts of sustained-release floating minitablets--Levo-Form 1 (matrix) and 2 (coated)--were evaluated and compared to the marketed product Prolopa HBS 125. All the floating forms were radiolabelled with (111)In in order to evaluate their gastric residence time using gamma-scintigraphy. It was shown that the three formulations offered almost the same mean gastric residence time, which was about 240 min. Prolopa HBS 125 and Levo-Form 2 presented intragastric disintegration, which can lead to a more pronounced "peak & valley" effect on the plasma concentration-time profile of levodopa. In contrast, the plasma concentration-time profile of levodopa following the administration of Levo-Form 1 was more evenly distributed. Moreover, Levo-Form 1 provided the lowest variations between men and women in terms of AUC and C(max) values. Finally, when the same amount of inhibitors of extracerebral dopa decarboxylase--carbidopa and benserazide--had been administrated, the mean AUC, C(max) and T(max) values obtained for benserazide were lower than those obtained for carbidopa.

  17. Development of a prolonged-release gastroretentive tablet formulation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride: pharmacokinetic characterization in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Abolfazl; Emami, Jaber; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Davies, Neal M; Rezazadeh, Mahboubeh

    2011-05-16

    The fluroquinolone anti-biotic ciprofloxacin is primarily dissolved and absorbed from the upper part of the GI tract. We, therefore, aimed to develop a prolonged release gastroretentive (GT) formulation of ciprofloxacin that could be administered once daily with a conventional tablet (CT). A variety of polymers and effervescent properties were utilized to optimize the desired disposition profile. Tablets were prepared by the direct compression technique and evaluated for physical properties, swelling, floating, and drug release. In vivo studies were also carried out on the optimized GT formulation and CT in healthy volunteers. A very sensitive and reliable HPLC method was developed to measure plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin. The duration of floating times were predominantly >24 h and floating lag times <20 s. The drug release mechanism followed zero order kinetics. C(max), T(max), and AUC(0-∞) of GT vs CT were 0.945±0.29 vs 2.1±0.46 μg/ml, 6.0±1.42 vs 1.42±0.59 h and 8.54±1.87 vs 9.45±2.12 μg/ml/h, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that the developed GT formulation extended the pharmacokinetic profile achieved with CT. The C(max)/MIC and AUC(0-∞)/MIC, which are indicative of eradication of pathogens, following co-administration of GT with CT were comparable to those of twice-daily administration of CT alone.

  18. Bioequivalence evaluation of two roxithromycin formulations in healthy human volunteers by high performance liquid cromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Motta, M; Ribeiro, W; Ifa, D R; Moares, M E; Moraes, M O; Corrado, A P; De Nucci, G

    1999-01-01

    The bioequivalence of two different formulations containing roxithromycin (SPE-712-1). Oral suspension 300 mg/15 mL as test formulation and Rotram, tablets 300 mg as reference formulation, both by Schering Plough S.A., Brazil) was evaluated in 24 healthy volunteers of both sexes (12 male and 12 female). The study was conducted open with randomized two-period crossover design and a 14-day washout period. Each subject received 300 mg of each roxithromycin formulation. Plasma samples were obtained over a 72-hour interval and roxithromycin concentrations were analyzed by combined LC-MS/MS with positive ion electrospray ionization using selected ion monitoring method. From the plasma roxithromycin concentration vs time curves the following pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained: AUC(0-72 h), AUC(0-infinity), Cmax, t1/2 ratios and tmax individual differences. The 90% for confidence interval (CI) of geometric mean SPE-712-L/Rotram individual percent ratio were 105.0-128.3% for AUC(0-72 h), and 78.4-96.9 for Cmax. Although this 90% CI were marginally outside the interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration, the probability assessed by the two-one sided West for ratios was included in the 0.8-1.25 interval, as we concluded that SPE-712-L oral suspension formulation was bioequivalent to Rotram tablet formulation for the extent and rate of absorption.

  19. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Zahid Sadek; Morshed, Mohammed Monzur; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Islam, Sardar Mohd Ashraful; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2016-01-01

    Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT) for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  20. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Zahid Sadek; Morshed, Mohammed Monzur; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful

    2016-01-01

    Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT) for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected. PMID:27462136

  1. Human volunteer study on the inhalational and dermal absorption of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) from the vapour phase.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michael; Wrbitzky, Renate; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Schäper, Michael; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a versatile organic solvent frequently used for surface cleaning such as paint stripping or graffiti removal. Liquid NMP is rapidly absorbed through the skin but dermal vapour phase absorption might also play an important role for the uptake of the solvent. This particular aspect was investigated in an experimental study with 16 volunteers exposed to 80 mg/m(3) NMP for 8 h under either whole-body, i.e. inhalational plus dermal, or dermal-only conditions. Additionally, the influence of moderate physical workload on the uptake of NMP was studied. The urinary concentrations of NMP and its metabolites 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) were followed for 48 h and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Percutaneous uptake delayed the elimination peak times and the apparent biological half-lives of NMP and 5-HNMP. Under resting conditions, dermal-only exposure resulted in the elimination of 71 +/- 8 mg NMP equivalents as compared to 169 +/- 15 mg for whole-body exposure. Moderate workload yielded 79 +/- 8 mg NMP (dermal-only) and 238 +/- 18 mg (whole-body). Thus, dermal absorption from the vapour phase may contribute significantly to the total uptake of NMP, e.g. from workplace atmospheres. As the concentration of airborne NMP does not reflect the body dose, biomonitoring should be carried out for surveillance purposes.

  2. Pre-erythrocytic antibody profiles induced by controlled human malaria infections in healthy volunteers under chloroquine prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Felgner, Philip L.; Roestenberg, Meta; Liang, Li; Hung, Christopher; Jain, Aarti; Pablo, Jozelyn; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Molina, Douglas; Teelen, Karina; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Sauerwein, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Complete sterile protection to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection mediated by pre-erythrocytic immunity can be experimentally induced under chloroquine prophylaxis, through immunization with sporozoites from infected mosquitoes' bites (CPS protocol). To characterize the profile of CPS induced antibody (Ab) responses, we developed a proteome microarray containing 809 Pf antigens showing a distinct Ab profile with recognition of antigens expressed in pre-erythrocytic life-cycle stages. In contrast, plasma from naturally exposed semi-immune individuals from Kenya was skewed toward antibody reactivity against asexual blood stage antigens. CPS-immunized and semi-immune individuals generated antibodies against 192 and 202 Pf antigens, respectively, but only 60 antigens overlapped between the two groups. Although the number of reactive antigens varied between the CPS-immunized individuals, all volunteers reacted strongly against the pre-erythrocytic antigens circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and liver stage antigen 1 (LSA1). Well classified merozoite and erythrocytic antigens were strongly reactive in semi-immune individuals but lacking in the CPS immunized group. These data show that the antibody profile of CPS-immunized and semi-immune groups have quite distinct profiles reflecting their protective immunity; antibodies from CPS immunized individuals react strongly against pre-erythrocytic while semi-immune individuals mainly react against erythrocytic antigens. PMID:24351974

  3. Doublecortin expression in the normal and epileptic adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y W J; Curtis, M A; Gibbons, H M; Mee, E W; Bergin, P S; Teoh, H H; Connor, B; Dragunow, M; Faull, R L M

    2008-12-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a neurological disorder associated with spontaneous recurrent complex partial seizures and hippocampal sclerosis. Although increased hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported in animal models of MTLE, increased neurogenesis has not been reported in the hippocampus of adult human MTLE cases. Here we showed that cells expressing doublecortin (Dcx), a microtubule-associated protein expressed in migrating neuroblasts, were present in the hippocampus and temporal cortex of the normal and MTLE adult human brain. In particular, increased numbers of Dcx-positive cells were observed in the epileptic compared with the normal temporal cortex. Importantly, 56% of Dcx-expressing cells in the epileptic temporal cortex coexpressed both the proliferative cell marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and early neuronal marker, TuJ1, suggesting that they may be newly generated neurons. A subpopulation of Dcx-positive cells in the epileptic temporal cortex also coexpressed the mature neuronal marker, NeuN, suggesting that epilepsy may promote the generation of new neurons in the temporal cortex. This study has identified, for the first time, a novel population of Dcx-positive cells in the adult human temporal cortex that can be upregulated by epilepsy and thus, raises the possibility that these cells may have functional significance in the pathophysiology of epilepsy.

  4. Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 prolongs the life span of adult human keratinocytes, enhances skin equivalent development, and facilitates lentiviral transduction.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Ellen H; Rodijk-Olthuis, Diana; Jansen, Patrick A M; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J; van Erp, Piet E; Joosten, Irma; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2012-09-01

    The use of tissue-engineered human skin equivalents (HSE) for fundamental research and industrial application requires the expansion of keratinocytes from a limited number of skin biopsies donated by adult healthy volunteers or patients. A pharmacological inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinases, Y-27632, was recently reported to immortalize neonatal human foreskin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the potential use of Y-27632 to expand human adult keratinocytes and evaluated its effects on HSE development and in vitro gene delivery assays. Y-27632 was found to significantly increase the life span of human adult keratinocytes (up to five to eight passages). The epidermal morphology of HSEs generated from high-passage, Y-27632-treated keratinocytes resembled the native epidermis and was improved by supplementing Y-27632 during the submerged phase of HSE development. In addition, Y-27632-treated keratinocytes responded normally to inflammatory stimuli, and could be used to generate HSEs with a psoriatic phenotype, upon stimulation with relevant cytokines. Furthermore, Y-27632 significantly enhanced both lentiviral transduction efficiency of primary adult keratinocytes and epidermal morphology of HSEs generated thereof. Our study indicates that Y-27632 is a potentially powerful tool that is used for a variety of applications of adult human keratinocytes.

  5. A two-way cross-over bioequivalence study comparing two products of diclofenac sodium suppositories in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mazen; Otoom, Sameer; Najib, Naji; Sallam, El-Sayed

    2004-12-01

    This report presents the results of two treatment cross-over investigations on 20 healthy male volunteers to assess the bioequivalence of two suppository products of diclofenac sodium. The study was carried out under US Food and Drug Administration Guidelines. The two products were voltaren (100 mg) suppository (Ciba-Giegy), as a reference product, and Inflaban (100 mg) suppository (The Arab Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company, Ltd. "APM"), as a test product. Both products were administered rectally as a single dose (100 mg) separated by a one-week wash-out period. Following drug administration, blood samples were collected over 12 hr, and serum harvested from the blood was analyzed for diclofenac sodium using a sensitive and specific high performance liquid chromatographic assay. The results of this investigation indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the two products in either the mean concentration-time profiles or in the obtained pharmacokinetic parameters, including area under the serum concentration-time curve for 12 hr (AUC(0-12h)), lag time between product administration and first appearance of the drug in serum (T(lag)), peak serum concentration (C(max)), and time to reach this peak serum concentration (T(max)). Concerning the relative extent of absorption, assessed by the AUC ratio (Inflaban/Voltaren) for 12 hr, the average value was found to be 1.00+/-0.09 with a 95% confidence limits (C.L.) of 0.82-1.18. Thus, these findings clearly indicate that the two products are bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of drug absorption.

  6. Covert spatial attention is functionally intact in amblyopic human adults

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Mariel; Cymerman, Rachel; Smith, R. Theodore; Kiorpes, Lynne; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention—the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements—to the same degree as neurotypical observers. We manipulated both involuntary (Experiment 1) and voluntary (Experiment 2) attention during an orientation discrimination task for which the effects of covert spatial attention have been well established in neurotypical and special populations. In both experiments, attention significantly improved accuracy and decreased reaction times to a similar extent (a) between the eyes of the amblyopic adults and (b) between the amblyopes and their age- and gender-matched controls. Moreover, deployment of voluntary attention away from the target location significantly impaired task performance (Experiment 2). The magnitudes of the involuntary and voluntary attention benefits did not correlate with amblyopic depth or severity. Both groups of observers showed canonical performance fields (better performance along the horizontal than vertical meridian and at the lower than upper vertical meridian) and similar effects of attention across locations. Despite their characteristic low-level vision impairments, covert spatial attention remains functionally intact in human amblyopic adults. PMID:28033433

  7. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children.

  8. Validated LC-MS/MS method for quantification of gabapentin in human plasma: application to pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies in Korean volunteers.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hee; Jhee, Ok-Hwa; Park, Song-Hee; Lee, Jung-Sik; Lee, Min-Ho; Shaw, Leslie M; Kim, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Yong-Seok; Kang, Ju-Seop

    2007-08-01

    A sensitive validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) for gabapentin (GB) in human plasma has been developed and applied to pharmacokinetic (PK) and bioequivalence (BE) studies in human. In a randomized crossover design with a 1-week period, each subject received a 300 mg GB capsule. The procedure involves a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile and separated by LC with a Gemini C(18) column using acetonitrile-10 mm ammonium acetate (20:80, v/v, pH 3.2) as mobile phase. The GB and internal standard [(S)-(+)-alpha-aminocyclohexanepropionic acid hydrate] were analyzed using an LC-API 2000 MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The ionization was optimized using ESI(+) and selectivity was achieved using MS/MS analysis, m/z 172.0 --> 154.0 and m/z 172.0 --> 126.0 for GB and IS, respectively. The assay exhibited good linearity over a working range of 20-5000 ng/mL for GB in human plasma with a lower limit of quantitation of 20 ng/mL. No endogenous compounds were found to interfere with the analysis. The accuracy and precision were shown for concentrations over the standard ranges. This method was successfully applied for the PK and BE studies by analysis of blood samples taken up to 36 h after an oral dose of 300 mg of GB in 24 healthy volunteers.

  9. Antigenic components of excretory-secretory products of adult Fasciola hepatica recognized in human infections.

    PubMed

    Sampaio-Silva, M L; Da Costa, J M; Da Costa, A M; Pires, M A; Lopes, S A; Castro, A M; Monjour, L

    1996-02-01

    The antigenic components of excretory-secretory products (ESP) of adult worms of Fasciola hepatica were revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis using sera from 20 patients infected with F. hepatica. Sera from 184 other parasitic infections and 20 healthy volunteers were also analyzed. It was found that the ESP were composed of more than 11 polypeptides; five components detected in fascioliasis sera had molecular weights of 12.4, 16.4, 19.4, 25, and 27 kilodaltons (kD). Only the 25- and 27-kD components were recognized by all 20 fascioliasis sera. Using the ESP as antigen, it was possible to perform an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 97%. Sera from other parasitic infections had antibodies to antigenic components with apparent molecular weights of 37, 38.4, 52, 63, 73, 87, 109, and 116 kD that were also found in sera from fascioliasis patients. These findings suggested that the 25- and 27-kD antigenic components may be sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis.

  10. Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuchun; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Pingfan; Ni, Li

    2014-04-01

    Almonds and almond skins are rich in fiber and other components that have potential prebiotic properties. In this study we investigated the prebiotic effects of almond and almond skin intake in healthy humans. A total of 48 healthy adult volunteers consumed a daily dose of roasted almonds (56 g), almond skins (10 g), or commercial fructooligosaccharides (8 g) (as positive control) for 6 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at defined time points and analyzed for microbiota composition and selected indicators of microbial activity. Different strains of intestinal bacteria had varying degrees of growth sensitivity to almonds or almond skins. Significant increases in the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed in fecal samples as a consequence of almond or almond skin supplementation. However, the populations of Escherichia coli did not change significantly, while the growth of the pathogen Clostridum perfringens was significantly repressed. Modification of the intestinal microbiota composition induced changes in bacterial enzyme activities, specifically a significant increase in fecal β-galactosidase activity and decreases in fecal β-glucuronidase, nitroreductase and azoreductase activities. Our observations suggest that almond and almond skin ingestion may lead to an improvement in the intestinal microbiota profile and a modification of the intestinal bacterial activities, which would induce the promotion of health beneficial factors and the inhibition of harmful factors. Thus we believe that almonds and almond skins possess potential prebiotic properties.

  11. Silicon balance in human volunteers; a pilot study to establish the variance in silicon excretion versus intake

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests a role for silicon in optimal connective tissue health. Further proof of its importance/essentiality may be provided by studies involving imposed depletion followed by 29Si challenge to estimate metabolic balance. Prior to conducting these expensive studies, we first established the variance of estimating normal Si excretion versus intake using a single oral dose of typical dietary Si, orthosilicic acid. Methods Healthy volunteers were recruited from Loei Rajabhat University, separated into two matched groups (three males and three females/group) and maintained on a standardized diet for the three study days. One group ingested 500 ml water containing orthosilicic acid (28.9 mg Si) and the other group received 500 ml water alone, all on a fasted stomach. Blood samples and total urine and faeces were collected over the 48 h post-dose period and 24 h before-hand (baseline) and analysed for silicon by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results Serum Si analysis confirmed the ready absorption of silicon from the orthosilicic acid solution. Mean total urinary and faecal Si excretions over the 24 h post-dose period accounted for 57 ± 9.5% and 39 ± 9.4% of the ingested dose, respectively. Thus in total 96.3 ± 5.8% of the ingested dose was recovered in faecal plus urinary excretions over the 24 h post-dose period. Conclusions We report that in healthy subjects (presumably in Si balance), the ingestion of a soluble dose of dietary Si results in the same quantity (within analytical error) being excreted within 24 h. It is currently not known if this all originated from the dose solution or if there was some exchange with the body Si pool but, given the low variance in these silicon balance data, isotopic studies are now merited. PMID:24405738

  12. Broad Blockade Antibody Responses in Human Volunteers after Immunization with a Multivalent Norovirus VLP Candidate Vaccine: Immunological Analyses from a Phase I Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Ferris, Martin T.; Mullan, Clancy W.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Debbink, Kari; Swanstrom, Jesica; Richardson, Charles; Goodwin, Robert R.; Baehner, Frank; Mendelman, Paul M.; Bargatze, Robert F.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human noroviruses (NoVs) are the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis and are characterized by antigenic variation between genogroups and genotypes and antigenic drift of strains within the predominant GII.4 genotype. In the context of this diversity, an effective NoV vaccine must elicit broadly protective immunity. We used an antibody (Ab) binding blockade assay to measure the potential cross-strain protection provided by a multivalent NoV virus-like particle (VLP) candidate vaccine in human volunteers. Methods and Findings Sera from ten human volunteers immunized with a multivalent NoV VLP vaccine (genotypes GI.1/GII.4) were analyzed for IgG and Ab blockade of VLP interaction with carbohydrate ligand, a potential correlate of protective immunity to NoV infection and illness. Immunization resulted in rapid rises in IgG and blockade Ab titers against both vaccine components and additional VLPs representing diverse strains and genotypes not represented in the vaccine. Importantly, vaccination induced blockade Ab to two novel GII.4 strains not in circulation at the time of vaccination or sample collection. GII.4 cross-reactive blockade Ab titers were more potent than responses against non-GII.4 VLPs, suggesting that previous exposure history to this dominant circulating genotype may impact the vaccine Ab response. Further, antigenic cartography indicated that vaccination preferentially activated preexisting Ab responses to epitopes associated with GII.4.1997. Study interpretations may be limited by the relevance of the surrogate neutralization assay and the number of immunized participants evaluated. Conclusions Vaccination with a multivalent NoV VLP vaccine induces a broadly blocking Ab response to multiple epitopes within vaccine and non-vaccine NoV strains and to novel antigenic variants not yet circulating at the time of vaccination. These data reveal new information about complex NoV immune responses to both natural exposure and to vaccination, and

  13. The assessment of human regional drug absorption of free acid and sodium salt forms of acipimox, in healthy volunteers, to direct modified release formulation strategy.

    PubMed

    Menon, Rajeev; Cefali, Eugenio; Wilding, Ian; Wray, Heather; Connor, Alyson

    2009-12-01

    Acipimox is an analog of nicotinic acid and is indicated for the treatment of dyslipidemia. It is also believed to improve glucose control by enhancing insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to direct modified release (MR) formulation strategy by comparing the bioavailability of two forms of acipimox (free acid and sodium salt) from the distal small bowel (DSB) and colon with an immediate release formulation. Two parallel groups of healthy volunteers completed an open label, non-randomized, three-way crossover study. The rate and extent of acipimox absorption was highest following administration of the immediate release capsules, and was not influenced by the form of the drug administered. Following administration to the DSB, the relative bioavailability was approximately 52% and 30% for the salt form and free acid form, respectively. Following administration to the colon, the extent of absorption was further reduced. The data indicate that bioavailability from the DSB was limited by the solubility of the drug coupled with an absorption window, whilst absorption from the colon was limited by permeability. The study provided detailed information to support and guide the formulation strategy for a MR form of acipimox, which may improve the treatment of adult patients with type II diabetes and dyslipidemia.

  14. Dysregulated immune profiles for skin and dendritic cells are associated with increased host susceptibility to Haemophilus ducreyi infection in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Tricia L; Li, Lang; Li, Xiaoman; Janowicz, Diane M; Fortney, Kate R; Zhao, Qianqian; Li, Wei; McClintick, Jeanette; Katz, Barry P; Wilkes, David S; Edenberg, Howard J; Spinola, Stanley M

    2007-12-01

    In experimentally infected human volunteers, the cutaneous immune response to Haemophilus ducreyi is orchestrated by serum, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, T cells, and myeloid dendritic cells (DC). This response either leads to spontaneous resolution of infection or progresses to pustule formation, which is associated with the failure of phagocytes to ingest the organism and the presence of Th1 and regulatory T cells. In volunteers who are challenged twice, some subjects form at least one pustule twice (PP group), while others have all inoculated sites resolve twice (RR group). Here, we infected PP and RR subjects with H. ducreyi and used microarrays to profile gene expression in infected and wounded skin. The PP and RR groups shared a core response to H. ducreyi. Additional transcripts that signified effective immune function were differentially expressed in RR infected sites, while those that signified a hyperinflammatory, dysregulated response were differentially expressed in PP infected sites. To examine whether DC drove these responses, we profiled gene expression in H. ducreyi-infected and uninfected monocyte-derived DC. Both groups had a common response that was typical of a type 1 DC (DC1) response. RR DC exclusively expressed many additional transcripts indicative of DC1. PP DC exclusively expressed differentially regulated transcripts characteristic of DC1 and regulatory DC. The data suggest that DC from the PP and RR groups respond differentially to H. ducreyi. PP DC may promote a dysregulated T-cell response that contributes to phagocytic failure, while RR DC may promote a Th1 response that facilitates bacterial clearance.

  15. Volunteers. Time is money.

    PubMed

    Browne, P

    2000-02-03

    An audit of volunteers' work at a district general hospital showed its value to be more than 127,000 Pounds. For every 1 Pound the trust invested in volunteers there was a return of 5.57 Pounds. The research showed that volunteers gave 35,464 hours of their free time to the hospital last year. The national average is 27,000 hours per trust.

  16. The Motivation to Volunteer: A Systemic Quality of Life Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shye, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to volunteer motivation research is developed. Instead of asking what motivates the volunteer (accepting "any" conceptual category), we ask to what extent volunteering rewards the individual with each benefit taken from a complete set of possible benefits. As a "complete set of benefits" we use the 16 human functioning modes…

  17. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  18. CCM2 expression during prenatal development and adult human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, Gamze; Sozen, Berna; Gunel, Murat; Demir, Necdet

    2011-08-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is one of the most common types of vascular malformations of the central nervous system, affecting nearly one in 200 people. CCM lesions are characterized by grossly dilated vascular channels lined by a single layer of endothelium. Genetic linkage analyses have mapped three CCM loci to CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3. All three causative genes have now been identified allowing new insights into CCM pathophysiology. We focused on the CCM2 protein that might take place in blood vessel formation; we report here the expression patterns of CCM2 in prenatal development and adult human neocortex by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. CCM2 was obviously detected in vascular endothelium and neuroglial precursor cells during development and also observed in arterial endothelium, neurons, some of the glial cells in adult neocortex. The expression patterns suggest that it could be one of the arterial markers whether this is a cause or a consequence of an altered vascular identity. CCM2 might play a role during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during human brain development. Furthermore, with this study, CCM2 have been described for the first time in developing human neocortex.

  19. Expression of OmpP2A and OmpP2B is not required for pustule formation by Haemophilus ducreyi in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Janowicz, Diane; Luke, Nicole R; Fortney, Kate R; Katz, Barry P; Campagnari, Anthony A; Spinola, Stanley M

    2006-03-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi express two porin proteins, termed OmpP2A and OmpP2B. To test whether expression of OmpP2A and OmpP2B was necessary for virulence in humans, eight volunteers were experimentally infected with the parent (35000HP) in one arm and a double OmpP2A OmpP2B mutant (35000HP::P2AB) in the other arm. The pustule formation rates were 58.3% (95% CI, 33.2-83.5%) for the parent and 41.7% (95% CI, 19.3-64.0%) for the mutant (P=0.25). Biopsy of 35000HP and 35000HP::P2AB-infected sites yielded similar amounts of bacteria in quantitative culture. These results indicate that expression of OmpP2A and OmpP2B is not necessary to initiate disease or to progress to pustule formation in humans.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of a Single Oral Dose of Polymorph Form I versus Form V Capsules of the Antiorthopoxvirus Compound ST-246 in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chinsangaram, Jarasvech; Honeychurch, Kady M.; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar R.; Bolken, Tove' C.; Jordan, Robert; Jones, Kevin F.; Marbury, Thomas; Lichtenstein, Israel; Pickens, Margaret; Corrado, Michael; Landis, Patrick; Clarke, Jean M.; Frimm, Annie M.

    2012-01-01

    ST-246, a novel compound that inhibits egress of orthopoxvirus from mammalian cells, is being tested as a treatment for pathogenic orthopoxvirus infections in humans. This phase I, double-blind, randomized, crossover, exploratory study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single daily 400-mg oral dose of ST-246 polymorph form I versus polymorph form V administered to fed, healthy human volunteers. Both forms appeared to be well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. The order of administration of the two forms had no effect on the results of the PK analyses. Form I and form V both exhibited comparable plasma concentration versus time profiles, but complete bioequivalence between the two forms was not found. Maximum drug concentration (Cmax) met the bioequivalence criteria, as the 90% confidence interval (CI) was 80.6 to 96.9%. However, the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to time t (AUC0-t) and AUC0-∞ did not meet the bioequivalence criteria (CIs of 67.8 to 91.0% and 73.9 to 104.7%, respectively). The extent of absorption of form I, as defined by AUC0-∞, was 11.7% lower than that of form V. Since ST-246 form I is more thermostable than form V, form I was selected for further development and use in all future studies. PMID:22526314

  1. Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities of Env-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Generated from Volunteers Receiving the DNA Prime-Protein Boost HIV Vaccine DP6-001.

    PubMed

    Costa, Matthew R; Pollara, Justin; Edwards, Regina Whitney; Seaman, Michael S; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Montefiori, David C; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2016-11-15

    HIV-1 is able to elicit broadly potent neutralizing antibodies in a very small subset of individuals only after several years of infection, and therefore, vaccines that elicit these types of antibodies have been difficult to design. The RV144 trial showed that moderate protection is possible and that this protection may correlate with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. Our previous studies demonstrated that in an HIV vaccine phase I trial, the DP6-001 trial, a polyvalent Env DNA prime-protein boost formulation could elicit potent and broadly reactive, gp120-specific antibodies with positive neutralization activities. Here we report on the production and analysis of HIV-1 Env-specific human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) isolated from vaccinees in the DP6-001 trial. For this initial report, 13 hMAbs from four vaccinees in the DP6-001 trial showed broad binding to gp120 proteins of diverse subtypes both autologous and heterologous to vaccine immunogens. Equally cross-reactive Fc receptor-mediated functional activities, including ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activities, were present with both immune sera and isolated MAbs, confirming the induction of nonneutralizing functional hMAbs by the DNA prime-protein boost vaccination. Elicitation of broadly reactive hMAbs by vaccination in healthy human volunteers confirms the value of the polyvalent formulation in this HIV vaccine design.

  2. Changes in systemic and pulmonary blood flow distribution in normal adult volunteers in response to posture and exercise: a phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Derek T H; Lee, Kyong-Jin; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Tomlinson, George; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Hemodynamics are usually evaluated in the supine position at rest. This is only a snapshot of an individual's daily activities. This study describes circulatory adaptation, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, to changes in position and exercise. Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging of blood flow within systemic and pulmonary arteries and veins was performed in 24 healthy volunteers at rest in the prone and supine position and with bicycle exercise in the supine position. No change was seen in systemic blood flow when moving from prone to supine. Exercise resulted in an increased percentage of cardiac output towards the lower body. Changes in position resulted in a redistribution of blood flow within the left lung--supine positioning resulted in decreased blood flow to the left lower pulmonary vein. With exercise, both the right and left lower lobes received increased blood flow, while the upper lobes received less.

  3. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  4. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  5. College Students' Volunteering: Factors Related to Current Volunteering, Volunteer Settings, and Motives for Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Erin W.; Warta, Samantha; Erichsen, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Research has not explored the types of settings that college students prefer to volunteer for and how these settings might be influenced by personal factors (e.g., demographic, academic major, volunteering motivation, religiosity). Students from a Midwestern university (N = 406, 71.9% female) completed a survey that inquired about their…

  6. Does volunteering moderate the relation between functional limitations and mortality?

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; August, Kristin J; Rook, Karen S; Newsom, Jason T

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that functional limitations increase, and organizational volunteering decreases, the risk of mortality in later life. However, scant attention has been paid to investigating the joint effect of functional limitations and organizational volunteering on mortality. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that volunteering moderates the relation between functional limitations and risk of mortality. This prospective study used baseline survey data from a representative sample of 916 non-institutionalized adults 65 years old and older who lived in the continental United States. Data on mortality were extracted six years later from the National Death Index. Survival analyses revealed that functional limitations were associated with an increased risk of dying only among participants who never or almost never volunteered, suggesting that volunteering buffers the association between functional limitations and mortality. We conclude that although it may be more difficult for older adults with functional limitations to volunteer, they may receive important benefits from doing so.

  7. Comparison of the tolerability of recombinant human hyaluronidase + normal saline and recombinant human hyaluronidase + lactated ringer's solution administered subcutaneously: A phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dychter, Samuel S.; Ebel, David; Mead, Tonya R.; Yocum, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) (150 U) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to facilitate subcutaneous fluid administration in adults and children. Objective: This Phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study was designed to compare the tolerability, flow rate, and safety profile of subcutaneous infusions of normal saline (NS) and lactated Ringer's (LR) solutions following subcutaneous administration of rHuPH20. Methods: Healthy volunteers received 1 mL rHuPH20 (150 U) in each thigh, followed by simultaneous gravity-driven subcutaneous infusions of 500 mL of LR solution into 1 thigh and NS solution into the contralateral thigh. Subjects rated infusion-site discomfort in each thigh using a 100-mm (0 = no pain to 100 = most severe pain) visual analog scale (VAS) at baseline (ie, after catheter placement/ rHuPH20 injection and just prior to the start of the infusions) and at the following times: after infusion of 250 mL, after infusion of 500 mL (end of infusion), and when thigh circumference returned to within 5% of baseline. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. The primary tolerability end point was the maximal increase from baseline in infusion-site discomfort on the VAS. Secondary end points included infusion flow rate, change in thigh circumference, subject preference for leftversus right-thigh infusion, and safety profile measures. Results: Fifteen subjects (14 women, 1 man; mean age, 41 years [range, 20–60 years]) were included in the study. Mean (SD) maximal increase from baseline VAS pain score was significantly greater with NS solution than with LR solution (20.0 [19.4] vs 9.4 [18.3] mm, respectively; P = 0.005). Mean infusion flow rate was not significantly different between the NS and LR solutions (384.1 [118.1] vs 395.8 [132.8] mL/h). No significant differences between solutions were observed in mean maximal change in thigh circumference (5.2% [1.6%] vs 5.3% [1.5%]). All subjects expressed

  8. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-Wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little is known about the distribution of TJ proteins in adult human salivary cells and thus what key molecular components might be desirable for the cellular component of an artificial salivary gland device. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of TJ proteins in human salivary glands. Salivary gland samples were obtained from 10 patients. Frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained using IHC methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in ductal, endothelial, and ∼25% of serous cells. Claudins-2, -3, and -4 and JAM-A were expressed in both ductal and acinar cells, whereas claudin-5 was expressed only in endothelial cells. Occludin and ZO-1 were expressed in acinar, ductal, and endothelial cells. These results provide new information on TJ proteins in two major human salivary glands and should serve as a reference for future studies to assess the presence of appropriate TJ proteins in a tissue-engineered human salivary gland. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1093–1098, 2008) PMID:18765838

  9. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2004-11-01

    Extracts from the plant guarana (Paullinia cupana) feature as putatively stimulating ingredients in a number of foods, drinks and dietary/herbal supplements. To date, little research in humans has examined the potential psychoactive effects of these extracts. Extracts of Panax ginseng, which are often sold in combination with guarana, contain similar potentially active components, and have been shown to modulate cognitive performance. In this double-blind, counterbalanced, placebo-controlled study, the cognitive and mood effects of separate single doses of: 75 mg of a dried ethanolic extract of guarana (approx 12% caffeine), 200 mg of Panax ginseng (G115), and their combination (75 mg/200 mg), were assessed in 28 healthy young (18-24) participants. On each day of the study (separated by a 7-day washout), cognitive performance and subjective mood were assessed pre-dose and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h post-dose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerised assessment battery, Serial subtraction tasks and Bond-Lader mood scales. In comparison to placebo, all three treatments resulted in improved task performance throughout the day. In the case of guarana, improvements were seen across 'attention' tasks (but with some evidence of reduced accuracy), and on a sentence verification task. While also increasing the speed of attention task performance, both ginseng and the ginseng/guarana combination also enhanced the speed of memory task performance, with little evidence of modulated accuracy. Guarana and the combination, and to a lesser extent ginseng, also led to significant improvements in serial subtraction task performance. These results provide the first demonstration in humans of the psychoactive effects of guarana, and confirmation of the psychoactive properties of ginseng. Given the low caffeine content (9 mg) of this dose of guarana extract, the effects are unlikely to be attributable to its caffeine content.

  10. Recombinant HPA-1a antibody therapy for treatment of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: proof of principle in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ghevaert, Cedric; Herbert, Nina; Hawkins, Louise; Grehan, Nicola; Cookson, Philip; Garner, Steve F; Crisp-Hihn, Abigail; Lloyd-Evans, Paul; Evans, Amanda; Balan, Kottekkattu; Ouwehand, Willem H; Armour, Kathryn L; Clark, Mike R; Williamson, Lorna M

    2013-07-18

    Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, caused by the maternal generation of antibodies against fetal human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a), can result in intracranial hemorrhage and intrauterine death. We have developed a therapeutic human recombinant high-affinity HPA-1a antibody (B2G1Δnab) that competes for binding to the HPA-1a epitope but carries a modified constant region that does not bind to Fcγ receptors. In vitro studies with a range of clinical anti-HPA-1a sera have shown that B2G1Δnab blocks monocyte chemiluminescence by >75%. In this first-in-man study, we demonstrate that HPA-1a1b autologous platelets (matching fetal phenotype) sensitized with B2G1Δnab have the same intravascular survival as unsensitized platelets (190 hours), while platelets sensitized with a destructive immunoglobulin G1 version of the antibody (B2G1) are cleared from the circulation in 2 hours. Mimicking the situation in fetuses receiving B2G1Δnab as therapy, we show that platelets sensitized with a combination of B2G1 (representing destructive HPA-1a antibody) and B2G1Δnab survive 3 times as long in circulation compared with platelets sensitized with B2G1 alone. This confirms the therapeutic potential of B2G1Δnab. The efficient clearance of platelets sensitized with B2G1 also opens up the opportunity to carry out studies of prophylaxis to prevent alloimmunization in HPA-1a-negative mothers.

  11. Psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition are attenuated by ketanserin in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Quednow, Boris B; Kometer, Michael; Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-02-01

    The serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related inhibitory gating and behavioral inhibition deficits of schizophrenia patients. The hallucinogen psilocybin disrupts automatic forms of sensorimotor gating and response inhibition in humans, but it is unclear so far whether the 5-HT(2A)R or 5-HT(1A)R agonist properties of its bioactive metabolite psilocin account for these effects. Thus, we investigated whether psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition in healthy humans could be attenuated by the 5-HT(2A/2C)R antagonist ketanserin. A total of 16 healthy participants received placebo, ketanserin (40 mg p.o.), psilocybin (260 μg/kg p.o.), or psilocybin plus ketanserin in a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced order. Sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. The effects on psychopathological core dimensions and behavioral inhibition were assessed by the altered states of consciousness questionnaire (5D-ASC), and the Color-Word Stroop Test. Psilocybin decreased PPI at short lead intervals (30 ms), increased all 5D-ASC scores, and selectively increased errors in the interference condition of the Stroop Test. Stroop interference and Stroop effect of the response latencies were increased under psilocybin as well. Psilocybin-induced alterations were attenuated by ketanserin pretreatment, whereas ketanserin alone had no significant effects. These findings suggest that the disrupting effects of psilocybin on automatic and controlled inhibition processes are attributable to 5-HT(2A)R stimulation. Sensorimotor gating and attentional control deficits of schizophrenia patients might be due to changes within the 5-HT(2A)R system.

  12. First‐in‐human assessment of PRX002, an anti–α‐synuclein monoclonal antibody, in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Dale B.; Koller, Martin; Ness, Daniel K.; Griffith, Sue G.; Grundman, Michael; Zago, Wagner; Soto, Jay; Atiee, George; Ostrowitzki, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: α‐Synuclein is a major component of pathologic inclusions that characterize Parkinson's disease. PRX002 is an antibody that targets α‐synuclein, and its murine parent antibody 9E4 has been shown in preclinical studies to reduce α‐synuclein pathology and to protect against cognitive and motor deteriorations and progressive neurodegeneration in human α‐synuclein transgenic mice. Methods: This first‐in‐human, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, phase 1 study assessed the impact of PRX002 administered to 40 healthy participants in 5 ascending‐dose cohorts (n = 8/cohort) in which participants were randomly assigned to receive a single intravenous infusion of study drug (0.3, 1, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg; n = 6/cohort) or placebo (n = 2/cohort). Results: PRX002 demonstrated favorable safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profiles at all doses tested, with no immunogenicity. No serious adverse events, discontinuations as a result of adverse events, or dose‐limiting toxicities were reported. Serum PRX002 exposure was dose proportional; the average terminal half‐life across all doses was 18.2 days. A significant dose‐dependent reduction in free serum α‐synuclein (unbound to PRX002) was apparent within 1 hour after PRX002 administration, whereas total α‐synuclein (free plus bound) increased dose‐dependently, presumably because of the expected change in kinetics following antibody binding. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that serum α‐synuclein can be safely modulated in a dose‐dependent manner after single intravenous infusions of an anti–α‐synuclein antibody. These findings support continued development of PRX002, including further characterization of its safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic effects in the central nervous system in patients with Parkinson's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  13. The cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic effects of a long duration electronic control device exposure in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Donald M; Ho, Jeffrey D; Reardon, Robert F; Miner, James R

    2010-12-01

    Electronic control devices (ECD) have become popular in law enforcement because they have filled a gap left by other law enforcement devices, tactics, or tools and have been shown to reduce officer and suspect injuries. Civilians are using the same technology for defensive purposes. TASER C2 is the latest generation civilian-marketed device from the manufacturer. Unlike the law enforcement devices, the device discharges for 30 s continuously. This study is the first to look at the cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic effects of this device on human subjects. This was a prospective, observational study of human subjects involved in a training course. Subjects were exposed for 30 s on the anterior thorax. Vital signs, ECG, troponin I, pH, lactate, and creatine kinase (CK) were measured before and immediately after the exposure. Troponin I, pH, lactate, and CK were measured again 24 h after the exposure. Continuous spirometry was used to evaluate the respiratory effects. Echocardiography was also performed before, during, and immediately after the exposure to determine heart rate and rhythm. Eleven subjects completed the study. There were no clinically important electrocardiogram changes and no positive troponins. Spirometry showed an increase in minute ventilation during the exposure. There was no important change in CK at 24 h. Lactate was slightly higher and pH was slightly lower after the exposure, but similar to the effects of physical exertion. Echocardiography was performed in 6 subjects. In half of these subjects, the rhythm was determined to be "sinus" and in the other half the rhythm was indeterminant. In our study, the civilian device caused a mild lactic acidosis. No other important physiologic effects were found.

  14. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flintoft, I. D.; Robinson, M. P.; Melia, G. C. R.; Marvin, A. C.; Dawson, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m2 for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human exposure

  15. Blanching improves anthocyanin absorption from highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) purée in healthy human volunteers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Del Bo', Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Brambilla, Ada; Gardana, Claudio; Rizzolo, Anna; Simonetti, Paolo; Bertolo, Gianni; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Porrini, Marisa

    2012-09-12

    Blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are rich sources of phenolics and anthocyanins (ACNs). We investigated the absorption of ACNs after consumption of one portion (300 g) of minimally processed blueberry purée (P) obtained from blanched (BL) or unblanched (NB) berries. A repeated-measures, crossover design study was conducted on healthy human volunteers. Blood was drawn between baseline and 24 h after BL-P or NB-P consumption, while urine were collected from the day before the experiment up to 48 h. Total plasma ACN content was not significantly different, while phenolics content was higher in BL-P with respect to NB-P. The maximum ACN absorption in plasma was observed after 1.5 h from the intake of the purées and was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) after the intake of BL-P. Both products increased the excretion of hippuric acid in urine. In conclusion, blanching had no significant effect on total ACN content and enhanced their absorption from minimally processed purées.

  16. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of lercanidipine in human plasma and its application in a bioequivalence study in Chinese healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobing; Shi, Fuguo; He, Xiaojing; Jian, Lingyan; Ding, Li

    2016-09-05

    A rapid and highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of lercanidipine (LER) in human plasma. The plasma sample was deproteinized with methanol after addition of diazepam (internal standard, IS) and separated on a 38°C Hedera ODS-2 analytical column with a mobile phase of methanol and 5mM ammonium acetate buffer solution containing 0.1% formic acid at an isocratic flow rate of 400μL/min. The detection was performed on an API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ESI mode. Quantification was conducted by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions of m/z 612.2→280.2 for LER and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS, respectively. The method exhibited high sensitivity (LLOQ of 0.015ng/mL) and good linearity over the concentration range of 0.015-8.0ng/mL. No matrix effect and carry-over effect were observed. The values on both the occasions (intra- and inter-day) were all within 15% at three concentration levels. This robust method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LER in 59 healthy male Chinese volunteers after a single oral administration of 10mg LER.

  17. High-throughput determination of carbocysteine in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: application to a bioequivalence study of two formulations in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hui-Chang; Zhao, Li-zi; Zhong, Guo-ping; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Bo; Deng, Ying; Chen, Xiao; Huang, Min

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method to determine carbocysteine in human plasma was developed and fully validated. After methanol-induced protein precipitation of the plasma samples, carbocysteine was subjected to LC/MS/MS analysis using electrospray ionization (ESI). The MS system was operated in the selected ion monitoring (SRM) mode. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypurity C18 column (i.d. 2.1 mm x 50 mm, particle size 5 microm). The method had a chromatographic running time of 2.0 min and linear calibration curves over the concentration ranges of 0.1-20 microg/mL for carbocysteine. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was 0.1 microg/mL for carbocysteine. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 7% for all quality control samples at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0, and 10.0 microg/mL. These results indicate that the method was efficient with a simple preparation procedure and a very short running time (2.0 min) for carbocysteine compared with methods reported in the literature and had high selectivity, acceptable accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The validated LC/MS/MS method has been successfully used to a bioequivalence study of two tablet formulations of carbocysteine in healthy volunteers.

  18. Physical properties and in vivo bioavailability in human volunteers of isradipine using controlled release matrix tablet containing self-emulsifying solid dispersion.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Piao, Zong Zhu; Vo, Toi Van; Park, Jun Bom; Lim, Jisung; Oh, Kyung Teak; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-06-25

    Poorly water-soluble drug with a short half-life such as isradipine (IDP) offer challenges in the controlled release formulation because of low dissolution rate and poor bioavailability. Self-emulsifying solid dispersions (SESD) of IDP consisted of surfactant and fatty acid in poloxamer 407 (POX 407) as a carrier and were manufactured by the melting method. Then, controlled release HPMC matrix tablet containing SESD were prepared via direct compression. The dissolution behaviors and in vivo bioavailability of controlled release matrix tablet in healthy human volunteers were investigated. The physical properties of solid dispersion were also examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that structure of IDP was amorphous in the solid dispersion. The dissolution rate of IDP from SESD was markedly enhanced because of increased solubility and wetting effect. Controlled release HPMC matrix tablets containing SESD released drug in a controlled manner and were stable during storage over 3 months at 40 °C/75% RH. Furthermore, the tablet containing 5mg IDP SESD showed significantly increased oral bioavailability and extended plasma concentration compared with the marketed 5 mg Dynacirc(®) capsule. A combined method of solid dispersion and controlled release technology could provide versatile dosage formulations containing IDP with poor water solubility and short half-life.

  19. Protective Effects of a New Phloretin Derivative against UVB-Induced Damage in Skin Cell Model and Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Kum, Hyunwoo; Ryu, Dehun; Kim, Minkyung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic compound phloretin is a prominent member of the chemical class of dihydrochalcones. Phloretin is specifically found in apple and apple juice and known for its biological properties. We were particularly interested in its potential dermo-cosmetic applications. However, practical limitations of phloretin do exist due to its poor water-solubility. Phloretin was sulfonated with sulfuric acid (98%, wt) and mixed with saturated salt water to produce phloretin 3',3-disulfonate in order to increase its water-solubility. Here we reported the photoprotective effect of phloretin 3',3-disulfonate (PS), a new semi-synthetic derivative of phloretin. Results showed that PS attenuated cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPDs) formation, glutathione (GSH) depletion and apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B (UVB). The photoprotective effect of PS is tightly correlated to the enhancement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene expression. Furthemore, PS had inhibitory effects on UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of PS on human skin. Overall, the results demonstrated significant benefits of PS on the protection of keratinocytes against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection. PMID:25334063

  20. Identifying Inservice Topics for Volunteer Literacy Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barbara E.

    A Tutor Self-Assessment Inventory (TSAI) was developed from the literature on reading, adult basic education, literacy education, and comments of professionals in order to provide the volunteer literacy tutor an opportunity to compare his or her self-perceptions regarding tutoring abilities and knowledge to attributes and competencies considered…

  1. Handbook for Coordinators of Volunteer Tutor Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Staff Development Committee for Vocational Education and Training, Chadstone (Australia).

    This handbook is designed to provide guidance particularly to inexperienced coordinators of adult literacy volunteer tutor programs or to those isolated from support personnel or structures. It is not a curriculum to be followed from beginning to end, but a selection of materials from all states in Australia. Each section contains references and…

  2. Allied health disaster volunteering.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Alphonso; Wilson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Allied health practitioners will play an important role in providing medical care following a disaster. The clinical and laboratory skills possessed by allied health practitioners will be of extreme importance in the processing of disaster victims. The degree that allied health practitioners can help process disaster victims will play a large role in helping stabilize survivors of man-made or natural disasters. Those allied health practitioners skilled in triage, patient assessment, and emergency treatment of those injured can make a large difference in improving the utilization of human resources at an emergency site and thereby potentially improve treatment outcomes. Failure of a health professional to preregister as a health volunteer can affect the quality and responsiveness of a community's surge capacity. The rationale for advance registration ensures that the time-intensive effort of identifying professional credentials and licenses does not consume or divert resources that are necessary for mitigation of the immediate emergency. Of equal importance for allied health practitioners are the liability issues that exist in providing health care services outside of a formal employment agreement.

  3. Human Dosimetry and Preliminary Tumor Distribution of (superscript)18F-Fluoropaclitaxel in Healthy Volunteers and Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients Using PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdziel, K.A.; Logan, J.; Kurdziel, K.A.; Kalen, J.D.; Hirsch, J.I.; Wilson, J.D.; Bear, H.D.; Logan, J.; McCumisky, J.; Moorman-Sykes, K.; Adler, S.; Choyke, P.L.

    2011-08-17

    {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel is a radiolabeled form of paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapy agent. Preclinical data suggest that {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel may be a reasonable surrogate for measuring the uptake of paclitaxel. As a substrate of P-glycoprotein, a drug efflux pump associated with multidrug resistance, {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel may also be useful in identifying multidrug resistance and predicting tumor response for drugs other than paclitaxel. After informed consent was obtained, 3 healthy volunteers and 3 patients with untreated breast cancer (neoadjuvant chemotherapy candidates, tumor size > 2 cm) received an intravenous infusion of {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel and then underwent PET/CT. Healthy volunteers underwent serial whole-body imaging over an approximately 3-h interval, and organ {sup 18}F residence times were determined from the time-activity curves uncorrected for decay to determine dosimetry. Radiation dose estimates were calculated using OLINDA/EXM software. For breast cancer patients, dynamic imaging of the primary tumor was performed for 60 min, followed by static whole-body scans at 1 and 2 h after injection. Dosimetry calculations showed that the gallbladder received the highest dose (229.50 {mu}Gy/MBq [0.849 rad/mCi]), followed by the small and large intestines (161.26 {mu}Gy/MBq [0.597 rad/mCi] and 184.59 {mu}Gy/MBq [0.683 rad/mCi]). The resultant effective dose was 28.79 {mu}Gy/MBq (0.107 rem/mCi). At approximately 1 h after injection, an average of 42% of the decay-corrected activity was in the gastrointestinal system, with a mean of 0.01% in the tumor. All 3 breast cancer patients showed retention of {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel and ultimately demonstrated a complete pathologic response (no invasive cancer in the breast or axillary nodes) to chemotherapy that included a taxane (either paclitaxel or docetaxel) at surgical resection. The tumor-to-background ratio increased with time to a maximum of 7.7 at 20 min. This study

  4. Volunteering for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    1999-04-01

    HIV/AIDS researchers are finding it increasingly difficult to recruit volunteers for their studies, and are working on designing studies that are more broadly applicable and palatable to the volunteers. Studies offer both opportunities and risks for people who volunteer. This overview describes the basics of trial design and practice, with the purposes of each trial phase clearly described. Participation requires informed consent, and before entering a study patients should ask, among other things, what side effects they can expect, and who will manage their treatment.

  5. Higher Education and the Older Volunteer: A Place for Everyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Harriet H.; And Others

    The initiation, implementation, and successes of 13 older adult volunteer programs are traced in these descriptive essays focusing on: (1) the Educational Growth Opportunities project at San Diego State University (CA); (2) the Retired Volunteer Service Corps at the University of Maryland; (3) the Displaced Homemakers Program at Valencia Community…

  6. 28 CFR 115.32 - Volunteer and contractor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Volunteer and contractor training. 115.32 Section 115.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.32 Volunteer...

  7. 28 CFR 115.32 - Volunteer and contractor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Volunteer and contractor training. 115.32 Section 115.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.32 Volunteer...

  8. 28 CFR 115.32 - Volunteer and contractor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volunteer and contractor training. 115.32 Section 115.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.32 Volunteer...

  9. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  10. Determination of mianserin in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS): application to a bioequivalence study in Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Li, Huan-De; Chen, Ben-Mei; Ma, Ning; Yan, Miao; Zhu, Yun-Gui

    2008-08-05

    This study aims to develop a standard protocol for the bioequivalence study of mianserin hydrochloride tablets--a tetracyclic antidepressant drug. For this purpose, a rapid, convenient and selective method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS) has been developed and validated to determine mianserin in human plasma. Mianserin and the internal standard (I.S.), cinnarizine were extracted from plasma by N-hexane:dimethylcarbinol (98:2, v/v) after alkalinized with sodium hydroxide. LC separation was performed on a Thermo Hypersil-Hypurity C18 (5 microm, 150 mm x 2.1 mm) with the mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.4)-methanol-acetonitrile (35:50:15, v/v/v) at 0.22 ml/min. The retention time of mianserin and cinnarizine was 3.4 and 2.1 min, respectively. Quadrupole MS detection and quantitation was done by monitoring at m/z 265 [M+H]+ for mianserin and m/z 369 [M+H]+ for cinnarizine. The method was validated over the concentration ranges of 1.0-200.0 ng/ml for mianserin. The recovery was 81.3-84.1%, intra- and inter-day precision of the assay at three concentrations were 9.6-11.4% with accuracy of 97.5-101.2% and the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) detection was 1.0 ng/ml for mianserin. The stability of compounds was established in a battery of stability studies, i.e., short-term and long-term storage stability as well as freeze-thaw cycles. This method proved to be suitable for the bioequivalence study of mianserin hydrochloride tablets in healthy human male volunteers.

  11. Effect of food intake and co-administration of placebo self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems on the absorption of cinnarizine in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Jacobsen, Jette; Kristensen, Jakob; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Müllertz, Anette

    2016-03-10

    Positive food effects may be observed for low aqueous soluble compounds, these effects could potentially be circumvented using lipid based formulations. However, as all compounds are not chemically stable in lipid based systems, alternative dosage regimes could be investigated to evade the stability issue. The two aims for this present study were therefore; i) to investigate if a nutritional drink, Fresubin Energy®, could induce food effect in humans for the poorly soluble compound cinnarizine; and ii) to investigate if co-administration of a self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) with a conventional cinnarizine tablet could reduce the observed food-effect. A commercial conventional cinnarizine tablet was dosed to 10 healthy volunteers in a cross-over design in both fasted and fed state, with and without co-administration of a SNEDDS, with a one week wash-out period between dosing. The fed state was induced using a nutritional drink (Fresubin Energy®) and gastric emptying was assessed by administration of paracetamol as a marker. The pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the nutritional drink delayed the uptake and increased the fraction of absorbed cinnarizine, indicative of a food effect on the compound. This was in agreement with a previous dog study and indicates that the nutritional drink can be used for inducing the same level of food effect in humans. Though not statistically significant, the co-administration of SNEDDS exhibited a tendency towards a reduction of the observed food effect and an increased absorption of cinnarizine in the fasted state; based upon the individual ratios, which was not reflected in the mean data. However, the co-administration of SNEEDS in the fasted state, also induce a slower gastric emptying rate, which was observed as a delayed tmax for both cinnarizine and paracetamol.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rios, Jolian; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Pacheco-Palencia, Lisbeth A; Meibohm, Bernd; Talcott, Stephen T; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2008-09-10

    The acai berry is the fruit of the acai palm and is traditionally consumed in Brazil but has gained popularity abroad as a food and functional ingredient, yet little information exists on its health effect in humans. This study was performed as an acute four-way crossover clinical trial with acai pulp and clarified acai juice compared to applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage as controls. Healthy volunteers (12) were dosed at 7 mL/kg of body weight after a washout phase and overnight fast, and plasma was repeatedly sampled over 12 h and urine over 24 h after consumption. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of total anthocyanins quantified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside showed Cmax values of 2321 and 1138 ng/L at t max times of 2.2 and 2.0 h, and AUC last values of 8568 and 3314 ng h L(-1) for pulp and juice, respectively. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling identified dose volume as a significant predictor of relative oral bioavailability in a negative nonlinear relationship for acai pulp and juice. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased by the acai pulp and applesauce. Individual increases in plasma antioxidant capacity of up to 2.3- and 3-fold for acai juice and pulp, respectively were observed. The antioxidant capacity in urine, generation of reactive oxygen species, and uric acid concentrations in plasma were not significantly altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate the absorption and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in acai in plasma in an acute human consumption trial.

  13. Sex Determination of Adult Human Maxillary Sinuses on Panoramic Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Leao de Queiroz, Cristhiane; Terada, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias; Dezem, Thais Uenoyama; Gomes de Araújo, Lais; Galo, Rodrigo; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; Alves da Silva, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensions of adult human maxillary sinuses on panoramic radiographs and their possible application on the sex determination for forensic purposes. The sample comprised 64 database panoramic radiographs from individuals aged 20 years or older (32 male and 32 female subjects), with complete permanent dentition (or absence of third molars). One examiner measured the width and height of the right and left maxillary sinuses using the software Image J 1.47v (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA). Measurements were repeated to calculate intra-observer agreement. Chi-Square test, Kappa, ANOVA and T-Student were used for results analysis for p≤ 0.05. Intra-observer agreement with correlation Kappa ranged between 0.38 and 0.96. For female subjects, the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus were 28.7856mm and 44.6178mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 27.7163mm for height and 45.1850mm for width. Male subjects were found to have the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus 30.9981mm and 48.7753mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 30.7403mm for height and 48.5753mm for width. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and width of maxillary sinuses between males and females. It can be concluded that maxillary sinuses height and width on panoramic radiographs can be used to determine the gender of adult human subjects.

  14. The adult human pubic symphysis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Ines; Woodley, Stephanie J; Stringer, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    The pubic symphysis is a unique joint consisting of a fibrocartilaginous disc sandwiched between the articular surfaces of the pubic bones. It resists tensile, shearing and compressive forces and is capable of a small amount of movement under physiological conditions in most adults (up to 2 mm shift and 1° rotation). During pregnancy, circulating hormones such as relaxin induce resorption of the symphyseal margins and structural changes in the fibrocartilaginous disc, increasing symphyseal width and mobility. This systematic review of the English, German and French literature focuses on the normal anatomy of the adult human pubic symphysis. Although scientific studies of the joint have yielded useful descriptive data, comparison of results is hampered by imprecise methodology and/or poorly controlled studies. Several aspects of the anatomy of the pubic symphysis remain unknown or unclear: the precise attachments of surrounding ligaments and muscles; the arrangement of connective tissue fibres within the interpubic disc and the origin, structure and function of its associated interpubic cleft; the biomechanical consequences of sexual dimorphism; potential ethnic variations in morphology; and its precise innervation and blood supply. These deficiencies hinder our understanding of the normal form and function of the joint, which is particularly relevant when attempting to understand the mechanisms underlying pregnancy-related pubic symphyseal pain, a neglected and relatively common cause of pubic pain. A better understanding of the normal anatomy of the human pubic symphysis should improve our understanding of such problems and contribute to better treatments for patients suffering from symphyseal pain and dysfunction. PMID:20840351

  15. Sex Determination of Adult Human Maxillary Sinuses on Panoramic Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Leao de Queiroz, Cristhiane; Terada, Andrea Sayuri Silveira Dias; Dezem, Thais Uenoyama; Gomes de Araújo, Lais; Galo, Rodrigo; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano

    2016-01-01

    Absract The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensions of adult human maxillary sinuses on panoramic radiographs and their possible application on the sex determination for forensic purposes. The sample comprised 64 database panoramic radiographs from individuals aged 20 years or older (32 male and 32 female subjects), with complete permanent dentition (or absence of third molars). One examiner measured the width and height of the right and left maxillary sinuses using the software Image J 1.47v (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA). Measurements were repeated to calculate intra-observer agreement. Chi-Square test, Kappa, ANOVA and T-Student were used for results analysis for p≤ 0.05. Intra-observer agreement with correlation Kappa ranged between 0.38 and 0.96. For female subjects, the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus were 28.7856mm and 44.6178mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 27.7163mm for height and 45.1850mm for width. Male subjects were found to have the mean height and width of the left maxillary sinus 30.9981mm and 48.7753mm, respectively. And right maxillary sinus was 30.7403mm for height and 48.5753mm for width. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and width of maxillary sinuses between males and females. It can be concluded that maxillary sinuses height and width on panoramic radiographs can be used to determine the gender of adult human subjects. PMID:27847394

  16. HIV risk behavior among Peace Corps Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Moore, J; Beeker, C; Harrison, J S; Eng, T R; Doll, L S

    1995-07-01

    At least 10 former Peace Corps volunteers are believed to have acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their time of service. To assess HIV risk behavior among current Peace Corps volunteers, cross-sectional data were collected from 1242 randomly selected volunteers in 28 countries in 1991. 474 (38%) were stationed in sub-Saharan Africa. Non-sexual HIV-related risk activities included injection from local health facilities (209) and ears or body parts pierced (59). Of the 1018 volunteers who were unmarried or not living with a spouse, 61% of men and 60% of women indicated they had at least one sexual partner during their time of service; 30% and 20%, respectively, had three or more partners. Only 17 men and 12 women reported having a same-sex partner. 52% of sexually active Peace Corps volunteers stationed in Eastern Europe, 43% of those in Central or South America, 36% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 32% in Asia and the Pacific had a sexual partner from the host country. 32% of these volunteers used condoms on every occasion with partners from the host country, 49% used condoms some of the time, and 19% never used them. For male volunteers, consistent condom use was negatively associated with alcohol use and positively related to the perception that HIV was a problem in the host country; for female volunteers, younger age and fewer partners were the significant correlates of condom use. The inconsistent use of condoms in countries where HIV is widespread suggests a need for Peace Corps leaders to educate volunteers about local seroprevalence rates, cultural differences in sexual negotiation, and the importance of condom use.

  17. The Effect of Body Mass on Outdoor Adult Human Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Spencer, Jessica R; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2017-02-23

    Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6.0), TBS ≥12.5, advanced decomposition (TBS ≥19.0), TBS ≥23.0, and skeletonization (TBS ≥27.0). Results indicate no significant correlation between body mass and KADD at any TBS threshold. Body mass accounted for up to 24.0% of variation in decomposition rate depending on stage, and minor differences in decomposition pattern were observed. Body mass likely has a minimal impact on postmortem interval estimation.

  18. Adult human liver mesenchymal progenitor cells express phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Baruteau, Julien; Nyabi, Omar; Najimi, Mustapha; Fauvart, Maarten; Sokal, Etienne

    2014-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most prevalent inherited metabolic diseases and is accountable for a severe encephalopathy by progressive intoxication of the brain by phenylalanine. This results from an ineffective L-phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme (PAH) due to a mutated phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Neonatal screening programs allow an early dietetic treatment with restrictive phenylalanine intake. This diet prevents most of the neuropsychological disabilities but remains challenging for lifelong compliance. Adult-derived human liver progenitor cells (ADHLPC) are a pool of precursors that can differentiate into hepatocytes. We aim to study PAH expression and PAH activity in a differenciated ADHLPC. ADHLPC were isolated from human hepatocyte primary culture of two different donors and differenciated under specific culture conditions. We demonstrated the high expression of PAH and a large increase of PAH activity in differenciated LPC. The age of the donor, the cellular viability after liver digestion and cryopreservation affects PAH activity. ADHLPC might therefore be considered as a suitable source for cell therapy in PKU.

  19. Ossified Ligamentum Longitudinale Anterius in Adult Human Dry Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Venumadhav, Nelluri; KS, Siddaraju

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ligamentum longitudinale anterius is a broad and strong band of fibrous tissue that runs along the anterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae. Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius in adult dry human vertebra. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 95 sets of dry human vertebral columns irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery- Calicut, India. All the sets of vertebral columns were macroscopically inspected for the ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius. Results: It was observed that out of 95 sets of vertebral columns, 27 (28.42%) vertebral columns showed ossification. Out of 27 vertebral columns, 17 (17.89%) vertebral columns showed segmental type of ossification, 2 (2.11%) vertebral columns showed continuous type of ossification and 8 (8.42%) vertebral columns showed mixed type of ossification at different vertebral level. Conclusion: Such type of ossification will affect the biomechanics of the spine and may result in stiff neck, low back pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, compression of the brachial plexus, aphonia, immobility or mucosal thickening of larynx. Hence, knowledge of such abnormalities should be kept in mind to minimise serious complications in any surgical intervention or investigative procedures in the region. PMID:25302180

  20. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.

  1. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    DOE PAGES

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less

  2. Comprehensive cellular‐resolution atlas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Joshua J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A.C.; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet‐Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A.; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Fischl, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole‐brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high‐resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large‐format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto‐ and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127–3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  3. Sustained-release effervescent floating matrix tablets of baclofen: development, optimization and in vitro-in vivo evaluation in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gande, S

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Baclofen, a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant, is indicated in the long-term treatment of spasticity. It is difficult to formulate baclofen sustained release dosage forms because its absorption on arrival to colon (or even before) is low or nonexistent. In the present investigation efforts were made to improve the bioavailability of baclofen by increasing the residence time of the drug through sustained-release matrix tablet formulation via gastroretentive mechanism. Methods Tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique. The influence of gas generating and gel forming agents, amount of baclofen and total weight of tablet on physical properties, in vitro buoyancy, floating lag time, drug release, DSC, X-ray studies were investigated. The release mechanisms were explored and explained by applying zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer equations. The selected formulations were subjected to stability study for the period of three months. Results For all formulations, kinetics of drug release from tablet followed Higuchi's square root of time kinetic treatment heralding diffusion as predominant mechanism of drug release. Formulations containing 20 mg and 40 mg (F-1 and F-7) showed similar release profiles. There was no significant change in the selected formulations, when subjected to accelerated stability conditions over a period of three months. X-ray imaging in six healthy human volunteers revealed a mean gastric retention period of 5.50±0.7 hrs for the selected formulation. Conclusion Stable, sustained release effervescent floating matrix tablets of baclofen could be prepared by wet granulation technique. PMID:22615658

  4. Variation of erythroid and myeloid precursors in the marrow and peripheral blood of volunteer subjects infected with human parvovirus (B19).

    PubMed Central

    Potter, C G; Potter, A C; Hatton, C S; Chapel, H M; Anderson, M J; Pattison, J R; Tyrrell, D A; Higgins, P G; Willman, J S; Parry, H F

    1987-01-01

    Infection of normal individuals with human parvovirus (B19) results in a mild disease (erythema infectiosum) but gives rise to aplastic crises in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias. The effects of this disease on hemopoiesis were investigated following intranasal inoculation of the virus into three volunteers. A typical disease ensued with a viremia peaking at 9 d. Marrow morphology 6 d after inoculation appeared normal but at 10 d there was a severe loss of erythroid precursors followed by a 1-2-g drop in hemoglobin, and an increase in serum immunoreactive erythropoietin. Erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) from the peripheral blood were considerably reduced, starting at the time of viremia and persisting for 4-8 d depending on the individual. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) were also affected but the loss started 2 d later. Both CFU-GM and BFU-E showed a sharp overshoot at recovery. In the marrow, BFU-E and CFU-E were reduced at 6 and 10 d in the individual having the longest period of peripheral progenitor loss. In contrast, there was an increase in BFU-E and CFU-E in the subject with least change in peripheral progenitors. In the third subject, with an intermediate picture, there was a loss at 6 d but an increase at 10 d of erythroid progenitors. It is suggested that the architecture of the marrow might partially isolate progenitors from high titers of virus in the serum and individual variation in this respect might give the results observed. PMID:3033026

  5. Effects of red grape juice consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B and homocysteine in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad H; Rasmi, Yousef; Ramezani, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    It has suggested that grape juice consumption has lipid- lowering effect and it is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red grape juice (RGj) consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in healthy human volunteers. Twenty six healthy and nonsmoking males, aged between 25-60 years, who were under no medication asked to consume 150 ml of RGj twice per day for one month. Serum HDL-C, apoAI, apoB and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after one month RGj consumption. HDL-C levels after RGj consumption were significantly higher than the corresponding levels before the RGj consumption (41.44 ± 4.50 and 44.37 ± 4.30 mg/dl; P<0.0001). Also, apoB was significantly increased after RGj consumption (149.0 ± 22.35 and 157.19 ± 18.60 mg/dl; P<0.002). But apoAI levels were not changed significantly before and after of RGj consumption (154.27 ± 21.55 and 155.35 ± 21.07 mg/dl; P>0.05). Hcy levels were decreased after RGj consumption (7.70 ± 2.80 and 6.20 ± 2.30 µmol/l; P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that RGj consumption can significantly increase serum HDL-C levels and decrease Hcy levels. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals.

  6. Simultaneous determination of rupatadine and its metabolite desloratadine in human plasma by a sensitive LC-MS/MS method: application to the pharmacokinetic study in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Hong, Zhanying; Wu, Yiwen; Wei, Hua; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Yutian

    2009-02-20

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of rupatadine and its metabolite desloratadine in human plasma. After the addition of diphenhydramine, the internal standard (IS), plasma samples were extracted with a mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-hexane (1:1, v/v). The analysis was performed on a Ultimate AQ-C18 (4.6mm x 100mm, 5microm) column using a mobile phase consisting of a 80/20 mixture of methanol/water containing 0.0005% formic acid pumped at 0.3mlmin(-1). The analytes and the IS were detected in positive ionization mode and monitoring their precursor-->product ion combinations of m/z 416-->309, 311-->259, and 256-->167, respectively, in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linear ranges of the assay were 0.1-50 and 0.1-20ngml(-1) for rupatadine and desloratadine, respectively. The lower limits of reliable quantification for both rupatadine and desloratadine were 0.1ngml(-1), which offered high sensitivity and selectivity. The within- and between-run precision was less than 7.2%. The accuracy ranged from -9.2% to +6.4% and -7.2% to +7.2% for rupatadine and desloratadine in quality control samples at three levels, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of rupatadine and its major metabolite after oral administration of 10, 20 and 40mg rupatadine tablets to healthy Chinese volunteers.

  7. Effectiveness of hand-cleansing formulations containing tea tree oil assessed ex vivo on human skin and in vivo with volunteers using European standard EN 1499.

    PubMed

    Messager, S; Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    2005-03-01

    The efficacy of formulations containing tea tree oil (TTO) has been assessed in vitro in previous studies. Products that passed the European suspension test guidelines were investigated further in this study, in vivo with volunteers using the European handwashing method (EN 1499) and ex vivo using freshly excised human skin samples. The activity of 5% TTO in 0.001% Tween 80, in a hygienic skin wash (HSW) and in an alcoholic hygienic skin wash (AHSW) was investigated and compared with that of a non-medicated soft soap (SS, control). These formulations were assessed against Escherichia coli K12 as recommended by the European standard. In-vivo results showed that 5% TTO in Tween 80 and the AHSW were significantly more active than the SS after 1 min of handwashing. When assessed ex vivo, these two products were also significantly more active than the reference soap after 1 min of rubbing. Both methods showed that 5% TTO in Tween 80 was generally, although not always, more active than a handwash formulation, and that the AHSW was generally more active than the HSW, although this difference was not significant. The formulations tested, as well as the SS, were more active when assessed in vivo than ex-vivo against E. coli, although only the SS and the HSW were significantly more active in vivo. There appeared to be a pattern in the comparison between ex vivo and in vivo results. The antiseptics tested were, on average, 1.28+/-0.06 times more active when assessed in-vivo than when assessed ex vivo. Nevertheless, the main outcome of the European handwashing method is for the formulation tested to be significantly more active than the SS; both 5% TTO in Tween 80 and the AHSW achieved this both in-vivo and ex-vivo. TTO in Tween 80 and in formulations met the European in-vivo method requirements.

  8. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers?

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R

    2016-03-01

    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers.

  9. Municipality and Neighborhood Influences on Volunteering in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Dury, Sarah; Willems, Jurgen; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people's health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals' engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework.

  10. A Western diet ecological module identified from the 'humanized' mouse microbiota predicts diet in adults and formula feeding in children.

    PubMed

    Siddharth, Jay; Holway, Nicholas; Parkinson, Scott J

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between diet and the microbiota has been implicated in the growing frequency of chronic diseases associated with the Western lifestyle. However, the complexity and variability of microbial ecology in humans and preclinical models has hampered identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of the microbiota in this context. We sought to address two key questions. Can the microbial ecology of preclinical models predict human populations? And can we identify underlying principles that surpass the plasticity of microbial ecology in humans? To do this, we focused our study on diet; perhaps the most influential factor determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Beginning with a study in 'humanized' mice we identified an interactive module of 9 genera allied with Western diet intake. This module was applied to a controlled dietary study in humans. The abundance of the Western ecological module correctly predicted the dietary intake of 19/21 top and 21/21 of the bottom quartile samples inclusive of all 5 Western and 'low-fat' diet subjects, respectively. In 98 volunteers the abundance of the Western module correlated appropriately with dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fiber. Furthermore, it correlated with the geographical location and dietary habits of healthy adults from the Western, developing and third world. The module was also coupled to dietary intake in children (and piglets) correlating with formula (vs breast) feeding and associated with a precipitous development of the ecological module in young children. Our study provides a conceptual platform to translate microbial ecology from preclinical models to humans and identifies an ecological network module underlying the association of the gut microbiota with Western dietary habits.

  11. School-Based Mentoring: A Study of Volunteer Motivations and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldarella, Paul; Gomm, Robert Jeff; Shatzer, Ryan H.; Wall, D. Gary

    2010-01-01

    While research has been conducted concerning the effects of school-based mentoring on at risk students, limited work has focused on the volunteer mentors. This study examined the motivations of adult volunteers and the benefits of their participation in a six-month, school-based mentoring program. A total of 31 volunteers completed adapted…

  12. School-Based Mentoring: A Study of Volunteer Motivations and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldarella, Paul; Gomm, Robert J.; Shatzer, Ryan H.; Wall, D. Gary

    2010-01-01

    While research has been conducted concerning the effects of school-based mentoring on at-risk students, limited work has focused on the volunteer mentors. This study examined the motivations of adult volunteers and the benefits of their participation in a six-month, school-based mentoring program. A total of 31 volunteers completed adapted…

  13. Volunteers Supporting Children with Reading Difficulties in Schools: Motives and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Danielle; Hornery, Samantha; Seaton, Marjorie; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research on volunteer mentor programs has demonstrated mostly positive outcomes for mentees. As a result, many schools seek to attract and retain volunteers to assist children in need of support. The researchers interviewed 26 adult volunteers (from Australian companies) who help children with reading difficulties and examined intervention effects…

  14. Features of hand-foot crawling behavior in human adults.

    PubMed

    Maclellan, M J; Ivanenko, Y P; Cappellini, G; Sylos Labini, F; Lacquaniti, F

    2012-01-01

    Interlimb coordination of crawling kinematics in humans shares features with other primates and nonprimate quadrupeds, and it has been suggested that this is due to a similar organization of the locomotor pattern generators (CPGs). To extend the previous findings and to further explore the neural control of bipedal vs. quadrupedal locomotion, we used a crawling paradigm in which healthy adults crawled on their hands and feet at different speeds and at different surface inclinations (13°, 27°, and 35°). Ground reaction forces, limb kinematics, and electromyographic (EMG) activity from 26 upper and lower limb muscles on the right side of the body were collected. The EMG activity was mapped onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the motoneuron pools to characterize the general features of cervical and lumbosacral spinal cord activation. The spatiotemporal pattern of spinal cord activity significantly differed between quadrupedal and bipedal gaits. In addition, participants exhibited a large range of kinematic coordination styles (diagonal vs. lateral patterns), which is in contrast to the stereotypical kinematics of upright bipedal walking, suggesting flexible coupling of cervical and lumbosacral pattern generators. Results showed strikingly dissimilar directional horizontal forces for the arms and legs, considerably retracted average leg orientation, and substantially smaller sacral vs. lumbar motoneuron activity compared with quadrupedal gait in animals. A gradual transition to a more vertical body orientation (increasing the inclination of the treadmill) led to the appearance of more prominent sacral activity (related to activation of ankle plantar flexors), typical of bipedal walking. The findings highlight the reorganization and adaptation of CPG networks involved in the control of quadrupedal human locomotion and a high specialization of the musculoskeletal apparatus to specific gaits.

  15. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  16. A comparison of monovalent Hong Kong influenza virus vaccine with vaccines containing only pre-1968 Asian strains in adult volunteers. A report to the Medical Research Council Committee on Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hobson, D; Baker, F A; Chivers, C P; Reed, S E; Sharp, D

    1970-09-01

    A total of 1601 adult industrial workers were vaccinated with either monovalent inactivated vaccine of the Hong Kong strain of influenza A virus, or with polyvalent vaccine containing only pre-1968 Asian viruses. Serological investigations on a random sample of volunteers showed that 53/56 (95%) given Hong Kong vaccine developed a significant rise in specific haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody; final titres were 1/48 or greater in 39 (70%) and the GMT (geometric mean titre) was 96.5. After polyvalent Asian vaccine, 40/67 (60%) also produced antibody against Hong Kong virus, but only 21 (31%) had final titres of 1/48 or above, and the GMT rose only to 14.1. An intranasal spray of the Hong Kong vaccine in addition to injected Asian vaccine gave no additional increase in antibody.Each type of vaccine stimulated a recall of pre-existing antibody against Asian viruses. The possible significance of heterologous responses to the two vaccines is discussed.The incidence of clinical influenza in the trial population was sporadic, and the infection rates were too low to allow any accurate estimate of the protective efficiency of the two vaccines.

  17. A randomized, crossover pharmacodynamic study of immediate-release omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and delayed-release lansoprazole in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pratha, Vijayalakshmi S; McGraw, Thomas; Tobin, William

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) effectively block gastric acid secretion and are the treatment of choice for heartburn. PPIs differ, however, in onset of action and bioavailability. In this single-center, open-label, three-way crossover study, onset of action of immediate-release omeprazole 20 mg/sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg (IR-OME) and delayed-release (DR) lansoprazole 15 mg was evaluated in 63 healthy fasting adults. Subjects were randomized to once daily IR-OME, or DR-lansoprazole, or no treatment for 7 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the earliest time where a statistically significant difference was observed between IR-OME and DR-lansoprazole in median intragastric pH scores for three consecutive 5-min intervals on day 7. Secondary endpoints compared effects of active treatments on days 1 and 7 (e.g., time to sustained inhibition, percentage of time with pH >4). A significant difference in median intragastric pH favoring IR-OME was observed on day 7 starting at the 10- to 15-min interval postdosing (P = 0.024) and sustaining through the 115- to 120-min interval (P = 0.017). On day 1, IR-OME achieved sustained inhibition of intragastric acidity significantly faster than DR-lansoprazole. IR-OME maintained pH >4 significantly longer than DR-lansoprazole over a 24-h period (P = 0.007) on day 7. Overall, results of this study demonstrate IR-OME is safe and well tolerated and that treatment with IR-OME results in significantly faster onset of action and better gastric acid suppression at steady state than DR-lansoprazole.

  18. Volunteers: A Challenge For Extension Workers: Developing Volunteer Leaders From Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Minerva O.; And Others

    A series of guidelines for use by Extension agents, as they involve socially and economically disadvantaged youth and adults in volunteer leadership roles in rural and urban Extension programs, is presented. Section headings are: Know Your Audience, Establish Rapport, Levels of Leadership, Leader Development, Leadership Roles, Volunteer…

  19. Sporozoite Immunization of Human Volunteers under Mefloquine Prophylaxis Is Safe, Immunogenic and Protective: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Obiero, Joshua M.; Behet, Marije C.; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Graumans, Wouter; van Lieshout, Lisette; Bastiaens, Guido J. H.; Teelen, Karina; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Scholzen, Anja; Visser, Leo G.; Sauerwein, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Immunization of healthy volunteers with chloroquine ChemoProphylaxis and Sporozoites (CPS-CQ) efficiently and reproducibly induces dose-dependent and long-lasting protection against homologous Plasmodium falciparum challenge. Here, we studied whether chloroquine can be replaced by mefloquine, which is the only other licensed anti-malarial chemoprophylactic drug that does not affect pre-erythrocytic stages, exposure to which is considered essential for induction of protection by CPS immunization. In a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, volunteers under either chloroquine prophylaxis (CPS-CQ, n = 5) or mefloquine prophylaxis (CPS-MQ, n = 10) received three sub-optimal CPS immunizations by bites from eight P. falciparum infected mosquitoes each, at monthly intervals. Four control volunteers received mefloquine prophylaxis and bites from uninfected mosquitoes. CPS-MQ immunization is safe and equally potent compared to CPS-CQ inducing protection in 7/10 (70%) versus 3/5 (60%) volunteers, respectively. Furthermore, specific antibody levels and cellular immune memory responses were comparable between both groups. We therefore conclude that mefloquine and chloroquine are equally effective in CPS-induced immune responses and protection. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01422954 PMID:25396417

  20. Sporozoite immunization of human volunteers under mefloquine prophylaxis is safe, immunogenic and protective: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bijker, Else M; Schats, Remko; Obiero, Joshua M; Behet, Marije C; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Graumans, Wouter; van Lieshout, Lisette; Bastiaens, Guido J H; Teelen, Karina; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Scholzen, Anja; Visser, Leo G; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Immunization of healthy volunteers with chloroquine ChemoProphylaxis and Sporozoites (CPS-CQ) efficiently and reproducibly induces dose-dependent and long-lasting protection against homologous Plasmodium falciparum challenge. Here, we studied whether chloroquine can be replaced by mefloquine, which is the only other licensed anti-malarial chemoprophylactic drug that does not affect pre-erythrocytic stages, exposure to which is considered essential for induction of protection by CPS immunization. In a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, volunteers under either chloroquine prophylaxis (CPS-CQ, n = 5) or mefloquine prophylaxis (CPS-MQ, n = 10) received three sub-optimal CPS immunizations by bites from eight P. falciparum infected mosquitoes each, at monthly intervals. Four control volunteers received mefloquine prophylaxis and bites from uninfected mosquitoes. CPS-MQ immunization is safe and equally potent compared to CPS-CQ inducing protection in 7/10 (70%) versus 3/5 (60%) volunteers, respectively. Furthermore, specific antibody levels and cellular immune memory responses were comparable between both groups. We therefore conclude that mefloquine and chloroquine are equally effective in CPS-induced immune responses and protection. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01422954.

  1. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety and immunogenicity study of 4 formulations of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed plus CPG 7909 (AV7909) in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert J; Daczkowski, Nancy F; Kaptur, Paulina E; Muse, Derek; Sheldon, Eric; LaForce, Craig; Sari, Suha; Rudge, Thomas L; Bernton, Edward

    2013-06-26

    A new anthrax vaccine that could accelerate the immune response and possibly reduce the number of injections needed for protection would be desirable in a post-exposure setting. This Phase 1 study compared the safety and immunogenicity of 2 IM doses (Days 0 and 14) of 4 formulations of AV7909 (AVA plus CPG 7909) with 2 IM doses of BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) and 2 IM doses of saline placebo administered on Days 0 and 14. A total of 105 healthy adults 18-50 years of age were randomized to 1 of 6 study groups: BioThrax (0.5 mL), AV7909 Formulation 1 (0.5 mL AVA+0.5mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 2 (0.5 mL AVA+0.25mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 3 (0.25 mL AVA+0.5mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 4 (0.25 mL AVA+0.25mg CPG 7909), or saline placebo (0.5 mL). All randomized subjects received at least 1 vaccination, and 100 subjects completed the trial. After 2 doses, mean peak normalized toxin neutralizing antibody responses (TNA NF50) in the AV7909 groups were higher than in the BioThrax group. Differences among the 4 AV7909 groups were not statistically significant. Subjects who received AV7909 reached peak titers on Day 28 vs. Day 35 in the BioThrax group. The most common adverse events (AEs) in the BioThrax and AV7909 groups assessed as related to vaccination were injection site reactions. Transient lymphopenia was observed after the first dose in each AV7909 group. Frequencies of injection site and systemic reactions recorded by subjects in diaries for 7 days after each injection were highest with AV7909 Formulation 1. No AEs of special interest (autoimmune events) were observed in the study. Further studies of doses and dosing regimens are planned to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of AV7909.

  2. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of 4 Formulations of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Plus CPG 7909 (AV7909) in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Robert J.; Daczkowski, Nancy F.; Kaptur, Paulina E.; Muse, Derek; Sheldon, Eric; LaForce, Craig; Sari, Suha; Rudge, Thomas L.; Bernton, Edward

    2013-01-01

    A new anthrax vaccine that could accelerate the immune response and possibly reduce the number of injections needed for protection would be desirable in a post-exposure setting. This Phase 1 study compared the safety and immunogenicity of 2 IM doses (Days 0 and 14) of 4 formulations of AV7909 (AVA plus CPG 7909) with 2 IM doses of BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) and 2 IM doses of saline placebo administered on Days 0 and 14. A total of 105 healthy adults 18 to 50 years of age were randomized to 1 of 6 study groups: BioThrax (0.5 mL), AV7909 Formulation 1 (0.5 mL AVA + 0.5 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 2 (0.5 mL AVA + 0.25 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 3 (0.25 mL AVA + 0.5 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 4 (0.25 mL AVA + 0.25 mg CPG 7909), or saline placebo (0.5 mL). All randomized subjects received at least 1 vaccination, and 100 subjects completed the trial. After 2 doses, mean peak normalized toxin neutralizing antibody responses (TNA NF50) in the AV7909 groups were higher than in the BioThrax group. Differences among the 4 AV7909 groups were not statistically significant. Subjects who received AV7909 reached peak titers on Day 28 vs. Day 35 in the BioThrax group. The most common adverse events (AEs) in the BioThrax and AV7909 groups assessed as related to vaccination were injection site reactions. Transient lymphopenia was observed after the first dose in each AV7909 group. Frequencies of injection site and systemic reactions recorded by subjects in diaries for 7 days after each injection were highest with AV7909 Formulation 1. No AEs of special interest (autoimmune events) were observed in the study. Further studies of doses and dosing regimens are planned to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of AV7909. PMID:23701746

  3. The Volunteer Tutor's Toolbox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Beth Ann, Ed.

    Intended for volunteers in community literacy programs, one-on-one tutors, or parents who want to support classroom learning, this book presents tutoring ideas, teaching activities, and evaluation suggestions. The book guides tutors as they teach students to become independent learners and shows tutors how to provide support but not "do"…

  4. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  5. Volunteer Recording Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Braille and Talking Book Library, Phoenix.

    This manual for volunteers begins with a brief introduction to Arizona's Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, which is one of 56 libraries appointed by the Librarian of Congress to provide public library service to persons with visual or physical impairments. Introductory materials include explanations of the general policies and…

  6. High-Resolution Analyses of Human Leukocyte Antigens Allele and Haplotype Frequencies Based on 169,995 Volunteers from the China Bone Marrow Donor Registry Program

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Li, Jian-Ping; Mao, Wei; Zhang, De-Mei; Liu, Meng-Li; Hei, Ai-Lian; Dai, Da-Peng; Jiang, Ping; Shan, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Bo-Wei; Zhu, Chuan-Fu; Shen, Jie; Deng, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Zheng-Lei; Yu, Wei-Jian; Chen, Qiang; Qiao, Yan-Hui; Zhu, Xiang-Ming; Lv, Rong; Li, Guo-Ying; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Heng-Cong; Zhang, Xu; Pei, Bin; Jiao, Li-Xin; Shen, Gang; Liu, Ying; Feng, Zhi-Hui; Su, Yu-Ping; Xu, Zhao-Xia; Di, Wen-Ying; Jiang, Yao-Qin; Fu, Hong-Lei; Liu, Xiang-Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhou, Mei-Zhen; Du, Dan; Liu, Qi; Han, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Cai, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a widely used and effective therapy for hematopoietic malignant diseases and numerous other disorders. High-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype frequency distributions not only facilitate individual donor searches but also determine the probability with which a particular patient can find HLA-matched donors in a registry. The frequencies of the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 alleles and haplotypes were estimated among 169,995 Chinese volunteers using the sequencing-based typing (SBT) method. Totals of 191 HLA-A, 244 HLA-B, 146 HLA-C, 143 HLA-DRB1 and 47 HLA-DQB1 alleles were observed, which accounted for 6.98%, 7.06%, 6.46%, 9.11% and 7.91%, respectively, of the alleles in each locus in the world (IMGT 3.16 Release, Apr. 2014). Among the 100 most common haplotypes from the 169,995 individuals, nine distinct haplotypes displayed significant regionally specific distributions. Among these, three were predominant in the South China region (i.e., the 20th, 31st, and 81sthaplotypes), another three were predominant in the Southwest China region (i.e., the 68th, 79th, and 95th haplotypes), one was predominant in the South and Southwest China regions (the 18th haplotype), one was relatively common in the Northeast and North China regions (the 94th haplotype), and one was common in the Northeast, North and Northwest China (the 40th haplotype). In conclusion, this is the first to analyze high-resolution HLA diversities across the entire country of China, based on a detailed and complete data set that covered 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities. Specifically, we also evaluated the HLA matching probabilities within and between geographic regions and analyzed the regional differences in the HLA diversities in China. We believe that the data presented in this study might be useful for unrelated HLA-matched donor searches, donor registry planning, population genetic studies, and anthropogenesis

  7. Use of biosynthetic human C-peptide in the measurement of insulin secretion rates in normal volunteers and type I diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Polonsky, K S; Licinio-Paixao, J; Given, B D; Pugh, W; Rue, P; Galloway, J; Karrison, T; Frank, B

    1986-01-01

    We undertook this study to examine the accuracy of plasma C-peptide as a marker of insulin secretion. The peripheral kinetics of biosynthetic human C-peptide (BHCP) were studied in 10 normal volunteers and 7 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Each subject received intravenous bolus injections of BHCP as well as constant and variable rate infusions. After intravenous bolus injections the metabolic clearance rate of BHCP (3.8 +/- 0.1 ml/kg per min, mean +/- SEM) was not significantly different from the value obtained during its constant intravenous infusion (3.9 +/- 0.1 ml/kg per min). The metabolic clearance rate of C-peptide measured during steady state intravenous infusions was constant over a wide concentration range. During experiments in which BHCP was infused at a variable rate, the peripheral concentration of C-peptide did not change in proportion to the infusion rate. Thus, the infusion rate of BHCP could not be calculated accurately as the product of the C-peptide concentration and metabolic clearance rate. However, the non-steady infusion rate of BHCP could be accurately calculated from peripheral C-peptide concentrations using a two-compartment mathematical model when model parameters were derived from the C-peptide decay curve in each subject. Application of this model to predict constant infusions of C-peptide from peripheral C-peptide concentrations resulted in model generated estimates of the C-peptide infusion rate that were 101.5 +/- 3.4% and 100.4 +/- 2.8% of low and high dose rates, respectively. Estimates of the total quantity of C-peptide infused at a variable rate over 240 min based on the two-compartment model represented 104.6 +/- 2.4% of the amount actually infused. Application of this approach to clinical studies will allow the secretion rate of insulin to be estimated with considerable accuracy. The insulin secretion rate in normal subjects after an overnight fast was 89.1 pmol/min, which corresponds with a basal 24-h secretion of 18.6 U

  8. Increasing Capacity & Changing the Culture: Volunteer Management in Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    volunteer program. First, is their agency utilizing civilian volunteers? Second, are the agencies that presently engage volunteers capitalizing on this...human dignity, and social justice when those activities are not the source of one’s livelihood, require involvement beyond what is expected of all...law enforcement agency. This leads one to ask exactly why these circumstances exist and what is preventing law enforcement agencies from capitalizing

  9. Immunoreactivity of thymosin beta 4 in human foetal and adult genitourinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Nemolato, S.; Cabras, T.; Fanari, M.U.; Cau, F.; Fanni, D.; Gerosa, C.; Manconi, B.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a member of the beta-thymosins family, a family of peptides playing essential roles in many cellular functions. Our recent studies suggested Tβ4 plays a key role in the development of human salivary glands and the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to analyse the presence of Tβ4 in the human adult and foetal genitourinary tract. Immunolocalization of Tβ4 was studied in autoptic samples of kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, testicle and prostate obtained from four human foetuses and four adults. Presence of the peptide was observed in cells of different origin: in surface epithelium, in gland epithelial cells and in the interstitial cells. Tβ4 was mainly found in adult and foetal bladder in the transitional epithelial cells; in the adult endometrium, glands and stromal cells were immunoreactive for the peptide; Tβ4 was mainly localized in the glands of foetal prostate while, in the adults a weak Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the stroma. In adult and foetal kidney, Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to ducts and tubules with completely spared glomeruli; a weak positivity was observed in adult and foetal oocytes; immunoreactivity was mainly localized in the interstitial cells of foetal and adult testis. In this study, we confirm that Tβ4 could play a relevant role during human development, even in the genitourinary tract, and reveal that immunoreactivity for this peptide may change during postnatal and adult life. PMID:21263742

  10. Transcriptional profiling of adult neural stem-like cells from the human brain.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33-60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6), foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1) and human brain tissues (n = 12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate.

  11. Hyperoxia Induces Inflammation and Cytotoxicity in Human Adult Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Christina; Wu, Jing; Tiboldi, Akos; Hess, Moritz; Mitulovic, Goran; Kaun, Christoph; Krychtiuk, Konstantin Alexander; Wojta, Johann; Ullrich, Roman; Tretter, Eva Verena; Markstaller, Klaus; Klein, Klaus Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Supplemental oxygen (O2) is used as adjunct therapy in anesthesia, emergency, and intensive care medicine. We hypothesized that excessive O2 levels (hyperoxia) can directly injure human adult cardiac myocytes (HACMs). HACMs obtained from the explanted hearts of transplantation patients were exposed to constant hyperoxia (95% O2), intermittent hyperoxia (alternating 10 min exposures to 5% and 95% O2), constant normoxia (21% O2), or constant mild hypoxia (5% O2) using a bioreactor. Changes in cell morphology, viability as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and trypan blue (TB) staining, and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and various pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin, IL; chemokine C-X-C motif ligand, CXC; granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, G-CSF; intercellular adhesion molecule, ICAM; chemokine C-C motif ligand, CCL) were compared among treatment groups at baseline (0 h) and after 8, 24, and 72 h of treatment. Changes in HACM protein expression were determined by quantitative proteomic analysis after 48 h of exposure. Compared with constant normoxia and mild hypoxia, constant hyperoxia resulted in a higher TB-positive cell count, greater release of LDH, and elevated secretion of VEGF, MIF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL-1, CXCL-10, G-CSF, ICAM-1, CCL-3, and CCL-5. Cellular inflammation and cytotoxicity gradually increased and was highest after 72 h of constant and intermittent hyperoxia. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that hypoxic and hyperoxic O2 exposure differently altered the expression levels of proteins involved in cell-cycle regulation, energy metabolism, and cell signaling. In conclusion, constant and intermittent hyperoxia induced inflammation and cytotoxicity in HACMs. Cell injury occurred earliest and was greatest after constant hyperoxia, but even relatively brief repeating hyperoxic episodes induced a substantial inflammatory response.

  12. Volunteer Service Agreements: A New Strategy for Volunteer Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Phyllis

    As new types of volunteers come into the field--working people, retirees, executives--new methods are needed to hold their interest and ensure their cooperation while preserving the goals of the organizations they serve. Some of those organizations, especially museums, are using volunteer service agreements to attract and hold volunteers and to…

  13. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  14. Wasted Resources: Volunteers and Disasters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    influx of volunteers by creating these centers. Two such centers exist in Frederick County , Maryland, and Fairfax, Virginia. According to the Volunteer...and assigned to emergency/disaster related volunteer duties requested by agencies in Frederick County .”10 The organizers of Frederick County have...mobilization center or volunteer reception center. Frederick County in Maryland and Fairfax County in Virginia have established two such centers and have

  15. Volunteer donor apheresis.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Dan A

    2002-02-01

    Volunteer donor apheresis has evolved from early plasmapheresis procedures that collected single components into technically advanced multicomponent procedures that can produce combinations of red blood cells, platelets, and plasma units. Blood collection and utilization is increasing annually in the United States. The number of apheresis procedures is also increasing such that single donor platelet transfusions now exceed platelet concentrates from random donors. Donor qualifications for apheresis vary from those of whole blood. Depending on the procedure, the donor weight, donation interval, and platelet count must be taken into consideration. Adverse effects of apheresis are well known and fortunately occur in only a very small percentage of donors. The recruitment of volunteer donors is one of the most challenging aspects of a successful apheresis program. As multicomponent apheresis becomes more commonplace, it is important for collection centers to analyze the best methods to recruit and collect donors.

  16. Special Report: Volunteers in Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Noel

    1976-01-01

    Many New York librarians view volunteers as a serious job threat; their unions back them in their opposition to volunteers; and some administrators are afraid to launch volunteer programs during the budget crunch because of their probably adverse effect on staff morale. (Author)

  17. Methodology for Teachers. Volunteer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Daniel D.; And Others

    The Volunteer's Manual of "Methodology for Teachers" was written to (1) provide Peace Corps/Korea TESOL volunteers with a simple, complete guide to methodology for teaching English in Korea; and (2) provide these volunteers with a simple, complete guide for teaching this methodology to Korean English teachers in inservice training programs. For…

  18. Volunteers Help Stretch Local Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Maureen Godsey

    1985-01-01

    Discusses use of volunteers to augment local government services such as libraries, parks, paralegal aid, elderly care, data processing. Outlines requirements of successful programs and steps toward initiating volunteer programs. Presents case studies of volunteer programs in two Maryland communities and 41 examples of how local governments can…

  19. Volunteer Management Support Program Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to serve as a guide for governing the operation and management of the Volunteer Management Support Program (VMSP). Outlined in the section on program guidelines are the structure and operations of the VMSP. The remainder of the guide, which deals with volunteer guidelines, explains VMSP volunteer responsibilities,…

  20. Changes in Serological Immunology Measures in UK and Kenyan Adults Post-controlled Human Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susanne H.; Llewellyn, David; Silk, Sarah E.; Milne, Kathryn H.; Elias, Sean C.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Juma, Elizabeth A.; Magiri, Charles; Muia, Alfred; Jin, Jing; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Longley, Rhea J.; Mercier, Thomas; Decosterd, Laurent; Long, Carole A.; Osier, Faith H.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Ogutu, Bernhards; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Marsh, Kevin; Draper, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The timing of infection is closely determined in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies, and as such they provide a unique opportunity to dissect changes in immunological responses before and after a single infection. The first Kenyan Challenge Study (KCS) (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272) was performed in 2013 with the aim of establishing the CHMI model in Kenya. This study used aseptic, cryopreserved, attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by needle and syringe (PfSPZ Challenge) and was the first to evaluate parasite dynamics post-CHMI in individuals with varying degrees of prior exposure to malaria. Methods: We describe detailed serological and functional immunological responses pre- and post-CHMI for participants in the KCS and compare these with those from malaria-naïve UK volunteers who also underwent CHMI (VAC049) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01465048) using PfSPZ Challenge. We assessed antibody responses to three key blood-stage merozoite antigens [merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), apical membrane protein 1 (AMA1), and reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5)] and functional activity using two candidate measures of anti-merozoite immunity; the growth inhibition activity (GIA) assay and the antibody-dependent respiratory burst activity (ADRB) assay. Results:Clear serological differences were observed pre- and post-CHMI by ELISA between malaria-naïve UK volunteers in VAC049, and Kenyan volunteers who had prior malaria exposure. Antibodies to AMA1 and schizont extract correlated with parasite multiplication rate (PMR) post-CHMI in KCS. Serum from volunteer 110 in KCS, who demonstrated a dramatically reduced PMR in vivo, had no in vitro GIA prior to CHMI but the highest level of ADRB activity. A significant difference in ADRB activity was seen between KCS volunteers with minimal and definite prior exposure to malaria and significant increases were seen in ADRB activity post-CHMI in Kenyan

  1. Changes in Serological Immunology Measures in UK and Kenyan Adults Post-controlled Human Malaria Infection.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Susanne H; Llewellyn, David; Silk, Sarah E; Milne, Kathryn H; Elias, Sean C; Miura, Kazutoyo; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Juma, Elizabeth A; Magiri, Charles; Muia, Alfred; Jin, Jing; Spencer, Alexandra J; Longley, Rhea J; Mercier, Thomas; Decosterd, Laurent; Long, Carole A; Osier, Faith H; Hoffman, Stephen L; Ogutu, Bernhards; Hill, Adrian V S; Marsh, Kevin; Draper, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Background: The timing of infection is closely determined in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies, and as such they provide a unique opportunity to dissect changes in immunological responses before and after a single infection. The first Kenyan Challenge Study (KCS) (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272) was performed in 2013 with the aim of establishing the CHMI model in Kenya. This study used aseptic, cryopreserved, attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by needle and syringe (PfSPZ Challenge) and was the first to evaluate parasite dynamics post-CHMI in individuals with varying degrees of prior exposure to malaria. Methods: We describe detailed serological and functional immunological responses pre- and post-CHMI for participants in the KCS and compare these with those from malaria-naïve UK volunteers who also underwent CHMI (VAC049) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01465048) using PfSPZ Challenge. We assessed antibody responses to three key blood-stage merozoite antigens [merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), apical membrane protein 1 (AMA1), and reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5)] and functional activity using two candidate measures of anti-merozoite immunity; the growth inhibition activity (GIA) assay and the antibody-dependent respiratory burst activity (ADRB) assay. Results:Clear serological differences were observed pre- and post-CHMI by ELISA between malaria-naïve UK volunteers in VAC049, and Kenyan volunteers who had prior malaria exposure. Antibodies to AMA1 and schizont extract correlated with parasite multiplication rate (PMR) post-CHMI in KCS. Serum from volunteer 110 in KCS, who demonstrated a dramatically reduced PMR in vivo, had no in vitro GIA prior to CHMI but the highest level of ADRB activity. A significant difference in ADRB activity was seen between KCS volunteers with minimal and definite prior exposure to malaria and significant increases were seen in ADRB activity post-CHMI in Kenyan

  2. Adult Continuing Education and Human Resource Development: Present Competitors, Potential Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Adult Continuing Education (ACE) and Human Resource Development (HRD) have grown tremendously in the last quarter century. ACE experienced tremendous growth in the 60s and 70s, with over 17 million attending colleges and universities, and local school and community adult education programs by the end of the 1970s. More ACE programs were started…

  3. Behavioral and magnetoencephalographic correlates of plasticity in the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, V. S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent behavioral and physiological evidence suggests that even brief sensory deprivation can lead to the rapid emergence of new and functionally effective neural connections in the adult human brain. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8248123

  4. Characteristics and motives of adolescent volunteers in wildlife education.

    PubMed

    Kidd, A H; Kidd, R M

    1997-06-01

    The characteristics and motives of 63 suburban adolescents (20 boys, 43 girls) who are concerned with learning how to care for and make significant contributions to wildlife and the environment were assessed by telephone interviews. The data confirm studies of adults in that significantly more girls than boys became volunteers, significantly more volunteers' families than average families experienced caring interactions with animal life through pet ownership, and significantly more volunteers reported that concern for wildlife arose during early childhood rather than later. The data also indicate that early childhood experiences with pets, with adults acting as role models and providing social approval, and having instruction in wildlife care with peers all contributed to their positive attitudes toward wildlife and the pursuit of their volunteer work. Over-all, the results suggest that adolescents, wildlife, and the environment might benefit if wildlife care programs could be established for other youth such as inner city teenagers.

  5. Newborn human skin fibroblasts senesce in vitro without acquiring adult growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of human fibroblasts were prepared from chest skin obtained either from newborns (less than 3 months old) or adults (more than 35 years old) and maintained in vitro until they senesced. Adult cells grew logarithmically in medium supplemented with whole blood serum but not with platelet-poor plasma. Early passage cells obtained from newborns grew equally well in either plasma- or serum-supplemented medium. The difference in growth factor requirements between adult and newborn cells persisted through the lifespan of the cells; i.e., newborn cells did not develop adult hormonal requirements when maintained in culture. Thus, in vitro cellular aging can be distinguished from some types of differentiation.

  6. Comparative bioequivalence study of leflunomide tablets in Indian healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S; Das, A; Ghosh, D; Sarkar, A K; Chattaraj, T K; Pal, T K

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of teriflunomide [CAS No. 163451-81-8], the metabolite of leflunomide [CAS No. 75706-12-6] has been evaluated in adult human volunteers after oral administration of tablet formulation. However, no published data is available regarding the bioavailability of this in the Indian population. In light of the above, a study was designed to carry out a bioequivalence study of 2 preparations of leflunomide 20 mg in healthy Indian male volunteers.24 healthy male volunteers (age, 25±4.1 years; weight, 57.58±7.01 kg) were enrolled in this study. Each subject received a test and reference formulation in a single dose, fasting 2 period, 2 way crossover study with a wash out period of 4 weeks. Analysis of teriflunomide from plasma samples was done by a simple and sensitive HPLC method using UV detection developed in our laboratory. An analysis of variance was performed on the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞ using GLM procedures in which sources of variation were subject, formulation, and period.The results indicated that there are no statistically significant differences between the 2 products in either the mean concentration-time profiles or in the obtained pharmacokinetic parameters. 90% confidence limits for the log transformed data of Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞. were within the acceptable range of 0.80-1.25.The results indicate that the 2 products are bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of drug absorption. Both the preparations were well tolerated with no adverse reactions throughout the study.

  7. Investigation of genes important in neurodevelopment disorders in adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Maussion, Gilles; Diallo, Alpha B; Gigek, Carolina O; Chen, Elizabeth S; Crapper, Liam; Théroux, Jean-Francois; Chen, Gary G; Vasuta, Cristina; Ernst, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are caused by mutations in genes expressed in fetal brain, but little is known about these same genes in adult human brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that genes associated with NDDs continue to have a role in adult human brain to explore the idea that NDD symptoms may be partially a result of their adult function rather than just their neurodevelopmental function. To demonstrate adult brain function, we performed expression analyses and ChIPseq in human neural stem cell(NSC) lines at different developmental stages and adult human brain, targeting two genes associated with NDDs, SATB2 and EHMT1, and the WNT signaling gene TCF7L2, which has not been associated with NDDs. Analysis of DNA interaction sites in neural stem cells reveals high (40-50 %) overlap between proliferating and differentiating cells for each gene in temporal space. Studies in adult brain demonstrate that consensus sites are similar to NSCs but occur at different genomic locations. We also performed expression analyses using BrainSpan data for NDD-associated genes SATB2, EHMT1, FMR1, MECP2, MBD5, CTNND2, RAI1, CHD8, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, TCF4, SCN2A, and DYRK1A and find high expression of these genes in adult brain, at least comparable to developing human brain, confirming that genes associated with NDDs likely have a role in adult tissue. Adult function of genes associated with NDDs might be important in clinical disease presentation and may be suitable targets for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Purple loosestrife volunteers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a perennial plant native to Eurasia where it grows along streams, rivers, and wet seepage areas (fig. 1). Seeds were inadvertently brought to North American territories in the ballast water of ships. Purple loosestrife was also intentionally planted throughout North America for its ornamental flowers but has since escaped cultivation to spread to wetlands.Some purple loosestrife plants release millions of seeds during the summer season, and these seeds readily disperse to new wetlands via water, animals, and even on people’s shoes. In addition, both its roots and stem fragments can sprout and begin new plants.When purple loosestrife invades a wetland, the species sometimes becomes more dominant than the original native wetland species, such as cattails and sedges. While many people think that purple loosestrife reduces the value of wetlands for wildlife, these claims are disputed. Most people agree, however, that purple loosestrife grows more prolifically in North America than elsewhere, probably because the species has left its native enemies behind in Eurasia and Australia. Although we do not understand how well the species grows in various climates, there is some thought that purple loosetrife may never fully invade the southern United States. Studies looking at the species’ response to temperature and analyses of its growth patterns across latitudes can help us determine its future threat to uninvaded portions of the United States. This is where volunteers come in.Volunteers in North America, Eurasia, and Australia are helping assess purple loosestrife growth in their regions (fig. 2). The program is part of Dr. Beth Middleton’s project to compare the role of purple loosestrife in its native and invasive habitats. Anyone can participate, and volunteers currently include high school and college students, retirees, professionals from all disciplines, agency personnel, and university faculty. Volunteers collect data

  9. "Adult Education Is about Human Being in All Its Aspects"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Derek Legge, who celebrated his 95th birthday at the end of last month, is one of the most dedicated and influential of the largely unsung heroes of the adult education movement in Britain. As modesty is one of the many qualities with which his friends and colleagues credit him, he is certain to shrink from the description, but there is little…

  10. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

  11. Human Capital Development: Reforms for Adult and Community Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The adult and community education (ACE) sector is consistently responsive to changing community needs and government priorities. It is this particular function that has drawn ACE into the lifelong learning debate as one model for sustaining communities. The responsiveness of ACE means that the sector and its programs continue to make valuable…

  12. Challenges in volunteering from cancer care volunteers perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kamaludin, Kauthar Mohamad; Muhammad, Mazanah; Wahat, Nor Wahiza Abdul; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of non-government organizations (NGOs) and support groups has helped strengthen public health services in addressing cancer care burden. Owing to the contribution of volunteers in cancer care, this article documents a qualitative study that examined challenges in attracting and retaining cancer care volunteers as part of the effort to develop a volunteer recruitment model. Data were collected through three focus group discussions involving 19 cancer support group members in Malaysia. Findings of the study revealed that mobility and locality appeared to be significant in Malaysian context, while the need for financial support and time flexibility are challenges faced by cancer support groups to attract and retain volunteers. The findings imply that cancer care initiatives can benefit from more local volunteers but at the same time these volunteers require flexibility and financial support to sustain their engagement.

  13. [Effect of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol, aldehyde concentrations after whisky drinking in human volunteers, and acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice].

    PubMed

    Sumi, H; Yatagai, C; Wada, H; Yoshida, E; Maruyama, M

    1995-04-01

    Effects of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations after drinking whisky (corresponding to 30-65 ml ethanol) were studied in 21 healthy volunteers. When 100 ml of BIOZYME was orally administrated to the volunteers before drinking whisky, the time delay of both blood factors to attain maximum concentrations were observed. The maximum decrease in blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations were about 23% and 45% (p < 0.005), respectively, at 1 hr after drinking whisky. The aldehyde lowering effect of BIOZYME was continued for at least 4 hr after whisky drinking. Concentration of the breath alcohol was also sharply decreased by BIOZYME administration. The breath alcohol concentration in the administered group (0.18 +/- 0.11 mg/l) was found to be lowered about 44% than that of the control group (0.32 +/- 0.11 mg/l) (p < 0.0005, n = 21), at 1 hr after drinking whisky. In acute toxicity experiments of aldehyde in mice (12 mmol AcH/mg), BIOZYME showed the survival effect as with alpha-D-Ala (134% increase of the living, at 40 min after i.p. administration) (p < 0.005, n = 22). These findings reveal the Bacillus natto produced BIOZYME as a reasonable, safety and useful anti-hangover agent.

  14. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Lima, V J de Melo; Brown, K Robson

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  15. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  16. An Inventory of Skills and Attitudes Necessary for a Career in Human Services/Adult Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, William

    This document is an inventory of skills identified as necessary by professionals in the human services field specializing in adult care. It is intended as a mechanism whereby educators can compare that which they teach against what the human services industry feels is relevant. Introductory material discusses the process of the occupational…

  17. What Makes Them Pay? Values of Volunteer Tourists Working for Sea Turtle Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Lisa M.; Smith, Christy

    2006-07-01

    As charismatic mega-fauna, sea turtles attract many volunteers to conservation programs. This article examines the ways in which volunteers value sea turtles, in the specific context of volunteers working with the Caribbean Conservation Corporation, at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. The complexity of volunteer values is explored using a qualitative approach. In-depth interviews with 31 volunteers were conducted in July of 1999 and 2000. Interviews probed, among other things, interest in sea turtles and their conservation, motives for participating, and the most gratifying parts of their volunteer experience. Results show that volunteers hold multiple and complex values for sea turtles, but particular values dominate. Results have implications for understanding human-environment relations and the emerging study of volunteer tourism. There are also management implications for volunteer programs hoping to attract participants.

  18. What makes them pay? Values of volunteer tourists working for sea turtle conservation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lisa M; Smith, Christy

    2006-07-01

    As charismatic mega-fauna, sea turtles attract many volunteers to conservation programs. This article examines the ways in which volunteers value sea turtles, in the specific context of volunteers working with the Caribbean Conservation Corporation, at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. The complexity of volunteer values is explored using a qualitative approach. In-depth interviews with 31 volunteers were conducted in July of 1999 and 2000. Interviews probed, among other things, interest in sea turtles and their conservation, motives for participating, and the most gratifying parts of their volunteer experience. Results show that volunteers hold multiple and complex values for sea turtles, but particular values dominate. Results have implications for understanding human-environment relations and the emerging study of volunteer tourism. There are also management implications for volunteer programs hoping to attract participants.

  19. Age and motives for volunteering: testing hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Schultz, Amy

    2003-06-01

    Following a meta-analysis of the relations between age and volunteer motives (career, understanding, enhancement, protective, making friends, social, and values), the authors tested hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory regarding the effects of age on these volunteer motives. The Volunteer Functions Inventory was completed by 523 volunteers from 2 affiliates of the International Habitat for Humanity. Multiple regression analyses revealed, as predicted, that as age increases, career and understanding volunteer motivation decrease and social volunteer motivation increases. Contrary to expectations, age did not contribute to the prediction of enhancement, protective, and values volunteer motivations and the relation between age and making friends volunteer motivation was nonlinear. The results were discussed in the context of age-differential and age-similarity perspectives on volunteer motivation.

  20. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the development of human disease.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Steve C

    2008-10-01

    The mammalian brain contains a population of neurons that are continuously generated from late embryogenesis through adulthood-after the generation of almost all other neuronal types. This brain region-the hippocampal dentate gyrus-is in a sense, therefore, persistently immature. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis is likely an essential feature of the dentate, which is critical for learning and memory. Protracted neurogenesis after birth would allow the new cells to develop in conjunction with external events-but it may come with a price: while neurogenesis in utero occurs in a protected environment, children and adults are exposed to any number of hazards, such as toxins and infectious agents. Mature neurons might be resistant to such exposures, but new neurons may be vulnerable. Consistent with this prediction, in adult rodents seizures disrupt the integration of newly generated granule cells, whereas mature granule cells are comparatively unaffected. Significantly, abnormally interconnected cells may contribute to epileptogenesis and/or associated cognitive and memory deficits. Finally, studies increasingly indicate that new granule cells are extremely sensitive to a host of endogenous and exogenous factors, raising the possibility that disrupted granule cell integration may be a common feature of many neurological diseases.

  1. Volunteering and depressive symptoms among residents in a continuing care retirement community.

    PubMed

    Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the relationship between volunteer activities, depressive symptoms, and feelings of usefulness among older adults using path analysis. Survey data was collected via interview from residents of a continuing care retirement community. Neither feelings of usefulness nor volunteering were directly associated with depressive symptoms. Volunteering was directly associated with feelings of usefulness and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through total physical activity. Age, fear of falling, pain, physical activity, and physical resilience explained 31% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Engaging in volunteer work may be beneficial for increasing feelings of usefulness and indirectly improving depressive symptoms among older adults.

  2. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  3. Effects of short term changes in the blood glucose level on the autofluorescence lifetime of the human retina in healthy volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, Matthias; Nagel, Edgar; Schweitzer, Dietrich; Schramm, Stefan; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) provides in vivo metabolic mapping of the ocular fundus. Changes in FLIO have been found in e.g. diabetes patients. The influence of short term metabolic changes caused by blood glucose level changes on is unknown. Aim of this work is the detection of short-term changes in fundus autofluorescence lifetime during an oral glucose tolerance test. Methods: FLIO was performed in 10 healthy volunteers (29+/-4 years, fasting for 12h) using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (30° fundus, 34μm resolution, excitation with 473nm diode laser with 70 ps pulses at 80 MHz repetition rate, detection in two spectral channels 500-560nm (ch1) and 560-720nm (ch2) using the timecorrelated single photon counting method). The blood glucose level (BGL) was measured by an Accu-Chek® Aviva self-monitoring device. Before and after a glucose drink (300ml solution, containing 75g of glucose (Accu-Chek® Dextrose O.G.T.), BGL and FLIO were measured every 15min. The FLIMX software package was applied to compute the average fluorescence lifetime τ on the inner ring of the ETDRS grid using a modified 3-exponential approach. Results: The results are given as mean +/- standard deviation over all volunteers in ch1. Baseline measurement: BGL: 5.3+/-0.4 mmol/l, τ1: 49+/-6ps. A significant reduction (α=5% Wilcoxon rank-sum test) in τ1 is detected after 15min (BGL: 8.4+/-1.1 mmol/l, τ1: 44+/-5ps) and after 90min (BGL: 6.3+/-1.4 mmol/l, τ1: 41+/-5ps). Results of ch2 show smaller reductions in the fluorescence lifetimes over time.

  4. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia.

  5. Psychosocial Differences between Elderly Volunteers and Non-Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, K.I.; Linn, Margaret W.

    1980-01-01

    Volunteer workers over sixty-five were compared to retired elderly who did not engage in work activity. Volunteers had significantly higher degree of life satisfaction, stronger will to live, and fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization. No differences were found on demographics or background. (Author)

  6. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  7. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk.

  8. [Dietary phytoestrogen and its potential benefits in adult human health].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Argelia; de la Maza, María Pía; Valladares, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Human diet contains a series of bioactive vegetal compounds that can improve human health. Among these, there has been a special interest for phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence about the potential benefits of phytoestrogens for human health. Forty eight manuscripts were selected for their study design and relevance to human health. The cell growth inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens and their implication in breast cancer are reviewed. Also the effects of these compounds on serum lipid levels and the effectiveness of a phytoestrogen derivate, ipriflavone, on the prevention of osteoporosis are analyzed. Although these compounds have a great potential for improving health, there is still not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of phytoestrogens.

  9. Personalized genomic disease risk of volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; McGuire, Amy L.; Pereira, Stacey; Caskey, C. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used for researching the causes of genetic disorders. However, its usefulness in clinical practice for medical diagnosis is in early development. In this report, we demonstrate the value of NGS for genetic risk assessment and evaluate the limitations and barriers for the adoption of this technology into medical practice. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on 81 volunteers, and for each volunteer, we requested personal medical histories, constructed a three-generation pedigree, and required their participation in a comprehensive educational program. We limited our clinical reporting to disease risks based on only rare damaging mutations and known pathogenic variations in genes previously reported to be associated with human disorders. We identified 271 recessive risk alleles (214 genes), 126 dominant risk alleles (101 genes), and 3 X-recessive risk alleles (3 genes). We linked personal disease histories with causative disease genes in 18 volunteers. Furthermore, by incorporating family histories into our genetic analyses, we identified an additional five heritable diseases. Traditional genetic counseling and disease education were provided in verbal and written reports to all volunteers. Our report demonstrates that when genome results are carefully interpreted and integrated with an individual’s medical records and pedigree data, NGS is a valuable diagnostic tool for genetic disease risk. PMID:24082139

  10. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-07-26

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  11. A century of trends in adult human height

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  12. Immune physiology and oogenesis in fetal and adult humans, ovarian infertility, and totipotency of adult ovarian stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Virant-Klun, Irma; Gupta, Satish K; Dominguez, Roberto; Svetlikova, Marta; Xu, Fei

    2009-03-01

    It is still widely believed that while oocytes in invertebrates and lower vertebrates are periodically renewed throughout life, oocytes in humans and higher vertebrates are formed only during the fetal/perinatal period. However, this dogma is questioned, and clashes with Darwinian evolutionary theory. Studies of oogenesis and follicular renewal from ovarian stem cells (OSCs) in adult human ovaries, and of the role of third-party bone marrow-derived cells (monocyte-derived tissue macrophages and T lymphocytes) could help provide a better understanding of the causes of ovarian infertility, its prevention, and potential treatment. We have reported differentiation of distinct cell types from OSC and the production of new eggs in cultures derived from premenopausal and postmenopausal human ovaries. OSCs are also capable of producing neural/neuronal cells in vitro after sequential stimulation with sex steroid combinations. Hence, OSC represent a unique type of totipotent adult stem cells, which could be utilized for autologous treatment of premature ovarian failure and also for autologous stem cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases without use of allogeneic embryonic stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer. The in vivo application of sex steroid combinations may augment the proliferation of existing neural stem cells and their differentiation into mature neuronal cells (systemic regenerative therapy). Such treatment may also stimulate the transdifferentiation of autologous neural stem cell precursors into neural stem cells useful for topical or systemic regenerative treatment.

  13. Hesperetin induces melanin production in adult human epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Usach, Iris; Taléns-Visconti, Raquel; Magraner-Pardo, Lorena; Peris, José-Esteban

    2015-06-01

    One of the major sources of flavonoids for humans are citrus fruits, hesperidin being the predominant flavonoid. Hesperetin (HSP), the aglycon of hesperidin, has been reported to provide health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. However, the effect of HSP on skin pigmentation is not clear. Some authors have found that HSP induces melanogenesis in murine B16-F10 melanoma cells, which, if extrapolated to in vivo conditions, might protect skin against photodamage. Since the effect of HSP on normal melanocytes could be different to that observed on melanoma cells, the described effect of HSP on murine melanoma cells has been compared to the effect obtained using normal human melanocytes. HSP concentrations of 25 and 50 µM induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to control melanocytes, 25 µM HSP increased melanin production and tyrosinase activity 1.4-fold (p < 0.01) and 1.1-fold (p < 0.01), respectively, and the corresponding increases in the case of 50 µM HSP were 1.9-fold (p < 0.001) and 1.3-fold (p < 0.001). Therefore, HSP could be considered a valuable photoprotective substance if its capacity to increase melanin production in human melanocyte cultures could be reproduced on human skin.

  14. The conscientious retiree: The relationship between conscientiousness, retirement, and volunteering.

    PubMed

    Mike, Anissa; Jackson, Joshua J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, work status, and volunteering utilizing two large samples, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). It was hypothesized that conscientious adults who were retired would be more likely to volunteer because, after retirement, they gain a substantial amount of free time, while losing an outlet for their industrious and achievement-striving tendencies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed that conscientious, retired individuals were more likely to volunteer than conscientious, working individuals. Further analyses revealed that facets of conscientiousness provide differential information from the general trait. These findings indicate that volunteering during retirement fills an important niche for high-striving, conscientious individuals.

  15. Comparison of proliferating cells between human adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Hong; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Gang

    2008-04-01

    Studies of sweat glands had demonstrated that there were degenerating cells and proliferating cells in the eccrine sweat glands. To compare the differences in the proliferating cells between human adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands, immunostaining of proliferating-associated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67 nuclear antigen (Ki67) was performed, and the location and the percentage of the positive staining cells were analyzed. The results showed that a few cells of the secretory and ductal portion in both the adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands stained positive with Ki67 and PCNA. The labeling index of PCNA in adult eccrine sweat glands was 34.71 +/- 8.37%, while that in the fetal was 62.72 +/- 6.54%. The labeling index of PCNA in fetal eccrine sweat glands was higher than that in adult. Myoepithelial cells were negative staining with anti-PCNA antibody in adult eccrine sweat glands, while in the fetal a few myoepithelial cells were positive staining. Labeling index of Ki67 in adult eccrine sweat glands was similar to that in the fetal, ranging from 0.5 to 4.3%. Myoepithelial cells of the adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands both were negative staining with anti-Ki67 antibody. We concluded that the myoepithelial cells had proliferating ability only in fetal eccrine sweat glands, and that the proliferating ability of fetal eccrine sweat glands was stronger than that of the adult.

  16. Managing Library Volunteers, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driggers, Preston; Dumas, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers are essential to a successful library program--and at a time when deep budget cuts are the norm, there are many libraries that depend on the help of dedicated volunteers, who do everything from shelving books to covering the phones. Whether these are friends, trustees, or community members, managing them effectively is the key to…

  17. Volunteer Voice. 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volunteer Voice, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Four issues of "Volunteer Voice," a newsletter of the Tacoma, Washington Community House Training Project, are presented. The project provides English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and support to refugees. Contents of Number 1 (Summer 1992) include an account of one volunteer's initial encounter; a game for teaching adverbs; instructions…

  18. Volunteer Development. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Certain practices in volunteer development have proved successful to help organizations make the best use of their volunteers. Development should be a comprehensive, continuous process through which individuals can extend, update, and adapt their knowledge, skills, and abilities to enhance their performance and potential. A model for volunteer…

  19. Androgen responsive adult human prostatic epithelial cell lines immortalized by human papillomavirus 18.

    PubMed

    Bello, D; Webber, M M; Kleinman, H K; Wartinger, D D; Rhim, J S

    1997-06-01

    Prostate cancer and benign tumors of the prostate are the two most common neoplastic diseases in men in the United States, however, research on their causes and treatment has been slow because of the difficulty in obtaining fresh samples of human tissue and a lack of well characterized cell lines which exhibit growth and differentiation characteristics of normal prostatic epithelium. Non-neoplastic adult human prostatic epithelial cells from a white male donor were immortalized with human papillomavirus 18 which resulted in the establishment of the RWPE-1 cell line. Cells from the RWPE-1 cell line were further transformed by v-Ki-ras to establish the RWPE-2 cell line. The objectives of this study were to: (1) establish the prostatic epithelial origin and androgen responsiveness of RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 cell lines; (2) examine their response to growth factors; and (3) establish the malignant characteristics of the RWPE-2 cell line. Immunoperoxidase staining showed that both RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 cells express cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are characteristic of luminal prostatic epithelial cells, but they also coexpress basal cell cytokeratins. These cell lines show growth stimulation and prostate specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in response to the synthetic androgen mibolerone, which establishes their prostatic epithelial origin. Both cell lines also show a dose-dependent growth stimulation by EGF and bFGF and growth inhibition when exposed to TGF-beta, however, the transformed RWPE-2 cells are less responsive. RWPE-1 cells neither grow in agar nor form tumors when injected into nude mice with or without Matrigel. However, RWPE-2 cells form colonies in agar and tumors in nude mice. In the in vitro invasion assay, RWPE-1 cells are not invasive whereas RWPE-2 cells are invasive. Nuclear expression of p53 and Rb proteins was heterogeneous but detectable by immunostaining in both cell lines. The RWPE-1 cells, which show many normal cell

  20. Global and local processing in adult humans (Homo sapiens), 5-year-old children (Homo sapiens), and adult cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Neiworth, Julie J; Gleichman, Amy J; Olinick, Anne S; Lamp, Kristen E

    2006-11-01

    This study compared adults (Homo sapiens), young children (Homo sapiens), and adult tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) while they discriminated global and local properties of stimuli. Subjects were trained to discriminate a circle made of circle elements from a square made of square elements and were tested with circles made of squares and squares made of circles. Adult humans showed a global bias in testing that was unaffected by the density of the elements in the stimuli. Children showed a global bias with dense displays but discriminated by both local and global properties with sparse displays. Adult tamarins' biases matched those of the children. The striking similarity between the perceptual processing of adult monkeys and humans diagnosed with autism and the difference between this and normatively developing human perception is discussed.

  1. Controlled-release effervescent floating matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride: development, optimization and in vitro-in vivo evaluation in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Mina Ibrahim

    2010-02-01

    Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride has a short elimination half-life, a narrow absorption window and is mainly absorbed in proximal areas of GIT. The purpose of this study was to develop a gastroretentive controlled-release drug delivery system with swelling, floating, and adhesive properties. Ten tablet formulations were designed using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K15M) and/or sodium alginate (Na alginate) as release-retarding polymer(s) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) or calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) as a gas former. Swelling ability, floating behaviour, adhesion period and drug release studies were conducted in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37+/-0.5 degrees C. The tablets showed acceptable physicochemical properties. Drug release profiles of all formulae followed non-Fickian diffusion. Statistical analyses of data revealed that tablets containing HPMC K15M (21.42%, w/w), Na alginate (7.14%, w/w) and NaHCO(3) (20%, w/w) (formula F7) or CaCO(3) (20%, w/w) (formula F10) were promising systems exhibiting excellent floating properties, extended adhesion periods and sustained drug release characteristics. Both formulae were stored at 40 degrees C/75% RH for 3months according to ICH guidelines. Formula F10 showed better physical stability. Abdominal X-ray imaging of formula F10, loaded with barium sulfate, in six healthy volunteers revealed a mean gastric retention period of 5.50+/-0.77h.

  2. Impact of growth hormone hypersecretion on the adult human kidney.

    PubMed

    Grunenwald, Solange; Tack, Ivan; Chauveau, Dominique; Bennet, Antoine; Caron, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Acromegaly is most often secondary to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with increased Insulin-like Growth Factor type 1 (IGF-1) level. The consequences of GH/IGF-1 hypersecretion reflect the diversity of action of these hormones. The genes of the GH receptor (GHR), IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF-binding proteins (IGF-BP) are physiologically expressed in the adult kidney, suggesting a potential role of the somatotropic axis on renal structure and functions. The expression of these proteins is highly organized and differs according to the anatomical and functional segments of the nephron suggesting different roles of GH and IGF-1 in these segments. In animals, chronic exposure to high doses of GH induces glomerulosclerosis and increases albuminuria. Studies in patients with GH hypersecretion have identified numerous targets of GH/IGF-1 axis on the kidney: 1) an impact on renal filtration with increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 2) a structural impact with an increase in kidney weight and glomerular hypertrophy, and 3) a tubular impact leading to hyperphosphatemia, hypercalciuria and antinatriuretic effects. Despite the increased glomerular filtration rate observed in patients with GH hypersecretion, GH is an inefficient treatment for chronic renal failure. GH and IGF-1 seem to be involved in the physiopathology of diabetic nephropathy; this finding offers the possibility of targeting the GH/IGF-1 axis for the prevention and the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  4. Bacteriology of severe periodontitis in young adult humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Smibert, R M; Hash, D E; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1982-01-01

    A total of 78 bacteriological samples were taken from the supragingival tooth surface after superficial cleaning with toothpicks or from the periodontal sulci of 42 affected sites in 21 adolescents or young adults with severe generalized periodontitis. Of 190 bacterial species, subspecies, or serotypes detected among 2,723 isolates, 11 species exceeded 1% of the subgingival flora and were most closely associated with the diseased sulci. Eleven others were also sufficiently frequent to be suspect agents of tissue destruction. Many of these species are known pathogens of other body sites. In addition, 10 species of Treponema were isolated. One of these and the "large treponeme" were also more closely associated with severe periodontitis than they were with healthy sites or gingivitis. There were highly significant differences between the composition of the flora of the affected sulci and the flora of (i) the adjacent supragingival tooth surface, (ii) the gingival crevice of periodontally healthy people, and (iii) sites with a gingival index score of 0 or 2 in experimental gingivitis studies. The floras of different individuals were also significantly different. There was no statistically detectable effect of sampling per se upon the composition of the flora of subsequent samples from the same sites. The composition of the supragingival flora of the patients with severe generalized periodontitis that had serum antibody to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was significantly different from the supragingival flora of patients without this serum antibody. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the composition of their subgingival floras. PMID:7152665

  5. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Does the adult human ciliary body epithelium contain "true" retinal stem cells?

    PubMed

    Frøen, Rebecca; Johnsen, Erik O; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Facskó, Andrea; Petrovski, Goran; Moe, Morten C

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports of retinal stem cells being present in several locations of the adult eye have sparked great hopes that they may be used to treat the millions of people worldwide who suffer from blindness as a result of retinal disease or injury. A population of proliferative cells derived from the ciliary body epithelium (CE) has been considered one of the prime stem cell candidates, and as such they have received much attention in recent years. However, the true nature of these cells in the adult human eye has still not been fully elucidated, and the stem cell claim has become increasingly controversial in light of new and conflicting reports. In this paper, we will try to answer the question of whether the available evidence is strong enough for the research community to conclude that the adult human CE indeed harbors stem cells.

  7. Impact of oral consumption of heat-treated Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964 on the level of natural TFα-specific antibodies in human adults.

    PubMed

    Ulsemer, P; Toutounian, K; Kressel, G; Goletz, C; Schmidt, J; Karsten, U; Hahn, A; Goletz, S

    2016-09-01

    It is now generally accepted that the human body exists in close synergy with the gut microbiome and that this cross-talk plays an essential role in human health and disease. One facet from the many interactions between the microbiome and the immune system is the induction of natural antibodies to commensal bacterial glycans, such as blood group antigens, the alpha-Gal epitope or the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TFα) antigen. Since we have observed that certain species of the commensal genus Bacteroides express the TFα antigen, we examined whether the oral dietary supplementation of a pasteurised Bacteroides xylanisolvens strain might be able to enhance the level of natural anti-TFα antibodies in healthy adults. The data obtained from a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 140 healthy volunteers and lasting 8 weeks revealed that the oral uptake of this strain was indeed able to increase the level of TFα-specific immunoglobulin M serum antibodies. The effect was dose-dependent but remained - at any doses - within the physiological range determined before intervention. Furthermore, the effect reverted after stopping the intake. The results support the idea of the microbiome inducing the generation of systemic antigen-specific antibodies against sugar epitopes. They also demonstrate the possibility to modulate essential regulatory or defence processes through dietary supplementation of selected commensal bacteria with the aim to assist human health.

  8. Cal-Pal: A County-Wide Volunteer Service Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The implementation and continuing growth of a volunteer youth/adult match-up service, Cal-Pal, being provided in seven rural communities are described in this article. School social workers in these areas can collaborate with other school-based personnel and community leaders to make such a service available. A major benefit of the program is the…

  9. Volunteering amongst Persons Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, David; Balandin, Susan; Togher, Leanne

    2009-01-01

    Volunteering is a common activity amongst adults without disability, resulting in benefits for individuals, organisations, and societies at large. In an attempt to increase community participation, people with lifelong disability who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems (e.g., speech generating devices or communication…

  10. Genetic and functional characterization of clonally derived adult human brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Kosaku; Luijten, Ineke H N; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Hong, Haemin; Sonne, Si B; Kim, Miae; Xue, Ruidan; Chondronikola, Maria; Cypess, Aaron M; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Nedergaard, Jan; Sidossis, Labros S; Kajimura, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) acts in mammals as a natural defense system against hypothermia, and its activation to a state of increased energy expenditure is believed to protect against the development of obesity. Even though the existence of BAT in adult humans has been widely appreciated1–8, its cellular origin and molecular identity remain elusive largely because of high cellular heterogeneity within various adipose tissue depots. To understand the nature of adult human brown adipocytes at single cell resolution, we isolated clonally derived adipocytes from stromal vascular fractions of adult human BAT from two individuals and globally analyzed their molecular signatures. We used RNA sequencing followed by unbiased genome-wide expression analyses and found that a population of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive human adipocytes possessed molecular signatures resembling those of a recruitable form of thermogenic adipocytes (that is, beige adipocytes). In addition, we identified molecular markers that were highly enriched in UCP1-positive human adipocytes, a set that included potassium channel K3 (KCNK3) and mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1). Further, we functionally characterized these two markers using a loss-of-function approach and found that KCNK3 and MTUS1 were required for beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenic function. The results of this study present new opportunities for human BAT research, such as facilitating cell-based disease modeling and unbiased screens for thermogenic regulators. PMID:25774848

  11. Characterization of colony-forming cells in adult human articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ozbey, Ozlem; Sahin, Zeliha; Acar, Nuray; Ozcelik, Filiz Tepekoy; Ozenci, Alpay Merter; Koksoy, Sadi; Ustunel, Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that adult human articular cartilage contains stem-like cells within the native structure. In this study, we aimed to determine the localization of putative stem cell markers such as CD90, STRO-1, OCT-3/4, CD105 and CD166 in adult human articular cartilage tissue sections and demonstrate the expression of these markers within the expanded surface zone colony-forming (CF) cells and evaluate their differentiation potential. Biopsy samples were either fixed immediately for immunohistochemical analyses or processed for in vitro cell culture. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometry analyses were performed by using CD90, STRO-1, OCT-3/4, CD105 and CD166 antibodies. Isolated colony-forming (CF) cells were further stimulated, by using the appropriate growth factors in their pellet culture, to obtain cartilage, bone and adipose lineages. We observed that the expression of the stem cell markers were in various zones of the human adult cartilage. Flow cytometry results showed that in CF cells the expression of CD90 and CD166 was high, while OCT-3/4 was low. We also determined that CF cells could be stimulated towards cartilage, bone and adipose lineages. The results of this research support the idea that the resident stem-like cells in adult human articular cartilage express these putative stem cell markers, but further experimental investigations are needed to determine the precise localization of these cells.

  12. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  13. Treatment of Human-Caused Trauma: Attrition in the Adult Outcomes Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica; Ivanoff, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Attrition or dropout is the failure of a participant to complete, comply, or the prematurely discontinuation or discharge from treatment, resulting in lost data and affecting outcomes. This review of 10 years of adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment outcome literature specific to Criterion A events of human origin examines how…

  14. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2006-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  15. Emotions and Human Concern: Adult Education and the Philosophical Thought of Martha Nussbaum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Donovan

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that philosopher Martha Nussbaum's reflections on the role of the emotions in human flourishing can contribute in important ways to our understanding of the emotions in adult education contexts. The article summarises Nussbaum's exploration of the contributions of classical philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and…

  16. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2006-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  17. NIRS Measurement of Venous Oxygen Saturation in the Adult Human Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Derek W.; Haensse, Daniel; Bauschatz, Andrea; Wolf, Martin

    Provided that both the breathing frequency remains constant and that the temporal resolution of the instrument is sufficiently high, NIRS spiroximetry enables measurement of cerebral SvO2 in healthy human adults. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements of StO2, SaO2, and SvO2 enable calculation of both OEF and the compartmental distribution of cerebral blood volume.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Adenovirus 7 Associated with Fatal Adult Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshina, Svetlana B; Ageeva, Margarita R; Deviatkin, Andrey A; Pimkina, Ekaterina V; Markelov, Mikhail L; Dedkov, Vladimir G; Safonova, Marina V; Shumilina, Elena Y; Lukashev, Alexander N; Shipulin, German A

    2016-10-27

    Human adenovirus 7 (hAdv7) 19BOVLB/Volgograd/Rus/2014 was isolated from the autopsy material from an adult with fatal pneumonia in Volgograd, Russia, in March 2014. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus isolate was performed.

  19. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  20. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  1. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  2. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  3. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  4. Canonical Genetic Signatures of the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Jegga, Anil G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L.; Menche, Jörge; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A.; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R.; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C.; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure, and function. We applied a correlation-based metric of “differential stability” (DS) to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing meso-scale genetic organization. The highest DS genes are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related biological annotations, disease associations, drug targets, and literature citations. Using high DS genes we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components, and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely-patterned genes displayed dramatic shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  5. Clinical forensic sample collection techniques following consensual intercourse in volunteers - cervical canal brush compared to conventional swabs.

    PubMed

    Joki-Erkkilä, Minna; Tuomisto, Sari; Seppänen, Mervi; Huhtala, Heini; Ahola, Arja; Rainio, Juha; Karhunen, Pekka J

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate gynecological evidence collection techniques; the benefit of cervical canal brush sample compared to vaginal fornix and cervical swab samples and the time frame for detecting Y-chromosomal material QiAmp DNA Mini Kit(®) and Quantifiler Y Human Male DNA Quantification Kit(®) in adult volunteers following consensual intercourse. Eighty-four adult female volunteers following consensual intercourse were recruited for the study. By combining all sample collecting techniques, 81.0% of the volunteers were Y-DNA positive. Up to 60 h the conventional swab sampling techniques detected more Y-DNA positive samples when compared to the brush technique. However, after 60 h, the cervical canal brush sample technique showed its benefit by detecting 27.3% (6/22) of Y-DNA positive samples, which were Y-DNA negative in both conventional swab sampling techniques. By combining swab and brush techniques, 75% of the volunteers were still Y-DNA positive in 72-144 post-coital hours. The rate of measurable Y-DNA decreased approximately 3% per hour. Despite reported consensual intercourse, 6.8% (3/44) of volunteers were Y-DNA negative within 48 h. Y-DNA was not detected after 144 post-coital hours (6 days). In conclusion, the brush as a forensic evidence collection method may provide additional biological trace evidence from the cervical canal, although the best biological trace evidence collection can be obtained by combining all three sampling techniques. The time frame for gynecological forensic evidence sample collection should be considered to be at least a week if sexual violence is suspected.

  6. Minnesota Summit on the Future Role of Senior Volunteers: A Planning and Recruitment Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laura B.; Pribyl, John

    2002-01-01

    Discussions with 35 older adults resulted in the following findings: (1) an historical perspective on volunteering; (2) identification of issues affecting seniors as volunteers; (3) creation of solution scenarios related to the issues; (4) establishment of conditions that would increase senior volunteerism; and (5) determination of the types of…

  7. Becoming Qualified to Teach Low-literate Refugees: A Case Study of One Volunteer Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Kristen H.

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates Carolyn, an effective volunteer ESL and literacy instructor of adult African refugees, in order to understand both what it means to be a qualified instructor, and also how community-based volunteer instructors may become more qualified. The study's findings suggest that Carolyn's qualifications are a combination of…

  8. Motivations Underlying Volunteerism: Differences and Similarities between Student and Senior Citizen Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibicky, Mark; And Others

    Many Americans engage in voluntary activities and many of these volunteers traditionally have been college students and older adults. A functional approach to volunteerism suggests that similar acts of volunteerism may actually reflect very different personal, social, and psychological functions for different volunteers. This study examined the…

  9. Senior Citizens as School Volunteers: New Resources for the Future. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Lois

    School volunteers come from many sources and provide a wide range of services at both the elementary and secondary levels. Senior citizens have discovered that volunteering offers an avenue for exercising skills and talents gained through a lifetime of experience. In schools across the country, older adults are being brought into classrooms, to…

  10. Volunteer Service by Young People from High School through Early Adulthood. Statistics in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planty, Mike; Regnier, Michael

    This Statistics in Brief examines the patterns and characteristics of individual involvement in community service activities from high school through early adulthood. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), this Brief describes the characteristics of young adults who volunteered, when they volunteered, why they…

  11. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  12. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  13. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  14. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  15. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  17. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  18. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  19. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  20. Rehabilitation in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-related diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, M W; Dillon, M E

    1992-06-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a fatal disorder of cell-mediated immunity caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As many as one million Americans infected with HIV can expect improved survival with more advanced treatment approaches. Complications of HIV infection occur in the brain, spinal cord, muscle, nerve, joints and other organ systems, which lead to extensive impairments. As survival increases, rehabilitation professionals can anticipate a greater number of referrals for the assessment and management of physical disability in persons with HIV infection. This article reviews HIV-related disease, impairment, disability and handicap pertinent to rehabilitation medicine. An agenda for future research is also proposed. Current knowledge and models or rehabilitation care can be applied to HIV-related physical disability in an effort to improve overall quality of life.

  1. Characterization of human foetal intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Comparison with the isoenzymes from the adult intestine and human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, C M; Enns, C A; Sussman, H H

    1983-01-01

    The molecular structure of human foetal intestinal alkaline phosphatase was defined by high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and amino acid inhibition studies. Comparison was made with the adult form of intestinal alkaline phosphatase, as well as with alkaline phosphatases isolated from cultured foetal amnion cells (FL) and a human tumour cell line (KB). Two non-identical subunits were isolated from the foetal intestinal isoenzyme, one having same molecular weight and isoelectric point as placental alkaline phosphatase, and the other corresponding to a glycosylated subunit of the adult intestinal enzyme. The FL-cell and KB-cell alkaline phosphatases were also found to contain two subunits similar to those of the foetal intestinal isoenzyme. Characterization of neuraminidase digests of the non-placental subunit showed it to be indistinguishable from the subunits of the adult intestinal isoenzyme. This implies that no new phosphatase structural gene is involved in the transition from the expression of foetal to adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase, but that the molecular changes involve suppression of the placental subunit and loss of neuraminic acid from the non-placental subunit. Enzyme-inhibition studies demonstrated an intermediate response to the inhibitors tested for the foetal intestinal, FL-cell and KB-cell isoenzymes when compared with the placental, adult intestinal and liver forms. This result is consistent with the mixed-subunit structure observed for the former set of isoenzymes. In summary, this study has defined the molecular subunit structure of the foetal intestinal form of alkaline phosphatase and has demonstrated its expression in a human tumour cell line. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6882358

  2. Volunteer Monitoring to Protect Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The involvement of volunteers in ecological monitoring is a realistic, cost-effective, and beneficial way to obtain important information which might otherwise be unavailable due to lack of resources at government agencies.

  3. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  4. Impact of Dietary Lipids on Colonic Function and Microbiota: An Experimental Approach Involving Orlistat-Induced Fat Malabsorption in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Pamela; Fujio, Sayaka; Navarrete, Paola; Ugalde, Juan A; Magne, Fabien; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Tralma, Karina; Quezada, MariaPaz; Hurtado, Carmen; Covarrubias, Natalia; Brignardello, Jerusa; Henriquez, Daniela; Gotteland, Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High-fat diets alter gut microbiota and barrier function, inducing metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation. Whether these effects are due to the high dietary lipid content or to the concomitant decrease of carbohydrate intake is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether higher amounts of dietary fat reaching the colon (through orlistat administration) affect the colonic ecosystem in healthy volunteers and the effect of the prebiotic oligofructose (OF) in this model. METHODS: Forty-one healthy young subjects were distributed among four groups: Control (C), Prebiotic (P), Orlistat (O), and Orlistat/Prebiotic (OP). They consumed a fat-standardized diet (60 g/day) during Week-1 (baseline) and after 1 week of washout, Week-3. During Week-3, they also received their respective treatment (Orlistat: 2 × 120 mg/day, OF: 16 g/day, and maltodextrin as placebo). A 72-h stool collection was carried out at the end of Week-1 (T0) and Week-3 (T1). Fecal fat, calprotectin, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as well as the antioxidant activity of fecal waters (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), fecal microbiota composition (by deep sequencing), and gut permeability (Sucralose/Lactulose/Mannitol test) were determined at these times. RESULTS: Fecal fat excretion was higher in the O (P=0.0050) and OP (P=0.0069) groups. This event was accompanied, in the O group, by an increased calprotectin content (P=0.047) and a decreased fecal antioxidant activity (P=0.047). However, these alterations did not alter gut barrier function and the changes observed in the composition of the fecal microbiota only affected bacterial populations with low relative abundance (<0.01%); in consequences, fecal SCFA remained mainly unchanged. Part of the colonic alterations induced by orlistat were prevented by OF administration. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of an equilibrated diet, the acute exposition of the colonic ecosystem to high amounts of dietary lipids is

  5. A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, K; Schreiweis, C; Minge, C; Pääbo, S; Fischer, J; Enard, W

    2015-11-01

    The transcription factor FOXP2 has been linked to severe speech and language impairments in humans. An analysis of the evolution of the FOXP2 gene has identified two amino acid substitutions that became fixed after the split of the human and chimpanzee lineages. Studying the functional consequences of these two substitutions in the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice showed alterations in dopamine levels, striatal synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphology and cortico-striatal-dependent learning. In addition, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of pups had a significantly lower average pitch than control littermates. To which degree adult USVs would be affected in mice carrying the 'humanized' Foxp2 variant remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed USVs of 68 adult male mice uttered during repeated courtship encounters with different females. Mice carrying the Foxp2(hum/hum) allele did not differ significantly in the number of call elements, their element structure or in their element composition from control littermates. We conclude that neither the structure nor the usage of USVs in adult mice is affected by the two amino acid substitutions that occurred in FOXP2 during human evolution. The reported effect for pup vocalization thus appears to be transient. These results are in line with accumulating evidence that mouse USVs are hardly influenced by vocal learning. Hence, the function and evolution of genes that are necessary, but not sufficient for vocal learning in humans, must be either studied at a different phenotypic level in mice or in other organisms.

  6. The mechanical properties of human ribs in young adult.

    PubMed

    Pezowicz, Celina; Głowacki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    A good understanding of thoracic biomechanics is important for complete examination and control of chest behaviour under conditions of physiological and pathological work, and under the impact of external forces leading to traumatic loading of the chest. The purpose of the study was to analyse the mechanical properties of human ribs obtained from individuals under the age of 25 with scoliosis deformation and to correlate them with geometric properties of ribs. Thirty three fragments of ribs (9th to 12th) were tested in three-point bending. Rib fragments were collected intraoperatively from female patients treated for scoliosis in the thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spine. The results were used to determine the maximum failure force, stiffness, and Young's modulus. A significant relationship was found between the age and elastic modulus of the ribs. The analysis was carried out for two age groups, i.e., between the ages of 10 and 15 and between the ages of 16 and 22, and statistically significant differences were obtained for Young's modulus (p = 0.0001) amounting to, respectively, 2.79 ± 1.34 GPa for the first group and 7.44 ± 2.85 GPa for the second group. The results show a significant impact of age on the mechanical properties of ribs.

  7. Neural-competent cells of adult human dermis belong to the Schwann lineage.

    PubMed

    Etxaniz, Usue; Pérez-San Vicente, Adrián; Gago-López, Nuria; García-Dominguez, Mario; Iribar, Haizea; Aduriz, Ariane; Pérez-López, Virginia; Burgoa, Izaskun; Irizar, Haritz; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Leis, Olatz; Matheu, Ander; Martín, Angel G; Otaegui, David; López-Mato, María Paz; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; MacLellan, Robb; Izeta, Ander

    2014-11-11

    Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs) have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR(+) precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56(+)) and perivascular (CD56(-)) cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR(+)CD56(+) Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread.

  8. Neural-Competent Cells of Adult Human Dermis Belong to the Schwann Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Etxaniz, Usue; Pérez-San Vicente, Adrián; Gago-López, Nuria; García-Dominguez, Mario; Iribar, Haizea; Aduriz, Ariane; Pérez-López, Virginia; Burgoa, Izaskun; Irizar, Haritz; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Leis, Olatz; Matheu, Ander; Martín, Angel G.; Otaegui, David; López-Mato, María Paz; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; MacLellan, Robb; Izeta, Ander

    2014-01-01

    Summary Resident neural precursor cells (NPCs) have been reported for a number of adult tissues. Understanding their physiological function or, alternatively, their activation after tissue damage or in vitro manipulation remains an unsolved issue. Here, we investigated the source of human dermal NPCs in adult tissue. By following an unbiased, comprehensive approach employing cell-surface marker screening, cell separation, transcriptomic characterization, and in vivo fate analyses, we found that p75NTR+ precursors of human foreskin can be ascribed to the Schwann (CD56+) and perivascular (CD56−) cell lineages. Moreover, neural differentiation potential was restricted to the p75NTR+CD56+ Schwann cells and mediated by SOX2 expression levels. Double-positive NPCs were similarly obtained from human cardiospheres, indicating that this phenomenon might be widespread. PMID:25418723

  9. The response of the anterior striatum during adult human vocal learning.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Anna J; Leech, Robert; Iverson, Paul; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-08-15

    Research on mammals predicts that the anterior striatum is a central component of human motor learning. However, because vocalizations in most mammals are innate, much of the neurobiology of human vocal learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Essential for song learning is a pathway, the homolog of mammalian cortical-basal ganglia "loops," which includes the avian striatum. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated adult human vocal learning, a skill that persists throughout life, albeit imperfectly given that late-acquired languages are spoken with an accent. Monolingual adult participants were scanned while repeating novel non-native words. After training on the pronunciation of half the words for 1 wk, participants underwent a second scan. During scanning there was no external feedback on performance. Activity declined sharply in left and right anterior striatum, both within and between scanning sessions, and this change was independent of training and performance. This indicates that adult speakers rapidly adapt to the novel articulatory movements, possibly by using motor sequences from their native speech to approximate those required for the novel speech sounds. Improved accuracy correlated only with activity in motor-sensory perisylvian cortex. We propose that future studies on vocal learning, using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, will provide insights into adult striatal plasticity and its potential for modification in both educational and clinical contexts.

  10. HMGA2 Moderately Increases Fetal Hemoglobin Expression in Human Adult Erythroblasts

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos, Jaira F.; Lee, Y. Terry; Byrnes, Colleen; Tumburu, Laxminath; Rabel, Antoinette; Miller, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) has therapeutic importance for patients with beta-hemoglobin disorders. Previous studies showed that let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs) are highly regulated in erythroid cells during the fetal-to-adult developmental transition, and that targeting let-7 mediated the up-regulation of HbF to greater than 30% of the total globin levels in human adult cultured erythroblasts. HMGA2 is a member of the high-mobility group A family of proteins and a validated target of the let-7 family of miRNAs. Here we investigate whether expression of HMGA2 directly regulates fetal hemoglobin in adult erythroblasts. Let-7 resistant HMGA2 expression was studied after lentiviral transduction of CD34(+) cells. The transgene was regulated by the erythroid-specific gene promoter region of the human SPTA1 gene (HMGA2-OE). HMGA2-OE caused significant increases in gamma-globin mRNA expression and HbF to around 16% of the total hemoglobin levels compared to matched control transductions. Interestingly, no significant changes in KLF1, SOX6, GATA1, ZBTB7A and BCL11A mRNA levels were observed. Overall, our data suggest that expression of HMGA2, a downstream target of let-7 miRNAs, causes moderately increased gamma-globin gene and protein expression in adult human erythroblasts. PMID:27861570

  11. The response of the anterior striatum during adult human vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Leech, Robert; Iverson, Paul; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on mammals predicts that the anterior striatum is a central component of human motor learning. However, because vocalizations in most mammals are innate, much of the neurobiology of human vocal learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Essential for song learning is a pathway, the homolog of mammalian cortical-basal ganglia “loops,” which includes the avian striatum. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated adult human vocal learning, a skill that persists throughout life, albeit imperfectly given that late-acquired languages are spoken with an accent. Monolingual adult participants were scanned while repeating novel non-native words. After training on the pronunciation of half the words for 1 wk, participants underwent a second scan. During scanning there was no external feedback on performance. Activity declined sharply in left and right anterior striatum, both within and between scanning sessions, and this change was independent of training and performance. This indicates that adult speakers rapidly adapt to the novel articulatory movements, possibly by using motor sequences from their native speech to approximate those required for the novel speech sounds. Improved accuracy correlated only with activity in motor-sensory perisylvian cortex. We propose that future studies on vocal learning, using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, will provide insights into adult striatal plasticity and its potential for modification in both educational and clinical contexts. PMID:24805076

  12. Predictions of ozone absorption in human lungs from newborn to adult

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Graham, R.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Although children are an important human population, dosimetry models for gases have been used to predict absorption mainly in laboratory animals and adult humans. To correct this omission, we have used several sources of data on age-dependent lower respiratory tract (LRT) volumes, age-dependent airway dimensions, a model of the adult tracheobronchial region, and a model of the adult acinus to construct theoretical LRT lung models for humans from birth to adulthood. An ozone (O3) dosimetry model was then used to estimate the regional and local uptake of O3 in the (theoretical) LRT of children and adults. For sedentary or quiet breathing, the LRT distribution of absorbed O3, the percent uptake (84 to 88%) and the centriacinar O3 tissue dose are not very sensitive to age. For maximal work during exercise, predicted LRT uptakes range from 87 to 93%, and the regional percent uptakes are more dependent on age than during quiet breathing. In general, the total quantity of O3 absorbed per minute increases with age. Regardless of age and state of breathing, the largest tissue dose of O3 is predicted to occur in the centriacinar region, where many animal studies show the maximal morphological damage from O3.

  13. Adult Academy Tutor Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isserlis, Janet; And Others

    This handbook is for volunteer tutors, student interns, and VISTA volunteers working with adult basic education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. The community-based handbook contains information about adult literacy and tutoring--what tutors do, who the learners are, and how the literacy learning process works. Introductory…

  14. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    attachment insecurity and particularly anxiety. Emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal or suppression of social emotions are also differentially modulated by attachment style. This research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulation is likely to play an important (causal) role. PMID:22822396

  15. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  16. Ultrastructural evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in adult mouse myocardium and adult human cardiospheres.

    PubMed

    Barile, Lucio; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Moccetti, Tiziano; Vassalli, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres) that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34⁺ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an "off-the-shelf" product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

  17. Binding of furosemide to albumin isolated from human fetal and adult serum.

    PubMed

    Viani, A; Cappiello, M; Silvestri, D; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    Albumin was isolated from pooled fetal serum from 58 placentas obtained at normal delivery at term and from pooled adult plasma from 8 individuals. Albumin isolation was carried out by means of PEG precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A 50 and then on SP-Sephadex C 50. The electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels showed only one spot that comigrated with commercial human albumin. Binding to albumin was measured by equilibrium dialysis of an aliquot of albumin solution (0.7 ml) against the same volume of 0.13 M sodium orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.4). At a total concentration of 2 micrograms/ml (therapeutic range), the unbound fraction of furosemide was 2.71% (fetal albumin) and 2.51% (adult albumin). Two classes of binding sites for furosemide were observed in fetal and adult albumin. The number of binding sites (moles of furosemide per mole of albumin) was 1.22 (fetal albumin) and 1.58 (adult albumin) for the high-affinity site and 2.97 (fetal albumin) and 3.25 (adult albumin) for the low-affinity site. The association constants (M-1) were 3.1 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 2.6 X 10(4) (adult albumin) for the high-affinity set of sites and 0.83 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 1.0 X 10(4) (adult albumin) low-affinity site. The displacement of furosemide from albumin was studied with therapeutic concentrations of several drugs. Valproic acid, salicylic acid, azapropazone and tolbutamide had the highest displacing effects which were significantly higher with fetal than with adult albumin.

  18. Self-esteem mediates the relationship between volunteering and depression for African American caregivers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Pickard, Joseph G; Johnson, Sharon D

    2013-01-01

    Research on the influence of volunteering on mental health outcomes has not placed enough focus on African American female caregivers who are at risk for adverse outcomes such as depression. This study addresses this gap by examining the mechanism through which volunteering might influence depressive symptoms using data collected from 521 African American female caregivers of older adults. Regression results indicate that although volunteering is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, self-esteem mediates this relationship. Findings suggest inclusion in volunteering for African American female caregivers may be relevant to promotion of their mental well-being.

  19. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1HIGH cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1HIGH cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  20. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-12-04

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1(HIGH) cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1(HIGH) cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions.

  1. Exploring Volunteering of Committed Young Catholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study of volunteer levels of Catholics from various World regions who attended an international youth Catholic festival. Volunteering levels, types of volunteering, reason for volunteering, Catholic group membership and pro-social values are analysed. An online survey was administered five months after the Festival to…

  2. Parallel Volunteer Learning during Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Green, Jeremy; Derby, Amy; Bothum, Candi

    2012-01-01

    Lack of time is a hindrance for volunteers to participate in educational opportunities, yet volunteer success in an organization is tied to the orientation and education they receive. Meeting diverse educational needs of volunteers can be a challenge for program managers. Scheduling a Volunteer Learning Track for chaperones that is parallel to a…

  3. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi. PMID:22808414

  4. Human and monkey striatal interneurons are derived from the medial ganglionic eminence but not from the adult subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congmin; You, Yan; Qi, Dashi; Zhou, Xing; Wang, Lei; Wei, Song; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Huang, Weixi; Liu, Zhidong; Liu, Fang; Ma, Lan; Yang, Zhengang

    2014-08-13

    In adult rodent and monkey brains, newly born neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the wall of the lateral ventricle migrate into the olfactory bulb (OB) via the rostral migratory stream (RMS). A recent study reported that interneurons are constantly generating in the adult human striatum from the SVZ. In contrast, by taking advantage of the continuous expression of Sp8 from the neuroblast stage through differentiation into mature interneurons, we found that the adult human SVZ does not generate new interneurons for the striatum. In the adult human SVZ and RMS, very few neuroblasts were observed, and most of them expressed the transcription factor Sp8. Neuroblasts in the adult rhesus monkey SVZ-RMS-OB pathway also expressed Sp8. In addition, we observed that Sp8 was expressed by most adult human and monkey OB interneurons. However, very few Sp8+ cells were in the adult human striatum. This suggests that neuroblasts in the adult human SVZ and RMS are likely destined for the OB, but not for the striatum. BrdU-labeling results also revealed few if any newly born neurons in the adult rhesus monkey striatum. Finally, on the basis of transcription factor expression, we provide strong evidence that the vast majority of interneurons in the human and monkey striatum are generated from the medial ganglionic eminence during embryonic developmental stages, as they are in rodents. We conclude that, although a small number of neuroblasts exist in the adult human SVZ, they do not migrate into the striatum and become mature striatal interneurons.

  5. Does the relation between volunteering and well-being vary with health and age?

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Rios, Rebeca; Crawford, Aaron V; Levy, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have established a positive association between organizational volunteering and well-being. In the current study, we examined whether the relations between organizational volunteering and positive affect, negative affect, and resilience are modified by respondents' age and number of chronic health conditions. This study used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Arizona Health Survey of residents 18 years old and older (N = 4,161). Multiple regression analyses provided no support for the hypothesis that age moderates the association between volunteer status and positive affect, negative affect, and resilience. In contrast, there was a significant (p < .05) interaction between volunteer status and chronic health conditions on positive affect and resilience. Consistent with the compensatory hypothesis, as number of chronic health conditions increased, the relations between volunteering and positive affect and resilience scores increased. Implications of these findings for increasing volunteering among adults with multiple chronic health conditions are discussed.

  6. Randomized placebo controlled human volunteer trial of a live oral cholera vaccine VA1.3 for safety and immune response.

    PubMed

    Mahalanabis, D; Ramamurthy, T; Nair, G B; Ghosh, A; Shaikh, S; Sen, B; Thungapathra, M; Ghosh, R K; Pazhani, G P; Nandy, R K; Jana, S; Bhattacharya, S K

    2009-07-30

    A live oral cholera vaccine developed from a non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strain VA1.3 was tested in a double-blind randomized placebo controlled study for safety and immunogenicity in 304 men aged between 16 and 50 years from Kolkata, India. A dose of 5 x 10(9)CFU (n=186) or a placebo (n=116) containing the diluent buffer was administered. The vaccine did not elicit adverse events except in two vaccine recipients with mild diarrhoea and vomiting. None excreted the vaccine strain. Vibriocidal antibody response developed in 105/186 (57%) and 5/116 (4%) in vaccine and placebo recipients, respectively. In a subgroup, anti-CT antibody rose (> or =2-folds) in 23/30 (77%) and 6/19 (32%) in vaccine and placebo recipients, respectively. These studies demonstrate that VA1.3 at a dose of 5 x 10(9) is safe and immunogenic in adults from a cholera endemic region.

  7. Unpacking the Relation between Extraversion and Volunteering in Later Life: The Role of Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Morris A.; Pugliese, John; Rook, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the relation between extraversion and volunteering by older adults is fully mediated by social capital (participation in clubs and organizations, church attendance, and contact with friends). Data for this study come from 888 adults between the ages of 65–90 years old who participated in the Later Life Study of Social Exchanges (LLSSE). In support of our hypothesis, structural equation modeling revealed that extraversion exerted (a) a significant total effect on volunteering (.122), (b) significant indirect effects on volunteering via contact with friends (.042), church attendance (.034), and clubs and organizations (females only: .042), and (c) a non-significant direct effect on volunteering (.010). These findings suggest that social capital provides a viable explanation for the association between extraversion and volunteering. PMID:19710946

  8. PET imaging of neurogenic activity in the adult brain: Toward in vivo imaging of human neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yasuhisa; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    Neural stem cells are present in 2 neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and continue to generate new neurons throughout life. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is linked to a variety of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, and to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants, as well as learning and memory. In vivo imaging for hippocampal neurogenic activity may be used to diagnose psychiatric disorders and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. However, these imaging techniques remain to be established until now. Recently, we established a quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique for neurogenic activity in the adult brain with 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluoro-L-thymidine ([(18)F]FLT) and probenecid, a drug transporter inhibitor in blood-brain barrier. Moreover, we showed that this PET imaging technique can monitor alterations in neurogenic activity in the hippocampus of adult rats with depression and following treatment with an antidepressant. This PET imaging method may assist in diagnosing depression and in monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. In this commentary, we discuss the possibility of in vivo PET imaging for neurogenic activity in adult non-human primates and humans.

  9. Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that functional mouse oocytes and sperm can be derived in vitro from somatic cell lines. We hypothesize that in adult human ovaries, mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea (TA) are bipotent progenitors with a commitment for both primitive granulosa and germ cells. We investigated ovaries of twelve adult women (mean age 32.8 ± 4.1 SD, range 27–38 years) by single, double, and triple color immunohistochemistry. We show that cytokeratin (CK)+ mesenchymal cells in ovarian TA differentiate into surface epithelium (SE) cells by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Segments of SE directly associated with ovarian cortex are overgrown by TA, forming solid epithelial cords, which fragment into small (20 micron) epithelial nests descending into the lower ovarian cortex, before assembling with zona pellucida (ZP)+ oocytes. Germ cells can originate from SE cells which cover the TA. Small (10 micron) germ-like cells showing PS1 meiotically expressed oocyte carbohydrate protein are derived from SE cells via asymmetric division. They show nuclear MAPK immunoexpression, subsequently divide symmetrically, and enter adjacent cortical vessels. During vascular transport, the putative germ cells increase to oocyte size, and are picked-up by epithelial nests associated with the vessels. During follicle formation, extensions of granulosa cells enter the oocyte cytoplasm, forming a single paranuclear CK+ Balbiani body supplying all the mitochondria of the oocyte. In the ovarian medulla, occasional vessels show an accumulation of ZP+ oocytes (25–30 microns) or their remnants, suggesting that some oocytes degenerate. In contrast to males, adult human female gonads do not preserve germline type stem cells. This study expands our previous observations on the formation of germ cells in adult human ovaries. Differentiation of primitive granulosa and germ cells from the bipotent mesenchymal cell precursors of TA in adult human ovaries represents a most

  10. A seroprevalence survey for human immunodeficiency virus antibody in mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Pincus, S H; Schoenbaum, E E; Webber, M

    1990-03-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among adults who are mentally retarded is not known. Policies for those in residential settings are being established despite incomplete information. Knowledge regarding HIV seroprevalence would enable administrators to make more effective policy decisions concerning testing and HIV prevention. Discarded sera from mentally retarded adults were anonymously tested for HIV antibody. Sera were collected from a health facility in Westchester County, NY, that provides care to developmentally disabled adults. After identifications were removed, sera were coded and linked to demographic and clinical variables from hospital and laboratory records. Sera came from individuals living in both institutional and less restrictive community settings in metropolitan New York City and more distant locations in New York State, all of whom were seen by the above facility. No HIV antibody was detected in sera from 241 mentally retarded adults. This study suggests that the prevalence of HIV antibody in mentally retarded adults is not high. Mandatory screening programs may not be appropriate for these individuals. Monies might be better spent on educational programs directed at AIDS prevention, and further development of ethical and safe policies for those who are mentally retarded.

  11. A Comparison of Pure Tone Auditory Thresholds in Human Infants and Adults.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Joan M; Pisoni, David B; Aslin, Richard N

    1983-01-01

    Pure tone auditory thresholds for frequencies from .250 to 8.0 kHz were obtained from 277-to-11-month-old human infants and nine adults using a go-no-go operant head-turning technique combined with an adaptive staircase (tracking) discrimination procedure. New methods were devised for maintaining infants under stimulus control during threshold testing through the use of randomly interleaved "probe" and "catch" trials. Reliable threshold data were obtained from every infant studied, and identical threshold criteria were applied to infants and adults alike. Although infant thresholds were 17-27 dB higher than those of adults, infant inter-subject variability was no greater than that of adults. Adult audiograms were nearly flat between frequencies of .500 and 8.0 kHz with sensitivity ranging between 7 and 14 dB SPL. Infant audiograms were flat between frequencies of .500 and 4.0 kHz, with sensitivity ranging between 30 and 36 dB SPL. The most sensitive frequency for infants was 8.0 kHz (25 dB SPL).

  12. Characteristics of volunteers and non-volunteers for voluntary counseling and HIV testing among unmarried male undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Adewole, D A; Lawoyin, T O

    2004-06-01

    The 2001 HIV sero-prevalence survey in Nigeria revealed a rate of 5.8 percent with those under the age of 25 years having the highest prevalence rate. Most University students fall within this age group. This study is part of a larger study on the sexual behavior of youths and young adults and was designed to compare the characteristics of volunteers and non-volunteers for voluntary confidential counseling and HIV testing (VCT) among males. Six hundred and nine male undergraduate students were randomly selected and enrolled for the study. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Of the 609, 51 (8.3%) volunteered to have their blood screened for HIV. All volunteers who received pre-test counseling went for the HIV test. Volunteers were significantly older than the non-volunteers (P<0.0001), and were more likely to be sexually experienced (P=0.002). Among the sexually experienced, the volunteers were older at first sexual intercourse (FSI) (P<0.0001), and were more likely to have used a condom at FSI (P=0.001). Volunteers had significantly higher knowledge scores for HIV/AIDS (P=0.006), and the attitude to HIV/AIDS in both groups was positive. The marriage pattern of their parents with regard to polygyny was similar, and fewer volunteers had fathers in the higher socio-economic class and mothers who had completed secondary education (P<0.00001, (P=0.02). Among the 51 volunteers, 8 (15.7%) tested positive. Those who tested positive were less likely to have lived with parents, and were all sexually experienced. Those who screened positive were also more likely to be currently sexually active and to have fathers with low level of education. Three (5.9%) of volunteers did not return for results and posttest counseling. One of the three was positive for HIV. Of those who tested positive, 3 (37.5%) reported not using the condom at all, while the rest were using it only occasionally. VCT among the youths is possible however, small numbers encountered in the

  13. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  14. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems.

  15. The effects of the preferential 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on prepulse inhibition of startle in healthy human volunteers depend on interstimulus interval.

    PubMed

    Vollenweider, Franz X; Csomor, Philipp A; Knappe, Bernhard; Geyer, Mark A; Quednow, Boris B

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists are used for animal models of schizophrenia because they mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia in humans and induce PPI deficits in animals. Nevertheless, one report indicates that the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist psilocybin increases PPI in healthy humans. Hence, we investigated these inconsistent results by assessing the dose-dependent effects of psilocybin on PPI in healthy humans. Sixteen subjects each received placebo or 115, 215, and 315 microg/kg of psilocybin at 4-week intervals in a randomized and counterbalanced order. PPI at 30-, 60-, 120-, 240-, and 2000-ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs) was measured 90 and 165 min after drug intake, coinciding with the peak and post-peak effects of psilocybin. The effects of psilocybin on psychopathological core dimensions and sustained attention were assessed by the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (5D-ASC) and the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR). Psilocybin dose-dependently reduced PPI at short (30 ms), had no effect at medium (60 ms), and increased PPI at long (120-2000 ms) ISIs, without affecting startle reactivity or habituation. Psilocybin dose-dependently impaired sustained attention and increased all 5D-ASC scores with exception of Auditory Alterations. Moreover, psilocybin-induced impairments in sustained attention performance were positively correlated with reduced PPI at the 30 ms ISI and not with the concomitant increases in PPI observed at long ISIs. These results confirm the psilocybin-induced increase in PPI at long ISIs and reveal that psilocybin also produces a decrease in PPI at short ISIs that is correlated with impaired attention and consistent with deficient PPI in schizophrenia.

  16. Isolation, Characterization, and Differentiation of Progenitor Cells from Human Adult Adrenal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Magda M.; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Karl; Bastos, Carlos A.; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10–12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+/β-3-tubulin+ cells and TH−/β-3-tubulin+ cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH+/PNMT+). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  17. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of progenitor cells from human adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Santana, Magda M; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Klaus; Bastos, Carlos A; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R; Cavadas, Cláudia; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10-12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells and TH(-)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH(+)/PNMT(+)). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.

  19. Recapitulating adult human immune traits in laboratory mice by normalizing environment

    PubMed Central

    Beura, Lalit K.; Hamilton, Sara E.; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M.; Odumade, Oludare A.; Casey, Kerry A.; Thompson, Emily A.; Fraser, Kathryn A.; Rosato, Pamela C.; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W. Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C.; Masopust, David

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice because of experimental advantages including inbred homogeneity, tools for genetic manipulation, the ability to perform kinetic tissue analyses starting with the onset of disease, and tractable models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. Despite revealing many fundamental principals of immunology, there is growing concern that mice fail to capture relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside1–8. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic “specific pathogen free” (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that the standard practice of laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes result in better recapitulation of features of adult humans. Laboratory mice lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells, which more closely resembles neonatal than adult humans. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice, pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting a role for environment. Consequences of altering mouse housing profoundly impacted the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune system and resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression patterns that more closely aligned with immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered the mouse’s resistance to infection, and impacted T cell differentiation to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the impact of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modeling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans. PMID

  20. Implication of Enterohepatic Re-Circulation on Single Dose Bioequivalence Evaluation of Two Brands of Clonidine Hydrochloride Tablets in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, H. R.; Patel, I. K.; Patel, N. H.; Patel, D. M.; Parmar, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    A single dose, crossover bioequivalence study of two different brands of clonidine hydrochloride 25 μg tablets was conducted in 24 (+2 stand by) healthy, adult, male, Indian subjects under fasting conditions to check the implication of enterohepatic re-circulation on assessment of bioequivalence. After an overnight fasting of at least 10 h, the subjects received single oral dose of test or reference product with either of the product as per randomization schedule in each period with a washout period of 10 days. The pre-dose blood sample was collected within a period of one h before dosing. The post-dose blood samples were collected at specified time intervals up to 96 h. The plasma concentrations of clonidine were quantified by validated LCMS/MS method and pharmacokinetic parameters were computed. The 90% confidence intervals of test/reference ratios for Cmax and area under the plasma-concentration- time-curve AUC under 0-t were found to be between 0.80 and 1.25 for log-transformed data. Analysis of variance did not show significant difference to these parameters. No meaningful values of Kel and therefore AUC under 0-infinity could be calculated for significant number of subjects due to enterohepatic re-circulation. Based on the results obtained, two different brands of clonidine 25 μg tablets have comparable rate and extent of absorption after oral administration but failed to show bioequivalence as per regulatory requirement of Food and Drugs Administration-united states. PMID:20502569

  1. Adult human gingival epithelial cells as a source for whole-tooth bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Angelova Volponi, A; Kawasaki, M; Sharpe, P T

    2013-04-01

    Teeth develop from interactions between embryonic oral epithelium and neural-crest-derived mesenchyme. These cells can be separated into single-cell populations and recombined to form normal teeth, providing a basis for bioengineering new teeth if suitable, non-embryonic cell sources can be identified. We show here that cells can be isolated from adult human gingival tissue that can be expanded in vitro and, when combined with mouse embryonic tooth mesenchyme cells, form teeth. Teeth with developing roots can be produced from this cell combination following transplantation into renal capsules. These bioengineered teeth contain dentin and enamel with ameloblast-like cells and rests of Malassez of human origin.

  2. FGF2-induced effects on transcriptome associated with regeneration competence in adult human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult human fibroblasts grown in low oxygen and with FGF2 supplementation have the capacity to tip the healing outcome of skeletal muscle injury – by favoring regeneration response in vivo over scar formation. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of control adult human dermal fibroblasts and induced regeneration-competent (iRC) fibroblasts to identify transcriptional changes that may be related to their regeneration competence. Results We identified a unique gene-expression profile that characterizes FGF2-induced iRC fibroblast phenotype. Significantly differentially expressed genes due to FGF2 treatment were identified and analyzed to determine overrepresented Gene Ontology terms. Genes belonging to extracellular matrix components, adhesion molecules, matrix remodelling, cytoskeleton, and cytokines were determined to be affected by FGF2 treatment. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis comparing control adult human fibroblasts with FGF2-treated fibroblasts identified functional groups of genes that reflect transcriptional changes potentially contributing to their regeneration competence. This comparative transcriptome analysis should contribute new insights into genes that characterize cells with greater regenerative potential. PMID:24066673

  3. Rapid Increase in Neural Conduction Time in the Adult Human Auditory Brainstem Following Sudden Unilateral Deafness.

    PubMed

    Maslin, M R D; Lloyd, S K; Rutherford, S; Freeman, S; King, A; Moore, D R; Munro, K J

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with sudden unilateral deafness offer a unique opportunity to study plasticity of the binaural auditory system in adult humans. Stimulation of the intact ear results in increased activity in the auditory cortex. However, there are no reports of changes at sub-cortical levels in humans. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate changes in sub-cortical activity immediately before and after the onset of surgically induced unilateral deafness in adult humans. Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to stimulation of the healthy ear were recorded from ten adults during the course of translabyrinthine surgery for the removal of a unilateral acoustic neuroma. This surgical technique always results in abrupt deafferentation of the affected ear. The results revealed a rapid (within minutes) reduction in latency of wave V (mean pre = 6.55 ms; mean post = 6.15 ms; p < 0.001). A latency reduction was also observed for wave III (mean pre = 4.40 ms; mean post = 4.13 ms; p < 0.001). These reductions in response latency are consistent with functional changes including disinhibition or/and more rapid intra-cellular signalling affecting binaurally sensitive neurons in the central auditory system. The results are highly relevant for improved understanding of putative physiological mechanisms underlying perceptual disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis.

  4. Comparison of live, attenuated H1N1 and H3N2 cold-adapted and avian-human influenza A reassortant viruses and inactivated virus vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Sears, S D; Clements, M L; Betts, R F; Maassab, H F; Murphy, B R; Snyder, M H

    1988-12-01

    The infectivity, immunogenicity, and efficacy of live, attenuated influenza A/Texas/1/85 (H1N1) and A/Bethesda/1/85 (H3N2) avian-human (ah) and cold-adapted (ca) reassortant vaccines were compared in 252 seronegative adult volunteers. The immunogenicity and efficacy of the H1N1 reassortant vaccine were also compared with those of the trivalent inactivated virus vaccine. Each reassortant vaccine was satisfactorily attenuated. The 50% human infectious dose was 10(4.9) for ca H1N1, 10(5.4) for ah H1N1, 10(6.4) for ca H3N2, and 10(6.5) TCID50 for ah H3N2 reassortant virus. Within a subtype, the immunogenicities of ah and ca vaccines were comparable. Five to seven weeks after vaccination, volunteers were challenged with homologous wild-type influenza A virus. The magnitude of shedding of virus after challenge was greater than 100-fold less in H1N1 vaccinees and greater than 10-fold less in H3N2 vaccinees compared with unimmunized controls. The vaccines were equally efficacious, as indicated by an 86%-100% reduction in illness. Thus, the ah A/Mallard/New York/6750/78 and the ca A/Ann Arbor/6/60 reassortant viruses are comparable.

  5. Long-term culture and functional characterization of follicular cells from adult normal human thyroids.

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, F; Ambesi-Impiombato, F S; Perrella, G; Coon, H G

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained long-term cultures of differentiated proliferating follicular cells from normal adult human thyroid glands. In vitro growth of such human cells has been sustained by a modified F-12 medium, supplemented with bovine hypothalamus and pituitary extracts and no added thyrotropin. Cultures have been expanded, cloned, frozen, successfully retrieved, and characterized. Functional characterization of these cells shows constitutive thyroglobulin production and release and thyrotropin-dependent adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production, the latter apparently not associated with significant increases in DNA synthesis or cell proliferation. Genetic characterization of these cells by chromosome counting showed the normal diploid chromosome number. The ability to cultivate differentiated human thyroid follicular cells in long-term culture opens possibilities for investigating the transduction pathways of thyrotropin stimulation in normal and pathological human tissues, developing clinically relevant in vitro assays, and considering cellular and molecular therapies. Images PMID:8090760

  6. More than Volunteering: Active Citizenship through Youth Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This pack aims to provide materials to help all those involved in youth volunteering and post-16 citizenship education to ensure that there are some citizenship learning outcomes from these valuable experiences. The pack has been produced by the Post-16 Citizenship Support Programme to help the integration of citizenship education into post-16…

  7. Analysis of 21-hydroxy deflazacort in human plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: application to a bioequivalence study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daxesh P; Sharma, Primal; Patel, Bhargav M; Sanyal, Mallika; Singhal, Puran; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2013-11-01

    A sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of 21-hydroxy deflazacort in human plasma using betamethasone as the internal standard (IS). After solid-phase extraction from 100 μL human plasma, the analyte and IS were analyzed on Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column using acetonitrile-4.0mM ammonium formate, pH 3.5 (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase. The protonated analyte was quantified by selected reaction monitoring in the positive ionization mode by triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The calibration plots were linear over the concentration range 0.50-500 ng/mL. Intra-batch and inter-batch precision (% CV) and accuracy (%) for five quality control samples ranged within 1.40-4.82% and 98.0-102.0% respectively. The overall mean extraction recovery of 21-hydroxy deflazacort from plasma ranged from 95.3 to 97.3%. Matrix effect was assessed by post-column analyte infusion and the extraction recovery was >95.0% across four quality control levels for the analyte and IS. Stability was evaluated under different conditions like bench top, autosampler, processed sample (at room temperature and in cooling chamber), freeze-thaw and long term stability. The method was applied to support a bioequivalence study of 30 mg deflazacort tablet formulation in 28 healthy subjects. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 115 incurred samples.

  8. Free-breathing diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the human heart in healthy volunteers using wavelet-based image fusion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongjiang; Viallon, Magalie; Delattre, Benedicte M A; Moulin, Kevin; Yang, Feng; Croisille, Pierre; Zhu, Yuemin

    2015-01-01

    Free-breathing cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising but challenging technique for the study of fiber structures of the human heart in vivo. This work proposes a clinically compatible and robust technique to provide three-dimensional (3-D) fiber architecture properties of the human heart. To this end, 10 short-axis slices were acquired across the entire heart using a multiple shifted trigger delay (TD) strategy under free breathing conditions. Interscan motion was first corrected automatically using a nonrigid registration method. Then, two post-processing schemes were optimized and compared: an algorithm based on principal component analysis (PCA) filtering and temporal maximum intensity projection (TMIP), and an algorithm that uses the wavelet-based image fusion (WIF) method. The two methods were applied to the registered diffusion-weighted (DW) images to cope with intrascan motion-induced signal loss. The tensor fields were finally calculated, from which fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and 3-D fiber tracts were derived and compared. The results show that the comparison of the FA values (FA(PCATMIP) = 0.45 ±0.10, FA(WIF) = 0.42 ±0.05, P=0.06) showed no significant difference, while the MD values ( MD(PCATMIP)=0.83 ±0.12×10(-3) mm (2)/s, MD(WIF)=0.74±0.05×10(-3) mm (2)/s, P=0.028) were significantly different. Improved helix angle variations through the myocardium wall reflecting the rotation characteristic of cardiac fibers were observed with WIF. This study demonstrates that the combination of multiple shifted TD acquisitions and dedicated post-processing makes it feasible to retrieve in vivo cardiac tractographies from free-breathing DTI acquisitions. The substantial improvements were observed using the WIF method instead of the previously published PCATMIP technique.

  9. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi.

  10. Urinary concentrations of parabens in Chinese young adults: implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wan-Li; Wang, Lei; Guo, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have indicated that high and systemic exposure to parabens can be harmful to human health. Although a few studies have reported urinary paraben levels in western countries, studies on paraben exposure in the Chinese population are limited. China is currently a major producer of parabens in the world. In this study, 109 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults (approximately 20 years old) were analyzed for five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-parabens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methyl-, propyl-, and ethyl-parabens were the three major paraben analogues found in all (100%) samples. The concentration of the sum of the five parabens ranged from 0.82 to 728 ng/mL with a geometric mean value of 17.4 ng/mL. Urinary concentration of parabens was 2-fold greater in females than in males. Based on the measured urinary concentrations, daily intake of parabens by the Chinese young adults was estimated and compared with those reported for United States adults. The estimated daily intakes (EDIurine) of parabens were 18.4 and 40.8 μg/kg bw/day for Chinese males and females, respectively, values that were lower than those reported for United States adults (74.7 μg/kg bw/day). Based on the reported concentrations of parabens in foods from China and the United States, the contribution of dietary intake to EDIurine was estimated to be 5.5, 2.6, and 0.42% for Chinese males, Chinese females, and United States adults, respectively, which indicates the significance of nondietary sources of parabens to human exposures.

  11. Antimalarial efficacy of a quantified extract of Nauclea pobeguinii stem bark in human adult volunteers with diagnosed uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Part 2: a clinical phase IIB trial.

    PubMed

    Mesia, Kahunu; Tona, Lutete; Mampunza, Ma Miezi; Ntamabyaliro, Nsengi; Muanda, Tsobo; Muyembe, Tamfum; Musuamba, Tshinanu; Mets, Tony; Cimanga, Kanyanga; Totté, Jozef; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold J

    2012-06-01

    According to the promising results of the Phase I and Phase IIA clinical trials with the herbal medicinal product PR 259 CT1 consisting of an 80 % ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Nauclea pobeguinii containing 5.6 % strictosamide, a Phase IIB study was conducted as a single blind prospective trial in 65 patients with proven Plasmodium falciparum malaria to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this herbal drug. The study was carried out simultaneously using an artesunate-amodiaquine combination (Coarsucam®) as a positive control. This combination is the standard first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria recommended by the National Programme of Malaria Control in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). With regard to PR 259 CT1, patients were treated with a drug regimen of two 500-mg capsules three times daily for three days in the inpatient clinic, followed by out-patient treatment of one 500-mg capsule three times daily during the next four days; the positive control group received two tablets containing 100 mg artesunate and 270 mg amodiaquine (fixed-dose) once daily during three consecutive days. Antimalarial responses were evaluated according to the WHO 2003 guideline for a 14-day test. The results from the physical and laboratory examinations did not show any significant changes in values of vital signs, ECG, biochemical, and haematological parameters. The study showed a significant decreased parasitaemia in patients treated with PR 29 CT1 and artesunate-amodiaquine with adequate clinical parasitological responses (APCR) at day 14 of 87.9 and 96.9 %, respectively. The former product was better tolerated than the latter since more side effects were observed for the artesunate-amodiaquine combination. These results indicated that PR 259 CT1 can be considered as a promising candidate for the development of a herbal medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

  12. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  13. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Fairchok, Mary P.; Danaher, Patrick J.; McDonough, Erin A.; Blair, Patrick J.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Schofield, Christina; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. Objectives To characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. Study design Observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. Results Eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18y. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11 HRV-B, and 19 HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusions Among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. PMID:25728083

  14. Comparison of human growth hormone products' cost in pediatric and adult patients. A budgetary impact model.

    PubMed

    Bazalo, Gary R; Joshi, Ashish V; Germak, John

    2007-09-01

    We assessed the economic impact to the United States payer of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) utilization, comparing the relative dosage efficiency of marketed pen-based and vial-based products in a pediatric and in an adult population. A budgetary impact model calculated drug costs based on product waste and cost. Waste was the difference between prescribed dose, based on patient weight, and actual delivered dose, based on dosing increments and maximum deliverable dose for pens and a fixed-percent waste as derived from the literature for vials. Annual wholesale acquisition costs were calculated based upon total milligrams delivered, using a daily dose of 0.03 mg/kg for pediatric patients and 0.016 mg/kg for adults. Total annual drug costs were compared for two scenarios: 1) a product mix based on national market share and 2) restricting use to the product with lowest waste. Based on the literature, waste for each vial product was 23 percent. Among individual pens, waste was highest for Humatrope 24 mg (19.5 percent pediatric, 14.3 percent adult) and lowest for Norditropin Nordi-Flex 5 mg (1.1 percent pediatric, 1 percent adult). Restricting use to the brand with least waste (Norditropin), compared to national product share mix, resulted in a 10.2 percent reduction in annual pediatric patient cost from $19,026 to $17,089 and an 8 percent reduction in annual adult patient cost from $24,099 to $22,161. We concluded that pen delivery systems result in less waste than vial and syringe. Considering all approved delivery systems, Norditropin resulted in the least product waste and lower annual patient cost for both pediatric and adult populations.

  15. Validation of a HPLC-ESI MS/MS method for the determination of clonidine in human plasma and its application in a bioequivalence study in Chinese healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jialang; Chen, Jiangying; Wang, Xueding; Pang, Yin; Bi, Huichang; Huang, Lihui; Zeng, Guixiong; Liao, Xiaoxing; Ma, Zhongfu; Chen, Xiao; Zhong, Guoping; Huang, Min; Zhao, Xianglan

    2015-10-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method to determine clonidine in human plasma was developed and fully validated. Sample preparation was involved an one-step extraction with diethyl ether. Donepezil was employed as the internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil BDS C18 column (i.d. 2.1 × 50 mm, particle size 3μm) with a mobile phase of methanol-water (containing 0.1% formic acid; 60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 200 μL/min. The peaks were detected by mass spectrometry using the electrospray ion source in selected reaction monitoring mode. The extraction recovery was 72.53-85.25%. The method was found to be linear in a concentration range of 0.02-6.00 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantification was 0.02 ng/mL. The within- and between-batch precisions at three concentrations were 4.33-16.47 and 7.24-17.24% with accuracies of -2.47-10.91 and 1.86-10.19%, respectively. This validated method was successfully used for a bioequivalence study of two clonidine transdermal patches on healthy volunteers. The results suggested that the test formulation of clonidine patch met the regulatory criterion for bioequivalence to the reference formulation, but a larger sample size should be needed for the estimation of bioequivalence.

  16. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and its major metabolite, salicylic acid, in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetic study of Astrix in Korean healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Kyung; Seo, Kyung Ah; Jung, Eun Ji; Kim, Ho-Sook; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shon, Ji-Hong; Park, Kyung-Mi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2008-06-01

    The first liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) and one of its major metabolites, salicylic acid (SA), in human plasma using simvastatin as an internal standard has been developed and validated. For ASA analysis, a plasma sample containing potassium fluoride was extracted using a mixture of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the presence of 0.5% formic acid. SA, a major metabolite of ASA, was extracted from plasma using protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The compounds were separated on a reversed-phase column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid (8:2, v/v). The ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode were m/z 179 --> 137, 137 --> 93 and 435 --> 319 for ASA, SA and IS, respectively. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 9.3%, and the accuracy exceeded 86.5%. The lower limits of quantification for ASA and SA were 5 and 50 ng/mL, respectively. The developed assay method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA and SA after single oral administration of Astrix (entero-coated pellet, 100 mg of aspirin) to 10 Korean healthy male volunteers.

  17. Quantitative analysis of trazodone in human plasma by using HPLC-fluorescence detector coupled with strong cation exchange chromatographic column: application to a pharmacokinetic study in Chinese healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li-Bo, Dai; Rong-Hua, Zhu; Huan-De, Li; Feng, Wang; Ping-Fei, Fang; Jiang, Lou

    2014-01-01

    A simple, selective, and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure has been developed for determination of trazodone in human plasma. Prazosin was employed as the internal standard (IS). Sample preparation involved liquid-liquid extraction by methyl tert-butyl ether after alkalinization with ammonia. The HPLC separation was performed on a CAPCELL PAK SCX column (250mm×4.6mm, 5.0μm, Shiseido, Japan) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/80mmol/L ammonium phosphate (pH adjusted to 6.0) (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2mL/min. The peaks were detected by using fluorescence detector (excitation wavelength 320nm and emission wavelength 440nm). The extraction recovery was 72.6-88.3% and the method was over the concentration range of 5.0-2486ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 5.0ng/mL using 300μL of plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy of the method at three concentrations ranged from 96.7% to 104.2% for trazodone with precision of 2.9-3.7%. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study enrolling 12 Chinese volunteers administered a single oral trazodone hydrochloride extended-release tablet of 75mg.

  18. The mental representation of the human gait in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Tino; Jacksteit, Robert; Behrens, Martin; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    The link between mental representation (MREP) structures and motor performance has been evidenced for a great variety of movement skills, but not for the human gait. Therefore the present study sought to investigate the cognitive memory structures underlying the human gait in young and older adults. In a first experiment, gait parameters at comfortable gait speed (OptoGait) were compared with gait-specific MREPs (structural dimensional analysis of MREP; SDA-M) in 36 young adults. Participants were divided into a slow- and fast-walking group. The proven relationship between gait speed and executive functions such as working memory led to the hypothesis that gait pattern and MREP differ between slow- and fast-walking adults. In a second experiment, gait performance and MREPs were compared between 24 young (27.9 years) and 24 elderly (60.1 years) participants. As age-related declines in gait performance occur from the seventh decade of life onward, we hypothesized that gait parameters would not be affected until the age of 60 years accompanied by unchanged MREP. Data of experiment one revealed that gait parameters and MREPs differed significantly between slow and fast walkers. Notably, eleven previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries were documented for the slow walkers but only two injuries and one disorder for fast walkers. Experiment two revealed no age-related differences in gait parameters or MREPs between healthy young and older adults. In conclusion, the differences in gait parameters associated with lower comfortable gait speeds are reflected by differences in MREPs, whereby SDA-M data indicate that the single limb support phase may serve as a critical functional period. These differences probably resulted from previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries. Our data further indicate that the human gait and its MREP are stable until the age of 60. SDA-M may be considered as a valuable clinical tool for diagnosis of gait abnormalities and monitoring of

  19. An HPLC method for determination of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma from healthy volunteers and patients presenting with potential acute cardiac ischemia.

    PubMed

    Farthing, Don; Sica, Domenic; Gehr, Todd; Wilson, Bill; Fakhry, Itaf; Larus, Terri; Farthing, Christine; Karnes, H Thomas

    2007-07-01

    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method utilizing ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for the determination of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma. For component separation, a monolithic C(18) column at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with an aqueous mobile phase of trifluoroacetic acid (0.1% TFA in deionized water pH 2.2, v/v) and methanol gradient was used. The method employed a one-step sample preparation utilizing centrifugal filtration with high component recoveries (approximately 98%) from plasma, which eliminated the need of an internal standard. The method demonstrated excellent linearity (0.25-5 microg/mL, R>0.9990) for both inosine and hypoxanthine with detection limits of 100 ng/mL. This simple and cost effective method was utilized to evaluate potential endogenous plasma biomarker(s), which may aid hospital emergency personnel in the early detection of acute cardiac ischemia in patients presenting with non-traumatic chest pain.

  20. Silver Editions II: Advancing the Concept of Library-Centered Humanities Programs for Older Adults. An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, Connie; And Others

    This report is an evaluation of the Silver Edition II Project, a program to offer library-centered humanities programming to older adults. In the program local scholars in seven geographically dispersed library systems led discussion groups made up of 20 to 25 participating older adults. This evaluation focuses on the stated goals of the project:…