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Sample records for adult human volunteers

  1. An evaluation of diphtheria--tetanus (adult) vaccine in unselected human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Harcus, A W; Ward, A E; Roberts, J S; Bryett, K A

    1989-01-01

    One hundred unselected adult volunteers received an adult diphtheria (less than 2 Lf)-tetanus (greater than or equal to 40 IU) adsorbed vaccine without prior Schick testing. No volunteer had a moderate or severe reaction although 39% complained of a transient sore arm. Only 10% reported local erythema. Of the study group, 37/43 (86%) patients who were initially seronegative for diphtheria attained levels normally considered as seropositive. The results confirm the safety and efficacy of adult diphtheria-tetanus vaccine and allow its recommendation for use in 'at risk' individuals without the need for prior Schick testing. PMID:2767328

  2. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  3. The pharmacokinetic profile of crocetin in healthy adult human volunteers after a single oral administration.

    PubMed

    Umigai, N; Murakami, K; Ulit, M V; Antonio, L S; Shirotori, M; Morikawa, H; Nakano, T

    2011-05-15

    Crocetin, a unique carotenoid with a short carbon chain length, is an active compound of saffron and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis used as traditional herbal medicine. The present study was undertaken to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of crocetin in healthy adult subjects. The study was conducted as an open-label, single dose escalation with 10 Filipino volunteers (5 men and 5 women). The subjects received a single dose of crocetin at three doses (7.5, 15 and 22.5 mg) in one week interval. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein before and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h after administration. Plasma concentrations of crocetin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Crocetin was rapidly absorbed and detected within an hour of administration with a mean time to reach maximum concentration (T(max)) of crocetin ranging from 4.0 to 4.8 h. The mean values of C(max) and AUC(0-24h) ranged from 100.9 to 279.7 ng/ml and 556.5 to 1720.8 ng. h/ml respectively. C(max) and AUC values increased with dose proportional manner. Crocetin was eliminated from human plasma with a mean elimination half life (T(½) of 6.1 to 7.5 h. In summary, there were no serious adverse events up to 22.5 mg dose of crocetin while crocetin was found to be absorbed more quickly than the other carotenoids such as β-carotene, lutein and lycopene. PMID:21112749

  4. Cryptosporidium meleagridis: Infectivity in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Akiyoshi, Donna E.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2011-01-01

    Most Cryptosporidium infections in humans are caused by C. parvum or C. hominis. However, genotyping techniques have identified infections caused by unusual Cryptosporidium species. Cryptosporidium meleagridis has been identified in ≤ 1% of persons with diarrhea, although prevalence is higher in developing nations. We examined the infectivity of C. meleagridis in healthy adults. Five volunteers were challenged with 105 C. meleagridis oocysts and monitored six weeks for fecal oocysts and clinical manifestations. Four volunteers had diarrhea; three had detectable fecal oocysts; and one infected volunteer remained asymptomatic. Fecal DNA from two volunteers was amplified by using a polymerase chain reaction specific for the Cryptosporidium small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Nucleotide sequence of these amplicons was diagnostic for C. meleagridis. All infections were self-limited; oocysts were cleared within ≤ 12 days of challenge. These studies establish that healthy adults can be infected and become ill from ingestion of C. meleagridis oocysts. PMID:21813841

  5. Handbook for Volunteers: Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, C. Russell

    Designed for volunteers in Olympic College's Adult Education Volunteer Classroom Assistant Project, this handbook discusses volunteer tutors' roles, characteristics of Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) students, suggested teaching techniques, tips for working with instructors, and college policies and regulations.…

  6. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  7. Understanding paratyphoid infection: study protocol for the development of a human model of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A challenge in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, David; Dobinson, Hazel C; Darton, Thomas; Campbell, Danielle; Jones, Claire; Snape, Matthew; Stevens, Zoe; Plested, Emma; Voysey, Merryn; Kerridge, Simon; Martin, Laura B; Angus, Brian; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study will develop the first human challenge model of paratyphoid infection which may then be taken forward to evaluate paratyphoid vaccine candidates. Salmonella Paratyphi A is believed to cause a quarter of the estimated 20 million cases of enteric fever annually. Epidemiological evidence also suggests that an increasing proportion of the enteric fever burden is attributable to S. Paratyphi infection meriting further attention and interest in vaccine development. Assessment of paratyphoid vaccine efficacy in preclinical studies is complicated by the lack of a small animal model and the human-restricted nature of the infection. The use of experimental human infection in healthy volunteers provides an opportunity to address these problems in a cost-effective manner. Methods and analysis Volunteers will ingest virulent S. Paratyphi A bacteria (NVGH308 strain) with a bicarbonate buffer solution to establish the infectious dose resulting in an ‘attack rate’ of 60–75%. Using an a priori decision-making algorithm, the challenge dose will be escalated or de-escalated to achieve the target attack rate, with the aim of reaching the study end point while exposing as few individuals as possible to infection. The attack rate will be determined by the proportion of paratyphoid infection in groups of 20 healthy adult volunteers, with infection being defined by one or more positive blood cultures (microbiological end point) and/or fever, defined as an oral temperature exceeding 38°C sustained for at least 12 h (clinical end point); 20–80 participants will be required. Challenge participants will start a 2-week course of an oral antibiotic on diagnosis of infection, or after 14 days follow-up. Ethics and dissemination The strict eligibility criterion aims to minimise risk to participants and their close contacts. Ethical approval has been obtained. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses

  8. Adult Literacy Volunteers. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Although volunteer tutors traditionally have formed the basis of the programs of Laubach Literacy Action and Literacy Volunteers of America, volunteers have begun to play a greater role in adult literacy instruction provided through community-based organizations, correctional institutions, churches, and federally funded adult basic education.…

  9. Cryptosporidium muris: Infectivity and Illness in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Although Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis cause the majority of human cryptosporidiosis cases, other Cryptosporidium species are also capable of infecting humans, particularly when individuals are immunocompromised. Ten C. muris cases have been reported, primarily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients with diarrhea. However, asymptomatic cases were reported in two HIV-negative children, and in another case, age and immune status were not described. This study examines the infectivity of C. muris in six healthy adults. Volunteers were challenged with 105 C. muris oocysts and monitored for 6 weeks for infection and/or illness. All six patients became infected. Two patients experienced a self-limited diarrheal illness. Total oocysts shed during the study ranged from 6.7 × 106 to 4.1 × 108, and the number was slightly higher in volunteers with diarrhea (2.8 × 108) than asymptomatic shedders (4.4 × 107). C. muris-infected subjects shed oocysts longer than occurred with other species studied in healthy volunteers. Three volunteers shed oocysts for 7 months. Physical examinations were normal, with no reported recurrence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal complaints. Two persistent shedders were treated with nitazoxanide, and the infection was resolved. Thus, healthy adults are susceptible to C. muris, which can cause mild diarrhea and result in persistent, asymptomatic infection. PMID:25311695

  10. Volunteer drivers: their contributions to older adults and to themselves.

    PubMed

    Kerschner, Helen; Rousseau, Marie-Hélène

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 the Beverly Foundation surveyed volunteer drivers in an effort to better understand how and why they support older adults. The sample comprised 714 volunteer drivers from 367 communities, representing 40 states, who responded to the survey. Their responses provided qualitative and quantitative information about who they are, why they volunteer, the challenges they face, and the satisfaction they receive from volunteering to drive. They also addressed current topics including mobility and transportation for older adults, volunteerism and civic engagement, and an innovative method of joining the two sides of aging--the "wellderly" and the elderly. The involvement of volunteer drivers and the organizations that enable them to provide transportation services may be one solution for today and a hope of the future for meeting the transportation needs of older adults. PMID:19064473

  11. Volunteer Drivers: Their Contributions to Older Adults and to Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerschner, Helen; Rousseau, Marie-Helene

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 the Beverly Foundation surveyed volunteer drivers in an effort to better understand how and why they support older adults. The sample comprised 714 volunteer drivers from 367 communities, representing 40 states, who responded to the survey. Their responses provided qualitative and quantitative information about who they are, why…

  12. Correlation of nasal geometry with aerosol deposition in human volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Seng; Simpson, S.Q.; Cheng, Kuo-His; Swift, D.L.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Guilmette, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    The nasal airways act as the first filter in the respiratory tract to remove very large or small particles, that would otherwise penetrate to the lower airways. Aerosol deposition data obtained with human volunteers vary considerably under comparable experimental conditions. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. Because there is no direct proof of this hypothesis, nasal deposition of ultrafine particles in human volunteers has been studied in our laboratory. Preliminary results obtained with four adult volunteers also vary considerably between subjects. The purpose of this part of the study was to establish a theoretical equation relating diffusional deposition in nasal airways to the geometrical dimensions of the individual nasal airways. This relationship was then applied to the experimental deposition data and measurement of airway morphometry for correlation.

  13. NICKEL ABSORPTION AND KINETICS IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mathematical modelling was performed of the kinetics of nickel absorption, distribution and elimination in healthy human volunteers, who ingested NiS04 in drinking water or added food. ickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum, urine, and f...

  14. Adults Who Learn Differently: Help through a Volunteer Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Louise; Gillespie, Phyllis; Balkam, Lynda

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of preservice volunteer training at READ/San Diego, an adult literacy program. It discusses the program's informal assessment procedures that help identify possible language/learning disabilities and provide valuable information for instructional planning. Also described are selected multisensory teaching techniques designed…

  15. Less May Be More: Rethinking Adult Literacy Volunteer Tutor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Alisa

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed the relation between volunteer tutor training and reading instruction in 4 adult literacy programs. The data focus on tutors' choices of reading materials and strategies for assisting in the development of comprehension and word identification skills. Tutor training did not always transfer to practice, and it did not always…

  16. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  17. Effects of a wheat bran extract containing arabinoxylan oligosaccharides on gastrointestinal health parameters in healthy adult human volunteers: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    François, Isabelle E J A; Lescroart, Olivier; Veraverbeke, Wim S; Marzorati, Massimo; Possemiers, Sam; Evenepoel, Pieter; Hamer, Henrike; Houben, Els; Windey, Karen; Welling, Gjalt W; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M; Verbeke, Kristin; Broekaert, Willem F

    2012-12-28

    Wheat bran extract (WBE) is a food-grade soluble fibre preparation that is highly enriched in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides. In this placebo-controlled cross-over human intervention trial, tolerance and effects on colonic protein and carbohydrate fermentation were studied. After a 1-week run-in period, sixty-three healthy adult volunteers consumed 3, 10 and 0 g WBE/d for 3 weeks in a random order, with 2 weeks' washout between each treatment period. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of the run-in period and at the end of each treatment period for analysis of haematological and clinical chemistry parameters. Additionally, subjects collected a stool sample for analysis of microbiota, SCFA and pH. A urine sample, collected over 48 h, was used for analysis of p-cresol and phenol content. Finally, the subjects completed questionnaires scoring occurrence frequency and distress severity of eighteen gastrointestinal symptoms. Urinary p-cresol excretion was significantly decreased after WBE consumption at 10 g/d. Faecal bifidobacteria levels were significantly increased after daily intake of 10 g WBE. Additionally, WBE intake at 10 g/d increased faecal SCFA concentrations and lowered faecal pH, indicating increased colonic fermentation of WBE into desired metabolites. At 10 g/d, WBE caused a mild increase in flatulence occurrence frequency and distress severity and a tendency for a mild decrease in constipation occurrence frequency. In conclusion, WBE is well tolerated at doses up to 10 g/d in healthy adults volunteers. Intake of 10 g WBE/d exerts beneficial effects on gut health parameters. PMID:22370444

  18. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to freshwater cyanobacteria – human volunteer studies

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Robertson, Ivan M; Webb, Penelope M; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Background Pruritic skin rashes associated with exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria are infrequently reported in the medical and scientific literature, mostly as anecdotal and case reports. Diagnostic dermatological investigations in humans are also infrequently described. We sought to conduct a pilot volunteer study to explore the potential for cyanobacteria to elicit hypersensitivity reactions. Methods A consecutive series of adult patients presenting for diagnostic skin patch testing at a hospital outpatient clinic were invited to participate. A convenience sample of volunteers matched for age and sex was also enrolled. Patches containing aqueous suspensions of various cyanobacteria at three concentrations were applied for 48 hours; dermatological assessment was made 48 hours and 96 hours after application. Results 20 outpatients and 19 reference subjects were recruited into the study. A single outpatient produced unequivocal reactions to several cyanobacteria suspensions; this subject was also the only one of the outpatient group with a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. No subjects in the reference group developed clinically detectable skin reactions to cyanobacteria. Conclusion This preliminary clinical study demonstrates that hypersensitivity reactions to cyanobacteria appear to be infrequent in both the general and dermatological outpatient populations. As cyanobacteria are widely distributed in aquatic environments, a better appreciation of risk factors, particularly with respect to allergic predisposition, may help to refine health advice given to people engaging in recreational activities where nuisance cyanobacteria are a problem. PMID:16584576

  19. Volunteering and Psychological Well-Being among Young-Old Adults: How Much Is Too Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Timothy D.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Rodgers, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Research concerned with the relationship between volunteer activity and psychological well-being has typically reported higher levels of well-being among older adult volunteers relative to nonvolunteers. However, few studies have examined nonlinear associations between frequency of volunteer activity and well-being. We examined nonlinear…

  20. Reassessment of stiripentol pharmacokinetics in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Peigné, Sophie; Rey, Elisabeth; Le Guern, Marie-Emmanuelle; Dulac, Olivier; Chiron, Catherine; Pons, Gerard; Jullien, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Because children who have been receiving stiripentol for the treatment of Dravet syndrome for more than 10 years are now becoming young adults, it is important to accurately characterize stiripentol pharmacokinetics in this age range. A double-blind placebo-controlled dose ranging study was therefore conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of stiripentol in 12 healthy volunteers. Each subject received 3 single doses of stiripentol (500, 1000, and 2000 mg) separated by a wash-out period of 1 week. Pharmacokinetics of stiripentol was analyzed for each dose by non-compartmental analysis. Median area under the curve (AUC), terminal elimination half-life (t1/2,z) and maximal concentration (Cmax) were calculated for between-dose comparison. Safety was evaluated based on both clinical and biological criteria. Oppositely to previous results, there was no concentration rebounds in the elimination phase, which could be the consequence of the food intake. A more than proportional increase in the AUC was observed, associated with a significant increase in the t1/2,z, for increasing doses (median AUC of 8.3, 31 and 88 mgh/L, and median t1/2,z of 2, 7.7 and 10h for the 500, 1000, and 2000 mg doses respectively), which confirmed the Michaelis-Menten pharmacokinetics of Stiripentol. However, dose-normalized Cmax did not significantly vary between doses. Median Michaelis-Menten parameters were 117 mg/h for Vmax and 1.9 mg/L for Km. No safety concern was observed during the study. The present study allowed a better characterization of the disposition phase of stiripentol and confirmed its non-linear pharmacokinetic behaviour. Further pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies would be useful to determine the optimal dose of stiripentol for the treatment of Dravet patients in adulthood. PMID:24725808

  1. NASOPHARYNGEAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HUMAN VOLUNTEER BREATHING ACETONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to examine the absorption of a common chemical into the nasopharyngeal region in humans, a 57 year old male volunteer inhaled uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at 1.4 ppm for 30 min while performing different breathing maneuvers; nose inhale, nose exhale (NINE); mouth ...

  2. Factors Affecting Volunteering among Older Rural and City Dwelling Adults in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Jeni; Stirling, Christine

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of large scale Australian studies of volunteering among older adults, this study compared the relevance of two theoretical approaches--social capital theory and sociostructural resources theory--to predict voluntary activity in relation to a large national database. The paper explores volunteering by older people (aged 55+) in order…

  3. Goals and Personal Resources that Contribute to the Development and Agency Attachment of Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Alayna A.; Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Maitland, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the volunteer service contribution of older adults (N = 100) to volunteer role development and agency attachment. Informed by a developmental regulation framework and socio-emotional selectivity theory, we tested a twofold hypothesis for the premise that greater role development and agency attachment would be experienced by (1) older…

  4. A Case Study of a Volunteer-Based Literacy Class with Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine participants' perspectives on how a volunteer-based adult literacy class supports the learning of adults with developmental/intellectual disabilities. Interviews were conducted with four tutors, three adult learners, and two coordinators and observations of the class occurred over a 6-month period…

  5. A first-in-human randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single- and multiple-ascending oral dose study of novel Imidazolopiperazine KAF156 to assess its safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Leong, F Joel; Zhao, Rong; Zeng, Shuqi; Magnusson, Baldur; Diagana, Thierry T; Pertel, Peter

    2014-11-01

    KAF156 belongs to a new class of antimalarial, the imidazolopiperazines, and is currently in clinical development for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This first-in-human, single- and multiple-ascending-dose study in 70 healthy male volunteers determined the maximum oral dose of KAF156 tolerated by healthy adults and derived pharmacokinetic data (including preliminary food effect) to enable dose calculations for malaria patients. KAF156 was studied in single-dose cohorts (10 to 1,200 mg, including one 400-mg food effect cohort (4 to 10 subjects/cohort), and in multiple-dose cohorts (60 to 600 mg once daily for 3 days; 8 subjects/cohort). The follow-up period was 6 to 14 days after the last dose. KAF156 was tolerated, with self-limited mild to moderate gastrointestinal and neurological adverse events. In treated subjects after single doses, headache (n = 4; 11.1%), diarrhea (n = 3; 8.3%), dizziness (n = 3; 8.3%), and abdominal pain (n = 2; 5.6%) were the most common adverse events. Headache (n = 4; 16.7%), nausea (n = 3; 12.5%), upper respiratory tract infection (n = 3; 12.5%), and dizziness (n = 2; 8.3%) were the most common adverse events following multiple doses. KAF156 time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was between 1.0 and 6.0 h. Both the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) increased more than dose-proportionally in both single- and multiple-ascending-dose cohorts (terminal half-life, 42.5 to 70.7 h). There was no significant accumulation over 3-day repeated administration. The extent of absorption was not significantly affected by food at a single dose of 400 mg, while mean Cmax decreased from 778 ng/ml to 627 ng/ml and Tmax was delayed from a median of 3.0 h under fasting conditions to 6.0 h under fed conditions. Renal elimination is a minor route. PMID:25136017

  6. Diurnal variation in the quantitative EEG in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, L; Dane, A; Rhodes, J; Lynch, P; Hughes, A M

    2000-01-01

    Aims To define the change in power in standard waveband frequencies of quantitative cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) data over a 24 h period, in a drug free representative healthy volunteer population. Methods This was an open, non randomised study in which 18 volunteers (9 male and 9 female) were studied on 1 study day, over a 24 h period. Volunteers had a cortical EEG recording taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 h. Each recording lasted for 6 min (3 min eyes open, 3 min eyes closed). All EEG recordings were taken in a quietened ward environment with the curtains drawn round the bed and the volunteer supine. During the 3 min eyes open, volunteers were asked to look at a red circle on a screen at the foot of the bed, and refrain from talking. Results Plots produced of geometric mean power by time of the standard wave band frequencies gave some indication of a circadian rhythm over the 24 h period for θ (4.75–6.75 Hz), α1 (7.0–9.5 Hz) and β1 (12.75–18.50 Hz) wavebands. Mixed models were fitted to both the eyes open and eyes closed data which confirmed a change in mean waveband power with time with statistical significance at the conventional 5% level (P < 0.05). Conclusions These data indicate the presence of a diurnal variation in the cortical quantitative EEG. They support the use of a placebo control group when designing clinical trials which utilize quantitative EEG to screen for central nervous system (CNS) activity of pharmaceutical agents, to control for the confounding variable of time of day at which the EEG recordings were made. PMID:10886113

  7. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering. PMID:27064183

  8. Effects of a propofol--ketamine admixture in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Kanri, Tomio

    2003-03-01

    As the ideal sedative does not exist for all situations, particularly in settings with limited resources, the effect of a propofol-ketamine combination in human volunteers was examined. Eleven American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I volunteers were administered propofol at a loading dose of 1 mg/kg and two minutes later by 0.7 mg/kg of ketamine. This was followed by a propofol-ketamine combination of 5 mg/kg of propofol admixed with 0.7 mg/kg of ketamine that was infused over one hour via a 60 gtts/ml intravenous. Infusion set. Cardiorespiratory parameters were recorded and blood samples taken to measure plasma catecholamine levels prior to, during and for thirty minutes following the termination of the infusion. Rate of respiration and oxygen saturation levels did not alter significantly from baseline levels. When there was a cardiovascular decrease from base line levels it was on average 11% for systolic, 15% diastolic blood pressure and 14% for heart rate. Only plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline increased by 28 and 20%, 10 minutes following the bolus injectons. No dysphoria was experienced. This combined sedoanalgesic technique in nonstimulated human volunteers maintains spontaneous ventilation and may be considered as abalanced alternative to traditional conscious sedation or general anesthesia. PMID:16276943

  9. Case Report: Successful Sporozoite Challenge Model in Human Volunteers with Plasmodium vivax Strain Derived from Human Donors

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sócrates; Fernández, Olga; Manzano, María R.; Murrain, Bermans; Vergara, Juana; Blanco, Pedro; Palacios, Ricardo; Vélez, Juan D.; Epstein, Judith E.; Chen-Mok, Mario; Reed, Zarifah H.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Successful establishment of a Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge model in humans is described. Eighteen healthy adult, malaria-naïve volunteers were randomly allocated to Groups A–C and exposed to 3 ± 1, 6 ± 1, and 9 ± 1 bites of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes infected with P. vivax, respectively. Seventeen volunteers developed signs and symptoms consistent with malaria, and geometric mean prepatent periods of 11.1 days (9.3–11) for Group A; 10.8 days (9.8–11.9) for Group B; and 10.6 days (8.7–12.4) for Group C, with no statistically significant difference among groups (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.70). One volunteer exposed to eight mosquito bites did not develop a parasitemia. No differences in parasite density were observed and all individuals successfully recovered after anti-malarial treatment. None of the volunteers developed parasite relapses within an 18-month follow-up. In conclusion, malaria-naive volunteers can be safely and reproducibly infected with bites of 2–10 An. albimanus mosquitoes carrying P. vivax sporozoites. This challenge method is suitable for vaccine and anti-malarial drug testing. PMID:19861603

  10. Volunteer Client Adult Attachment, Memory for In-Session Emotion, and Mood Awareness: An Affect Regulation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Gelso, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined relations between volunteer client adult attachment and both (a) memory for negative affect occurring within the first session of therapy and (b) mood awareness (mood labeling and mood monitoring). Participants were 80 volunteer clients (students with a personal issue who volunteered to participate in the…

  11. Integrating Volunteering into the Adult Immigrant Second Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    For immigrants, the acquisition of language, specifically the ability to communicate effectively, is one prerequisite of full integration into the host society. For an adult immigrant second language (L2) learner in Canada, access to opportunities that may enhance communicative ability are often limited to the ESL classroom. However, while…

  12. Connecting Socially Isolated Older Rural Adults with Older Volunteers through Expressive Arts.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation. PMID:26934547

  13. Motives and Determinants of Volunteering in Older Adults: An Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Zelli, Arnaldo; Violani, Cristiano

    2008-01-01

    The present study focused on changes in volunteering over time among Italian adults and examined a model in which motives from self-determination theory (SDT) were hypothesized to influence a series of social-cognitive processes including self-efficacy judgments and constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The study was conducted with…

  14. A One-to-One Programme for At-Risk Readers Delivered by Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn; Kearns, Noreen; Devaney, Carmel; Canavan, John; Russell, Dan; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; O'Brien, Aoife

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation of a reading programme delivered by older adult volunteers for at-risk early readers. Wizards of Words (WoW) was targeted at socially disadvantaged children in first and second grade experiencing delays in reading but who were not eligible for formal literacy supports. The…

  15. Everyday Memory Function of Older Adults: The Impact of Intergenerational School Volunteer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Participants in an intergenerational school volunteer program (26 adults over 60) completed memory instruments at 3 time periods. The effect of program participating on actual and perceived memory function varied with age and educational level. Dramatic positive mood changes were noted for those over 70 and those who were college educated. (SK)

  16. A Community-based Education Project: Intertidal Surveys With Student and Adult Volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Parker, G.; Bingham, B. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Fidalgo Learning about the Intertidal Project (FLIP) brought together scientists, educators, students and adult volunteers (20-30 total individuals) to conduct studies of the intertidal zone of a section of Fidalgo Island, Wa. in 2003 and 2004. The project goals were to: 1) obtain basic data on diversity and abundance of intertidal species in different habitats, 2) promote public awareness and appreciation of the intertidal zone, and 3) develop a model program for volunteer participation in scientific surveys. The 2-week program began with 2 days of workshops on local intertidal organisms to teach the FLIP participants how to classify and identify the different organisms and substrates they were likely to encounter in the surveys. We provided general lectures on intertidal habitats and on the importance of the intertidal zone to coastal resources. The FLIP participants worked together on identifying organisms, practicing the use of quadrats and data collection before the surveys began. Following 4 days of field surveys, the participants signed up for workshops that included compilation and analysis of the data, photography, nature writing and algae pressing. The final activity was a public tour of the intertidal day held at a local park. 50-60 people of all ages participated. The goal was to educate the public in plant and animal identification and habitat variability as well as "beach etiquette." Successful model program elements included self-selected volunteers and attention to the composition of each survey team, with one scientist/leader per team and one adult and two students or two adults and one student per team (4-5 teams, each completing one transect per site). Program flexibility was also crucial; FLIP volunteers were not required to attend every single day and post-survey workshops were optional. Volunteers participated to different extents and for different lengths of time depending on their abilities and interests. Project ownership was important

  17. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

  18. Uncommon Human Resources: The Newberry Library Volunteer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyly, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Discusses issues in the management of volunteers in research libraries, outlining the benefits to volunteers and libraries, as well as potential hazards. The volunteer program at Chicago's Newberry Library is described, focusing on recruitment, job assignments, motivation, staff attitudes, retention and library benefits. (26 references) (EA)

  19. Evaluation of impulse noise criteria using human volunteer data.

    PubMed

    Chan, P C; Ho, K H; Kan, K K; Stuhmiller, J H; Mayorga, M A

    2001-10-01

    Four impulse noise auditory injury criteria adopted by NATO countries, namely, the MIL-STD-1474D (USA), Pfander (Germany), Smoorenburg (Netherlands), and L(Aeq8) (France), are evaluated against human volunteer data. Data from subjects wearing single-hearing protection exposed to increasing blast overpressure effects were obtained from tests sponsored by the US Army Medical Research and Material Command. Using logistic regression, the four criteria were each correlated with the test data. The analysis shows that all four criteria are overly conservative by 9.6-21.2 dB for the subjects as tested. The MIL-STD-1474D for single-hearing protection is 9.6 dB lower than the observed injury threshold for 95% protection with 95% confidence for this particular group of subjects as tested. Similar conclusions can be drawn for the other three criteria. PMID:11681377

  20. Pharmacokinetics of furagin, a new nitrofurantoin congener, on human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Männistö, P; Karttunen, P

    1979-06-01

    The human pharmacokinetics of a nitrofurantoin congener furagin was studied after a single oral dose of 200 mg and during a 9-day continuous treatment with a dose of 100 mg t.i.d. The same dose of nitrofurantoin served as a reference medication. In the acute cross-over phase food greatly speeded up and atropine somewhat retarded the absorption of furagin, but the total absorption remained virtually unchanged as judged from the unchanged AUC values. The furagin concentrations in serum remain several hours above the MIC concentrations of many pathogenic bacteria. Despite the high concentrations in serum, the urine levels of furagin were generally lower than those of nitrofurantoin. The 24 hr recoveries in urine were 8--13% for furagin and about 36% for nitrofurantoin. In the prolonged trial furagin was absorbed and excreted in the same way as in the acute trial. On the 9th day the concentrations in serum and urine were higher than on the first day. The urinary concentrations of both furagin and nitrofurantoin always remained well above the MIC values of the most susceptible bacteria. Several volunteers complained of nightly cramps in their calves after taking furagin for some days, otherwise the side effects were minimal. PMID:468451

  1. Fenitrothion: toxicokinetics and toxicologic evaluation in human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Meaklim, Jean; Yang, Jinming; Drummer, Olaf H; Killalea, Sheila; Staikos, Voula; Horomidis, Soumela; Rutherford, David; Ioannides-Demos, Lisa L; Lim, Stephen; McLean, Allan J; McNeil, John J

    2003-01-01

    An unblinded crossover study of fenitrothion 0.18 mg/kg/day [36 times the acceptable daily intake (ADI)] and 0.36 mg/kg/day (72 X ADI) administered as two daily divided doses for 4 days in 12 human volunteers was designed and undertaken after results from a pilot study. On days 1 and 4, blood and urine samples were collected for analysis of fenitrothion and its major metabolites, as well as plasma and red blood cell cholinesterase activities, and biochemistry and hematology examination. Pharmacokinetic parameters could only be determined at the higher dosage, as there were insufficient measurable fenitrothion blood levels at the lower dosage and the fenitrooxone metabolite could not be measured. There was a wide range of interindividual variability in blood levels, with peak levels achieved between 1 and 4 hr and a half-life for fenitrothion of 0.8-4.5 hr. Although based on the half-life, steady-state levels should have been achieved; the area under the curve (AUC)(0-12 hr) to AUC(0-(infinity) )ratio of 1:3 suggested accumulation of fenitrothion. There was no significant change in plasma or red blood cell cholinesterase activity with repeated dosing at either dosage level of fenitrothion, and there were no significant abnormalities detected on biochemical or hematologic monitoring. PMID:12611659

  2. Comparison of Three Aspirin Formulations in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Nordt, Sean Patrick; Clark, Richard F; Castillo, Edward M; Guss, David A

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) includes the administration of aspirin. Current guidelines recommend chewing aspirin tablets to increase absorption. While this is intuitive, there are scant data supporting this recommendation. The purpose of this study is to assess which of 3 different aspirin formulations is most rapidly absorbed after ingestion. Methods A prospective, open-label, 3-way crossover volunteer study at a tertiary university medical center with human subjects 18 years or older. Fasted subjects were randomly assigned to receive aspirin 1,950 mg as (1) solid aspirin tablets swallowed whole, (2) solid aspirin tablet chewed then swallowed, or (3) a chewable aspirin formulation chewed and swallowed. Serum salicylate measurements were obtained over a period of 180 minutes. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Results Thirteen males and 1 female completed all 3 arms of study. Peak serum salicylate concentrations were seen at 180 minutes in all groups. Mean peaks were 10.4, 11.3, and 12.2 mg/dL in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Mean area under the time concentration was 1,153, 1,401, and 1,743 mg-min/dL in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. No measurable salicylate concentrations were seen in 6 subjects in group 1 at 60 minutes as compared to 1 subject in group 2. All subjects in group 3 had measurable levels at 45 minutes. There were no adverse effects in any of the subjects during the study period. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that the chewable aspirin formulation achieved the most rapid rate of absorption. In addition, the chewable formulation absorption was more complete than the other formulations at 180 minutes. These data suggest that in the treatment of ACS, a chewable aspirin formulation may be preferable to solid tablet aspirin, either chewed or swallowed. PMID:22224124

  3. Adult Volunteers. A Handbook for Teacher-Librarians in the Vancouver School Board to Provide Assistance to Teacher-Librarians Who Are Establishing Adult Volunteer Programs, [and] to Suggest Ideas for Teacher-Librarians Who Wish to Enlarge or Enhance Their Volunteer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancouver School Board (British Columbia).

    Guidelines are presented for establishing, enhancing, and evaluating adult volunteer programs in school library resource centers, especially those in Vancouver, Canada. It is noted that in 1982 over 200 adults volunteered their time to work on a regular basis with teacher-librarians in Vancouver. Sections include: (1) a rationale for establishing…

  4. Human metapneumovirus in adults.

    PubMed

    Haas, Lenneke E M; Thijsen, Steven F T; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  5. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  6. Effects of Tocotrienol Supplementation on Hair Growth in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Beoy, Lim Ai; Woei, Wong Jia; Hay, Yuen Kah

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown an association between oxidative stress and alopecia. Patients with alopecia generally exhibit lower levels of antioxidants in their scalp area as well as a higher lipid peroxidation index. Tocotrienols belong to the vitamin E family and are known to be potent antioxidants. Hence, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of tocotrienol supplementation on hair growth in volunteers suffering from hair loss. Twenty one volunteers were randomly assigned to orally receive 100 mg of mixed tocotrienols daily while 17 volunteers were assigned to receive placebo capsule orally. The volunteers were monitored for the number of hairs in a pre-determined scalp area as well as the weight of 20 strands of 1 cm length hair clippings at 0 (before supplementation), 4 and 8 months. The number of hairs of the volunteers in the tocotrienol supplementation group increased significantly as compared to the placebo group, with the former recording a 34.5% increase at the end of the 8-month supplementation as compared to a 0.1% decrease for the latter. Nevertheless, the cumulative weight of 20 strands of hair clippings did not differ much from the baseline for both supplementation groups at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this trial demonstrated that supplementation with tocotrienol capsules increases hair number in volunteers suffering from hair loss as compared to the placebo group. This observed effect was most likely to be due to the antioxidant activity of tocotrienols that helped to reduce lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the scalp, which are reported to be associated with alopecia. PMID:24575202

  7. Effects of tocotrienol supplementation on hair growth in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Beoy, Lim Ai; Woei, Wong Jia; Hay, Yuen Kah

    2010-12-01

    Studies have shown an association between oxidative stress and alopecia. Patients with alopecia generally exhibit lower levels of antioxidants in their scalp area as well as a higher lipid peroxidation index. Tocotrienols belong to the vitamin E family and are known to be potent antioxidants. Hence, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of tocotrienol supplementation on hair growth in volunteers suffering from hair loss. Twenty one volunteers were randomly assigned to orally receive 100 mg of mixed tocotrienols daily while 17 volunteers were assigned to receive placebo capsule orally. The volunteers were monitored for the number of hairs in a pre-determined scalp area as well as the weight of 20 strands of 1 cm length hair clippings at 0 (before supplementation), 4 and 8 months. The number of hairs of the volunteers in the tocotrienol supplementation group increased significantly as compared to the placebo group, with the former recording a 34.5% increase at the end of the 8-month supplementation as compared to a 0.1% decrease for the latter. Nevertheless, the cumulative weight of 20 strands of hair clippings did not differ much from the baseline for both supplementation groups at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this trial demonstrated that supplementation with tocotrienol capsules increases hair number in volunteers suffering from hair loss as compared to the placebo group. This observed effect was most likely to be due to the antioxidant activity of tocotrienols that helped to reduce lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the scalp, which are reported to be associated with alopecia. PMID:24575202

  8. Volunteer Middle Managers: Human Resources That Extend Programmatic Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassill, Heather; Culp, Ken, III; Hettmansperger, Jay; Stillwell, Marla; Sublet, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Extension professionals must be able to give volunteers programmatic ownership, resources, and the education needed to complete tasks. However, resources such as time and money are limited, especially in economic downtimes, making it even more necessary to look at creative ways to bridge the gap between what programs and services can and should be…

  9. Volunteering as a Pathway to Productive and Social Engagement among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lee, Yung Soo; McCrary, Stacey; McBride, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research on outcomes of volunteering in later life largely focuses on the health of volunteers. This is in contrast to studies of youth, where attention is directed toward the effects of volunteering on subsequent productive and citizen behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of volunteering on subsequent social and civic…

  10. Oral and dermal pharmacokinetics of triclopyr in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, N G; Nolan, R J; Perkins, J M; Davies, R; Warrington, S J

    1989-11-01

    Blood levels and urinary excretion of triclopyr, the active ingredient in Garlon herbicides, were followed in six volunteers given single oral doses of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Five of these volunteers later received dermal applications of Garlon 4 herbicide formulation equivalent to 3.7 mg triclopyr/kg body weight applied to the forearm. Following oral administration blood levels peaked at 2-3 h and declined to undetectable levels within 48 h; more than 80% of the dose was found as unchanged triclopyr in the urine. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was used to describe the time-course of triclopyr clearance; half-lives for the rapid initial and slower terminal phases were 1.3 h and 5.1 h respectively, and were independent of dose. Due to the slow half-life for dermal absorption (t1/2 = 16.8 h) the rapid initial elimination phase was obscured and the pharmacokinetics could be simplified by a one-compartment model. An average of 1.37% of the applied dose was recovered in the urine; when corrected for recovery after oral administration this was equivalent to an absorption of 1.65%. Triclopyr is slowly absorbed through skin and is rapidly eliminated. It has very low potential to accumulate in man or to be absorbed through the skin in acutely toxic amounts. PMID:2591984

  11. Marketing Public Health Through Older Adult Volunteering: Experience Corps as a Social Marketing Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Xue, Qian-Li; Rebok, George W.; Frick, Kevin D.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Wang, Tao; Piferi, Rachel L.; McGill, Sylvia; Whitfield, Keith E.; Fried, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We present a social marketing conceptual framework for Experience Corps Baltimore City (EC) in which the desired health outcome is not the promoted product or behavior. We also demonstrate the feasibility of a social marketing–based recruitment campaign for the first year of the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial (BECT), a randomized, controlled trial of the health benefits of EC participation for older adults. Methods. We recruited older adults from the Baltimore, MD, area. Participants randomized to the intervention were placed in public schools in volunteer roles designed to increase healthy behaviors. We examined the effectiveness of a recruitment message that appealed to generativity (i.e., to make a difference for the next generation), rather than potential health benefits. Results. Among the 155 participants recruited in the first year of the BECT, the average age was 69 years; 87% were women and 85% were African American. Participants reported primarily generative motives as their reason for interest in the BECT. Conclusions. Public health interventions embedded in civic engagement have the potential to engage older adults who might not respond to a direct appeal to improve their health. PMID:20167888

  12. The pharmacokinetics of ciclazindol (Wy 23409) in human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Swaisland, A J; Franklin, R A; Southgate, P J; Coleman, A J

    1977-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ciclazindol, a potential anti-depressant drug, have been studied after oral administration of the compound to male and female volunteers. 2. The mean +/- S.E. mean maximum plasma concentration of the unchanged drug was 422 +/- 31 ng/ml. This level was seen between 2 and 4 h after dosing. 3. Elimination of the ciclazindol from plasma was apparently monexponential with a half-life of approximately 32 h. A large proportion of the drug-related substances in the plasma was unchanged drug. 4. Excretion of radioactivity took place predominantly via the renal route, less than 15% of the dose being recovered in the faeces. The urinary elimination process was apparently monoexponential with a half-life of 28 h. 5. Daily dosing with ciclazindol for 3 weeks did not appear to induce the enzymes of its own metabolism. PMID:843425

  13. Memory and psychomotor effects of oxcarbazepine in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Curran, H V; Java, R

    1993-01-01

    Cognitive and psychomotor impairments can be unwanted adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. The present double-blind, cross-over study with healthy volunteers was designed to assess the effects of two doses of oxcarbazepine (OXCZ) (150 mg b.i.d.; 300 mg b.i.d.) and a placebo, each given over a two week period. Twelve subjects completed a battery of tests before and 4 h after morning doses on days 1, 8 and 15. Results of objective tests indicated that OXCZ improved performance on a focussed attention task and increased manual writing speed. Subjective ratings showed OXCZ increased feelings of altertness, clear-headedness and quickwittedness. OXCZ had no effect on the range of long-term memory processes assessed in this study. It is concluded that at the doses employed, OXCZ has a slightly stimulant effect on some aspects of psychomotor functioning. PMID:8405007

  14. Measurement and validation of GHz-band whole-body average SAR in a human volunteer using reverberation chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianqing; Suzuki, Tokio; Fujiwara, Osamu; Harima, Katsushige

    2012-12-01

    The World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommendation on the need for further research for radio-frequency dosimetry has promoted studies on the whole-body average-specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) in various kinds of anatomical-based numerical models. For experimental validation of GHz-band WBA-SARs in a real human, however, there have not so far been any published papers, despite the fact that, in 1982, Hill measured WBA-SARs at frequencies less than 40 MHz in human volunteers using a TEM-cell exposure system. In this study, we provide a measurement technique with a reverberation chamber for validating numerical dosimetry results on GHz-band WBA-SARs in living humans. We measured WBA-SARs at 1, 1.5 and 2 GHz for a 22 year old male volunteer, with a height of 173 cm and a weight of 73 kg, in the reverberation chamber, and compared the results with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The reverberation chamber was excited by using a signal generator through an amplifier with an output power of 30-40 mW, which produced inside the chamber with the volunteer an average electric field strength of 5 V m-1 equivalent to an average power spectral density of 6.6 μW cm-2. The WBA-SARs were obtained from the measured S11 and S21 together with the power density. On the other hand, the WBA-SARs have been calculated using the FDTD method for an adult male model with almost the same physique as that of the volunteer exposed to the electromagnetic field in the reverberation chamber. From the comparison between the measured and the calculated WBA-SARs, we could confirm that the measured GHz-band WBA-SARs approximately agree with the FDTD calculated results.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of cefatrizine after oral administration in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mastrandrea, V; Ripa, S; La Rosa, F; Ghezzi, A

    1985-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of cefatrizine was studied in four groups, each of ten healthy young male volunteers. Capsules and suspension formulations were each administered at doses of 250 and 500 mg. Both the capsules and suspensions had mean peak plasma levels at 1.6 h at both dose levels. Mean peak plasma levels were 4.1 and 4.3 micrograms/ml for the 250 mg capsule and suspension doses respectively and 7.1 and 7.5 micrograms/ml for the 500 mg capsules and suspension doses respectively. The overall mean half-life was 1.7 h. For both types of formulations and at both dose levels 63-65% of the doses were excreted in the urine as intact cefatrizine, 85% of this amount within 8 h. The overall mean renal clearance was 157 ml/min. The cefatrizine capsule and suspension formulations were completely bioequivalent in regard to both rate and extent of bioavailability. Plasma concentrations and urinary recoveries of cefatrizine were higher than those previously reported, due to precautions taken in sample collection and storage. PMID:4066082

  16. To Make Their Journey Better: Research-Focused Aspirations for Preparing Adult Volunteers for Facilitating Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joshua Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This basic interpretive qualitative research study explored the personal and professional backgrounds, training experiences, perspectives, and perceptions held by adult volunteers serving as crew advisors in the Venturing program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Venturing is the BSA's adventure oriented youth development program for coeds age…

  17. Nutrition Risk in Home-Bound Older Adults: Using Dietician-Trained and Supervised Nutrition Volunteers for Screening and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laforest, Sophie; Goldin, Benita; Nour, Kareen; Roy, Marie-Andree; Payette, Helene

    2007-01-01

    Nutrition screening and early intervention in home-bound older adults are key to preventing unfavourable health outcomes and functional decline. This pilot study's objectives were (a) to test the reliability of the Elderly Nutrition Screening Tool (ENS [C]) when administered by dietician-trained and supervised nutrition volunteers, and (b) to…

  18. Effects of midazolam on cerebral blood flow in human volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, A.; Juge, O.; Morel, D.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of intravenously administered midazolam on cerebral blood flow were evaluated in eight healthy volunteers using the /sup 133/Xe inhalation technique. Six minutes after an intravenous dose of 0.15 mg/kg midazolam, the cerebral blood flow decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from a value of 40.6 +/- 3.3 to a value of 27.0 +/- 5.0 ml . 100 g-1 . min-1. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) increased from 2.8 +/- 0.2 to 3.9 to 0.6 mmHg/(ml . 100 g-1 . min-1)(P less than 0.001). Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) from 117 +/- 8 to 109 +/- 9 mmHg and arterial carbon dioxide tension increased from 33.9 +/- 2.3 to 38.6 +/- 3.2 mmHg (P less than 0.05). Arterial oxygen tension remained stable throughout the study, 484 +/- 95 mmHg before the administration of midazolam and 453 +/- 76 mmHg after. All the subjects slept after the injection of the drug and had anterograde amnesia of 24.5 +/- 5 min. The decrease in mean arterial blood pressure was probably not important since it remained in the physiologic range for cerebral blood flow autoregulation. The increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension observed after the midazolam injection may have partially counteracted the effect of this new benzodiazepine on cerebral blood flow. Our data suggest that midazolam might be a safe agent to use for the induction of anethesia in neurosurgical patients with intracranial hypertension.

  19. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M.; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C.; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Methods: Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Results: The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001, Friedman test) with a median rating of 8 mm (corresponding to “hardly at all”) at the 0.1 ppm condition and with no influence from EA. No significant exposure-related effects were found for pulmonary function, or nasal swelling, nor for markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood (IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and Clara cell protein) or induced sputum (cell count, differential cell count, IL-6 and IL-8). Blink frequency recorded by electromyography was increased during exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Conclusion: Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein. PMID:26635308

  20. DNA repair enhancement of aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa in a human volunteer study.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Y; Li, L; Holmgren, K; Pero, R W

    2001-07-01

    The Uncaria tomentosa water extracts (C-Med-100) have been shown to enhance DNA repair, mitogenic response and leukocyte recovery after chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in vivo. In this study, the effect of C-Med-100 supplement was evaluated in a human volunteer study. Twelve apparently healthy adults working in the same environment were randomly assigned into 3 groups with age and gender matched. One group was daily supplemented with a 250 mg tablet containing an aqueous extract of Uncaria tomentosa of C-Med-100, and another group with a 350 mg tablet, for 8 consecutive weeks. DNA repair after induction of DNA damage by a standard dose of hydrogen peroxide was measured 3 times before supplement and 3 times after the supplement for the last 3 weeks of the 8 week-supplement period. There were no drug-related toxic responses to C-Med-100 supplement when judged in terms of clinical symptoms, serum clinical chemistry, whole blood analysis and leukocyte differential counts. There was a statistically significant decrease of DNA damage and a concomitant increase of DNA repair in the supplement groups (250 and 350 mg/day) when compared with non-supplemented controls (p < 0.05). There was also an increased tendency of PHA induced lymphocyte proliferation in the treatment groups. Taken together, this trial has confirmed the earlier results obtained in the rat model when estimating DNA repair enhancement by C-Med-100. PMID:11515717

  1. "In the interest of humanity and the cause of science": the yellow fever volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, John R

    2003-11-01

    The scientific discoveries of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Board of 1900 are well known as are the Army physicians who led the board. Walter Reed, of course, is the best known, but James Carroll, Aristides Agramonte, and Jesse Lazear are also known, if not nationally, to their local communities. This article deals not with the known but with the unknown, meaning the volunteers who subjected themselves to the ravages of yellow fever and the real possibility of death. The year 1900 was known as a "yellow fever year" among the locals in Cuba because in the preceding year the epidemics had been relatively mild. Beginning its work in June 1900 in the midst of a deadly epidemic, the board conducted a truly remarkable set of experiments that set a benchmark for controlled clinical trials and informed consent. Because no animal model was known to be susceptible to yellow fever, they used human volunteers for their experiments. These volunteers were recruited from among Spanish immigrants and were accepted from soldiers and two civilians who volunteered. Over 30 men participated in the experiments, and 22 developed yellow fever. With expected death rates of 20% to 40%, it is incredible that none of these volunteers died. In 1929, the U.S. government honored the Americans who volunteered by placing their names on a Roll of Honor published annually in the Army Register. The successes of the 1900 U.S. Army Yellow Fever Board were truly remarkable, and many of the successes were made possible by the men who volunteered, some repeatedly, to risk their lives "in the interest of humanity and the cause of science." PMID:14680037

  2. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  3. Diesel Exhaust Modulates Ozone-induced Lung Function Decrements in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...

  4. Clinical pharmacology of DP-b99 in healthy volunteers: First administration to humans

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Gilad; Angel, Itzchak; Kozak, Alex

    2005-01-01

    Aims To investigate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of DP-b99 in healthy volunteers. DP-b99 is a newly developed lipophilic, cell permeable derivative of BAPTA (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid), which selectively modulates the distribution of metal ions in hydrophobic milieu, and is in clinical development as a neuroprotectant for cerebral ischaemic stroke. To our knowledge no BAPTA derivative has ever been administered to man. Here we report the first human administration of DP-b99 in a phase I, two-part, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled study, with single IV doses of 0.003–1.0 mg kg−1 day−1 DP-b99 (part 1) or multiple ascending doses of 0.03–1.0 mg kg−1 day−1 DP-b99 over 4 days (part 2). Methods A double-blind, dose escalating tolerability study of DP-b99 in normal (young – aged between 18 and 40 years and elderly – aged between 65 and 85 years) healthy adult male volunteers was conducted. Part 1 of the study investigated single administration of ascending intravenous doses, and part 2 examined the effects of ascending doses given repeatedly over 4 days. Twenty-four young volunteers in part 1 received single dose administrations and 26 young volunteers in part 2 received repeated ascending dose administrations of either intravenous DP-b99 or placebo. Subsequently, 10 elderly volunteers received repeated intravenous DP-b99 (1 mg kg−1) or placebo in part 2 over 4 days. Adverse events were identified by either subject self reporting or based upon laboratory parameters (blood chemistry, complete blood cell count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin (PTT), physical examination, vital signs (blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature) and urinalysis. A comprehensive set of cardiovascular parameters was assessed as well (blood pressure, 12 lead-ECG recordings and continuous bedside cardiac monitoring for 6 h on day 1). Results The administration of DP-b99 up

  5. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (< 20 µg/m³). Health effects were evaluated in relation to rated changes in symptoms and environmental perception using a computerized questionnaire and a potentiometer. Subjective symptoms were generally weak, but when combining the effect of each of the symptoms into categorical symptom indices, significant effects were found for "environmental perception" (p = 0.0007), "irritative body perceptions" (p = 0.0127), "psychological/neurological effects" (p = 0.0075) and "weak inflammatory responses" (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating and caused irritated mucosas in humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure. PMID:21506878

  6. Hair cadmium level of smoker and non-smoker human volunteers in and around Calcutta City

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Samaddar, K.R. ); Joshi, H.C. )

    1990-08-01

    In recent years considerable interest has arisen concerning cadmium accumulation in man. In general, the body burden of cadmium of an urban population is due to occupational exposure, as well as non-occupational contamination. Several reports indicate that cadmium body burden of cigarette smokers or tobacco users is more than of non-smokers. Measurement of cadmium in human hair has been suggested as an indicator of body burden. Most industrialized countries have regular monitoring programs for measuring cadmium accumulation in humans. There has been little or no work done thus far in India regarding the level of cadmium in humans. The objective of this investigation was to survey the levels of cadmium in hair of random samples of human volunteers. The influences of smoking habits, urban or rural life and age of the volunteers on the level of cadmium in hair were examined.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of experimental pentavalent antimony after intramuscular administration in adult volunteers*

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Laura; Scorza Dagert, José V.; Scorza, José V.; Vicuña-Fernández, Nelson; de Peña, Yaneira Petit; López, Sabrina; Bendezú, Herminia; Rojas, Elina; Vásquez, Libia; Pérez, Belén

    2006-01-01

    Background: Pentavalent antimony (SbV) has demonstrated therapeuticeffectiveness against clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by Leishmania, a genus of flagellate protozoa comprising parasites of worldwide distribution. Approximately 1.8 million new cases are reported annually. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of the investigational generic SbV, Ulamina (pentachloride of antimony + N-methylglucamine), in healthy adult volunteers. Methods: In this study, SbV was administered IM as a single 5-mg/kg dose.Blood samples were collected at 0.25, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after administration; urine samples were collected at 6-hour intervals during the 24-hour postadministration period. Determination of trivalent antimony, SbV, and total antimony concentrations in blood and urine samples was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. Clinical history was reviewed and the subjects were monitored before and after administration of SbV using physical examination, weight, and hepatic- and renal-function studies. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated were Cmax, Tmax, absorption constant (Ka), elimination constant (Kel), AUC2–24h, AUC0-∞, elimination phase (t½β), volume of distribution (Vd), and urinary excretion rate. Results: Five subjects (3 men, 2 women; mean age, 28 years [range, 18–34 years]) were included in the study. One hour after drug administration the following values were obtained: Cmax, 1.1 μg/mL; Tmax, 1.3 hours; Ka, 1.87 hours; Kel, 0.043 hours; AUC0–24h, 12.26 μg/mL · h; AUC0-∞, 19.84 μg/mL · h; t½β, 17.45 hours; Vd, 6.6 L/kg; and urinary excretion rate, 2.8 μg/h; these were mean values for the entire study group. The single dose was well tolerated by all subjects. Conclusions: The investigational generic SbV, Ulamina, was associated with linearelimination after IM administration of a single 5-mg/kg dose. A 2-compartment pharmacokinetic model was observed in

  8. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus in volunteer blood donors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P E; Stevens, C E; Pindyck, J; Schrode, J; Steaffens, J W; Lee, H

    1990-01-01

    Serum samples collected in 1985 and 1986 from 18,257 donors to the Greater New York Blood Program were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassay for antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (anti-HTLV). Fifteen samples (0.08%) were confirmed positive: 7 by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) alone, 6 by Western blot alone, and 2 by combined results from both tests. One donor, whose original test result was uninterpretable because multiple nonspecific bands were present on RIPA, clearly tested positive on subsequent specimens. Follow-up testing of individuals with this type of result may be needed to resolve their HTLV status. Anti-HTLV prevalence increased with age and was significantly more common in black or Hispanic donors and in those born in the Caribbean than in other donors. All anti-HTLV-positive donors were negative for antibody to HIV-1, and only one donor (7% of those positive) would have been excluded by any of the routine donor screening tests used at that time. PMID:2173176

  9. Assessing the metabolic effects of aromatherapy in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Wu, Yani; Chen, Tianlu; Yao, Lei; Liu, Jiajian; Pan, Xiaolan; Hu, Yixue; Zhao, Aihua; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Aromatherapy, a form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that uses essential oils through inhalation, is believed to enhance physical and spiritual conditions. Although clinical studies suggest that the use of essential oils may have therapeutic potential, evidence for the efficacy of aromatherapy in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous analytical methods that capture its identifiable impact on human biology. Here, we report a comprehensive metabolomics study that reveals metabolic changes in people after exposed to aroma inhalation for 10 continuous days. In this study, the metabolic alterations in urine of 31 females with mild anxiety symptoms exposed to aerial diffusion of aromas were measured by GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analyses. A significant alteration of metabolic profile in subjects responsive to essential oil was found, which is characterized by the increased levels of arginine, homocysteine, and betaine, as well as decreased levels of alcohols, carbohydrates, and organic acids in urine. Notably, the metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and gut microbial metabolism were significantly altered. This study demonstrates that the metabolomics approach can capture the subtle metabolic changes resulting from exposure to essential oils, which may lead to an improved mechanistic understanding of aromatherapy. PMID:23737829

  10. Occupant kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests: Human volunteers, Hybrid III ATD, and PMHS.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Franck, Christopher T; Loftus, Stephen C

    2012-07-01

    A total of 34 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed, 17 low (2.5g, Δv=4.8kph) and 17 medium (5.0g, Δv=9.7kph), with five male human volunteers of approximately 50th percentile height and weight, a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD, and three male PMHS. Each volunteer was exposed to two impulses at each severity, one relaxed and one braced prior to the impulse. A total of four tests were performed at each severity with the ATD and one trial was performed at each severity with each PMHS. A Vicon motion analysis system, 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D kinematics (±1mm) (1kHz). Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. The forward excursions of the select anatomical regions generally increased with increasing severity. The forward excursions of relaxed human volunteers were significantly larger than those of the ATD for nearly every region at both severities. The forward excursions of the upper body regions of the braced volunteers were generally significantly smaller than those of the ATD at both severities. Forward excursions of the relaxed human volunteers and PMHSs were fairly similar except the head CG response at both severities and the right knee and C7 at the medium severity. The forward excursions of the upper body of the PMHS were generally significantly larger than those of the braced volunteers at both severities. Forward excursions of the PMHSs exceeded those of the ATD for all regions at both severities with significant differences within the upper body regions. Overall human volunteers, ATD, and PMHSs do not have identical biomechanical responses in low-speed frontal sled tests but all contribute valuable data that can be used to refine and validate computational models and ATDs used to assess injury risk in automotive collisions. PMID:22342960

  11. Cortical activity evoked by an acute painful tissue-damaging stimulus in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma; Lee, Amy; Meek, Judith; Slater, Rebeccah; Olhede, Sofia; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Everyday painful experiences are usually single events accompanied by tissue damage, and yet most experimental studies of cutaneous nociceptive processing in the brain use repeated laser, thermal, or electrical stimulations that do not damage the skin. In this study the nociceptive activity in the brain evoked by tissue-damaging skin lance was analyzed with electroencephalography (EEG) in 20 healthy adult volunteers (13 men and 7 women) aged 21–40 yr. Time-frequency analysis of the evoked activity revealed a distinct late event-related vertex potential (lance event-related potential, LERP) at 100–300 ms consisting of a phase-locked energy increase between 1 and 20 Hz (delta-beta bands). A pairwise comparison between lance and sham control stimulation also revealed a period of ultralate stronger desynchronization after lance in the delta band (1–5 Hz). Skin application of mustard oil before lancing, which sensitizes a subpopulation of nociceptors expressing the cation channel TRPA1, did not affect the ultralate desynchronization but reduced the phase-locked energy increase in delta and beta bands, suggesting a central interaction between different modalities of nociceptive inputs. Verbal descriptor screening of individual pain experience revealed that lance pain is predominantly due to Aδ fiber activation, but when individuals describe lances as C fiber mediated, an ultralate delta band event-related desynchronization occurs in the brain-evoked activity. We conclude that pain evoked by acute tissue damage is associated with distinct Aδ and C fiber-mediated patterns of synchronization and desynchronization of EEG oscillations in the brain. PMID:23427303

  12. Gender specificity of sucrose induced analgesia in human adults.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Manasi; Bhatia, Renu; Mathur, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Sweet, palatable substances such as sucrose are reported to calm infants undergoing routine investigative procedures. The analgesic effect persists in pre pubertal children and adults with a hint of gender dependent variation in the analgesic response. The present study was therefore designed to explore gender specificity of sucrose induced analgesia in adult volunteers utilizing the nociceptive flexion reflex, an objective tool for pain assessment. Nociceptive flexion reflex was recorded, both before and after (up to 15 min) ingestion of 100 ml of 25% sucrose solution in 6 male and 6 female volunteers. In the male volunteers the maximum amplitude of the response was 20.8 +/- 7.7 microV before sucrose ingestion and 22.6 +/- 9.1 microV, 6.6 +/- 0.7 microV, 6.2 +/- 1.1 microV, 7.5 +/- 0.9 microV at 0, 5, 10 and 15 minutes post sucrose ingestion respectively. In female volunteers, the maximum amplitude of the response was 33.7 +/- 17.7 microV before sucrose ingestion and 43.6 +/- 17.2 microV, 7.1 +/- 1.2 microV, 25.9 +/- 16.1 microV, 50.6 +/- 16.3 microV at the same time intervals post sucrose ingestion. The maximum amplitude values were significantly lower in the males at 10 and 15 minutes after sucrose ingestion (P < 0.05). This is the first objective report of gender specificity in sucrose induced analgesia in adult humans. The gender dependent variation in sucrose induced analgesia is prolonged in male (15 min) and short lived in female (5 min) volunteers. This knowledge may have important implications in pain management. PMID:18476396

  13. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  14. Modeling spatial trajectories in dynamics testing using basis splines: application to tracking human volunteers in low-speed frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Marina A; Reed, Matthew P; Arbogast, Kristy B; Seacrist, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Designing motor vehicle safety systems requires knowledge of whole body kinematics during dynamic loading for occupants of varying size and age, often obtained from sled tests with postmortem human subjects and human volunteers. Recently, we reported pediatric and adult responses in low-speed (<4 g) automotive-like impacts, noting reductions in maximum excursion with increasing age. Since the time-based trajectory shape is also relevant for restraint design, this study quantified the time-series trajectories using basis splines and developed a statistical model for predicting trajectories as a function of body dimension or age. Previously collected trajectories of the head, spine, and pelvis were modeled using cubic basis splines with eight control points. A principal component analysis was conducted on the control points and related to erect seated height using a linear regression model. The resulting statistical model quantified how trajectories became shorter and flatter with increasing body size, corresponding to the validation data-set. Trajectories were then predicted for erect seated heights corresponding to pediatric and adult anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs), thus generating performance criteria for the ATDs based on human response. This statistical model can be used to predict trajectories for a subject of specified anthropometry and utilized in subject-specific computational models of occupant response. PMID:26428257

  15. Evaluation of the Dermal Bioavailability of Aqueous Xylene in F344 Rats and Human Volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, Karla D. ); Woodstock, Angie D. )

    2003-07-11

    Xylene is a clear, colorless liquid used as a solvent in the printing, rubber, and leather industries and is commonly found in paint thinners, paints, varnishes, and adhesives. Although humans are most likely to be exposed to xylene via inhalation, xylene is also found in well and surface water. Therefore, an assessment of the dermal contribution to total xylene uptake is useful for understanding human exposures. To evaluate the significance of these exposures, the dermal absorption of o-xylene was assessed in F344 male rats and human volunteers using a combination of real-time exhaled breath analysis and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Animals were exposed to o-xylene dermally. Immediately following the initiation of exposure, individual animals were placed in a glass off-gassing chamber and exhaled breath was monitored. Human volunteers participating in the study placed both legs into a stainless steel hydrotherapy tub containing an initial concentration of approximately 500 g/L o-xylene. Exhaled breath was continually analyzed from each volunteer before, during, and post-exposure to track absorption and subsequent elimination of the compound in real time. In both animal and human studies, a PBPK model was used to estimate the dermal permeability coefficient (Kp) to describe each set of exhaled breath data. Rat skin was found to be approximately 12 times more permeable to aqueous o-xylene than human skin. The estimated human and rat aqueous o-xylene Kp values were 0.005+/- 0.001 cm/hr and 0.058+/- 0.009 cm/hr, respectively.

  16. Enhanced Chromatographic Determination of Nicotine in Human Plasma: Applied to Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Bassam M; Mohamady, Samy; Hendy, Moataz S; Elmazar, Mohamed M

    2015-12-01

    Development of enhanced UPLC-UV method for determination of nicotine in human plasma was achieved on a Symmetry(®) C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.2 μm) applying isocratic elution based on Methanol: Acetonitrile: Phosphate Buffer (pH: 2.7) with the ratio (20:30:50, v/v/v) as a mobile phase. The ultraviolet detector was operated at 260 nm. The mobile phase was pumped through the column at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min(-1). The column temperature was adjusted to 50ºC and the injection volume was 2 μL. Quinine was selected as an internal standard (IS) due to its structure similarity to nicotine having basic pyridine ring to optimize the liquid liquid extraction procedure using diethyl ether coupled with vacuum evaporation at 40°C. Validation parameters for nicotine were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 2.5-50 ng ml(-1). The application of the proposed method on four healthy human volunteers was approved by the ethical committee. The study was carried out under fasting conditions and the concerned subjects were informed about the objectives and possible risks involved in the study. The proposed method proved to be simple and fast which is a major advantage to analyze large number of samples per day using the accelerated vacuum evaporation technique. The method showed satisfactory data for all the parameters tested within the limits for bioanalytical assays. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) permits the application of the method for further pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:26759535

  17. Volunteers Help Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Isolde Chapin

    A discussion of ways in which both adult and young Americans are volunteering to aid in the positive development of young people is presented in this booklet. The wide variety of programs that are designed to use volunteers and the need for additional volunteers are described. These programs are discussed under the following topic headings: School…

  18. Sufentanil does not increase cerebral blood flow in healthy human volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, N.; Weinstabl, C.; Podreka, I.; Spiss, C.K. )

    1990-08-01

    The effect of sufentanil on human cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in seven unpremedicated, healthy volunteers 31 +/- 3.5 yr of age (mean +/- SD) and either sex. CBF (ml.100 g-1.min-1) was measured noninvasively with the 133Xe clearance technique and a scintillation camera before and after sufentanil 0.5 micrograms/kg administered intravenously. This technique provides values for global blood flow and for gray and white matter blood flow, and from 13 preselected regions in one hemisphere. After the administration of sufentanil, the volunteers were stimulated verbally in order to prevent their loss of consciousness and hypercarbia. Heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and end-tidal CO2 ETCO2 were recorded during the measurements. Neither global CBF (46.1 +/- 1.6 control and 43 +/- 1.9 after sufentanil, mean +/- SEM) nor gray (76.5 +/- 3.2 and 70.9 +/- 6.1) or white (22.7 +/- 1.5 and 24.2 +/- 1.6) matter blood flow changed significantly after sufentanil administration. As well, no significant differences in HR (72 +/- 4 control and 79 +/- 4 beats per min after sufentanil) and ETCO2 (39.8 +/- 1.4 and 41.1 +/- 1.1 mmHg) were observed. It is concluded that sufentanil has no significant effect on CBF in healthy human volunteers.

  19. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in several parameters of visual memory and attention due to AS ingestion. We also found statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508

  20. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md Sazzadul; Hossain, Md Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in several parameters of visual memory and attention due to AS ingestion. We also found statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508

  1. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuwatari, Yasushi; Okumura, Ko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Furukawa, Mai; Ohno, Naohito; Mori, Kazu; Gao, Ming; Motoi, Masuro

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food. PMID:18604247

  2. Are human subject volunteers still players in aeromedical research as we enter the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Popper, S E; Morris, C E

    1997-08-01

    The U.S. Air Force has enjoyed the luxury of having dedicated human volunteer subjects for sustained and impact acceleration research for over 50 yr. However, with today's world economy and budgetary cutbacks, this may no longer be a viable option. The onslaught of advanced medical technology, combined with an increasing performance envelope for aircraft and their ejection systems, have created an environment where the validity of research data and the ethics of human-use research are being challenged. Now is an opportune time to reevaluate the way human-use aeromedical research is conducted. The validity of using nonpilots in lieu of pilots in aeromedical research is discussed in light of the following: a) the increased emphasis on performance metrics within sustained acceleration; b) the matching of human subjects (nonpilots) to pilots in the appropriate attributes to ensure validity of data; c) degree of medical screening required given the ethics of human-use research and concerns of pilots; and d) the challenge of evaluating the "value added" of new technology for medical screening. It is concluded that volunteer panels should be maintained with nonpilots matched with pilots physically and psychologically such that operational performance characteristics are similar. Medical screening should be similar so that research data from subjects can be applied to the target population (pilots). Longitudinal data collection (e.g., spinal X-rays) on pilots would also be of great value as a basis for studying the occupational hazards of flying. PMID:9262820

  3. Life Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults With Cancer Experience: The Role of Optimism and Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Chun, Sanghee; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Junhyoung

    2016-09-01

    Promoting health and well-being among individuals of advancing age is a significant issue due to increased incidence of cancer among older adults. This study demonstrates the benefits of expecting positive outcomes and participating in volunteer activities among older adults with cancer. We used a nationally representative sample of 2,670 individuals who have experienced cancer from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. We constructed a structural equation model to explore the associations of optimism, volunteerism, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. The level of optimism was a significant predictor of volunteerism, which in turn affected life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The level of engagement in volunteer activities was found to have significant path coefficients toward both life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Our study provides evidence that older adults who have experienced cancer and maintained a positive outlook on their lives and engaged in personally meaningful activities tended to experience psychological well-being and life satisfaction. PMID:27273518

  4. Community Based Learning and Civic Engagement: Informal Learning among Adult Volunteers in Community Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundel, Karsten; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Many iterations of community based learning employ models, such as consciousness raising groups, cultural circles, and participatory action research. In all of them, learning is a deliberate part of an explicit educational activity. This article explores another realm of community learning: the informal learning that results from volunteering in…

  5. Changes in Social Participation and Volunteer Activity among Recently Widowed Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A.; Hinterlong, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood eliminates a key source of support that may trigger greater involvement in social activities and volunteer participation, which are related to better late-life health and functioning. We reexamine and build upon 2 recent studies exploring recent widowhood and social participation. Using different data, we perform a…

  6. Volunteering for College Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfering, David L.; Biasco, Frank

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the literature in volunteering as it relates to a university credit course for students volunteering in human services agencies. Discusses the development of the program, along with the advantages to students, agencies, and the university. (Author/RC)

  7. Subacromial space in adult patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis and in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gumina, Stefano; Di Giorgio, Giantony; Postacchini, Franco; Postacchini, Roberto

    2008-02-01

    The assumption that subacromial space decreases in patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis arises from sporadic and personal observations. The purpose of this study was to compare width of subacromial space calculated on radiographs and CT scans of a high number of patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis that registered on exams of healthy volunteers. We measured the subacromial space, using Petersson's method, on radiographs of 47 patients with idiopathic or acquired thoracic hyperkyphosis and of 175 healthy shoulder volunteers. Both groups were further distinguished considering gender and age. Females with hyperkyphosis were also divided in two subgroups: those with a kyphotic curve of less (24 patients) or more (19 patients) than 50 degrees , respectively. Subacromial space of all patients and of 21 volunteers was also evaluated using CT. Acromio-humeral space was less wide in patients with hyperkyphosis with respect to coeval volunteers of the same gender; in females and in subjects older than 60. Subacromial width of females with hyperkyphosis whose curve was more than 50 degrees was significantly narrower (p<0.05) than that measured on radiograms or CT scans of females with a less severe spinal deformity. Decrease of subacromial space may be attributed to less posterior tilting of the scapula and to dyskinesis of the scapular movement. Scapular malposition causes an anomalous orientation of the acromion that may contribute to subacromial impingement. Patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis greater than 50 degrees had a subacromial space narrower than that measured in patients with a less severe kyphosis. This suggests that subacromial width is directly related to severity of thoracic kyphosis. Because hyperkyphosis of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures may worsen over the time, subacromial decompression could give only temporary shoulder pain relief. PMID:18320381

  8. Dose response of A/Alaska/6/77 (H3N2) cold-adapted reassortant vaccine virus in adult volunteers: role of local antibody in resistance to infection with vaccine virus.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, M L; O'Donnell, S; Levine, M M; Chanock, R M; Murphy, B R

    1983-01-01

    An attenuated influenza A candidate vaccine virus, derived from the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) cold-adapted (ca) donor virus and the A/Alaska/6/77 (H3N2) wild-type virus, was evaluated in adult seronegative volunteers (serum hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titer, less than or equal to 1:8) for level of attenuation, infectivity, antigenicity, and genetic stability. Four groups with similar preinoculation mean titers of serum and nasal wash antibodies were inoculated intranasally with 10(4.5), 10(5.5), 10(6.5), or 10(7.5) 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) of the ca reassortant virus, and eight other seronegative adult volunteers received the wild-type virus. Only 2 of 66 vaccinees developed fever or mild and brief systemic or upper respiratory tract illness or both. Both volunteers with vaccine-related reactions received the highest dose (10(7.5) TCID50) of ca virus, which indicates that the vaccine retains some mild reactogenicity at a high dosage. In contrast, four of eight volunteers infected with the wild-type virus became ill. Each of the 54 isolates tested retained the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the vaccine virus. Thus, the ca reassortant was genetically stable and attenuated at 10(4.5) to 10(7.5) TCID50 for seronegative adults. The 50% human infective dose of ca virus was approximately 10(5.3) TCID50. Ten and one hundred 50% human infectious doses infected 73 and 83% of vaccinees, respectively, and approximately 75% developed an immunological response at these doses. The failure of the vaccine virus to infect some volunteers was correlated with the presence of pre-inoculation nasal wash immunoglobulin A hemagglutinin antibody. PMID:6852910

  9. A human volunteer study to assess the impact of confectionery sweeteners on the gut microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Beards, Emma; Tuohy, Kieran; Gibson, Glenn

    2010-09-01

    Sweeteners are being sourced to lower the energetic value of confectionery including chocolates. Some, especially non-digestible carbohydrates, may possess other benefits for human health upon their fermentation by the colonic microbiota. The present study assessed non-digestible carbohydrate sweeteners, selected for use in low-energy chocolates, for their ability to beneficially modulate faecal bacterial profiles in human volunteers. Forty volunteers consumed a test chocolate (low-energy or experimental chocolate) containing 22.8 g of maltitol (MTL), MTL and polydextrose (PDX), or MTL and resistant starch for fourteen consecutive days. The dose of the test chocolates was doubled every 2 weeks over a 6-week period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria significantly increased with all the three test treatments. Chocolate containing the PDX blend also significantly increased faecal lactobacilli (P = 0.00 001) after the 6 weeks. The PDX blend also showed significant increases in faecal propionate and butyrate (P = 0.002 and 0.006, respectively). All the test chocolates were well tolerated with no significant change in bowel habit or intestinal symptoms even at a daily dose of 45.6 g of non-digestible carbohydrate sweetener. This is of importance not only for giving manufacturers a sugar replacement that can reduce energetic content, but also for providing a well-tolerated means of delivering high levels of non-digestible carbohydrates into the colon, bringing about improvements in the biomarkers of gut health. PMID:20370946

  10. The effect of titrated fentanyl on suppressed cough reflex in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kelly, H E; Shaw, G M; Brett, C N; Greenwood, F M; Huckabee, M L

    2016-05-01

    Cough suppression is part of the pharmacodynamic profile of opioids. We investigated the impact of clinical doses of fentanyl on suppressing the cough reflex. Thirteen volunteers received 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl in a divided administration protocol. Three minutes after each administration and at 10 min intervals during washout, suppressed cough reflex testing with nebulised citric acid was performed and compared with fentanyl effect-site concentration. Mean (SD) citric acid concentration provoking cough increased from 0.5 (0.28) mol.l(-1) at baseline to 1.2 (0.50) mol.l(-1) after 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl (p = 0.01). Mean (SD) fentanyl effect-site concentration after the final dose of fentanyl was 1.89 (0.05) ng.ml(-1) . A strong positive correlation was found between suppressed cough reflex thresholds and fentanyl effect-site concentrations during both fentanyl administration and washout phases of the study (r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.01). The mean (SD) length of time for return of suppressed cough response was 44.6 (18.8) min. Clinically relevant doses of fentanyl produced cough reflex suppression in healthy volunteers. PMID:26919658

  11. Cobalt whole blood concentrations in healthy adult male volunteers following two-weeks of ingesting a cobalt supplement.

    PubMed

    Tvermoes, Brooke E; Finley, Brent L; Unice, Kenneth M; Otani, Joanne M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Galbraith, David A

    2013-03-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in the marketing and sales of dietary supplements, energy drinks, and other consumer products that may contain relatively high concentrations of essential elements. Cobalt-containing supplements are readily available in the U.S. and have been marketed to consumers as energy enhancers. However, little information is available regarding cobalt (Co) body burden and steady-state blood concentrations following the intake of Co dietary supplements. We assessed Co whole blood concentrations in four healthy adult male volunteers who ingested a commercially available Co supplement (0.4 mg Co/day) for 15 or 16 days. Pre-supplementation blood Co concentrations were less than the reporting limit of 0.5 μg/L, consistent with background concentrations reported to range between 0.1 and 0.4 μg/L. The mean whole blood Co concentration in the volunteers after 15 or 16 days of dosing was 3.6 μg Co/L and ranged from 1.8 to 5.1 μg Co/L. The mean observed concentration in the study group was approximately 9-36 times greater than background concentrations. Further studies of Co whole blood concentrations following supplementation over longer time periods with additional monitoring of physiological parameters may provide useful information for evaluating the health of persons who take various doses of Co. PMID:23207477

  12. Evaluation of Depigmenting Activity by 8-Hydroxydaidzein in Mouse B16 Melanoma Cells and Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Sorgan Shou-Ku; Lin, Ching-Gong; Wu, Mon-Han; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    In our previous study, 8-hydroxydaidzein (8-OHDe) was demonstrated to be a potent and unique suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. In this study, the compound was evaluated for in vitro cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory activities in mouse B16 melanoma cells and for in vivo skin-whitening activity in human volunteers. Tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in the cell culture incubated with 10 μM of 8-OHDe were decreased to 20.1% and 51.8% of control, respectively, while no obvious cytotoxicity was observed in this concentration. In contrast, a standard tyrosinase inhibitor, kojic acid, showed 69.9% and 71.3% of control in cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis activity, respectively, at a concentration as high as 100 μM. Hence, 8-OHDe exhibited more than an inhibitory effects on melanin production in B16 cells 10-fold stronger than kojic acid. In addition, when a cream containing 4% 8-OHDe was applied to human skin in an in vivo study, significant increases in the dL*-values were observed after three weeks. Moreover, the increase in the dL*-values after 8-week treatment with 4% 8-OHDe (from −0.57 to 1.94) is stronger than those of 2% 8-OHDe treatment (from 0.26 to 0.94) and 2% ascorbic acid-2-glucoside treatment (from 0.07 to 1.54). From the results of the study, it was concluded that 8-OHDe, the potent suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase, has depigmenting activities in both mouse melanoma cells and in human volunteers. Thus, the compound has significant potential for use in cosmetics as a skin-whitening ingredient. PMID:20057943

  13. Evaluation of depigmenting activity by 8-hydroxydaidzein in mouse B16 melanoma cells and human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tai, Sorgan Shou-Ku; Lin, Ching-Gong; Wu, Mon-Han; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2009-10-01

    In our previous study, 8-hydroxydaidzein (8-OHDe) was demonstrated to be a potent and unique suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. In this study, the compound was evaluated for in vitro cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory activities in mouse B16 melanoma cells and for in vivo skin-whitening activity in human volunteers. Tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in the cell culture incubated with 10 microM of 8-OHDe were decreased to 20.1% and 51.8% of control, respectively, while no obvious cytotoxicity was observed in this concentration. In contrast, a standard tyrosinase inhibitor, kojic acid, showed 69.9% and 71.3% of control in cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis activity, respectively, at a concentration as high as 100 microM. Hence, 8-OHDe exhibited more than an inhibitory effects on melanin production in B16 cells 10-fold stronger than kojic acid. In addition, when a cream containing 4% 8-OHDe was applied to human skin in an in vivo study, significant increases in the dL*-values were observed after three weeks. Moreover, the increase in the dL*-values after 8-week treatment with 4% 8-OHDe (from -0.57 to 1.94) is stronger than those of 2% 8-OHDe treatment (from 0.26 to 0.94) and 2% ascorbic acid-2-glucoside treatment (from 0.07 to 1.54). From the results of the study, it was concluded that 8-OHDe, the potent suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase, has depigmenting activities in both mouse melanoma cells and in human volunteers. Thus, the compound has significant potential for use in cosmetics as a skin-whitening ingredient. PMID:20057943

  14. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed. PMID:27517891

  15. Effects of misoprostol on the pharmacokinetics of indomethacin in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rainsford, K D; James, C; Hunt, R H; Stetsko, P I; Rischke, J A; Karim, A; Nicholson, P A; Smith, M; Hantsbarger, G

    1992-04-01

    The effects of misoprostol (200 micrograms as a single dose or q.i.d. as a multiple dose) on the pharmacokinetics of indomethacin (100 mg single-dose administration or 50 mg t.i.d. multiple-dose administration) were studied in 16 healthy human volunteers under single-dose and steady-state conditions in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced three-period study design. The overall absorption as shown by the values for area under the concentration curve of indomethacin was unaffected by concurrent administration of misoprostol. However, misoprostol did significantly enhance the steady-state maximum concentration of indomethacin by 32%. Thus misoprostol does not interfere with the absorption of indomethacin despite the known inhibitory effects of this protaglandin analog on acid secretion. PMID:1563211

  16. Effect of irradiation distance on image contrast in epi-optoacoustic imaging of human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Held, Gerrit; Preisser, Stefan; Akarçay, H. Günhan; Peeters, Sara; Frenz, Martin; Jaeger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In combined clinical optoacoustic (OA) and ultrasound (US) imaging, epi-mode irradiation and detection integrated into one single probe offers flexible imaging of the human body. The imaging depth in epi-illumination is, however, strongly affected by clutter. As shown in previous phantom experiments, the location of irradiation plays an important role in clutter generation. We investigated the influence of the irradiation geometry on the local image contrast of clinical images, by varying the separation distance between the irradiated area and the acoustic imaging plane of a linear ultrasound transducer in an automated scanning setup. The results for different volunteers show that the image contrast can be enhanced on average by 25% and locally by more than a factor of two, when the irradiated area is slightly separated from the probe. Our findings have an important impact on the design of future optoacoustic probes for clinical application. PMID:25426309

  17. The oral retention and antiplaque efficacy of triclosan in human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R J; Williams, P E

    1987-01-01

    An antiplaque toothpaste containing 0.2% (w/w) triclosan significantly inhibited overnight plaque growth in 12 human volunteers. After use of a 1 g quantity of the toothpaste containing 0.2% (w/w) [3H]-triclosan, 36.3 +/- 1.4% of the triclosan was retained. The mean concentration (+/- s.d.) achieved in saliva 5 min after toothpaste use was 8.16 +/- 2.50 micrograms g-1. The saliva decay curve for triclosan was consistent with a two phase model with t1/2 values of 0.45 h and 2.42 h, respectively. Triclosan was present in bacterial plaque for at least 8 h after dosage and in the oral mucosa for at least 3 h. PMID:3593627

  18. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  19. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses after vaccination of human volunteers with the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Waag, D M; McKee, K T; Sandstrom, G; Pratt, L L; Bolt, C R; England, M J; Nelson, G O; Williams, J C

    1995-03-01

    The specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of human volunteers vaccinated with the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) were evaluated. In the search for an optimal antigen to measure the immunogenicity of the vaccine in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested irradiation-killed LVS, an aqueous ether extract of the LVS (EEx), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from LVS, and a virulent strain (SCHU4). Volunteers were immunized with LVS by scarification. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to LVS and LPS gave the highest background titers when tested with sera from unimmunized volunteers, whereas IgA, IgG, and IgM background titers to EEx and SCHU4 were low. Vaccination caused a significant rise (P < 0.01) in IgA, IgG, and IgM titers to all antigens tested, except for the IgG response to LPS. Eighty percent of vaccinated volunteers developed a positive IgG response to EEx 14 days postvaccination, while 50% were positive to LVS. By day 14 after vaccination, 70% of immunized volunteers exhibited a positive response to EEx in an in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assay. EEx, a specific and sensitive antigen for evaluating immune responses of vaccinated volunteers, may be a superior antigen for the diagnosis of tularemia. PMID:7697521

  20. Helping Adult ESOL Students Increase Speaking and Listening Skills by Serving as Volunteers in Authentic Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Edith Lynn

    This practicum paper documents a program that was developed and implemented to help adult, advanced English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students increase their speaking and listening skills and build self confidence with native English speakers. The objective was to increase group average exit test scores in speaking and listening by at least two…

  1. Head Excursion of Restrained Human Volunteers and Hybrid III Dummies in Steady State Rollover Tests

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Edward; Hare, Barry; Hughes, Raymond; Lewis, Lance; Iiyama, Hiroshi; Curzon, Anne; Cooper, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    Seatbelts provide substantial benefits in rollover crashes, yet occupants still receive head and neck injuries from contacting the vehicle roof interior when the roof exterior strikes the ground. Prior research has evaluated rollover restraint performance utilizing anthropomorphic test devices (dummies), but little dynamic testing has been done with human volunteers to learn how they move during rollovers. In this study, the vertical excursion of the head of restrained dummies and human subjects was measured in a vehicle being rotated about its longitudinal roll axis at roll rates from 180-to-360 deg/sec and under static inversion conditions. The vehicle’s restraint design was the commonly used 3-point seatbelt with continuous loop webbing and a sliding latch plate. This paper presents an analysis of the observed occupant motion and provides a comparison of dummy and human motion under similar test conditions. Thirty-five tests (eighteen static and seventeen dynamic) were completed using two different sizes of dummies and human subjects in both near and far-side roll directions. The research indicates that far-side rollovers cause the restrained test subjects to have greater head excursion than near-side rollovers, and that static inversion testing underestimates head excursion for far-side occupants. Human vertical head excursion of up to 200 mm was found at a roll rate of 220 deg/sec. Humans exhibit greater variability in head excursion in comparison to dummies. Transfer of seatbelt webbing through the latch plate did not correlate directly with differences in head excursion. PMID:12941241

  2. Improving Educational Opportunities for the Adult Basic Education Student with a Specific Learning Disability: One to One Volunteer Tutor Program. A 310 Special Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lois F.; Bell, Bernadette S.

    This manual describes the implementation of a demonstration project at Daytona Beach Community College (DBCC) to: (1) develop an individual education plan to enable adult students with a specific learning disability to reach an 8th grade level of proficiency; (2) recruit volunteers and train them as tutors; and (3) develop a series of in-service…

  3. Amphetamine sensitisation and memory in healthy human volunteers: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    O'Daly, Owen G; Joyce, Daniel; Tracy, Derek K; Stephan, Klaas E; Murray, Robin M; Shergill, Sukhwinder

    2014-09-01

    Amphetamine sensitisation (AS) is an established animal model of the hypersensitivity to psychostimulants seen in patients with schizophrenia. AS also models the dysregulation of mesolimbic dopamine signalling which has been implicated in the development of psychotic symptoms. Recent data suggest that the enhanced excitability of mesolimbic dopamine neurons in AS is driven by a hyperactivity of hippocampal (subiculum) neurons, consistent with a strong association between hippocampal dysfunction and schizophrenia. While AS can be modelled in human volunteers, its functional consequences on dopaminoceptive brain regions (i.e. striatum and hippocampus) remains unclear. Here we describe the effects of a sensitising dosage pattern of dextroamphetamine on the neural correlates of motor sequence learning in healthy volunteers, within a randomised, double-blind, parallel-groups design. Behaviourally, sensitisation was characterised by enhanced subjective responses to amphetamine but did not change performance (i.e. learning rate) during an explicit sequence learning task. In contrast, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements showed that repeated intermittent amphetamine exposure was associated with increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) (subiculum/entorhinal cortex) and midbrain, in the vicinity of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) during sequence encoding. Importantly, MTL hyperactivity correlated with the sensitisation of amphetamine-induced attentiveness. The MTL-midbrain hyperactivity reported here mirrors observations in sensitised rodents and is consistent with contemporary models of schizophrenia and behavioural sensitisation. These findings of meso-hippocampal hyperactivity during AS thus link pathophysiological concepts of dopamine dysregulation to cognitive models of psychosis. PMID:24671338

  4. Evaluation of Trigeminal Sensitivity to Ammonia in Asthmatics and Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Maja; Diamond, Jeanmarie; Schuster, Benno; Dalton, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthmatics often report the triggering or exacerbation of respiratory symptoms following exposure to airborne irritants, which in some cases may result from stimulation of irritant receptors in the upper airways inducing reflexive broncho-constriction. Ammonia (NH3) is a common constituent of commercially available household products, and in high concentration has the potential to elicit sensory irritation in the eyes and upper respiratory tract of humans. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the irritation potential of ammonia in asthmatics and healthy volunteers and to determine whether differences in nasal or ocular irritant sensitivity to ammonia between these two groups could account for the exacerbation of symptoms reported by asthmatics following exposure to an irritant. Methods 25 healthy and 15 mild/moderate persistent asthmatic volunteers, with reported sensitivity to household cleaning products, were evaluated for their sensitivity to the ocular and nasal irritancy of NH3. Lung function was evaluated at baseline and multiple time points following exposure. Results Irritation thresholds did not differ between asthmatics and healthy controls, nor did ratings of odor intensity, annoyance and irritancy following exposure to NH3 concentrations at and above the irritant threshold for longer periods of time (30 sec).Importantly, no changes in lung function occurred following exposure to NH3 for any individuals in either group. Conclusion Despite heightened symptom reports to environmental irritants among asthmatics, the ocular and nasal trigeminal system of mild-moderate asthmatics does not appear to be more sensitive or more reactive than that of non-asthmatics, nor does short duration exposure to ammonia at irritant levels induce changes in lung function. At least in brief exposures, the basis for some asthmatics to experience adverse responses to volatile compounds in everyday life may arise from factors other than trigeminally

  5. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  9. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3 Section 261.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.3...

  10. Effects of roxithromycin on fecal bacteria in human volunteers and resistance to colonization in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pecquet, S; Chachaty, E; Tancrède, C; Andremont, A

    1991-01-01

    The ecological impact of roxithromycin given orally at 300 mg/day on the intestinal floras in six human volunteers was studied. The resulting fecal concentrations of active roxithromycin were in the range of 100 to 200 micrograms/g of feces. Consecutive modifications in the composition of the fecal floras were limited to a decrease in counts of total members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The rest of the intestinal floras, including the predominant anaerobic floras, changed little. No overgrowth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, fungi, or highly erythromycin-resistant strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae was observed. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae and of anaerobes isolated during treatment were not markedly more resistant to roxithromycin than those isolated before treatment started. Changes in intestinal resistance to colonization by exogenous microorganisms in gnotobiotic mice inoculated with human fecal flora were studied and were also found to be minimal. The impact of oral roxithromycin on the intestinal microbiota appears to be weaker than that previously observed with oral erythromycin, perhaps because the concentrations of roxithromycin in the feces were lower than those previously found for erythromycin. PMID:2039207

  11. Developing an Older Adult Volunteer Program in a New York Chinese Community: An Evidence-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Mui, Ada C; Glajchen, Myra; Chen, Huajuan; Sun, Juanjuan

    2013-06-01

    This study reports the results of a pilot volunteer project for older Chinese immigrants and documents benefits for both volunteers and caregiver recipients. Using a social marketing approach, the volunteer project was designed as a social model to promote better health among older Chinese immigrants in New York City. The packaging of this health promotion project as a volunteer program was based on a strengths perspective. In the program, 18 older Chinese immigrants were trained to provide support and referral to family caregivers of ill relatives in the Chinese community. At 6 months, outcomes were evaluated for both volunteers and caregivers. The older volunteers perceived benefits associated with volunteering, specifically, a greater sense of well-being and satisfaction with life. In addition, the majority of volunteers felt empowered by training and volunteering (100 %), felt the skills they learned improved communication with their own families (90 %), and reported physical and emotional health benefits (61 %). At the same time, caregivers reported stress reduction following volunteer support. Findings suggest that a volunteer program model may be an effective health promotion intervention for older Chinese immigrants. PMID:23645945

  12. The Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Paul C., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    This journal answers several questions concerning the use of volunteers in the classroom. The contents include: "Editor's Page," which discusses the growth of volunteer programs; "An Overview: Volunteer Use in Public Schools," which discusses the general aims of a volunteer program (e.g., to teachers in providing a more individualized approach, to…

  13. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES INDUCE PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN HEALTHY HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of healthy volunteers to concentrated ambient particles (CAPS) is associated with an influx of inflammatory cells into the lower respiratory tract. Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed to either filtered air or particles concentrated fro...

  14. Comparative fasting bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of 2 formulations of glucosamine hydrochloride in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Liu, M; Wang, S; Zhao, H; Yao, W; Feng, W; Yan, M; Tang, Y; Wei, M

    2012-08-01

    Glucosamine (CAS 66-84-2) hydrochloride is an amino monosaccharide indicated for the treatment of arthrosis, especially osteoarthritis of the knee joint. This study was conducted to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, bioavailability of a newly developed dispersible tablet formulation (test) of glucosamine hydrochloride with those of an established branded capsule formulation (reference) in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in 18 healthy Chinese adult male volunteers under fasting condition. Plasma samples were collected at pre-specified times over a 12-h period following administration in each period and analyzed the plasma glucosamine concentrations by Liquid Chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. The mean (SD) PK parameters of Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-12, and AUC0-∞ after administration of the test and reference formulations were, respectively, as follows: Cmax, 907.01 (444.22) vs. 944.40 (429.89) ng/mL, Tmax, 3.03 (0.95) vs. 3.30 (0.99) hours, AUC0-12, 2891.41 (1352.30) vs. 2889.69 (925.48) ng/mL/h, and AUC0-∞, 3029.90 (1321.36) vs. 3091.87 (870.36) ng/mL/h. The mean (SD) t1/2 was 1.10 (0.52) hours for the test formulation and 1.50 (1.17) hours for the reference formulation. On ANOVA, neither period nor sequence effects were observed for any PK properties. The relative bioavailability of the test formulation was 98.3% assessed by AUC0-12. The 90% CIs of glucosamine for the log-transformed ratios of Cmax, AUC0-12, and AUC0-∞ were 78.4-113.9%, 80.8-108.5% and 80.8-105.8%, respectively, meeting the predetermined criteria for bioequivalence of SFDA. PMID:22791244

  15. Human neural tuning estimated from compound action potentials in normal hearing human volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschooten, Eric; Desloovere, Christian; Joris, Philip X.

    2015-12-01

    The sharpness of cochlear frequency tuning in humans is debated. Evoked otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical measurements suggest sharper tuning in humans than in laboratory animals [15], but this is disputed based on comparisons of behavioral and electrophysiological measurements across species [14]. Here we used evoked mass potentials to electrophysiologically quantify tuning (Q10) in humans. We combined a notched noise forward masking paradigm [9] with the recording of trans tympanic compound action potentials (CAP) from masked probe tones in awake human and anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta). We compare our results to data obtained with the same paradigm in cat and chinchilla [16], and find that CAP-Q10values in human are ˜1.6x higher than in cat and chinchilla and ˜1.3x higher than in monkey. To estimate frequency tuning of single auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in humans, we derive conversion functions from ANFs in cat, chinchilla, and monkey and apply these to the human CAP measurements. The data suggest that sharp cochlear tuning is a feature of old-world primates.

  16. Detection of exhaled hydrogen sulphide gas in healthy human volunteers during intravenous administration of sodium sulphide

    PubMed Central

    Toombs, Christopher F; Insko, Michael A; Wintner, Edward A; Deckwerth, Thomas L; Usansky, Helen; Jamil, Khurram; Goldstein, Brahm; Cooreman, Michael; Szabo, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule and potential therapeutic agent. Emerging studies indicate its therapeutic potential in a variety of cardiovascular diseases and in critical illness. Augmentation of endogenous sulphide concentrations by intravenous administration of sodium sulphide can be used for the delivery of H2S to the tissues. In the current study, we have measured H2S concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy human volunteers subjected to increasing doses sodium sulphide in a human phase I safety and tolerability study. METHODS We have measured reactive sulphide in the blood via ex vivo derivatization of sulphide with monobromobimane to form sulphide-dibimane and blood concentrations of thiosulfate (major oxidative metabolite of sulphide) via ion chromatography. We have measured exhaled H2S concentrations using a custom-made device based on a sulphide gas detector (Interscan). RESULTS Administration of IK-1001, a parenteral formulation of Na2S (0.005–0.20 mg kg−1, i.v., infused over 1 min) induced an elevation of blood sulphide and thiosulfate concentrations over baseline, which was observed within the first 1–5 min following administration of IK-1001 at 0.10 mg kg−1 dose and higher. In all subjects, basal exhaled H2S was observed to be higher than the ambient concentration of H2S gas in room air, indicative of on-going endogenous H2S production in human subjects. Upon intravenous administration of Na2S, a rapid elevation of exhaled H2S concentrations was observed. The amount of exhaled H2S rapidly decreased after discontinuation of the infusion of Na2S. CONCLUSION Exhaled H2S represents a detectable route of elimination after parenteral administration of Na2S. PMID:20565454

  17. Effects of increasing docosahexaenoic acid intake in human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte activation and monocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mebarek, Saïda; Ermak, Natalia; Benzaria, Amal; Vicca, Stéphanie; Dubois, Madeleine; Némoz, Georges; Laville, Martine; Lacour, Bernard; Véricel, Evelyne; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been reported to decrease several markers of lymphocyte activation and modulate monocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. However most human studies examined the combined effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using relatively high daily amounts of n-3 PUFA. The present study investigated the effects of increasing doses of DHA added to the regular diet of human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte response to tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) plus ionomycin activation, and on monocyte apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Eight subjects were supplemented with increasing daily doses of DHA (200, 400, 800 and 1600mg) in a triacylglycerol form containing DHA as the only PUFA, for two weeks each dose. DHA intake dose-dependently increased the proportion of DHA in mononuclear cell phospholipids, the augmentation being significant after 400mg DHA/day. The TPA plus ionomycin-stimulated IL-2 mRNA level started to increase after ingestion of 400mg DHA/day, with a maximum after 800mg intake, and was positively correlated (P<0.003) with DHA enrichment in cell phospholipids. The treatment of monocytes by oxLDL before DHA supplementation drastically reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as compared with native LDL treatment. OxLDL apoptotic effect was significantly attenuated after 400mg DHA/day and the protective effect was maintained throughout the experiment, although to a lesser extent at higher doses. The present results show that supplementation of the human diet with low DHA dosages improves lymphocyte activability. It also increases monocyte resistance to oxLDL-induced apoptosis, which may be beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:18710607

  18. First human study of a chimeric anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Misty W; Henry, Ralph L; Owens, S Michael; Schutz, Ralph; Gentry, W Brooks

    2014-01-01

    This first-in-human study examined the safety and pharmacokinetics of ch-mAb7F9, an anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody, in healthy volunteers. Single, escalating doses of ch-mAb7F9 over the range of 0.2 to 20 mg/kg were administered to 42 subjects who were followed for 147 d. Safety was measured by physical examinations, adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiograms, and clinical laboratory testing. Serum ch-mAb7F9 concentration and immunogenicity analyses were performed. There were no serious adverse reactions or discontinuations from the study due to adverse events. No trends emerged in the frequency, relatedness, or severity of adverse events with increased dose or between active and placebo treated subjects. Ch-mAb7F9 displayed expected IgG pharmacokinetic parameters, including a half-life of 17-19 d in the 3 highest dose groups and volume of distribution of 5-6 L, suggesting the antibody is confined primarily to the vascular compartment. Four (12.5%) of the 32 subjects receiving ch-mAb7F9 were confirmed to have developed a human anti-chimeric antibody response by the end of the study; however, this response did not appear to be dose related. Overall, no apparent safety or tolerability concerns were identified; a maximum tolerated dose was not reached in this Phase 1 study. Ch-mAb7F9 therefore appears safe for human administration. PMID:25484042

  19. A Real-time Method to Evaluate the Nasal Deposition and Clearance of Acetone in the Human Volunteer

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, Karla D. ); Schwartz, Ronald E.; Weitz, Karl K. ); Soelberg, Jolen J. ); Foureman, Gary L.; Prah, James D.; Timchalk, Charles

    2003-05-01

    Nasal dosimetry models have become increasingly quantitative as insights into tissue deposition/clearance and computational fluid dynamics have become available. Validation of these models requires sufficient experimental data. However, investigations into respiratory deposition, particularly in human volunteers, have been historically limited due to methodological limitations. To overcome this, a method for evaluating the nasal wash-in, wash-out phenomena of a highly water-soluble compound in human volunteers was developed and characterized. This methodology was assessed using controlled human inhalation exposures to uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at approximately 1 ppm concentration for 30 minutes under different breathing maneuvers (inhale nose/exhale nose; inhale nose/exhale mouth; inhale mouth/exhale nose). A small-diameter air-sampling probe inserted in the nasopharyngeal cavity of the volunteer was connected directly to an ion-trap mass spectrometer capable of sampling every 0.8 sec. A second ion-trap mass spectrometer simultaneously sampled from the volunteer?s exhaled breath stream via a breath-inlet device interface. Together, the two mass spectrometers provided real-time appraisal of the 13C-acetone concentrations in the nasopharyngeal region and in the exhaled breath stream before, during, and after the different breathing maneuvers. The breathing cycle (depth and frequency) and heart rate were concurrently monitored throughout the exposure using a heart rate monitor and a human plethysmograph to differentiate inhalation and exhalation. Graphical overlay of the plethysmography results with the mass spectrometer measurements show clear quantifiable differences in 13C-acetone levels at the nasal probe as a function of breathing maneuvers. Breath-by-breath analysis of 13C-acetone concentrations indicate that between 40-75% of the compound is absorbed upon inhalation and nearly all of that absorbed released back into the breath stream during exhalation.

  20. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam; McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline; Berger, Bernard; Pittet, Anne-Cecile; Sultana, Shamima; Krause, Lutz; Huq, Sayeda; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruttin, Anne; Reuteler, Gloria; Bruessow, Harald

    2012-12-20

    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  1. Effect of formulation variables on oral grittiness and preferences of multiparticulate formulations in adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Felipe L; Bowles, Alexandra; Gul, Mine Orlu; Clapham, David; Ernest, Terry B; Tuleu, Catherine

    2016-09-20

    Multiparticulate formulations are composed of multiple solid dosage units which can be administered directly to the mouth or sprinkled on food. Oral grittiness (i.e. rough mouthfeel) may arise from the presence of particles in the mouth, limiting palatability. In this work, multiparticulate formulations were prepared by dispersion of spherical granules into orange flavoured vehicles thickened with hypromellose (HPMC) at different viscosities in order to assess oral perception of grittiness by a panel of thirty adults through direct scaling on a 100mm visual analogue scale. The effect of formulation factors such as particle size (90, 127, 263μm), amount of particles per 10ml (0.25, 0.50, 1.00g) and viscosity of the vehicle (0.08, 0.43, 2.80Pas) were investigated. Grittiness was increasingly perceived with increasing amount and size of particles. Increasing viscosity of the administration media had a masking effect on the perception of particles. Less gritty samples were generally regarded as 'more pleasant' by the participants of the study. However, samples dispersed in thickened vehicles seemed to be less preferred despite being less gritty; which could be ascribed to an unpleasant mouthfeel of the vehicle. In the design of multiparticulate formulations acceptable for a targeted patient group all these formulation factors will need to be considered and optimised. PMID:27402099

  2. Effects of serotonin and catecholamine depletion on interleukin-6 activation and mood in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ben J; Olver, James S; Norman, Trevor R; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2002-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that depression and related neurotic illnesses are associated with alterations in immune function that may contribute to their pathogenesis. For example, clinical and experimental studies have shown that abnormal HPA-axis activation and monoamine neurotransmission may be related to an increased release of proinflammatory cytokines from stimulated lymphocytes in the periphery and brain. In the present investigation, the effects of tryptophan depletion (TD) on unstimulated plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were investigated in order to determine whether acute changes in serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission would induce a proinflammatory response in healthy individuals. The effects of TD were compared with the analogous procedure of tyrosine depletion (TPD), which reduces catecholamine metabolism in humans. Thirteen female participants completed three experimental sessions: TD, TPD and a balanced-control condition (B). Mood-ratings and blood sampling were performed at baseline and 5 h after the administration of the mixtures. Analyses revealed that TD and TPD markedly reduced tryptophan and tyrosine/phenylalanine levels, respectively. No changes in plasma IL-6 production or ratings of lowered mood were observed, however, subjects did report feeling more fatigued after TD. These findings indicate that a transient disruption in global monoamine function does not stimulate a proinflammatory response of IL-6 in normal volunteers. PMID:12404674

  3. Neurobehavioral performance in human volunteers during inhalation exposure to the unpleasant local irritant cyclohexylamine.

    PubMed

    Juran, Stephanie A; van Thriel, Christoph; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Schäper, Michael; Falkenstein, Michael; Iregren, Anders; Johanson, Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Chemosensory active volatile organic compounds occur in the breathing air at many workplaces and it has been assumed that they are potent to impair workers' cognitive performance; however, the nature of this relationship is not understood. In the current study we investigated whether the combination of strong chemosensory potency and unpleasant odor valence is a sufficient predictor for the appearance of neurobehavioral impairment. Human volunteers were exposed to three workplace-relevant concentrations of the malodorant cyclohexylamine: 0.3 (odor control condition), 0-4 (varying condition), and 10 ppm (occupational exposure limit value, OEL, Sweden & Germany). The highest exposure evoked strong chemosensory sensations (annoyance), rather much olfactory related symptoms (bad air, stink), and increase in eye-blink frequency, which can be interpreted as indicator of trigeminal mediated adversity. Neurobehavioral performance measures (reaction times, accuracy) from three visual tasks requiring attention, motor inhibition and cognitive control did not show impairment in a consistent, dose-response related way and thus could not be related to cyclohexylamine exposure. Odorant characteristics of intensity and unpleasantness seem not sufficient to predict neurobehavioral impairment. Instead factors like participant selection bias, personality factors as well as effects related to the study design are discussed as contributing factors. PMID:22782082

  4. Barriers to nutrition education for older adults, and nutrition and aging training opportunities for educators, healthcare providers,volunteers and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Meck Higgins, Mary; Barkley, Mary Clarke

    2004-01-01

    Literature citations of barriers to nutrition education found in those who teach and care for older adults, as well as within older adults themselves, are discussed. No attempt was made to compare educational barriers for learners of varying ages. These obstacles need to be addressed in order for nutrition to be taught or learned effectively so that nutrition practices and health improve. Barriers for healthcare professionals to providing nutrition education include misconceptions and stereotypes about older adults and about their nutritional concerns; lack of attention to and lack of funding for older adult educational programs; and difficulties recruiting older learners. Hindrances for older adults in responding to nutrition education can be categorized as attitudinal, motivational, environmental, and related to low literacy and poverty. Published examples of opportunities for education and training about nutrition and aging that are in place for health educators, healthcare providers, volunteers and caregivers regarding nutrition and aging are discussed. Suggestions are presented regarding future efforts to minimize educational barriers and to provide training for healthcare professionals, volunteers and caregivers. New research is needed in this field of study in order to realize the potential quality of life benefits and reduced healthcare costs associated with providing effective nutrition education to older adults. This is one of a series of reviews of recent literature on nutrition education for older adults. PMID:15149943

  5. Metabolic fate of radiolabeled prostaglandin D2 in a normal human male volunteer

    SciTech Connect

    Liston, T.E.; Roberts, L.J. 2d.

    1985-10-25

    50 microCi of (TH)prostaglandin D2 tracer (100 Ci/mmol) was infused intravenously into a normal human male volunteer. 75% of the infused radioactivity was excreted into the urine within 5 h. This urine was added to urine obtained from two mastocytosis patients with marked overproduction of prostaglandin D2. Radiolabeled prostaglandin D2 urinary metabolites were chromatographically isolated and purified and subsequently identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 25 metabolites were identified. 23 of these compounds comprising 37% of the recovered radioactivity had prostaglandin F-ring structures, and only two metabolites comprising 2.7% of the recovered radioactivity retained the prostaglandin D-ring structure. The single most abundant metabolite identified was 9,11-dihydroxy-15-oxo-2,3,18,19-tetranorprost-5-ene-1,20-dioic acid which was isolated in a tricyclic form as a result of formation of a lower side chain hemiketal followed by lactonization of the terminal carboxyl and the hemiketal hydroxyl. Different isomeric forms of several prostaglandin F-ring metabolites were identified. An isomer of prostaglandin F2 alpha was also excreted intact into the urine as a metabolite of prostaglandin D2. 15 PGF-ring compounds were treated with n-butylboronic acid and 13 failed to form a boronate derivative, suggesting that the orientation of the hydroxyl group at C-11 in these 13 metabolites is beta. This study documents that prostaglandin D2 is metabolized to prostaglandin F-ring metabolites in vivo in humans. These results also bring into question the accuracy of quantifying prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolites as a specific index of endogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha biosynthesis, as well as quantifying urinary prostaglandin F2 alpha as an accurate index of renal production of prostaglandin F2 alpha.

  6. Social Need, Public Response: The Volunteer Professional Model for Human Services Agencies and Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Genie O.; Jackson, Louise

    1984-01-01

    Describes a model process of assessment and integration that allows community agencies and professional counselors to engage in more effective volunteer activity. Outlines agency development by stages, using the experiences of agencies providing domestic violence services. (JAC)

  7. Peer volunteers in an integrative pain management program for frail older adults with chronic pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is common among the older population. A literature review on pain management program showed that exercise, yoga, massage therapy, Tai Chi, and music therapy could significantly reduce pain. In spite of the proven benefits of pain management programs, these intervention programs were effective only in the short term, and older adults would resume their old habits. It has been suggested that interventions comprising some type of social support have great potential to increase the participation of older adults. Therefore, we propose the inclusion of peer volunteers in an integrated pain management program to relieve pain among frail older adults. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of an integrated pain management program supplemented with peer volunteers in improving pain intensity, functional mobility, physical activity, loneliness levels, happiness levels, and the use of non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods among frail older adults with chronic pain. Methods/Design We intend to recruit 30 nursing home residents and 30 peer volunteers from the Institute of Active Ageing in Hong Kong in a group trial for an 8-week group-based integrated pain management program. There will be 16 sessions, with two 1-hour sessions each week. The primary outcome will be pain levels, while secondary outcomes will be assessed according to functional mobility, physical activity, loneliness levels, happiness levels, the use of non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods, and through a questionnaire for volunteers. Discussion In view of the high prevalence of chronic pain among older adults and its adverse impacts, it is important to provide older adults with tools to control their pain. We propose the use of peer volunteers to enhance the effects of an integrated pain management program. It is expected that pain can be reduced and improvements can be achieved among older adults in the areas of physical activity, functional mobility, loneliness levels

  8. Effect of taking chicken essence on stress and cognition of human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zain, Azhar Md; Syedsahiljamalulail, Syedmohsin

    2003-03-01

    Stress is a common phenomenon. Every individual experiences it. There are many ways of combating stress. Stress is necessary for preparation against challenging situations and danger. It is necessary to have stress before a test so that we are prepared. For instance, stress actually motivates students to prepare for examination but excessive stress can lead to poor performance. This study evaluates the effect of a commercial essence of chicken (CEC) on the various parameters related to stress and cognition of human volunteers. CEC is produced by a hot-water extraction process from chicken meat under high pressure condition. It contains concentrated amounts of proteins, amino acids and peptides such as carnosine compared to homemade traditional chicken soup. Due to the unique extraction process, it has been postulated that readily absorbed amino acids and bioactive peptides are present in CEC. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of CEC in comparison with a placebo and carageenan on a group of stressed medical students before their examinations. Students were divided into three groups at random and given either CEC, placebo or a carageenan drink daily for two weeks. Before and after the two weeks, the students were given a series of tests to assess their mental and physical well-being as well as attention and memory. The tests were the general health questionnaire (GHQ), SF36, digit span, construction of figures, 3-min memory test, comprehension and mental arithmetic. The students who ingested essence of chicken fared significantly better than the other two groups of students. The ability of essence of chicken to control anxiety by distraction and promoting attention and memory is discussed. PMID:22692529

  9. Toxicity of Lunar and Martian Dust Simulants to Alveolar Macrophages Isolated from Human Volunteers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latch, Judith N.; Hamilton, Raymond F., Jr.; Holian, Andrij; James, John T.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is planning to build a habitat on the Moon and use the Moon as a stepping stone to Mars. JSC-1, an Arizona volcanic ash that has mineral properties similar to lunar soil, is used to produce lunar environments for instrument and equipment testing. NASA is concerned about potential health risks to workers exposed to these fine dusts in test facilities. The potential toxicity of JSC-1 and a Martian soil simulant (JSC-Mars-1, a Hawaiian volcanic ash) was evaluated using human alveolar macrophages (HAM) isolated from volunteers; titanium dioxide and quartz were used as reference dusts. This investigation is a prerequisite to studies of actual lunar dust. HAM were treated in vitro with these test dusts for 24 h; assays of cell viability and apoptosis showed that JSC-1 and TiO2 were comparable, and more toxic than saline control, but less toxic than quartz. HAM treated with JSC-1 or JSC-Mars 1 showed a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. To elucidate the mechanism by which these dusts induce apoptosis, we investigated the involvement of the scavenger receptor (SR). Pretreatment of cells with polyinosinic acid, an SR blocker, significantly inhibited both apoptosis and necrosis. These results suggest HAM cytotoxicity may be initiated by interaction of the dust particles with SR. Besides being cytotoxic, silica is known to induce shifting of HAM phenotypes to an immune active status. The immunomodulatory effect of the simulants was investigated. Treatment of HAM with either simulant caused preferential damage to the suppressor macrophage subpopulation, leading to a net increase in the ratio of activator (RFD1+) to suppressor (RFD1+7+) macrophages, a result similar to treatment with silica. It is recommended that appropriate precautions be used to minimize exposure to these fine dusts in large-scale engineering applications.

  10. Effect of blueberry juice on clearance of buspirone and flurbiprofen in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Michael J; Masse, Gina; Harmatz, Jerold S; Cancalon, Paul F; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Court, Michael H; Greenblatt, David J

    2013-01-01

    Aim The present study evaluated the possibility of drug interactions involving blueberry juice (BBJ) and substrate drugs whose clearance is dependent on cytochromes P4503A (CYP3A) and P4502C9 (CYP2C9). Methods A 50:50 mixture of lowbush and highbush BBJ was evaluated in vitro as an inhibitor of CYP3A activity (hydroxylation of triazolam and dealkylation of buspirone) and of CYP2C9 activity (flurbiprofen hydroxylation) using human liver microsomes. In clinical studies, clearance of oral buspirone and oral flurbiprofen was studied in healthy volunteers with and without co-treatment with BBJ. Results BBJ inhibited CYP3A and CYP2C9 activity in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of less than 2%, but without evidence of mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) also inhibited CYP3A activity, but inhibitory potency was increased by pre-incubation, consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. In clinical studies, GFJ significantly increased area under the plasma concentration−time curve (AUC) for the CYP3A substrate buspirone. The geometric mean ratio (GMR = AUC with GFJ divided by AUC with water) was 2.12. In contrast, the effect of BBJ (GMR = 1.39) was not significant. In the study of flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 substrate), the positive control inhibitor fluconazole significantly increased flurbiprofen AUC (GMR = 1.71), but BBJ had no significant effect (GMR = 1.03). Conclusion The increased buspirone AUC associated with BBJ is quantitatively small and could have occurred by chance. BBJ has no effect on flurbiprofen AUC. The studies provide no evidence for concern about clinically important pharmacokinetic drug interactions of BBJ with substrate drugs metabolized by CYP3A or CYP2C9. PMID:22943633

  11. Toxicity of lunar and martian dust simulants to alveolar macrophages isolated from human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Latch, Judith N; Hamilton, Raymond F; Holian, Andrij; James, John T; Lam, Chiu-wing

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning to build a habitat on the Moon and use the Moon as a stepping stone to Mars. JSC-1, an Arizona volcanic ash that has mineral properties similar to those of lunar soil, is used to produce lunar environments for instrument and equipment testing. NASA is concerned about potential health risks to workers exposed to these fine dusts in test facilities. The potential toxicity of JSC-1 lunar soil simulant and a Martian soil simulant (JSC-Mars-1, a Hawaiian volcanic ash) was evaluated using human alveolar macrophages (HAM) isolated from volunteers; titanium dioxide and quartz were used as reference dusts. This investigation is a prerequisite to studies of actual lunar dust. HAM were treated in vitro with these test dusts for 24 h; assays of cell viability and apoptosis showed that JSC-1 and TiO2 were comparable, and more toxic than saline control but less toxic than quartz. HAM treated with JSC-1 or JSC-Mars 1 showed a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. To elucidate the mechanism by which these dusts induce apoptosis, we investigated the involvement of scavenger receptors (SR). Pretreatment of cells with polyinosinic acid, an SR blocker, significantly inhibited both apoptosis and necrosis. These results suggest HAM cytotoxicity may be initiated by interaction of the dust particles with SR. Besides being cytotoxic, silica is known to induce shifting of HAM phenotypes to an immune active status. The immunomodulatory effect of the dust simulants was investigated. Treatment of HAM with either simulant caused preferential damage to the suppressor macrophage subpopulation, leading to a net increase in the ratio of activator (RFD1+) to suppressor (RFD1+7+) macrophages, an effect similar to that of treatment with silica. It is recommended that appropriate precautions be used to minimize exposure to these fine dusts in large-scale engineering applications. PMID:18236230

  12. Brain Targeted Transcranial Administration of Diazepam and Shortening of Sleep Latency in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Pathirana, W.; Gunasekera, S. M.; Constantine, G. R.; Perera, Sanja; Perera, B. M.; Kamaladiwela, R.

    2011-01-01

    Application of medicated oils on scalp had been practiced for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in diseases associated with the central nervous system. It is possible that the effectiveness of the therapy may be a result of targeted delivery of active compounds to the brain transcranially. Evidence also comes from two previous studies with positive results on brain targeted transcranial delivery of methadone base and diazepam on rat models. Possibility of transcranial drug delivery was investigated in healthy human volunteers using electroencephalography techniques by assessing the ability of transcranially administered diazepam in bringing about β activity in the electroencephalographic wave patterns and shortening of the sleep latency period. Non polar drug molecules dissolved in a non-aqueous sesame oil based vehicle is a significant feature in the transcranial dosage design. The study was under taken in two phases. In the Phase-I study scalp application of a single dose of 2 mg/3 ml of the oil was employed and in the Phase-II study repeat application of three doses 24 h apart were employed. Sleep latency changes were monitored with Multiple Sleep Latency Tests with 5 naps employing the standard electroencephalography, electroocculography and electromyography electrodes. Sleep onset was identified with the first epoch of any sleep stage non rapid eye movement 1, 2, 3, 4 or rapid eye movement using electroencephalography, electroocculography and electromyography criteria. In both phases of the study there was significant reduction in the sleep latencies. It was much more pronounced in the Phase-II study. None of the subjects however displayed beta activity in the electroencephalography. Sleep latency reduction following scalp application in both the phases are suggestive of transcranial migration of diazepam molecules to the receptor sites of the nerve tissue of the brain eliciting its pharmacological effect of sedation. Transcranial brain targeted

  13. Kinematic Comparison of Pediatric Human Volunteers and the Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Anthropomorphic Test Device

    PubMed Central

    Seacrist, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Sriram; García-España, J. Felipe; Maltese, Matthew R.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD has been benchmarked against adult-scaled component level tests but the lack of biomechanical data hinders the effectiveness of the procedures used to scale the adult data to the child. Whole body kinematic validation of the pediatric ATD through limited comparison to post mortem human subjects (PMHS) of similar age and size has revealed key differences attributed to the rigidity of the thoracic spine. As restraint systems continue to advance, they may become more effective at limiting peak loads applied to occupants, leading to lower impact environments for which the biofidelity of the ATD is not well established. Consequently, there is a growing need to further enhance the assessment of the pediatric ATD by evaluating its biofidelity at lower crash speeds. To this end, this study compared the kinematic response of the Hybrid III 6 year old ATD against size-matched male pediatric volunteers (PVs) (6–9 yrs) in low-speed frontal sled tests. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of markers at seven locations on the ATD and PVs (head top, opisthocranion, nasion, external auditory meatus, C4, T1, and pelvis). Angular velocity of the head, seat belt forces, and reaction forces on the seat pan and foot rest were also measured. The ATD exhibited significantly greater shoulder and lap belt, foot rest, and seat pan normal reaction loads compared to the PVs. Contrarily, PVs exhibited significantly greater seat pan shear. The ATD experienced significantly greater head angular velocity (11.4 ± 1.7 rad/s vs. 8.1 ± 1.4 rad/s), resulting in a quicker time to maximum head rotation (280.4 ± 2.5 ms vs 334.2 ± 21.7 ms). The ATD exhibited significantly less forward excursions of the nasion (171.7 ± 7.8 mm vs. 199.5 ± 12.3 mm), external auditory meatus (194.5 ± 11.8 mm vs. 205.7 ± 10.3 mm), C4 (127.0 ± 5.2 mm vs. 183.3 ± 12.8 mm) and T1 (111.1 ± 6.5 mm vs. 153.8 ± 10.5 mm) compared to the PVs. These analyses

  14. Reasons Why Canadian Seniors Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Prince, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    A study examined types of and reasons for volunteering among Canadian adults over 64 (n=1,569) and compared them with those given by adults aged 45-64 (n=5,563). Results indicate that the older group volunteers out of self-interest and are more likely to volunteer because of a feeling of obligation and social value than those aged 45-64. (JOW)

  15. Impact of AQP3 inducer treatment on cultured human keratinocytes, ex vivo human skin and volunteers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, N; Gondran, C; Menon, G; Mur, L; Oberto, G; Guerif, Y; Dal Farra, C; Domloge, N

    2011-10-01

    One of the main functions of the skin is to protect the organism against environmental threats, such as thermal stress. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) facilitates water and glycerol transport across cell membranes and therefore regulates osmotic balance in different situations of stress. This mechanism seems to be particularly important for the resistance of different organisms to cold stress. Consequently, we were interested in investigating the effect of cold and osmotic stress on AQP3 expression in normal human keratinocytes. We developed a new active ingredient to stimulate aquaporins in skin and demonstrated the partial restoration of AQP3 expression in keratinocytes transfected with AQP3 siRNA. Moreover, we examined the effect of cold stress on cell morphology and the impact of a pre-treatment with the active ingredient. Our results indicated that induction of AQP3 helped maintain a correct organization of the actin cytoskeleton, preserving cell morphology and preventing cells from rounding. Immunofluorescent staining revealed cytoplasmic localization of AQP3 and its translocation to the cell membrane following osmotic stress. Histological ex vivo studies of skin under different conditions, such as cold environment and tape-stripping, indicated that increase in AQP3 expression appears to be involved in skin protection and showed that the pattern of AQP3 expression was more enhanced in the active ingredient-treated samples. In vivo confocal microscopy by Vivascope showed a generally healthier appearance of the skin in the treated areas. These results attest to the potential value of the active ingredient in optimizing environmental stress resistance and protecting the skin from stratum corneum damage. PMID:21401652

  16. Mathematical description of the uptake of hydrocarbons in jet fuel into the stratum corneum of human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kim, David; Farthing, Matthew W; Miller, Cass T; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2008-05-30

    The objective of this research was to develop a mathematical description of uptake of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons into the stratum corneum of human skin in vivo. A simple description based on Fick's laws of diffusion was used to predict the spatiotemporal variation of naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, undecane, and dodecane in the stratum corneum of human volunteers. The estimated values of the diffusion coefficients for each chemical were comparable to values predicted using in vitro skin systems and biomonitoring studies. These results demonstrate the value of measuring dermal exposure using the tape-strip technique and the importance of quantifying of dermal uptake. PMID:18423910

  17. Mathematical Description of the Uptake of Hydrocarbons in Jet Fuel into the Stratum Corneum of Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, David; Farthing, Matthew W.; Miller, Cass T.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a mathematical description of uptake of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons into the stratum corneum of human skin in vivo. A simple description based on Fick’s Laws of diffusion was used to predict the spatiotemporal variation of naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, undecane, and dodecane in the stratum corneum of human volunteers. The estimated values of the diffusion coefficients for each chemical were comparable to values predicted using in vitro skin systems and biomonitoring studies. These results demonstrate the value of measuring dermal exposure using the tape-strip technique and the importance of quantifying of dermal uptake. PMID:18423910

  18. Diesel exhaust modulates ozone-induced lung function decrements in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min) intermittently on two consecutive days. Day 1 exposures were either to filtered air, DE (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.300 ppm), or the combination of both pollutants. On Day 2 all exposures were to O3 (0.300 ppm), and Day 3 served as a followup observation day. Lung function was assessed by spirometry just prior to, immediately after, and up to 4 hr post-exposure on each exposure day. Functional pulmonary responses to the pollutants were also characterized based on stratification by glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) genotype. On Day 1, exposure to air or DE did not change FEV1 or FVC in the subject population (n = 15). The co-exposure to O3 and DE decreased FEV1 (17.6%) to a greater extent than O3 alone (9.9%). To test for synergistic exposure effects, i.e., in a greater than additive fashion, FEV1 changes post individual O3 and DE exposures were summed together and compared to the combined DE and O3 exposure; the p value was 0.057. On Day 2, subjects who received DE exposure on Day 1 had a larger FEV1 decrement (14.7%) immediately after the O3 exposure than the individuals’ matched response following a Day 1 air exposure (10.9%). GSTM1 genotype did not affect the magnitude of lung function changes in a significant fashion. These data suggest that altered respiratory responses to the combination of O3 and DE exposure can be observed showing a greater than additive manner. In addition, O3-induced lung function decrements are greater with a prior exposure to DE compared to a prior exposure to filtered air. Based on the joint occurrence of these pollutants in the ambient environment, the potential exists for interactions in more than an additive fashion affecting lung physiological

  19. Effect of Tamarindus indica. L on the bioavailability of ibuprofen in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Garba, M; Yakasai, I A; Bakare, M T; Munir, H Y

    2003-01-01

    The influence of Tamarindus indica L fruit extract incorporated in a traditional meal on the bioavailability of Ibuprofen tablets 400 mg dose when given concurrently was studied in 6 healthy human volunteers. There was a statistically significant increase in the plasma levels of Ibuprofen and its metabolites hydroxy-ibuprofen and carboxy-ibuprofen respectively, when the meal containing Tamarindus indica fruit extract was administered with the ibuprofen tablets than when taken under fasting state or with the meal without the fruit extract. The C(max), AUC(0-6 hr) and Ka for ibuprofen increased from 38 +/- 0.70 microg/ml to 42 +/- 0.98 microg/ml (p > 0.05); and 28.03 +/- 2.40 microg/ml x hr to 56.51 +/- 0.16 microg/ml x hr (p < 0.05) and 1.048 +/- 0.02hr(-1) to 2.781 +/- 0.11 hr(-1) (p < 0.05) respectively. There was no change in the t(max) (120.00 +/- 0.43m) but there was a decrease in the k(el) from 0.63 +/- 0.20 hr(-1) to 0.46 +/- 0.11 hr(-1) (p<0.05). Similarly the C(max), AUC(0-6 h) and Ka for hydroxy-ibuprofen rose from 43 +/- 0.76 microg/ml to 45 +/- 0.16 microg/ml (p < 0.05); 39.04 +/- 2.30 microg/ml x hr to 59.49 +/- 2.39 microg/ml.hr in (p < 0.05) and 1.498 +/- 0.79hr(-1) to 3.442 +/- 0.23 hr(-1) (p < 0.05) respectively; while the C(max), AUC(0-6 h) and Ka for carboxy-ibuprofen rose from 48 +/- 0.7 microg/ml to 51 +/- 0.16 microg/ml (p < 0.05); 41.972 +/- 0.68 microg/ml x hr to 63.948 +/- 0.12 microg/ml x hr (p < 0.05) and 1.649 +/- 0.08 hr(-1) to 4.187 +/- 0.42 hr(-1) (p < 0.05) respectively. The study has indicated that Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract significantly increased the bioavailability of Ibuprofen. PMID:14527090

  20. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human interferon-beta in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Salmon, P; Le Cotonnec, J Y; Galazka, A; Abdul-Ahad, A; Darragh, A

    1996-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human interferon-beta (rHuIFN-beta 1a) were assessed following administration to 12 healthy male volunteers. Each subject received, in a double-blind, balanced, random-order, crossover sequence, single doses of 6 MIU of rHuIFN-beta 1a (Rebif) i.v., i.m., and s.c. or matching placebo on four occasions separated by washout periods of 1 week. Blood samples were collected at preset times for the measurement of serum IFN-beta levels and of intracellular 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase levels. Blood pressure, sitting heart rate, respiratory rate, oral body temperature, and tolerance were monitored regularly. All administrations of rHuIFN-beta 1a were well tolerated, although about half of the subjects had a flu-like syndrome, as expected. After i.v. bolus injection, the pharmacokinetics of rHuIFN-beta 1a were well described by a classic two-compartment model. Mean total clearance of rHuIFN-beta 1a was about 100 L.h-1. The distribution half-life was 5 min, and the terminal half-life was approximately 5 h. After i.m. or s.c. injection, serum IFN-beta profiles were rather flat, and about one sixth of the administered dose was available systemically. Extent and duration of clinical and biologic effects were independent of the route of administration and of the IFN-beta serum levels. Biologic pharmacodynamic effects persisted even when IFN-beta serum levels had returned to baseline and were still significantly elevated 3 days after a single dose. Because of the independence of the extent and duration of clinical and biologic pharmacodynamic effects from the route of administration and from the IFN-beta serum levels, the s.c route of administration is preferred in indications in which primarily an immunomodulatory action is sought. Predominantly antiviral and antiproliferative activity is enhanced by the i.v. route to provide adequate drug levels at the site of pathology, although its application is limited on practical

  1. The effect of saline iontophoresis on skin integrity in human volunteers. I. Methodology and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Camel, E; O'Connell, M; Sage, B; Gross, M; Maibach, H

    1996-08-01

    This study, conducted in 36 human volunteers, was an evaluation of the effects of saline iontophoresis on skin temperature, irritation, and barrier function. The major objectives were to assess the effects of low-level ionic currents, to validate the proposed methodology of assessment, and to establish reproducibility in repeated saline iontophoresis applications. This was the first of a multistage study designed to assess the safety of 24-hr saline iontophoresis episodes at selected currents and current densities. Since an iontophoresis patch challenges the skin barrier both by occluding the skin surface and by passing ionic current through the skin, the experimental protocol was designed to permit measurement of the contribution of each of these processes to the overall response. In this first stage we investigated the effect of 10 min of current delivery, at 0.1 mA/cm2 on a 1-cm2 area patch and 0.2 mA/cm2 on a 6.5-cm2 area patch compared to unpowered control patches. Twelve subjects were tested under each condition on two separate occasions to examine reproducibility of the response variable measurements. A further 12 subjects were tested once under the 0.2 mA/cm2, 6.5-cm2 condition. Skin irritation was evaluated via repeated measurements of transepidermal water loss, capacitance, skin temperature, skin color, and a visual scoring system, before the iontophoresis episode and after patch removal. No damage to skin barrier function in terms of skin-water loss or skin-water content was detected. Slight, subclinical, short-lasting erythema was observed for both conditions. Assessment of correlation coefficients showed highly statistically significant indications of reproducibility for all five response variables measured. The experimental design, in combination with a repeated measures analysis, provided clear separation of the occlusion and ionic current components of the iontophoretic patch challenge. Further, the repeated measures analysis gave a highly sensitive

  2. Acetaminophen fails to inhibit ethanol-induced subjective effects in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, W B; Klein, S A; George, F R; Henningfield, J E

    1992-01-01

    In animals, ethanol causes some of its CNS effects by releasing prostaglandins (PG); this is demonstrated by reports that prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (PGSIs) diminish ethanol-induced effects. However, use of animals in these studies has precluded testing for subjective effects. We studied the interaction of ethanol and acetaminophen, a PGSI, in a double-blind crossover experiment. Six adult males were given no drug or acetaminophen (0, 325, 650, 1300 or 1950 mg) 75 min before ethanol (total dose = 0.625 g/kg; five divided doses). Physiologic, subjective and performance measures were collected. Compared to the no drug condition, ethanol significantly increased ratings of drug "liking," "drunk," "sluggish" and "drug strength" and decreased ratings of "sober." Ethanol increased heart rate and acetaminophen did not diminish or enhance this effect. The failure to antagonize ethanol-induced subjective and physiologic effects by acetaminophen in humans may be due to species differences or inadequate dosage of the PGSI. It is also possible that subjective and certain physiologic effects of ethanol in humans are not mediated by prostaglandin-dependent neural processes. Nevertheless, the finding that at greater than typical analgesic doses, acetaminophen failed to prevent subjective effects of ethanol is of clinical significance. PMID:1539069

  3. Empirical and theoretical dosimetry in support of whole body radio frequency (RF) exposure in seated human volunteers at 220 MHz.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stewart J; Adair, Eleanor R; Mylacraine, Kevin S; Hurt, William; Ziriax, John

    2005-09-01

    This study reports the dosimetry performed to support an experiment that measured physiological responses of seated volunteer human subjects exposed to 220 MHz fields. Exposures were performed in an anechoic chamber which was designed to provide uniform fields for frequencies of 100 MHz or greater. A vertical half-wave dipole with a 90 degrees reflector was used to optimize the field at the subject's location. The vertically polarized E field was incident on the dorsal side of the phantoms and human volunteers. The dosimetry plan required measurement of stationary probe drift, field strengths as a function of distance, electric and magnetic field maps at 200, 225, and 250 cm from the dipole antenna, and specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements using a human phantom, as well as theoretical predictions of SAR with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. A NBS (National Bureau of Standards, now NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO) 10 cm loop antenna was positioned 150 cm to the right, 100 cm above and 60 cm behind the subject (toward the transmitting antenna) and was read prior to each subject's exposure and at 5 min intervals during all RF exposures. Transmitter stability was determined by measuring plate voltage, plate current, screen voltage and grid voltage for the driver and final amplifiers before and at 5 min intervals throughout the RF exposures. These dosimetry measurements assured accurate and consistent exposures. FDTD calculations were used to determine SAR distribution in a seated human subject. This study reports the necessary dosimetry to precisely control exposure levels for studies of the physiological consequences of human volunteer exposures to 220 MHz. PMID:15931686

  4. Serum antibody response in adult volunteers elicited by injection of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 12F polysaccharide alone or conjugated to diphtheria toxoid.

    PubMed Central

    Fattom, A; Lue, C; Szu, S C; Mestecky, J; Schiffman, G; Bryla, D; Vann, W F; Watson, D; Kimzey, L M; Robbins, J B

    1990-01-01

    Conjugates of an uronic acid-containing capsular polysaccharide (CP), pneumococcous type 12F (Pn12F) bound to diphtheria toxoid (DT), were studied for safety and immunogenicity in adult volunteers. In mice, these conjugates, prepared with the same lot of DT and Pn12F-40234-006, a homogenous CP of high molecular weight, or Pn12-812408, a polydisperse CP with lower-molecular-weight material, were more immunogenic than the Pn12F alone and had T-cell dependent properties (A. Fattom, W. F. Vann, S.C. Szu, A. Sutton, X. Li, B. Bryla, G. Schiffman, J. B. Robbins, and R. Schneerson, Infect. Immun. 56:2292-2298, 1988). Adult volunteers, randomized into three groups, were injected either with one of these two conjugates or with Pnu-Imune, the 23 valent pneumococcus vaccine containing 25 micrograms of Pn12F as one of its components. Volunteers were injected two times, 4 weeks apart, with the Pn12F-DT conjugates and once with the Pnu-Imune. Side reactions following injection of the conjugates of Pnu-Imune were mild and short-lived. At 4 weeks and at 7 months after the first injection, higher levels of Pn12F antibodies were found in the volunteers injected with the conjugates than in the Pnu-Imune group (P less than 0.001). The conjugate prepared with the higher-molecular-weight Pn12F elicited higher levels of antibodies than the conjugate prepared with a lower-molecular-weight Pn12F preparation (P = 0.05). Both conjugates elicited about a 13-fold rise in DT antibodies. PMID:2365462

  5. Protective effects of citrus and rosemary extracts on UV-induced damage in skin cell model and human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, A; Barrajón-Catalán, E; Caturla, N; Castillo, J; Benavente-García, O; Alcaraz, M; Micol, V

    2014-07-01

    Ultraviolet radiation absorbed by the epidermis is the major cause of various cutaneous disorders, including photoaging and skin cancers. Although topical sunscreens may offer proper skin protection, dietary plant compounds may significantly contribute to lifelong protection of skin health, especially when unconsciously sun UV exposed. A combination of rosemary and citrus bioflavonoids extracts was used to inhibit UV harmful effects on human HaCaT keratinocytes and in human volunteers after oral intake. Survival of HaCaT cells after UVB radiation was higher in treatments using the combination of extracts than in those performed with individual extracts, indicating potential synergic effects. The combination of extracts also decreased UVB-induced intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) and prevented DNA damage in HaCaT cells by comet assay and decreased chromosomal aberrations in X-irradiated human lymphocytes. The oral daily consumption of 250 mg of the combination by human volunteers revealed a significant minimal erythema dose (MED) increase after eight weeks (34%, p<0.05). Stronger protection was achieved after 12 weeks (56%, p<0.01). The combination of citrus flavonoids and rosemary polyphenols and diterpenes may be considered as an ingredient for oral photoprotection. Their mechanism of action may deserve further attention. PMID:24815058

  6. School Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Service Bureau, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Intended as a guide for school administrators, this publication describes and discusses "The Varying Role of the School Volunteer,""A Tutorial Program in Operation,""A Volunteer Resource Program in Operation,""An Inner-City Extended School-Day Program,""Essential Ingredients of a Successful Program," and "How to Recruit, Screen, and Retain."…

  7. APPALACHIAN VOLUNTEERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1964

    COLLEGE STUDENT VOLUNTEERS WORKING IN THE ISOLATED AREAS OF EASTERN KENTUCKY HAVE INSTITUTED A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO AID IN THE WAR ON POVERTY. THE APPALACHIAN VOLUNTEERS WERE INITIALLY SUPPORTED BY A GRANT FROM THE AREA REDEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS, FROM PRIVATE CORPORATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS, OF MONEY AND MATERIALS. GROUNDWORK…

  8. Managing Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Beverly

    1991-01-01

    Discusses changing nature of volunteers in Peter Drucker's book "Managing the Nonprofit Corporation." Points out that most volunteers have full-time jobs, families, very little leisure; they are not willing to do such routine work as stuffing envelopes; they want carefully defined projects with beginning and end. Discusses real requirements for…

  9. EDUCATION IN THE PEACE CORPS, EVOLVING CONCEPTS OF VOLUNTEER TRAINING. NOTES AND ESSAYS ON EDUCATION FOR ADULTS, 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PAGANO, JULES

    THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER TRAINING--TOTAL CULTURAL IMMERSION--IS ACHIEVED THROUGH DIRECT TEACHING AND FIELD EXPERIENCE. TRAINEES LEARN LANGUAGE (THROUGH INTENSIVE AUDIOLINGUAL METHODS, BRINGING LANGUAGE LEARNING INTO EVERY ASPECT OF LIFE AT THE TRAINING SITE), CUSTOMS (THROUGH ROLE PLAYING AND CROSS CULTURAL STUDIES), AND…

  10. The effect of encapsulated glutamine on gut peptide secretion in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Claire L.; Lewis, Hannah B.; Vergese, Bensi; Park, Adrian; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Context Weight loss and improved blood glucose control after bariatric surgery have been attributed in part to increased ileal nutrient delivery with enhanced release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Non-surgical strategies to manage obesity are required. The aim of the current study was to assess whether encapsulated glutamine, targeted to the ileum, could increase GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance or reduce meal size. Methods A single-center, randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was performed in 24 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with type 2 diabetes. Fasting participants received a single dose of encapsulated ileal-release glutamine (3.6 or 6.0 g) or placebo per visit with blood sampling at baseline and for 4 h thereafter. Glucose tolerance and meal size were studied using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and ad libitum meal respectively. Results In healthy volunteers, ingestion of 6.0 g glutamine was associated with increased GLP-1 concentrations after 90 min compared with placebo (mean 10.6 pg/ml vs 6.9 pg/ml, p = 0.004), increased insulin concentrations after 90 min (mean 70.9 vs 48.5, p = 0.048), and increased meal size at 120 min (mean 542 g eaten vs 481 g, p = 0.008). Ingestion of 6.0 g glutamine was not associated with significant differences in GLP-1, glucose or insulin concentrations after a glucose tolerance test in healthy or type 2 diabetic participants. Conclusions Single oral dosing of encapsulated glutamine did not provoke consistent increases in GLP-1 and insulin secretion and was not associated with beneficial metabolic effects in healthy volunteers or patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26541888

  11. Effect of Carum carvi, a herbal bioenhancer on pharmacokinetics of antitubercular drugs: A study in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Naiyma; Khajuria, Vijay; Gillani, Zahid H.; Tandon, Vishal R.; Arora, Ekta

    2014-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken in 20 healthy human volunteers to evaluate the effect of a herbal bioenhancer, Carum carvi on pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide in fixed dose combination (FDC). Materials and Methods: It was a prospective, two-period, open-label, cross-over experiment on 20 healthy human male volunteers. The volunteers were administered a single dose of FDC containing rifampicin (450 mg), isoniazid (300 mg), and pyrazinamide (1000 mg) and after 10 days washout period the same FDC along with C. carvi extract (100 mg) was administered. Blood samples were collected at different time-points and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detailed pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, which included Cmax, area under curve (AUC), time to reach maximum plasma concentration (Tmax), clearance (Cl), volume of distribution (Vd), and half-life (t½). Results: Additions of C. carvi extract lead to increase in plasma levels of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide. The bioavailability indices Cmax of rifampicin increased from 4.57 ± 0.19 to 5.95 ± 0.19 (P = 0.000) and AUC increased from 40.11 ± 1.69 to 53.01 ± 1.88 (P = 0.000). Similarly, Cmax of isoniazid increased from 2.66 ± 0.16 to 3.62 ± 0.16 (P = 0.000) and AUC from 17.72 ± 0.78 to 22.87 ± 0.94 (P = 0.000). The bioavailability indices of pyrazinamide also revealed an increase in Cmax from 18.81 ± 0.79 to 25.06 ± 1.14 (P = 0.000) and AUC from 107.65 ± 4.42 to 137.71 ± 5.92 (P = 0.000), respectively. Conclusion: C. carvi acts as a bioenhancer and modifies the kinetics of antitubercular treatment (ATT) favorably. PMID:24741485

  12. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: preliminary results from study of five male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Holstein, H; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2015-03-01

    The radionuclide (210)Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested radioactive polonium ((209)Po as a bio-tracer for (210)Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10 Bq (209)Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7 mBq (209)Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance of ingested polonium peaking at 0.001-0.01% d(-1) of the ingested amount, thereafter decreasing mono-exponentially, corresponding to a biological half-time of 10-20 days. For the case of protracted intake a mono-exponential build-up was observed with a half-time of 40 ± 5 d. In addition, after cessation of intake, a short-term component (74%) with a biological half-time of 16 ± 4 d, and a long-term component (26%) with a half-time of 93 ± 53 d were observed. It is concluded that hair can be used to detect not only the amount of ingested polonium but also whether the intake was protracted or acute. PMID:25557609

  13. Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B1 pharmacokinetics in human volunteers: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Jubert, C; Mata, J; Bench, G; Dashwood, R; Pereira, C; Tracewell, W; Turteltaub, K; Williams, D; Bailey, G

    2009-04-20

    Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats. These findings were partially extended to humans (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 14601-14606 (2001)), where CHL reduced excretion of aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-DNA repair products in Chinese unavoidably exposed to dietary AFB{sub 1}. However, neither AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetics nor Chla effects were examined. We conducted a small unblinded crossover study to establish AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters in human volunteers, and to explore possible effects of CHL or Chla co-treatment on those parameters. For protocol 1, fasted subjects received an IRB-approved dose of 14C-AFB{sub 1} (30 ng, 5 nCi) by capsule with 100 ml water, followed by normal eating and drinking after hr 2. Blood and cumulative urine samples were collected over 72 hr, and {sup 14}C-AFB{sub 1} equivalents were determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Protocols 2 and 3 were similar except capsules also contained 150 mg of purified Chla, or CHL, respectively. All protocols were repeated 3 times for each of three volunteers. The study revealed rapid human AFB{sub 1} uptake (plasma ka 5.05 {+-} 1.10 hr-1, Tmax 1.0 hr) and urinary elimination (95% complete by 24 hr) kinetics. Chla and CHL treatment each significantly impeded AFB{sub 1} absorption and reduced Cmax and AUC's (plasma and urine) in one or more subjects. These initial results provide AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters previously unavailable for humans, and suggest that Chla or CHL co-consumption may limit the bioavailability of ingested aflatoxin in humans, as they do in animal models.

  14. Recruiting 4-H Volunteer Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Four-H Club Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The guide is intended to assist 4-H Club extension workers in recruiting volunteer adult and youth leaders. It discusses: why volunteers serve (organizational identity, desire to serve, involvement of other family members, future opportunities and obligations, community status, self interest, and public opinion); how to recruit (person-to-person…

  15. Influence of illumination position on image contrast in epi-optoacoustic imaging of human volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisser, Stefan; Held, Gerrit; Peeters, Sara; Jaeger, Michael; Frenz, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In a multi-modal combination of optoacoustic (OA) and pulse-echo ultrasound (US) imaging, epi-mode irradiation with the irradiation optics integrated with the acoustic probe has the advantage of flexible clinical application on any part of the body that is already accessible to US. In epi-mode strong clutter limits the OA imaging depth to often around one centimetre. We investigated clutter in automated scanning of volunteer forearms using a real-time combined OA and US system. The results agree well with our theory that clutter arises from strong optical absorption at the location of tissue illumination. As a consequence, we show that an intermediate separation distance between imaging plane and irradiation region leads to superior OA image contrast compared to an irradiation close to the imaging plane.

  16. Effects of the colour additive caramel colour III on the immune system: a study with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Abma, P M; van den Berg, H; van Dokkum, W; van Loveren, H; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Spanhaak, S; Vos, J G; Ockhuizen, T

    1992-09-01

    Administration of the colour additive Caramel Colour III to rats has been associated with decreased numbers of lymphocytes and several other changes in the immune system, as well as in immune function parameters, specifically in animals fed a diet with a relatively low vitamin B6 content. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI). Caramel Colour III is commonly used in food products such as bakery products, soya-bean sauces, brown sauces, gravies, soup aromas, brown (dehydrated) soups, brown malt caramel blend for various applications, vinegars and beers, and effects in humans on dietary intake cannot be excluded. Elderly male volunteers with a marginal deficit in vitamin B6 were considered a relevant and potentially sensitive group to study possible effects of Caramel Colour III on blood lymphocyte numbers (total and within subsets) or on proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. In addition, several other haematological parameters, as well as serum immunoglobulin levels and immunoglobulin production in vitro by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated mononuclear blood cells were studied. The results of this double-blind intervention study demonstrated that in a selected test group of apparently healthy elderly male volunteers with a biochemically marginally deficient vitamin B6 status, Caramel Colour III containing 23 (commercial sample) or 143 (research sample) ppm THI and administered at the level of the current acceptable daily intake of 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days did not affect any of the factors investigated. PMID:1427513

  17. Incidence of associated events during the performance of invasive procedures in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Highstead, R Grant; Tipton, Kevin D; Creson, Daniel L; Wolfe, Robert R; Ferrando, Arny A

    2005-04-01

    Metabolic investigations often utilize arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. These investigations represent some risk to the subject. We examined 369 studies performed in the General Clinical Research Center between January 1994 and May 2003 for events related to femoral catheterization and muscle biopsies. Incidents were further examined by age (younger: 18-59 yr, n=133; and older: 60-76 yr, n=28). There were no clinically defined major complications associated with either procedure. The incidence of femoral catheter repositioning or reinsertion was higher in the older group (25.5 vs. 9.7%). There was no difference in the incidence of premature removal of catheters, ecchymosis or hematoma, or the persistence of pain after discharge. The occurrence of all incidents did not increase with multiple catheterizations. Muscle biopsy was associated with infrequent ecchymosis or hematoma in both groups (1.1 and 3.6% in younger and older groups, respectively). Both procedures entail a small likelihood of a vagallike response (3.3% overall), resulting in nausea, dizziness, and rarely a loss of consciousness. These results indicate that, in skilled hands and a defined clinical setting, the incidents associated with femoral catheterization and muscle biopsy in healthy volunteers are reasonable and largely controllable. PMID:15563628

  18. Incidence of associated events during the performance of invasive procedures in healthy human volunteers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highstead, R. Grant; Tipton, Kevin D.; Creson, Daniel L.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Ferrando, Arny A.

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic investigations often utilize arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. These investigations represent some risk to the subject. We examined 369 studies performed in the General Clinical Research Center between January 1994 and May 2003 for events related to femoral catheterization and muscle biopsies. Incidents were further examined by age (younger: 18-59 yr, n=133; and older: 60-76 yr, n=28). There were no clinically defined major complications associated with either procedure. The incidence of femoral catheter repositioning or reinsertion was higher in the older group (25.5 vs. 9.7%). There was no difference in the incidence of premature removal of catheters, ecchymosis or hematoma, or the persistence of pain after discharge. The occurrence of all incidents did not increase with multiple catheterizations. Muscle biopsy was associated with infrequent ecchymosis or hematoma in both groups (1.1 and 3.6% in younger and older groups, respectively). Both procedures entail a small likelihood of a vagallike response (3.3% overall), resulting in nausea, dizziness, and rarely a loss of consciousness. These results indicate that, in skilled hands and a defined clinical setting, the incidents associated with femoral catheterization and muscle biopsy in healthy volunteers are reasonable and largely controllable.

  19. Bioavailability of aspirin and salicylamide following oral co-administration in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, M S; Reddi, A S; Curro, F A; Turkall, R M; Kadry, A M; Hansrote, J A

    1991-10-01

    BC powder (I) is a commercially available analgesic containing the active ingredients aspirin and salicylamide. The kinetics of I, BC powder minus aspirin (II), and BC powder minus salicylamide (III) were evaluated in 13 volunteers. Ten minutes after administration of I, aspirin reached a maximum concentration of 12.9 micrograms/mL, while salicylamide concentration reached a peak value of 3.4 micrograms/mL. However, when III was administered, aspirin was not detected at 10 min and only reached a concentration of 0.4 microgram/mL at 2 and 6 h. Furthermore, the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve for aspirin when III was administered was sixfold less compared with treatment with I. The area under the curve for aspirin metabolites was significantly different in I versus III. After treatment with II, a delay in salicylamide peak concentration was observed. Gentisamide was not detected throughout the study. This study demonstrates that salicylamide significantly enhances plasma levels of aspirin with potential therapeutic implications. PMID:1777842

  20. Tolerance of rising dietary concentrations of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) among human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, David H

    2015-10-01

    A solid form of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) was administered to 16 healthy male volunteers in butter-like spread and baked goods, resulting in intakes that rose in 30-g increments from 30 to 150 g; each level was administered on a single day, followed by a 2-day washout period. Elevated serum transaminase (ALT and/or AST) and lower HDL cholesterol levels were noted at 60 g and greater, possibly related to changes in the diet (high-carbohydrate and increasingly low-fat), rather than to EPG itself. There was no apparent association between EPG consumption and adverse effects reported. In general, EPG had no effect on bowel function, except in a single subject, who reported increased frequency of movements during the 2 days that followed consumption of 150 g EPG. All abnormal values returned to normal after the study, and subjects were otherwise asymptomatic. Accordingly, the effects on transaminase and HDL levels observed in this study were considered possibly adaptive and not clinically significant. Experimental animal studies, including lifetime studies, had shown no effects on these parameters. More importantly, the effect was associated with intakes of 60-150 g EPG, which exceeds the approximate intake of 20 g/day or less expected from currently intended commercial food uses. PMID:26255106

  1. Trained Community Volunteers Improve Tuberculosis Knowledge and Attitudes Among Adults in a Periurban Community in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Balogun, Mobolanle; Sekoni, Adekemi; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onajole, Adebayo; Longe-Peters, Olukemi; Ogunsola, Folasade; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria has the world's 10th largest tuberculosis (TB) burden. Targeted community-based interventions can potentially help reduce TB incidence. We designed an intervention in a periurban community where 10 community volunteers were trained to provide community TB education and also detect and refer TB suspects to a nearby clinic. To determine the effect of the intervention on knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices of TB, we compared results from a pre-intervention survey with those of a post-intervention survey. Pre-intervention, respondents had a mean knowledge score of 10.6 ± 7.0 of a possible 34, a mean attitude score of 5.8 ± 3.3 of a possible 10, and a mean practice score of 5.3 ± 1.4 of a possible 7. The intervention significantly increased the mean knowledge score to 16 ± 5.4 (P < 0.001) and mean attitude score to 7.0 ± 1.8 (P < 0.001); however, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean practice score. Eight TB suspects were referred to the clinic, and one suspect was subsequently diagnosed with TB. The use of trained community volunteers to share information on TB improved the overall knowledge and attitudes of respondents. Continued empowerment of the community should be encouraged to promote TB prevention and care. PMID:25510722

  2. An Experience with Volunteers in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillsworth, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Offers examples of the use of volunteers in recreation and adult education programs. Describes Fanshawe College's local community advisory committees for continuing education centers. Identifies conditions for using volunteers effectively. Reviews Edison College's Talent Banking system which involves volunteers as visiting lecturers, career…

  3. Bioequivalence of two brands of ciprofloxacin 750 mg tablets (Sarf and Ciprobay) in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, R M; Alam, S M; Awaad, F M; Dham, R; El-Kersh, A; El-Laithy, A; Shalby, M H; Shihabeddin, M; El-Walily, A F; Yacout, M; Zaman, Q

    2002-04-01

    An open, randomized, two-way crossover study was carried out in 28 healthy volunteers at Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries (Julphar), as a joint venture with Saqr Hospital, Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE. The two commercial brands used were Sarf (Julphar, UAE) as test and Ciprobay (Bayer AG, Germany) as reference product. The drug was administered to each subject with 240 mL of water after an overnight fasting in two treatment days separated by a one-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 24 hr and serum was separated and analyzed for ciprofloxacin using a sensitive, reproducible, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection. Various pharmacokinetic parameters, including AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity, Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, and lambdaz, were determined from ciprofloxacin serum concentration-time profiles for both formulations and found to be in good agreement with reported values. The parameters AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity, and Cmax were tested for bioequivalence after log-transformation of data. No significant difference was found based on analysis of variance (ANOVA); the 90% confidence intervals (95.73-107.62%, 94.98-108.26%, 92.80-103.90% for AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity, Cmax, respectively) for the test/reference ratios of these parameters were within the bioequivalence acceptance range of 80-125%. Based on this data, it is concluded that both formulations are bioequivalent and are interchangeable in medical practice. PMID:12056535

  4. A Randomized, Crossover, Single-Dose Bioequivalence Study of Two Extended-Release Tablets of Donepezil 23 mg in Healthy Human Volunteers under Fasting and Fed States

    PubMed Central

    Gadiko, Chaitanya; Tippabhotla, Sudhakar Koundinya; Thota, Satyanarayana; Battula, Ramakrishna; Khan, Sohel Md.; Vobalaboina, Venkateswarlu

    2013-01-01

    To assess the bioequivalence of two extended-release tablets of donepezil 23 mg, open label, randomized, single-dose, two-sequence, two-period crossover studies under fasting (n=74) and fed (n=94) conditions in healthy adult human volunteers were conducted. Subjects were randomized to either of the two treatment arms (test or reference) separated by a washout period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h post-dose and plasma samples were analyzed for donepezil using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using a non-compartmental approach. Bioequivalence was evaluated in 69 subjects in the fasting study, and 71 subjects in the fed study. In the fasting study, the 90% CI of Cmax and AUC0-72 were 82.50–90.10 and 92.38–98.60, respectively. Corresponding values in the fed study were 91.82–98.05 and 97.27–100.27. Based on the results, the test product (donepezil) met the US regulatory criteria of bioequivalence relative to the reference product (Aricept®) under both fasting and fed conditions. PMID:24106673

  5. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. on the bioavailability of aspirin in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, A; Yakasai, I A; Aguye, I A

    1996-01-01

    The influence of Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract incorporated in a traditional meal on the bioavailability of aspirin tablets 600 mg dose was studied in 6 healthy volunteers. There was a statistically significant increase in the plasma levels of aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively, when the meal containing Tamarindus indica fruit extract was administered with the aspirin tablets than when taken under fasting state or with the meal without the fruit extract. The Cmax, AUC0-6h and t1/2 for aspirin increased from 10.04 +/- 0.1 mg/ml to 28.62 +/- 0.21 mg/ml (P < 0.05); 14.03 +/- 0.11 mg/ml.h to 86.51 +/- 0.21 mg/ml.h (P < 0.085) and 1.04 +/- 0.12 h to 1.50 +/- 0.44 h (P < 0.05) respectively. There was no change in the tmax (0.50 +/- 0.17 h) but there was a decrease in the kel from 0.633 +/- 0.22 to 0.463 +/- 0.29 (P < 0.05). Similarly, the Cmax, AUC0-6h and kel for salicylic acid rose from 43.84 +/- 0.21 mg/ml to 68.19 +/- 0.71 mg/ml (P < 0.05); 171.59 +/- 0.07 mg/ml.h to 266.22 +/- 0.21 mg/ml/.h (P < 0.05) and 7.37 +/- 0.29 to 19.30 +/- 0.21 (P < 0.05), respectively. The tmax decreased from 2.0 +/- 0.18 h to 1.0 +/- 0.08 h (P < 0.05) and t1/2 from 0.25 +/- 0.21 h to 0.184 +/- 0.11 h (P < 0.05). The study has indicated that Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract significantly increased the bioavailability of aspirin. PMID:8980919

  6. Percutaneous absorption of Mexoryl SX in human volunteers: comparison with in vitro data.

    PubMed

    Benech-Kieffer, F; Meuling, W J A; Leclerc, C; Roza, L; Leclaire, J; Nohynek, G

    2003-01-01

    The potential human health risk of UV filters depends on their toxicity and the human systemic exposure which is a function of the extent of percutaneous absorption of the topically applied substance into the human organism. Using a 'mass balance' approach, a study was designed to investigate the systemically absorbed dose of [(14)C]-Mexoryl SX((R)) in humans after topical application of a typical sunscreen emulsion. In addition, to assess the correlation with in vitro experiments, the percutaneous absorption of this UVA filter through isolated human skin was measured under identical exposure conditions. When applied in vivo for a period of 4 h, 89-94% of the applied radioactivity was recovered from the wash-off samples. In urine samples, the radioactivity slightly exceeded background levels and corresponded maximally to 0.014% of the topically applied dose. No radioactivity was measured in blood or faeces sampled up to 120 h after application. In vitro, 24 h after a 4-hour application, [(14)C]-Mexoryl SX remained primarily on the skin surface. The mean in vitro absorption over 24 h, adding up the amounts found in the dermis and receptor fluid, was 0.16% of the applied dose. It is concluded from the in vivo pharmacokinetic results that the systemically absorbed dose of [(14)C]-Mexoryl SX is less than 0.1%. The order of magnitude of this value correlates well with the corresponding in vitro data which overestimate the in vivo results as previously observed with other hydrophilic compounds. This study demonstrates that, under realistic exposure conditions, the human systemic exposure to this UVA filter is negligible and poses no risk to human health. PMID:14528058

  7. Pharmacokinetic profile of two different pharmaceutical forms of theophylline (a slow release tablet and a syrup) after multiple dose administration to healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Muscará, M N; Hofstätter, E A; de Nucci, G

    1993-01-01

    Due to the narrow therapeutic range of theophylline, plasma concentrations of this drug are monitored in patients undergoing chronic therapy. Slow-release preparations avoid the fluctuations in plasma levels and improve patient compliance. In this study, we have compared the pharmacokinetic profiles of a theophylline slow-release tablet and a syrup form, when administered in multiple doses to healthy adult volunteers. The classification based upon releasing patterns is confirmed. PMID:8246751

  8. Effects of combinations of diesel exhaust and ozone exposure on lung function in human volunteers.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) exposure induces changes in human lung function, typically seen as a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Because people are usually exposed to other ambient air pollutants simultaneously with 03, there may be interact...

  9. The Training of Volunteer Adult Sunday School Teachers in the Wisconsin Jurisdictions of the Church of God in Christ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the methodological training needs of adult Sunday School teachers in the Church of God in Christ. Pastors and instructional leaders of two Wisconsin jurisdictions were utilized as participants in the study. Research methodology included a blended approach of quantitative and qualitative methods with the…

  10. Educational Quality Indicator Program (EQuIP). An Adult and Community Educator Training Manual for Administrators, Teachers and Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Workforce Development.

    This self-paced, individualized manual provides guidance in evaluating the quality of adult education programs. The manual contains state-adopted indicators of program quality for Florida. Each of the indicators requires from 1 to 1-1/2 hours of review; a sample checklist or evaluation sheet is provided at the end of each indicator to allow for…

  11. Rethinking Adult Literacy Programs: A Humanities-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anania, Joanne

    The Roosevelt University Humanities Enrichment Program tries to acknowledge the adult part of adult literacy. Its instructional materials are of interest and value to the adult student and, therefore, provide incentives for reading and discussion instead of serving merely as skill-building exercises. The materials are drawn from literature,…

  12. Anatomical localization, gene expression profiling and functional characterization of adult human neck brown fat.

    PubMed

    Cypess, Aaron M; White, Andrew P; Vernochet, Cecile; Schulz, Tim J; Xue, Ruidan; Sass, Christina A; Huang, Tian Liang; Roberts-Toler, Carla; Weiner, Lauren S; Sze, Cathy; Chacko, Aron T; Deschamps, Laura N; Herder, Lindsay M; Truchan, Nathan; Glasgow, Allison L; Holman, Ashley R; Gavrila, Alina; Hasselgren, Per-Olof; Mori, Marcelo A; Molla, Michael; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-05-01

    The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure is the underlying cause of the current obesity and diabetes pandemics. Central to these pathologies is the fat depot: white adipose tissue (WAT) stores excess calories, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes fuel for thermogenesis using tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). BAT was once thought to have a functional role in rodents and human infants only, but it has been recently shown that in response to mild cold exposure, adult human BAT consumes more glucose per gram than any other tissue. In addition to this nonshivering thermogenesis, human BAT may also combat weight gain by becoming more active in the setting of increased whole-body energy intake. This phenomenon of BAT-mediated diet-induced thermogenesis has been observed in rodents and suggests that activation of human BAT could be used as a safe treatment for obesity and metabolic dysregulation. In this study, we isolated anatomically defined neck fat from adult human volunteers and compared its gene expression, differentiation capacity and basal oxygen consumption to different mouse adipose depots. Although the properties of human neck fat vary substantially between individuals, some human samples share many similarities with classical, also called constitutive, rodent BAT. PMID:23603815

  13. Project LOVE (Let Older Volunteers Educate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Sally; Weinrich, Martin C.

    The effect of contact with older adult volunteers on the attitudes of elementary school students was investigated by twice administering questionnaires to all first-, third-, and fourth-grade students at Chapin Elementary School, Chapin, South Carolina. Teachers first administered the questionnaire before the older adults began volunteer work in…

  14. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  15. How can surgeonfish help pediatric surgeons? A pilot study investigating the antinociceptive effect of fish aquariums in adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Matthieu; Delpont, Marion; Bachy, Manon; Kabbaj, Reda; Annequin, Daniel; Vialle, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple distraction strategies have been proposed to reduce the incidence of anxiety and pain in children. Animal-assisted therapy is acknowledged and used in children as an adjunctive treatment with cognitive, physical, psychosocial and spiritual benefits. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of fish aquarium animal-assisted therapy (FA-AAT) on pain perception in a cohort of healthy volunteers. METHODS: Sixty-nine healthy subjects (mean age 27.3 years) were exposed to >20 different species of soft or hard corals and >25 fish in a 1000 L saltwater aquarium. Pain perception was assessed using an electrical stimulation device, the Pain Matcher (Cefar Medical AB, Sweden), after 5 min, 10 min, 20 min and 30 min of continuous aquarium viewing. The measurements were repeated 10 min after stopping aquarium viewing. RESULTS: A statistically significant pain perception threshold augmentation was observed after a 5 min aquarium viewing. This threshold augmentation was also increased after 10 min, 20 min and 30 min of FA-AAT. A remnant effect was noted up to 10 min after exposure. This short post-viewing time period could be useful in clinical practice to perform certain painful procedures in children, such as those involving needles, under improved conditions immediately after aquarium exposure. CONCLUSIONS: In the authors’ department, FA-AAT is now used as a nonpharmacological antinociceptive technique in association with a protocol of inhalated oxygen/nitrous oxide mixtures for needle-related procedures. Children and parents are invited to watch the aquarium during the 10 min to 20 min before venous punctures. PMID:25222572

  16. Volunteerism, Health, and Civic Engagement among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Gillespie, Alayna A.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, 40-50 per cent of older adults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning older adults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and…

  17. Adult Education and Human Resource Development: A Symbiotic Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Robert E.; Hemby, K. Virginia; Conerly-Stewart, Donna L.

    1998-01-01

    Top-ranked competencies for graduate education in human resources development (HRD) identified by 55 (of 195) HRD practitioners were adult learning, presentation, facilitation, needs assessment, and human relations. Seven of the top 10 were allied with adult education graduate program content. (SK)

  18. Encephalitis-Associated Human Metapneumovirus Pneumonia in Adult, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mateevici, Cristina; Lin, Belinda; Chandra, Ronil V.; Chong, Victor H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus pneumonia, most commonly found in children, was diagnosed in an adult with encephalitis. This case suggests that testing for human metapneumovirus RNA in nasopharyngeal aspirate and cerebrospinal fluid samples should be considered in adults with encephalitis who have a preceding respiratory infection, PMID:26488420

  19. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  20. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-06-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species.

  1. Detection of novel Chlamydiae and Legionellales from human nasal samples of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Venditti, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiae are intracellular bacterial parasites of eukaryotes, ranging from amoebae to humans. They comprise many novel members and are investigated as emerging pathogens. Environmental studies highlighted similarities between the ecologies of chlamydiae and legionellae, both groups being important agents of respiratory infections. Herein, we analyzed nasal samples from healthy persons, searching for the presence of amoebae, chlamydiae and legionellae. From a total of 25 samples, we recovered by PCR eight samples positive to chlamydiae and six samples positive to legionellae. Among these samples, four were positive to both organisms. The sequencing of 16S rDNAs allowed to identify (i) among Chlamydiae: Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, Chlamydophila psittaci, Chlamydophila felis, and members of Rhabdochlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae and E6 lineage and (ii) among Legionellaceae: Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii and Legionella impletisoli. Unexpectedly, we also recovered Diplorickettsia sp. Amoebae collected from nasal mucosae, Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba, were endosymbiont-free, and chlamydiae revealed refractory to amoeba coculture. This study shows common exposure to chlamydiae and legionellae and suggests open air activities like gardening as a probable additional source of infection. PMID:25697709

  2. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect.

    PubMed

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species. PMID:27265207

  3. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    PubMed Central

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species. PMID:27265207

  4. Transfusion of human volunteers with older, stored red blood cells produces extravascular hemolysis and circulating non–transferrin-bound iron

    PubMed Central

    Brittenham, Gary M.; Billote, Genia B.; Francis, Richard O.; Ginzburg, Yelena Z.; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.; Jhang, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Joseph; Sharma, Shruti; Sheth, Sujit; Sireci, Anthony N.; Stephens, Hannah L.; Stotler, Brie A.; Wojczyk, Boguslaw S.; Zimring, James C.; Spitalnik, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    Transfusions of RBCs stored for longer durations are associated with adverse effects in hospitalized patients. We prospectively studied 14 healthy human volunteers who donated standard leuko-reduced, double RBC units. One unit was autologously transfused “fresh” (3-7 days of storage), and the other “older” unit was transfused after 40 to 42 days of storage. Of the routine laboratory parameters measured at defined times surrounding transfusion, significant differences between fresh and older transfusions were only observed in iron parameters and markers of extravascular hemolysis. Compared with fresh RBCs, mean serum total bilirubin increased by 0.55 mg/dL at 4 hours after transfusion of older RBCs (P = .0003), without significant changes in haptoglobin or lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, only after the older transfusion, transferrin saturation increased progressively over 4 hours to a mean of 64%, and non–transferrin-bound iron appeared, reaching a mean of 3.2μM. The increased concentrations of non–transferrin-bound iron correlated with enhanced proliferation in vitro of a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (r = 0.94, P = .002). Therefore, circulating non–transferrin-bound iron derived from rapid clearance of transfused, older stored RBCs may enhance transfusion-related complications, such as infection. The trial was registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01319552. PMID:22021369

  5. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Modulates Heat Nociception in the Human Brain - An fMRI Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Becerra, Lino; Larsson, Henrik B. W.; Borsook, David; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Intravenous infusion of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) provokes headache and migraine in humans. Mechanisms underlying CGRP-induced headache are not fully clarified and it is unknown to what extent CGRP modulates nociceptive processing in the brain. To elucidate this we recorded blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the brain by functional MRI after infusion of CGRP in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of 27 healthy volunteers. BOLD-signals were recorded in response to noxious heat stimuli in the V1-area of the trigeminal nerve. In addition, we measured BOLD-signals after injection of sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D antagonist). Results Brain activation to noxious heat stimuli following CGRP infusion compared to baseline resulted in increased BOLD-signal in insula and brainstem, and decreased BOLD-signal in the caudate nuclei, thalamus and cingulate cortex. Sumatriptan injection reversed these changes. Conclusion The changes in BOLD-signals in the brain after CGRP infusion suggests that systemic CGRP modulates nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal pain pathways in response to noxious heat stimuli. PMID:26990646

  6. Development of gastroretentive drug delivery system for cefuroxime axetil: in vitro and in vivo evaluation in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bomma, Ramesh; Veerabrahma, Kishan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop the cefuroxime axetil sustained-release floating tablets to prolong the gastric residence time and compare their pharmacokinetic behavior with marketed conventional tablets (Zocef). The floating tablets were developed using polymers like HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M alone, and polymer combination of HPMC K4M and Polyox WSR 303 by effervescent technique. Tablets were prepared by slugging method and evaluated for their physical characteristics, in vitro drug release, and buoyancy lag time. The best formulation (F10) was selected based on in vitro characteristics and used in vivo radiographic and bioavailability studies in healthy human volunteers. All the formulations could sustain drug release for 12 h. The dissolution profiles were subjected to various kinetic release models and it was found that the mechanism of drug release followed Peppas model. The in vivo radiographic studies revealed that the tablets remained in stomach for 225 ± 30 min. Based on in vivo performance, the developed floating tablets showed superior bioavailability than Zocef tablet. Based on in vivo performance significant difference was observed between Cmax, tmax, t1/2, AUC0-∞, and mean residence time of test and reference (p<0.05). The increase in relative bioavailability of test was 1.61 fold when compared to reference. PMID:22348334

  7. A pilot, first-in-human, pharmacokinetic study of 9cUAB30 in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kolesar, Jill M; Hoel, Ryan; Pomplun, Marcia; Havighurst, Tom; Stublaski, Jeanne; Wollmer, Barbara; Krontiras, Helen; Brouillette, Wayne; Muccio, Donald; Kim, Kyungmann; Grubbs, Clinton J; Bailey, Howard E

    2010-12-01

    9cUAB30 is a synthetic analog of 9-cis-retinoic acid with chemopreventive activity in cell lines and in animal models. The purpose of this first-in-human evaluation of 9cUAB30 was to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetic profile and toxicity of the compound in healthy volunteers at 3 dose levels. This study enrolled 14 patients to receive a single dose of 5, 10, or 20 mg of 9cUAB30. Plasma and urine samples were collected to assess 9cUAB30 concentrations by a validated LC/MS MS method. 9cUAB30 was well tolerated, with 1 patient experiencing grade 2 toxicity and no grade 3 or 4 toxicities reported. T(max) occurred approximately 3 hours after dose administration with the plasma half-life ranging from 2.79 to 7.21 hours. AUC increased linearly across the examined dose range of 5 to 20 mg; C(max) was proportional to the log of the dose. The plasma clearance ranged from 25 to 39 L/h compared to the renal clearance which ranged from 0.018 to 0.103 L/h. 9cUAB30 has a favorable toxicity and pharmacokinetic profile, with oral availability and primarily hepatic metabolism. Further dose ranging studies with once a day dosing are underway. PMID:21149332

  8. Bioavailability of a Lipidic Formulation of Curcumin in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Yogesh B.; Munjal, Bhushan; Arora, Saurabh; Karwa, Manoj; Kohli, Gunjan; Paliwal, Jyoti K.; Bansal, Arvind K.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous publications have reported the significant pharmacodynamic activity of Curcumin (CRM) despite low or undetectable levels in plasma. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed pharmacokinetic evaluation of CRM after the oral administration of a highly bioavailable lipidic formulation of CRM (CRM-LF) in human subjects. Cmax, Tmax and AUC0–∞ were found to be 183.35 ± 37.54 ng/mL, 0.60 ± 0.05 h and 321.12 ± 25.55 ng/mL respectively, at a dose of 750 mg. The plasma profile clearly showed three distinct phases, viz., absorption, distribution and elimination. A close evaluation of the primary pharmacokinetic parameters provided valuable insight into the behavior of the CRM after absorption by CRM-LF. CRM-LF showed a lag time (Tlag) of 0.18 h (around 12 min). Pharmacokinetic modeling revealed that CRM-LF followed a two-compartment model with first order absorption, lag time and first order elimination. A high absorption rate constant (K01, 4.51/h) signifies that CRM-LF ensured rapid absorption of the CRM into the central compartment. This was followed by the distribution of CRM from the central to peripheral compartment (K12, 2.69/h). The rate of CRM transfer from the peripheral to central compartment (K21, 0.15/h) was slow. This encourages higher tissue levels of CRM as compared with plasma levels. The study provides an explanation of the therapeutic efficacy of CRM, despite very low/undetectable levels in the plasma. PMID:24300368

  9. Plasma levels of intermedin (adrenomedullin-2) in healthy human volunteers and patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bell, David; Gordon, Brian J; Lavery, Anita; Megaw, Katie; Kinney, Michael O; Harbinson, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 (IMD) is a member of the adrenomedullin/CGRP peptide family. Less is known about the distribution of IMD than for other family members within the mammalian cardiovascular system, particularly in humans. The aim was to evaluate plasma IMD levels in healthy subjects and patients with chronic heart failure. IMD and its precursor fragments, preproIMD(25-56) and preproIMD(57-92), were measured by radioimmunoassay in 75 healthy subjects and levels of IMD were also compared to those of adrenomedullin (AM) and mid-region proadrenomedullin(45-92) (MRproAM(45-92)) in 19 patients with systolic heart failure (LVEF<45%). In healthy subjects, plasma levels (mean+SE) of IMD (6.3+0.6 pg ml(-1)) were lower than, but correlated with those of AM (25.8+1.8 pg ml(-1); r=0.49, p<0.001). Plasma preproIMD(25-56) (39.6+3.1 pg ml(-1)), preproIMD(57-92) (25.9+3.8 pg ml(-1)) and MRproAM(45-92) (200.2+6.7 pg ml(-1)) were greater than their respective bioactive peptides. IMD levels correlated positively with BMI but not age, and were elevated in heart failure (9.8+1.3 pg ml(-1), p<0.05), similarly to MRproAM(45-92) (329.5+41.9 pg ml(-1), p<0.001) and AM (56.8+10.9 pg ml(-1), p<0.01). IMD levels were greater in heart failure patients with concomitant renal impairment (11.3+1.8 pg ml(-1)) than those without (6.5+1.0 pg ml(-1); p<0.05). IMD and AM were greater in patients receiving submaximal compared with maximal heart failure drug therapy and were decreased after 6 months of cardiac resynchronization therapy. In conclusion, IMD is present in the plasma of healthy subjects less abundantly than AM, but is similarly correlated weakly with BMI. IMD levels are elevated in heart failure, especially with concomitant renal impairment, and tend to be reduced by high intensity drug or pacing therapy. PMID:26767798

  10. Ethosomes for skin delivery of ammonium glycyrrhizinate: in vitro percutaneous permeation through human skin and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Donatella; Lucania, Giuseppe; Mardente, Domenico; Alhaique, Franco; Fresta, Massimo

    2005-08-18

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of various ethosomal suspensions made up of water, phospholipids and ethanol at various concentrations for their potential application in dermal administration of ammonium glycyrrhizinate, a useful drug for the treatment of various inflammatory-based skin diseases. Physicochemical characterization of ethosomes was carried out by photon correlation spectroscopy and freeze fracture electron microscopy. The percutaneous permeation of ammonium glycyrrhizinate/ethosomes was evaluated in vitro through human stratum corneum and epidermis membranes by using Franz's cells and compared with the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Reflectance spectrophotometry was used as a non-invasive technique to evaluate the carrier toxicity, the drug permeation and the anti-inflammatory activity of ammonium glycyrrhizinate in a model of skin erythema in vivo on human volunteers. Ethosomal suspensions had mean sizes ranging from 350 nm to 100 nm as a function of ethanol and lecithin quantities, i.e., high amounts of ethanol and a low lecithin concentration provided ethosome suspensions with a mean size of approximately 100 nm and a narrow size distribution. In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out by using an ethosome formulation made up of ethanol 45% (v/v) and lecithin 2% (w/v). The ethosome suspension showed a very good skin tolerability in human volunteers, also when applied for a long period (48 h). Ethosomes elicited an increase of the in vitro percutaneous permeation of both methylnicotinate and ammonium glycyrrhizinate. Ethosomes were able to significantly enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of ammonium glycyrrhizinate compared to the ethanolic or aqueous solutions of this drug. Some in vivo experiments also showed the ability of ethosome to ensure a skin accumulation and a sustained release of the ammonium glycyrrhizinate. PMID:15935505

  11. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the histamine H3 receptor antagonist, ABT-288, in healthy young adults and elderly volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Zhang, Jun; Dutta, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Aim The objective of this work was to characterize the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288, a highly selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, in healthy young adults and elderly subjects following single and multiple dosing in a phase 1 setting. Methods Single doses (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 and 40 mg ABT-288) and multiple doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6 mg ABT-288 once-daily for 14 days) were evaluated in young adults and multiple doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 5 mg ABT-288 once-daily for 12 days) were evaluated in elderly subjects using randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study designs. The effect of food on ABT-288 pharmacokinetics (5 mg single dose) was evaluated using an open label, randomized, crossover design. Results ABT-288 safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics were comparable in young and elderly subjects. Single doses up to 40 mg and multiple doses up to 3 mg once-daily were generally safe and well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events were hot flush, headache, abnormal dreams, insomnia, nausea and dizziness. ABT-288 exposure (AUC) was dose-proportional over the evaluated dose ranges. The mean elimination half-life ranged from 40 to 61 h across dose groups. Steady state was achieved by day 10 of once-daily dosing with 3.4- to 4.2-fold accumulation. Food did not have a clinically meaningful effect on ABT-288 exposure. Conclusions Based on the above results, 1 and 3 mg once-daily doses of ABT-288 were advanced to phase 2 evaluation in Alzheimer's patients. PMID:23016924

  12. Antimicrobial activity of a novel adhesive containing chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) against the resident microflora in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Neal; Wibaux, Anne; Ward, Colleen; Paulson, Daryl S.; Johnson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a new, transparent composite film dressing, whose adhesive contains chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), against the native microflora present on human skin. Methods CHG-containing adhesive film dressings and non-antimicrobial control film dressings were applied to the skin on the backs of healthy human volunteers without antiseptic preparation. Dressings were removed 1, 4 or 7 days after application. The bacterial populations underneath were measured by quantitative cultures (cylinder-scrub technique) and compared with one another as a function of time. Results The mean baseline microflora recovery was 3.24 log10 cfu/cm2. The mean log reductions from baseline measured from underneath the CHG-containing dressings were 0.87, 0.78 and 1.30 log10 cfu/cm2 on days 1, 4 and 7, respectively, compared with log reductions of 0.67, −0.87 and −1.29 log10 cfu/cm2 from underneath the control film dressings. There was no significant difference between the log reductions of the two treatments on day 1, but on days 4 and 7 the log reduction associated with the CHG adhesive was significantly higher than that associated with the control adhesive. Conclusions The adhesive containing CHG was associated with a sustained antimicrobial effect that was not present in the control. Incorporating the antimicrobial into the adhesive layer confers upon it bactericidal properties in marked contrast to the non-antimicrobial adhesive, which contributed to bacterial proliferation when the wear time was ≥4 days. PMID:24722839

  13. Bioequivalence evaluation of two capsule formulations of amoxicillin in healthy adult male bangladeshi volunteers: A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Ashik; Azad, Mohammad Abul Kalam; Sultana, Rebeka; Akbor, Maruf Mohammad; Hasan, Ahasanul; Latif, Mahbub; Hasnat, Abul

    2008-01-01

    Background: Amoxicillin, a semisynthetic penicillin antibiotic, is widely prescribed in Bangladesh due to its extended spectrum and its rapid and extensive oral absorption with good tolerability. Although a number of generic oral formulations of amoxicillin are available in Bangladesh, a study of the bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic properties of these formulations has not yet been conducted in a Bangladeshi population. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of 2 formulations of amoxicillin 500-mg capsules (test, SK-mox®; reference, Amoxil-Bencard®) using serum data. Methods: This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy male subjects in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. Subjects were assigned to receive the test or the reference drug as a single-dose, 500-mg capsule under fasting conditions after a 1-week washout period. After oral administration, blood samples were collected and analyzed for amoxicillin concentration using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the natural log-transformed ratios of pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125%, according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirement. Results: Twenty-four healthy adult male Bangladeshi volunteers (mean [SD] age, 26.92 [3.37] years; age range, 23–34 years; mean [SD] body mass index, 23.O9 [1.58] kg/m2) participated in the study. Using serum data, the values obtained for the test and reference formulations, respectively, were as follows: Cmax, 9.85 (2.73) and 10.63 (2.12) μg/mL; Tmax, 1.29 (0.58) and 1.33 (0.49) hours; and AUC0–12, 27.09 (7.62) and 28.56 (6.30) μg/mL · h−1. No period, sequence, or formulation effects

  14. Adult Human Neurogenesis: From Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of generating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases. PMID:21519376

  15. Calcium and α-tocopherol suppress cured-meat promotion of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and reduce associated biomarkers in human volunteers123

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Océane CB; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Audebert, Marc; Dupuy, Jacques; Meunier, Nathalie; Attaix, Didier; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Mirvish, Sidney S; Kuhnle, Gunter CG; Cano, Noel; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Processed meat intake has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. We have shown that cured meat promotes carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and increases specific biomarkers in the colon of rats. Objectives: We investigated whether cured meat modulates biomarkers of cancer risk in human volunteers and whether specific agents can suppress cured meat–induced preneoplastic lesions in rats and associated biomarkers in rats and humans. Design: Six additives (calcium carbonate, inulin, rutin, carnosol, α-tocopherol, and trisodium pyrophosphate) were added to cured meat given to groups of rats for 14 d, and fecal biomarkers were measured. On the basis of these results, calcium and tocopherol were kept for the following additional experiments: cured meat, with or without calcium or tocopherol, was given to dimethylhydrazine-initiated rats (47% meat diet for 100 d) and to human volunteers in a crossover study (180 g/d for 4 d). Rat colons were scored for mucin-depleted foci, putative precancer lesions. Biomarkers of nitrosation, lipoperoxidation, and cytotoxicity were measured in the urine and feces of rats and volunteers. Results: Cured meat increased nitroso compounds and lipoperoxidation in human stools (both P < 0.05). Calcium normalized both biomarkers in rats and human feces, whereas tocopherol only decreased nitro compounds in rats and lipoperoxidation in feces of volunteers (all P < 0.05). Last, calcium and tocopherol reduced the number of mucin-depleted foci per colon in rats compared with nonsupplemented cured meat (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Data suggest that the addition of calcium carbonate to the diet or α-tocopherol to cured meat may reduce colorectal cancer risk associated with cured-meat intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00994526. PMID:24025632

  16. Oversight of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act, 1981. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session (April 9, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This is a report of a hearing on April 9, 1981, before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family, and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, on examination of the Domestic Volunteer Services Act. The focus is reauthorization of this act that provides the statutory base for ACTION and its domestic volunteer…

  17. Nanosizing of a poorly soluble drug: technique optimization, factorial analysis, and pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Abdelbary, Aly Ahmed; Elshafeey, Ahmed Hassen

    2014-01-01

    Context Diacerein (DCN) has low aqueous solubility (3.197 mg/L) and, consequently, low oral bioavailability (35%–56%). To increase both the solubility and dissolution rate of DCN while maintaining its crystalline nature, high pressure homogenization was used but with only a few homogenization cycles preceded by a simple bottom-up technique. Methods The nanosuspensions of DCN were prepared using a combined bottom-up/top-down technique. Different surfactants – polyvinyl alcohol, sodium deoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate – with different concentrations were used for the stabilization of the nanosuspensions. Full factorial experimental design was employed to investigate the influence of formulation variables on nanosuspension characteristics using Design-Expert® Software. Particle size (PS), zeta potential, saturation solubility, in vitro dissolution, and drug crystallinity were studied. Moreover, the in vivo performance of the optimized formula was assessed by bioavailability determination in healthy human volunteers. Results The concentration of surfactant had a significant effect on both the PS and polydispersity index values. The 1% surfactant concentration showed the lowest PS and polydispersity index values compared with other concentrations. Both type and concentration of surfactant had significant effects on the zeta potential. Formula F8 (containing 1% sodium deoxycholate) and Formula F12 (containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate) had the highest desirability values (0.952 and 0.927, respectively). Hence, they were selected for further characterization. The saturated solubility and mean dissolution time, in the case of F8 and F12, were significantly higher than the coarse drug powder. Techniques utilized in the nanocrystals’ preparation had no effect on DCN crystalline state. The selected formula (F12) showed a higher bioavailability compared to the reference market product with relative bioavailability of 131.4%. Conclusion The saturation

  18. Developing Resourceful Humans. Adult Education within the Economic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lynn Elen, Ed.

    This book, which explores the shifting paradigm from human resource development to developing resourceful humans, establishes the historical position of adult education within the economic context, discusses human capital propositions, and examines the learning dimensions of economic and educational change. The following chapters are included:…

  19. Why Teach the Humanities to Adult Basic Education Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocker, Donald W., Ed.; Jones, William C., Ed.

    The publication contains an article on curriculum selection in adult basic education (ABE), three presentations on the humanities and ABE, and a concluding commentary. An introductory article, "Criteria for Selecting Curriculum in Adult Basic Education" by Donald Mocker, emphasizes the need for broader criteria for selection of ABE curriculum.…

  20. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  1. Humanizing Adult Education Research: Five Stories from the 1930's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Ronald

    Taken from the author's doctoral dissertation, this award-winning monograph describes a method for humanizing educational research in adult education and provides five stories of adult education efforts in the 1930's as examples of such research. The method described suggests valuing qualitative data as much as quantitative in the field of…

  2. Technology and the Adult Degree Program: The Human Element

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriquez, Frank G.; Nash, Susan Smith

    2004-01-01

    While technology has for many years been a critical component in programs for adults and calls to mind sophisticated gadgetry with expensive price tags, it is often the nexus where technology and humans intersect that proves most critical to the success and quality of adult degree programs.

  3. A Phase I Clinical Study of a Live Attenuated Bordetella pertussis Vaccine - BPZE1; A Single Centre, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalating Study of BPZE1 Given Intranasally to Healthy Adult Male Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Thorstensson, Rigmor; Trollfors, Birger; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Jahnmatz, Maja; Bergström, Jakob; Ljungman, Margaretha; Törner, Anna; Wehlin, Lena; Van Broekhoven, Annie; Bosman, Fons; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Locht, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Background Acellular pertussis vaccines do not control pertussis. A new approach to offer protection to infants is necessary. BPZE1, a genetically modified Bordetella pertussis strain, was developed as a live attenuated nasal pertussis vaccine by genetically eliminating or detoxifying 3 toxins. Methods We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of BPZE1 given intranasally for the first time to human volunteers, the first trial of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine specifically designed for the respiratory tract. 12 subjects per dose group received 103, 105 or 107 colony-forming units as droplets with half of the dose in each nostril. 12 controls received the diluent. Local and systemic safety and immune responses were assessed during 6 months, and nasopharyngeal colonization with BPZE1 was determined with repeated cultures during the first 4 weeks after vaccination. Results Colonization was seen in one subject in the low dose, one in the medium dose and five in the high dose group. Significant increases in immune responses against pertussis antigens were seen in all colonized subjects. There was one serious adverse event not related to the vaccine. Other adverse events were trivial and occurred with similar frequency in the placebo and vaccine groups. Conclusions BPZE1 is safe in healthy adults and able to transiently colonize the nasopharynx. It induces immune responses in all colonized individuals. BPZE1 can thus undergo further clinical development, including dose optimization and trials in younger age groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01188512 PMID:24421886

  4. Consistent Safety and Infectivity in Sporozoite Challenge Model of Plasmodium vivax in Malaria-Naive Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sócrates; Solarte, Yezid; Jordán-Villegas, Alejandro; Echavarría, Juan Fernando; Rocha, Leonardo; Palacios, Ricardo; Ramírez, Óscar; Vélez, Juan D.; Epstein, Judith E.; Richie, Thomas L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    A safe and reproducible Plasmodium vivax infectious challenge method is required to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. Seventeen healthy Duffy (+) and five Duffy (−) subjects were randomly allocated into three (A–C) groups and were exposed to the bites of 2–4 Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium vivax derived from three donors. Duffy (−) subjects were included as controls for each group. Clinical manifestations of malaria and parasitemia were monitored beginning 7 days post-challenge. All Duffy (+) volunteers developed patent malaria infection within 16 days after challenge. Prepatent period determined by thick smear, was longer for Group A (median 14.5 d) than for Groups B and C (median 10 d/each). Infected volunteers recovered rapidly after treatment with no serious adverse events. The bite of as low as two P. vivax-infected mosquitoes provides safe and reliable infections in malaria-naive volunteers, suitable for assessing antimalarial and vaccine efficacy trials. PMID:21292872

  5. Consistent safety and infectivity in sporozoite challenge model of Plasmodium vivax in malaria-naive human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sócrates; Solarte, Yezid; Jordán-Villegas, Alejandro; Echavarría, Juan Fernando; Rocha, Leonardo; Palacios, Ricardo; Ramírez, Oscar; Vélez, Juan D; Epstein, Judith E; Richie, Thomas L; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2011-02-01

    A safe and reproducible Plasmodium vivax infectious challenge method is required to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. Seventeen healthy Duffy (+) and five Duffy (-) subjects were randomly allocated into three (A-C) groups and were exposed to the bites of 2-4 Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium vivax derived from three donors. Duffy (-) subjects were included as controls for each group. Clinical manifestations of malaria and parasitemia were monitored beginning 7 days post-challenge. All Duffy (+) volunteers developed patent malaria infection within 16 days after challenge. Prepatent period determined by thick smear, was longer for Group A (median 14.5 d) than for Groups B and C (median 10 d/each). Infected volunteers recovered rapidly after treatment with no serious adverse events. The bite of as low as two P. vivax-infected mosquitoes provides safe and reliable infections in malaria-naive volunteers, suitable for assessing antimalarial and vaccine efficacy trials. PMID:21292872

  6. Working with Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Virginia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This special section features research concluding that volunteers find the time because they believe they have more time to help (Rowland); an extension program using volunteer master teachers (Feather); use of volunteer marketing professionals (Fromer); retaining volunteers through leadership training (Balliette, Smith); "problem" volunteers and…

  7. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  8. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults.

    PubMed

    Khonsari, Shadi; Suganthy, Mayuran; Burczynska, Beata; Dang, Vu; Choudhury, Manika; Pachenari, Azra

    2016-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  9. Volunteering and Volunteers: Benefit-Cost Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Femida; Mook, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of volunteering from a benefit-cost perspective. Both the individual making a decision to volunteer and the organization making a decision to use volunteer labor face benefits and costs of their actions, yet these costs and benefits almost always remain unarticulated, perhaps because the common perception of…

  10. Assessment of the capacity of vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust-induced symptoms in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells. Results The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the

  11. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTC124, a nonaminoglycoside nonsense mutation suppressor, following single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy male and female adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hirawat, Samit; Welch, Ellen M; Elfring, Gary L; Northcutt, Valerie J; Paushkin, Sergey; Hwang, Seongwoo; Leonard, Eileen M; Almstead, Neil G; Ju, William; Peltz, Stuart W; Miller, Langdon L

    2007-04-01

    Nonsense (premature stop codon) mutations are causative in 5% to 15% of patients with monogenetic inherited disorders. PTC124, a 284-Dalton 1,2,4-oxadiazole, promotes ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons in mRNA and offers therapeutic potential for multiple genetic diseases. The authors conducted 2 phase I studies of PTC124 in 62 healthy adult volunteers. The initial, single-dose study evaluated doses of 3 to 200 mg/kg and assessed fed-fasting status on pharmacokinetics following a dose of 50 mg/kg. The subsequent multiple-dose study evaluated doses from 10 to 50 mg/kg/dose twice per day (bid) for up to 14 days. PTC124 administered orally as a liquid suspension was palatable and well tolerated through single doses of 100 mg/kg. At 150 and 200 mg/kg, PTC124 induced mild headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal events. With repeated doses through 50 mg/kg/dose bid, reversible transaminase elevations <2 times the upper limit of normal were sometimes observed. Immunoblot analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cell extracts revealed no protein elongation due to nonspecific ribosomal readthrough of normal stop codons. PTC124 plasma concentrations exceeding the 2- to 10-microg/mL values associated with activity in preclinical genetic disease models were safely achieved. No sex-related differences in pharmacokinetics were seen. No drug accumulation with repeated dosing was apparent. Diurnal variation was observed, with greater PTC124 exposures after evening doses. PTC124 excretion in the urine was <2%. PTC124 pharmacokinetics were described by a 1-compartment model. Collectively, the data support initiation of phase II studies of PTC124 in patients with nonsense mutation-mediated cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:17389552

  12. Effect of Short-Term Drinking Water Exposure to Dichloroacetate on its Pharmacokinetics and Oral Bioavailability in Human Volunteers: A Stable Isotope Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irv R.; Shangraw, Robert E.

    2006-06-21

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) is a by-product of drinking water disinfection, a known rodent hepatocarcinogen and is also used therapeutically to treat a variety of metabolic disorders in humans. We measured DCAA bioavailability in 16 human volunteers (8 male, 8 female) after simultaneous administration of oral and iv DCAA doses. Volunteers consumed DCAA-free bottled water for 2 weeks to wash out background effects of DCAA. Subsequently, each subject drank 12C-DCAA (2 mg/kg) in 500 ml water over three minutes. Five minutes after the start of the 12C-DCAA consumption, 13C-labeled DCAA (0.3 mg/kg) was administered iv over 20 seconds, and plasma 12C/13C-DCAA concentrations measured at predetermined time points over 4 h. Volunteers subsequently consumed DCAA 0.02 mg/kg/day in 500 ml water for 14 consecutive days to simulate a low-level chronic DCAA intake. Afterwards, the 12C/13C-DCAA administrations was repeated. Study endpoints were calculation of AUC0??, apparent volume of distribution (Vss), total body clearance (Clb), plasma elimination half-life (t?,?), oral absorption rate (Ka), and oral bioavailability. Oral bioavailability was estimated from dose-adjusted AUC ratios, and by using a compartmental pharmacokinetic model after simultaneous fitting of oral and iv DCAA concentration-time profiles. DCAA bioavailability had large inter-individual variation, ranging from 28 ? 100 %. In the absence of prior DCAA intake, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in any pharmacokinetic parameters between male and female volunteers, although there was a trend that women absorbed DCAA was more rapidly (increased Ka), and cleared DCAA more slowly (decreased Clb), than men. Only women were affected by previous 14 d DCAA exposure, which increased the AUC0?? for both oral and i.v. DCAA doses (P<0.04; 0.014 respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the Clb.

  13. Haemophilus ducreyi Seeks Alternative Carbon Sources and Adapts to Nutrient Stress and Anaerobiosis during Experimental Infection of Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth; Fortney, Kate R; Gao, Hongyu; Holley, Concerta L; Munson, Robert S; Liu, Yunlong; Spinola, Stanley M

    2016-05-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid in adults and cutaneous ulcers in children. In humans, H. ducreyi resides in an abscess and must adapt to a variety of stresses. Previous studies (D. Gangaiah, M. Labandeira-Rey, X. Zhang, K. R. Fortney, S. Ellinger, B. Zwickl, B. Baker, Y. Liu, D. M. Janowicz, B. P. Katz, C. A. Brautigam, R. S. Munson, Jr., E. J. Hansen, and S. M. Spinola, mBio 5:e01081-13, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01081-13) suggested that H. ducreyi encounters growth conditions in human lesions resembling those found in stationary phase. However, how H. ducreyi transcriptionally responds to stress during human infection is unknown. Here, we determined the H. ducreyi transcriptome in biopsy specimens of human lesions and compared it to the transcriptomes of bacteria grown to mid-log, transition, and stationary phases. Multidimensional scaling showed that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth. Compared to the inoculum (mid-log-phase bacteria), H. ducreyi harvested from pustules differentially expressed ∼93 genes, of which 62 were upregulated. The upregulated genes encode homologs of proteins involved in nutrient transport, alternative carbon pathways (l-ascorbate utilization and metabolism), growth arrest response, heat shock response, DNA recombination, and anaerobiosis. H. ducreyi upregulated few genes (hgbA, flp-tad, and lspB-lspA2) encoding virulence determinants required for human infection. Most genes regulated by CpxRA, RpoE, Hfq, (p)ppGpp, and DksA, which control the expression of virulence determinants and adaptation to a variety of stresses, were not differentially expressed in vivo, suggesting that these systems are cycling on and off during infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the in vivo transcriptome is distinct from those of in vitro growth and that adaptation to nutrient stress and anaerobiosis is crucial for H. ducreyi survival in humans. PMID:26930707

  14. Humanities and the Adult Learner in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Dale; Kamholtz, Jonathan

    Humanities courses have often been given little attention in continuing education for adults, possibly because they have been viewed as not "practical" or not "job-oriented" enough in our career-oriented, technologically advanced society. However, the humanities should be an integral part of our culture and of the lives of educated persons--a…

  15. Clonally related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), human volunteers, and a bayfront cetacean rehabilitation facility.

    PubMed

    Hower, Suzanne; Phillips, Matthew C; Brodsky, Micah; Dameron, Adrienne; Tamargo, Manuel A; Salazar, Norma C; Jackson, Charlene R; Barrett, John B; Davidson, Maureen; Davis, Johnnie; Mukherjee, Sampa; Ewing, Ruth Y; Gidley, Maribeth L; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Johns, Lisa; Johnson, Frank E; Adebanjo, Olufunmilola; Plano, Lisa R W

    2013-05-01

    In May of 2011, a live mass stranding of 26 short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) occurred in the lower Florida Keys. Five surviving whales were transferred from the original stranding site to a nearby marine mammal rehabilitation facility where they were constantly attended to by a team of volunteers. Bacteria cultured during the routine clinical care of the whales and necropsy of a deceased whale included methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA). In order to investigate potential sources or reservoirs of MSSA and MRSA, samples were obtained from human volunteers, whales, seawater, and sand from multiple sites at the facility, nearby recreational beaches, and a canal. Samples were collected on 3 days. The second collection day was 2 weeks after the first, and the third collection day was 2 months after the last animal was removed from the facility. MRSA and MSSA were isolated on each day from the facility when animals and volunteers were present. MSSA was found at an adjacent beach on all three collection days. Isolates were characterized by utilizing a combination of quantitative real-time PCR to determine the presence of mecA and genes associated with virulence, staphylococcal protein A typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Using these methods, clonally related MRSA were isolated from multiple environmental locations as well as from humans and animals. Non-identical but genetically similar MSSA and MRSA were also identified from distinct sources within this sample pool. PFGE indicated that the majority of MRSA isolates were clonally related to the prototype human strain USA300. These studies support the notion that S. aureus may be shed into an environment by humans or pilot whales and subsequently colonize or infect exposed new hosts. PMID:23508733

  16. Baseline Morbidity in 2,990 Adult African Volunteers Recruited to Characterize Laboratory Reference Intervals for Future HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Wendy; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J.; Jaoko, Walter; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mulenga, Joseph; Dally, Len; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Farah, Bashir; Birungi, Josephine; Hughes, Peter; Manigart, Olivier; Stevens, Gwynn; Yates, Sarah; Thomson, Helen; von Lieven, Andrea; Krebs, Marietta; Price, Matt A.; Stoll-Johnson, Lisa; Ketter, Nzeera

    2008-01-01

    Background An understanding of the health of potential volunteers in Africa is essential for the safe and efficient conduct of clinical trials, particularly for trials of preventive technologies such as vaccines that enroll healthy individuals. Clinical safety laboratory values used for screening, enrolment and follow-up of African clinical trial volunteers have largely been based on values derived from industrialized countries in Europe and North America. This report describes baseline morbidity during recruitment for a multi-center, African laboratory reference intervals study. Methods Asymptomatic persons, aged 18–60 years, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study at seven sites (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; Kangemi, Kenyatta National Hospital and Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia). Gender equivalency was by design. Individuals who were acutely ill, pregnant, menstruating, or had significant clinical findings were not enrolled. Each volunteer provided blood for hematology, immunology, and biochemistry parameters and urine for urinalysis. Enrolled volunteers were excluded if found to be positive for HIV, syphilis or Hepatitis B and C. Laboratory assays were conducted under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP). Results and Conclusions Of the 2990 volunteers who were screened, 2387 (80%) were enrolled, and 2107 (71%) were included in the analysis (52% men, 48% women). Major reasons for screening out volunteers included abnormal findings on physical examination (228/603, 38%), significant medical history (76, 13%) and inability to complete the informed consent process (73, 13%). Once enrolled, principle reasons for exclusion from analysis included detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (106/280, 38%) and antibodies against Hepatitis C (95, 34%). This is the first large scale, multi-site study conducted to the standards of GCLP to describe African laboratory reference intervals applicable to potential volunteers in clinical

  17. When Volunteers Attack!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    Working with alumni volunteers shouldn't create horror and suspense. Following a few key steps can help maintain a smooth relationship between alumni volunteers and the alumni relations office staff. In this article, the author discusses how to manage volunteers and keep the alumni volunteer relationship on track.

  18. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  19. The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The energy requirement of species at each trophic level in an ecological pyramid is a function of the number of organisms and their average mass. Regarding human populations, although considerable attention is given to estimating the number of people, much less is given to estimating average mass, despite evidence that average body mass is increasing. We estimate global human biomass, its distribution by region and the proportion of biomass due to overweight and obesity. Methods For each country we used data on body mass index (BMI) and height distribution to estimate average adult body mass. We calculated total biomass as the product of population size and average body mass. We estimated the percentage of the population that is overweight (BMI > 25) and obese (BMI > 30) and the biomass due to overweight and obesity. Results In 2005, global adult human biomass was approximately 287 million tonnes, of which 15 million tonnes were due to overweight (BMI > 25), a mass equivalent to that of 242 million people of average body mass (5% of global human biomass). Biomass due to obesity was 3.5 million tonnes, the mass equivalent of 56 million people of average body mass (1.2% of human biomass). North America has 6% of the world population but 34% of biomass due to obesity. Asia has 61% of the world population but 13% of biomass due to obesity. One tonne of human biomass corresponds to approximately 12 adults in North America and 17 adults in Asia. If all countries had the BMI distribution of the USA, the increase in human biomass of 58 million tonnes would be equivalent in mass to an extra 935 million people of average body mass, and have energy requirements equivalent to that of 473 million adults. Conclusions Increasing population fatness could have the same implications for world food energy demands as an extra half a billion people living on the earth. PMID:22709383

  20. Expression of tmp21 in normal adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Yang, Yuan; Li, Jianbo; Hou, Jing; Xia, Kun; Song, Weihong; Liu, Shengchun

    2014-01-01

    TMP21, known as p23 protein, is one important member of the p24 protein families. The degradation of TMP21 is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, as with the other presenilin-associated γ-secretase complex members. NFAT plays a very important role in regulation of human TMP21 gene expression. Compared with the function of TMP21, the studies about the distribution of this protein in human tissues are limited. We collected 19 normal adult human tissues from a healthy adult man died in a traffic accident and did examination of all the tissues collected for ICH, western blot and RT-PCR. It was shown that the expression of TMP21 is at high levels in heart, liver, lung, kidney and adrenal gland; moderate levels in brain, pancreas, prostate gland, testicle, small intestine, colon, stomach, gall bladder, thyroid gland and trachea; low levels in skeletal muscle, skin and lymphonodus. TMP21 is widely existed in normal adult human tissues. The current study provided for the first time a comprehensive expression of TMP21 in normal adult human tissues. It will benefit on helping in the design and interpretation of future studies focused on expounding the function of TMP21. PMID:25356171

  1. A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the hemagglutinin globular head of H1 and H9 influenza A viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Panthong, Sumolrat; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Phuygun, Siripaporn; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Prachasupap, Apichai; Yasugi, Mayo; Ono, Ken-ichiro; and others

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • A human monoclonal antibody against influenza virus was produced from a volunteer. • The antibody was generated from the PBMCs of the volunteer using the fusion method. • The antibody neutralized heterosubtypically group 1 influenza A viruses (H1 and H9). • The antibody targeted a novel epitope in globular head region of the hemagglutinin. • Sequences of the identified epitope are highly conserved among H1 and H9 subtypes. - Abstract: Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses.

  2. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

  3. Development Strategies for Online Volunteer Training Modules: A Team Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Vogel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Volunteers are central to the delivery of 4-H programs, and providing quality, relevant training is key to volunteer success. Online, asynchronous modules are an enhancement to a training delivery menu for adult volunteers, providing consistent, accessible options traditionally delivered primarily face to face. This article describes how Minnesota…

  4. Skin Irritation to Glass Wool or Continuous Glass Filaments as Observed by a Patch Test among Human Japanese Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    TSUNODA, Masashi; KIDO, Takamasa; MOGI, Sachiyo; SUGIURA, Yumiko; MIYAJIMA, Eriko; KUDO, Yuichiro; KUMAZAWA, Tatenao; AIZAWA, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical. PMID:25070402

  5. Novel surface markers directed against adult human gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Galivo, Feorillo H.; Dorrell, Craig S.; Grompe, Maria; Zhong, Yong-Ping; Streeter, Philip; Grompe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Novel cell surface-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated against extrahepatic biliary cells were developed for the isolation and characterization of different cell subsets from normal adult human gallbladder. Eleven antigenically distinct gallbladder subpopulations were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. They were classified into epithelial, mesenchymal, and pancreatobiliary (PDX1+SOX9+) subsets based on gene expression profiling. These antigenically distinct human gallbladder cell subsets could potentially also reflect different functional properties in regards to bile physiology, cell renewal and plasticity. Three of the novel monoclonal antibodies differentially labeled archival sections of primary carcinoma of human gallbladder relative to normal tissue. The novel monoclonal antibodies described herein enable the identification and characterization of antigenically diverse cell subsets within adult human gallbladder and are putative tumor biomarkers. PMID:26079872

  6. The cell mediated and humoral immune response to vaccination with acellular and whole cell pertussis vaccine in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J W; Ibsen, P H; Bentzon, M W; Capiau, C; Heron, I

    1991-10-01

    The cell mediated immune response (CMI) against pertussis antigens following vaccination with the traditional Danish whole cell pertussis vaccine (WC-P) and the Japanese acellular pertussis vaccine (A-PV) JNIH-3 was studied in four adult human volunteers. Vaccination with the A-PV induced an in vitro proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to pertussis toxin (PT) subunits S2-S4, S3-S4 and S5 and the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and a better serological response to native PT, detoxified PT (dPT) and FHA than the WC-PV. The induced CMI and serological response were followed over a period of 17 weeks, and were not seen to decline during this period. Further, an in vitro proliferative response to Bordetella pertussis agglutinogen 2 and 3 were demonstrated using lymphocytes from recently and not-so-recently pertussis-vaccinated adults. PMID:1797049

  7. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  8. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890418

  9. Dendritic cells in humans--from fetus to adult.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Naomi; Chan, Jerry K Y; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-02-01

    The human immune system evolves continuously during development from the embryo into the adult, reflecting the ever-changing environment and demands of our body. This ability of our immune system to sense external cues and adapt as we develop is just as important in the early tolerogenic environment of the fetus, as it is in the constantly pathogen-challenged adult. Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-sensing and antigen-presenting components of the immune system, play a crucial role in this process where they act as sentinels, both initiating and regulating immune responses. Here, we provide an overview of the human immune system in the developing fetus and the adult, with a focus on DC ontogeny and function during these discrete but intimately linked life stages. PMID:25323843

  10. Fate and effects of Camembert cheese micro-organisms in the human colonic microbiota of healthy volunteers after regular Camembert consumption.

    PubMed

    Firmesse, Olivier; Alvaro, Elise; Mogenet, Agnès; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Lemée, Riwanon; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Bonhomme, Cécile; Lambert, Denis; Andrieux, Claude; Doré, Joël; Corthier, Gérard; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to determine i) if Camembert cheese micro-organisms could be detected in fecal samples after regular consumption by human subjects and ii) the consequence of this consumption on global metabolic activities of the host colonic microbiota. An open human protocol was designed where 12 healthy volunteers were included: a 2-week period of fermented products exclusion followed by a 4-weeks Camembert ingestion period where 2x40 g/day of Camembert cheese was consumed. Stools were collected from the volunteers before consumption, twice during the ingestion period (2nd and 4th week) and once after a wash out period of 2 weeks. During the consumption of Camembert cheese, high levels of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were measured in fecal samples using real-time quantitative PCR, reaching median values of 8.2 and 7.5 Log(10) genome equivalents/g of stool. For Ln. mesenteroides, persistence was observed 15 days after the end of Camembert consumption. The survival of Geotrichum candidum was also assessed and the fecal concentration reached a median level of 7.1 Log(10) CFU/g in stools. Except a decreasing trend of the nitrate reductase activity, no significant modification was shown in the metabolic activities during this study. PMID:18554738

  11. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  12. The adult human brain harbors multipotent perivascular mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gesine; Özen, Ilknur; Christophersen, Nicolaj S; Reinbothe, Thomas; Bengzon, Johan; Visse, Edward; Jansson, Katarina; Dannaeus, Karin; Henriques-Oliveira, Catarina; Roybon, Laurent; Anisimov, Sergey V; Renström, Erik; Svensson, Mikael; Haegerstrand, Anders; Brundin, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels and adjacent cells form perivascular stem cell niches in adult tissues. In this perivascular niche, a stem cell with mesenchymal characteristics was recently identified in some adult somatic tissues. These cells are pericytes that line the microvasculature, express mesenchymal markers and differentiate into mesodermal lineages but might even have the capacity to generate tissue-specific cell types. Here, we isolated, purified and characterized a previously unrecognized progenitor population from two different regions in the adult human brain, the ventricular wall and the neocortex. We show that these cells co-express markers for mesenchymal stem cells and pericytes in vivo and in vitro, but do not express glial, neuronal progenitor, hematopoietic, endothelial or microglial markers in their native state. Furthermore, we demonstrate at a clonal level that these progenitors have true multilineage potential towards both, the mesodermal and neuroectodermal phenotype. They can be epigenetically induced in vitro into adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts but also into glial cells and immature neurons. This progenitor population exhibits long-term proliferation, karyotype stability and retention of phenotype and multipotency following extensive propagation. Thus, we provide evidence that the vascular niche in the adult human brain harbors a novel progenitor with multilineage capacity that appears to represent mesenchymal stem cells and is different from any previously described human neural stem cell. Future studies will elucidate whether these cells may play a role for disease or may represent a reservoir that can be exploited in efforts to repair the diseased human brain. PMID:22523602

  13. Human Service Planning as a Collective Adult Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Joan

    Based on a study by the Department of Community Service Education, Cornell University, to evaluate human service planning (HSP) nationwide, this paper discusses the premises that HSP may be defined as community learning and that the community (according to the Robert Boyd and Jerold Apps model for adult education) is both a beneficiary of and…

  14. [The existence vomeronasal organ in adult humans].

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, Piotr; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Wojdas, Andrzej; Ratajczak, Jan; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    The influence of chemical substances (feromones) on human emotional and physical condition has fascinated psychologists, sexuologists and laryngologists since centurie. Literature conveys inconsistent information on vomeronasal organ (VNO) occurrence in humans. This organ is often called Jacobson's, and 2 symmetrical openings leading into it, located on both sides of septum, are called Ruyasch's ducts. The aim of the study was to analyze vomeronasal organ occurrence in humans in relation to age and sex. The study was conducted in a group of 634 patients, aged 18-80 years. All patients underwent routine ENT examination including rhinoscopy, nasal cavity examination with usage of 2.5x magnification lens (surgical glasses) and surgical microscope with 10x magnification. All persons had nasal cavities examined endoscopically. Every time presence of vomeronasal organ openings, along with localization, size and symmetry of these was noted. Subjects, who presented Jacobson's organ, were asked to fill a questionnaire concerning influence of smells on erotic sensations. Vomeronasal organ was fund in 312 persons, that is 49.21%. In 83.65% of cases vomeronasal organ opening size was smaller than 0.2 mm, what restricted its visibility to usage of magnifying lens, microscope, or endoscope. In 16.34% of cases only vomeronasal organ ducts openings were well visible in routine rhinoscopy without magnification. Vomeronasal organ was found more often in men than women. VNO was significantly more rare in patients with nasal septal deviation. In these cases, vomeronasal organ was usually found unilaterally, in all the cases on the concave side of deviated nasal septum. PMID:18260256

  15. Telocytes of the human adult trigeminal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Cretoiu, Dragos; Vrapciu, Alexandra Diana; Hostiuc, Sorin; Dermengiu, Dan; Manoiu, Vasile Sorin; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria; Mirancea, Nicolae

    2016-06-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are typically defined as cells with telopodes by their ultrastructural features. Their presence was reported in various organs, however little is known about their presence in human trigeminal ganglion. To address this issue, samples of trigeminal ganglia were tested by immunocytochemistry for CD34 and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that TCs are CD34 positive and form networks within the ganglion in close vicinity to microvessels and nerve fibers around the neuronal-glial units (NGUs). TEM examination confirmed the existence of spindle-shaped and bipolar TCs with one or two telopodes measuring between 15 to 53 μm. We propose that TCs are cells with stemness capacity which might contribute in regeneration and repair processes by: modulation of the stem cell activity or by acting as progenitors of other cells present in the normal tissue. In addition, further studies are needed to establish if they might influence the neuronal circuits. PMID:27147447

  16. Double-blind comparison of the respiratory and sedative effects of codeine phosphate and (+/-)-glaucine phosphate in human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Redpath, J B; Pleuvry, B J

    1982-01-01

    1 Two antitussive agents (+/-)-glaucine phosphate and codeine phosphate have been compared with placebo with respect to ventilation, ventilatory response to carbon dioxide, pulse, blood pressure, digit symbol substitution, sedation score and the Zahlen-Verbindung test performance in ten healthy volunteers (22-36 years). The study was double-blind and the two doses of each antitussive agent and the placebo were administered as a syrup. 2 Both codeine phosphate and (+/-)-glaucine phosphate displaced the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide to the right. 3 The effect of codeine phosphate on the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide was not dose dependent: 30 mg produced greater effects than the 60 mg dose. 4 Only the highest dose of (+/-)-glaucine phosphate (60 mg) caused respiratory depression and this was associated with sedation and decreased performance in the digit symbol substitution test. 5 Neither antitussive agent had significant effects upon pulse or blood pressure and codeine phosphate had no detectable sedative activity. PMID:6814470

  17. Human pancreatic polypeptide in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, A; Chalew, S; Kowarski, A A

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of human pancreatic polypeptide may be useful for assessment of gastrointestinal function, integrity of the parasympathetic nervous system or screening for endocrine neoplasia. In adults hPP levels have been reported to increase with age. However hPP levels throughout childhood have not been well characterized in comparison with the adult range. We studied fasting human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) from 45 pediatric patients, from infancy - 15 years, and 18 older adolescents and adults aged 16-45 years. The mean hPP level of children (233 +/- 147 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that (113 +/- 35 pg/ml) of adults (P less than .0001). There was no difference in mean hPP levels of children with normal growth hormone secretion compared to growth hormone deficient patients. There was no effect of gender or body mass index on hPP levels. We conclude that fasting hPP levels must be interpreted with respect to the age of the subject, children particularly, in that preteens may have higher fasting levels than older teenagers and adults. PMID:2307392

  18. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Causes Perturbation of the Human Gut Microbiome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Gan, Han-Ming; Lee, Yin-Peng; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Francois, Fritz; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Loke, Mun-Fai; Goh, Khean-Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori protects against some metabolic and immunological diseases in which the development of these diseases coincide with temporal or permanent dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori eradication on the human gut microbiome. Methods As part of the currently on-going ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths) study, we collected stool samples from 17 H. pylori-positive young adult (18–30 years-old) volunteers. The same cohort was followed up 6, 12 and 18 months-post H. pylori eradication. The impact of H. pylori on the human gut microbiome pre- and post-eradication was investigated using high throughput 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) sequencing using the Illumina Miseq followed by data analysis using Qiime pipeline. Results We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities in the fecal microbiome of the H. pylori-positive volunteers, before and after H. pylori eradication therapy. The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced at an average of 150,000–170,000 reads/sample. The microbial diversity were similar pre- and post-H. pylori eradication with no significant differences in richness and evenness of bacterial species. Despite that the general profile of the gut microbiome was similar pre- and post-eradication, some changes in the bacterial communities at the phylum and genus levels were notable, particularly the decrease in relative abundance of Bacterioidetes and corresponding increase in Firmicutes after H. pylori eradication. The significant increase of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-producing bacteria genera could also be associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders. Conclusions Our preliminary stool metagenomics study shows that eradication of H. pylori caused perturbation of the gut microbiome and may indirectly affect the health of human. Clinicians should be aware of the effect of broad spectrum antibiotics used in H. pylori eradication regimen

  19. Human Adult Cortical Reorganization and Consequent Visual Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Serences, John T.; Rosenau, Benjamin J.; Yantis, Steven; McCloskey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Neural and behavioral evidence for cortical reorganization in the adult somatosensory system after loss of sensory input (e.g., amputation) has been well documented. In contrast, evidence for reorganization in the adult visual system is far less clear: neural evidence is the subject of controversy, behavioral evidence is sparse, and studies combining neural and behavioral evidence have not previously been reported. Here, we report converging behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from a stroke patient (B.L.) in support of cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system. B.L.’s stroke spared the primary visual cortex (V1), but destroyed fibers that normally provide input to V1 from the upper left visual field (LVF). As a consequence, B.L. is blind in the upper LVF, and exhibits distorted perception in the lower LVF: stimuli appear vertically elongated, toward and into the blind upper LVF. For example, a square presented in the lower LVF is perceived as a rectangle extending upward. We hypothesized that the perceptual distortion was a consequence of cortical reorganization in V1. Extensive behavioral testing supported our hypothesis, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) confirmed V1 reorganization. Together, the behavioral and fMRI data show that loss of input to V1 after a stroke leads to cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system, and provide the first evidence that reorganization of the adult visual system affects visual perception. These findings contribute to our understanding of the human adult brain’s capacity to change and has implications for topics ranging from learning to recovery from brain damage. PMID:17804619

  20. Adult human sarcomas. II. Medical oncology.

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2007-02-01

    Human sarcoma cells can be killed by radio- and chemotherapy, but tumor cells acquiring resistance frequently kill the patient. A keen understanding of the intracellular course of oncogenic cascades leads to the discovery of small molecular inhibitors of the involved phosphorylated kinases. Targeted therapy complements chemotherapy. Oncogene silencing is feasible by small interfering RNA. The restoration of some of the mutated or deleted tumor-suppressor genes (p53, Rb, PTEN, hSNF, INK/ARF and WT) by demethylation or reacetylation of their histones has been accomplished. Genetically engineered or naturally oncolytic viruses selectively lyse tumors and leave healthy tissues intact. Adeno- or retroviral vectors deliver genes of immunological costimulators, tumor antigens, chemo- or cytokines and/or tumor-suppressor proteins into tumor (sarcoma) cells. Suicide gene delivery results in apoptosis induction. Genes of enzymes that target prodrugs as their substrates render tumor cells highly susceptible to chemotherapy, with the prodrug to be targeted intracellularly. It will be combinations of sophisticated surgical removal of the nonencapsulated and locally invasive primary sarcomas, advanced forms of radiotherapy to the involved sites and immunotherapy with sarcoma vaccines that will cure primary sarcomas. Adoptive immunotherapy with immune lymphocytes will be operational in metastatic disease only when populations of regulatory T cells are controlled. Targeted therapy with small molecular inhibitors of oncogene cascades, the driving forces of sarcoma cells, alteration of the tumor stroma from a supportive to a tumor-hostile environment, reactivation or replacement of wild-type tumor-suppressor genes, and radio-chemotherapy (with much reduced toxicity) will eventually accomplish the cure of metastatic sarcomas. PMID:17288529

  1. Smart Use of Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissing, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Volunteers pose a special area of concern for child care centers. On one hand, they are indispensable as they donate countless hours of time, energy, and resources. On the other hand, there are challenges to coordinating the efforts of volunteering parents. The use of volunteers has incredible potential for benefit from the center, child, and…

  2. School Volunteer Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Public Television, Madison.

    This guide to implementing a school volunteer program was developed for the 1995 Wisconsin Volunteer-A-Thon project, which was intended to encourage individuals, schools, organizations, and corporations to volunteer time to youth and education. Part 1 contains a timeline for the implementation of the project, a description of how to participate,…

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to evaluate analgesic activity of Terminalia chebula in healthy human volunteers using a mechanical pain model

    PubMed Central

    Pokuri, Venkata Kishan; Kumar, Chiranjeevi Uday; Pingali, Usharani

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: To evaluate analgesic activity and safety of single oral dose (1000 mg) of Terminalia chebula using a mechanical pain model in healthy human volunteers. Material and Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were randomized to receive either single oral dose of 2 capsules of T. chebula 500 mg each or identical placebo capsules in a double-blinded manner. Mechanical pain was assessed using Ugo basile analgesy meter (Randall–Selitto test) before and 3 h after administration of test drug. The parameters evaluated were pain threshold force and time; pain tolerance force and time. A washout period of 1-week was given for crossover between active drug and placebo. Results: Terminalia chebula significantly increased the mean percentage change for pain threshold force and time, and pain tolerance force and time compared to placebo (P < 0.001). The mean percentage change for pain threshold force and time (20.8% and 21.0%) was increased more than that of pain tolerance force and time (13.4% and 13.4%). No adverse drug reaction was reported with either of the study medications during the study period. Conclusion: T. chebula significantly increased pain threshold and pain tolerance compared to placebo. Both the study medications were well tolerated. Further multiple dose studies may be needed to establish the analgesic efficacy of the drug in patients suffering from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other painful conditions. PMID:27625480

  4. GABAergic modulation in central sensitization in humans: a randomized placebo-controlled pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study comparing clobazam with clonazepam in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Besson, Marie; Matthey, Alain; Daali, Youssef; Poncet, Antoine; Vuilleumier, Pascal; Vuillemier, Pascal; Curatolo, Michele; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Desmeules, Jules

    2015-03-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors (GAMs) acting at specific subtypes of GABAA receptors effectively restore compromised spinal pain control in rodents. Studies addressing a similar antihyperalgesic effect in humans are sparse and are hampered by sedative effects of nonselective GAMs available for use in humans. We present results from a randomized controlled double-blind crossover study in 25 healthy volunteers, which addressed potential antihyperalgesic actions of clobazam (CBZ) and clonazepam (CLN) at mildly sedating equianticonvulsive doses. Clobazam was chosen because of its relatively low sedative properties and CLN because of its use in neuropathic pain. Tolterodine (TLT) was used as an active placebo. The primary outcome parameter was a change in the area of cutaneous UVB irradiation-induced secondary hyperalgesia (ASH), which was monitored for 8 hours after drug application. Sedative effects were assessed in parallel to antihyperalgesia. Compared with TLT, recovery from hyperalgesia was significantly faster in the CBZ and CLN groups (P = 0.009). At the time point of maximum effect, the rate of recovery from hyperalgesia was accelerated by CBZ and CLN, relative to placebo by 15.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-30.5), P = 0.040, and 28.6% (95% CI 4.5-52.6), P = 0.022, respectively. Active compounds induced stronger sedation than placebo, but these differences disappeared 8 hours after drug application. We demonstrate here that GAMs effectively reduce central sensitization in healthy volunteers. These results provide proof-of-principle evidence supporting efficacy of GAMs as antihyperalgesic agents in humans and should stimulate further research on compounds with improved subtype specificity. PMID:25687539

  5. No Effects of Acute Exposure to Wi-Fi Electromagnetic Fields on Spontaneous EEG Activity and Psychomotor Vigilance in Healthy Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zentai, Norbert; Csathó, Árpád; Trunk, Attila; Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo; Thuróczy, György; Hernádi, István

    2015-12-01

    Mobile equipment use of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) signal modulation has increased exponentially in the past few decades. However, there is inconclusive scientific evidence concerning the potential risks associated with the energy deposition in the brain from Wi-Fi and whether Wi-Fi electromagnetism interacts with cognitive function. In this study we investigated possible neurocognitive effects caused by Wi-Fi exposure. First, we constructed a Wi-Fi exposure system from commercial parts. Dosimetry was first assessed by free space radiofrequency field measurements. The experimental exposure system was then modeled based on real geometry and physical characteristics. Specific absorption rate (SAR) calculations were performed using a whole-body, realistic human voxel model with values corresponding to conventional everyday Wi-Fi exposure (peak SAR10g level was 99.22 mW/kg with 1 W output power and 100% duty cycle). Then, in two provocation experiments involving healthy human volunteers we tested for two hypotheses: 1. Whether a 60 min long 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi exposure affects the spectral power of spontaneous awake electroencephalographic (sEEG) activity (N = 25); and 2. Whether similar Wi-Fi exposure modulates the sustained attention measured by reaction time in a computerized psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) (N = 19). EEG data were recorded at midline electrode sites while volunteers watched a silent documentary. In the PVT task, button press reaction time was recorded. No measurable effects of acute Wi-Fi exposure were found on spectral power of sEEG or reaction time in the psychomotor vigilance test. These results indicate that a single, 60 min Wi-Fi exposure does not alter human oscillatory brain function or objective measures of sustained attention. PMID:26600173

  6. Perivascular mesenchymal progenitors in human fetal and adult liver.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Over, Patrick; Turner, Morris E; Thompson, Robert L; Foka, Hubert G; Chen, William C W; Péault, Bruno; Gridelli, Bruno; Schmelzer, Eva

    2012-12-10

    The presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been described in various organs. Pericytes possess a multilineage differentiation potential and have been suggested to be one of the developmental sources for MSCs. In human liver, pericytes have not been defined. Here, we describe the identification, purification, and characterization of pericytes in human adult and fetal liver. Flow cytometry sorting revealed that human adult and fetal liver contains 0.56%±0.81% and 0.45%±0.39% of CD146(+)CD45(-)CD56(-)CD34(-) pericytes, respectively. Of these, 41% (adult) and 30% (fetal) were alkaline phosphatase-positive (ALP(+)). In situ, pericytes were localized around periportal blood vessels and were positive for NG2 and vimentin. Purified pericytes could be cultured extensively and had low population doubling times. Immunofluorescence of cultures demonstrated that cells were positive for pericyte and mesenchymal cell markers CD146, NG2, CD90, CD140b, and vimentin, and negative for endothelial, hematopoietic, stellate, muscle, or liver epithelial cell markers von Willebrand factor, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD144, CD326, CK19, albumin, α-fetoprotein, CYP3A7, glial fibrillary acid protein, MYF5, and Pax7 by gene expression; myogenin and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression were variable. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of cultures confirmed surface expression of CD146, CD73, CD90, CD10, CD13, CD44, CD105, and ALP and absence of human leukocyte antigen-DR. In vitro differentiation assays demonstrated that cells possessed robust osteogenic and myogenic, but low adipogenic and low chondrogenic differentiation potentials. In functional in vitro assays, cells had typical mesenchymal strong migratory and invasive activity. In conclusion, human adult and fetal livers harbor pericytes that are similar to those found in other organs and are distinct from hepatic stellate cells. PMID:22931482

  7. Human volunteer study on the inhalational and dermal absorption of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) from the vapour phase.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michael; Wrbitzky, Renate; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Schäper, Michael; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a versatile organic solvent frequently used for surface cleaning such as paint stripping or graffiti removal. Liquid NMP is rapidly absorbed through the skin but dermal vapour phase absorption might also play an important role for the uptake of the solvent. This particular aspect was investigated in an experimental study with 16 volunteers exposed to 80 mg/m(3) NMP for 8 h under either whole-body, i.e. inhalational plus dermal, or dermal-only conditions. Additionally, the influence of moderate physical workload on the uptake of NMP was studied. The urinary concentrations of NMP and its metabolites 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) were followed for 48 h and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Percutaneous uptake delayed the elimination peak times and the apparent biological half-lives of NMP and 5-HNMP. Under resting conditions, dermal-only exposure resulted in the elimination of 71 +/- 8 mg NMP equivalents as compared to 169 +/- 15 mg for whole-body exposure. Moderate workload yielded 79 +/- 8 mg NMP (dermal-only) and 238 +/- 18 mg (whole-body). Thus, dermal absorption from the vapour phase may contribute significantly to the total uptake of NMP, e.g. from workplace atmospheres. As the concentration of airborne NMP does not reflect the body dose, biomonitoring should be carried out for surveillance purposes. PMID:17721780

  8. Pharmacoscintigraphic and pharmacokinetic evaluation on healthy human volunteers of sustained-release floating minitablets containing levodopa and carbidopa.

    PubMed

    Goole, J; Van Gansbeke, B; Pilcer, G; Deleuze, Ph; Blocklet, D; Goldman, S; Pandolfo, M; Vanderbist, F; Amighi, K

    2008-11-19

    In this study, scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted on 10 healthy, fed volunteers. Two concepts of sustained-release floating minitablets--Levo-Form 1 (matrix) and 2 (coated)--were evaluated and compared to the marketed product Prolopa HBS 125. All the floating forms were radiolabelled with (111)In in order to evaluate their gastric residence time using gamma-scintigraphy. It was shown that the three formulations offered almost the same mean gastric residence time, which was about 240 min. Prolopa HBS 125 and Levo-Form 2 presented intragastric disintegration, which can lead to a more pronounced "peak & valley" effect on the plasma concentration-time profile of levodopa. In contrast, the plasma concentration-time profile of levodopa following the administration of Levo-Form 1 was more evenly distributed. Moreover, Levo-Form 1 provided the lowest variations between men and women in terms of AUC and C(max) values. Finally, when the same amount of inhibitors of extracerebral dopa decarboxylase--carbidopa and benserazide--had been administrated, the mean AUC, C(max) and T(max) values obtained for benserazide were lower than those obtained for carbidopa. PMID:18778758

  9. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Zahid Sadek; Morshed, Mohammed Monzur; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Islam, Sardar Mohd Ashraful; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2016-01-01

    Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT) for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected. PMID:27462136

  10. Bioequivalence evaluation of two roxithromycin formulations in healthy human volunteers by high performance liquid cromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Motta, M; Ribeiro, W; Ifa, D R; Moares, M E; Moraes, M O; Corrado, A P; De Nucci, G

    1999-01-01

    The bioequivalence of two different formulations containing roxithromycin (SPE-712-1). Oral suspension 300 mg/15 mL as test formulation and Rotram, tablets 300 mg as reference formulation, both by Schering Plough S.A., Brazil) was evaluated in 24 healthy volunteers of both sexes (12 male and 12 female). The study was conducted open with randomized two-period crossover design and a 14-day washout period. Each subject received 300 mg of each roxithromycin formulation. Plasma samples were obtained over a 72-hour interval and roxithromycin concentrations were analyzed by combined LC-MS/MS with positive ion electrospray ionization using selected ion monitoring method. From the plasma roxithromycin concentration vs time curves the following pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained: AUC(0-72 h), AUC(0-infinity), Cmax, t1/2 ratios and tmax individual differences. The 90% for confidence interval (CI) of geometric mean SPE-712-L/Rotram individual percent ratio were 105.0-128.3% for AUC(0-72 h), and 78.4-96.9 for Cmax. Although this 90% CI were marginally outside the interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration, the probability assessed by the two-one sided West for ratios was included in the 0.8-1.25 interval, as we concluded that SPE-712-L oral suspension formulation was bioequivalent to Rotram tablet formulation for the extent and rate of absorption. PMID:10797866

  11. Lack of immunogenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC12 preparation administered by the oral route to human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Crevel, R W R; Cooper, K J; Poulsen, L K; Hummelshoj, L; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, A W; Sampson, H A

    2007-01-01

    Before a novel protein can be used in foods, its potential allergenicity must be assessed. In this study, healthy volunteers consumed ice structuring protein (ISP) Type III preparation or a control material 5 days a week for a total of 8 weeks. General measures of health were recorded during the study, and the immunogenicity of the protein was assessed by monitoring the levels of IgG and IgE antibodies specific for ISP Type III. The participants remained in good health throughout the study and during the 4 week follow-up period. No IgG or IgE antibodies specific for ISP Type III were detected in the blood of the participants. Investigations of immunogenicity in man have not been previously applied in the context of safety evaluation and they do not form part of the regimens proposed for the evaluation of protein allergenicity. Consequently no standardised protocols exist for such studies, nor any background against which to interpret the results. Nevertheless, the absence of an immune response using a protocol which could have been expected to result in a response with a strongly immunogenic protein, confirms the conclusions of earlier published work, and attests to the lack of allergenicity of ISP Type III preparation. PMID:17027137

  12. Systemic, nasal and oral live vaccines against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a clinical trial of immunogenicity in lower airways of human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bumann, Dirk; Behre, Christoph; Behre, Katharina; Herz, Steffen; Gewecke, Britta; Gessner, J Engelbert; von Specht, Bernd Ulrich; Baumann, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a desirable, yet challenging strategy for prevention of airway infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. We compared the formation of antibodies in lower airways induced by systemic and mucosal vaccination strategies. We immunised 48 volunteers in six vaccination groups with either a systemic, a nasal, or four newly constructed oral live vaccines based on attenuated live Salmonella (strains CVD908 and Ty21a), followed by a systemic booster vaccination. All vaccines were based on a recombinant fusion protein of the highly conserved P. aeruginosa outer membrane proteins OprF and OprI as antigen. While systemic and mucosal vaccines induced a comparable rise of serum antibody titers, a significant rise of IgA and IgG antibodies in the lower airways was noted only after nasal and oral vaccinations. We conclude that nasal and oral OprF-OprI vaccines are promising candidates for development of antipseudomonal immunisation through inducing a specific antibody response in the lung. PMID:19887136

  13. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Zahid Sadek; Morshed, Mohammed Monzur; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful

    2016-01-01

    Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT) for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected. PMID:27462136

  14. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  15. A comparison of the ocular hypotensive effect of 0.025% bromocriptine and 0.25% timolol eye drops in normal human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    al-Sereiti, M R; Coakes, R L; O'Sullivan, D P; Turner, P

    1989-01-01

    1. The ocular hypotensive effect of 0.025% bromocriptine and 0.25% timolol eye drops was compared in nine healthy human volunteers, using non-contact tonometry. 2. Considering all post-dosing measurements compared with placebo and including the baseline values as continuous independent variables, using multiple linear regression analysis, both bromocriptine and timolol had a significant ocular hypotensive effect (P less than 0.0001) in the treated eye with a significant but lesser effect in the contralateral eye. 3. In the concentrations used, timolol was more efficacious than bromocriptine in lowering intraocular pressure (P less than 0.025). 4. Using other forms of vehicles for bromocriptine to improve efficacy and studying the ocular hypotensive effect of topical application of other dopamine-2-receptor agonists such as pergolide and lisuride was suggested. PMID:2590602

  16. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses induced by scarification vaccination of human volunteers with a new lot of the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed Central

    Waag, D M; Galloway, A; Sandstrom, G; Bolt, C R; England, M J; Nelson, G O; Williams, J C

    1992-01-01

    Tularemia is a disease caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. We evaluated a new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine for its immunogenicity in human volunteers. Scarification vaccination induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Indications of a positive immune response after vaccination included an increase in specific antibody levels, which were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblot assays, and the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to whole F. tularensis bacteria as recall antigens. Vaccination caused a significant rise (P less than 0.05) in immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM titers. Lymphocyte stimulation indices were significantly increased (P less than 0.01) in vaccinees 14 days after vaccination. These data verify that this new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine is immunogenic. Images PMID:1400988

  17. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on physical and cardiovascular performance induced by physical stress in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Salve, Bharat A.; Tripathi, Raakhi K.; Petare, Anup U.; Raut, Ashwinikumar A.; Rege, Nirmala N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In Ayurveda Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., has been used for its Rasayana, Deepana, Jwaranashana, Tridosha Shamaka properties. It is an immunomodulator, useful in stress, hyperlipidemia, pyrexia. T. cordifolia was evaluated for adaptogenic activity in healthy volunteers during exercise. Aims: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of T. cordifolia on physical performance, and secondary objectives were to evaluate muscle power, maximal oxygen consumption, and sympathetic activity in comparison with placebo when subjected to physical stress. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty participants were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10 each) namely placebo, TC 150 and TC 300. Placebo group received maize starch capsule, TC 150 and TC 300 received 150 mg and 300 mg, respectively of T. cordifolia aqueous extract in capsule form once daily in the morning for 28 days. The assessment was performed at baseline visit, day 14 and 28. Physical stressors were cycle ergometer exercise, Jammer's hand-held dynamometer, and cold pressor tests. Physical performance evaluated was maximum distance and speed, oxygen consumption (VO2 max), and hand grip strength. Cardiovascular response was assessed by multiple heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measurements during each test. Results: On day 28, TC 150 mg group showed a significant increase in mean maximum speed compared to placebo. On day 14 and 28, TC 300 mg group showed a significant decrease in mean systolic BP (SBP) and HR on fixed workload exercise compared to placebo. There was significant increasing dose effect of both TC groups on SBP on day 14 and 28 and on HR on day 28 only. On day 14 and 28, TC 300 mg showed a significant decrease in mean HR on the cold pressor test, compared to placebo. Conclusion: T. cordifolia improved physical performance and suppressed over activation of the sympathetic nervous system showing its adaptogenic property. PMID:27313412

  18. STUDIES OF ECHOVIRUS-12 IN VOLUNTEERS: DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE AND THE EFFECT OF PREVIOUS INFECTION ON INFECTIOUS DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-part study of echovirus-12 was done in volunteers. In the first part the human infectious dose of the virus was determined in 149 healthy adults with undetectable serum antibody, each of whom drank 0-330,000 plaque-forming units (pfu) of virus in 100 ml of nonchlorinated wa...

  19. Silicon balance in human volunteers; a pilot study to establish the variance in silicon excretion versus intake

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests a role for silicon in optimal connective tissue health. Further proof of its importance/essentiality may be provided by studies involving imposed depletion followed by 29Si challenge to estimate metabolic balance. Prior to conducting these expensive studies, we first established the variance of estimating normal Si excretion versus intake using a single oral dose of typical dietary Si, orthosilicic acid. Methods Healthy volunteers were recruited from Loei Rajabhat University, separated into two matched groups (three males and three females/group) and maintained on a standardized diet for the three study days. One group ingested 500 ml water containing orthosilicic acid (28.9 mg Si) and the other group received 500 ml water alone, all on a fasted stomach. Blood samples and total urine and faeces were collected over the 48 h post-dose period and 24 h before-hand (baseline) and analysed for silicon by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results Serum Si analysis confirmed the ready absorption of silicon from the orthosilicic acid solution. Mean total urinary and faecal Si excretions over the 24 h post-dose period accounted for 57 ± 9.5% and 39 ± 9.4% of the ingested dose, respectively. Thus in total 96.3 ± 5.8% of the ingested dose was recovered in faecal plus urinary excretions over the 24 h post-dose period. Conclusions We report that in healthy subjects (presumably in Si balance), the ingestion of a soluble dose of dietary Si results in the same quantity (within analytical error) being excreted within 24 h. It is currently not known if this all originated from the dose solution or if there was some exchange with the body Si pool but, given the low variance in these silicon balance data, isotopic studies are now merited. PMID:24405738

  20. Broad Blockade Antibody Responses in Human Volunteers after Immunization with a Multivalent Norovirus VLP Candidate Vaccine: Immunological Analyses from a Phase I Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Ferris, Martin T.; Mullan, Clancy W.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Debbink, Kari; Swanstrom, Jesica; Richardson, Charles; Goodwin, Robert R.; Baehner, Frank; Mendelman, Paul M.; Bargatze, Robert F.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human noroviruses (NoVs) are the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis and are characterized by antigenic variation between genogroups and genotypes and antigenic drift of strains within the predominant GII.4 genotype. In the context of this diversity, an effective NoV vaccine must elicit broadly protective immunity. We used an antibody (Ab) binding blockade assay to measure the potential cross-strain protection provided by a multivalent NoV virus-like particle (VLP) candidate vaccine in human volunteers. Methods and Findings Sera from ten human volunteers immunized with a multivalent NoV VLP vaccine (genotypes GI.1/GII.4) were analyzed for IgG and Ab blockade of VLP interaction with carbohydrate ligand, a potential correlate of protective immunity to NoV infection and illness. Immunization resulted in rapid rises in IgG and blockade Ab titers against both vaccine components and additional VLPs representing diverse strains and genotypes not represented in the vaccine. Importantly, vaccination induced blockade Ab to two novel GII.4 strains not in circulation at the time of vaccination or sample collection. GII.4 cross-reactive blockade Ab titers were more potent than responses against non-GII.4 VLPs, suggesting that previous exposure history to this dominant circulating genotype may impact the vaccine Ab response. Further, antigenic cartography indicated that vaccination preferentially activated preexisting Ab responses to epitopes associated with GII.4.1997. Study interpretations may be limited by the relevance of the surrogate neutralization assay and the number of immunized participants evaluated. Conclusions Vaccination with a multivalent NoV VLP vaccine induces a broadly blocking Ab response to multiple epitopes within vaccine and non-vaccine NoV strains and to novel antigenic variants not yet circulating at the time of vaccination. These data reveal new information about complex NoV immune responses to both natural exposure and to vaccination, and

  1. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children. PMID:20032473

  2. Endangered species: volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fitch, J J

    1994-11-01

    Volunteerism in America is changing. To continue to be an effective force in EMS, volunteers need to embrace rather than resist enhanced levels of care and other advances in providing service. Special care must be taken by medical directors to recognize the strengths and limitations of volunteer squads. In many suburban and rural areas, volunteers are strategically located to work with the EMS system and the medical director to bridge geographic or organizational service gaps. PMID:10137716

  3. Effects of rehydration and food consumption on salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity in young adult volunteers during ergometer exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of rehydration and food consumption on salivary flow, pH, and buffering capacity during bicycle ergometer exercise in participants. Methods Ten healthy volunteers exercised on a bicycle ergometer at 80% of their maximal heart rate. These sessions lasted for two periods of 20 min separated by 5-min rest intervals. Volunteers were subjected to one of the following conditions: (1) no water (mineral water) or food consumption, (2) only water for rehydration, (3) water and food consumption, (4) a sports drink only for rehydration, and (5) rehydration with a sports drink and food. Statistical significance was assessed using one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett’s test (p < 0.05). Results The salivary pH decreased significantly during and after exercise in conditions 4 and 5. The salivary buffering capacity decreased significantly during exercise and/or after the exercise in conditions 1, 3, 4, and 5. Conclusions The results showed that salivary pH and buffering capacity decreased greatly depending on the combination of a sports drink and food. PMID:24160307

  4. How long have adult humans been consuming milk?

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Evershed, Richard P; Thomas, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose, and in most mammals, including most humans, lactase activity is down-regulated after the weaning period is completed. However, in about 35% of adults worldwide, lactase continues to be expressed throughout adulthood, a feature termed lactase persistence (LP). Genetic evidence indicates that LP is a recent human adaptation, and its current geographic distribution correlates with the relative historical importance of dairying in different human populations. Investigating archaeological evidence for fresh milk consumption has proved crucial in building an account of the joint evolution of LP and dairying. A powerful technique for investigating food processing, including milk processing, in ancient populations is lipid residue analysis on archaeological pottery. We review here the archaeological and genetic evidence available that have contributed to a better understanding of the gene-culture co-evolution of LP and dairying. PMID:24339181

  5. The Motivation to Volunteer: A Systemic Quality of Life Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shye, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to volunteer motivation research is developed. Instead of asking what motivates the volunteer (accepting "any" conceptual category), we ask to what extent volunteering rewards the individual with each benefit taken from a complete set of possible benefits. As a "complete set of benefits" we use the 16 human functioning modes…

  6. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  7. Relative bioavailability of two 5-mg montelukast sodium chewable tablets: a single dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover comparison in healthy korean adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kim, H T; Song, Y-K; Lee, S D; Park, Y; Kim, C-K

    2012-03-01

    Montelukast sodium, cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 specific antagonist, has been marketed in Korea for the treatment of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a test and reference formulation of montelukast 5-mg chewable tablets in healthy Korean male volunteers to meet KFDA regulatory criteria for marketing of the new generic formulation. This study was designed as a single-dose, 2-treatment, and 2-period crossover trial with 32 healthy volunteers. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive the test (Dong-Kook Montelukast Sodium Chewable Tablet 5 mg®) or reference (Singulair Chewable Tablet 5 mg®) formulation. The tablet was chewed 20 times, and then swallowed with 240 mL of water. Plasma concentrations of montelukast up to 24 h after the dose were determined using a validated UPLC-MS/MS method, and the bioequivalence between the 2 formulations was assessed by statistical analysis of mean ratios of log-transformed AUC0-24 h and Cmax. No period or sequence effects were detected. The AUC0-24 h was 1 835 ng·h/mL for the test formulation, and 1 930 ng·h/mL for the reference formulation. The respective values of AUC0-∞ were 1 917 and 2 015 ng·h/mL. The Cmax of the test and reference products (247 and 283 ng/mL, respectively) reached at 2.25 and 2.72 h, respectively. Then, they gradually decreased with the mean terminal t1/2 of 5.25 and 5.30 h for the test and reference products, respectively. The 90% CIs for the ratio of log-transformed AUC0-24 h and Cmax for the test and reference formulations were 0.92-0.99 and 0.83-0.91, respectively. No adverse events were reported in this study. This single dose study found that the test and reference products met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in these fasting healthy Korean male volunteers. PMID:22407900

  8. Correlation between baseline blood pressure and the brainstem FMRI response to isometric forearm contraction in human volunteers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Coulson, J M; Murphy, K; Harris, A D; Fjodorova, M; Cockcroft, J R; Wise, R G

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown previously that changes in brainstem neural activity correlate with changes in both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG). However, the relationship between baseline MAP and brainstem neural activity is unclear. We investigated changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal induced by SHG in 12 young adults using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). An estimation of the blood pressure response to SHG was obtained in seven subjects during a session outside the MRI scanner and was used to model the blood pressure response to SHG inside the scanner. SHG at 40% of maximum grip increased MAP (mean ± s.d.) at the end of the 180-s squeeze from 85 ± 6 mm Hg to 108 ± 15 mm Hg, P = 0.0001. The brainstem BOLD signal change associated with SHG was localised to the ventrolateral medulla. This regional BOLD signal change negatively correlated with baseline MAP, r = -0.61, P = 0.01. This relationship between baseline MAP and brainstem FMRI responses to forearm contraction is suggestive of a possible role for brainstem activity in the control of MAP and may provide mechanistic insights into neurogenic hypertension. PMID:25391759

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of live recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a expressing urease A and B from Helicobacter pylori in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bumann, D; Metzger, W G; Mansouri, E; Palme, O; Wendland, M; Hurwitz, R; Haas, G; Aebischer, T; von Specht, B U; Meyer, T F

    2001-12-12

    Helicobacter pylori urease was expressed in the common live typhoid vaccine Ty21a yielding Ty21a(pDB1). Nine volunteers received Ty21a(pDB1) and three control volunteers received Ty21a. No serious adverse effects were observed in any of the volunteers. Ten out of 12 volunteers developed humoral immune responses to the Salmonella carrier as detected by antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells but only two volunteers seroconverted. A total of five volunteers showed responses in one or two out of three assays for cellular responses to the carrier (proliferation, IFN-gamma-secretion, IFN-gamma-ELISPOT). Three of the volunteers that had received Ty21a(pDB1) showed a weak but significant T-cell response to Helicobacter urease, while no volunteer had detectable humoral responses to urease. Ty21a(pDB1) is a suitable prototype to optimize Salmonella-based vaccination for efficient cellular responses that could mediate protective immunity against Helicobacter. PMID:11738748

  10. College Students' Volunteering: Factors Related to Current Volunteering, Volunteer Settings, and Motives for Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Erin W.; Warta, Samantha; Erichsen, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Research has not explored the types of settings that college students prefer to volunteer for and how these settings might be influenced by personal factors (e.g., demographic, academic major, volunteering motivation, religiosity). Students from a Midwestern university (N = 406, 71.9% female) completed a survey that inquired about their…

  11. Recruiting Today's Volunteer Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paresky, Susan S.

    1994-01-01

    College and university development officers are encouraged to adjust their expectations of volunteers to the current reality of graduates' schedules and commitments. Five barriers to volunteering (economic, time and distance, language and cultural, environmental, and competitive) are identified, and techniques for overcoming them are offered. (MSE)

  12. Native Son. Vista Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urvant, Ellen; And Others

    The June issue of the Vista Volunteer is devoted to a presentation of the current plight of the American Indian emphasizing the injustice with which the Indian has been treated. Throughout the 5 articles the achievements and efforts of the Vista volunteers working with various Indian tribes are described. Statements by Indian leaders point up the…

  13. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  14. Volunteer Shelter Bed Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    The volunteer shelter bed program development guidelines in this booklet are offered as a community-based alternative to the institutionalization of status offenders. The volunteer shelter bed program is described as a nonsecure residential alternative for status offenders, which can be implemented without the creation of new facilities or the…

  15. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  16. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness (r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores (r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness. PMID:26715354

  17. Comparison of the tolerability of recombinant human hyaluronidase + normal saline and recombinant human hyaluronidase + lactated ringer's solution administered subcutaneously: A phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dychter, Samuel S.; Ebel, David; Mead, Tonya R.; Yocum, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) (150 U) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to facilitate subcutaneous fluid administration in adults and children. Objective: This Phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study was designed to compare the tolerability, flow rate, and safety profile of subcutaneous infusions of normal saline (NS) and lactated Ringer's (LR) solutions following subcutaneous administration of rHuPH20. Methods: Healthy volunteers received 1 mL rHuPH20 (150 U) in each thigh, followed by simultaneous gravity-driven subcutaneous infusions of 500 mL of LR solution into 1 thigh and NS solution into the contralateral thigh. Subjects rated infusion-site discomfort in each thigh using a 100-mm (0 = no pain to 100 = most severe pain) visual analog scale (VAS) at baseline (ie, after catheter placement/ rHuPH20 injection and just prior to the start of the infusions) and at the following times: after infusion of 250 mL, after infusion of 500 mL (end of infusion), and when thigh circumference returned to within 5% of baseline. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. The primary tolerability end point was the maximal increase from baseline in infusion-site discomfort on the VAS. Secondary end points included infusion flow rate, change in thigh circumference, subject preference for leftversus right-thigh infusion, and safety profile measures. Results: Fifteen subjects (14 women, 1 man; mean age, 41 years [range, 20–60 years]) were included in the study. Mean (SD) maximal increase from baseline VAS pain score was significantly greater with NS solution than with LR solution (20.0 [19.4] vs 9.4 [18.3] mm, respectively; P = 0.005). Mean infusion flow rate was not significantly different between the NS and LR solutions (384.1 [118.1] vs 395.8 [132.8] mL/h). No significant differences between solutions were observed in mean maximal change in thigh circumference (5.2% [1.6%] vs 5.3% [1.5%]). All subjects expressed

  18. Recombinant HPA-1a antibody therapy for treatment of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: proof of principle in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Nina; Hawkins, Louise; Grehan, Nicola; Cookson, Philip; Garner, Steve F.; Crisp-Hihn, Abigail; Lloyd-Evans, Paul; Evans, Amanda; Balan, Kottekkattu; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Armour, Kathryn L.; Clark, Mike R.; Williamson, Lorna M.

    2013-01-01

    Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, caused by the maternal generation of antibodies against fetal human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a), can result in intracranial hemorrhage and intrauterine death. We have developed a therapeutic human recombinant high-affinity HPA-1a antibody (B2G1Δnab) that competes for binding to the HPA-1a epitope but carries a modified constant region that does not bind to Fcγ receptors. In vitro studies with a range of clinical anti–HPA-1a sera have shown that B2G1Δnab blocks monocyte chemiluminescence by >75%. In this first-in-man study, we demonstrate that HPA-1a1b autologous platelets (matching fetal phenotype) sensitized with B2G1Δnab have the same intravascular survival as unsensitized platelets (190 hours), while platelets sensitized with a destructive immunoglobulin G1 version of the antibody (B2G1) are cleared from the circulation in 2 hours. Mimicking the situation in fetuses receiving B2G1Δnab as therapy, we show that platelets sensitized with a combination of B2G1 (representing destructive HPA-1a antibody) and B2G1Δnab survive 3 times as long in circulation compared with platelets sensitized with B2G1 alone. This confirms the therapeutic potential of B2G1Δnab. The efficient clearance of platelets sensitized with B2G1 also opens up the opportunity to carry out studies of prophylaxis to prevent alloimmunization in HPA-1a–negative mothers. PMID:23656729

  19. Psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition are attenuated by ketanserin in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Quednow, Boris B; Kometer, Michael; Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-02-01

    The serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related inhibitory gating and behavioral inhibition deficits of schizophrenia patients. The hallucinogen psilocybin disrupts automatic forms of sensorimotor gating and response inhibition in humans, but it is unclear so far whether the 5-HT(2A)R or 5-HT(1A)R agonist properties of its bioactive metabolite psilocin account for these effects. Thus, we investigated whether psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition in healthy humans could be attenuated by the 5-HT(2A/2C)R antagonist ketanserin. A total of 16 healthy participants received placebo, ketanserin (40 mg p.o.), psilocybin (260 μg/kg p.o.), or psilocybin plus ketanserin in a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced order. Sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. The effects on psychopathological core dimensions and behavioral inhibition were assessed by the altered states of consciousness questionnaire (5D-ASC), and the Color-Word Stroop Test. Psilocybin decreased PPI at short lead intervals (30 ms), increased all 5D-ASC scores, and selectively increased errors in the interference condition of the Stroop Test. Stroop interference and Stroop effect of the response latencies were increased under psilocybin as well. Psilocybin-induced alterations were attenuated by ketanserin pretreatment, whereas ketanserin alone had no significant effects. These findings suggest that the disrupting effects of psilocybin on automatic and controlled inhibition processes are attributable to 5-HT(2A)R stimulation. Sensorimotor gating and attentional control deficits of schizophrenia patients might be due to changes within the 5-HT(2A)R system. PMID:21956447

  20. Cohort Programming and Learning: Improving Educational Experiences for Adult Learners. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltiel, Iris M.; Russo, Charline S.

    This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for using the principles of cohort programming and learning to improve adult learners' educational experiences. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) cohort programming and learning (cohort programs defined;…

  1. Assessing Adult Learning: A Guide for Practitioners. Revised Edition. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Joseph J.

    This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for assessing adult learning. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) basic principles of informal assessment (relationship between learning and assessment activities; sequencing learning and assessment…

  2. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flintoft, I. D.; Robinson, M. P.; Melia, G. C. R.; Marvin, A. C.; Dawson, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m2 for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human exposure

  3. Unique multipotent cells in adult human mesenchymal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; Kitada, Masaaki; Wakao, Shohei; Nishikawa, Kouki; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Makinoshima, Hideki; Goda, Makoto; Akashi, Hideo; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Niwa, Akira; Shigemoto, Taeko; Nabeshima, Yoko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Dezawa, Mari

    2010-01-01

    We found adult human stem cells that can generate, from a single cell, cells with the characteristics of the three germ layers. The cells are stress-tolerant and can be isolated from cultured skin fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells, or directly from bone marrow aspirates. These cells can self-renew; form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency; and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. When transplanted into immunodeficient mice by local or i.v. injection, the cells integrated into damaged skin, muscle, or liver and differentiated into cytokeratin 14-, dystrophin-, or albumin-positive cells in the respective tissues. Furthermore, they can be efficiently isolated as SSEA-3(+) cells. Unlike authentic ES cells, their proliferation activity is not very high and they do not form teratomas in immunodeficient mouse testes. Thus, nontumorigenic stem cells with the ability to generate the multiple cell types of the three germ layers can be obtained through easily accessible adult human mesenchymal cells without introducing exogenous genes. These unique cells will be beneficial for cell-based therapy and biomedical research. PMID:20421459

  4. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  5. Who's in Charge Here? The Administrative Challenges of Being a Volunteer Board Member for a Community-Based Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Marion

    2006-01-01

    A 2003 qualitative study examined the perspectives of 70 stakeholders in two adult literacy programs in Manitoba, Canada. Two stakeholders were Literacy Working Group (LWG) chairpersons, who held administrative positions akin to public school boards. Of particular significance to these administrators were issues related to program coordination,…

  6. Protective effects of a new phloretin derivative against UVB-induced damage in skin cell model and human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Kum, Hyunwoo; Ryu, Dehun; Kim, Minkyung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic compound phloretin is a prominent member of the chemical class of dihydrochalcones. Phloretin is specifically found in apple and apple juice and known for its biological properties. We were particularly interested in its potential dermo-cosmetic applications. However, practical limitations of phloretin do exist due to its poor water-solubility. Phloretin was sulfonated with sulfuric acid (98%, wt) and mixed with saturated salt water to produce phloretin 3',3-disulfonate in order to increase its water-solubility. Here we reported the photoprotective effect of phloretin 3',3-disulfonate (PS), a new semi-synthetic derivative of phloretin. Results showed that PS attenuated cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPDs) formation, glutathione (GSH) depletion and apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B (UVB). The photoprotective effect of PS is tightly correlated to the enhancement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene expression. Furthemore, PS had inhibitory effects on UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of PS on human skin. Overall, the results demonstrated significant benefits of PS on the protection of keratinocytes against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection. PMID:25334063

  7. Protective Effects of a New Phloretin Derivative against UVB-Induced Damage in Skin Cell Model and Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Kum, Hyunwoo; Ryu, Dehun; Kim, Minkyung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic compound phloretin is a prominent member of the chemical class of dihydrochalcones. Phloretin is specifically found in apple and apple juice and known for its biological properties. We were particularly interested in its potential dermo-cosmetic applications. However, practical limitations of phloretin do exist due to its poor water-solubility. Phloretin was sulfonated with sulfuric acid (98%, wt) and mixed with saturated salt water to produce phloretin 3',3-disulfonate in order to increase its water-solubility. Here we reported the photoprotective effect of phloretin 3',3-disulfonate (PS), a new semi-synthetic derivative of phloretin. Results showed that PS attenuated cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPDs) formation, glutathione (GSH) depletion and apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B (UVB). The photoprotective effect of PS is tightly correlated to the enhancement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene expression. Furthemore, PS had inhibitory effects on UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of PS on human skin. Overall, the results demonstrated significant benefits of PS on the protection of keratinocytes against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection. PMID:25334063

  8. Odor Thresholds and Breathing Changes of Human Volunteers as Consequences of Sulphur Dioxide Exposure Considering Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    SchäPer, Michael; Juran, Stephanie A; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Zimmermann, Anna; BrüNing, Thomas; Van Thriel, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Though sulfur dioxide (SO2) is used widely at workplaces, itseffects on humans are not known. Thresholds are reported without reference to gender or age and occupational exposure limits are basedon effects on lung functioning,although localized effects in the upper airways can be expected.This study's aim is to determine thresholds with respect to age and gender and suggests a new approach to risk assessment using breathing reflexes presumably triggered by trigeminal receptors in the upper airways. Methods Odor thresholds were determined by the ascending method of limits in groups stratified by age and gender.Subjects rated intensities of different olfactory and trigeminal perceptions at different concentrations of SO2. During the presentation of the concentrations, breathing movements were measured by respiratory inductive plethysmography. Results Neither age nor gender effects were observed for odor threshold. Only ratings of nasal irritation were influenced bygender. A benchmark dose analysis on relative respiratory depth revealed a 10%-deviation from baseline at about 25.27 mg/m3. Conclusion The proposed new approach to risk assessment appearsto be sustainable. We discuss whether a 10%-deviation of breathingdepth is relevant. PMID:22953220

  9. Influence of menthol and pressure-sensitive adhesives on the in vivo performance of membrane-moderated transdermal therapeutic system of nicardipine hydrochloride in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Y S R; Satyanarayana, V; Bhaskar, P

    2003-05-01

    A membrane-moderated transdermal therapeutic system of nicardipine hydrochloride was developed using 2% w/w hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) gel as a reservoir system containing 5% w/w of menthol as a penetration enhancer. The permeability flux of nicardipine hydrochloride through the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer membrane was found to increase with an increase in vinyl acetate content in the copolymer. The effect of various pressure-sensitive adhesives (MA-31, MA-38 or TACKWHITE A 4MED on the permeability of nicardipine hydrochloride through EVA 2825 membrane (28% w/w vinyl acetate) or EVA 2825 membrane/skin composite was also studied. The results showed that nicardipine hydrochloride permeability through EVA 2825 membrane coated with TACKWHITE A 4MED/skin composite was higher than that coated with MA-31 or MA-38. Thus, a new transdermal therapeutic system for nicardipine hydrochloride was formulated using EVA 2825 membrane coated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive TACKWHITE A 4MED, and 2% w/w HPC gel as reservoir containing 5% w/w of menthol as a penetration enhancer. In vivo studies in healthy human volunteers indicated that the TTS of nicardipine hydrochloride, designed in the present study, provided steady-state plasma concentration of the drug with minimal fluctuations for 26h with improved bioavailability in comparison with the immediate release capsule dosage form. PMID:12754008

  10. Determination of lansoprazole in human plasma by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application to a bioequivalence study on Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Lan; Zhou, Hui-Li; Shentu, Jian-Zhong; He, Qiao-Jun; Yang, Bo

    2008-12-15

    A simple, sensitive and rapid LC/MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of lansoprazole in human plasma. After a simple sample preparation procedure by one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile, lansoprazole and the internal standard bicalutamide were chromatographed on a Zorbax SB-C(18) (3.0 mm x 150 mm, 3.5 microm, Agilent) column with the mobile phase consisted of methanol-water (70:30, v/v, containing 5 mM ammonium formate, pH was adjusted to 7.85 by 1% ammonia solution). Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via negative eletrospray ionization source (ESI(-)). The lower limit of quantification was 5.5 ng/mL, and the assay exhibited a linear range of 5.5-2200.0 ng/mL. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the bioequivalence between two kinds of preparation (test vs. reference product) in twenty-eight healthy male Chinese volunteers. PMID:19019616

  11. Identification of a human HLA-E-restricted CD8+ T cell subset in volunteers immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a typhoid vaccine.

    PubMed

    Salerno-Gonçalves, Rosângela; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Lewinsohn, David M; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2004-11-01

    Our previous studies in volunteers immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) have suggested an important role for CD8+ T cells in host defense. In this study we describe a novel subset of nonclassical human HLA-E-restricted S. Typhi-specific CD8+ T cells derived from PBMC of Ty21a typhoid vaccinees. CD3+CD8+CD4-CD56- T cells effectively killed S. Typhi-infected targets regardless of whether they share classical HLA class I molecules with them, by a FAS-independent, granule-dependent mechanism, as evidenced by induction of granzyme B release and the blocking effects of concanamycin and strontium ions. The expression of HLA-E Ags, but not CD1-a, -b, or -c, on the membrane of S. Typhi-infected targets rendered them susceptible to lysis. Moreover, anti-HLA-E Abs partially blocked these responses. We also demonstrated that presentation of S. Typhi Ags via HLA-E could stimulate IFN-gamma production. Increases in the net frequency of IFN-gamma spot-forming cells were observed in the presence of targets coated with peptides that contain S. Typhi GroEL HLA-E binding motifs. These results demonstrate that HLA-E binds nonamer peptides derived from bacterial proteins and trigger CD8+-mediated lysis and IFN-gamma production when exposed to infected targets, raising the possibility that this novel effector mechanism might contribute to host defense against intracellular bacterial infections. PMID:15494539

  12. A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of pinaverium bromide in human plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jin-Min; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Chuan-Ping; Sun, Qian; Yin, Li-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Qing

    2011-12-01

    A sensitive and specific method using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of pinaverium bromide in human plasma was developed and validated. Pinaverium bromide and an internal standard (paclitaxel) were isolated from plasma samples by precipitating plasma, and determined by LC-MS/MS in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The main metabolite of pinaverium bromide and endogenous substances in plasma did not show any interference. The calibration curve was linear over the plasma concentration range of 10.0-10000.0 pg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9979. The relative standard derivations intra- and inter-day at 30.0, 300.0 and 8000.0 pg/mL in plasma were less than 15%. The absolute recoveries of pinaverium bromide and the internal standard were 99.7-111.7 and 106.2%, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation was 10 pg/mL. The analytical method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of pinaverium bromide tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:21308709

  13. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of lercanidipine in human plasma and its application in a bioequivalence study in Chinese healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobing; Shi, Fuguo; He, Xiaojing; Jian, Lingyan; Ding, Li

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of lercanidipine (LER) in human plasma. The plasma sample was deproteinized with methanol after addition of diazepam (internal standard, IS) and separated on a 38°C Hedera ODS-2 analytical column with a mobile phase of methanol and 5mM ammonium acetate buffer solution containing 0.1% formic acid at an isocratic flow rate of 400μL/min. The detection was performed on an API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ESI mode. Quantification was conducted by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions of m/z 612.2→280.2 for LER and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS, respectively. The method exhibited high sensitivity (LLOQ of 0.015ng/mL) and good linearity over the concentration range of 0.015-8.0ng/mL. No matrix effect and carry-over effect were observed. The values on both the occasions (intra- and inter-day) were all within 15% at three concentration levels. This robust method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LER in 59 healthy male Chinese volunteers after a single oral administration of 10mg LER. PMID:27232153

  14. A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the hemagglutinin globular head of H1 and H9 influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Panthong, Sumolrat; Koksunan, Sarawut; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Phuygun, Siripaporn; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Prachasupap, Apichai; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Yasugi, Mayo; Ono, Ken-Ichiro; Arai, Yasuha; Kurosu, Takeshi; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Yohei

    2014-09-26

    Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses. PMID:25204499

  15. Language Learning Strategies for Peace Corps Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleppegrell, Mary; Oxford, Rebecca

    The handbook, designed for Peace Corps volunteers but adaptable for other adult learners, offers ideas about how to improve one's own language learning through effective learning strategies. The handbook intended as a reference, not a text, for when the learner becomes discouraged with his rate of progress, is progressing well but looking for new…

  16. Human Dosimetry and Preliminary Tumor Distribution of 18F-Fluoropaclitaxel in Healthy Volunteers and Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients Using PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Kurdziel, Karen A.; Kalen, Joseph D.; Hirsch, Jerry I.; Wilson, John D.; Bear, Harry D.; Logan, Jean; McCumisky, James; Moorman-Sykes, Kathy; Adler, Stephen; Choyke, Peter L.

    2011-01-01

    18F-fluoropaclitaxel is a radiolabeled form of paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapy agent. Preclinical data suggest that 18F-fluoropaclitaxel may be a reasonable surrogate for measuring the uptake of paclitaxel. As a substrate of P-glycoprotein, a drug efflux pump associated with multidrug resistance, 18F-fluoropaclitaxel may also be useful in identifying multidrug resistance and predicting tumor response for drugs other than paclitaxel. Methods After informed consent was obtained, 3 healthy volunteers and 3 patients with untreated breast cancer (neoadjuvant chemotherapy candidates, tumor size > 2 cm) received an intravenous infusion of 18F-fluoropaclitaxel and then underwent PET/CT. Healthy volunteers underwent serial whole-body imaging over an approximately 3-h interval, and organ 18F residence times were determined from the time–activity curves uncorrected for decay to determine dosimetry. Radiation dose estimates were calculated using OLINDA/EXM software. For breast cancer patients, dynamic imaging of the primary tumor was performed for 60 min, followed by static whole-body scans at 1 and 2 h after injection. Results Dosimetry calculations showed that the gallbladder received the highest dose (229.50 μGy/MBq [0.849 rad/mCi]), followed by the small and large intestines (161.26 μGy/MBq [0.597 rad/mCi] and 184.59 μGy/MBq [0.683 rad/mCi]). The resultant effective dose was 28.79 μGy/MBq (0.107 rem/mCi). At approximately 1 h after injection, an average of 42% of the decay-corrected activity was in the gastrointestinal system, with a mean of 0.01% in the tumor. All 3 breast cancer patients showed retention of 18F-fluoropaclitaxel and ultimately demonstrated a complete pathologic response (no invasive cancer in the breast or axillary nodes) to chemotherapy that included a taxane (either paclitaxel or docetaxel) at surgical resection. The tumor-to-background ratio increased with time to a maximum of 7.7 at 20 min. Conclusion This study demonstrates the

  17. Human Dosimetry and Preliminary Tumor Distribution of (superscript)18F-Fluoropaclitaxel in Healthy Volunteers and Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients Using PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdziel, K.A.; Logan, J.; Kurdziel, K.A.; Kalen, J.D.; Hirsch, J.I.; Wilson, J.D.; Bear, H.D.; Logan, J.; McCumisky, J.; Moorman-Sykes, K.; Adler, S.; Choyke, P.L.

    2011-08-17

    {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel is a radiolabeled form of paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapy agent. Preclinical data suggest that {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel may be a reasonable surrogate for measuring the uptake of paclitaxel. As a substrate of P-glycoprotein, a drug efflux pump associated with multidrug resistance, {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel may also be useful in identifying multidrug resistance and predicting tumor response for drugs other than paclitaxel. After informed consent was obtained, 3 healthy volunteers and 3 patients with untreated breast cancer (neoadjuvant chemotherapy candidates, tumor size > 2 cm) received an intravenous infusion of {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel and then underwent PET/CT. Healthy volunteers underwent serial whole-body imaging over an approximately 3-h interval, and organ {sup 18}F residence times were determined from the time-activity curves uncorrected for decay to determine dosimetry. Radiation dose estimates were calculated using OLINDA/EXM software. For breast cancer patients, dynamic imaging of the primary tumor was performed for 60 min, followed by static whole-body scans at 1 and 2 h after injection. Dosimetry calculations showed that the gallbladder received the highest dose (229.50 {mu}Gy/MBq [0.849 rad/mCi]), followed by the small and large intestines (161.26 {mu}Gy/MBq [0.597 rad/mCi] and 184.59 {mu}Gy/MBq [0.683 rad/mCi]). The resultant effective dose was 28.79 {mu}Gy/MBq (0.107 rem/mCi). At approximately 1 h after injection, an average of 42% of the decay-corrected activity was in the gastrointestinal system, with a mean of 0.01% in the tumor. All 3 breast cancer patients showed retention of {sup 18}F-fluoropaclitaxel and ultimately demonstrated a complete pathologic response (no invasive cancer in the breast or axillary nodes) to chemotherapy that included a taxane (either paclitaxel or docetaxel) at surgical resection. The tumor-to-background ratio increased with time to a maximum of 7.7 at 20 min. This study

  18. 28 CFR 115.32 - Volunteer and contractor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Volunteer and contractor training. 115.32 Section 115.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.32 Volunteer...

  19. 28 CFR 115.32 - Volunteer and contractor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Volunteer and contractor training. 115.32 Section 115.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.32 Volunteer...

  20. 28 CFR 115.32 - Volunteer and contractor training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volunteer and contractor training. 115.32 Section 115.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.32 Volunteer...

  1. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rios, Jolian; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Pacheco-Palencia, Lisbeth A; Meibohm, Bernd; Talcott, Stephen T; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2008-09-10

    The acai berry is the fruit of the acai palm and is traditionally consumed in Brazil but has gained popularity abroad as a food and functional ingredient, yet little information exists on its health effect in humans. This study was performed as an acute four-way crossover clinical trial with acai pulp and clarified acai juice compared to applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage as controls. Healthy volunteers (12) were dosed at 7 mL/kg of body weight after a washout phase and overnight fast, and plasma was repeatedly sampled over 12 h and urine over 24 h after consumption. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of total anthocyanins quantified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside showed Cmax values of 2321 and 1138 ng/L at t max times of 2.2 and 2.0 h, and AUC last values of 8568 and 3314 ng h L(-1) for pulp and juice, respectively. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling identified dose volume as a significant predictor of relative oral bioavailability in a negative nonlinear relationship for acai pulp and juice. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased by the acai pulp and applesauce. Individual increases in plasma antioxidant capacity of up to 2.3- and 3-fold for acai juice and pulp, respectively were observed. The antioxidant capacity in urine, generation of reactive oxygen species, and uric acid concentrations in plasma were not significantly altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate the absorption and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in acai in plasma in an acute human consumption trial. PMID:18693743

  2. Effect of food intake and co-administration of placebo self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems on the absorption of cinnarizine in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Jacobsen, Jette; Kristensen, Jakob; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Müllertz, Anette

    2016-03-10

    Positive food effects may be observed for low aqueous soluble compounds, these effects could potentially be circumvented using lipid based formulations. However, as all compounds are not chemically stable in lipid based systems, alternative dosage regimes could be investigated to evade the stability issue. The two aims for this present study were therefore; i) to investigate if a nutritional drink, Fresubin Energy®, could induce food effect in humans for the poorly soluble compound cinnarizine; and ii) to investigate if co-administration of a self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) with a conventional cinnarizine tablet could reduce the observed food-effect. A commercial conventional cinnarizine tablet was dosed to 10 healthy volunteers in a cross-over design in both fasted and fed state, with and without co-administration of a SNEDDS, with a one week wash-out period between dosing. The fed state was induced using a nutritional drink (Fresubin Energy®) and gastric emptying was assessed by administration of paracetamol as a marker. The pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the nutritional drink delayed the uptake and increased the fraction of absorbed cinnarizine, indicative of a food effect on the compound. This was in agreement with a previous dog study and indicates that the nutritional drink can be used for inducing the same level of food effect in humans. Though not statistically significant, the co-administration of SNEDDS exhibited a tendency towards a reduction of the observed food effect and an increased absorption of cinnarizine in the fasted state; based upon the individual ratios, which was not reflected in the mean data. However, the co-administration of SNEEDS in the fasted state, also induce a slower gastric emptying rate, which was observed as a delayed tmax for both cinnarizine and paracetamol. PMID:26775868

  3. Call to volunteer.

    PubMed

    Pati, Anita

    Volunteers can contribute a great deal to people receiving health or social care. Some of the quirky activities they offer are contact with owls and the provision of arts and crafts materials. PMID:19323106

  4. The Biomechanics of the Pediatric and Adult Human Thoracic Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Lau, Sabrina; Riley, Patrick; Lamp, John; Kent, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature points out the relevance of the thoracic spine dynamics in understanding the thorax-restraint interaction as well as in determining the kinematics of the head and cervical spine. This study characterizes the dynamic response in bending of eight human spinal specimens (4 pediatric: ages 7 and 15 years, 4 adult: ages 48 and 52 years) from two sections along the thoracic spine (T2–T4 and T7–T9). Each specimen consisted of three vertebral bodies connected by the corresponding intervertebral discs. All ligaments were preserved in the preparation with the exception of the inter-transverse ligament. Specimens were exposed to a series of five dynamic bending ramp-and-hold tests with varying amplitudes at a nominal rate of 2 rad/s. After this battery of tests, failure experiments were conducted. The 7-year-old specimen showed the lowest tolerance to a moment (T2–T4: 12.1 Nm; T7–T9: 11.6 Nm) with no significant reduction of the relative rotation between the vertebrae. The 15-year-old failure tolerance was comparable to that of the adult specimens. Failure of the adult specimens occurred within a wide range at the T2–T4 thoracic section (23.3 Nm- 53.0 Nm) while it was circumscribed to the interval 48.3 Nm-52.5 Nm for the T7–T9 section. The series of dynamic ramp-and-hold were used to assess two different scaling methods (mass scaling and SAE scaling). Neither method was able to capture the stiffness, peak moment and relaxation characteristics exhibited by the pediatric specimens. PMID:22105396

  5. Measuring the Impacts of a Volunteer-Based Community Development Program in Developing Volunteers' Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…

  6. Community Volunteer Service Act of 1983. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on S. 1129.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These Congressional hearings contain testimony pertaining to the passage of the Community Volunteer Service Act of 1983. This bill would amend the Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) program to provide a more concrete mandate for the program; would have VISTA volunteers recruited locally and assigned to projects to alleviate poverty and…

  7. Simultaneous determination of rupatadine and its metabolite desloratadine in human plasma by a sensitive LC-MS/MS method: application to the pharmacokinetic study in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Hong, Zhanying; Wu, Yiwen; Wei, Hua; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Yutian

    2009-02-20

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of rupatadine and its metabolite desloratadine in human plasma. After the addition of diphenhydramine, the internal standard (IS), plasma samples were extracted with a mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-hexane (1:1, v/v). The analysis was performed on a Ultimate AQ-C18 (4.6mm x 100mm, 5microm) column using a mobile phase consisting of a 80/20 mixture of methanol/water containing 0.0005% formic acid pumped at 0.3mlmin(-1). The analytes and the IS were detected in positive ionization mode and monitoring their precursor-->product ion combinations of m/z 416-->309, 311-->259, and 256-->167, respectively, in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linear ranges of the assay were 0.1-50 and 0.1-20ngml(-1) for rupatadine and desloratadine, respectively. The lower limits of reliable quantification for both rupatadine and desloratadine were 0.1ngml(-1), which offered high sensitivity and selectivity. The within- and between-run precision was less than 7.2%. The accuracy ranged from -9.2% to +6.4% and -7.2% to +7.2% for rupatadine and desloratadine in quality control samples at three levels, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of rupatadine and its major metabolite after oral administration of 10, 20 and 40mg rupatadine tablets to healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:19059745

  8. Effects of red grape juice consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B and homocysteine in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad H; Rasmi, Yousef; Ramezani, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    It has suggested that grape juice consumption has lipid- lowering effect and it is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red grape juice (RGj) consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in healthy human volunteers. Twenty six healthy and nonsmoking males, aged between 25-60 years, who were under no medication asked to consume 150 ml of RGj twice per day for one month. Serum HDL-C, apoAI, apoB and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after one month RGj consumption. HDL-C levels after RGj consumption were significantly higher than the corresponding levels before the RGj consumption (41.44 ± 4.50 and 44.37 ± 4.30 mg/dl; P<0.0001). Also, apoB was significantly increased after RGj consumption (149.0 ± 22.35 and 157.19 ± 18.60 mg/dl; P<0.002). But apoAI levels were not changed significantly before and after of RGj consumption (154.27 ± 21.55 and 155.35 ± 21.07 mg/dl; P>0.05). Hcy levels were decreased after RGj consumption (7.70 ± 2.80 and 6.20 ± 2.30 µmol/l; P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that RGj consumption can significantly increase serum HDL-C levels and decrease Hcy levels. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals. PMID:21633724

  9. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers?

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R

    2016-03-01

    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers. PMID:25422517

  10. Human herpesvirus 7 is a constitutive inhabitant of adult human saliva.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, L S; Frenkel, N

    1992-01-01

    We report the frequent isolation of human herpesvirus 7 from the saliva of healthy adults. Virus isolates recovered from different individuals exhibited minimal restriction enzyme polymorphism, which was mostly confined to heterogeneous (het) sequences in the genome. DNAs of isolates recovered from the same individual over a period of several months showed the same characteristic het fragments, indicating the stability of the het sequences upon virus replication and shedding in vivo. In contrast to the results of previous reports, human herpesvirus 6, the causative agent of roseola infantum, could not be isolated from the saliva specimens, raising questions regarding oral transmission of human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 to young children. Images PMID:1348548

  11. Exchange delays and impulsive choice in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Hyten, C; Madden, G J; Field, D P

    1994-09-01

    Choice responding by adult humans in a discrete-trial task was examined as a function of conditions that manipulated either the delay to point delivery or the delay between points and their exchange for money. In point-delay conditions, subjects chose between an "impulsive" alternative that provided a small amount of points immediately and a "self-control" alternative that provided a larger amount of points delayed by 15, 30, or 60 s. Points were exchanged for money immediately following the session. Subjects preferred the self-control alternative. In exchange-delay conditions, subjects chose between a small amount of points exchangeable for money immediately following the session and a larger amount of points exchangeable for money after 1 day, 3 weeks, or 6 weeks. A self-control preference observed for all subjects in the 1-day exchange-delay condition reversed to exclusive impulsive preference for 4 of the 6 subjects when choice conditions involved exchange delays of 3 or 6 weeks. These results show that human choice is sensitive to the manipulation of exchange delays and that impulsive preference can be obtained with exchange delays on the order of weeks. PMID:7964366

  12. Simultaneous characterization of progenitor cell compartments in adult human liver.

    PubMed

    Porretti, Laura; Cattaneo, Alessandra; Colombo, Federico; Lopa, Raffaella; Rossi, Giorgio; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Battiston, Carlo; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Bertolini, Francesco; Rebulla, Paolo; Prati, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The human liver is a complex tissue consisting of epithelial, endothelial, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal elements that probably derive from multiple lineage-committed progenitors, but no comprehensive study aimed at identifying and characterizing intrahepatic precursors has yet been published. Cell suspensions for this study were obtained by enzymatic digestion of liver specimens taken from 20 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 multiorgan donors. Stem and progenitor cells were first isolated, amplified, and characterized ex vivo according to previously validated methods, and then optimized flow cytometry was used to assess their relative frequencies and characterize their immunophenotypes in the clinical specimens. Stem and progenitor cells committed to hematopoietic, endothelial, epithelial, and mesenchymal lineages were clearly identifiable in livers from both healthy and diseased subjects. Within the mononuclear liver cell compartment, epithelial progenitors [epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)(+)/CD49f(+)/CD29(+)/CD45(-)] accounted for 2.7-3.5% whereas hematopoietic (CD34(+)/CD45(+)), endothelial [vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (KDR)(+)/CD146(+)/CD45(-)], and mesenchymal [CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD90 (Thy-1)(+)/CD45 (-)] stem cells and progenitors accounted for smaller fractions (0.02-0.6%). The patients' livers had higher percentages of hematopoietic and endothelial precursors than those of the donors. In conclusion, we identified and characterized precursors committed to four different lineages in adult human liver. We also optimized a flow cytometry approach that will be useful in exploring the contribution of these cells to the pathogenesis of liver disease. PMID:19960544

  13. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.

  14. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less

  15. Ossified Ligamentum Longitudinale Anterius in Adult Human Dry Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Venumadhav, Nelluri; KS, Siddaraju

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ligamentum longitudinale anterius is a broad and strong band of fibrous tissue that runs along the anterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae. Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius in adult dry human vertebra. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 95 sets of dry human vertebral columns irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery- Calicut, India. All the sets of vertebral columns were macroscopically inspected for the ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius. Results: It was observed that out of 95 sets of vertebral columns, 27 (28.42%) vertebral columns showed ossification. Out of 27 vertebral columns, 17 (17.89%) vertebral columns showed segmental type of ossification, 2 (2.11%) vertebral columns showed continuous type of ossification and 8 (8.42%) vertebral columns showed mixed type of ossification at different vertebral level. Conclusion: Such type of ossification will affect the biomechanics of the spine and may result in stiff neck, low back pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, compression of the brachial plexus, aphonia, immobility or mucosal thickening of larynx. Hence, knowledge of such abnormalities should be kept in mind to minimise serious complications in any surgical intervention or investigative procedures in the region. PMID:25302180

  16. Professional Fulfillment and Satisfaction of US and Canadian Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shari L.; Wiesenberg, Faye

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study explored the professional fulfillment and job satisfaction of US and Canadian college and university faculty in the fields of Adult Education and Human Resource Development. In Autumn 2001, we disseminated electronically "The Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty Survey" to a selected sample of Canadian and…

  17. Vaccine adjuvant systems containing monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 induce strong and persistent humoral and T cell responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vandepapelière, Pierre; Horsmans, Yves; Moris, Philippe; Van Mechelen, Marcelle; Janssens, Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Van Belle, Pascale; Clement, Frédéric; Hanon, Emmanuel; Wettendorff, Martine; Garçon, Nathalie; Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2008-03-01

    A randomised, double-blind study assessing the potential of four adjuvants in combination with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen has been conducted to evaluate humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in healthy adults after three vaccine doses at months 0, 1 and 10. Three Adjuvant Systems (AS) contained 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and QS21, formulated either with an oil-in-water emulsion (AS02B and AS02V) or with liposomes (AS01B). The fourth adjuvant was CpG oligonucleotide. High levels of antibodies were induced by all adjuvants, whereas cell-mediated immune responses, including cytolytic T cells and strong and persistent CD4(+) T cell response were mainly observed with the three MPL/QS21-containing Adjuvant Systems. The CD4(+) T cell response was characterised in vitro by vigorous lymphoproliferation, high IFN-gamma and moderate IL-5 production. Antigen-specific T cell immune response was further confirmed ex vivo by detection of IL-2- and IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells, and in vivo by measuring increased levels of IFN-gamma in the serum and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. The CpG adjuvanted vaccine induced consistently lower immune responses for all parameters. All vaccine adjuvants were shown to be safe with acceptable reactogenicity profiles. The majority of subjects reported local reactions at the injection site after vaccination while general reactions were recorded less frequently. No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Importantly, no increase in markers of auto-immunity and allergy was detected over the whole study course. In conclusion, the Adjuvant Systems containing MPL/QS21, in combination with hepatitis B surface antigen, induced very strong humoral and cellular immune responses in healthy adults. The AS01B-adjuvanted vaccine induced the strongest and most durable specific cellular immune responses after two doses. These Adjuvant Systems, when added to recombinant protein antigens, can be

  18. Plasmodium vivax Sporozoite Challenge in Malaria-Naïve and Semi-Immune Colombian Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Forero-Peña, David A.; Rubiano, Kelly; Gómez-Hincapie, José; Martínez, Nora L.; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Castellanos, Angélica; Céspedes, Nora; Palacios, Ricardo; Oñate, José Millán; Herrera, Sócrates

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant progress has been recently achieved in the development of Plasmodium vivax challenge infections in humans, which are essential for vaccine and drug testing. With the goal of accelerating clinical development of malaria vaccines, the outcome of infections experimentally induced in naïve and semi-immune volunteers by infected mosquito bites was compared. Methods Seven malaria-naïve and nine semi-immune Colombian adults (n = 16) were subjected to the bites of 2–4 P. vivax sporozoite-infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasitemia levels, malaria clinical manifestations, and immune responses were assessed and compared. Results All volunteers developed infections as confirmed by microscopy and RT-qPCR. No significant difference in the pre-patent period (mean 12.5 and 12.8 days for malaria-naïve and malaria-exposed, respectively) was observed but naïve volunteers developed classical malaria signs and symptoms, while semi-immune volunteers displayed minor or no symptoms at the day of diagnosis. A malaria-naïve volunteer developed a transient low submicroscopic parasitemia that cured spontaneously. Infection induced an increase in specific antibody levels in both groups. Conclusion Sporozoite infectious challenge was safe and reproducible in semi-immune and naïve volunteers. This model will provide information for simultaneous comparison of the protective efficacy of P. vivax vaccines in naïve and semi-immune volunteers under controlled conditions and would accelerate P. vivax vaccine development. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01585077 PMID:24963662

  19. Kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae elimination from the intestines of human volunteers and effect of this yeast on resistance to microbial colonization in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pecquet, S; Guillaumin, D; Tancrede, C; Andremont, A

    1991-01-01

    When healthy volunteers were given a daily dose of 3 x 10(8) life-dehydrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for 5 days, the volunteers excreted 10(5) living yeast cells per g of feces at first, but the yeast cells disappeared within 5 days of the end of treatment. In gnotobiotic mice, S. cerevisiae administered alone colonized the intestinal tract but did not interfere with previous or subsequent colonization by a variety of potentially enteropathogenic microorganisms. When these microorganisms were present, the intestinal counts of S. cerevisiae were greatly reduced. PMID:1746964

  20. The Adult Learner. The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Malcolm S.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Swanson, Richard A.

    This book examines the core principles of adult learning and the roots of andragogy, advances in adult learning, and practice in adult learning. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 17 chapters: importance of learning theory; theories of learning (concept of part and whole models of development, theories based on elemental…

  1. A randomized, crossover pharmacodynamic study of immediate-release omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and delayed-release lansoprazole in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pratha, Vijayalakshmi S; McGraw, Thomas; Tobin, William

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) effectively block gastric acid secretion and are the treatment of choice for heartburn. PPIs differ, however, in onset of action and bioavailability. In this single-center, open-label, three-way crossover study, onset of action of immediate-release omeprazole 20 mg/sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg (IR-OME) and delayed-release (DR) lansoprazole 15 mg was evaluated in 63 healthy fasting adults. Subjects were randomized to once daily IR-OME, or DR-lansoprazole, or no treatment for 7 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the earliest time where a statistically significant difference was observed between IR-OME and DR-lansoprazole in median intragastric pH scores for three consecutive 5-min intervals on day 7. Secondary endpoints compared effects of active treatments on days 1 and 7 (e.g., time to sustained inhibition, percentage of time with pH >4). A significant difference in median intragastric pH favoring IR-OME was observed on day 7 starting at the 10- to 15-min interval postdosing (P = 0.024) and sustaining through the 115- to 120-min interval (P = 0.017). On day 1, IR-OME achieved sustained inhibition of intragastric acidity significantly faster than DR-lansoprazole. IR-OME maintained pH >4 significantly longer than DR-lansoprazole over a 24-h period (P = 0.007) on day 7. Overall, results of this study demonstrate IR-OME is safe and well tolerated and that treatment with IR-OME results in significantly faster onset of action and better gastric acid suppression at steady state than DR-lansoprazole. PMID:27433347

  2. Volunteers Supporting Children with Reading Difficulties in Schools: Motives and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Danielle; Hornery, Samantha; Seaton, Marjorie; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research on volunteer mentor programs has demonstrated mostly positive outcomes for mentees. As a result, many schools seek to attract and retain volunteers to assist children in need of support. The researchers interviewed 26 adult volunteers (from Australian companies) who help children with reading difficulties and examined intervention effects…

  3. Adult somatic stem cells in the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J.; Wang, Bo; Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Tharp, Marla; Iyer, Harini; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide1. The etiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades2, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance. Although adult pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts, drive long-term homeostatic tissue maintenance in long-lived free-living flatworms3,4 (e.g., planarians), and neoblast-like cells have been described in some parasitic tapeworms5, little is known about whether similar cell types exist in any trematode species. Here, we describe a population of neoblast-like cells in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. These cells resemble planarian neoblasts morphologically and share their ability to proliferate and differentiate into derivatives of multiple germ layers. Capitalizing on available genomic resources6,7 and RNAseq-based gene expression profiling, we find that these schistosome neoblast-like cells express a fibroblast growth factor receptor ortholog. Using RNA interference we demonstrate that this gene is required for the maintenance of these neoblast-like cells. Our observations suggest that adaptation of developmental strategies shared by free-living ancestors to modern-day schistosomes likely contributed to the success of these animals as long-lived obligate parasites. We expect that future studies deciphering the function of these neoblast-like cells will have important implications for understanding the biology of these devastating parasites. PMID:23426263

  4. A Single-Center, Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Effects of Poly-Gamma-Glutamate on Human NK Cell Activity after an 8-Week Oral Administration in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Tae-Young; Hong, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ahrom; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jai-Chul; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled immunity study involving 99 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the effect of poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity in peripheral blood. The volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups and orally treated with solutions (25 mL) containing 0 mg (placebo), 250 mg (low dosage), or 500 mg (high dosage) of γ-PGA. Each volunteer took one dose every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before the initial treatment and at the 4th and the 8th weeks of treatment. NK cell activity was assessed by measuring its degranulation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic activities of NK cells from the high-dosage γ-PGA group were significantly higher (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) compared to the low dosage and placebo groups at weeks 4 and 8 after the initial treatment. This increase in the NK cell activity among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals was also confirmed in vitro (as assessed by the degranulation and cytokine production). These results suggest that the oral administration of γ-PGA induces a cell-mediated immunity by increasing the NK cell activity in humans. PMID:24454502

  5. A single-center, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of poly-gamma-glutamate on human NK cell activity after an 8-week oral administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Tae-Young; Hong, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ahrom; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jai-Chul; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled immunity study involving 99 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the effect of poly- γ -glutamate ( γ -PGA) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity in peripheral blood. The volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three groups and orally treated with solutions (25 mL) containing 0 mg (placebo), 250 mg (low dosage), or 500 mg (high dosage) of γ -PGA. Each volunteer took one dose every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before the initial treatment and at the 4th and the 8th weeks of treatment. NK cell activity was assessed by measuring its degranulation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that the cytotoxic activities of NK cells from the high-dosage γ -PGA group were significantly higher (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) compared to the low dosage and placebo groups at weeks 4 and 8 after the initial treatment. This increase in the NK cell activity among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals was also confirmed in vitro (as assessed by the degranulation and cytokine production). These results suggest that the oral administration of γ -PGA induces a cell-mediated immunity by increasing the NK cell activity in humans. PMID:24454502

  6. Volunteers: A Challenge For Extension Workers: Developing Volunteer Leaders From Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Minerva O.; And Others

    A series of guidelines for use by Extension agents, as they involve socially and economically disadvantaged youth and adults in volunteer leadership roles in rural and urban Extension programs, is presented. Section headings are: Know Your Audience, Establish Rapport, Levels of Leadership, Leader Development, Leadership Roles, Volunteer…

  7. Volunteer Awareness and Educational Enabling: Staff Development Project for Volunteer Literacy Tutors. 353 Special Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford County Literacy Council, Meadville, PA.

    A project assisted volunteers and staff of the Crawford County (Pennsylvania) READ Program in increasing their personal awareness of and sensitivity to factors in the life of adult learners that may hinder or otherwise affect learning. The object was to help tutors and staff become aware of when help is needed and how to refer or provide that help…

  8. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  9. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  10. UTAH VOLUNTEER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goal 1) Promote and coordinate stream monitoring efforts in Utah as an effective watershed educational tool. Task 1) Inventory and compile an annotated list of existing volunteer monitoring programs and related efforts in Utah. Task 2) Promote monitoring activities throughout the...

  11. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of 4 Formulations of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Plus CPG 7909 (AV7909) in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Robert J.; Daczkowski, Nancy F.; Kaptur, Paulina E.; Muse, Derek; Sheldon, Eric; LaForce, Craig; Sari, Suha; Rudge, Thomas L.; Bernton, Edward

    2013-01-01

    A new anthrax vaccine that could accelerate the immune response and possibly reduce the number of injections needed for protection would be desirable in a post-exposure setting. This Phase 1 study compared the safety and immunogenicity of 2 IM doses (Days 0 and 14) of 4 formulations of AV7909 (AVA plus CPG 7909) with 2 IM doses of BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) and 2 IM doses of saline placebo administered on Days 0 and 14. A total of 105 healthy adults 18 to 50 years of age were randomized to 1 of 6 study groups: BioThrax (0.5 mL), AV7909 Formulation 1 (0.5 mL AVA + 0.5 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 2 (0.5 mL AVA + 0.25 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 3 (0.25 mL AVA + 0.5 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 4 (0.25 mL AVA + 0.25 mg CPG 7909), or saline placebo (0.5 mL). All randomized subjects received at least 1 vaccination, and 100 subjects completed the trial. After 2 doses, mean peak normalized toxin neutralizing antibody responses (TNA NF50) in the AV7909 groups were higher than in the BioThrax group. Differences among the 4 AV7909 groups were not statistically significant. Subjects who received AV7909 reached peak titers on Day 28 vs. Day 35 in the BioThrax group. The most common adverse events (AEs) in the BioThrax and AV7909 groups assessed as related to vaccination were injection site reactions. Transient lymphopenia was observed after the first dose in each AV7909 group. Frequencies of injection site and systemic reactions recorded by subjects in diaries for 7 days after each injection were highest with AV7909 Formulation 1. No AEs of special interest (autoimmune events) were observed in the study. Further studies of doses and dosing regimens are planned to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of AV7909. PMID:23701746

  12. High-Resolution Analyses of Human Leukocyte Antigens Allele and Haplotype Frequencies Based on 169,995 Volunteers from the China Bone Marrow Donor Registry Program

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Li, Jian-Ping; Mao, Wei; Zhang, De-Mei; Liu, Meng-Li; Hei, Ai-Lian; Dai, Da-Peng; Jiang, Ping; Shan, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Bo-Wei; Zhu, Chuan-Fu; Shen, Jie; Deng, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Zheng-Lei; Yu, Wei-Jian; Chen, Qiang; Qiao, Yan-Hui; Zhu, Xiang-Ming; Lv, Rong; Li, Guo-Ying; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Heng-Cong; Zhang, Xu; Pei, Bin; Jiao, Li-Xin; Shen, Gang; Liu, Ying; Feng, Zhi-Hui; Su, Yu-Ping; Xu, Zhao-Xia; Di, Wen-Ying; Jiang, Yao-Qin; Fu, Hong-Lei; Liu, Xiang-Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhou, Mei-Zhen; Du, Dan; Liu, Qi; Han, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Cai, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a widely used and effective therapy for hematopoietic malignant diseases and numerous other disorders. High-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype frequency distributions not only facilitate individual donor searches but also determine the probability with which a particular patient can find HLA-matched donors in a registry. The frequencies of the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 alleles and haplotypes were estimated among 169,995 Chinese volunteers using the sequencing-based typing (SBT) method. Totals of 191 HLA-A, 244 HLA-B, 146 HLA-C, 143 HLA-DRB1 and 47 HLA-DQB1 alleles were observed, which accounted for 6.98%, 7.06%, 6.46%, 9.11% and 7.91%, respectively, of the alleles in each locus in the world (IMGT 3.16 Release, Apr. 2014). Among the 100 most common haplotypes from the 169,995 individuals, nine distinct haplotypes displayed significant regionally specific distributions. Among these, three were predominant in the South China region (i.e., the 20th, 31st, and 81sthaplotypes), another three were predominant in the Southwest China region (i.e., the 68th, 79th, and 95th haplotypes), one was predominant in the South and Southwest China regions (the 18th haplotype), one was relatively common in the Northeast and North China regions (the 94th haplotype), and one was common in the Northeast, North and Northwest China (the 40th haplotype). In conclusion, this is the first to analyze high-resolution HLA diversities across the entire country of China, based on a detailed and complete data set that covered 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities. Specifically, we also evaluated the HLA matching probabilities within and between geographic regions and analyzed the regional differences in the HLA diversities in China. We believe that the data presented in this study might be useful for unrelated HLA-matched donor searches, donor registry planning, population genetic studies, and anthropogenesis

  13. Electrochemically Preadsorbed Collagen Promotes Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Benavidez, Tomás E; Wechsler, Marissa E; Farrer, Madeleine M; Bizios, Rena; Garcia, Carlos D

    2016-01-01

    The present article reports on the effect of electric potential on the adsorption of collagen type I (the most abundant component of the organic phase of bone) onto optically transparent carbon electrodes (OTCE) and its mediation on subsequent adhesion of adult, human, mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). For this purpose, adsorption of collagen type I was investigated as a function of the protein concentration (0.01, 0.1, and 0.25 mg/mL) and applied potential (open circuit potential [OCP; control], +400, +800, and +1500 mV). The resulting substrate surfaces were characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Adsorption of collagen type I onto OTCE was affected by the potential applied to the sorbent surface and the concentration of protein. The higher the applied potential and protein concentration, the higher the adsorbed amount (Γcollagen). It was also observed that the application of potential values higher than +800 mV resulted in the oxidation of the adsorbed protein. Subsequent adhesion of hMSCs on the OTCEs (precoated with the collagen type I films) under standard cell culture conditions for 2 h was affected by the extent of collagen preadsorbed onto the OTCE substrates. Specifically, enhanced hMSCs adhesion was observed when the Γcollagen was the highest. When the collagen type I was oxidized (under applied potential equal to +1500 mV), however, hMSCs adhesion was decreased. These results provide the first correlation between the effects of electric potential on protein adsorption and subsequent modulation of anchorage-dependent cell adhesion. PMID:26549607

  14. A comparison of erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase activity from human foetuses and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Strange, R C; Johnston, J D; Coghill, D R; Hume, R

    1980-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in partially purified haemolysates of erythrocytes from human foetuses and adults. Enzyme activity was present in erythrocytes obtained between 12 and 40 weeks of gestation. The catalytic properties of the enzyme from foetal cells were similar to those of the enzyme from adult erythrocytes, indicating that probably only one form of the erythrocytes enzyme exists throughout foetal and adult life. PMID:7396875

  15. Enhancing Leadership Skills in Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Landry L.; Boyd, Barry

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how professionals leading volunteers can purposefully work toward developing the "leadership identity" of individual volunteers. These concepts and the application of them are presented in the context of Cooperative Extension volunteer groups. Specific methods of developing the leadership identity and capacity of individual…

  16. Perceptions of the Volunteer Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Wayne L.

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire responses from 51 probation and parole line officers to determine staff perceptions of one Volunteers in Corrections program. Findings suggest that officers view volunteer role as involving several functions, including research, treatment, counseling, supervision, volunteer program operations, clerical, and investigation.…

  17. Human paraoxonase polymorphism: Hungarian population studies in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Szabó, I; Róna, K; Czinner, A; Gachályi, B

    1991-06-01

    The paraoxonase phenotype distribution pattern was studied in a Hungarian population of 102 children and 100 adults. All the subjects were of Caucasian origin and are not related. The adult population showed the trimodality in phenotype distribution similar to other European population data. The gene frequencies obtained were statistically not significantly different either. There was no correlation between the activity of serum paraoxonase and activity of cholinesterase, sex, age and body weight. The phenotype distribution was trimodal in the children's population too. There was a significant difference in gene frequency, however, compared to data from adult population. PMID:1651288

  18. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  19. Reaching beyond the United States: Adventures in International Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henschke, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience of how travel and adult education merged, for him, into a major emphasis in international adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD). International ventures have been some of the most exciting and learning-filled aspects of the author's career in AE and HRD. His involvement in…

  20. Adult Continuing Education and Human Resource Development: Present Competitors, Potential Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Adult Continuing Education (ACE) and Human Resource Development (HRD) have grown tremendously in the last quarter century. ACE experienced tremendous growth in the 60s and 70s, with over 17 million attending colleges and universities, and local school and community adult education programs by the end of the 1970s. More ACE programs were started…

  1. Volunteer Losing Balance Wearing Inverted Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Brad McLain for the Space Biology Museum Network puts a volunteer back on balance as he tries to adjust to a world inverted by a special pair of glasses. This helps illustrate how dependent the human vestibular system is on visual cues. A volunteer is The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  2. Evaluation of a one week intradermal regimen for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis: results of a randomized, open label, active-controlled trial in healthy adult volunteers in India.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Mysore Kalappa; Narayana, Doddabele Hanumanthaiah Ashwath; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Holla, Ramesh; Ashwin, Belludi Yajaman; Gangaboraiah, Bilagumba; Ravish, Haradanahalli S

    2012-08-01

    The currently recommended intradermal regimen for post-exposure prophylaxis spreads over a month period which many times lead to low compliance from the patients. There is a need to introduce and evaluate short course regimens to overcome this problem. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a "new one week intradermal regimen" for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. A total of 80 healthy adult volunteers were enrolled and allocated randomly either to purified chick embryo cell (PCECV) rabies vaccine or purified verocell rabies vaccine (PVRV), 40 in each group. Each subject received intradermally one of the vaccines , using the one week regimen (4-4-4). Blood samples were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 28,180 and 365 for estimation of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentration. The sera samples were analyzed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). All subjects in both the groups had adequate RVNA concentration of  0.5 IU/mL from day 14 to till day 180 and the difference of geometric mean concentrations between the two groups was not significant (P > 0.606). Further to assess the immunological memory produced by this new regimen, a "single visit four site" intradermal booster vaccination was given to those who did not have adequate RVNA concentration on day 365. This resulted in a quick and enhanced RVNA concentration in these subjects thus denoting a successful anamnestic response. The incidence of adverse events was 8.3% in PCECV group and 1.6% in PVRV group (P=0.001) and the regimen was well tolerated without any dropouts. In conclusion, the new "one week intradermal regimen" is immunogenic and safe for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and needs to be further evaluated in persons exposed to rabies. PMID:22699446

  3. 45 CFR 57.3 - Volunteer service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operation of a health care facility. Volunteers may be used to supplement, but not to take the place of..., or his designee, to broaden and strengthen the delivery of health services, contribute to the comfort... Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION VOLUNTEER SERVICES §...

  4. 45 CFR 57.3 - Volunteer service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operation of a health care facility. Volunteers may be used to supplement, but not to take the place of..., or his designee, to broaden and strengthen the delivery of health services, contribute to the comfort... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION VOLUNTEER SERVICES §...

  5. 45 CFR 57.3 - Volunteer service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operation of a health care facility. Volunteers may be used to supplement, but not to take the place of..., or his designee, to broaden and strengthen the delivery of health services, contribute to the comfort... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION VOLUNTEER SERVICES §...

  6. 45 CFR 57.3 - Volunteer service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operation of a health care facility. Volunteers may be used to supplement, but not to take the place of..., or his designee, to broaden and strengthen the delivery of health services, contribute to the comfort... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION VOLUNTEER SERVICES §...

  7. 45 CFR 57.3 - Volunteer service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operation of a health care facility. Volunteers may be used to supplement, but not to take the place of..., or his designee, to broaden and strengthen the delivery of health services, contribute to the comfort... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION VOLUNTEER SERVICES §...

  8. Newborn human skin fibroblasts senesce in vitro without acquiring adult growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of human fibroblasts were prepared from chest skin obtained either from newborns (less than 3 months old) or adults (more than 35 years old) and maintained in vitro until they senesced. Adult cells grew logarithmically in medium supplemented with whole blood serum but not with platelet-poor plasma. Early passage cells obtained from newborns grew equally well in either plasma- or serum-supplemented medium. The difference in growth factor requirements between adult and newborn cells persisted through the lifespan of the cells; i.e., newborn cells did not develop adult hormonal requirements when maintained in culture. Thus, in vitro cellular aging can be distinguished from some types of differentiation.

  9. Lithium does not alter the choline/creatine ratio in the temporal lobe of human volunteers as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Silverstone, P H; Hanstock, C C; Rotzinger, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of lithium administration on brain choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios in healthy volunteers. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective study. SETTING: The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Research Unit at the University of Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen healthy volunteers, recruited through advertisements. Subjects were excluded if they had a physical illness, or a personal or family history of psychiatric illness. The study period was from Feb. 6, 1996, to Mar. 21, 1996. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects received a baseline proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) scan, and then were instructed to take either lithium (1,200 mg) or placebo at night for 7 days. On Day 8, the subjects returned for a second 1H MRS scan. Study participants were seen by a physician at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, and had access to the physician throughout the study period. OUTCOME MEASURES: Ratios of Cho/Cr measured in the temporal lobes by 1H MRS. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the Cho/Cr ratios between the 2 groups on the test day (placebo 0.748 [standard deviation 0.29] versus lithium 0.811 [SD 0.25]; F = 0.147, p = 0.72), and there was no significant change from baseline in either group (0.003 above baseline for placebo; 0.056 above baseline for lithium; F = 1.21, p = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Lithium administration to healthy volunteers does not alter the Cho/Cr ratio in temporal lobe as measured by 1H MRS. The result concurs with reports that differences in Cho/Cr ratios observed in patients with bipolar disorder are likely specific to the illness, and are not the result of lithium therapy. Hence, alterations in choline function are not involved in the clinical effectiveness of lithium. Images Fig. 1 PMID:10354656

  10. Development of a classification rule for four clinical therapeutic psychotropic drug classes with EEG power-spectrum variables of human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, W M; Fichte, K; Itil, T M; Kubicki, S

    1979-01-01

    An objective rule for the classification of psychotropic substances has been developed. Classification is based on data from five basic studies simultaneously designed and performed and involving 75 healthy volunteers who ingested 20 different psychotropic drugs and 5 placebos in single oral dosages. Each volunteer took one psychostimulant, one antidepressant, one neuroleptic, one minor tranquilizer and one placebo in a double-blind Latin square cross-over design. The variables were 6 frequency bands, based on power spectrum estimates and determined by factor analysis, plus total power in the 1.5-30.0 Hz range. An objective classification rule was established by multi-group (5 groups) linear discriminant analysis. Reclassification of the substances by the new rule yielded correct results for 17 out of 20 psychotropic drugs and 4 out of 5 placebos. Of placebos from various studies not used for the establishment of the classification rule, 7/9 were classified correctly. The validity of the rule for other classes of substances will have to be verified in independent studies. PMID:419163

  11. Corporate Human Resources Adult Training and Employment Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aetna Life and Casualty, Hartford, CT.

    In response to increasing difficulty in finding qualified candidates for entry-level positions, the Aetna company has developed an Adult Training and Employment program. This program (1) trains, hires, and retains nontraditional candidates from the area's public and private agencies; (2) focuses on issues that affect this population's ability to…

  12. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

  13. "Adult Education Is about Human Being in All Its Aspects"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Derek Legge, who celebrated his 95th birthday at the end of last month, is one of the most dedicated and influential of the largely unsung heroes of the adult education movement in Britain. As modesty is one of the many qualities with which his friends and colleagues credit him, he is certain to shrink from the description, but there is little…

  14. Adult Literacy Programs in Uganda. Africa Region Human Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, Anthony; Carr-Hill, Roy A.; Katahoire, Anne R.; Kakooza, Teresa; Ndidde, Alice N.; Oxenham, John

    This report evaluates the outcomes and cost effectiveness of adult literacy programs in Ugandan villages and compares government programs with those provided by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Part 1 describes evaluation objectives, government and NGO literacy programs and the rural socioeconomic context, and evaluation design. About 100…

  15. Human Capital Development: Reforms for Adult and Community Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The adult and community education (ACE) sector is consistently responsive to changing community needs and government priorities. It is this particular function that has drawn ACE into the lifelong learning debate as one model for sustaining communities. The responsiveness of ACE means that the sector and its programs continue to make valuable…

  16. Searching for the vomeronasal organ of adult humans: preliminary findings on location, structure, and size.

    PubMed

    Smith, T D; Siegel, M I; Burrows, A M; Mooney, M P; Burdi, A R; Fabrizio, P A; Clemente, F R

    1998-06-15

    The adult human vomeronasal organ (VNO) has been the focus of numerous recent investigations, yet its developmental continuity from the human fetal VNO is poorly understood. The present study compared new data on the adult human "VNO" with previous findings on the fetal human VNO. Nasal septa were removed from twelve adult human cadavers and each specimen was histologically sectioned. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff-hematoxylin. The sections were examined by light microscopy for the presence of VNOs and the anterior paraseptal cartilages (PC). VNOs were quantified using a computer reconstruction technique to obtain VNO length, volume, and vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) volume. Histologically, VNOs and PCs were identified in eleven specimens. VNOs had ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Variations (e.g., multiple communications to the nasal cavity) were observed in several specimens. Quantification was possible for 16 right or left VNOs. Right or left VNOs ranged from 3.5 to 11.8 mm in length, from 1.8 to 33.8 x 10(-4)cc in volume, and from 2.7 to 18.1 x 10(-4)cc in VNE volume. Results indicated that the adult human VNO was similar in VNE morphology, lumen shape, and spatial relationships when compared to human fetal VNOs. By comparison with previous fetal VNO measures, mean VNO length, volume, and VNE volume were larger in adult humans. These results support previous suggestions that postnatal VNO growth occurs. Findings on location and spatial relationships of the adult VNO were similar to those seen in human fetuses, but critical questions remain regarding the ontogeny of the vomeronasal nerves and VNE. PMID:9712196

  17. Teaching Adults with Learning Disabilities. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    This book is designed to show teachers how to reach out to adults and adolescents with learning disabilities and employ specific strategies for helping them to compensate for the disabilities and acquire literacy skills. The ways in which specific differences in brain structure inhibit the mastery of reading, spelling, handwriting, phonics, and…

  18. Arts and Humanities in Adult and Continuing Education. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Trends and issues related to arts and humanities in adult and continuing education can be categorized in three ways: ways of knowing, informal sites of learning, and cultural pluralism. The arts and humanities are vehicles for critical reflection, and they present paths to the individual construction of knowledge that are intuitive, relational,…

  19. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Lima, V J de Melo; Brown, K Robson

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  20. What Makes Them Pay? Values of Volunteer Tourists Working for Sea Turtle Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Lisa M.; Smith, Christy

    2006-07-01

    As charismatic mega-fauna, sea turtles attract many volunteers to conservation programs. This article examines the ways in which volunteers value sea turtles, in the specific context of volunteers working with the Caribbean Conservation Corporation, at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. The complexity of volunteer values is explored using a qualitative approach. In-depth interviews with 31 volunteers were conducted in July of 1999 and 2000. Interviews probed, among other things, interest in sea turtles and their conservation, motives for participating, and the most gratifying parts of their volunteer experience. Results show that volunteers hold multiple and complex values for sea turtles, but particular values dominate. Results have implications for understanding human-environment relations and the emerging study of volunteer tourism. There are also management implications for volunteer programs hoping to attract participants.

  1. Maps of optical differential pathlength factor of human adult forehead, somatosensory motor and occipital regions at multi-wavelengths in NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijuan; Tanikawa, Yukari; Gao, Feng; Onodera, Yoichi; Sassaroli, Angelo; Tanaka, Kenji; Yamada, Yukio

    2002-06-01

    The optical differential pathlength factor (DPF) is an important parameter for physiological measurement using near infrared spectroscopy, but for the human adult head it has been available only for the forehead. Here we report measured DPF results for the forehead, somatosensory motor and occipital regions from measurements on 11 adult volunteers using a time-resolved optical imaging system. The optode separation was about 30 mm and the wavelengths used were 759 nm, 799 nm and 834 nm. Measured DPFs were 7.25 for the central forehead and 6.25 for the temple region at 799 nm. For the central somatosensory and occipital areas (10 mm above the inion), DPFs at 799 nm are 7.5 and 8.75, respectively. Less than 10% decreases of DPF for all these regions were observed when the wavelength increased from 759 nm to 834 nm. To compare these DPF maps with the anatomical structure of the head, a Monte Carlo simulation was carried out to calculate DPF for these regions by using a two-layered semi-infinite model and assuming the thickness of the upper layer to be the sum of the thicknesses of scalp and skull, which was measured from MRI images of a subject's head. The DPF data will be useful for quantitative monitoring of the haemodynamic changes occurring in adult heads.

  2. The human function compunction: teleological explanation in adults.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-04-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for why different phenomena occur. Judgments occurred in one of three conditions: fast speeded, moderately speeded, or unspeeded. Participants in speeded conditions judged significantly more scientifically unwarranted teleological explanations as correct (e.g., "the sun radiates heat because warmth nurtures life"), but were not more error-prone on control items (e.g., unwarranted physical explanations such as "hills form because floodwater freezes"). Study 2 extended these findings by examining the relationship between different aspects of adults' "promiscuous teleology" and other variables such as scientific knowledge, religious beliefs, and inhibitory control. Implications of these findings for scientific literacy are discussed. PMID:19200537

  3. Radiation Dosimetry and Biodistribution of the Translocator Protein Radiotracer [11C]DAA1106 Determined with PET/CT in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Arthur L.; Okita, Kyoji; Shieh, Jennifer; Liang, Lidia; Hubert, Robert; Mamoun, Michael; Farahi, Judah; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction When microglia become activated (an integral part of neuroinflammation), cellular morphology changes and expression of translocator protein (TSPO) 18 kDa is increased. Over the past several years, [11C]DAA1106 has emerged as a reliable radiotracer for labeling TSPO with high affinity during positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. While [11C]DAA1106 PET scanning has been used in several research studies, a radiation dosimetry study of this radiotracer in humans has not yet been published. Methods Twelve healthy participants underwent full body dynamic [11C]DAA1106 PET scanning, with 8 sequential whole body scans (approximately 12 bed positions each), following a single injection. Regions of interest were drawn manually and time activity curves (TACs) were obtained for 15 organs. OLINDA/EXM 1.1 was used to compute radiation absorbed doses to the target organs, as well as effective dose (ED) and effective dose equivalent (EDE). Results The ED and EDE were 4.06 ± 0.58 μSv/MBq and 5.89 ± 0.83 μSv/MBq, respectively. The highest absorbed doses were to the heart wall, kidney, liver, pancreas, and spleen. TACs revealed that peak dose rates are during the first scan (at 6 min) for all organs other than the urinary bladder wall, which had its peak dose rate during the fourth scan (at 30 min). Conclusions The recently developed radiotracer [11C]DAA1106 has its EDE and target-organ absorbed dose such that, for a single administration, its radiation dosimetry is well within the U.S. FDA guidelines for basic research studies in adults. This dose level implies that the dosimetry for multiple [11C]DAA1106 scans within a given year also falls within FDA guidelines, and this favorable property makes this radiotracer suitable for examining microglial activation repeatedly over time, which may in the future be useful for longitudinal tracking of disease progression and monitoring of therapy response in conditions marked by neuroinflammation (e.g., head trauma and

  4. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the development of human disease.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Steve C

    2008-10-01

    The mammalian brain contains a population of neurons that are continuously generated from late embryogenesis through adulthood-after the generation of almost all other neuronal types. This brain region-the hippocampal dentate gyrus-is in a sense, therefore, persistently immature. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis is likely an essential feature of the dentate, which is critical for learning and memory. Protracted neurogenesis after birth would allow the new cells to develop in conjunction with external events-but it may come with a price: while neurogenesis in utero occurs in a protected environment, children and adults are exposed to any number of hazards, such as toxins and infectious agents. Mature neurons might be resistant to such exposures, but new neurons may be vulnerable. Consistent with this prediction, in adult rodents seizures disrupt the integration of newly generated granule cells, whereas mature granule cells are comparatively unaffected. Significantly, abnormally interconnected cells may contribute to epileptogenesis and/or associated cognitive and memory deficits. Finally, studies increasingly indicate that new granule cells are extremely sensitive to a host of endogenous and exogenous factors, raising the possibility that disrupted granule cell integration may be a common feature of many neurological diseases. PMID:18997123

  5. Effects of short term changes in the blood glucose level on the autofluorescence lifetime of the human retina in healthy volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, Matthias; Nagel, Edgar; Schweitzer, Dietrich; Schramm, Stefan; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) provides in vivo metabolic mapping of the ocular fundus. Changes in FLIO have been found in e.g. diabetes patients. The influence of short term metabolic changes caused by blood glucose level changes on is unknown. Aim of this work is the detection of short-term changes in fundus autofluorescence lifetime during an oral glucose tolerance test. Methods: FLIO was performed in 10 healthy volunteers (29+/-4 years, fasting for 12h) using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (30° fundus, 34μm resolution, excitation with 473nm diode laser with 70 ps pulses at 80 MHz repetition rate, detection in two spectral channels 500-560nm (ch1) and 560-720nm (ch2) using the timecorrelated single photon counting method). The blood glucose level (BGL) was measured by an Accu-Chek® Aviva self-monitoring device. Before and after a glucose drink (300ml solution, containing 75g of glucose (Accu-Chek® Dextrose O.G.T.), BGL and FLIO were measured every 15min. The FLIMX software package was applied to compute the average fluorescence lifetime τ on the inner ring of the ETDRS grid using a modified 3-exponential approach. Results: The results are given as mean +/- standard deviation over all volunteers in ch1. Baseline measurement: BGL: 5.3+/-0.4 mmol/l, τ1: 49+/-6ps. A significant reduction (α=5% Wilcoxon rank-sum test) in τ1 is detected after 15min (BGL: 8.4+/-1.1 mmol/l, τ1: 44+/-5ps) and after 90min (BGL: 6.3+/-1.4 mmol/l, τ1: 41+/-5ps). Results of ch2 show smaller reductions in the fluorescence lifetimes over time.

  6. The Adult Learning Disabled Employee: The Organization's Hidden Human Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomber, Janet A.

    This paper describes an experiment with background material designed to promote problem (learning disabled) employees as human resources rather than rejects. The material is presented in the form of the transcript of a fictional advisory committee meeting attended by the human resources manager, assistant corporate counsel, training director, line…

  7. The expression of c-kit protein in human adult and fetal tissues.

    PubMed

    Horie, K; Fujita, J; Takakura, K; Kanzaki, H; Suginami, H; Iwai, M; Nakayama, H; Mori, T

    1993-11-01

    The c-kit proto-oncogene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor and is allelic with the dominant white-spotting (W) locus of the mouse. In this study we investigated the expression of human c-kit protein in various adult and fetal human tissues immunohistochemically using anti-human c-kit monoclonal antibody. To discriminate c-kit+ cells from mast cells expressing c-kit, mast cells were identified by staining with Toluidine blue. In oogonia, spermatogonia and skin melanocytes of the fetus and in oocytes of adult ovary, c-kit expression was detected. In adult uterus, c-kit+ cells were widely distributed in the basal layer of the endometrium, myometrium and cervix, the number and distribution being almost identical to those of mast cells. In fetal uterus, c-kit+ non-mast cells clustered beneath the epithelium and a few mast cells were observed in the myometrium and subserosal layer. In both adult and fetus, c-kit+ non-mast cells were detected within smooth muscle layers of the intestine, colon and oesophagus, while mast cells were observed in the mucosal and submucosal layers of these organs. In contrast to mice, no expression of c-kit protein was detected in the human placenta and decidua. Thus, the distribution of c-kit+ cells in various tissues is similar but not identical between adult and fetus and between human and mouse. PMID:7507133

  8. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  9. Volunteering for charity: pride, respect, and the commitment of volunteers.

    PubMed

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi

    2007-05-01

    This study builds upon and extends the social-identity-based model of cooperation with the organization (T. R. Tyler, 1999; T. R. Tyler & S. L. Blader, 2000) to examine commitment and cooperative intent among fundraising volunteers. In Study 1, structural equation modeling indicated that pride and respect related to the intent to remain a volunteer with an organization, and that this relation was mediated primarily by normative organizational commitment. In Study 2, structural equation modeling indicated that the perceived importance of volunteer work was related to pride, that perceived organizational support related to the experience of respect, and that pride and respect mediated the relation between perceived importance and support on the one hand and organizational commitment on the other. Overall, the results suggest that volunteer organizations may do well to implement pride and respect in their volunteer policy, for instance to address the reliability problem (J. L. Pearce, 1993). PMID:17484556

  10. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  11. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  12. Personalized genomic disease risk of volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; McGuire, Amy L.; Pereira, Stacey; Caskey, C. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used for researching the causes of genetic disorders. However, its usefulness in clinical practice for medical diagnosis is in early development. In this report, we demonstrate the value of NGS for genetic risk assessment and evaluate the limitations and barriers for the adoption of this technology into medical practice. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on 81 volunteers, and for each volunteer, we requested personal medical histories, constructed a three-generation pedigree, and required their participation in a comprehensive educational program. We limited our clinical reporting to disease risks based on only rare damaging mutations and known pathogenic variations in genes previously reported to be associated with human disorders. We identified 271 recessive risk alleles (214 genes), 126 dominant risk alleles (101 genes), and 3 X-recessive risk alleles (3 genes). We linked personal disease histories with causative disease genes in 18 volunteers. Furthermore, by incorporating family histories into our genetic analyses, we identified an additional five heritable diseases. Traditional genetic counseling and disease education were provided in verbal and written reports to all volunteers. Our report demonstrates that when genome results are carefully interpreted and integrated with an individual’s medical records and pedigree data, NGS is a valuable diagnostic tool for genetic disease risk. PMID:24082139

  13. [Dietary phytoestrogen and its potential benefits in adult human health].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Argelia; de la Maza, María Pía; Valladares, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Human diet contains a series of bioactive vegetal compounds that can improve human health. Among these, there has been a special interest for phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence about the potential benefits of phytoestrogens for human health. Forty eight manuscripts were selected for their study design and relevance to human health. The cell growth inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens and their implication in breast cancer are reviewed. Also the effects of these compounds on serum lipid levels and the effectiveness of a phytoestrogen derivate, ipriflavone, on the prevention of osteoporosis are analyzed. Although these compounds have a great potential for improving health, there is still not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of phytoestrogens. PMID:14743696

  14. Prison Volunteers: Profiles, Motivations, Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewksbury, Richard; Dabney, Dean

    2004-01-01

    Large numbers of correctional institutions rely on volunteers to assist staff in various programs and tasks. At present there exists a paucity of literature describing these programs and/or subjecting them to systematic evaluation. The present study uses self-report data from a sample of active volunteers at a medium-security Southern prison to…

  15. Tools for Today's PTA Volunteer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Becoming a PTA volunteer takes more than a willingness to serve; it takes knowing how to work effectively within the PTA and school community. This article describes what National PTA offers volunteers. When one trains with PTA resources, one has a chance to: (1) Participate in workshops and seminars with family-engagement experts; (2) Network…

  16. The Effective Use of Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Scott G.

    1980-01-01

    If volunteers are to be effective, they must perform needed tasks, have a clear job description, a sense of importance, a schedule for completion, and an understood term of office. Identifying, recruiting, and training fund-raising volunteers are discussed. Annual giving specialists are classified as leaders, personal solicitors, class agents,…

  17. Managing Library Volunteers, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driggers, Preston; Dumas, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers are essential to a successful library program--and at a time when deep budget cuts are the norm, there are many libraries that depend on the help of dedicated volunteers, who do everything from shelving books to covering the phones. Whether these are friends, trustees, or community members, managing them effectively is the key to…

  18. Volunteer Development. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Certain practices in volunteer development have proved successful to help organizations make the best use of their volunteers. Development should be a comprehensive, continuous process through which individuals can extend, update, and adapt their knowledge, skills, and abilities to enhance their performance and potential. A model for volunteer…

  19. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. PMID:27458798

  20. A century of trends in adult human height

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  1. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T T; Kirkeby, L P; Poulsen, K; Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal microbiota was dominated by species of the genera Corynebacterium, Aureobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, including S. epidermis, S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis and S. warneri. These studies show that the microbiota of the nasal cavity of adults is strikingly different from that of the pharynx, and that the nasal cavity is a primary habitat for several species of diphtheroids recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Under special circumstances, single species, including IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, may become predominant in a restricted area of the nasal mucosa. PMID:11200821

  2. Hesperetin induces melanin production in adult human epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Usach, Iris; Taléns-Visconti, Raquel; Magraner-Pardo, Lorena; Peris, José-Esteban

    2015-06-01

    One of the major sources of flavonoids for humans are citrus fruits, hesperidin being the predominant flavonoid. Hesperetin (HSP), the aglycon of hesperidin, has been reported to provide health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. However, the effect of HSP on skin pigmentation is not clear. Some authors have found that HSP induces melanogenesis in murine B16-F10 melanoma cells, which, if extrapolated to in vivo conditions, might protect skin against photodamage. Since the effect of HSP on normal melanocytes could be different to that observed on melanoma cells, the described effect of HSP on murine melanoma cells has been compared to the effect obtained using normal human melanocytes. HSP concentrations of 25 and 50 µM induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to control melanocytes, 25 µM HSP increased melanin production and tyrosinase activity 1.4-fold (p < 0.01) and 1.1-fold (p < 0.01), respectively, and the corresponding increases in the case of 50 µM HSP were 1.9-fold (p < 0.001) and 1.3-fold (p < 0.001). Therefore, HSP could be considered a valuable photoprotective substance if its capacity to increase melanin production in human melanocyte cultures could be reproduced on human skin. PMID:25765751

  3. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues.

    PubMed

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K; Rivas, Manuel A; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S; Kukurba, Kim R; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Burchard, Esteban G; Seibold, Max A; MacArthur, Daniel G; Montgomery, Stephen B; Zaitlen, Noah A; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-07-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  4. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S.; Kukurba, Kim R.; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Seibold, Max A.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  5. Multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in human Aβ clearance by transplanted adult astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pihlaja, Rea; Koistinaho, Jari; Kauppinen, Riitta; Sandholm, Jouko; Tanila, Heikki; Koistinaho, Milla

    2011-11-01

    Astrocytes and microglia are able to degrade potentially neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits typical for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Contrary to microglia, astrocytes degrade human Aβ from tissue sections in vitro without any additional stimulation, but it has remained unclear whether transplanted astrocytes are able to clear deposited human Aβ in vivo. We transplanted adult mouse astrocytes into the hippocampi of transgenic mice mimicking AD and observed their fate, effects on microglial responses, and Aβ clearance. After 2-months follow-up time, we discovered a significant reduction in Aβ burden compared with AD mice infused with PBS only. The remaining Aβ deposits were fragmented and most of the Aβ immunoreactivity was seen within the transplanted astrocytes. Concomitant to Aβ reduction, both CD68 and CD45 immunoreactivities were significantly upregulated but phagocytic microglia were often surrounding and engulfing Aβ burdened, TUNEL-positive astrocytes rather than co-localizing with Aβ alone. Astrocytes are known to degrade Aβ also by secreting proteases involved in Aβ catabolism. To study the contribution of neprilysin (NEP), angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1), and endothelin-converting enzyme-2 (ECE-2) in human Aβ clearance, we utilized an ex vivo assay to demonstrate that adult astrocytes respond to human Aβ by upregulating NEP expression. Further, incubation of adult astrocytes with known inhibitors of NEP, ACE-1, or ECE-2 significantly inhibited the removal of human Aβ from the tissue suggesting an important role for these proteases in Aβ clearance by adult astrocytes ex vivo. PMID:21826742

  6. Prospective heterotopic ossification progenitors in adult human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Downey, Jennifer; Lauzier, Dominique; Kloen, Peter; Klarskov, Klaus; Richter, Martin; Hamdy, Reggie; Faucheux, Nathalie; Scimè, Anthony; Balg, Frédéric; Grenier, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal muscle has strong regenerative capabilities. However, failed regeneration can lead to complications where aberrant tissue forms as is the case with heterotopic ossification (HO), in which chondrocytes, osteoblasts and white and brown adipocytes can arise following severe trauma. In humans, the various HO cell types likely originate from multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in skeletal muscle, which have not been identified in humans until now. In the present study, adherent cells from freshly digested skeletal muscle tissue were expanded in defined culture medium and were FACS-enriched for the CD73(+)CD105(+)CD90(-) population, which displayed robust multilineage potential. Clonal differentiation assays confirmed that all three lineages originated from a single multipotent progenitor. In addition to differentiating into typical HO lineages, human muscle resident MSCs (hmrMSCs) also differentiated into brown adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Characterizing this novel multipotent hmrMSC population with a brown adipocyte differentiation capacity has enhanced our understanding of the contribution of non-myogenic progenitor cells to regeneration and aberrant tissue formation in human skeletal muscle. PMID:25445454

  7. Trends Impacting Volunteer Administrators in the Next Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken, III; Nolan, Mike

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 49 volunteer leadership development programs (39% response) and 704 professional association members (46% response) identified the top volunteer trends: virtual volunteering, corporate/workplace volunteers, episodic volunteering, and changing demographics of volunteers. (JOW)

  8. Absorption and excretion of conjugated flavonols, including quercetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside by human volunteers after the consumption of onions.

    PubMed

    Aziz, A A; Edwards, C A; Lean, M E; Crozier, A

    1998-09-01

    Flavonols are polyphenols found ubiquitously in plants and plant-products. Flavonols, particularly quercetin, are potent antioxidants in vitro and their intake has been associated inversely with the incidence of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation in plasma and excretion in urine of flavonol glucosides following ingestion of lightly fried onions. Five healthy volunteers followed a low-flavonoid diet for 3 days. On day 4, after an overnight fast, subjects were given 300 g of lightly fried yellow onions which contain conjugates of quercetin and isorhamnetin, including quercetin-3,4 '-diO-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and quercetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside. Blood collection was carried out at 0 min, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 24h after the supplement. In addition, subjects collected all their urine for 24h following the onion supplement. Isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and quercetin-4 '-O-beta-glucoside accumulated in plasma with maximum levels, defined as proportion of intake, of 10.7+/-2.6% and 0.13+/-0.03% respectively. The time of the quercetin-4'glucoside peak plasma concentration was 1.3+/-0.2 h after the ingestion of onions while a value of 1.8+/-0.7 h was obtained for isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside. Excretion in urine, as a proportion of intake, was 17.4+/-8.3% for isorhamnetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and 0.2+/-0.1% for quercetin-4'-O-beta-glucoside. Possible reasons for the accumulation and excretion of isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside in proportionally much higher amounts than quercetin-4'-glucoside are discussed. It is concluded that flavonols are absorbed into the bloodstream as glucosides and minor structural differences affect markedly both the level of accumulation and the extent to which the conjugates are excreted. PMID:9802557

  9. The effects of a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist (ICI 169,369) on changes in waking EEG, pupillary responses and state of arousal in human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Millson, D S; Haworth, S J; Rushton, A; Wilkinson, D; Hobson, S; Harry, J

    1991-01-01

    1. ICI 169,369 (2-(2-dimethylamino ethylthio)-3-phenyl quinoline) is a potent selective competitive antagonist of the 5-HT2 receptor in animal models. Effects of ICI 169,369 as single oral doses (80 and 120 mg) separated by 1 week, on the power spectrum of waking EEG, dark adapted pupil responses and sedation score, were studied in a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised cross over within subject comparison, in six healthy male volunteers. 2. Pupillary responses were measured using a portable infrared pupillometer following 15 min dark adaptation, assessing resting vertical pupil diameter (RPD), light constricted diameter (MPD) and recovered final diameter (FPD) at the end of a 3 s measurement cycle. 3. Both doses of ICI 169,369 produced a mean 36% (range 10-54%) decrease in log 10 power of the waking EEG alpha activity with eyes closed (P less than 0.02), and mean 38% (range 2-86%) increase in theta activity at 2 h compared with placebo. 4. Both 80 and 120 mg doses of ICI 169,369 reduced RPD by approximately 30% from a predose value of 6.25 mm (+/- 0.87; 95% CI) and from placebo values 6.41 mm (+/- 1.06) and 7.48 mm (+/- 1.49) at 3 and 5 h after dosing. MPD was reduced by 50% with the 120 mg dose at 5 h after dosing (placebo 5.2 mm; ICI 169,369 2.7 mm; P less than 0.05). FPD was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01) by both doses at 3 h after dosing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1958438

  10. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  11. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  12. Bacteriology of severe periodontitis in young adult humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Smibert, R M; Hash, D E; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1982-01-01

    A total of 78 bacteriological samples were taken from the supragingival tooth surface after superficial cleaning with toothpicks or from the periodontal sulci of 42 affected sites in 21 adolescents or young adults with severe generalized periodontitis. Of 190 bacterial species, subspecies, or serotypes detected among 2,723 isolates, 11 species exceeded 1% of the subgingival flora and were most closely associated with the diseased sulci. Eleven others were also sufficiently frequent to be suspect agents of tissue destruction. Many of these species are known pathogens of other body sites. In addition, 10 species of Treponema were isolated. One of these and the "large treponeme" were also more closely associated with severe periodontitis than they were with healthy sites or gingivitis. There were highly significant differences between the composition of the flora of the affected sulci and the flora of (i) the adjacent supragingival tooth surface, (ii) the gingival crevice of periodontally healthy people, and (iii) sites with a gingival index score of 0 or 2 in experimental gingivitis studies. The floras of different individuals were also significantly different. There was no statistically detectable effect of sampling per se upon the composition of the flora of subsequent samples from the same sites. The composition of the supragingival flora of the patients with severe generalized periodontitis that had serum antibody to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was significantly different from the supragingival flora of patients without this serum antibody. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the composition of their subgingival floras. PMID:7152665

  13. Mobilizing Volunteers for Community-Based Education and Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, J. Lin

    1979-01-01

    Using a case study approach, describes the efforts of three community organizers--a literacy worker and a medical doctor in the Phillipines, and an adult basic education supervisor in North Carolina--to develop and implement community-based volunteer programs. (DR)

  14. Episodic Volunteers: Reality for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macduff, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    Episodic volunteer opportunities allow for short-term services--either one-time or recurring. The organization using such volunteers must identify new jobs that can be performed on an episodic basis or redesign traditional volunteer jobs. (SK)

  15. Profile of the Adult Education and Human Resource Development Professoriate: Characteristics and Professional Fulfillment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shari L.; Provo, Joanne

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 113 members of the Commission of Professors of Adult Education and 50 of the Academy of Human Resource Development found few differences except in age, rank, and salary. The two faculties are compatible and could be integrated. Overall job satisfaction is high. Professors tended to come from other fields and to remain. (SK)

  16. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  17. An Instrument Development Model for Online Surveys in Human Resource Development and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachota, Elaine M.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Schmidt, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of a schematic model for developing and distributing online surveys. Two empirical studies that developed and implemented online surveys to collect data to measure satisfaction in various aspects of human resource development and adult education exemplify the use of the model to conduct online survey research. The…

  18. An Assessemnt of Graduate Adult Education and Human Resource Development Programs: A U.S. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akdere, Mesut; Conceicao, Simone C. O.

    2009-01-01

    Due to recent changes in the workplace, the workforce and higher education have driven academic programs of adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD) in the U.S. to become more integrated as part of the mission of institutions of higher education. In this exploratory study, existing graduate programs in AE and HRD in the U.S. were…

  19. Adult attachment style is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability in humans.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Tuominen, Lauri; Hirvonen, Jussi; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Dunbar, Robin I M; Sams, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Human attachment behavior mediates establishment and maintenance of social relationships. Adult attachment characteristically varies on anxiety and avoidance dimensions, reflecting the tendencies to worry about the partner breaking the social bond (anxiety) and feeling uncomfortable about depending on others (avoidance). In primates and other mammals, the endogenous μ-opioid system is linked to long-term social bonding, but evidence of its role in human adult attachment remains more limited. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to reveal how variability in μ-opioid receptor (MOR) availability is associated with adult attachment in humans. We scanned 49 healthy subjects using a MOR-specific ligand [(11) C]carfentanil and measured their attachment avoidance and anxiety with the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised scale. The avoidance dimension of attachment correlated negatively with MOR availability in the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the frontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. No associations were observed between MOR availability and the anxiety dimension of attachment. Our results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may underlie interindividual differences in avoidant attachment style in human adults, and that differences in MOR availability are associated with the individuals' social relationships and psychosocial well-being. PMID:26046928

  20. Severe Infections with Human Adenovirus 7d in 2 Adults in Family, Illinois, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus 7d, a genomic variant with no reported circulation in the United States, was isolated from 2 adults with severe respiratory infections in Illinois. Molecular typing identified a close relationship with strains of the same genome type isolated from cases of respiratory disease in several provinces of China since 2009. PMID:26982199

  1. Evaluation of Serum Creatinine Changes With Integrase Inhibitor Use in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Tara A.; Duggan, Joan M.; Sahloff, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review evaluated changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) after initiation of an integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen as initial treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Serum creatinine and CrCl changes were similar to those seen in clinical trials for INSTIs. No renal-related serious adverse events or discontinuations occurred. PMID:27092314

  2. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2006-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  3. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2006-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  4. Emotions and Human Concern: Adult Education and the Philosophical Thought of Martha Nussbaum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Donovan

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that philosopher Martha Nussbaum's reflections on the role of the emotions in human flourishing can contribute in important ways to our understanding of the emotions in adult education contexts. The article summarises Nussbaum's exploration of the contributions of classical philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and…

  5. PREDICTIONS OF OZONE ABSORPTION IN HUMAN LUNGS FROM NEWBORN TO ADULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dosimetry models for gases mainly have been used to predict absorption in adult humans and laboratory animals. he lack of lower respiratory tract (LRT) lung models for children has discouraged the application of theoretical gaseous dosimetry to this important subpopulation. o fil...

  6. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  7. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  8. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  9. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  10. Human-derived neural progenitors functionally replace astrocytes in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Qian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Hu, Baoyang; Blackbourn, Lisle W.; Du, Zhongwei; Ma, Lixiang; Liu, Huisheng; Knobel, Karla M.; Ayala, Melvin; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are integral components of the homeostatic neural network as well as active participants in pathogenesis of and recovery from nearly all neurological conditions. Evolutionarily, compared with lower vertebrates and nonhuman primates, humans have an increased astrocyte-to-neuron ratio; however, a lack of effective models has hindered the study of the complex roles of human astrocytes in intact adult animals. Here, we demonstrated that after transplantation into the cervical spinal cords of adult mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), human pluripotent stem cell–derived (PSC-derived) neural progenitors migrate a long distance and differentiate to astrocytes that nearly replace their mouse counterparts over a 9-month period. The human PSC-derived astrocytes formed networks through their processes, encircled endogenous neurons, and extended end feet that wrapped around blood vessels without altering locomotion behaviors, suggesting structural, and potentially functional, integration into the adult mouse spinal cord. Furthermore, in SCID mice transplanted with neural progenitors derived from induced PSCs from patients with ALS, astrocytes were generated and distributed to a similar degree as that seen in mice transplanted with healthy progenitors; however, these mice exhibited motor deficit, highlighting functional integration of the human-derived astrocytes. Together, these results indicate that this chimeric animal model has potential for further investigating the roles of human astrocytes in disease pathogenesis and repair. PMID:25642771

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jake; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2016-08-01

    Improved survival with combination antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic increase in the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals 50 years of age or older such that by 2020 more than 50% of HIV-infected persons in the United States will be above this age. Recent studies confirm that antiretroviral therapy should be offered to all HIV-infected patients regardless of age, symptoms, CD4+ cell count, or HIV viral load. However, when compared with HIV-uninfected populations, even with suppression of measurable HIV replication, older individuals are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancies, liver disease, and other comorbidities. PMID:27394024

  12. Adult human adipose tissue contains several types of multipotent cells.

    PubMed

    Tallone, Tiziano; Realini, Claudio; Böhmler, Andreas; Kornfeld, Christopher; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Moccetti, Tiziano; Bardelli, Silvana; Soldati, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells that can be easily isolated from various tissues and expanded in vitro. Many reports on their pluripotency and possible clinical applications have raised hopes and interest in MSCs. In an attempt to unify the terminology and the criteria to label a cell as MSC, in 2006 the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposed a standard set of rules to define the identity of these cells. However, MSCs are still extracted from different tissues, by diverse isolation protocols, are cultured and expanded in different media and conditions. All these variables may have profound effects on the selection of cell types and the composition of heterogeneous subpopulations, on the selective expansion of specific cell populations with totally different potentials and ergo, on the long-term fate of the cells upon in vitro culture. Therefore, specific molecular and cellular markers that identify MSCs subsets as well as standardization of expansion protocols for these cells are urgently needed. Here, we briefly discuss new useful markers and recent data supporting the rapidly emerging concept that many different types of progenitor cells are found in close association with blood vessels. This knowledge may promote the necessary technical improvements required to reduce variability and promote higher efficacy and safety when isolating and expanding these cells for therapeutic use. In the light of the discussed data, particularly the identification of new markers, and advances in the understanding of fundamental MSC biology, we also suggest a revision of the 2006 ISCT criteria. PMID:21327755

  13. Impact of oral consumption of heat-treated Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964 on the level of natural TFα-specific antibodies in human adults.

    PubMed

    Ulsemer, P; Toutounian, K; Kressel, G; Goletz, C; Schmidt, J; Karsten, U; Hahn, A; Goletz, S

    2016-09-01

    It is now generally accepted that the human body exists in close synergy with the gut microbiome and that this cross-talk plays an essential role in human health and disease. One facet from the many interactions between the microbiome and the immune system is the induction of natural antibodies to commensal bacterial glycans, such as blood group antigens, the alpha-Gal epitope or the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TFα) antigen. Since we have observed that certain species of the commensal genus Bacteroides express the TFα antigen, we examined whether the oral dietary supplementation of a pasteurised Bacteroides xylanisolvens strain might be able to enhance the level of natural anti-TFα antibodies in healthy adults. The data obtained from a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 140 healthy volunteers and lasting 8 weeks revealed that the oral uptake of this strain was indeed able to increase the level of TFα-specific immunoglobulin M serum antibodies. The effect was dose-dependent but remained - at any doses - within the physiological range determined before intervention. Furthermore, the effect reverted after stopping the intake. The results support the idea of the microbiome inducing the generation of systemic antigen-specific antibodies against sugar epitopes. They also demonstrate the possibility to modulate essential regulatory or defence processes through dietary supplementation of selected commensal bacteria with the aim to assist human health. PMID:27048836

  14. Canonical Genetic Signatures of the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Jegga, Anil G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L.; Menche, Jörge; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A.; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R.; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C.; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure, and function. We applied a correlation-based metric of “differential stability” (DS) to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing meso-scale genetic organization. The highest DS genes are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related biological annotations, disease associations, drug targets, and literature citations. Using high DS genes we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components, and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely-patterned genes displayed dramatic shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  15. Canonical genetic signatures of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L; Jegga, Anil G; Aronow, Bruce J; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F; Dierker, Donna L; Menche, Jörg; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-12-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure and function. We applied a correlation-based metric called differential stability to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing mesoscale genetic organization. The genes with the highest differential stability are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related annotations, disease associations, drug targets and literature citations. Using genes with high differential stability, we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely patterned genes displayed marked shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  16. Becoming Qualified to Teach Low-literate Refugees: A Case Study of One Volunteer Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Kristen H.

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates Carolyn, an effective volunteer ESL and literacy instructor of adult African refugees, in order to understand both what it means to be a qualified instructor, and also how community-based volunteer instructors may become more qualified. The study's findings suggest that Carolyn's qualifications are a…

  17. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  18. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  19. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  20. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  1. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  3. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  4. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  5. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  6. Impact of Dietary Lipids on Colonic Function and Microbiota: An Experimental Approach Involving Orlistat-Induced Fat Malabsorption in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Pamela; Fujio, Sayaka; Navarrete, Paola; Ugalde, Juan A; Magne, Fabien; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Tralma, Karina; Quezada, MariaPaz; Hurtado, Carmen; Covarrubias, Natalia; Brignardello, Jerusa; Henriquez, Daniela; Gotteland, Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High-fat diets alter gut microbiota and barrier function, inducing metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation. Whether these effects are due to the high dietary lipid content or to the concomitant decrease of carbohydrate intake is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether higher amounts of dietary fat reaching the colon (through orlistat administration) affect the colonic ecosystem in healthy volunteers and the effect of the prebiotic oligofructose (OF) in this model. METHODS: Forty-one healthy young subjects were distributed among four groups: Control (C), Prebiotic (P), Orlistat (O), and Orlistat/Prebiotic (OP). They consumed a fat-standardized diet (60 g/day) during Week-1 (baseline) and after 1 week of washout, Week-3. During Week-3, they also received their respective treatment (Orlistat: 2 × 120 mg/day, OF: 16 g/day, and maltodextrin as placebo). A 72-h stool collection was carried out at the end of Week-1 (T0) and Week-3 (T1). Fecal fat, calprotectin, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as well as the antioxidant activity of fecal waters (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), fecal microbiota composition (by deep sequencing), and gut permeability (Sucralose/Lactulose/Mannitol test) were determined at these times. RESULTS: Fecal fat excretion was higher in the O (P=0.0050) and OP (P=0.0069) groups. This event was accompanied, in the O group, by an increased calprotectin content (P=0.047) and a decreased fecal antioxidant activity (P=0.047). However, these alterations did not alter gut barrier function and the changes observed in the composition of the fecal microbiota only affected bacterial populations with low relative abundance (<0.01%); in consequences, fecal SCFA remained mainly unchanged. Part of the colonic alterations induced by orlistat were prevented by OF administration. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of an equilibrated diet, the acute exposition of the colonic ecosystem to high amounts of dietary lipids is

  7. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lillian L M; Murdock, Courtney C; Jacobs, Gregory R; Thomas, Rachel J; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-13

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260-330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  8. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  9. Predictions of ozone absorption in human lungs from newborn to adult

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Graham, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Dosimetry models for gases mainly have been used to predict absorption in adult humans and laboratory animals. The lack of lower respiratory tract (LRT) lung models for children has discouraged the application of theoretical gaseous dosimetry to this important sub-population. To fill this gap the authors have used several sources of data on age dependent LRT volumes, age dependent airway dimensions, a model of an adult tracheobronchial region, and a model of the adult acinus to construct theoretical LRT lung models for humans from birth to adult. An ozone (O{sub 3}) dosimetry model was then used to estimate the regional and local uptake of O{sub 3} in the (theoretical) LRTs of children and adults. For sedentary breathing, the LRT distribution of absorbed O{sub 3}, the percent uptake (76 to 85%), and the centriacinar O{sub 3} tissue dose are not very sensitive to age. For maximal work during exercise, predicted uptakes range from 83 to 91%, and the regional percent uptakes are more dependent on age than during quiet breathing. In general, total O{sub 3} absorption per minute increases with age. Regardless of age and state of breathing, the largest tissue dose of O{sub 3} is predicted to occur in the centriacinar region, where many animal studies show the maximal morphological damage due to O{sub 3}.

  10. Ex Vivo kinetics of early and long-term multifunctional human leukocyte antigen E-specific CD8+ cells in volunteers immunized with the Ty21a typhoid vaccine.

    PubMed

    Salerno-Goncalves, Rosângela; Wahid, Rezwanul; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2010-09-01

    T cells are likely to play an important role in the host defense against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever. We have shown that HLA-E can function as a restriction element for S. Typhi-specific CD8(+) T cells. Because of the potential importance of HLA-E-restricted CD8(+) responses in resistance to Salmonella infection, we characterized these responses and investigated their kinetics of appearance and persistence in volunteers immunized orally with the licensed attenuated Ty21a strain typhoid vaccine. Cells were obtained from volunteers before and at days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 28, 42, 56, 120, 180, 360, and 720 after immunization. An ex vivo multicolor staining panel including antibodies to CD107a and -b, interleukin-2, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was used to functionally assess memory T-cell subsets by flow cytometry. Increases in cytokine-secreting CD8(+) cells were observed in the T effector/memory (T(EM)) and CD45RA(+) T(EM) (T(EMRA)) subsets as early as 4 days after immunization and persisted, particularly in the T(EMRA) subset, up to 2 years after immunization. The majority of HLA-E-restricted CD8(+) cells 28 to 56 days after immunization coexpressed CD107, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, showing characteristic features of multifunctional T cells. In summary, the multifunctionality and longevity of the HLA-E-restricted CD8 responses observed in this study highlight their significance in adaptive immunity to S. Typhi. Finally, this is the first demonstration, in either animals or humans, of the presence of long-term multifunctional HLA-E-restricted CD8(+) cells after immunization. PMID:20660136

  11. A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, K; Schreiweis, C; Minge, C; Pääbo, S; Fischer, J; Enard, W

    2015-11-01

    The transcription factor FOXP2 has been linked to severe speech and language impairments in humans. An analysis of the evolution of the FOXP2 gene has identified two amino acid substitutions that became fixed after the split of the human and chimpanzee lineages. Studying the functional consequences of these two substitutions in the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice showed alterations in dopamine levels, striatal synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphology and cortico-striatal-dependent learning. In addition, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of pups had a significantly lower average pitch than control littermates. To which degree adult USVs would be affected in mice carrying the 'humanized' Foxp2 variant remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed USVs of 68 adult male mice uttered during repeated courtship encounters with different females. Mice carrying the Foxp2(hum/hum) allele did not differ significantly in the number of call elements, their element structure or in their element composition from control littermates. We conclude that neither the structure nor the usage of USVs in adult mice is affected by the two amino acid substitutions that occurred in FOXP2 during human evolution. The reported effect for pup vocalization thus appears to be transient. These results are in line with accumulating evidence that mouse USVs are hardly influenced by vocal learning. Hence, the function and evolution of genes that are necessary, but not sufficient for vocal learning in humans, must be either studied at a different phenotypic level in mice or in other organisms. PMID:26250064

  12. Localization of PPAR isotypes in the adult mouse and human brain

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Anna; Truitt, Jay; Merriman, Morgan; Ponomareva, Olga; Jameson, Kelly; Ferguson, Laura B.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Harris, R. Adron

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. PPAR agonists have well-documented anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective roles in the central nervous system. Recent evidence suggests that PPAR agonists are attractive therapeutic agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases as well as addiction. However, the distribution of PPAR mRNA and protein in brain regions associated with these conditions (i.e. prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, ventral tegmental area) is not well defined. Moreover, the cell type specificity of PPARs in mouse and human brain tissue has yet to be investigated. We utilized quantitative PCR and double immunofluorescence microscopy to determine that both PPAR mRNA and protein are expressed ubiquitously throughout the adult mouse brain. We found that PPARs have unique cell type specificities that are consistent between species. PPARα was the only isotype to colocalize with all cell types in both adult mouse and adult human brain tissue. Overall, we observed a strong neuronal signature, which raises the possibility that PPAR agonists may be targeting neurons rather than glia to produce neuroprotection. Our results fill critical gaps in PPAR distribution and define novel cell type specificity profiles in the adult mouse and human brain. PMID:27283430

  13. Predictions of ozone absorption in human lungs from newborn to adult

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Graham, R.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Although children are an important human population, dosimetry models for gases have been used to predict absorption mainly in laboratory animals and adult humans. To correct this omission, we have used several sources of data on age-dependent lower respiratory tract (LRT) volumes, age-dependent airway dimensions, a model of the adult tracheobronchial region, and a model of the adult acinus to construct theoretical LRT lung models for humans from birth to adulthood. An ozone (O3) dosimetry model was then used to estimate the regional and local uptake of O3 in the (theoretical) LRT of children and adults. For sedentary or quiet breathing, the LRT distribution of absorbed O3, the percent uptake (84 to 88%) and the centriacinar O3 tissue dose are not very sensitive to age. For maximal work during exercise, predicted LRT uptakes range from 87 to 93%, and the regional percent uptakes are more dependent on age than during quiet breathing. In general, the total quantity of O3 absorbed per minute increases with age. Regardless of age and state of breathing, the largest tissue dose of O3 is predicted to occur in the centriacinar region, where many animal studies show the maximal morphological damage from O3.

  14. The response of the anterior striatum during adult human vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Leech, Robert; Iverson, Paul; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on mammals predicts that the anterior striatum is a central component of human motor learning. However, because vocalizations in most mammals are innate, much of the neurobiology of human vocal learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Essential for song learning is a pathway, the homolog of mammalian cortical-basal ganglia “loops,” which includes the avian striatum. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated adult human vocal learning, a skill that persists throughout life, albeit imperfectly given that late-acquired languages are spoken with an accent. Monolingual adult participants were scanned while repeating novel non-native words. After training on the pronunciation of half the words for 1 wk, participants underwent a second scan. During scanning there was no external feedback on performance. Activity declined sharply in left and right anterior striatum, both within and between scanning sessions, and this change was independent of training and performance. This indicates that adult speakers rapidly adapt to the novel articulatory movements, possibly by using motor sequences from their native speech to approximate those required for the novel speech sounds. Improved accuracy correlated only with activity in motor-sensory perisylvian cortex. We propose that future studies on vocal learning, using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, will provide insights into adult striatal plasticity and its potential for modification in both educational and clinical contexts. PMID:24805076

  15. Predictions of ozone absorption in human lungs from newborn to adult.

    PubMed

    Overton, J H; Graham, R C

    1989-01-01

    Although children are an important human population, dosimetry models for gases have been used to predict absorption mainly in laboratory animals and adult humans. To correct this omission, we have used several sources of data on age-dependent lower respiratory tract (LRT) volumes, age-dependent airway dimensions, a model of the adult tracheobronchial region, and a model of the adult acinus to construct theoretical LRT lung models for humans from birth to adulthood. An ozone (O3) dosimetry model was then used to estimate the regional and local uptake of O3 in the (theoretical) LRT of children and adults. For sedentary or quiet breathing, the LRT distribution of absorbed O3, the percent uptake (84 to 88%) and the centriacinar O3 tissue dose are not very sensitive to age. For maximal work during exercise, predicted LRT uptakes range from 87 to 93%, and the regional percent uptakes are more dependent on age than during quiet breathing. In general, the total quantity of O3 absorbed per minute increases with age. Regardless of age and state of breathing, the largest tissue dose of O3 is predicted to occur in the centriacinar region, where many animal studies show the maximal morphological damage from O3. PMID:2606688

  16. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  17. Short-term monocular deprivation alters GABA in the adult human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Claudia; Emir, Uzay E; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Bridge, Holly

    2015-06-01

    Neuroplasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system that is maximal early in life, within the critical period [1-3]. Resting GABAergic inhibition is necessary to trigger ocular dominance plasticity and to modulate the onset and offset of the critical period [4, 5]. GABAergic inhibition also plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity of adult animals: the balance between excitation and inhibition in the primary visual cortex (V1), measured at rest, modulates the susceptibility of ocular dominance to deprivation [6-10]. In adult humans, short-term monocular deprivation strongly modifies ocular balance, unexpectedly boosting the deprived eye, reflecting homeostatic plasticity [11, 12]. There is no direct evidence, however, to support resting GABAergic inhibition in homeostatic plasticity induced by visual deprivation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that GABAergic inhibition, measured at rest, is reduced by deprivation, as demonstrated by animal studies. GABA concentration in V1 of adult humans was measured using ultra-high-field 7T magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after short-term monocular deprivation. After monocular deprivation, resting GABA concentration decreased in V1 but was unaltered in a control parietal area. Importantly, across participants, the decrease in GABA strongly correlated with the deprived eye perceptual boost measured by binocular rivalry. Furthermore, after deprivation, GABA concentration measured during monocular stimulation correlated with the deprived eye dominance. We suggest that reduction in resting GABAergic inhibition triggers homeostatic plasticity in adult human V1 after a brief period of abnormal visual experience. These results are potentially useful for developing new therapeutic strategies that could exploit the intrinsic residual plasticity of the adult human visual cortex. PMID:26004760

  18. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    attachment insecurity and particularly anxiety. Emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal or suppression of social emotions are also differentially modulated by attachment style. This research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulation is likely to play an important (causal) role. PMID:22822396

  19. Planning for Effective Faculty Development: Using Adult Learning Strategies. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Patricia A.; King, Kathleen P.

    This book describes how to use adult learning strategies in planning faculty development. Chapter 1 addresses concerns about success, demonstrating how to use an adult learning model to help faculty developers succeed. Chapter 2 presents the Adult Learning Model for Faculty Development, which has four stages grounded in adult learning and program…

  20. Adult Academy Tutor Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isserlis, Janet; And Others

    This handbook is for volunteer tutors, student interns, and VISTA volunteers working with adult basic education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. The community-based handbook contains information about adult literacy and tutoring--what tutors do, who the learners are, and how the literacy learning process works. Introductory…

  1. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi. PMID:22808414

  2. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1HIGH cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1HIGH cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  3. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1(HIGH) cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1(HIGH) cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  4. Immunological characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Sandra A; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2013-01-01

    Somatic, also termed adult, stem cells are highly attractive biomedical cell candidates because of their extensive replication potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity. They can be used for drug and toxicity screenings in preclinical studies, as in vitro model to study differentiation or for regenerative medicine to aid in the repair of tissues or replace tissues that are lost upon disease, injury or ageing. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are two types of adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that are currently being used clinically for tissue regeneration and for their immunomodulatory and trophic effects. This review will give an overview of the phenotypic and functional differences between human MAPCs and MSCs, with a strong emphasis on their immunological characteristics. Finally, we will discuss the clinical studies in which MSCs and MAPCs are already used. PMID:23295415

  5. Volunteering among High School Students. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet explores volunteering among high school students, ages 16-18. Overall, volunteering among high school students was down slightly in 2006 as compared to 2005. Additional information includes types of volunteer organizations and activities, and ways that high school students become involved in these activities. Volunteer rate vary by…

  6. Nothing's Free: Calculating the Cost of Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, W. Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Most school district administrators recognize the benefits of using parent and community volunteers, including improved school-community relations. But volunteers are not cost free. At their best, volunteers can be a valuable resource for schools and districts. At their worst, volunteers can consume already limited resources. However, their use…

  7. Parallel Volunteer Learning during Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Green, Jeremy; Derby, Amy; Bothum, Candi

    2012-01-01

    Lack of time is a hindrance for volunteers to participate in educational opportunities, yet volunteer success in an organization is tied to the orientation and education they receive. Meeting diverse educational needs of volunteers can be a challenge for program managers. Scheduling a Volunteer Learning Track for chaperones that is parallel to a…

  8. Something Wonderful Happens When R.S.V.P. Comes into a School. Guide for R.S.V.P. Directors Interested in Involving Schools in Accepting Retired Senior Volunteers in Local School Systems, Grades K to 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Mildred G.

    RSVP (Retired Senior Volunteer Program) is one program of ACTION--The Agency for Volunteer Service. ACTION, created in 1971, is a Federal agency which administers a number of volunteer programs. Its purpose is to provide a recognized role in the community and a meaningful life in retirement for older adults through significant volunteer service.…

  9. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana on glucose tolerance in normal adult humans.

    PubMed

    Curi, R; Alvarez, M; Bazotte, R B; Botion, L M; Godoy, J L; Bracht, A

    1986-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extracts of Stevia rebaudiana leaves on a glucose tolerance test was investigated in 16 normal volunteers. Aqueous extracts of 5 grams of leaves were administered to volunteers at regular 6-h intervals for 3 days. Glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after extract administration. A second group of 6 normal volunteers who ingested an aqueous arabinose solution was also studied to eliminate possible stress effects. The extract of Stevia rebaudiana increased glucose tolerance. The extract significantly decreased plasma glucose levels during the test and after overnight fasting in all volunteers. PMID:3651629

  10. Immuno-localisation of anti-thyroid antibodies in adult human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Kogie; Botha, Julia; Raidoo, Deshandra Munsamy; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2011-03-15

    Expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) has been demonstrated in adipocytes, lymphocytes, bone, kidney, heart, intestine and rat brain. Immuno-reactive TSH-R has been localised in rat brain and human embryonic cerebral cortex but not in adult human brain. We designed a pilot study to determine whether anti-thyroid auto-antibodies immuno-localise in normal adult human cerebral cortex. Forensic samples from the frontal, motor, sensory, occipital, cingulate and parieto-occipito-temporal association cortices were obtained from five individuals who had died of trauma. Although there were no head injuries, the prior psychiatric history of patients was unknown. The tissues were probed with commercial antibodies against both human TSH-R and human thyroglobulin (TG). Anti-TSH-R IgG immuno-localised to cell bodies and axons of large neurones in all 6 regions of all 5 brains. The intensity and percentage of neurones labelled were similar in all tissue sections. TSH-R immuno-label was also observed in vascular endothelial cells in the cingulate gyrus. Although also found in all 5 brains and all six cortical regions, TG localised exclusively in vascular smooth muscle cells and not on neurones. Although limited by the small sample size and number of brain areas examined, this is the first study describing the presence of antigenic targets for anti-TSH-R IgG on human cortical neurons, and anti-TG IgG in cerebral vasculature. PMID:21196016

  11. Increased reprogramming of human fetal hepatocytes compared with adult hepatocytes in feeder-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Marc C; Gramignoli, Roberto; Blake, William; Davila, Julio; Skvorak, Kristen; Dorko, Kenneth; Tahan, Veysel; Lee, Brian R; Tafaleng, Edgar; Guzman-Lepe, Jorge; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Fox, Ira J; Strom, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been used to treat liver disease. The availability of cells for these procedures is quite limited. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) may be a useful source of hepatocytes for basic research and transplantation if efficient and effective differentiation protocols were developed and problems with tumorigenicity could be overcome. Recent evidence suggests that the cell of origin may affect hiPSC differentiation. Thus, hiPSCs generated from hepatocytes may differentiate back to hepatocytes more efficiently than hiPSCs from other cell types. We examined the efficiency of reprogramming adult and fetal human hepatocytes. The present studies report the generation of 40 hiPSC lines from primary human hepatocytes under feeder-free conditions. Of these, 37 hiPSC lines were generated from fetal hepatocytes, 2 hiPSC lines from normal hepatocytes, and 1 hiPSC line from hepatocytes of a patient with Crigler-Najjar syndrome, type 1. All lines were confirmed reprogrammed and expressed markers of pluripotency by gene expression, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and teratoma formation. Fetal hepatocytes were reprogrammed at a frequency over 50-fold higher than adult hepatocytes. Adult hepatocytes were only reprogrammed with six factors, while fetal hepatocytes could be reprogrammed with three (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG) or four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28 or OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, C-MYC). The increased reprogramming efficiency of fetal cells was not due to increased transduction efficiency or vector toxicity. These studies confirm that hiPSCs can be generated from adult and fetal hepatocytes including those with genetic diseases. Fetal hepatocytes reprogram much more efficiently than adult hepatocytes, although both could serve as useful sources of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes for basic research or transplantation. PMID:23394081

  12. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia. PMID:26896285

  13. The synthesis of dermatan sulphate proteoglycans by fetal and adult human articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Melching, L I; Roughley, P J

    1989-01-01

    Non-aggregating dermatan sulphate proteoglycans can be extracted from both fetal and adult human articular cartilage. The dermatan sulphate proteoglycans appear to be smaller in the adult, this presumably being due to shorter glycosaminoglycan chains, and these chains contain a greater proportion of their uronic acid residues as iduronate. Both the adult and fetal dermatan sulphate proteoglycans contain a greater amount of 4-sulphation than 6-sulphation of the N-acetylgalactosamine residues, in contrast with the aggregating proteoglycans, which always show more 6-sulphation on their chondroitin sulphate chains. In the fetus the major dermatan sulphate proteoglycan to be synthesized is DS-PGI, though DS-PGII is synthesized in reasonable amounts. In the adult, however, DS-PGI synthesis is barely detectable relative to DS-PGII, which is still synthesized in substantial amounts. Purification of the dermatan sulphate proteoglycans from adult cartilage is hampered by the presence of degradation products derived from the large aggregating proteoglycans, which possess similar charge, size and density properties, but which can be distinguished by their ability to interact with hyaluronic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2775229

  14. A Trimeric, V2-Deleted HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Vaccine Elicits Potent Neutralizing Antibodies but Limited Breadth of Neutralization in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Michelle A.; Elizaga, Marnie; Montefiori, David; Tomaras, Georgia D.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hural, John; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Sato, Alicia; Huang, Yunda; Frey, Sharon E.; Sato, Paul; Donnelly, John; Barnett, Susan; Corey, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. A key missing element in the development of a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is an immunogen that can generate broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates of the virus. Methods. This phase 1 clinical trial employed a DNA prime and subunit envelope protein boost in an attempt to generate cellular and humoral immune responses that might be desirable in a protective HIV vaccine. Priming was performed via intramuscular injection with gag and env DNA adsorbed to polylactide coglycolide microspheres, followed by boosting with a recombinant trimeric envelope (Env) glycoprotein delivered in MF59 adjuvant. Results. The DNA prime and protein boost were generally safe and well-tolerated. Env-specific CD4+ cellular responses were generated that were predominantly detected after Env protein boosting. Neutralizing antibody responses against the homologous SF162 viral isolate were remarkably strong and were present in the majority of vaccine recipients, including a strong response against CD4-induced epitopes on gp120. Despite the promising potency of this vaccine approach, neutralization breadth against heterologous tier 2 strains of HIV-1 was minimal. Conclusions. Potent neutralization against neutralization-sensitive strains of HIV is achievable in humans through a DNA prime, recombinant oligomeric Env protein boost regimen. Eliciting substantial breadth of neutralization remains an elusive goal.  Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00073216. PMID:21451004

  15. The influence of different combinations of gamma-linolenic, stearidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids on the fatty acid composition of blood lipids and mononuclear cells in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Miles, Elizabeth A; Banerjee, Tapati; Calder, Philip C

    2004-06-01

    This study set out to identify whether stearidonic acid (18:4n-3; STA) can be used to increase the eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) content of plasma lipids and cells in humans and to understand more about the effects of increased consumption of gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; GLA), STA and EPA in humans. Healthy young males were randomised to consume one of seven oil blends for a period of 12 weeks (9g oil/day) (n = 8-12 subjects/group). Palm oil, sunflower oil, an EPA-rich oil, borage oil (rich in GLA), and Echium oil (rich in STA) were blended in various combinations to generate a placebo oil and oils providing approximately 2g GLA + STA + EPA per day, but in different combinations. Blood was collected at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and the fatty acid compositions of plasma triacylglycerols, cholesteryl esters and phospholipids and of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) determined. Significant effects were observed with each lipid fraction. Neither STA nor its derivative 20:4n-3 appeared in any of the lipid fractions studied when STA (up to 1g/day) was consumed. However, STA (1g/day), in combination with GLA (0.9 g/day), increased the proportion of EPA in some lipid fractions, suggesting that STA-rich plant oils may offer a novel means of increasing EPA status. Furthermore, this combination tended to increase the dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6; DGLA) content of PBMCs, without an increase in arachidonic acid (AA) (20:4n-6) content. EPA consumption increased the EPA content of all lipid fractions studied. Consumption of GLA (2g/day), in the absence of STA or EPA, increased DGLA content with a tendency to increase AA content in some fractions. This effect was prevented by inclusion of EPA in combination with GLA. Thus, this study indicates that STA may be used as a precursor to increase the EPA content of human lipids and that combinations of GLA, STA and EPA can be used to manipulate the fatty acid compositions of lipid pools in subtle ways. Such effects

  16. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  17. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  18. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans. PMID:27096360

  19. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of progenitor cells from human adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Santana, Magda M; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Klaus; Bastos, Carlos A; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R; Cavadas, Cláudia; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10-12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells and TH(-)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH(+)/PNMT(+)). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  20. Isolation, Characterization, and Differentiation of Progenitor Cells from Human Adult Adrenal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Magda M.; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Karl; Bastos, Carlos A.; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10–12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+/β-3-tubulin+ cells and TH−/β-3-tubulin+ cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH+/PNMT+). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  1. Free-breathing diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the human heart in healthy volunteers using wavelet-based image fusion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongjiang; Viallon, Magalie; Delattre, Benedicte M A; Moulin, Kevin; Yang, Feng; Croisille, Pierre; Zhu, Yuemin

    2015-01-01

    Free-breathing cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising but challenging technique for the study of fiber structures of the human heart in vivo. This work proposes a clinically compatible and robust technique to provide three-dimensional (3-D) fiber architecture properties of the human heart. To this end, 10 short-axis slices were acquired across the entire heart using a multiple shifted trigger delay (TD) strategy under free breathing conditions. Interscan motion was first corrected automatically using a nonrigid registration method. Then, two post-processing schemes were optimized and compared: an algorithm based on principal component analysis (PCA) filtering and temporal maximum intensity projection (TMIP), and an algorithm that uses the wavelet-based image fusion (WIF) method. The two methods were applied to the registered diffusion-weighted (DW) images to cope with intrascan motion-induced signal loss. The tensor fields were finally calculated, from which fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and 3-D fiber tracts were derived and compared. The results show that the comparison of the FA values (FA(PCATMIP) = 0.45 ±0.10, FA(WIF) = 0.42 ±0.05, P=0.06) showed no significant difference, while the MD values ( MD(PCATMIP)=0.83 ±0.12×10(-3) mm (2)/s, MD(WIF)=0.74±0.05×10(-3) mm (2)/s, P=0.028) were significantly different. Improved helix angle variations through the myocardium wall reflecting the rotation characteristic of cardiac fibers were observed with WIF. This study demonstrates that the combination of multiple shifted TD acquisitions and dedicated post-processing makes it feasible to retrieve in vivo cardiac tractographies from free-breathing DTI acquisitions. The substantial improvements were observed using the WIF method instead of the previously published PCATMIP technique. PMID:25216480

  2. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  3. More than Volunteering: Active Citizenship through Youth Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This pack aims to provide materials to help all those involved in youth volunteering and post-16 citizenship education to ensure that there are some citizenship learning outcomes from these valuable experiences. The pack has been produced by the Post-16 Citizenship Support Programme to help the integration of citizenship education into post-16…

  4. FGF2-induced effects on transcriptome associated with regeneration competence in adult human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult human fibroblasts grown in low oxygen and with FGF2 supplementation have the capacity to tip the healing outcome of skeletal muscle injury – by favoring regeneration response in vivo over scar formation. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of control adult human dermal fibroblasts and induced regeneration-competent (iRC) fibroblasts to identify transcriptional changes that may be related to their regeneration competence. Results We identified a unique gene-expression profile that characterizes FGF2-induced iRC fibroblast phenotype. Significantly differentially expressed genes due to FGF2 treatment were identified and analyzed to determine overrepresented Gene Ontology terms. Genes belonging to extracellular matrix components, adhesion molecules, matrix remodelling, cytoskeleton, and cytokines were determined to be affected by FGF2 treatment. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis comparing control adult human fibroblasts with FGF2-treated fibroblasts identified functional groups of genes that reflect transcriptional changes potentially contributing to their regeneration competence. This comparative transcriptome analysis should contribute new insights into genes that characterize cells with greater regenerative potential. PMID:24066673

  5. Fas and Fas ligand expression in fetal and adult human testis with normal or deranged spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; D'Abrizio, P; Rucci, N; Silvano, G; Properzi, G; Straface, E; Cordeschi, G; Necozione, S; Gnessi, L; Arizzi, M; Ulisse, S

    2000-08-01

    In mice, the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system has been shown to be involved in germ cell apoptosis. In the present study we evaluated the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) in fetal and adult human testis. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated the expression of Fas and FasL messenger ribonucleic acids in adult testis, but not in fetal testis (20-22 weeks gestation). In situ RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry experiments on adult human testis demonstrated the expression of FasL messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in Sertoli and Leydig cells, whereas the expression of Fas was confined to the Leydig cells and sporadic degenerating spermatocytes. The number of Fas-positive germ cells per 100 Sertoli cell nuclei was increased in 10 biopsies with postmeiotic germ cell arrest compared to 10 normal testis biopsies (mean, 3.82 +/- 0.45 vs. 2.02 +/- 0.29; P = 0.0001), but not in 10 biopsies with meiotic germ cell arrest (mean, 1.56 +/- 1.07). Fas and FasL proteins were not expressed in cases of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Together, these findings may suggest that Fas/FasL expression in the human testis is developmentally regulated and under gonadotropin control. The increased germ cell expression of Fas in patients with postmeiotic germ cell arrest suggests that the Fas/FasL system may be involved in the quality control mechanism of the produced gametes. PMID:10946867

  6. Attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity: A Q methodology approach

    PubMed Central

    Kae Hwa, JO; Gyeong-Ju, AN; DOORENBOS, Ardith Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify the perceived attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity in order to determine the relationship of human dignity to its social and cultural background. Methods The Q methodology research technique was used to explore perceived attitude typology on the basis of the respondents’ ranking order for different statements. A convenience sampling method was used to select 40 Korean adults who were interested in human dignity to create statements. From the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a literature review, a total of 158 statements was obtained. The final 34 Q samples were selected from a review by two nursing professors and a Q methodology expert. Moreover, 38 respondents participated as P samples by sorting 34 Q statements on a nine-point normal distribution scale. The data were analyzed by using the QUANL software package. Results The following four types of attitudes about human dignity were identified in Korea: a happiness-oriented–self-pursuit type, relationship-oriented–self-recognition type, reflection-oriented–self-unification type, and discrimination-oriented–self-maintenance type. Conclusions The results indicate that approaches to developing human dignity education need to take this typology into account and the characteristics of the participants who fall into each category. These results provide general guidelines to understand Korean values for professional practice in various healthcare settings. PMID:22583944

  7. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  8. Impact of vector-priming on the immunogenicity of a live recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar typhi Ty21a vaccine expressing urease A and B from Helicobacter pylori in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Metzger, W G; Mansouri, E; Kronawitter, M; Diescher, S; Soerensen, M; Hurwitz, R; Bumann, D; Aebischer, T; Von Specht, B-U; Meyer, T F

    2004-06-01

    Orally administered recombinant Salmonella vaccines represent an attractive option for mass vaccination programmes against various infectious diseases. Therefore, it is crucial to gather knowledge about the possible impact of preexisiting immunity to carrier antigens on the immunogenicity of recombinant vaccines. Thirteen volunteers were preimmunized with Salmonella typhi Ty21a in order to evaluate the effects of prior immunization with the carrier strain. Then, they received three doses of 1-2 x 10(10) viable organisms of either the vaccine strain S. typhi Ty21a (pDB1) expressing subunits A and B of recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease (n = 9), or placebo strain S. typhi Ty21a (n = 4). Four volunteers were preimmunized and boosted with the vaccine strain S. typhi Ty21a (pDB1). No serious adverse effects were observed in any of the volunteers. Whereas none of the volunteers primed and boosted with the vaccine strain responded to the recombinant antigen, five of the nine volunteers preimmunized with the carrier strain showed cellular immune responses to H. pylori urease (56%). This supports the results of a previous study in non-preimmunized volunteers where 56% (five of nine) of the volunteers showed a cellular immune response to urease after immunisation with S. typhi Ty21a (pDB1). PMID:15149786

  9. Determination of amlodipine in human plasma using automated online solid-phase extraction HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry: application to a bioequivalence study of Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Jianzhong; Fu, Lizhi; Zhou, Huili; Hu, Xing Jiang; Liu, Jian; Chen, Junchun; Wu, Guolan

    2012-11-01

    An automated method (XLC-MS/MS) that uses online solid-phase extraction coupled with HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry was reported here for the first time to quantify amlodipine in human plasma. Automated pre-purification of plasma was performed using 10 mm × 2 mm HySphere C8 EC-SE online solid-phase extraction cartridges. After being eluted from the cartridge, the analyte and the internal standard were separated by HPLC and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometric detection was achieved in the multiple reaction monitoring mode using a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the positive electrospray ionization mode. The XLC-MS/MS method was validated and yielded excellent specificity. The calibration curve ranged from 0.10 to 10.22 ng/mL, and both the intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy values were within 8%. This method proved to be less laborious and was faster per analysis (high-throughput) than offline sample preparation methods. This method has been successfully applied in clinical pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence analyses. PMID:22770846

  10. Isolation and culture of adult epithelial stem cells from human skin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiru; Draheim, Kyle; Lyle, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The homeostasis of all self-renewing tissues is dependent on adult stem cells. As undifferentiated stem cells undergo asymmetric divisions, they generate daughter cells that retain the stem cell phenotype and transit-amplifying cells (TA cells) that migrate from the stem cell niche, undergo rapid proliferation and terminally differentiate to repopulate the tissue. Epithelial stem cells have been identified in the epidermis, hair follicle, and intestine as cells with a high in vitro proliferative potential and as slow-cycling label-retaining cells in vivo (1-3). Adult, tissue-specific stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of the tissues in which they reside during normal physiologic turnover as well as during times of stress (4-5). Moreover, stem cells are generally considered to be multi-potent, possessing the capacity to give rise to multiple cell types within the tissue (6). For example, rodent hair follicle stem cells can generate epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles (7-9). We have shown that stem cells from the human hair follicle bulge region exhibit multi-potentiality (10). Stem cells have become a valuable tool in biomedical research, due to their utility as an in vitro system for studying developmental biology, differentiation, tumorigenesis and for their possible therapeutic utility. It is likely that adult epithelial stem cells will be useful in the treatment of diseases such as ectodermal dysplasias, monilethrix, Netherton syndrome, Menkes disease, hereditary epidermolysis bullosa and alopecias (11-13). Additionally, other skin problems such as burn wounds, chronic wounds and ulcers will benefit from stem cell related therapies (14,15). Given the potential for reprogramming of adult cells into a pluripotent state (iPS cells)(16,17), the readily accessible and expandable adult stem cells in human skin may provide a valuable source of cells for induction and downstream therapy for a wide range of disease including diabetes and

  11. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi. PMID:25651699

  12. Urinary concentrations of parabens in Chinese young adults: implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wan-Li; Wang, Lei; Guo, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have indicated that high and systemic exposure to parabens can be harmful to human health. Although a few studies have reported urinary paraben levels in western countries, studies on paraben exposure in the Chinese population are limited. China is currently a major producer of parabens in the world. In this study, 109 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults (approximately 20 years old) were analyzed for five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-parabens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methyl-, propyl-, and ethyl-parabens were the three major paraben analogues found in all (100%) samples. The concentration of the sum of the five parabens ranged from 0.82 to 728 ng/mL with a geometric mean value of 17.4 ng/mL. Urinary concentration of parabens was 2-fold greater in females than in males. Based on the measured urinary concentrations, daily intake of parabens by the Chinese young adults was estimated and compared with those reported for United States adults. The estimated daily intakes (EDIurine) of parabens were 18.4 and 40.8 μg/kg bw/day for Chinese males and females, respectively, values that were lower than those reported for United States adults (74.7 μg/kg bw/day). Based on the reported concentrations of parabens in foods from China and the United States, the contribution of dietary intake to EDIurine was estimated to be 5.5, 2.6, and 0.42% for Chinese males, Chinese females, and United States adults, respectively, which indicates the significance of nondietary sources of parabens to human exposures. PMID:23744051

  13. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and its major metabolite, salicylic acid, in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetic study of Astrix in Korean healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Kyung; Seo, Kyung Ah; Jung, Eun Ji; Kim, Ho-Sook; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shon, Ji-Hong; Park, Kyung-Mi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2008-06-01

    The first liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) and one of its major metabolites, salicylic acid (SA), in human plasma using simvastatin as an internal standard has been developed and validated. For ASA analysis, a plasma sample containing potassium fluoride was extracted using a mixture of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the presence of 0.5% formic acid. SA, a major metabolite of ASA, was extracted from plasma using protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The compounds were separated on a reversed-phase column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid (8:2, v/v). The ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode were m/z 179 --> 137, 137 --> 93 and 435 --> 319 for ASA, SA and IS, respectively. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 9.3%, and the accuracy exceeded 86.5%. The lower limits of quantification for ASA and SA were 5 and 50 ng/mL, respectively. The developed assay method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA and SA after single oral administration of Astrix (entero-coated pellet, 100 mg of aspirin) to 10 Korean healthy male volunteers. PMID:18254152

  14. Rabbit Neonates and Human Adults Perceive a Blending 6-Component Odor Mixture in a Comparable Manner

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, Charlotte; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Chambault, Adeline; Béno, Noelle; Dosne, Thibaut; Chabanet, Claire; Schaal, Benoist; Coureaud, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Young and adult mammals are constantly exposed to chemically complex stimuli. The olfactory system allows for a dual processing of relevant information from the environment either as single odorants in mixtures (elemental perception) or as mixtures of odorants as a whole (configural perception). However, it seems that human adults have certain limits in elemental perception of odor mixtures, as suggested by their inability to identify each odorant in mixtures of more than 4 components. Here, we explored some of these limits by evaluating the perception of three 6-odorant mixtures in human adults and newborn rabbits. Using free-sorting tasks in humans, we investigated the configural or elemental perception of these mixtures, or of 5-component sub-mixtures, or of the 6-odorant mixtures with modified odorants' proportion. In rabbit pups, the perception of the same mixtures was evaluated by measuring the orocephalic sucking response to the mixtures or their components after conditioning to one of these stimuli. The results revealed that one mixture, previously shown to carry the specific odor of red cordial in humans, was indeed configurally processed in humans and in rabbits while the two other 6-component mixtures were not. Moreover, in both species, such configural perception was specific not only to the 6 odorants included in the mixture but also to their respective proportion. Interestingly, rabbit neonates also responded to each odorant after conditioning to the red cordial mixture, which demonstrates their ability to perceive elements in addition to configuration in this complex mixture. Taken together, the results provide new insights related to the processing of relatively complex odor mixtures in mammals and the inter-species conservation of certain perceptual mechanisms; the results also revealed some differences in the expression of these capacities between species putatively linked to developmental and ecological constraints. PMID:23341948

  15. Statistical optimization of a novel excipient (CMEC) based gastro retentive floating tablets of propranolol HCl and it’s in vivo buoyancy characterization in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation is to formulate gastro retentive floating drug delivery systems (GRFDDS) of propranolol HCl by central composite design and to study the effect of formulation variables on floating lag time, D1hr (% drug release at 1 hr) and t90 (time required to release 90% of the drug). 3 factor central composite design was employed for the development of GRFDDS containing novel semi synthetic polymer carboxymethyl ethyl cellulose (CMEC) as a release retarding polymer. CMEC, sodium bicarbonate and Povidone concentrations were included as independent variables. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were evaluated for in vitro buoyancy and dissolution studies. From the polynomial model fitting statistical analysis, it was confirmed that the response floating lag time and D1hr is suggested to quadratic model and t90 is suggested to linear model. All the statistical formulations followed first order rate kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The desirability function was used to optimize the response variables, each having a different target, and the observed responses were highly agreed with experimental values. Statistically optimized formulation was characterized by FTIR and DSC studies and found no interactions between drug and polymer. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the model in the development of GRFDDS containing a propranolol HCl. Statistically optimized formulation was evaluated for in vivo buoyancy studies in healthy humans for both fed and fasted states. From the results, it was concluded that gastric residence time of the floating tablets were enhanced at fed stage but not in fasted state. PMID:23351981

  16. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Fairchok, Mary P.; Danaher, Patrick J.; McDonough, Erin A.; Blair, Patrick J.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Schofield, Christina; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. Objectives To characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. Study design Observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. Results Eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18y. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11 HRV-B, and 19 HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusions Among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. PMID:25728083

  17. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  18. A Comparison between the Purpose and Goals of Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Whose Interests Are Being Served?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, John Stuart; Byxbe, Ferris

    2002-01-01

    The purposes and goals of adult education and human resource development (HRD) differ and even clash. They find common ground in the personal development function but differ in the control and motivation for learning. Adult education seeks to enable learner self-determination; HRD's focus is enabling organizational control through employee…

  19. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  1. Kinetics and genomic profiling of adult human and mouse β-cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Szabat, Marta; Pourghaderi, Poya; Soukhatcheva, Galina; Verchere, C Bruce; Warnock, Garth L; Piret, James M; Johnson, James D

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is a multifactorial metabolic disorder defined by the loss of functional pancreatic insulin-producing β-cells. The functional maturation and dedifferentiation of adult β-cells is central to diabetes pathogenesis and to β-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of diabetes. Despite its importance, the dynamics and mechanisms of adult β-cell maturation remain poorly understood. Using a novel Pdx1/Ins1 dual fluorescent reporter lentiviral vector, we previously found that individual adult human and mouse β-cells exist in at least two differentiation states distinguishable by the activation of the rat Ins1 promoter and performed the first real-time imaging of the maturation of individual cultured β-cells. Our previous study focused on transformed (MIN6) β-cells as a model to investigatethe kinetics of β-cell maturation. In the present study, we investigated the kinetics of the maturation process in primary human and mouse β-cells and performed gene expression profiling. Gene expression profiling of FACS purified immature Pdx1 (+) /Ins1 (low) cells and mature Pdx1 (high) /Ins1 (high ) cells from cultures of human islets, mouse islets and MIN6 cells revealed that Pdx1 (+) /Ins1 (low) cells are enriched for multiple genes associated with β-cell development/progenitor cells, proliferation, apoptosis, as well as genes coding for other islet cell hormones such as glucagon. We also demonstrated that the heterogeneity in β-cell maturation states previously observed in vitro, can also be found in vivo. Collectively, these experiments contribute to the understanding of maturation, dedifferentiation and plasticity of adult pancreatic β-cells. The results have significant implications for islet regeneration and for in vitro generation of functional β-cells to treat diabetes. PMID:21633187

  2. The mental representation of the human gait in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Tino; Jacksteit, Robert; Behrens, Martin; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    The link between mental representation (MREP) structures and motor performance has been evidenced for a great variety of movement skills, but not for the human gait. Therefore the present study sought to investigate the cognitive memory structures underlying the human gait in young and older adults. In a first experiment, gait parameters at comfortable gait speed (OptoGait) were compared with gait-specific MREPs (structural dimensional analysis of MREP; SDA-M) in 36 young adults. Participants were divided into a slow- and fast-walking group. The proven relationship between gait speed and executive functions such as working memory led to the hypothesis that gait pattern and MREP differ between slow- and fast-walking adults. In a second experiment, gait performance and MREPs were compared between 24 young (27.9 years) and 24 elderly (60.1 years) participants. As age-related declines in gait performance occur from the seventh decade of life onward, we hypothesized that gait parameters would not be affected until the age of 60 years accompanied by unchanged MREP. Data of experiment one revealed that gait parameters and MREPs differed significantly between slow and fast walkers. Notably, eleven previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries were documented for the slow walkers but only two injuries and one disorder for fast walkers. Experiment two revealed no age-related differences in gait parameters or MREPs between healthy young and older adults. In conclusion, the differences in gait parameters associated with lower comfortable gait speeds are reflected by differences in MREPs, whereby SDA-M data indicate that the single limb support phase may serve as a critical functional period. These differences probably resulted from previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries. Our data further indicate that the human gait and its MREP are stable until the age of 60. SDA-M may be considered as a valuable clinical tool for diagnosis of gait abnormalities and monitoring of

  3. Location and phenotype of human adult keratinocyte stem cells of the skin.

    PubMed

    Webb, Angela; Li, Amy; Kaur, Pritinder

    2004-10-01

    The location and identity of interfollicular epidermal stem cells of adult human skin remain undefined. Based on our previous work in both adult murine and neonatal human foreskin, we demonstrate that cell surface levels of the alpha6 integrin and the transferrin receptor (CD71) are valid markers for resolving a putative stem cell, transit amplifying and differentiating compartment in adult human skin by flow cytometry. Specifically, epidermal cells expressing high levels of alpha6 integrin and low levels of the transferrin receptor CD71 (phenotype alpha6 (bri)CD71(dim)) exhibit several stem cell characteristics, comprising a minor population (2%-5%) of the K14(bri) fraction, enriched for quiescent and small blast-like cells with high clonogenic capacity, lacking the differentiation marker K10. Conversely, the majority of K14(bri) K10(neg) epidermal cells express high levels of CD71 (phenotype alpha6 (bri)CD71(bri)), and represent the actively cycling fraction of keratinocytes displaying greater cell size due to an increase in cytoplasmic area, consistent with their being transient amplifying cells. The alpha6 (bri)CD71(bri) population exhibited intermediate clonogenic capacity. A third population of K14(dim) but K10 positive epidermal cells could be identified by their low levels of alpha6 integrin expression (i.e. alpha6 (dim) cells), representing the differentiation compartment; predictably, this subpopulation exhibited poor clonogenic efficiency. Flow cytometric analysis for the hair follicle bulge region (stem cell) marker K15 revealed preferential expression of this keratin in alpha6 (bri) cells (i.e., both stem and transient amplifying fractions), but not the alpha6 (dim) population. Given that K15 positive cells could only be detected in the deep rete ridges of adult skin in situ, we conclude that stem and transient amplifying cells reside in this location, while differentiating (K15 negative) cells are found in the shallow rete ridges. PMID:15606498

  4. Evaluating human papillomavirus vaccination programs in Canada: should provincial healthcare pay for voluntary adult vaccination?

    PubMed Central

    Llamazares, Marco; Smith?, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Background Recently, provincial health programs in Canada and elsewhere have begun rolling out vaccination against human papillomavirus for girls aged 9–13. While vaccination is voluntary, the cost of vaccination is waived, to encourage parents to have their daughters vaccinated. Adult women who are eligible for the vaccine may still receive it, but at a cost of approximately CAN$400. Given the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the vaccine, the possibility of eradicating targeted types of the virus may be feasible, assuming the vaccination programs are undertaken strategically. Methods We develop a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination against human papillomavirus, accounting for a widespread childhood vaccination program that may be supplemented by voluntary adult vaccination. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The critical vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity thresholds are derived, and the minimum level of adult vaccination required for eradication of targeted types is determined. Results We demonstrate that eradication of targeted types is indeed feasible, although the burden of coverage for a childhood-only vaccination program may be high. However, if a small, but non-negligible, proportion of eligible adults can be vaccinated, then the possibility of eradication of targeted types becomes much more favourable. We provide a threshold for eradication in general communities and illustrate the results with numerical simulations. We also investigate the effects of suboptimal efficacy and immunogenicity and show that there is a critical efficacy below which eradication of targeted types is not possible. If eradication is possible, then there is a critical immunogenicity such that even 100% childhood vaccination will not eradicate the targeted types of the virus and must be supplemented with voluntary adult vaccination. However, the level of adult vaccination coverage required is

  5. Uptake of dietary milk miRNAs by adult humans: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Amanda; Vyas, Gopi; Li, Anne; Halushka, Marc; Witwer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is replete with nutritional content as well as nucleic acids including microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent report, adult humans who drank bovine milk appeared to have increased circulating levels of miRNAs miR-29b-3p and miR-200c-3p. Since these miRNAs are homologous between human and cow, these results could be explained by xeno-miRNA influx, endogenous miRNA regulation, or both. More data were needed to validate the results and explore for additional milk-related alterations in circulating miRNAs. Samples from the published study were obtained, and 223 small RNA features were profiled with a custom OpenArray, followed by individual quantitative PCR assays for selected miRNAs. Additionally, small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data obtained from plasma samples of the same project were analyzed to find human and uniquely bovine miRNAs. OpenArray revealed no significantly altered miRNA signals after milk ingestion, and this was confirmed by qPCR. Plasma sequencing data contained no miR-29b or miR-200c reads and no intake-consistent mapping of uniquely bovine miRNAs. In conclusion, the results do not support transfer of dietary xenomiRs into the circulation of adult humans. PMID:27158459

  6. Quantitative analysis of miRNA expression in seven human foetal and adult organs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanping; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Lijie; Ingvarsson, Sigurdur; Chen, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    miRNAs have been found to repress gene expression at posttranscriptional level in cells. Studies have shown that expression of miRNAs is tissue-specific and developmental-stage-specific. The mechanism behind this could be explained by miRNA pathways. In this study, totally 54 miRNAs were analysed in 7 matched human foetal and adult organs (brain, colon, heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen) using real-time PCR. Quantitative analysis showed that a big proportion of the 54 miRNAs have higher general expression in the organs of the foetal period than the adult period, with the exception of the heart. The miRNA gene promoter methylation level in the adult stages was higher than in the foetal stages. Moreover, there is a high general expression level of several miRNAs in both stages of brain, kidney, liver, lung and spleen, but not seen in colon and heart. Our results indicate that the miRNAs may play a bigger role in the foetal stage than the adult stage of brain, colon, kidney, liver, lung and spleen. The majority of the miRNAs analysed may play an important role in the growth and development of brain, kidney, liver, lung and spleen. However, a minority of the miRNAs may be functional in colon and heart. PMID:22194897

  7. Identification of novel molecular markers through transcriptomic analysis in human fetal and adult corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinyin; Huang, Kevin; Nakatsu, Martin N; Xue, Zhigang; Deng, Sophie X; Fan, Guoping

    2013-04-01

    The corneal endothelium is composed of a monolayer of corneal endothelial cells (CECs), which is essential for maintaining corneal transparency. To better characterize CECs in different developmental stages, we profiled mRNA transcriptomes in human fetal and adult corneal endothelium with the goal to identify novel molecular markers in these cells. By comparing CECs with 12 other tissue types, we identified 245 and 284 signature genes that are highly expressed in fetal and adult CECs, respectively. Functionally, these genes are enriched in pathways characteristic of CECs, including inorganic anion transmembrane transporter, extracellular matrix structural constituent and cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity. Importantly, several of these genes are disease target genes in hereditary corneal dystrophies, consistent with their functional significance in CEC physiology. We also identified stage-specific markers associated with CEC development, such as specific members in the transforming growth factor beta and Wnt signaling pathways only expressed in fetal, but not in adult CECs. Lastly, by the immunohistochemistry of ocular tissues, we demonstrated the unique protein localization for Wnt5a, S100A4, S100A6 and IER3, the four novel markers for fetal and adult CECs. The identification of a new panel of stage-specific markers for CECs would be very useful for characterizing CECs derived from stem cells or ex vivo expansion for cell replacement therapy. PMID:23257286

  8. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  9. 14C-labeled substrate catabolism by human diploid fibroblasts derived from infants and adults

    SciTech Connect

    Rhead, W.J.; Moon, A.; Roettger, V.; Henkle, K.

    1985-10-01

    Untransformed diploid skin fibroblasts from eight normal adults, aged 24 to 74 years, catabolized several 14C-labeled substrates less effectively than cells from ten normal male infants. 14C-labeled substrate metabolism was quantitated either by measuring the evolution of 14CO2 from the 14C-labeled compounds or the incorporation of 14C into cellular protein via transamination of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates derived from the 14C-labeled substrates. With these methods, adult cells catabolized (1-14C)butyrate, (1-14C)octanoate, and 1-(2-14C)leucine at rates 44 to 64% of those found in infant cells. The oxidation of (1,4-14C)succinate and (U-14C)malate was identical in both infant and adult cells, while (2,3-14C)succinate catabolism was mildly decreased in adult cells (65-80% of control). These observations parallel those made in rat tissues and confirm that the same phenomenon occurs in cultured human fibroblasts.

  10. An LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of cefprozil diastereomers in human plasma and its application for the bioequivalence study of two cefprozil tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Ma, Jing-Yi; Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Hongna; Du, Aihua; Yang, Man; Meng, Lingjie; Deng, Ming; Liu, Huichen

    2016-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the first time and validated for the determination of cefprozil diastereomers in human plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation using acetonitrile. Detection was performed using an electronic spray ion source in the negative ion mode, operating in the multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 388.0 to m/z 205.0 for cefprozil diastereomers and m/z 346.1 to m/z 268.1 for cephalexin (the internal standard). The calibration curves of cis-cefprozil and trans-cefprozil were linear in the ranges 0.125-16.0 µg/mL and 0.0403-1.72 µg/mL, respectively. The lower limits of quantification of cis- and trans-cefprozil were 0.125 and 0.0403 µg/mL in human plasma, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions of cis- and trans-cefprozil were all <9.7%, and the accuracy ranged from 99.2 to 104.7% and from 100.6 to 102.2%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of two cefprozil formulations in 24 healthy Chinese volunteers. The two cefprozil tablets were bioequivalent by measurement of cis-, trans- and total cefprozil. We suggest that the bioequivalence of cefprozil formulations can be evaluated only using cis-cefprozil as the analyte in future studies. PMID:26129932

  11. Acceptance and Attitudes Toward a Human-like Socially Assistive Robot by Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Louie, Wing-Yue Geoffrey; McColl, Derek; Nejat, Goldie

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cognitive and social interventions are crucial to the overall health of older adults including their psychological, cognitive, and physical well-being. However, due to the rapidly growing elderly population of the world, the resources and people to provide these interventions is lacking. Our work focuses on the use of social robotic technologies to provide person-centered cognitive interventions. In this article, we investigate the acceptance and attitudes of older adults toward the human-like expressive socially assistive robot Brian 2.1 in order to determine if the robot's human-like assistive and social characteristics would promote the use of the robot as a cognitive and social interaction tool to aid with activities of daily living. The results of a robot acceptance questionnaire administered during a robot demonstration session with a group of 46 elderly adults showed that the majority of the individuals had positive attitudes toward the socially assistive robot and its intended applications. PMID:26131794

  12. Calpain proteolysis of alpha II-spectrin in the normal adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Huh, G Y; Glantz, S B; Je, S; Morrow, J S; Kim, J H

    2001-12-01

    The proteolysis of alphaII-spectrin by calpain may be physiologically involved with synaptic remodeling, long-term potentiation, and memory formation. Calpain activation may also mediate neuronal apoptosis, responses to hypoxic insult, and excitotoxic injury. Surprisingly little is known of the activity of these calpain-mediated processes in the adult human brain. Using an antibody that specifically recognizes calpain-cleaved alphaII-spectrin, we have mapped the topographic distribution of the major alphaII-spectrin break-down product (alphaII-bdp1) in six adult brains examined post-mortem. All brains were from patients without evident neurological disease. Focally positive alphaII-bdp1 was consistently detected in the neuropil of the cortical gray matter, in occasional pyramidal neurons, and in rare reactive astrocytes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Cerebellar Purkinje cells were more frequently, and more intensely, immunopositive. In all fields, staining was most intense in the soma and dendrites of neurons. There was no correlation of the frequency of positive cells with the postmortem interval or clinical condition. While these findings do not rigorously exclude contributions from postmortem calpain activation, they do suggest that a low-level of calpain processing of alphaII-spectrin is likely to be a constitutive process in the adult human brain. PMID:11720774

  13. Identification of Distinct Layers Within the Stratified Squamous Epithelium of the Adult Human True Vocal Fold

    PubMed Central

    Dowdall, Jayme R.; Sadow, Peter M.; Hartnick, Christopher; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Mou, Hongmei; Zhao, Rui; Song, Phillip C.; Franco, Ramon A.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis A precise molecular schema for classifying the different cell types of the normal human vocal fold epithelium is lacking. We hypothesize that the true vocal fold epithelium has a cellular architecture and organization similar to that of other stratified squamous epithelia including the skin, cornea, oral mucosa, and esophagus. In analogy to disorders of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, a molecular definition of the normal cell types within the human vocal fold epithelium and a description of their geometric relationships should serve as a foundation for characterizing cellular changes associated with metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Study Design Qualitative study with adult human larynges. Methods Histologic sections of normal human laryngeal tissue were analyzed for morphology (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical protein expression profile, including cytokeratins (CK13 and CK14), cornified envelope proteins (involucrin), basal cells (NGFR/p75), and proliferation markers (Ki67). Results We demonstrated that three distinct cell strata with unique marker profiles are present within the stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. We used these definitions to establish that cell proliferation is restricted to certain cell types and layers within the epithelium. These distinct cell types are reproducible across five normal adult larynges. Conclusion We have established that three layers of cells are present within the normal adult stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. Furthermore, replicating cell populations are largely restricted to the parabasal strata within the epithelium. This delineation of distinct cell populations will facilitate future studies of vocal fold regeneration and cancer. Level of Evidence N/A. PMID:25988619

  14. Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Liming; Cai, Xin; Maslov, Konstantin; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-11-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) of the human brain is challenging due to the fact that the skull strongly absorbs and scatters light, and attenuates and distorts ultrasound as well. For the first time, we demonstrated the feasibility of PAT through a whole adult human skull. A photon recycler (PR) was built to increase light transmittance through the skull. Both a graphite target and a canine brain were imaged through the skull. Use of the PR was found to improve the photoacoustic signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.4. In addition, subtraction of photoacoustic signals that arise from light absorption within the skull significantly improved the contrast of the target. Our results indicate that PAT can potentially be applied to in vivo human brain imaging.

  15. Fight Illiteracy with Volunteer Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1982-01-01

    Describes utilizing secondary students and college undergraduates of the United States to teach illiterate adults to read by returning their stories (oral history) to them in writing allowing literacy lessons on subjects known to the adult. (ERB)

  16. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M; Hunt, Karen A; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L; Karczewski, Konrad J; Barnes, Michael R; Barnett, Anthony H; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R; Trembath, Richard C; MacArthur, Daniel G; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A

    2016-04-22

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3222 British adults of Pakistani heritage with high parental relatedness, discovering 1111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer homozygous knockout genotypes than we expected, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent loss-of-function (LOF) variants per adult. When genetic data were linked to the individuals' lifelong health records, we observed no significant relationship between gene knockouts and clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this data set, we identified a healthy PRDM9-knockout mother and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child, and control individuals. Our results show that meiotic recombination sites are localized away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform on essential genetic loci and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans. PMID:26940866

  17. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  18. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M. Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A.; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O’Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A.; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R.; Trembath, Richard C.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3,222 British Pakistani-heritage adults with high parental relatedness, discovering 1,111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of gene function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer than expected homozygous knockout genotypes, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent LOF variants per adult. Linking genetic data to lifelong health records, knockouts were not associated with clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this dataset we identified a healthy PRDM9 knockout mother, and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child and controls, which showed meiotic recombination sites localised away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform upon essential genetic loci, and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans. PMID:26940866

  19. Cyclophilin D-Sensitive Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in Adult Human Brain and Liver Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Morota, Saori; Chen, Li; Matsuyama, Nagahisa; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Satoshi; Tanoue, Tadashi; Omi, Akibumi; Shibasaki, Futoshi; Shimazu, Motohide; Ikeda, Yukio; Uchino, Hiroyuki; Elmér, Eskil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) is considered to be a major cause of cell death under a variety of pathophysiological conditions of the central nervous system (CNS) and other organs. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the matrix protein cyclophilin D (CypD) prevents mPT and cell degeneration in several models of brain injury. If these findings in animal models are translatable to human disease, pharmacological inhibition of mPT offers a promising therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to validate the presence of a CypD-sensitive mPT in adult human brain and liver mitochondria. In order to perform functional characterization of human mitochondria, fresh tissue samples were obtained during hemorrhage or tumor surgery and mitochondria were rapidly isolated. Mitochondrial calcium retention capacity, a quantitative assay for mPT, was significantly increased by the CypD inhibitor cyclosporin A in both human brain and liver mitochondria, whereas thiol-reactive compounds and oxidants sensitized mitochondria to calcium-induced mPT. Brain mitochondria underwent swelling upon calcium overload, which was reversible upon calcium removal. To further explore mPT of human mitochondria, liver mitochondria were demonstrated to exhibit several classical features of the mPT phenomenon, such as calcium-induced loss of membrane potential and respiratory coupling, as well as release of the pro-apoptotic protein cytochrome c. We concluded that adult viable human brain and liver mitochondria possess an active CypD-sensitive mPT. Our findings support the rationale of CypD and mPT inhibition as pharmacological targets in acute and chronic neurodegeneration. PMID:21121808

  20. Inventory of Research on Adult Human Resource Development in Canada. Inventaire de la Recherche sur le Developpement des Ressources Humaines Adultes au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Garnet T.; Caldwell, George

    This bilingual directory of research (1963-68) in the development of adult human resources in Canada indicates types of projects undertaken, principal objectives, institutions involved, amounts and sources of funding. It also shows which areas of research have been well covered, those with little or no coverage, and those which might be given a…