Science.gov

Sample records for adult immersion test

  1. Critical evaluation of the modified-adult immersion test with discriminating dose bioassy for Boophilus microplus using American and Australian isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Similar adult immersion tests (AITs) for acaricide susceptibility of Boophilus microplus were done in Texas, USA (Muñoz strain) and in Queensland, Australia (N strain and Ultimo strain). Engorged adult female ticks were immersed in one of a series of dilutions of commercial acaricide in water and th...

  2. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sufficient size to enclose the can between them. The control sample must have a thermal conductivity of not more than 0.055 watt/meter−° K (0.38 Btu−in./hr.−sq.ft.− °F). The thermal conductivity of the control... suit during the test, and the suits used in the impact test must also be used in the thermal...

  3. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sufficient size to enclose the can between them. The control sample must have a thermal conductivity of not more than 0.055 watt/meter−° K (0.38 Btu−in./hr.−sq.ft.− °F). The thermal conductivity of the control... suit during the test, and the suits used in the impact test must also be used in the thermal...

  4. Ten years later: Evaluation of the effectiveness of 12.5% amitraz against a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using field studies, artificial infestation (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-12-15

    Using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and in vitro adult immersion tests, the present study evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of 12.5% amitraz administered via whole body spraying against a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population that did not have any contact with chemical products belonging to this acaricide family for 10 years (approximately 40 generations). Two natural infestation trials, two artificial infestation trials (Stall tests) and two adult immersion tests were performed in two different stages in 2005 and 2015. Between 2002 and 2015, the bovine herd of this property was formed by approximately 450 animals from the Simmental breed that were divided into nine paddocks formed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. For the natural infestation experiments in 2005 and 2015, we selected nearly 70 animals naturally infested with ticks from the same herd that belonged to the "São Paulo" farm located in São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil. Field studies were performed in the same paddock (9). To evaluate anti-R. (B.) microplus activity in the artificially infested cattle (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, two experiments of each methodology were performed at CPPAR (the Center of Research in Animal Health located on the FCAV/UNESP campus in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil) in 2005 and 2015. R. (B.) microplus used in the artificial infestation, and adult immersion test experiments were obtained from paddocks 1-9 in 2005 and 2015 from the commercial farm where the field studies were performed. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that amitraz use in rotation with pyrethroids every 28 days for three consecutive years (2002-2004) previous to the beginning of the first trial (2005) was sufficient to generate a R. (B.) microplus strain resistant to amitraz. Moreover, using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, we verified that 40 generations of the tick species with no

  5. A case study: Immersion coatings test program

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    The performance of several coating systems were tested for immersion exposure in potable water storage tank service. Tests were performed for a period of several months in-situ by application of coating systems test patches to a tank interior and was examined periodically during normal service operation. Concurrent with test patches, prepared test panels were placed in the immersion and vapor zones of the tank. Also, test panels were subjected to immersion and condensing humidity in a laboratory environment. All systems were applied in accordance with the respective manufacturers recommendations. Two levels of abrasive blast surface preparation were employed, SSPC-SP10 and SSPC-SP6. Coal slag and sodium bicarbonate were used as blast media. Additionally, some panels and selected tank areas were intentionally subjected to surface contamination in the form of soluble salts to assess the relative tolerance of the selected system to such steel substrate contamination.

  6. Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1986-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

  7. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Immersion Suits § 160.171-19 Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a)...

  8. Dynamic Processes of Speech Development by Seven Adult Learners of Japanese in a Domestic Immersion Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the dynamic process of speech development in a domestic immersion program by seven adult beginning learners of Japanese. The speech data were analyzed with fluency, accuracy, and complexity measurements at group, interindividual, and intraindividual levels. The results revealed the complex nature of language development…

  9. A Native Language Immersion Program for Adults: Reflections on Year 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maracle, David Kanatawakhon; Richards, Merle

    An adult immersion program in the Mohawk language took place in an Iroquois community in southern Ontario. The class was limited to 12 students who had taken a readiness course that introduced them to basic grammar and vocabulary. The class met daily in the relaxed setting of a house. The preparation and sharing of meals, the presence of fluent…

  10. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The... and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be within the ranges of weight and height...

  11. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The... and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be within the ranges of weight and height...

  12. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The... and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be within the ranges of weight and height...

  13. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The... and they can be of either sex. The subjects must be within the ranges of weight and height...

  14. Enhancing Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness to Pupils' Test-Anxiety with 3D Immersive Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Moshe, Ronit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether participating in a 3D immersive virtual reality world simulating the experience of test-anxiety would affect preservice teachers' awareness to the phenomenon. Ninety subjects participated in this study, and were divided into three groups. The experimental group experienced a 3D immersive simulation which made…

  15. Near Vision Test for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials Star Pupils ... Test for Adults Testing Near Vision and Distance Vision Prevent Blindness does NOT recommend that you ...

  16. Limitations of facial immersion as a test of parasympathetic activity in man.

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, L; Maciel, B C; Manço, J C; Marin Neto, J A

    1988-01-01

    1. The heart rate response to immersion of the face in water, as an isolated manoeuvre or in combination with apnoea, was studied in eight normal volunteers to establish the conditions under which it could be used as a standardized, simple, non-invasive and reproducible test of parasympathetic activity. 2. The following procedures were evaluated: (a) 10 s apnoea in air at different lung volumes; (b) facial immersion in water for 2 min at various temperatures (5, 15 and 25 degrees C), with respiration maintained through a closed circuit; (c) combination of immersion and apnoea at different lung volumes. Three volunteers were re-evaluated after pharmacological blockade with atropine sulphate (0.04 mg/kg body weight). 3. The results showed that: (a) apnoea in air triggered lung volume-dependent heart rate responses; (b) facial immersion in water induced transient bradycardia which was maximum between 20 and 30 s of immersion; (c) there was no appreciable difference in the bradycardia evoked by immersion at different temperatures; (d) the combination of immersion and apnoea caused heterogeneous heart rate responses with no potentiation of bradycardia in relation to each manoeuvre as performed separately; (e) atropine did not reduce the magnitude of bradycardia induced by immersion in two of the subjects studied. 4. The variability of responses observed in the present study was probably due to the multiple receptors and afferent pathways that are simultaneously excited during these manoeuvres. As a consequence, the autonomic efferent response will depend on the unpredictable net effect of interaction of these mechanisms. This is a limiting factor for the standardization of this test as a simple and reproducible method for the assessment of parasympathetic activity. 5. Furthermore, the results obtained under pharmacological blockade indicate that the vagal efferent mechanism is not the only factor responsible for the bradycardia caused by facial immersion without apnoea

  17. Testing in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehringhaus, Carolyn

    1991-01-01

    Responses from 427 adult basic education teachers (51 percent response) indicated that (1) 84.8 percent use tests for placement; (2) the Tests of Adult Basic Education are overwhelmingly the most frequently used; and (3) 77.7 percent find their testing practices effective, although informal observation and assessment received the highest ranking.…

  18. Cultivating Imagination: Development and Pilot Test of a Therapeutic Use of an Immersive Virtual Reality CAVE

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Nicolalde, F. Daniel; Ponto, Kevin; Kinneberg, Megan; Freese, Vito; Paz, Dana

    2013-01-01

    As informatics applications grow from being data collection tools to platforms for action, the boundary between what constitutes informatics applications and therapeutic interventions begins to blur. Emerging computer-driven technologies such as virtual reality (VR) and mHealth apps may serve as clinical interventions. As part of a larger project intended to provide complements to cognitive behavioral approaches to health behavior change, an interactive scenario was designed to permit unstructured play inside an immersive 6-sided VR CAVE. In this pilot study we examined the technical and functional performance of the CAVE scenario, human tolerance of immersive CAVE experiences, and explored human imagination and the manner in which activity in the CAVE scenarios varied by an individual’s level of imagination. Nine adult volunteers participated in a pilot-and-feasibility study. Participants tolerated 15 minute long exposure to the scenarios, and navigated through the virtual world. Relationship between personal characteristics and behaviors are reported and explored. PMID:24551327

  19. Alternate Immersion in an External Glucose Solution Differentially Affects Blood Sugar Values in Older Versus Younger Zebrafish Adults.

    PubMed

    Connaughton, Victoria P; Baker, Cassandra; Fonde, Lauren; Gerardi, Emily; Slack, Carly

    2016-04-01

    Recently, zebrafish have been used to examine hyperglycemia-induced complications (retinopathy and neuropathy), as would occur in individuals with diabetes. Current models to induce hyperglycemia in zebrafish include glucose immersion and streptozotocin injections. Both are effective, although neither is reported to elevate blood sugar values for more than 1 month. In this article, we report differences in hyperglycemia induction and maintenance in young (4-11 months) versus old (1-3 years) zebrafish adults. In particular, older fish immersed in an alternating constant external glucose solution (2%) for 2 months displayed elevated blood glucose levels for the entire experimental duration. In contrast, younger adults displayed only transient hyperglycemia, suggesting the fish were acclimating to the glucose exposure protocol. However, modifying the immersion protocol to include a stepwise increasing glucose concentration (from 1% → 2%→3%) resulted in maintained hyperglycemia in younger zebrafish adults for up to 2 months. Glucose-exposed younger fish collected after 8 weeks of exposure also displayed a significant decrease in wet weight. Taken together, these data suggest different susceptibilities to hyperglycemia in older and younger fish and that stepwise increasing glucose concentrations of 1% are required for maintenance of hyperglycemia in younger adults, with higher concentrations of glucose resulting in greater increases in blood sugar values. PMID:26771444

  20. Quantitative evaluation of material degradation of thermally aged duplex stainless steels using chemical immersion test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Y. S.; Shoji, T.

    1996-12-01

    In order to develop a non-destructive evaluation technique for detection of thermal aging embrittlement of duplex stainless steels, corrosion tests on unaged and aged specimens of cast duplex stainless steels were performed in 5 wt% HCl solution. After the immersion test, the dissolution rate of specimens was obtained by a dissolved depth measurement with an AFM. In the measurements of dissolved depths, a replica technique was used for easier handling and also for a possible field application of the AFM analysis method. Changes in corrosion properties by aging measured in terms of the dissolved depth after the immersion were compared with the changes in mechanical properties by aging embrittlement. The changes in corrosion properties of unaged and aged specimen were analyzed in relation to the microstructural change by thermal aging. Based upon insights on the immersion test results and the comparison of the changes in corrosion properties and mechanical properties, a possible non-destructive detection and evaluation technique for thermal aging embrittlement by spinodal decomposition is proposed.

  1. Guided ultrasonic wave testing of an immersed plate with hidden defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Abdollah; Rizzo, Piervincenzo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study in which guided ultrasonic waves are used for the contactless nondestructive testing of a plate immersed in water. In the experiment, narrowband leaky Lamb waves are generated using a focused transducer and are detected with an array of five immersion sensors arranged in a semicircle. The ultrasonic signals are processed to extract a few damage-sensitive features from the time and frequency domains. These features are then fed to an artificial neural network to identify the presence of hidden defects, i.e., defects devised on the surface of the plate not facing the probing system. We find that the noncontact inspection system and the signal processing technique enable the classification of the plate health with a success rate >75%.

  2. Influence of temperature on irritation in the hand/forearm immersion test.

    PubMed

    Clarys, P; Manou, I; Barel, A O

    1997-05-01

    As indicated by in vitro experiments the penetration of irritants through the skin is significantly influenced by the temperature of the solution. In vivo experiments, demonstrated equally a significant influence of temperature in surfactant-induced skin irritation. In order to evaluate the irritant potential of detergent solutions under normal user conditions, we used the hand/forearm immersion test. We compared 2 detergents with different anionic character in a repetitive immersion protocol (30 min immersion on 4 consecutive days). The solutions were tested at 2 temperatures (37 degrees C and 40 degrees C). The irritation was quantified by assessment of the stratum corneum barrier function (transepidermal water loss), skin redness (a* colour parameter) and skin dryness (capacitance method). Both detergents affected the integrity of the skin in a significant way. The anionic content as well as the temperature of the solutions were found to be determinative for the irritant potential, with a stronger response for higher anionic content and temperature, respectively. PMID:9197957

  3. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment may benefit, not harm, young adult staff members.

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S; Earleywine, M

    2015-08-01

    Despite the success of weight-management programmes, some researchers caution that participation in an aggressive approach to weight management could promote the development of eating pathology. The current study evaluated the risks and benefits for young adults of serving as staff members in an immersion treatment of adolescent obesity over the course of a summer. Participants included weight loss staff members (n = 108) along with a comparison group of young adults with similar demographic characteristics (n = 136). Participants completed assessments of eating disorder and obesity risk at three time points: the beginning of the summer, the end of the summer and a 6-week follow-up. Weight loss leadership participants who were initially overweight lost weight over the course of the summer, but those at healthy weights maintained their weight. Comparison participants also maintained their weight during the summer. Weight loss staff members also increased dietary restraint over the summer, and increases in dietary restraint appeared to facilitate appropriate weight reduction. Participation as a leader in an immersion weight loss programme seemed to benefit, not harm, young adults; this suggests potential advantages for using weight controlling interventions in a wide range of individuals, including as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:26129749

  4. Young Adults' Perceptions and Use of Bilingualism as a Function of an Early Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilotti, Maura; Gutierrez, Anna; Klein, Eric; Mahamame, Salif

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine whether perceptions of bilingualism differed between two bilingual groups, those whose elementary education was shaped by a Spanish immersion program and those who had received an English-focused education. A structured interview was administered to gather information about self-perceived language…

  5. Immersive CAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

  6. Syringe test (modified larval immersion test): a new bioassay for testing acaricidal activity of plant extracts against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Zia-ud-Din; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Iqbal, Zafar

    2012-09-10

    We report a new bioassay "syringe test" (modified larval immersion test) for in vitro evaluation of acaricidal activity of crude plant extracts. Prepared syringes, containing eggs of tick, were incubated until 14 d after hatching of eggs, when the bioassay was performed on the larvae. Lethal concentrations for 50% of larvae (LC(50)), LC(90) and LC(99) values were calculated for each tested product. 95% confidence intervals for LC(50) were very narrow, indicating a high degree of repeatability for the new bioassay on larvae of R. microplus. Bioassays were applied to six crude aqueous-methanol extracts from five plants (Acacia nilotica, Buxus papillosa, Fumaria parviflora, Juniperus excelsa, and Operculina turpethum), of which three showed discernible effects. Twenty-four hours post exposure, LC(99) values were 11.9% (w/v) for F. parviflora, 20.8% (w/v) and 29.2% (w/v) for B. papillosa and A. nilotica, respectively. After six days of exposure these values were; 9.1% (w/v), 9.2% (w/v) and 15.5 (w/v) for F. parviflora, A. nilotica and B. papillosa, respectively. PMID:22516644

  7. Thorough approach to measurement uncertainty analysis applied to immersed heat exchanger testing

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R B; Wells, C V

    1986-04-01

    This paper discusses the value of an uncertainty analysis, discusses how to determine measurement uncertainty, and then details the sources of error in instrument calibration, data acquisition, and data reduction for a particular experiment. Methods are discussed to determine both the systematic (or bias) error in an experiment as well as to determine the random (or precision) error in the experiment. The detailed analysis is applied to two sets of conditions in measuring the effectiveness of an immersed coil heat exchanger. It shows the value of such analysis as well as an approach to reduce overall measurement uncertainty and to improve the experiment. This paper outlines how to perform an uncertainty analysis and then provides a detailed example of how to apply the methods discussed in the paper. The authors hope this paper will encourage researchers and others to become more concerned with their measurement processes and to report measurement uncertainty with all of their test results.

  8. Immersion tests of TiB/sub 2/-based materials for aluminum processing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, C.H.; Graff, G.L.

    1988-07-01

    This report summarizes molten Al immersion tests conducted under the Stable Cathode Development task to evaluate the microstructural behavior of TiB/sub 2/-based materials. Four types of TiB/sub 2/- based materials were evaluated before and after nonpolarized exposure to molten Al at temperatures encountered in Hall-Heroult cells. Three of the materials, TiB/sub 2/-graphite (TiB/sub 2/-G) composites, TiB/sub 2/-aluminium nitride (AIN) composites, and high-purity TiB/sub 2/ sintered from halide plasma reduction powders, were chosen because they are prime candidates for Al-wetted cathode applications, based on a literature review (Schilling, Hagen, and Hart 1987) and previous experimental research at PNL (Hart et at. 1987). Ceramic fiber mesh coated with chemical-vapor-infiltrated TiB/sub 2/ was also evaluated, based on the expected wear resistance of the high-purity TiB/sub 2/ coatings and the possibility of designing advanced cells with complex cathode shapes that are not possible attack mechanisms that are related to chemical reactions between molten Al and cathode constituents.

  9. Adult Cognitive Styles and Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrulis, Richard S.; Bush, David

    1977-01-01

    Adult males (N=90) ages 25 to 58 were individually tested with three cognitive style measures. Error scores on the MFF (Matching Familiar Figures Test) are a better predictor of test performance than are latencies. Presented at the 84th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., 1976. (Author)

  10. Antinociceptive effects of two deltorphins analogs in the tail-immersion test in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kotlinska, J.H.; Gibula-Bruzda, E.; Witkowska, E.; Chung, N.N.; Schiller, P.W.; Izdebski, J.

    2014-01-01

    The antinociceptive effects of analogs of deltorphins: cyclo(Nδ,Nδ-carbonyl-D-Orn2, Orn4)deltorphin (DEL-6) and deltorphin II N-(ureidoethyl)amide (DK-4) after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration were investigated in the tail-immersion test in rats. Morphine, the most commonly used μ-opioid receptors (MOR) agonist, was employed as a reference compound. The contribution of the MOR, δ-(DOR) and κ-opioid receptors (KOR) in antinociceptive effects of the deltorphins analogs was studies using selective antagonists of these receptors. The results indicated that DK-4 (5, 10 and 20 nmol) and DEL-6 (5, 10 and 20 nmol) were the most effective in alleviating thermal pain at the dose of 20 nmol. The antinociceptive potency of DEL-6 at the dose of 20 nmol was approximately equal but DK-4 at the dose of 20 nmol was less effective than morphine at the dose of 13 nmol. DOR antagonist – naltrindole (NTI, 5 nmol) very strongly and, to the lower extent MOR antagonist – β-funaltrexamine (β-FNA, 5 nmol), inhibited antinociceptive effect of DK-4 (20 nmol). In turn, β-FNA was more potent than NTI in inhibition of the antinociceptive effects of DEL-6. Co-administration of DEL-6 and morphine at doses of 5 nmol, which do not produce measurable antinociception, generated additive antinociceptive effect. Chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of morphine (9 days) displayed a marked analgesic tolerance to the challenge dose of morphine and a slight cross-tolerance to challenge doses of DEL-6 and DK-4, given i.c.v. These findings indicate that the new deltorphin analogs recruit DOR and MOR to attenuate the nociceptive response to acute thermal stimuli. PMID:23183627

  11. Testing Solutions for Adult Film Performers.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the nation's adult films are produced in California, and within California, most production occurs in Los Angeles. In order to regulate that content, the County of Los Angeles passed the Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act (Measure B) by way of referendum in November 2012. Measure B requires that adult film producers wishing to film in Los Angeles County obtain permits from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, and it also mandates that adult film performers use condoms while filming and "engaging in anal or vaginal sexual intercourse." Nevertheless, between August 2013 and January 2014, several adult film performers in California tested positive for HIV, and the threat of infection remains. Although Measure B is not the best way forward for Los Angeles County, elements of the ordinance should be incorporated into future legislative efforts. Given the economic ramifications of industry flight due to more localized regulations, this Note concludes that California should pass statewide comprehensive reform. Any such new legislation must treat "independent contractors," the classification generally used for adult film performs, as if they were regular employees. Legislation should also couple mandatory testing mechanisms with provisions granting performers the right to choose whether they use condoms. Finally, legislation must include mechanisms that ensure performers' preferences are not improperly tainted by outside forces and pressures. While there will always be risks associated with the production of adult content, if undertaken, these reforms could significantly mitigate those hazards. PMID:26809162

  12. Fabrication and testing of a silicon immersion grating for infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Stevens, C.G.

    1994-07-25

    Recent advances in silicon micromachining techniques (e.g. anisotropic etching) allow the fabrication of very coarse infrared echelle gratings. When used in immersion mode, the dispersion is increased proportionally to the refractive index. This permits a very significant reduction in the overall size of a spectrometer while maintaining the same resolution. We have fabricated a right triangular prism (30{times}60{times}67 mm with a rectangular entrance face 30{times}38 mm) from silicon with a grating etched into the face of the hypotenuse. The grating covers an area of 32 mm by 64 mm and has a 97.5 PM periodicity with a blaze angle of 63.4{sup o}. The groove surfaces are very smooth with a roughness of a few manometers. Random defects in the silicon are the dominant source of grating scatter ({approx} 12% at 3.39 {mu}m). We measure a grating ghost intensity of 1.2%. The diffraction peak is quite narrow, slightly larger than the Airy disc diameter at F/12. However due to wavefront aberrations, perhaps 15--20% of the diffracted power is in the peak with the rest distributed in a diameter roughly five times the Airy disc.

  13. Immersive video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  14. Industry Immersion for Reading and Mathematics Improvement. Valley Products Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paul L.; And Others

    An intensive industry immersion program of reading and mathematics was conducted in Spring 1989 for employees at Valley Products, Inc., in a cooperative venture by the Literacy Foundation, Memphis, the Memphis City Schools Adult Education Program, and the company. Employee participants were assessed with the San Diego Quick Assessment Test to…

  15. Oxidative status in testis and epididymal sperm parameters after acute and chronic stress by cold-water immersion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, Erika Cecilia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Aragón-Martínez, Andrés; Ibarra-Arias, Juan Antonio; del Socorro I Retana-Márquez, María

    2015-06-01

    Stress is associated with detrimental effects on male reproductive function. It is known that stress increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the male reproductive tract. High ROS levels may be linked to low sperm quality and male infertility. However, it is still not clear if ROS are generated by stress in the testis. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of oxidative stress induced by cold-water immersion stress in the testis of adult male rats and its relation with alterations in cauda epididymal sperm. Adult male rats were exposed to acute stress or chronic stress by cold-water immersion. Rats were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours immediately following acute stress exposure, and after 20, 40, and 50 days of chronic stress. ROS production increased only at 6 hours post-stress, while the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and sperm parameters were not modified in the testis. Corticosterone increased immediately after acute stress, whereas testosterone was not modified. After chronic stress, testicular absolute weight decreased; in addition, ROS production and LPO increased at 20, 40, and 50 days. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased throughout the duration of chronic stress and the activity of catalase (CAT) decreased at 40 and 50 days, and increased at 20 days. The expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and CAT were not modified, but the expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx-4) decreased at 20 days. Motility, viability, and sperm count decreased, while abnormal sperm increased with chronic stress. These results suggest that during acute stress there is a redox state regulation in the testis since no deleterious effect was observed. In contrast, equilibrium redox is lost during chronic stress, with low enzyme activity but without modifying their expression. In addition, corticosterone increased

  16. Both young and older adults discount suggestions from older adults on a social memory test.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test. PMID:23397236

  17. Losing access to the native language while immersed in a second language: evidence for the role of inhibition in second-language learning.

    PubMed

    Linck, Jared A; Kroll, Judith F; Sunderman, Gretchen

    2009-12-01

    Adults are notoriously poor second-language (L2) learners. A context that enables successful L2 acquisition is language immersion. In this study, we investigated the effects of immersion learning for a group of university students studying abroad in Spain. Our interest was in the effect of immersion on the native language (L1), English. We tested the hypothesis that immersion benefits L2 learning as a result of attenuated influence of the L1. Participants were English-speaking learners of Spanish who were either immersed in Spanish while living in Spain or exposed to Spanish in the classroom only. Performance on both comprehension and production tasks showed that immersed learners outperformed their classroom counterparts with respect to L2 proficiency. However, the results also revealed that immersed learners had reduced L1 access. The pattern of data is most consistent with the interpretation that the L1 was inhibited while the learners were immersed. PMID:19906121

  18. Larval immersion tests with ivermectin in populations of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval immersion tests (LIT) with commercial formulation of ivermectin were carried out with larvae of two field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from commercial dairy farms of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil and a susceptible strain (Porto Alegre) to differentiate resistant suspect...

  19. Design, simulation and test of silicon immersed gratings: key to compact spectrometers in the short-wave infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Amerongen, Aaldert H.; Tol, Paul J. J.; Coppens, Tonny H. M.; Schuurhof, Ruud; Laubert, Phillip P.; Ruijter, Jos; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present results of our integrated approach to the development of novel diffraction gratings. At SRON we manufacture prism-shaped silicon immersed gratings. Diffraction takes place inside the high-refractive index medium, boosting the resolving power and the angular dispersion. This enables highly compact spectrometer designs. We are continuously improving the cycle of design, simulation and test to create custom gratings for space and ground-based spectroscopic applications in the short-wave infrared wavelength range. Applications are space-based monitoring of greenhouse and pollution gases in the Earth atmosphere and ground-based SWIR spectroscopy for, a.o., characterization of exo-planet atmospheres [1]. We make gratings by etching V-shaped grooves in mono-crystalline silicon. The groove facets are aligned with the crystal lattice yielding a smooth and highly deterministic groove shape. This enables us to predict the polarized efficiency performance accurately by simulation. Feeding back manufacturing tolerances from our production process, we can also determine reliable error bars for the predicted performance. Combining the simulated values for polarized efficiency with ray-tracing, we can optimize the shape of the grating prism to eliminate unwanted internal reflections. In this contribution we present the architecture of our design and simulation platform as well as a description of test setups and typical results.

  20. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... eyes at any point between the two positions. (ii) While wearing the suit, each subject stands upright... region, a thermistor or thermocouple on the tip of the index finger, and a thermistor or thermocouple on the tip of the great toe. Each thermistor or thermocouple must have an accuracy of 0.1 °C (0.18...

  1. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... eyes at any point between the two positions. (ii) While wearing the suit, each subject stands upright... region, a thermistor or thermocouple on the tip of the index finger, and a thermistor or thermocouple on the tip of the great toe. Each thermistor or thermocouple must have an accuracy of 0.1 °C (0.18...

  2. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... eyes at any point between the two positions. (ii) While wearing the suit, each subject stands upright... region, a thermistor or thermocouple on the tip of the index finger, and a thermistor or thermocouple on the tip of the great toe. Each thermistor or thermocouple must have an accuracy of 0.1 °C (0.18...

  3. To Test or Not to Test? Metabolic Testing in Adolescents and Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, Ute; de Die-Smulders, Christine; Martens, Herman; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Spaapen, Leo

    2008-01-01

    In order to add to the knowledge on adult phenotypes of metabolic disorders associated with intellectual disability (ID) and to evaluate criteria for recommending metabolic testing of adolescents and adults with unexplained ID, the authors analyzed retrospectively the outcome of metabolic investigations performed during a 10-year period on 256…

  4. Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment of ultrasonic beam parameters from immersion transducers used to non-destructive testing.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, A V; Silva, C E R; Costa-Félix, R P B

    2016-07-01

    The uncertainty of ultrasonic beam parameters from non-destructive testing immersion probes was evaluated using the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) uncertainty framework and Monte Carlo Method simulation. The calculated parameters such as focal distance, focal length, focal widths and beam divergence were determined according to EN 12668-2. The typical system configuration used during the mapping acquisition comprises a personal computer connected to an oscilloscope, a signal generator, axes movement controllers, and a water bath. The positioning system allows moving the transducer (or hydrophone) in the water bath. To integrate all system components, a program was developed to allow controlling all the axes, acquire waterborne signals, and calculate essential parameters to assess and calibrate US transducers. All parameters were calculated directly from the raster scans of axial and transversal beam profiles, except beam divergence. Hence, the positioning system resolution and the step size are principal source of uncertainty. Monte Carlo Method simulations were performed by another program that generates pseudo-random samples for the distributions of the involved quantities. In all cases, there were found statistical differences between Monte Carlo and GUM methods. PMID:27107164

  5. Screening Tests for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Joanne E.; Culpepper, Larry; Cerreto, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities need thoughtful, well-coordinated primary care from family physicians. However, evidence-based screening recommendations are lacking. We examined screening recommendations for common preventable conditions using the US Preventative Service Task Force guidelines. We also reviewed the literature about the prevalence of these conditions in adults with intellectual disabilities. Obesity, osteoporosis, and smoking are more prevalent in adults with intellectual disabilities, and enhanced screening for these conditions is recommended. Abnormal Papanicolaou smears and cervical cancer are less common in adults with intellectual disabilities and screening recommendations should be individualized. We also discussed strategies to make screening procedures less stressful for these patients. PMID:17615421

  6. A Resource Guide of Tests for Adult Basic Education Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellers, Robert W.

    This booklet provides adult basic education teachers with information on 77 tests and measurement instruments currently available that were mentioned as useful and effective on a survey of approximately 350 adult education teachers in Pennsylvania and others throughout the country. The tests are listed under the categories of diagnostic,…

  7. Adult Learning and High-Stakes Testing: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Grace

    2004-01-01

    In this world of increasing competition for jobs and accountability in the workplace, adults are facing many new pressures, one of which is passing tests as part of the application process. This is especially difficult for adults who are academically challenged or did not go far enough with their education to feel comfortable in testing…

  8. The Effects of Microtraining for Attending Behaviors in Adult Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Stephen S.; Jahns, Irwin R.

    It has been the experience of most adult basic education teachers that their students are apprehensive about taking tests. The study evaluates the effects of training adult basic education teachers in behavioral attending skills. Two basic questions were investigated: (1) Would the training of instructors in the use of behavior attending skills…

  9. EFFECT OF ADULT MALLARD AGE ON AVIAN REPRODUCTIVE TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was designed to determine the effect of using two different ages of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) adults within the first breeding season on reproductive tests under standard Toxic Substances Control Act avian reproductive guidelines. The adult age groups were 7 and 11 m...

  10. Tests to determine LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their standardization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory test were carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to determine fipronil toxicity. Adult immersion test (AIT), larval immersion test (LIT) and larval packet test (LPT) were standardized using susceptible strain (Mozo). Curves dose-response ...

  11. Study of the Effect of Molten Copper Chloride Immersion Test on Alloys with High Nickel Content with and without Surface Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siantar, Edwin

    The demand for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier has increased greatly. The Cu-Cl cycle is a promising thermochemical cycle that is currently being developed to be the large-scale method of hydrogen production. The lifetime of materials for the pipes transporting molten CuCl is an important parameter for an economic design of a commercial thermochemical Cu-Cl hydrogen plant. This research is an examination of candidate materials following an immersion test in molten CuCl at 500 °C for 100 h. Two alloys, Ni based super-alloy (Inconel 625) and super austenitic stainless steel (AL6XN) were selected as the base metal. There were two types of coating applied to improve the corrosion resistance of the base metals during molten CuCl exposure. A metallic of Diamalloy 4006 and two ceramic of yttria stabilized zirconia and alumina coatings were applied to the base metal using thermal spray methods. An immersion apparatus was designed and constructed to perform an immersion test that has a condition similar to those in a hydrogen plant. After the immersion test, the materials were evaluated using an electrochemical method in combination with ex-situ surface analysis. The surface condition including elemental composition, film structure and resistivity of the materials were examined and compared. The majority of the coatings were damaged and fell off. Cracks were found in the original coated specimens indicating the sample geometry may have affected the integrity of the sprayed coating. When the coating cracked, it provided a pathway for the molten CuCl to go under the coating and react with the surface underneath the coating. Copper deposits and iron chloride that were found on the sample surfaces suggest that there were corrosion reactions that involved the metal dissolution and reduction of copper during immersion test. The results also suggest that Inconel 625 performed better than stainless steel AL6XN. Both Diamalloy 4006 and YSZ (ZrO2 18TiO2 10Y2O3) coatings seemed to

  12. Native Language Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    This paper describes the benefits of indigenous mother tongue immersion programs, examining the Total Physical Response approach to immersion for beginning learners and focusing on the development of Maori and Hawaiian mother tongue language immersion programs. The paper discusses the importance of immersing students in a language-risk…

  13. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  14. The robustness of diagnostic tests for GH deficiency in adults.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    Since the 1970s, GH treatment has been an important tool in paediatric endocrinology for the management of growth retardation. It is now accepted that adults with severe GH deficiency (GHD) demonstrate impaired physical and psychological well-being and may benefit from replacement therapy with recombinant human GH. There is, however, an ongoing debate on how to diagnose GHD, especially in adults. A GH response below the cut-off limit of a GH-stimulation test is required in most cases for establishing GHD in adults. No 'gold standard' GH-stimulation test exists, but some GH stimulation tests may be more robust to variations in patient characteristics such as age and gender, as well as to pre-test conditions like heat exposure due to a hot bath or bicycling. However, body mass index (BMI) is negatively associated with GH-responses to all available GH-stimulation tests and glucocorticoid treatment, including conventional substitution therapy, influences the GH-responses. Recently, the role of IGF-I measurements in the clinical decision making has been discussed. The aim of this review is to discuss the available GH-stimulation tests. In this author's opinion, tests which include growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) tend to be more potent and robust, especially the GHRH+arginine test which has been proven to be of clinical use. In contrast, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) and the glucagon test appear to have too many drawbacks. PMID:25900364

  15. Identification of steel bars immersed in reinforced concrete based on experimental results of eddy current testing and artificial neural network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alcantara, Naasson

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental research on the use of eddy current testing (ECT) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to identify the gauge and position of steel bars immersed in concrete structures. The paper presents details of the ECT probe and concrete specimens constructed for the tests, and a study about the influence of the concrete on the values of measured voltages. After this, new measurements were done with a greater number of specimens, simulating a field condition and the results were used to generate training and validation vectors for multilayer perceptron ANNs. The results show a high percentage of correct identification with respect to both, the gauge of the bar and of the thickness of the concrete cover.

  16. Evaluation of adult aphasics with the Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test.

    PubMed

    Jerger, S; Oliver, T A; Martin, R C

    1990-04-01

    Results of conventional adult speech audiometry may be compromised by the presence of speech/language disorders, such as aphasia. The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy of the speech intelligibility materials and techniques developed for young children in evaluating central auditory function in aphasic adults. Eight adult aphasics were evaluated with the Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (PSI) test, a picture-pointing approach that was carefully developed to be relatively insensitive to linguistic-cognitive skills and relatively sensitive to auditory-perceptual function. Results on message-to-competition ratio (MCR) functions or performance-intensity (PI) functions were abnormal in all subjects. Most subjects served as their own controls, showing normal performance on one ear coupled with abnormal performance on the other ear. The patterns of abnormalities were consistent with the patterns seen (1) on conventional speech audiometry in brain-lesioned adults without aphasia and (2) on the PSI test in brain-lesioned children without aphasia. An exception to this general observation was an atypical pattern of abnormality on PI-function testing in the subgroup of nonfluent aphasics. The nonfluent subjects showed substantially poorer word-max scores than sentence-max scores, a pattern seen previously in only one other patient group, namely young children with recurrent otitis media. The unusually depressed word-max abnormality was not meaningfully related to clinical diagnostic data regarding the degree of hearing loss and the location and severity of the lesions or to experimental data regarding the integrity of phonologic processing abilities. The observations of ear-specific and condition-specific abnormalities suggest that the linguistically- and cognitively-simplified PSI test may be useful in the evaluation of auditory-specific deficits in the aphasic adult. PMID:2132591

  17. Verbal expressive personality testing with older adults: 25+ years later.

    PubMed

    Panek, Paul E; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Hayslip, Bert; Moske, Amanda Kay

    2013-01-01

    This review builds on those conducted over 25 years ago by Panek and Hayslip in examining the literature dealing with the use of verbal expressive techniques with older adults. Such findings based on the Rorschach Ink Blot Test, Holtzman Inkblot Technique, Hand Test, Sentence Completion methods, and the Thematic Apperception Test and kindred thematic apperceptive techniques are presented and evaluated regarding the evidence for age differences, differential diagnosis, extraneous individual differences in performance, and adequacy of normative data. Although available evidence appears to warrant the continued use of verbal expressive techniques with older adults, more adequately designed studies are necessary to fully support the potential of these assessment tools for decision making with this population: assisting in diagnosis, recommending the appropriateness of various living arrangements, facilitating supportive care choices, and aiding in treatment planning. PMID:23441570

  18. Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Muscle Oxygenation During Repeated Bouts of Fatiguing Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Simon S.; Ting, Kin Hung; Hon, Maurice; Fung, Natalie Y.; Choi, Manfi M.; Cheng, Juno C.; Yeung, Ella W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postexercise cold water immersion has been advocated to athletes as a means of accelerating recovery and improving performance. Given the effects of cold water immersion on blood flow, evaluating in vivo changes in tissue oxygenation during cold water immersion may help further our understanding of this recovery modality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cold water immersion on muscle oxygenation and performance during repeated bouts of fatiguing exercise in a group of healthy young adults. Twenty healthy subjects performed 2 fatiguing bouts of maximal dynamic knee extension and flexion contractions both concentrically on an isokinetic dynamometer with a 10-min recovery period in between. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a cold water immersion (treatment) or passive recovery (control) group. Changes in muscle oxygenation were monitored continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy. Muscle performance was measured with isokinetic dynamometry during each fatiguing bout. Skin temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle soreness ratings were also assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate treatment effects. The treatment group had a significantly lower mean heart rate and lower skin temperature compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Cold water immersion attenuated a reduction in tissue oxygenation in the second fatiguing bout by 4% when compared with control. Muscle soreness was rated lower 1 day post-testing (P < 0.05). However, cold water immersion had no significant effect on muscle performance in subsequent exercise. As the results show that cold water immersion attenuated decreased tissue oxygenation in subsequent exercise performance, the metabolic response to exercise after cold water immersion is worthy of further exploration. PMID:26735552

  19. Test experience effects in longitudinal comparisons of adult cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the first time. This twice-minus-once-tested method was adapted in the current study to derive estimates of test experience at the level of individual participants. Among the major findings were that experience estimates were smaller at older ages, with measures of vocabulary and speed compared to measures of memory, reasoning, and spatial visualization, and with longer intervals between the first and second occasion. Although relations of overall cognitive ability with test experience effects were weak, there were significant correlations among the experience estimates in different cognitive domains. These results imply that at least in adulthood, simple measures of cognitive change likely underestimate maturational influences on cognitive functioning, and to a greater extent in young adults than in older adults. PMID:26098579

  20. Compression and immersion tests and leaching of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination waste collected from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W.

    1994-06-01

    A study was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate structural stability and leachability of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from seven commercial boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor. The decontamination methods used at the reactors were the Can-Decon, AP/Citrox, Dow NS-1, and LOMI processes. Samples of untreated resin waste and solidified waste forms were subjected to immersion and compressive strength testing. Some waste-form samples were leach-tested using simulated groundwaters and simulated seawater for comparison with the deionized water tests that are normally performed to assess waste-form leachability. This report presents the results of these tests and assesses the effects of the various decontamination methods, waste form formulations, leachant chemical compositions, and pH of the leachant on the structural stability and leachability of the waste forms. Results indicate that releases from intact and degraded waste forms are similar and that the behavior of some radionuclides such as {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 99}Tc were similar. In addition, the leachability indexes are greater than 6.0, which meets the requirement in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  1. Diaphragmatic function during immersion.

    PubMed

    Minh, V D; Dolan, G F; Linaweaver, P G; Friedman, P J; Konopka, R G; Brach, B B

    1977-08-01

    Diaphragmatic function during immersion to midneck level was studied in upright mongrel dogs, using constant electrophrenic stimulation. Effectiveness of diaphragmatic contraction was analyzed in terms of inspired volume (VT) (with airways open), and change in intrathoracic pressure (Pmus) (with the respiratory system occluded). Hydrostatic compression of the immersed body decreased functional residual capacity (FRC) to 55% base-line value (FRCO), resulting in a 2.8-fold increase in Pmus. In spite of this Pmus increase, VT often decreased during immersion, averaging only 83% VTO (base-line value in air). Hence, immersion was associated with a marked stiffening of the respiratory system. The Pmus increase during immersion persisted after restoration of FRC to FRCO, and was related to diaphragmatic length being greater in water than in air under condition of iso-lung volume. In all, there were three factors affecting diaphragmatic function during immersion: FRC reduction, change in thoracic configuration, and stiffening of the respiratory system. PMID:893286

  2. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  3. Plating on aluminum: influence of varying zinc immersion treatment times

    SciTech Connect

    Overturf, G.E. III; Dini, J.W.

    1983-07-18

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for copper electrodeposits applied to 1100, 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys. The substrates were prepared for plating by the zinc immersion process. In all cases, a double zinc immersion treatment was used and the time of immersion for the first and second zincate steps was varied. Ring shear tests were used to measure adhesion.

  4. Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyulko, Oleksandra

    acquisition challenging. This problem was resolved by integration of polarization optics into the optics of the attachment to enable simultaneous creation and spatial separation of two interferograms, which, combined with the background image, are used to reconstruct the intensity map of the specimen. Giving the name Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry to this approach, simultaneous acquisition of all interferograms per image has eliminated the issue of vibrations. The designed compound microscope attachment has been manufactured and tested; the system produces images of quality, sufficient to perform targeted cellular irradiation experiments.

  5. Expectancy in melody: tests of children and adults.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Adachi, Mayumi; Purdy, Kelly T; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2002-12-01

    Melodic expectancies among children and adults were examined. In Experiment 1, adults, 11-year-olds, and 8-year-olds rated how well individual test tones continued fragments of melodies. In Experiment 2, 11-, 8-, and 5-year-olds sang continuations to 2-tone stimuli. Response patterns were analyzed using 2 models of melodic expectancy. Despite having fewer predictor variables, the 2-factor model (E. G. Schellenberg, 1997) equaled or surpassed the implication-realization model (E. Narmour, 1990) in predictive accuracy. Listeners of all ages expected the next tone in a melody to be proximate in pitch to the tone heard most recently. Older listeners also expected reversals of pitch direction, specifically for tones that changed direction after a disruption of proximity and for tones that formed symmetric patterns. PMID:12500861

  6. Testing the immunity of active implantable medical devices to CW magnetic fields up to 1 MHz by an immersion method.

    PubMed

    Buzduga, Valentin; Witters, Donald M; Casamento, Jon P; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents a magnetic-field system and the method developed for testing the immunity of the active implantable medical devices to continuous-wave magnetic fields in the frequency range up to 1 MHz. The system is able to produce magnetic fields of 150 A/m for frequencies up to 100 kHz and strengths decreasing as 1/f between 100 kHz and 1 MHz, with uniformity of the field within +/-2.5% in the volume for tests. To simulate human tissue, the medical device, together with its leads, is placed on a plastic grid in a saline tank that is introduced in the magnetic field of the induction coil. This paper offers an alternative for the injection voltage methods provided in the actual standards for assessing the protection of the implantable medical devices from the effects of the magnetic fields up to 1 MHz. This paper presents the equipment and signals used, the test procedure, and results from the preliminary tests performed at the Food and Drug Administration-Center for Devices and Radiological Health on implantable pacemakers and neurostimulators. The new system and test method are useful for the EMC research on the implantable medical devices. PMID:17867360

  7. Mechanical Testing of Mouse Carotid Arteries: from Newborn to Adult

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Mazyar; Le, Victoria P.; Wagenseil, Jessica E.

    2012-01-01

    The large conducting arteries in vertebrates are composed of a specialized extracellular matrix designed to provide pulse dampening and reduce the work performed by the heart. The mix of matrix proteins determines the passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall1. When the matrix proteins are altered in development, aging, disease or injury, the arterial wall remodels, changing the mechanical properties and leading to subsequent cardiac adaptation2. In normal development, the remodeling leads to a functional cardiac and cardiovascular system optimized for the needs of the adult organism. In disease, the remodeling often leads to a negative feedback cycle that can cause cardiac failure and death. By quantifying passive arterial mechanical properties in development and disease, we can begin to understand the normal remodeling process to recreate it in tissue engineering and the pathological remodeling process to test disease treatments. Mice are useful models for studying passive arterial mechanics in development and disease. They have a relatively short lifespan (mature adults by 3 months and aged adults by 2 years), so developmental3 and aging studies4 can be carried out over a limited time course. The advances in mouse genetics provide numerous genotypes and phenotypes to study changes in arterial mechanics with disease progression5 and disease treatment6. Mice can also be manipulated experimentally to study the effects of changes in hemodynamic parameters on the arterial remodeling process7. One drawback of the mouse model, especially for examining young ages, is the size of the arteries. We describe a method for passive mechanical testing of carotid arteries from mice aged 3 days to adult (approximately 90 days). We adapt a commercial myograph system to mount the arteries and perform multiple pressure or axial stretch protocols on each specimen. We discuss suitable protocols for each age, the necessary measurements and provide example data. We also include

  8. The Development and Testing of Adult Vocational Programs Utilizing the Adult Performance Level Competency Approach. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    A project set out to develop and test adult performance level (APL) materials for pre-vocational programs to enable adults to develop those skills needed to seek and retain employment. Addressing the APL area of occupational knowledge only, methodology focused on (1) joint planning in material development and testing; (2) extensive training in…

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Hanneke; Malmberg, Monique; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11–15 years old) were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape). Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the “at-risk” cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents’ anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents’ anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms) in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants’ expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues. PMID:26816292

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Hanneke; Malmberg, Monique; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape). Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms) in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues. PMID:26816292

  11. Phonetic Intelligibility Testing in Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bunton, Kate; Leddy, Mark; Miller, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to document speech intelligibility deficits for a group of five adult males with Down syndrome, and use listener based error profiles to identify phonetic dimensions underlying reduced intelligibility. Phonetic error profiles were constructed for each speaker using the Kent, Weismer, Kent, and Rosenbek (1989) word intelligibility test. The test was designed to allow for identification of reasons for the intelligibility deficit, quantitative analyses at varied levels, and sensitivity to potential speech deficits across populations. Listener generated profiles were calculated based on a multiple-choice task and a transcription task. The most disrupted phonetic features, across listening task, involved simplification of clusters in both the word initial and word final position, and contrasts involving tongue-posture, control, and timing (e.g., high-low vowel, front-back vowel, and place of articulation for stops and fricatives). Differences between speakers in the ranking of these phonetic features was found, however, the mean error proportion for the six most severely affected features correlated highly with the overall intelligibility score (0.88 based on multiple-choice task, .94 for the transcription task). The phonetic feature analyses are an index that may help clarify the suspected motor speech basis for the speech intelligibility deficits seen in adults with Down syndrome and may lead to improved speech management in these individuals. PMID:17692179

  12. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles. PMID:25485520

  13. Particle-size dependence of immersion freezing: Investigation of INUIT test aerosol particles with freely suspended water drops.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Karoline; Debertshäuser, Michael; Eppers, Oliver; Jantsch, Evelyn; Mitra, Subir K.

    2014-05-01

    One goal of the research group INUIT (Ice Nuclei research UnIT) is to investigate the efficiencies of several test ice nuclei under comparable conditions but with different experimental techniques. In the present studies, two methods are used: the Mainz vertical wind tunnel and an acoustic levitator placed inside a cold chamber. In both cases drops are freely levitated, either at their terminal velocity in the wind tunnel updraft or around the nodes of a standing ultrasonic wave in the acoustic levitator. Thus, heat transfer conditions are well approximated, and wall contact effects on freezing as well as electrical charges of the drops are avoided. Drop radii are 370 μm and 1 mm, respectively. In the wind tunnel, drops are investigated at constant temperatures within a certain time period and the onset of freezing is observed directly. In the acoustic levitator, the drop temperature decreases during the experiments and is measured by an in-situ calibrated Infrared thermometer. The onset of freezing is indicated by a rapid rise of the drop surface temperature because of the release of latent heat. Investigated test ice nuclei are Snomax® as a proxy of biological particles and illite NX as well as K-feldspar as represents of mineral dust. The particle concentrations are 1 × 10-12 to 3 × 10-6 g Snomax® per drop and 5 × 10-9 to 5 × 10-5 g mineral dust per drop. Freezing temperatures are between -2 and -18° C in case of Snomax® and between -14 and -26° C in case of mineral dust. The lower the particle masses per drop the lower are the freezing temperatures. For similar particle concentrations in the drops, the median freezing temperatures determined by the two techniques agree well within the measurement errors. With the knowledge of the specific particle surface area of the mineral dusts, the results are interpreted also in terms of particle surface area per drop. Results from the wind tunnel experiments which are performed at constant temperatures indicate

  14. French Immersion Weekends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mydlarski, Donna; Klinck, Pat

    1983-01-01

    Describes immersion weekends sponsored by the University of Calgary. The discussion includes examples from actual weekends to describe the planning and implementation. A qualitative evaluation is also discussed. (Author/AMH)

  15. Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159737.html Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults But doctors say the ... day be able to predict the risk for Alzheimer's disease in young adults, a new study suggests. ...

  16. High-n immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; Mulkens, Jan; Graeupner, Paul; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Donders, Sjoerd; Cortie, Rogier; Meijers, Ralph; Evangelista, Fabrizio; Samarakone, Nandarisi

    2008-03-01

    A two-year study on the feasibility of High-n Immersion Lithography shows very promising results. This paper reports the findings of the study. The evaluation shows the tremendous progress made in the development of second-generation immersion fluid technology. Candidate fluids from several suppliers have been evaluated. All the commercial fluids evaluated are viable, so there are a number of options. Life tests have been conducted on bench top fluid-handling systems and the results referenced to full-scale systems. Parameters such as Dose per Laser Pulse, Pulse Rate, Fluid Flow Rate, and Fluid Absorbency at 193nm, and Oxygen/Air Contamination Levels were explored. A detailed evaluation of phenomena such as Last Lens Element (LLE) contamination has been conducted. Lens cleaning has been evaluated. A comparison of High-n fluid-based technology and water-based immersion technology shows interesting advantages of High-n fluid in the areas of Defect and Resist Interaction. Droplet Drying tests, Resist Staining evaluations, and Resist Contrast impact studies have all been run. Defect-generating mechanisms have been identified and are being eliminated. The lower evaporation rate of the High-n fluids compared with water shows the advantages of High-n Immersion. The core issue for the technology, the availability of High-n optical material for use as the final lens element, is updated. Samples of LuAG material have been received from development partners and have been evaluated. The latest status of optical materials and the technology timelines are reported. The potential impact of the availability of the technology is discussed. Synergy with technologies such as Double Patterning is discussed. The prospects for <22nm (hp) are evaluated.

  17. Immersive cyberspace system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An immersive cyberspace system is presented which provides visual, audible, and vibrational inputs to a subject remaining in neutral immersion, and also provides for subject control input. The immersive cyberspace system includes a relaxation chair and a neutral immersion display hood. The relaxation chair supports a subject positioned thereupon, and places the subject in position which merges a neutral body position, the position a body naturally assumes in zero gravity, with a savasana yoga position. The display hood, which covers the subject's head, is configured to produce light images and sounds. An image projection subsystem provides either external or internal image projection. The display hood includes a projection screen moveably attached to an opaque shroud. A motion base supports the relaxation chair and produces vibrational inputs over a range of about 0-30 Hz. The motion base also produces limited translation and rotational movements of the relaxation chair. These limited translational and rotational movements, when properly coordinated with visual stimuli, constitute motion cues which create sensations of pitch, yaw, and roll movements. Vibration transducers produce vibrational inputs from about 20 Hz to about 150 Hz. An external computer, coupled to various components of the immersive cyberspace system, executes a software program and creates the cyberspace environment. One or more neutral hand posture controllers may be coupled to the external computer system and used to control various aspects of the cyberspace environment, or to enter data during the cyberspace experience.

  18. Deaf Adults' Reasons for Genetic Testing Depend on Cultural Affiliation: Results from a Prospective, Longitudinal Genetic Counseling and Testing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…

  19. Impact of Genetic Counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 Testing on Deaf Identity and Comprehension of Genetic Test Results in a Sample of Deaf Adults: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Christina G. S.; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a prospective, longitudinal study design, this paper addresses the impact of genetic counseling and testing for deafness on deaf adults and the Deaf community. This study specifically evaluated the effect of genetic counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results on participants' deaf identity and understanding of their genetic test results. Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic testing was offered to participants in the context of linguistically and culturally appropriate genetic counseling. Questionnaire data collected from 209 deaf adults at four time points (baseline, immediately following pre-test genetic counseling, 1-month following genetic test result disclosure, and 6-months after result disclosure) were analyzed. Four deaf identity orientations (hearing, marginal, immersion, bicultural) were evaluated using subscales of the Deaf Identity Development Scale-Revised. We found evidence that participants understood their specific genetic test results following genetic counseling, but found no evidence of change in deaf identity based on genetic counseling or their genetic test results. This study demonstrated that culturally and linguistically appropriate genetic counseling can improve deaf clients' understanding of genetic test results, and the formation of deaf identity was not directly related to genetic counseling or Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results. PMID:25375116

  20. Gasoline immersion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Total Technology Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Total technology immersion doesn't happen overnight, but with vision and determination, transformation can take hold and start to grow. Floydada Independent School District (FISD), winner of the 2010 Sylvia Charp Award for District Innovation in Technology, is a great example of what a district can achieve when starting with a modest tech…

  2. At Risk for Violence Test (ARFV). For Identifying Violence-Prone Teens and Adults. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConochie, William A.

    The At Risk for Violence Test (ARFV) is a test used to identify violence prone teens and adults. The ARFV, teen version, is designed for use in public and private schools, grades 6 through 12, as an annual screening early in the school year. Norms for girls and boys are used for scoring reports. The adult version may be used to screen job…

  3. Reduced Capacity in a Dichotic Memory Test for Adult Patients with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dige, Niels; Maahr, Eija; Backenroth-Ohsako, Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether a dichotic memory test would reveal deficits in short-term working-memory recall and long-term memory recall in a group of adult patients with ADHD. Methods: A dichotic memory test with ipsilateral backward speech distraction in an adult ADHD group (n = 69) and a control group (n = 66) is used to compare performance…

  4. Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159737.html Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults But doctors ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene test may one day be able to predict the risk for Alzheimer's ...

  5. NEUROBEHAVIORAL TEST METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES OF ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry convened a workshop in Atlanta, GA, that evaluated approaches and methods to ascertain whether there are neurobehavioral sequelae to children and adults exposed to hazardous substances in the environment. his article, developed...

  6. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary-school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Transitional Programs of Instruction, while majority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Mainstream monolingual classrooms. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs may enhance reading and math skills in both minority-language and majority-language elementary-school children. PMID:24277993

  7. Tissue optical immersion clearing.

    PubMed

    Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, Alexey N; Tuchin, Valery V

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we discuss the optical immersion method based on refractive index matching of scatterers (e.g., collagen, elastin fibers, cells and cell compartments) and the ground material (interstitial fluid and/or cytoplasm) of tissue and blood under the action of exogenous optical clearing agents. We analyze the optical clearing of fibrous and cell-structured tissues and blood from the point of view of receiving more valuable, normally hidden, information from spectroscopic and polarization measurements, confocal microscopy, optical coherence and optical projection tomography, as well as from nonlinear spectroscopies, such as two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation techniques. Some important applications of the immersion technique to glucose sensing, drug delivery monitoring, improvements of image contrast and imaging depth, nondistortive delivery of laser radiation and precision tissue laser photodisruption, among others, are also described. PMID:21050092

  8. A novel protocol for the oral administration of test chemicals to adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zang, Liqing; Morikane, Daizo; Shimada, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Toshio; Nishimura, Norihiro

    2011-12-01

    A novel protocol using gluten as a carrier material was developed to administer chemicals to adult zebrafish, per os (p.o.). To evaluate the capacity of gluten to retain chemicals, we prepared gluten granules containing eight types of chemicals with different Log P(ow) values and immersed them in water. Less than 5% of chemicals were eluted from gluten granules within 5 min, a standard feeding time for zebrafish. Although retention capability was dependent on the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the chemicals, the gluten granules retained 62%-99% of the total amount of chemical, even after immersion in water for 60 min. Vital staining dyes, such as 4-Di-2-Asp and Nile red, administered p.o., were delivered into the gastrointestinal tract where they were digested and secreted. Subsequently, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of oral administration of felbinac and confirmed that it was successfully delivered into the blood of zebrafish. This indicates that chemicals administered using gluten granules are satisfactorily absorbed from the digestive tract and delivered into the metabolic system. The absorption, distribution, and pharmacokinetics of chemicals given by oral administration were also compared with those of chemicals given by alternative administration routes such as intraperitoneal injection and exposure to chemical solution. PMID:22181663

  9. Evaluation of urine pneumococcal antigen test performance among adults in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Lee M; Bigogo, Godfrey; Jagero, Geofrey; da Gloria Carvalho, Maria; Pimenta, Fabiana; Junghae, Muthoni; Breiman, Robert F; Whitney, Cynthia G; Feikin, Daniel R; Conklin, Laura M

    2016-08-01

    When used in an area of rural western Kenya, the BinaxNOW® urine antigen test had a sensitivity of 67% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 43-85%) among 21 adults ≥15 years old with acute respiratory illnesses and pneumococcal bacteremia and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 96-99%) among 660 adults ≥15 years old without fever or cough. The specificity of the test was not significantly affected by pneumococcal colonization, regardless of patients' HIV status, age, or sex. Use of the pneumococcal urine antigen test in clinical assessments of adults in Africa with acute respiratory illness is a viable option regardless of whether a patient is colonized by pneumococci, even among HIV-infected adults, although the moderate sensitivity of the urine antigen test indicates that the test is probably best used clinically as part of a panel with other tests that can detect pneumococci. PMID:27220607

  10. Feasibility and Reliability of Physical Fitness Tests in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods: Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery (Box and Block Test, Response Time Test, walking…

  11. HIV Antibody Testing among Adults in the United States: Data from 1988 NHIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ann M.; Dawson, Deborah A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes statistical data from 1988 National Health Interview Survey to determine adult awareness of and experience with HIV antibody testing. Following findings reported: most knew of test; 17 percent had been tested; Blacks and Hispanics were more likely than Whites to have been voluntarily tested; and high-risk group members were more likely…

  12. Cross-Validation of the Quick Word Test as an Estimator of Adult Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotelueschen, Arden; McQuarrie, Duncan

    1970-01-01

    This report provides additional evidence that the Quick Word Test (Level 2, Form AM) is valid for estimating adult mental ability as defined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The validation sample is also described to facilitate use of the conversion table developed in the cross-validation analysis. (Author/LY)

  13. Motor Control Test Responses to Balance Perturbations in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh; Miller, Rebekah; Barach, Alice; Skinner, Margot; Gray, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this small exploratory study were to determine (1) whether adults with intellectual disability who had a recent history of falling had slower motor responses to postural perturbations than a sample of adults without disability when measured with the Motor Control Test (MCT) and (2) to identify any learning effects…

  14. Tests of Functional Adult Literacy: An Evaluation of Currently Available Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafziger, Dean H.; And Others

    Currently available measures of functional literacy for adults are reviewed and evaluated. This report concentrates on tests that are referenced to literary skills important to an adequately functioning adult, such as life skills, coping skills, etc. Because functional literacy has frequently been defined in terms of a grade level equivalent or…

  15. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  16. Immersion mode ice nucleation measurements with the new Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (PIMCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Monika; Lohmann, Ulrike; Welti, André; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2016-05-01

    The new Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (PIMCA) has been developed for online immersion freezing of single-immersed aerosol particles. PIMCA is a vertical extension of the established Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC). PIMCA immerses aerosol particles into cloud droplets before they enter PINC. Immersion freezing experiments on cloud droplets with a radius of 5-7 μm at a prescribed supercooled temperature (T) and water saturation can be conducted, while other ice nucleation mechanisms (deposition, condensation, and contact mode) are excluded. Validation experiments on reference aerosol (kaolinite, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate) showed good agreement with theory and literature. The PIMCA-PINC setup was tested in the field during the Zurich AMBient Immersion freezing Study (ZAMBIS) in spring 2014 in Zurich, Switzerland. Significant concentrations of submicron ambient aerosol triggering immersion freezing at T > 236 K were rare. The mean frozen cloud droplet number concentration was estimated to be 7.22·105 L-1 for T < 238 K and determined from the measured frozen fraction and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations predicted for the site at a typical supersaturation of SS = 0.3%. This value should be considered as an upper limit of cloud droplet freezing via immersion and homogeneous freezing processes. The predicted ice nucleating particle (INP) concentration based on measured total aerosol larger than 0.5 μm and the parameterization by DeMott et al. (2010) at T = 238 K is INPD10=54 ± 39 L-1. This is a lower limit as supermicron particles were not sampled with PIMCA-PINC during ZAMBIS.

  17. Genetic testing of children for adult-onset conditions: opinions of the British adult population and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Shkedi-Rafid, Shiri; Fenwick, Angela; Dheensa, Sandi; Lucassen, Anneke M

    2015-10-01

    This study set out to explore the attitudes of a representative sample of the British public towards genetic testing in children to predict disease in the future. We sought opinions about genetic testing for adult-onset conditions for which no prevention/treatment is available during childhood, and about genetic 'carrier' status to assess future reproductive risks. The study also examined participants' level of agreement with the reasons professional organisations give in favour of deferring such testing. Participants (n=2998) completed a specially designed questionnaire, distributed by email. Nearly half of the sample (47%) agreed that parents should be able to test their child for adult-onset conditions, even if there is no treatment or prevention at time of testing. This runs contrary to professional guidance about genetic testing in children. Testing for carrier status was supported by a larger proportion (60%). A child's future ability to decide for her/himself if and when to be tested was the least supported argument in favour of deferring testing. PMID:25370041

  18. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of

  19. The ALIVE Project: Astronomy Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Sahami, K.; Denn, G.

    2008-06-01

    The Astronomy Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments (ALIVE) project seeks to discover learning modes and optimal teaching strategies using immersive virtual environments (VEs). VEs are computer-generated, three-dimensional environments that can be navigated to provide multiple perspectives. Immersive VEs provide the additional benefit of surrounding a viewer with the simulated reality. ALIVE evaluates the incorporation of an interactive, real-time ``virtual universe'' into formal college astronomy education. In the experiment, pre-course, post-course, and curriculum tests will be used to determine the efficacy of immersive visualizations presented in a digital planetarium versus the same visual simulations in the non-immersive setting of a normal classroom, as well as a control case using traditional classroom multimedia. To normalize for inter-instructor variability, each ALIVE instructor will teach at least one of each class in each of the three test groups.

  20. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  1. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  2. Submaximal Treadmill Exercise Test to Predict VO[subscript 2]max in Fit Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehrs, Pat R.; George, James D.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Plowman, Sharon A.; Dustman-Allen, Kymberli

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a single-stage submaximal treadmill jogging (TMJ) test to predict VO[subscript 2]max in fit adults. Participants (N = 400; men = 250 and women = 150), ages 18 to 40 years, successfully completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) at 1 of 3 laboratories to determine VO[subscript 2]max. The TMJ test was completed…

  3. Assessing adult adjustment to relationship separation: the Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST).

    PubMed

    Sweeper, Susie; Halford, Kim

    2006-12-01

    Relationship separation is associated with substantial adult adjustment problems. The Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST) was developed as a self-report measure of 3 key dimensions of separation adjustment problems: lonely negativity, ex-partner attachment and coparenting conflict. Two independent samples (n = 219 and n = 169, respectively) of recently separated adults, 60% of whom had children, completed the PAST and other measures of general adjustment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a replicable 3-factor structure, with each factor showing satisfactory test-retest and internal reliability and good convergent and discriminant validity. The PAST meets initial criteria for a potentially useful new measure of adult separation adjustment. PMID:17176198

  4. HIV testing among clients in high HIV prevalence venues: Disparities between older and younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Wallace, Steven P.; Nakazono, Terry; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of every client presenting for services in venues where HIV prevalence is high. Because older adults (age>50 years) have particularly poor prognosis if they receive their diagnosis late in the course of HIV disease, any screening provided to younger adults in these venues should also be provided to older adults. We examined aging-related disparities in recent (past 12 months) and ever HIV testing in a probability sample of at-risk adults (N=1,238) seeking services in needle exchange sites, sexually transmitted disease clinics and Latino community clinics that provide HIV testing. Using multiple logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, we estimated associations between age category (<50 years vs. >50 years) and each HIV testing outcome. Even after controlling for covariates such as recent injection drug use, older adults had 40% lower odds than younger adults did of having tested in the past 12 months (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.40–0.90) or ever (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.40–0.90). Aging-related disparities in HIV testing exist in these high HIV prevalence venues, and may contribute to known aging-related disparities in late diagnosis of HIV infection and poor long-term prognosis. PMID:25303208

  5. Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test: adult norms and moderator variables.

    PubMed

    Wiens, A N; Fuller, K H; Crossen, J R

    1997-08-01

    This study examined the performance of a sample of 821 healthy job applicants on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Subjects had previously passed basic academic skills tests and physical examinations and were deemed free of cognitive impairment and medical illness. They were also motivated to perform well on cognitive tests. Gender, ethnicity, and education were not significant moderator variables in our subjects. Age and IQ did significantly affect PASAT test results. Normative data are stratified by age and WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores to be useful to those who administer the PASAT in clinical practice. PMID:9342683

  6. Convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX, a word and pseudoword spelling test for adults.

    PubMed

    Östberg, Per; Backlund, Charlotte; Lindström, Emma

    2016-10-01

    Few comprehensive spelling tests are available in Swedish, and none have been validated in adults with reading and writing disorders. The recently developed STAVUX test includes word and pseudoword spelling subtests with high internal consistency and adult norms stratified by education. This study evaluated the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX in adults with dyslexia. Forty-six adults, 23 with dyslexia and 23 controls, took STAVUX together with a standard word-decoding test and a self-rated measure of spelling skills. STAVUX subtest scores showed moderate to strong correlations with word-decoding scores and predicted self-rated spelling skills. Word and pseudoword subtest scores both predicted dyslexia status. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed excellent diagnostic discriminability. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity 96%. In conclusion, the results of this study support the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX. PMID:26059176

  7. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop virtual environment (DVE) conditions. Our results show that after the simulation activities, both IVE and DVE groups exhibited a significant shift toward a scientific understanding in their conceptual models and epistemological beliefs about the nature of relative motion, and also a significant improvement on relative motion problem-solving tests. In addition, we analyzed students' performance on one-dimensional and two-dimensional questions in the relative motion problem-solving test separately and found that after training in the simulation, the IVE group performed significantly better than the DVE group on solving two-dimensional relative motion problems. We suggest that egocentric encoding of the scene in IVE (where the learner constitutes a part of a scene they are immersed in), as compared to allocentric encoding on a computer screen in DVE (where the learner is looking at the scene from "outside"), is more beneficial than DVE for studying more complex (two-dimensional) relative motion problems. Overall, our findings suggest that such aspects of virtual realities as immersivity, first-hand experience, and the possibility of changing different frames of reference can facilitate understanding abstract scientific phenomena and help in displacing intuitive misconceptions with more accurate mental models.

  8. Immersive technology and the elderly: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Brett E; Uz, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    Technologies that provide immersive experiences continue to become more ubiquitous across all age groups. This paper presents a review of the literature to provide a snapshot of the current state of research involving the use of immersive technologies and the elderly. A narrative literature review was conducted using the ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost, Springerlink and ERIC databases to summarize primary studies from which conclusions were drawn into a holistic interpretation. The majority of the studies examined the effect of immersive technologies on elder peoples' age-related declines, including sensory and motor changes (vision, hearing, motor skills), cognitive changes and social changes. Various immersive technologies have been described and tested to address these age-related changes, and have been categorized as 'games and simulations', 'robotics' and 'social technologies'. In most cases, promising results were found for immersive technologies to challenge age-related declines, especially through the increase of morale. PMID:25502624

  9. Immersion lithography bevel solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.

  10. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Charles G.; Thomas, Norman L.

    2000-01-01

    A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  11. Broadcasting presence: immersive television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

    2000-06-01

    Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

  12. Test Review: The Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) Life Skills Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, David; Ernst, Megan L.

    2004-01-01

    Lifelong learning has become an important goal of education over the last decade. According to the United States Department of Education (2001), nearly 3 million students over age 17 (excluding those institutionalized) enrolled in adult basic education, adult secondary education, or English as a second language classes in the United States.…

  13. French Immersion Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanaimo School District #68 (British Columbia).

    The Nanaimo (British Columbia) school district's French immersion program is evaluated. An introductory section gives background on the evaluation, outlines the evaluation process used, and offers brief comments on its outcome. The second section describes the immersion program's history and its current status in terms of enrollment, class size,…

  14. Neuropsychological tests for predicting cognitive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Baerresen, Kimberly M; Miller, Karen J; Hanson, Eric R; Miller, Justin S; Dye, Richelin V; Hartman, Richard E; Vermeersch, David; Small, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim To determine neuropsychological tests likely to predict cognitive decline. Methods A sample of nonconverters (n = 106) was compared with those who declined in cognitive status (n = 24). Significant univariate logistic regression prediction models were used to create multivariate logistic regression models to predict decline based on initial neuropsychological testing. Results Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) Retention predicted conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) while baseline Buschke Delay predicted conversion to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to group sample size differences, additional analyses were conducted using a subsample of demographically matched nonconverters. Analyses indicated RCFT Retention predicted conversion to MCI and AD, and Buschke Delay predicted conversion to AD. Conclusion Results suggest RCFT Retention and Buschke Delay may be useful in predicting cognitive decline. PMID:26107318

  15. TEST OF ADULT COLLEGE APTITUDE (TACA). MANUAL FOR ADMINISTRATION, SCORING AND INTERPRETATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUBOIS, PHILIP H.; WIENTGE, KING M.

    THIS PRELIMINARY MANUAL OUTLINES CONTENT, ADMINISTRATIVE AND SCORING PROCEDURES, ANTECEDENT RESEARCH, AND AVAILABLE NORM DATA FOR THE TEST OF ADULT COLLEGE APTITUDE (TACA). THE TACA, A COMBINED TEST AND ANSWER SHEET ADAPTED FOR VISUAL SCORING BY AN OPTICAL SCANNER, CONSISTS OF 22 ITEMS ON BIOGRAPHICAL DATA (AGE, SEX, OCCUPATION, FAMILY AND MARITAL…

  16. Conquering Test Writing Anxiety: Helping Adult Learners Develop Confidence and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Ellen

    This document is intended to assist adult educators in helping their students develop the confidence and test-taking skills required to overcome test anxiety. Section 1 contains the following items: an instrument designed to help students privately assess their standing on the anxiety scale; a play which explores flashing back to earlier negative…

  17. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  18. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  19. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  20. Load release balance test under unstable conditions effectively discriminates between physically active and sedentary young adults.

    PubMed

    Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Muyor, J M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the load release balance test under four varied conditions. Young, early and late middle-aged physically active and sedentary subjects performed the test over 2 testing sessions spaced 1week apart while standing on either (1) a stable or (2) an unstable surface with (3) eyes open (EO) and (4) eyes closed (EC), respectively. Results identified that test-retest reliability of parameters of the load release balance test was good to excellent, with high values of ICC (0.78-0.92) and low SEM (7.1%-10.7%). The peak and the time to peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement were significantly lower in physically active as compared to sedentary young adults (21.6% and 21.0%) and early middle-aged adults (22.0% and 20.9%) while standing on a foam surface with EO, and in late middle-aged adults on both unstable (25.6% and 24.5%) and stable support surfaces with EO (20.4% and 20.0%). The area under the ROC curve >0.80 for these variables indicates good discriminatory accuracy. Thus, these variables of the load release balance test measured under unstable conditions have the ability to differentiate between groups of physically active and sedentary adults as early as from 19years of age. PMID:27203382

  1. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.G.; Thomas, N.L.

    2000-06-20

    A small spectrograph is disclosed containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10{sup {minus}5}cm{sup 2}sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  2. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  3. Computerized Testing Software for Assessing Interference Suppression in Children and Adults: The Bivalent Shape Task (BST)

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Shane T.; Esposito, Alena G.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Bivalent Shape Task (BST), software using the Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL), for testing of cognitive interference and the ability to suppress interference. The test is available via the GNU Public License, Version 3 (GPLv3), is freely modifiable, and has been tested on both children and adults and found to provide a simple and fast non-verbal measure of cognitive interference and suppression that requires no reading. PMID:26702358

  4. Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading?

    PubMed

    Pan, Steven C; Rubin, Benjamin R; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-12-01

    We examined testing's ability to enhance adult spelling acquisition, relative to copying and reading. Across 3 experiments in which testing with feedback was compared with copying, the spelling improvement after testing matched that following the same amount of time spent copying. A potent testing advantage, however, was observed for spelling words free-recalled. In the fourth experiment, a large testing advantage for both word free recall and spelling was observed, versus reading. Subjects also generally preferred testing and rated it as more effective than copying or reading. The equivalent performance of testing and copying for spelling contrasts with prior work involving children and suggests that retrieval practice may not be the only effective mechanism for spelling skill acquisition. Rather, we suggest that the critical learning event for spelling is focused study on phoneme-to-grapheme mappings for previously unlearned letter sequences. For adults with extensive spelling expertise, focused study is more automatic during both copying and testing with feedback than for individuals with beginning spelling skills. Reading, however, would not be expected to produce efficient focused study of phoneme-to-grapheme mappings, regardless of expertise level. Overall, adult spelling skill acquisition benefits both from testing and copying, and substantially less from reading. PMID:26460674

  5. Road Test and Naturalistic Driving Performance in Healthy and Cognitively Impaired Older Adults: Does Environment Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer D.; Papandonatos, George D.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Hewitt, Scott D.; Festa, Elena K.; Heindel, William C.; Ott, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The road test is regarded as the gold standard for determining driving competence in older adults, but it is unclear how well the road test relates to naturalistic driving. The study objective was to relate the standardized road test to video recordings of naturalistic driving in older adults with a range of cognitive impairment. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Academic medical center memory disorders clinic. Participants 103 older drivers (44 healthy and 59 with cognitive impairment) who passed a road test. Measurements Error rate and global ratings of safety (pass with and without recommendations, marginal with restrictions or training, or fail) made by a professional driving instructor. Results There was fair agreement between global ratings on the road test and naturalistic driving. More errors were detected in the naturalistic environment, but this did not impact global ratings. Error scores between settings were significantly correlated, and the types of errors made were similar. History of crashes corrected for miles driven per week was related to road test error scores, but not naturalistic driving error scores. Global cognition (MMSE) was correlated with both road test and naturalistic driving errors. In the healthy older adults, younger age was correlated with fewer errors on the road test and greater errors in naturalistic driving. Conclusion Road test performance is a reasonable proxy for estimating fitness to drive in older individuals’ typical driving environments. The differences between performance assessed by these two methods, however, remain poorly understood and deserve further study. PMID:23110378

  6. Determination of HIV status in African adults with discordant HIV rapid tests

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Jessica M.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Donohue, Kelsey; Cummings, Vanessa; Marzinke, Mark A.; Clarke, William; Breaud, Autumn; Fiamma, Agnès; Donnell, Deborah; Kulich, Michal; Mbwambo, Jessie K. K.; Richter, Linda; Gray, Glenda; Sweat, Michael; Coates, Thomas J.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background In resource-limited settings, HIV infection is often diagnosed using two rapid tests. If the results are discordant, a third tie-breaker test is often used to determine HIV status. This study characterized samples with discordant rapid tests and compared different testing strategies for determining HIV status in these cases. Methods Samples were previously collected from 173 African adults in a population-based survey who had discordant rapid test results. Samples were classified as HIV positive or HIV negative using a rigorous testing algorithm that included two fourth-generation tests, a discriminatory test, and two HIV RNA tests. Tie-breaker tests were evaluated, including: rapid tests (one performed in-country), a third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and two fourth-generation tests. Selected samples were further characterized using additional assays. Results Twenty-nine (16.8%) samples were classified as HIV positive; 24 (82.8%) of those samples had undetectable HIV RNA. Antiretroviral drugs were detected in one sample. Sensitivity was 8.3%–43% for the rapid tests; 24.1% for the third-generation EIA; 95.8% and 96.6% for the fourth-generation tests. Specificity was lower for the fourth-generation tests than the other tests. Accuracy ranged from 79.5–91.3%. Conclusions In this population-based survey, most HIV-infected adults with discordant rapid tests were virally suppressed without antiretroviral drugs. Use of individual assays as tie-breaker tests was not a reliable method for determining HIV status in these individuals. More extensive testing algorithms that use a fourth-generation screening test with a discriminatory test and HIV RNA test are preferable for determining HIV status in these cases. PMID:25835607

  7. Color stability of ceramic brackets immersed in potentially staining solutions

    PubMed Central

    Guignone, Bruna Coser; Silva, Ludimila Karsbergen; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Akaki, Emilio; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions. METHODS: Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18) according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva). The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA), Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA), Mystique (GAC International Inc., Bohemia, NY, USA) and Luxi II (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, CO, USA). Chromatic changes were analyzed with the aid of a reflectance spectrophotometer and by visual inspection at five specific time intervals. Assessment periods were as received from the manufacturer (T0), 24 hours (T1), 72 hours (T2), as well as 7 days (T3) and 14 days (T4) of immersion in the aforementioned solutions. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction, as well as to a multivariate profile analysis for independent and paired samples with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: The duration of the immersion period influenced color alteration of all tested brackets, even though these changes could not always be visually observed. Different behaviors were observed for each immersion solution; however, brackets immersed in one solution progressed similarly despite minor variations. CONCLUSIONS: Staining became more intense over time and all brackets underwent color alterations when immersed in the aforementioned solutions. PMID:26352842

  8. Quantitative sensory testing of temperature, pain, and touch in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Knegt, Nanda; Defrin, Ruth; Schuengel, Carlo; Lobbezoo, Frank; Evenhuis, Heleen; Scherder, Erik

    2015-12-01

    The spinothalamic pathway mediates sensations of temperature, pain, and touch. These functions seem impaired in children with Down syndrome (DS), but have not been extensively examined in adults. The objective of the present study was to compare the spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between adults with DS and adults from the general population and to examine in the DS group the relationship between the sensory functions and level of intellectual functioning. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed in 188 adults with DS (mean age 37.5 years) and 142 age-matched control participants (median age 40.5 years). Temperature, pain, and touch were evaluated with tests for cold-warm discrimination, sharp-dull discrimination (pinprick), and tactile threshold, respectively. Level of intellectual functioning was estimated with the Social Functioning Scale for Intellectual Disability (intellectual disability level) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised (intelligence level). Overall, the difference in spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between the DS and control groups was not statistically significant. However, DS participants with a lower intelligence level had a statistically significant lower performance on the sharp-dull discrimination test than DS participants with higher intelligence level (adjusted p=.006) and control participants (adjusted p=.017). It was concluded that intellectual functioning level is an important factor to take into account for the assessment of spinothalamic-mediated sensory functioning in adults with DS: a lower level could coincide with impaired sensory functioning, but could also hamper QST assessment. PMID:26460852

  9. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions.Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments.This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = -1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.8∼-0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = -1.1, 95% CI = -2.1∼-0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between hyperhomocysteinemia and other

  10. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions. Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = −1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.8∼−0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = −1.1, 95% CI = −2.1∼−0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between

  11. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-10-01

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight were studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observation on smooth laboratory surfaces. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that escaped soil, fabric, and paper mulches over a soil or sand substrate ranged from 63 to 83, and 40-53%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that walked through the open interior of 1.52-6.10-m horizontal pipes of 1.5-2.0-cm inner diameter ranged from 57 to 81, and 27-61%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae that escaped through sand depths of 2.5-10.2, and 12.7-20.3 cm, ranged from 68 to 87, and 12-88%; and percentage adult females that escaped ranged from 46 to 58, and 38-70%, respectively. In 15.4-cm-inner-diameter pipes filled with different heights of sand, the highest percentage of the total number of adults that emerged in the control were found from 0 to 20.3 cm, and ranged from 37 to 71%. Ten to 47% of adults were found from 20.3 cm to below the surface, and 6-21% escaped to the top of 20.3-50.8 cm high sand columns. In column heights of 55.9 and 61 cm, pressures at the bottom caused by the weight of the sand above were 91.4 and 99.7 g/cm(2), respectively, and a mean of <1 adult escaped to the top. Before pupation, the late third instars were found to travel continuously for 6.9 h over 23.9 m at a speed of 6.0 cm per min, when placed on a smooth surface, at 22.2°C. Teneral females and males that could not fly, made ≍7 stops totaling 11-13 min, walked at a speed of 57-62 cm per min, and began a rest period of 83-84 min duration, at 85-89 min before flight. Males walked a distance of 13.1 m in 22 min, which was greater than females that walked for 9.6 m in 17 min, at 20-22°C and 35% RH. The

  12. TEST FUSION IN ADULT FORAMINIFERA: A REVIEW WITH NEW OBSERVATIONS OF AN EARLY EOCENE NUMMULITES SPECIMEN

    PubMed Central

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Wöger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In foraminifera, so-called “double tests” usually arise due to abnormal growth originating mainly from twinning, but may also be caused by irregularities in the early chambers and by regeneration after test injury that modifies the direction of growth. A fourth cause of double tests has only rarely been reported: the fusion of the tests of two adult individuals. We studied an early Eocene Nummulites double test consisting of two adult individuals that fused after an extended period of independent growth. The specimen was studied using computed tomography with micrometric resolution (micro-CT) that allowed bi- and three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure. Before fusion each individual test had 30–36 chambers, which, by comparison with growth rates in recent nummulitids, implies at least three months of independent growth. After fusion, the compound test grew in two spirals that fused after about one whorl and then continued in a single spiral. To fuse their tests, either adult individuals have to be forced to do so or the allorecognition (ability to distinguish between self and another individual) mechanisms must fail. A possible explanation for the merged Nummulites tests in this study is forced fusion in attached individuals after surviving ingestion and digestion by a metazoan. Alternatively, environmental stress could lead to a failure of allorecognition mechanisms and/or foraminiferal motility. Once fused, subsequent growth seems to be determined mainly by the relative orientation of individual tests. In any case, the frequency in which adult fusion occurs remains unknown. PMID:26166916

  13. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    PubMed

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803

  14. What prompts young adults in Ireland to attend health services for STI testing?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In-depth understanding of the factors that prompt young adults to attend health services for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are needed to underpin sexual health programes. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore why young adults (18–29 years) in Ireland attended specialist and community health services for STI testing; the factors that supported/undermined their decisions to seek STI testing; and any factors that led to delay in seeking STI testing. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men). Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP) practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services for men who have sex with men (MSM). Interview questions examined why respondents decided to go for STI testing, whether they acted upon this desire immediately or decided to wait, and what they felt were important barriers/enablers to their health-seeking attempts. Interviews were thematically analyzed using standard qualitative techniques. Results Respondents sought STI testing for one of four reasons: they had reached a transitional moment in their lives (they were either about to stop using condoms with their sexual partner or were emerging from a period of their lives where they had a series of risky sexual relationships); they had had unprotected sex with a casual partner; they had symptoms of infection; and/or they were required to do so by their employer. Catalytic factors included media and government health promotion campaigns and knowing someone with an STI. However, many respondents delayed seeking testing. Reasons included respondents' concerns about stigma and that they would be judged by healthcare professionals, and feelings of invulnerability. Importantly, several respondents who waited up to four weeks to make an appointment after their initial decision to seek STI testing did not view this as delay. Conclusion Sexual health

  15. A Placebo-Controlled Test of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…

  16. Measuring the Continuum of Literacy Skills among Adults: Educational Testing and the LAMP Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guadalupe, Cesar; Cardoso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The field of educational testing has become increasingly important for providing different stakeholders and decision-makers with information. This paper discusses basic standards for methodological approaches used in measuring literacy skills among adults. The authors address the increasing interest in skills measurement, the discourses on how…

  17. Completion and Attrition in Adult Basic Education: A Test of Two Pragmatic Prediction Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, John M.; Jha, Ladeane R.

    1994-01-01

    Two prediction models using age and entry-level reading and math scores to differentiate completers and noncompleters were tested with 1,319 community college adult basic education students. Persisters and dropouts were not homogeneous groups; for example, General Educational Development completers differed from other completers, and early and…

  18. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  19. Report of the Pilot Test for the National Reporting System for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condelli, Larry; Padilla, Vince; Angeles, January

    The National Reporting System project was designed to establish an outcome-based accountability system for the state-administered, federally funded adult education program. In the pilot test, volunteer states and their local programs compared the feasibility and costs of these three data collection models: (1) local programs collect all the…

  20. A Review of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test: An Advancement in Cognitive Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Flanagan, Rosemary

    1994-01-01

    Reviews Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), a new assessment of cognitive function for technical qualities such as reliability, validity, and standardization characters. Concludes that KAIT represents advancements in cognitive assessment but cannot be regarded as superior to existing intelligence measures until data is available…

  1. Childhood IQ and Adult Mental Disorders: A Test of the Cognitive Reserve Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Martin, Laurie T.; Kubzansky, Laura; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2009-01-01

    Objective Cognitive reserve has been proposed as important in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, tests of the association between premorbid IQ and adult mental disorders other than schizophrenia have been limited and inconclusive. The authors tested the hypothesis that low childhood IQ is associated with increased risk and severity of adult mental disorders. Method Participants were members of a representative 1972-1973 birth cohort of 1,037 males and females in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were followed up to age 32 with 96% retention. WISC-R IQ was assessed at ages 7, 9, and 11. Research diagnoses of DSM mental disorders were made at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. Results Lower childhood IQ was associated with increased risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorder, adult depression, and adult anxiety. Lower childhood IQ was also associated with greater comorbidity and with persistence of depression; the association with persistence of generalized anxiety disorder was nearly significant. Higher childhood IQ predicted increased risk of adult mania. Conclusions Lower cognitive reserve, as reflected by childhood IQ, is an antecedent of several common psychiatric disorders and also predicts persistence and comorbidity. Thus, many patients who seek mental health treatment may have lower cognitive ability; this should be considered in prevention and treatment planning. PMID:19047325

  2. A genetic test which can be used to diagnose adult-type hypolactasia in children

    PubMed Central

    Rasinperä, H; Savilahti, E; Enattah, N S; Kuokkanen, M; Tötterman, N; Lindahl, H; Järvelä, I; Kolho, K-L

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: Adult-type hypolactasia (primary lactose malabsorption) affects most of world’s human population and limits the use of fresh milk due to lactose intolerance. The diagnosis of adult-type hypolactasia has been difficult to establish because of unsatisfactory diagnostic methods. C/T-13910 single nucleotide polymorphism residing 13910 base pairs from the 5′ end of the lactase gene has been shown to be associated with lactase persistence. The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of the C/T-13910 variant as a diagnostic test for adult-type hypolactasia during childhood. Methods: Intestinal biopsies were obtained from 329 children and adolescents of African, Finnish, and other White origins aged 0.1–20 years undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of abdominal complaints. The biopsies were assayed for lactase, sucrase, and maltase activity and genotyped for the C/T-13910 variant using polymerase chain reaction minisequencing. Results: The frequency of the C/C-13910 genotype defining lactase non-persistence was well in agreement in this study with published figures for the prevalences of adult-type hypolactasia in Africans and Whites. The C/C-13910 genotype was associated with very low lactase activity (<10 U/g protein) in the majority of children tested at 8 years of age and in every child older than 12 years of age giving a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 93% for the genetic test. The decline of lactase activity was somewhat earlier in African compared with Finnish children with C/C-13910 genotype (p<0.03). Conclusions: Genetic test of C/T-13910 polymorphism can be used as a first stage screening test for adult-type hypolactasia. PMID:15479673

  3. A poroelastic immersed boundary method with applications to cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strychalski, Wanda; Copos, Calina A.; Lewis, Owen L.; Guy, Robert D.

    2015-02-01

    The immersed boundary method is a widely used mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian framework for simulating the motion of elastic structures immersed in viscous fluids. In the traditional immersed boundary method, the fluid and structure move with the same velocity field. In this work, a model based on the immersed boundary method is presented for simulating poroelastic media in which the fluid permeates a porous, elastic structure of small volume fraction that moves with its own velocity field. Two distinct methods for calculating elastic stresses are presented and compared. The methods are validated on a radially symmetric test problem by comparing with a finite difference solution of the classical equations of poroelasticity. Finally, two applications of the modeling framework to cell biology are provided: cellular blebbing and cell crawling. It is shown that in both examples, poroelastic effects are necessary to explain the relevant mechanics.

  4. Digital Planetariums and Immersive Visualizations for Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Sahami, K.

    2015-11-01

    Modern “fulldome” video digital planetariums combine immersive projection that facilitate the understanding of relationships involving wide spatial angles, while 3D virtual environments facilitate learning of spatial relationships by allowing models and scenes to be viewed from multiple frames of reference. We report on an efficacy study of the use of digital planetariums for learning the astronomical topic of the seasons. Comparison of curriculum tests taken immediately after instruction versus pre-instruction show significant gains for students who viewed visualizations in the immersive dome, versus their counterparts who viewed non-immersive content and those in the control group that saw no visualizations. The greater gains in learning in the digital planetarium can be traced not only to its ability to show wide-angle phenomena and the benefits accorded by the simulation software, but also the lower quality visual experience for students viewing the non-immersive versions of the lectures.

  5. Intrarater reproducibility and validity of Nintendo Wii balance testing in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Martin G; Laessoe, Uffe; Hendriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, Ole B F; Aagaard, Per

    2014-04-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the intrarater intersession reproducibility of the Nintendo Wii agility and stillness tests and explore the concurrent validity in relation to gold-standard force-plate analysis. Within-day intersession reproducibility was examined in 30 older adults (age 71.8 ± 5.1 yr). No systematic test-retest differences were found for the Wii stillness test; however, the Wii agility test scores differed systematically between test sessions (p < .05). The Wii stillness test yielded a test-retest ICC of .86 (95% CI 0.74-0.93), CV of 6.4%, LOA of 11.0, and LOA% of 17.9%. Likewise for the Wii agility test ICC was .73 (95% CI 0.50-0.86), CV 5.3%, LOA 1.8, and LOA% of 14.6%. Wii stillness scores correlated to force plate measures (r = .65-.82, p < .01), reflecting moderate to excellent validity. In conclusion, it appears that the Wii stillness test represents a low-cost, objective, reproducible, and valid test of undisturbed postural balance in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23752090

  6. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  7. [Value of ancillary testing in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder in adults].

    PubMed

    Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in adults with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) who seek general psychiatric services for various psychiatric problems. The diagnosis of PDD requires the careful collection of information about the patient's developmental history. A structured diagnostic interview is useful and should be performed, but has limitations now. The clinical value of the measurement of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Autism-Spectrum Quotient Japanese Version, and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale was demonstrated by a questionnaire survey that the authors conducted in 2010. These additional tests are useful if interpreted with caution. For example, a discrepancy between the performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and the verbal IQ in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale does not by itself diagnose PDD. We examined whether the Japanese version of the National Adult Reading Test (Japanese Adult Reading Test; JART), a valid scale for evaluating pre-morbid IQ in patients with schizophrenia, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) are useful for discriminating between PDD and schizophrenia. Sixteen patients with adult PDD and 16 patients with schizophrenia matched for age, education and sex participated in this study. In addition, the two groups were matched for JART and the Global Assessment of Functioning scores. All subjects were scored on the JART and WAIS-R after giving informed consent for the study. The result was that significant diagnosis-by-IQ examination interactions were found (F [1, 30]=10.049, P=0.003). Also, the WAIS-R scores of the PDD group were higher than those of the schizophrenia group (P=0.002) when the two groups were matched for JART. In conclusion, the comparison of IQ in the PDD group and in the schizophrenia group by JART and WAIS-R might be an easy and useful method for helping to discriminate between PDD and schizophrenia. In addition, the

  8. Vesicle electrohydrodynamic simulations by coupling immersed boundary and immersed interface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei-Fan; Lai, Ming-Chih; Seol, Yunchang; Young, Yuan-Nan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we develop a coupled immersed boundary (IB) and immersed interface method (IIM) to simulate the electrodeformation and electrohydrodynamics of a vesicle in Navier-Stokes leaky dielectric fluids under a DC electric field. The vesicle membrane is modeled as an inextensible elastic interface with an electric capacitance and an electric conductance. Within the leaky dielectric framework and the piecewise constant electric properties in each fluid, the electric stress can be treated as an interfacial force so that both the membrane electric and mechanical forces can be formulated in a unified immersed boundary method. The electric potential and transmembrane potential are solved simultaneously via an efficient immersed interface method. The fluid variables in Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a projection method on a staggered MAC grid while the electric potential is solved at the cell center. A series of numerical tests have been carefully conducted to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of the present method to simulate vesicle electrohydrodynamics. In particular, we investigate the prolate-oblate-prolate (POP) transition and the effect of electric field and shear flow on vesicle electrohydrodynamics. Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained in previous work using different numerical algorithms.

  9. Functional assessments of the knee joint biomechanics by using pendulum test in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Casabona, Antonino; Valle, Maria Stella; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita; Cioni, Matteo

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we assessed kinematics and viscoelastic features of knee joint in adults with Down syndrome (DS) by means of the Wartenberg pendulum test. This test allows the measuring of the kinematics of the knee joint during passive pendular motion of leg under the influence of gravity. In addition, by a combination of kinematic and anthropometric data, pendulum test provides estimates of joint viscoelastic properties by computing damping and stiffness coefficients. To monitor the occurrences of muscle activation, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of muscle rectus femoris was recorded. The experimental protocol was performed in a group of 10 adults with DS compared with 10 control adults without DS. Joint motion amplitude, velocity, and acceleration of the leg during the first knee flexion significantly decreased in persons with DS with respect to those without DS. This behavior was associated with the activation of rectus femoris in subjects with DS that resulted in increasing of joint resistance shortly after the onset of the first leg flexion. The EMG bursts mostly occurred between 50 and 150 ms from the leg flexion onset. During the remaining cycles of pendular motion, persons with DS exhibited passive leg oscillations with low tonic EMG activity and reduced damping coefficient compared with control subjects. These results suggest that adults with DS might perform preprogrammed contractions to increase joint resistance and compensate for inherent joint instability occurring for quick and unpredictable perturbations. The reduction of damping coefficients observed during passive oscillations could be a predictor of muscle hypotonia. PMID:22995394

  10. Functional assessments of the knee joint biomechanics by using pendulum test in adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Casabona, Antonino; Valle, Maria Stella; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assessed kinematics and viscoelastic features of knee joint in adults with Down syndrome (DS) by means of the Wartenberg pendulum test. This test allows the measuring of the kinematics of the knee joint during passive pendular motion of leg under the influence of gravity. In addition, by a combination of kinematic and anthropometric data, pendulum test provides estimates of joint viscoelastic properties by computing damping and stiffness coefficients. To monitor the occurrences of muscle activation, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of muscle rectus femoris was recorded. The experimental protocol was performed in a group of 10 adults with DS compared with 10 control adults without DS. Joint motion amplitude, velocity, and acceleration of the leg during the first knee flexion significantly decreased in persons with DS with respect to those without DS. This behavior was associated with the activation of rectus femoris in subjects with DS that resulted in increasing of joint resistance shortly after the onset of the first leg flexion. The EMG bursts mostly occurred between 50 and 150 ms from the leg flexion onset. During the remaining cycles of pendular motion, persons with DS exhibited passive leg oscillations with low tonic EMG activity and reduced damping coefficient compared with control subjects. These results suggest that adults with DS might perform preprogrammed contractions to increase joint resistance and compensate for inherent joint instability occurring for quick and unpredictable perturbations. The reduction of damping coefficients observed during passive oscillations could be a predictor of muscle hypotonia. PMID:22995394

  11. Improving STD testing behavior among high-risk young adults by offering STD testing at a vocational school

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial STD. Sexually active adolescents and young adults are the main risk group for CT. However, STD testing rates in this group are low since exposed individuals may not feel at risk, owing-at least in part-to the infection's largely asymptomatic nature. Designing new testing environments that are more appealing to young people who are most at risk of acquiring chlamydia can be an important strategy to improve overall testing rates. Here we evaluate the effect of a school-based sexual health program conducted among vocational school students, aiming to obtain better access for counseling and enhance students' STD testing behavior. Methods Adolescents (median age 19 years) attending a large vocational school were provided with sexual health education. Students filled in a questionnaire measuring CT risk and were offered STD testing. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we assessed differences between men and women in STD-related risk behavior, sexual problems, CT testing behavior and determinants of CT testing behavior. Results Of 345 participants, 70% were female. Of the 287 sexually active students, 75% were at high risk for CT; one third of women reported sexual problems. Of sexually active participants, 61% provided a self-administered specimen for STD testing. Independent determinants for testing included STD related symptoms and no condom use. All CT diagnoses were in the high-CT-risk group. In the high-risk group, STD testing showed an increased uptake, from 27% (previous self-reported test) to 65% (current test). CT prevalence was 5.7%. Conclusions Vocational school students are a target population for versatile sexual health prevention. When provided with CT testing facilities and education, self selection mechanisms seemed to increase CT testing rate dramatically in this high-CT-risk population expressing sexual problems. Considering the relative ease of testing and treating

  12. Physical Performance and a Test of Gaze Stabilization in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bryan K.; Mohammed, Maha; Brach, Jennifer S.; Studenski, Stephane A.; Whitney, Susan L.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a standardized test of gaze stabilization as an indicator of vestibular function in community-dwelling older adults and to examine the relationship between gaze stabilization and physical performance. Design Descriptive, Cross-sectional. Setting Tertiary Medical Center. Subjects Eighty-six healthy older adults (22 males) of mean (SD) age 76.8 (5.8) years were recruited from the Pittsburgh community. Main Outcome Measures Performance on the gaze stabilization test (GST), measures of physical performance (standing balance, chair rises, and gait speed individually and combined into the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)) and self-reported balance. Results While over 90% of participants completed testing in the pitch and yaw planes, only 85% (73/86) had interpretable scores, due to prolonged perception time, independent of VOR. The mean (SD) head movement velocity in the pitch plane was 94.5 (26.7) degrees per second and in the yaw plane was 95.5 (29.3) degrees per second. There was a strong association between age and GST performance in the pitch and yaw planes (r=0.68, p<0.001). Poor GST performance in the yaw plane was associated with balance capacity with eyes closed. Additionally, there was a trend toward an association between self-reported balance and GST performance in both pitch (p=0.08) and yaw planes (p=0.10). Conclusions While most older adults completed GST testing, estimates were not interpretable in almost 15% due to prolonged perception time. GST in the yaw plane was worse than previously reported in healthy older adults and was associated with poor ability to balance with eyes closed. Self-reported balance tended to be associated with an objective assessment of VOR in this population of older adults. PMID:19940791

  13. Point-of-care testing for respiratory viruses in adults: The current landscape and future potential.

    PubMed

    Brendish, Nathan J; Schiff, Hannah F; Clark, Tristan W

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory viruses are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory illness in adults as well as children, and are associated with a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. Development of accurate point-of-care tests (POCT) for respiratory viruses has been listed as a priority by the World Health Organisation and replacing the current paradigm of empirical antimicrobial use with directed use is a listed goal of the movement for reduction in antimicrobial resistance. POCTs for respiratory viruses have previously been limited by the poor sensitivity of antigen detection based tests and by a limited range of detectable viruses. Highly accurate molecular platforms are now able to test for a comprehensive range of viruses, can be operated by non-laboratory staff and can generate a result in approximately 1 h, making them potentially deployable as POCTs. The potential clinical benefits of POC testing for respiratory viruses in adults include a reduction in unnecessary antibiotic use, improved antiviral prescribing for influenza and rationalisation of isolation facilities. We review here the burden of disease, the currently available molecular platforms with potential for POCT use and the existing evidence for clinical and economic benefits of testing for respiratory viruses in adults. PMID:26215335

  14. Influence of self-induced hypnosis on thermal responses during immersion in 25 degrees C water.

    PubMed

    Mittleman, K D; Doubt, T J; Gravitz, M A

    1992-08-01

    The efficacy of self-induced post-hypnotic suggestion to improve thermogenic responses to head-out immersion in 25 degrees C water was evaluated in 12 males. An on-line computerized system permitted the change in body heat storage to be used as the independent variable and immersion time as the dependent variable. Test-retest reliability was good, exhibiting a coefficient of variation of less than 5% for exposure time. Immersion profiles consisted of the following: rest until 200 kJ of heat were lost, leg exercise at VO2 approximately 1.5 L.min-1 to regain 200 kJ, rest until 100 kJ were lost, and repeat the exercise to regain 100 kJ. A control immersion was done prior to two 1-h hypnotic training sessions. A second immersion (hypnotic) occurred within 24 h after training. There were no differences in rates of heat production, heat loss, mean skin temperature, or rectal temperature between control and hypnotic immersions. Individual hypnotic susceptibility scores did not correlate with changes in thermal status. Ratings of perceived exertion during exercise were similar for both immersions, but perceived sensation of cold was lower during the second rest period of the hypnotic immersion. Three subjects used images of warm environments during their hypnotic immersion and lost heat at a faster rate than during control immersions. These results indicate that brief hypnotic training did not enhance the thermogenic response to cool water immersion. PMID:1510642

  15. Immersive STEM: From Fulldome to VR Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    For more than 15 years, fulldome video technology has transformed planetariums worldwide, using data-driven visualizations to support science storytelling. Fulldome video shares significant technical infrastructure with emerging VR headset technologies, and these personalized VR experiences allow for new audiences and new experiences of an existing library of context—as well as affording new opportunities for fulldome producers to explore. At the California Academy of Sciences, we are translating assets for our planetarium shows into immersive experiences for a variety of HR headsets. We have adapted scenes from our four award-wining features—Fragile Planet (2008), Life: A Cosmic Story (2010), Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet (2012), and Habitat Earth (2015)—to place viewers inside a virtual planetarium viewing the shows. Similarly, we have released two creative-commons mini-shows on various VR outlets. This presentation will also highlight content the Academy will make available from our upcoming 2016 planetarium show about asteroids, comets, and solar system origins, some of which has been formatted for a full four-pi-steradian perspective. The shared immersive environment of digital planetariums offers significant opportunities for education and affective engagement of STEM-hungry audiences—including students, families, and adults. With the advent of VR technologies, we can leverage the experience of fulldome producers and planetarium professionals to create personalized home experiences that allow new ways to experience their content.

  16. Impact of presymptomatic genetic testing on young adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Godino, Lea; Turchetti, Daniela; Jackson, Leigh; Hennessy, Catherine; Skirton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing should involve a considered choice, which is particularly true when testing is undertaken in early adulthood. Young adults are at a key life stage as they may be developing a career, forming partnerships and potentially becoming parents: presymptomatic testing may affect many facets of their future lives. The aim of this integrative systematic review was to assess factors that influence young adults' or adolescents' choices to have a presymptomatic genetic test and the emotional impact of those choices. Peer-reviewed papers published between January 1993 and December 2014 were searched using eight databases. Of 3373 studies identified, 29 were reviewed in full text: 11 met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis was used to identify five major themes: period before testing, experience of genetic counselling, parental involvement in decision-making, impact of test result communication, and living with genetic risk. Many participants grew up with little or no information concerning their genetic risk. The experience of genetic counselling was either reported as an opportunity for discussing problems or associated with feelings of disempowerment. Emotional outcomes of disclosure did not directly correlate with test results: some mutation carriers were relieved to know their status, however, the knowledge they may have passed on the mutation to their children was a common concern. Parents appeared to have exerted pressure on their children during the decision-making process about testing and risk reduction surgery. Health professionals should take into account all these issues to effectively assist young adults in making decisions about presymptomatic genetic testing. PMID:26173961

  17. Association between physiological falls risk and physical performance tests among community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Pillai, Sharmila GK; Tan, Sin Thien; Tai, Chu Chiau; Shahar, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical performance and balance declines with aging and may lead to increased risk of falls. Physical performance tests may be useful for initial fall-risk screening test among community-dwelling older adults. Physiological profile assessment (PPA), a composite falls risk assessment tool is reported to have 75% accuracy to screen for physiological falls risk. PPA correlates with Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. However, the association between many other commonly used physical performance tests and PPA is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between physiological falls risk measured using PPA and a battery of physical performance tests. Methods One hundred and forty older adults from a senior citizens club in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (94 females, 46 males), aged 60 years and above (65.77±4.61), participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were screened for falls risk using PPA. A battery of physical performance tests that include ten-step test (TST), short physical performance battery (SPPB), functional reach test (FRT), static balance test (SBT), TUG, dominant hand-grip strength (DHGS), and gait speed test (GST) were also performed. Spearman’s rank correlation and binomial logistic regression were performed to examine the significantly associated independent variables (physical performance tests) with falls risk (dependent variable). Results Approximately 13% older adults were at high risk of falls categorized using PPA. Significant differences (P<0.05) were demonstrated for age, TST, SPPB, FRT, SBT, TUG between high and low falls risk group. A significant (P<0.01) weak correlation was found between PPA and TST (r=0.25), TUG (r=0.27), SBT (r=0.23), SPPB (r=−0.33), and FRT (r=−0.23). Binary logistic regression results demonstrated that SBT measuring postural sways objectively using a balance board was the only significant predictor of physiological falls risk (P<0.05, odds ratio of 2.12). Conclusion The

  18. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  19. Immersion francaise precoce. Early French Immersion: Administrator's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy

    This handbook (in English) is part of a series of early French immersion program teaching guides--all written in French--and is designed to serve as a guide for administrators in schools with classes of students who are being instructed in French for a large part of their school program. It addresses itself to areas of concern which are unique to…

  20. Beta Testing of a Network-Based Health Literacy Program Tailored for Older Adults With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    NEAFSEY, PATRICIA J.; ANDERSON, ELIZABETH; PEABODY, SHERI; LIN, CAROLYN A.; STRICKLER, ZOE; VAUGHN, KATHLEA

    2013-01-01

    A touch screen–enabled “Personal Education Program” was modified to the “next generation” to capture self-medication behaviors of older adults with hypertension and assess related knowledge and self-efficacy. The program analyzes patient-entered information and delivers interactive educational content tailored to the reported behaviors. Summaries of self-reported symptoms, medication use (including frequency/time), drug interactions, and corrective strategies with an illustration of the drug interaction are printed to inform the provider before the primary care visit and for the patient to take home for self-study. After formative research during development and formal diagnostic and verification usability studies with advanced practice nurses and older adults, a beta test was conducted with older adults with hypertension over a 3-month period. Findings from the beta test suggest that older adult user satisfaction was high. Blood pressure declined over the four visits for 82% of the participants. The next generation of the Personal Education Program had a large effect size in increasing knowledge and self-efficacy for avoiding adverse self-medication behaviors. Behavior risk score did not change significantly but was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure on the fourth visit. The positive results found in this small sample suggest that the next generation of the Personal Education Program could play a central role in facilitating patient-provider communication and medication adherence. PMID:19047879

  1. Beta testing of a network-based health literacy program tailored for older adults with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Neafsey, Patricia J; Anderson, Elizabeth; Peabody, Sheri; Lin, Carolyn A; Strickler, Zoe; Vaughn, Kathlea

    2008-01-01

    A touch screen-enabled "Personal Education Program" was modified to the "next generation" to capture self-medication behaviors of older adults with hypertension and assess related knowledge and self-efficacy. The program analyzes patient-entered information and delivers interactive educational content tailored to the reported behaviors. Summaries of self-reported symptoms, medication use (including frequency/time), drug interactions, and corrective strategies with an illustration of the drug interaction are printed to inform the provider before the primary care visit and for the patient to take home for self-study. After formative research during development and formal diagnostic and verification usability studies with advanced practice nurses and older adults, a beta test was conducted with older adults with hypertension over a 3-month period. Findings from the beta test suggest that older adult user satisfaction was high. Blood pressure declined over the four visits for 82% of the participants. The next generation of the Personal Education Program had a large effect size in increasing knowledge and self-efficacy for avoiding adverse self-medication behaviors. Behavior risk score did not change significantly but was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure on the fourth visit. The positive results found in this small sample suggest that the next generation of the Personal Education Program could play a central role in facilitating patient-provider communication and medication adherence. PMID:19047879

  2. Extension of the Contingency Naming Test to adult assessment: psychometric analysis in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Tara; Suhr, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The Contingency Naming Test (CNT; Taylor, Albo, Phebus, Sachs, & Bierl, 1987) was initially designed to assess aspects of executive functioning, such as processing speed and response inhibition, in children. The measure has shown initial utility in identifying differences in executive function among child clinical groups; however, there is an absence of adequate psychometric data for use with adults. The current study expanded psychometric data upward for use with a college student sample and explored the measure's test-retest reliability and factor structure. Performance in the adult sample showed continued improvement above child norms, consistent with theories of executive function development. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the CNT is most closely related to measures of processing speed, as well as elements of response inhibition within the latter trials. Overall, results from the current study provide added support for the utility of the CNT as a measure of executive functioning in young adults. However, more research is needed to determine patterns of performance among adult clinical groups, as well as to better understand how performance patterns may change in a broader age range, including middle and older adulthood. PMID:22432965

  3. Construct Validity of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Rujvi; Weinborn, Michael; Kellogg, Emily J.; Bucks, Romola S.; Velnoweth, Aimee; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) is a clinical measure of prospective memory (PM). There is emerging support for the sensitivity and ecological relevance of the MIST in clinical populations. In the present study, the construct validity of the MIST was evaluated in 40 younger (18–30 years), 24 young-old (60–69 years), and 37 old-old (70+ years) healthy adults. Consistent with expectations derived from the PM and aging literature, older adults demonstrated lower scores on the MIST’s primary scale scores (particularly on the time-based scale), but slightly better performance on the semi-naturalistic 24-hour trial. Among the healthy older adults, the MIST showed evidence of both convergent (e.g., verbal fluency) and divergent (e.g., visuoperception) correlations with standard clinical tests, although the magnitude of those correlations were comparable across the time- and event-based scales. Together, these results support the discriminant and convergent validity of the MIST as a measure of PM in healthy older adults. PMID:24752386

  4. Diminished testing benefits in young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dudukovic, Nicole M; Gottshall, Jackie L; Cavanaugh, Patricia A; Moody, Christine T

    2015-01-01

    Memory retrieval has been shown to enhance the long-term retention of tested material; however, recent research suggests that limiting attention during retrieval can decrease the benefits of testing memory. The present study examined whether testing benefits are reduced in young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). College students with and without ADHD read three short prose passages, each followed by a free recall test, a restudy period or a distractor task. Two days later participants recalled the passages. Although participants without ADHD did not show a significant benefit of testing over restudying, testing did produce recall benefits relative to not taking a test. These testing benefits were diminished in participants with ADHD, who did not show any advantage of testing over either restudying or no test. The absence of testing benefits in the ADHD group is likely due in part to decreased recall on the initial test. These findings have implications for improving educational practices among individuals with ADHD and also speak to the need to examine individual differences in the effectiveness of testing as a learning strategy. PMID:25385006

  5. The hand and environment (3)--physiological changes of digital functions in two age groups studied by vibratory stimulations and a cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Ijichi, M; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuki, T; Ito, K; Kamogawa, M; Matsushita, T; Kotani, K; Seki, A; Tanaka, H; Kawamura, K

    1982-02-25

    Skin temperature, vibratory sensibility and pinch strength of the hand were recorded continuously in 20 healthy adults through two vibratory stress tests (32 Hz and 125 Hz) and a cold water (10 degrees C) immersion (for 10 min) test in a climatic chamber (20 degrees C, 50% humidity). As a stressor to the hand, the immersion was the most effective and the vibrator stress at 32 Hz was next. As a detector for function of the hand, vibratory sensibility at 125 Hz was proved to be the most valuable and the digital temperature was the next. As to aging, the mature age group showed low vibratory sensibilities at 63 Hz, higher digital temperatures, stronger pinch strengths, and quicker recoveries after the stress tests. Along the passage of time after entering the chamber, the vibratory sensibilities and the pinch strengths did not show any changes. However, the digital temperatures became continuously lower. PMID:7077112

  6. Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards…

  7. Learning immersion without getting wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Julieta C.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the teaching of an immersive environments class on the Spring of 2011. The class had students from undergraduate as well as graduate art related majors. Their digital background and interests were also diverse. These variables were channeled as different approaches throughout the semester. Class components included fundamentals of stereoscopic computer graphics to explore spatial depth, 3D modeling and skeleton animation to in turn explore presence, exposure to formats like a stereo projection wall and dome environments to compare field of view across devices, and finally, interaction and tracking to explore issues of embodiment. All these components were supported by theoretical readings discussed in class. Guest artists presented their work in Virtual Reality, Dome Environments and other immersive formats. Museum professionals also introduced students to space science visualizations, which utilize immersive formats. Here I present the assignments and their outcome, together with insights as to how the creation of immersive environments can be learned through constraints that expose students to situations of embodied cognition.

  8. A review of five tests to identify motor coordination difficulties in young adults.

    PubMed

    Hands, Beth; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties with low motor competence in childhood and adolescence, such as that seen in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), often persist into adulthood. Identification of DCD at all ages is particularly challenging and problematic because of the diversity of motor symptoms. Many tests of motor proficiency and impairment have been developed for children up to 12 years of age. Whilst identification of DCD is important during childhood, it is of equal importance to identify and monitor the impact of this impairment as an individual grows and develops. Currently there is no test specifically designed to support diagnosis and monitor change in the age range 16-30 years. In this article we review five tests that have been used to assess motor competence among young adults (Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2, McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development, Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2, Tufts Assessment of Motor Performance and the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment). Key issues relevant to testing motor skills in older populations, such as the inclusion of age appropriate skills, are explored. While the BOT-2 provided the most evidence for valid and reliable measurement of Criterion A of the diagnostic criteria for DCD among this age group, no test adequately evaluated Criterion B. Further evaluation of motor skill assessment among the young adult population is needed. PMID:26057836

  9. Parenteral magnesium load testing with /sup 28/Mg in weanling and young adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Caddell, J.L.; Calhoun, N.R.; Howard, M.P.; Patterson, K.Y.; Smith, J.C. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    A sound diagnostic test for Mg deficiency is needed. This is a report of the parenteral Mg load test conducted in weanling and young adult rats fed a purified basal diet containing 3 mg magnesium/100 g with 150 mg of added magnesium/100 g (control) or 0 added magnesium (deficient). Weanlings were studied at about 1 week of dietary treatment and young adults at 2 weeks. The protocol included: a) a 6-hour preload urinary collection; b) an intraperitoneal load of 15 mg of magnesium/kg (weanlings) or 12 mg/kg (young adults) with 2 microCi 28Mg given simultaneously with each load; c) a 6-hour postload urinary collection; d) chemical analysis of selected tissues and urine for Mg; and e) 28Mg counting 6 and 24 hours postload. Controls all excreted large amounts of Mg pre- and postload, retaining less than 26% of nonradioactive loads. They had high urinary 28Mg counts. In Mg-deficient animals, the concentration of Mg in bone more than halved. These animals avidly conserved Mg and retained over 85% of nonradioactive Mg loads. Their 28Mg activity in vital organs was 3--6 times greater than in controls. We concluded that the parenteral Mg load test reliably identifies severe Mg deficiency.

  10. Attitudes Towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy Among United States Adults of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Sayres, Lauren C.; Goodspeed, Taylor A.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) To determine how adults in the United States (US) view non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA testing) in order to help estimate uptake. Study Design A national sample of 1,861 US-based adults was surveyed using a validated online survey instrument. The survey was administered by a commercial survey research company. Respondents were randomized to receive a survey about prenatal testing for trisomy 13 and 18 or trisomy 21. Participants were asked to select among testing modalities, including cffDNA testing, and rank the features of testing that they considered most important to decision making. Results There was substantive interest in the use of cffDNA testing rather than traditional screening mechanisms with a minority of respondents reporting that they would support the use of both methods in combination. The lower rates of false negative and false positive test results and the ability to use the test earlier in the pregnancy were the most highly rated benefits of cffDNA testing. Participants expressed strong support for diagnostic confirmation via invasive testing after a positive result from either screening or cffDNA testing. However, almost one-third of participants reported that they would not endorse the use of either invasive or non-invasive prenatal testing. Conclusion(s) There appears to be support for uptake of non-invasive prenatal tests. Clinical guidelines should therefor go forward in providing guidance on how to integrate non-invasive methods into current standard of care. However, our findings indicate that even when accuracy, which is rated by patients as the most important aspect of prenatal testing, is significantly improved over existing screening methods and testing is offered non-invasively, the number of individuals who reported that they would decline any testing remained the same. Attention should therefor be directed at ensuring that the right of informed refusal of prenatal testing is not impacted

  11. To Test or Not to Test? The Role of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Religious Involvement among U.s. Adults on Intent-to-Obtain Adult Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botoseneanu, Anda; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Banaszak-Holl, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing can advance cancer prevention if current screening behaviors improve. Increased prevalence of high-risk genotypes within specific religious groups, use of religious venues for recruiting to genetic screening, and ethical-religious considerations argue for exploring the role of religiosity in forming genetic testing decisions. This…

  12. Developing and Testing a Turkish Version of Torrance's Tests of Creative Thinking: A Study of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, A. Esra; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study had two purposes. The first was to translate one of the most popular creativity measures in the West, the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, into Turkish and to check the equivalency of the Turkish version against the original English measure. The second, after developing an equivalent form of the TTCT in Turkish, was to…

  13. Children's Perception of Gap Affordances: Bicycling Across Traffic-Filled Intersections in an Immersive Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumert, Jodie M.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Cremer, James F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined gap choices and crossing behavior in children and adults using an immersive, interactive bicycling simulator. Ten- and 12-year-olds and adults rode a bicycle mounted on a stationary trainer through a virtual environment consisting of a street with 6 intersections. Participants faced continuous cross traffic traveling at 25mph…

  14. Functional assessment in older adults: should we use timed up and go or gait speed test?

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    In order to assess functional skills of older adults, both timed up and go (TUG) test and gait speed (GS) test are well validated concerning their predictive capacities. However, the question remains unclear which one of these tests represents better the whole physical performance of older adults. The aim of this study is to determine the more representative test, between TUG and GS, of the whole motor control quality. To study links between locomotion capacities and arm function, we measured, in a population of frail aged patients, the locomotion tests and the mean arm maximal velocity developed during a speed-accuracy trade-off. This arm movement consisted in reaching the hand toward a target in a virtual game scene. We plotted the different couples of variables obtained on graphs, and calculate Pearson correlation coefficients between each couple. The Pearson correlation between GS and hand maximal velocity was significant (r=0.495; p=0.046). Interestingly, we found a non significant Pearson correlation between timed up and go score (TUG) and hand maximal velocity (r=-0.139; p=0.243). Our results suggest that GS score is more representative of the whole motor ability of frail patients than the TUG. We propose that the relative complexity of the TUG motor sequence could be involved in this difference. For a few patients with motor automatisms deficiencies, this motor sequence complexity could leads to a dual task perturbation. In this way, we conclude that GS should be preferred over the TUG with older adults. PMID:24933540

  15. The Importance of Symptom Validity Testing in Adolescents and Young Adults Undergoing Assessments for Learning or Attention Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Green, Paul; Flaro, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    It is almost self-evident that test results will be unreliable and misleading if those undergoing assessments do not make a full effort on testing. Nevertheless, objective tests of effort have not typically been used with young adults to determine whether test results are valid or not. Because of the potential economic and/or recreational benefits…

  16. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface–immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

  17. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

  18. The interplays among technology and content, immersant and VE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Meehae; Gromala, Diane; Shaw, Chris; Barnes, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The research program aims to explore and examine the fine balance necessary for maintaining the interplays between technology and the immersant, including identifying qualities that contribute to creating and maintaining a sense of "presence" and "immersion" in an immersive virtual reality (IVR) experience. Building upon and extending previous work, we compare sitting meditation with walking meditation in a virtual environment (VE). The Virtual Meditative Walk, a new work-in-progress, integrates VR and biofeedback technologies with a self-directed, uni-directional treadmill. As immersants learn how to meditate while walking, robust, real-time biofeedback technology continuously measures breathing, skin conductance and heart rate. The physiological states of the immersant will in turn affect the audio and stereoscopic visual media through shutter glasses. We plan to test the potential benefits and limitations of this physically active form of meditation with data from a sitting form of meditation. A mixed-methods approach to testing user outcomes parallels the knowledge bases of the collaborative team: a physician, computer scientists and artists.

  19. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immersion suits. 199.273 Section 199.273 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.273 Immersion suits. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry an immersion suit approved under approval series 160.171 of...

  20. The Benefits and Costs of Repeated Testing on the Learning of Face-Name Pairs in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.; Roediger, Henry L.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiments compared the benefits of repeated testing and repeated study on cued-recall of unfamiliar face-name pairs in healthy middle-age and older adults. We extended Karpicke and Roediger’s (2008) paradigm to compare the effects of repeated study vs. repeated testing after each face-name pair was correctly recalled once. The results from Experiment 1, which provided no feedback during the acquisition phase, yielded a cross-over interaction: middle-age adults showed the expected benefit of repeated testing, whereas older adults produced a benefit of repeated study. When participants were given feedback in Experiment 2, both middle-age and older adults benefited from repeated testing. We suggest that for face-name pairs, feedback may be particularly important for individuals who have relatively poor memory to produce benefits from repeated testing. PMID:20718541

  1. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted. PMID:17900857

  2. Are Children's Faces Really More Appealing than Those of Adults? Testing the Baby Schema Hypothesis beyond Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Li Zhuo; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adults' evaluations of likeability and attractiveness of children's faces from infancy to early childhood. We tested whether Lorenz's baby schema hypothesis ("Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie" (1943), Vol. 5, pp. 235-409) is applicable not only to infant faces but also to faces of children at older ages. Adult participants were…

  3. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Background Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods Eight steps of scale development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability. Results Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed. Conclusion The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a

  4. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

    2006-05-01

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  5. Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, John S.; Qiu, Brynan; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J.; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or a vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, the lenses rely on semispherical topographies and are nonplanar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in the material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

  6. High efficiency germanium immersion gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Pete J.; Little, Steve L.; Little, Liesl M.; Bixler, Jay V.

    2006-06-01

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 104. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO II laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  7. Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

    We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

  8. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  9. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  10. The leeway of shipping containers at different immersion levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Allen, Arthur A.; Maisondieu, Christophe; Roth, Jens-Christian; Forest, Bertrand

    2012-05-01

    The leeway of 20-ft containers in typical distress conditions is established through field experiments in a Norwegian fjord and in open-ocean conditions off the coast of France with a wind speed ranging from calm to 14 m s-1. The experimental setup is described in detail, and certain recommendations were given for experiments on objects of this size. The results are compared with the leeway of a scaled-down container before the full set of measured leeway characteristics are compared with a semianalytical model of immersed containers. Our results are broadly consistent with the semianalytical model, but the model is found to be sensitive to choice of drag coefficient and makes no estimate of the crosswind leeway of containers. We extend the results from the semianalytical immersion model by extrapolating the observed leeway divergence and estimates of the experimental uncertainty to various realistic immersion levels. The sensitivity of these leeway estimates at different immersion levels are tested using a stochastic trajectory model. Search areas are found to be sensitive to the exact immersion levels, the choice of drag coefficient, and somewhat less sensitive to the inclusion of leeway divergence. We further compare the search areas, thus, found with a range of trajectories estimated using the semianalytical model with only perturbations to the immersion level. We find that the search areas calculated without estimates of crosswind leeway and its uncertainty will grossly underestimate the rate of expansion of the search areas. We recommend that stochastic trajectory models of container drift should account for these uncertainties by generating search areas for different immersion levels and with the uncertainties in crosswind and downwind leeway reported from our field experiments.

  11. KinImmerse: Macromolecular VR for NMR ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Block, Jeremy N; Zielinski, David J; Chen, Vincent B; Davis, Ian W; Vinson, E Claire; Brady, Rachael; Richardson, Jane S; Richardson, David C

    2009-01-01

    Background In molecular applications, virtual reality (VR) and immersive virtual environments have generally been used and valued for the visual and interactive experience – to enhance intuition and communicate excitement – rather than as part of the actual research process. In contrast, this work develops a software infrastructure for research use and illustrates such use on a specific case. Methods The Syzygy open-source toolkit for VR software was used to write the KinImmerse program, which translates the molecular capabilities of the kinemage graphics format into software for display and manipulation in the DiVE (Duke immersive Virtual Environment) or other VR system. KinImmerse is supported by the flexible display construction and editing features in the KiNG kinemage viewer and it implements new forms of user interaction in the DiVE. Results In addition to molecular visualizations and navigation, KinImmerse provides a set of research tools for manipulation, identification, co-centering of multiple models, free-form 3D annotation, and output of results. The molecular research test case analyzes the local neighborhood around an individual atom within an ensemble of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) models, enabling immersive visual comparison of the local conformation with the local NMR experimental data, including target curves for residual dipolar couplings (RDCs). Conclusion The promise of KinImmerse for production-level molecular research in the DiVE is shown by the locally co-centered RDC visualization developed there, which gave new insights now being pursued in wider data analysis. PMID:19222844

  12. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT) effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition) and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT). The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory). Results The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging

  13. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  14. Upper Quarter Y Balance Test: reliability and performance comparison between genders in active adults.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Paul P; Butler, Robert J; Plisky, Phillip J; Kiesel, Kyle B

    2012-11-01

    The inclusion of movement tests before performance training and sport participation is gaining popularity as part of musculoskeletal screening for injury. The identification of an athlete's asymmetries and poor performance in the preseason allows coaches and sports medicine clinicians the opportunity to proactively address these deficits to reduce the potential for injury. Currently, there are no tests reported in the literature that simultaneously require shoulder and core stability while taking the subjects through a large range of motion at the end range of their stability. Thus, the purpose of this article was to describe the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test and report the gender differences in the performance of the test. Upper extremity reach distances were measured in 95 active adults using a standardized upper extremity balance-and-reach protocol. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess reliability, and gender differences were analyzed using an independent samples t-test, whereas bilateral differences were analyzed using a dependent samples t-test for the normalized composite reach scores. Intraclass correlation coefficient (3.1) for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.80 to 0.99. Intraclass correlation coefficient (3.1) for interrater reliability was 1.00. Average composite scores (right/left) reported as a percentage of limb length were 81.7/82.3% for men and 80.7/80.7% for women. The results of the study suggest that the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test is a reliable test for measuring upper extremity reach distance while in a closed-chain position. It was further determined that there was no significant difference in performance between genders or between sides on the test when normalized to limb length. Coaches and sports medicine professionals may consider incorporating the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test as part of their preprogram testing to identify movement limitations and asymmetries in athletes and thereby may reduce injury. PMID:22228174

  15. Evaluation of direct-to-consumer low-volume lab tests in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Brian A.; Hoffman, Gabriel; Zimmerman, Noah; Li, Li; Morgan, Joseph W.; Glowe, Patricia K.; Botwin, Gregory J.; Parekh, Samir; Babic, Nikolina; Doust, Matthew W.; Stock, Gregory B.; Schadt, Eric E.; Dudley, Joel T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Clinical laboratory tests are now being prescribed and made directly available to consumers through retail outlets in the USA. Concerns with these test have been raised regarding the uncertainty of testing methods used in these venues and a lack of open, scientific validation of the technical accuracy and clinical equivalency of results obtained through these services. METHODS. We conducted a cohort study of 60 healthy adults to compare the uncertainty and accuracy in 22 common clinical lab tests between one company offering blood tests obtained from finger prick (Theranos) and 2 major clinical testing services that require standard venipuncture draws (Quest and LabCorp). Samples were collected in Phoenix, Arizona, at an ambulatory clinic and at retail outlets with point-of-care services. RESULTS. Theranos flagged tests outside their normal range 1.6× more often than other testing services (P < 0.0001). Of the 22 lab measurements evaluated, 15 (68%) showed significant interservice variability (P < 0.002). We found nonequivalent lipid panel test results between Theranos and other clinical services. Variability in testing services, sample collection times, and subjects markedly influenced lab results. CONCLUSION. While laboratory practice standards exist to control this variability, the disparities between testing services we observed could potentially alter clinical interpretation and health care utilization. Greater transparency and evaluation of testing technologies would increase their utility in personalized health management. FUNDING. This work was supported by the Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, a gift from the Harris Family Charitable Foundation (to J.T. Dudley), and grants from the NIH (R01 DK098242 and U54 CA189201, to J.T. Dudley, and R01 AG046170 and U01 AI111598, to E.E. Schadt). PMID:27018593

  16. [Evaluation of peruvian money test in screening of cognitive impairment among older adults].

    PubMed

    Oscanoa, Teodoro J; Cieza, Edwin; Parodi, José F; Paredes, Napoleón

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To evaluate the Peruvian adaptation of the money test (Eurotest) for identifying cognitive impairment among >60-year-old adults. Materials and methods This is a phase I study of diagnostic test, with a convenience sampling and calculation of the test´s sensitivity and specificity, based on a pretest prevalence of 50%. The criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) were used for the operational definition of patients with cognitive impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the optimal cut-off value. Results The study evaluated 42 cases and 42 controls; there was no significant difference between age (77.88 ± 6.01 years vs. 6.49 76.14 ± years) and years of education (13.69 ± 3.70 years vs. 8.17 ± 4.71 years). The Peruvian version of the Eurotest has a sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 83.3% with cut-off value of 24. Conclusions The Peruvian adapted version of the Eurotest, called prueba de la moneda peruana could be useful in screening for cognitive impairment among older adults. PMID:27384624

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Obstructive Airway Adult Test for Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Giulio; Vicini, Claudio; De Benedetto, Michele; Salamanca, Fabrizio; Sorrenti, Giovanni; Romandini, Mario; Bosi, Marcello; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Foresta, Enrico; Laforì, Andreina; Meccariello, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Alessandro; Toraldo, Domenico Maurizio; Campanini, Aldo; Montevecchi, Filippo; Rizzotto, Grazia; Cervelli, Daniele; Moro, Alessandro; Arigliani, Michele; Gobbi, Riccardo; Pelo, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Rationale. The gold standard for the diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is polysomnography, whose access is however reduced by costs and limited availability, so that additional diagnostic tests are needed. Objectives. To analyze the diagnostic accuracy of the Obstructive Airway Adult Test (OAAT) compared to polysomnography for the diagnosis of OSA in adult patients. Methods. Ninety patients affected by OSA verified with polysomnography (AHI ≥ 5) and ten healthy patients, randomly selected, were included and all were interviewed by one blind examiner with OAAT questions. Measurements and Main Results. The Spearman rho, evaluated to measure the correlation between OAAT and polysomnography, was 0.72 (p < 0.01). The area under the ROC curve (95% CI) was the parameter to evaluate the accuracy of the OAAT: it was 0.91 (0.81–1.00) for the diagnosis of OSA (AHI ≥ 5), 0.90 (0.82–0.98) for moderate OSA (AHI ≥ 15), and 0.84 (0.76–0.92) for severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30). Conclusions. The OAAT has shown a high correlation with polysomnography and also a high diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of OSA. It has also been shown to be able to discriminate among the different degrees of severity of OSA. Additional large studies aiming to validate this questionnaire as a screening or diagnostic test are needed. PMID:26636102

  18. HIV testing among heterosexual young adults: the influence of partners' risk behaviors and relationship dynamics.

    PubMed

    Longmore, Monica A; Johnson, Wendi L; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C

    2013-01-01

    Using relational theory and survey data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 665), this article examined whether individuals were tested for HIV while intimately involved in a current or recent heterosexual relationship. The analyses included the respondent's and partner's sexual risk factors (non-exclusivity and lifetime number of partners), relational variables, prior testing, and demographic characteristics. It was found that 39% of respondents had an HIV test while involved in their current or most recent sexual relationship, and women (47%), compared with men (29%), were significantly more likely to have been tested. Whereas some predictors operated similarly (number of sex partners and pressured to have sex), others displayed significant gender differences (partner's sexual exclusivity, sexual communication difficulties, and pregnancy), particularly related to women's testing behaviors. Excerpts from qualitative interviews with male respondents suggested that some relational dynamics, not well reflected in relational theory, played a role in their testing. Results highlight the need to consider gendered dynamics when targeting young adults for routine HIV testing. PMID:22489753

  19. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  20. Evaluation of the Bangor Dyslexia Test (BDT) for use with Adults.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrea Elaine; Caravolas, Markéta

    2016-02-01

    The Bangor Dyslexia Test (BDT) is a short, easy-to-administer screener for use with a broad age range, which has been in use in the UK for over three decades. A distinctive feature of the battery is its focus on skills requiring aspects of verbal and phonological processing without, however, measuring literacy skills per se. Despite its longstanding existence and usage, there has been no evaluation of the psychometric properties of the battery as an adult dyslexia screener. We examined the psychometric properties of the BDT and evaluated its capacity to discriminate between adults with and without dyslexia. A large archival sample of university students with dyslexia (n = 193) and students with no reported literacy difficulties (n = 40) were compared on the BDT as well as on literacy and cognitive measures. Statistical analyses revealed the BDT to be a reliable (α = .72) and valid dyslexia screening tool with the capacity to effectively identify adults at risk of the disorder with an overall classification rate of 94% (sensitivity 96.4% and specificity 82.5%). In addition, higher indices of dyslexia risk on the BDT were associated with lower scores on standardized measures of literacy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26748731

  1. Daytime Sleepiness in Adults With ADHD: A Pilot Trial With a Multiple Sleep Latency Test.

    PubMed

    Sobanski, Esther; Alm, Barbara; Hennig, Oliver; Riemann, Dieter; Feige, Bernd; Schredl, Michael

    2014-04-17

    Objective: To evaluate sleep latency (SL) during the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and subjective daytime sleepiness in adult ADHD and controls. Method: Subjective daytime sleepiness was assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in 27 unmedicated adults with ADHD and in 182 controls. Thirteen ADHD patients and 26 controls underwent MSLT after one night of polysomnography (PSG). Results: Mean MSLT-SL was 10.6 ± 4.8 min in ADHD and 12.2 ± 4.2 min in controls (n.s.). Mean ESS score was 9.3 ± 4.9 points in ADHD and 6.9 ± 3.4 points in controls (p < .005). MSLT-SL and ESS scores correlated inversely by trend (r = -.45, p < .1) but not with ADHD symptoms or ADHD subtype. Conclusion: Adults with ADHD do not differ from controls in mean MSLT-SL but experience increased subjective daytime sleepiness. Patients with subjective higher daytime tiredness fell asleep faster during MSLT. PMID:24743976

  2. Blood volume reduction counteracts fluid shifts in water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, Karl E.; Bernauer, Edmund

    1993-01-01

    Six healthy men were bled by 15 percent of their total blood volume (TBV) before 7 h of seated water immersion, to test the hypothesis that some of the major physiological responses to an expansion of central blood volume can be counteracted by prior reduction of TBV. Subjects were their own controls under two conditions: seated dry in air and seated immersed to the suprasternal notch in water. Immersion without prior reduction of TBV Wet Control (WC) caused a statistically significant 22-percent increase in cardiac output (CO), 368-percent increase in urine production, and 200-percent increase in sodium excretion relative to dry control (DC) sessions. When TBV was reduced before immersion, CO was the same as during DC sessions; however there were significant increases above DC in urine flow (+73 percent) and sodium excretion (+120 percent), although they were significantly reduced from WC values. Potassium excretion was similar during DC and WC sessions, but was significantly increased (+75 percent) when subjects were immersed after 15-percent reduction of TBV.

  3. The functional status of the human vestibular analysor following 56 days in an aqueous immersion medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsnev, E. I.; Shulzhenko, Y. B.

    1981-01-01

    Two male volunteers were kept hypokinetic in the immersion and physiological parameters were evaluated following the experiment. Prophylactic measures (g-forces, physical exercises, and supplementary salt and water) were applied daily. Caloric and equilibrium tests were utilized to evaluate the physiological responses. The functional changes observed after the 56 day immersion were found to be of a moderate type which normalized quite quickly.

  4. Immersed boundary methods for viscoelastic particulate flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    Viscoelastic particulate suspensions play key roles in many energy applications. Our goal is to develop a simulation-based tool for engineering such suspensions. This study is concerned with fully resolved simulations, wherein all flow scales associated with the particle motion are resolved. The present effort is based on Immersed Boundary methods, in which the domain grids do not conform to particle geometry. In this approach, the conservation of momentum equations, which include both Newtonian and non-Newtonian stresses, are solved over the entire domain including the region occupied by the particles. The particles are defined on a separate Lagrangian mesh that is free to move over an underlying Eulerian grid. The development of an immersed boundary forcing technique for moving bodies within an unstructured-mesh, massively parallel, non-Newtonian flow solver is thus developed and described. The presentation will focus on the numerical algorithm and measures taken to enable efficient parallelization and transfer of information between the underlying fluid grid and the particle mesh. Several validation test cases will be presented including sedimentation under orthogonal shear - a key flow in drilling muds and fracking fluids.

  5. Visuospatial astronomy education in immersive digital planetariums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Sahami, K.

    2008-06-01

    Even simple concepts in astronomy are notoriously difficult for the general public to understand. Many ideas involve three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships among astronomical objects. However much of the traditional teaching materials used in astronomy education are two-dimensional (2D) in nature, while studies show that visualising mental rotations and perspective changes can be difficult for many. The simplifications that occur when explaining one phenomenon may lead to new misconceptions in other concepts. Properly constructed 3D simulations can provide students with the multiple perspectives necessary for understanding. As a venue for virtual astronomical environments, the new class of digital video planetariums that are appearing in museums and science centres have the potential to bridge the comprehension gap in astronomy learning. We describe a research project which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of visualisations in both immersive and non-immersive settings, by using freshmen undergraduate students from a four-year college. The retention of students over the course of a semester for this study means that student misconceptions can be tracked and recorded weekly via curriculum tests.

  6. Some Observations on the Use of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability in Adults with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupper, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The study provides descriptive data on use of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability with 39 adults with closed head injury. Correlational analyses indicated significant relationships between coma duration and performance on the Perceptual Speed and Memory clusters of the test. Time since injury did not correlate with test results.…

  7. Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

    2003-12-01

    In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

  8. "eLingua" Latina and Immersive CALL Tool Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Adrian; Mallon, Bride

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an ongoing project to develop an "eLingua" Latin language-learning application that combines natural-language text-input with computer game-based approaches to discovery learning. The program aims to create a content-based immersive environment within which to test the hypothesis that second-language learning is more…

  9. The Language Learning Motivation of Early Adolescent French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    This interpretive multiple case study examines the motivation to learn a second language among sixth grade students who attended a French immersion school for grades K-5. Parent surveys, student surveys based on Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test Battery, and individual and group interviews with students were the data sources used to identify…

  10. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in TWI programs outperformed their peers…

  11. Synchronizing Self and Object Movement: How Child and Adult Cyclists Intercept Moving Gaps in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chihak, Benjamin J.; Plumert, Jodie M.; Ziemer, Christine J.; Babu, Sabarish; Grechkin, Timofey; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined how 10- and 12-year-old children and adults intercept moving gaps while bicycling in an immersive virtual environment. Participants rode an actual bicycle along a virtual roadway. At 12 test intersections, participants attempted to pass through a gap between 2 moving, car-sized blocks without stopping. The blocks were…

  12. The Attention Network Test-Interaction (ANT-I): reliability and validity in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Ishigami, Yoko; Eskes, Gail A; Tyndall, Amanda V; Longman, R Stewart; Drogos, Lauren L; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-03-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) is a frequently used computer-based tool for measuring the three attention networks (alerting, orienting, and executive control). We examined the psychometric properties of performance on a variant of the ANT, the Attention Network Test-Interaction (ANT-I) in healthy older adults (N = 173; mean age = 65.4, SD = 6.5; obtained from the Brain in Motion Study, Tyndall et al. BMC Geriatr 13:21, 2013. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-13-21) to evaluate its usefulness as a measurement tool in both aging and clinical research. In terms of test reliability, split-half correlation analyses showed that all network scores were significantly reliable, although the strength of the correlations varied across networks as seen before (r = 0.29, 0.70, and 0.68, for alerting, orienting, and executive networks, respectively, p's < 0.05). In terms of construct validity, ANOVAs confirmed that each network score was significant (18.3, 59.4, and 109.2 ms for the alerting, orienting, and executive networks, respectively, p's < 0.01) and that these scores were generally independent from each other. Importantly, for criterion validity, a series of hierarchical linear regressions showed that the executive network score, in addition to demographic information, was a significant predictor of performance on tests of conflict resolution as well as verbal memory and retrieval (β = -0.165 and -0.184, p's < 0.05, respectively). These results provide new information regarding the reliability and validity of ANT-I test performance in a healthy older adult population. The results provide insights into the psychometrics of the ANT-I and its potential utility in clinical research settings. PMID:26645310

  13. Are children's faces really more appealing than those of adults? Testing the baby schema hypothesis beyond infancy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li Zhu; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2011-09-01

    This study examined adults' evaluations of likeability and attractiveness of children's faces from infancy to early childhood. We tested whether Lorenz's baby schema hypothesis (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie (1943), Vol. 5, pp. 235-409) is applicable not only to infant faces but also to faces of children at older ages. Adult participants were asked to evaluate children's faces from early infancy to 6 years of age in terms of their likeability and attractiveness, and these judgments were compared with those of adult faces. It was revealed that adults judged faces of younger children as more likeable and attractive than faces of older children, which were in turn judged as more likeable and attractive than adult faces. However, after approximately 4.5 years of age, the baby schema no longer affected adults' judgments of children's facial likeability and attractiveness. These findings suggest that the baby schema affects adults' judgments of not only infant faces but also young children's faces. This influence beyond infancy is likely due to the fact that facial cranial growth is gradual during early childhood and certain crucial infantile facial cues remain readily available during this period. Future studies need to identify these specific cues to better understand why adults generally show positive responses to infantile faces and how such positive responses influence the establishment and maintenance of social relationships between young children and adults. PMID:21536307

  14. Clinical test responses to different orthoptic exercise regimes in typical young adults

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna; Toor, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The relative efficiency of different eye exercise regimes is unclear, and in particular the influences of practice, placebo and the amount of effort required are rarely considered. This study measured conventional clinical measures following different regimes in typical young adults. Methods A total of 156 asymptomatic young adults were directed to carry out eye exercises three times daily for 2 weeks. Exercises were directed at improving blur responses (accommodation), disparity responses (convergence), both in a naturalistic relationship, convergence in excess of accommodation, accommodation in excess of convergence, and a placebo regime. They were compared to two control groups, neither of which were given exercises, but the second of which were asked to make maximum effort during the second testing. Results Instruction set and participant effort were more effective than many exercises. Convergence exercises independent of accommodation were the most effective treatment, followed by accommodation exercises, and both regimes resulted in changes in both vergence and accommodation test responses. Exercises targeting convergence and accommodation working together were less effective than those where they were separated. Accommodation measures were prone to large instruction/effort effects and monocular accommodation facility was subject to large practice effects. Conclusions Separating convergence and accommodation exercises seemed more effective than exercising both systems concurrently and suggests that stimulation of accommodation and convergence may act in an additive fashion to aid responses. Instruction/effort effects are large and should be carefully controlled if claims for the efficacy of any exercise regime are to be made. PMID:24471739

  15. Suicide risk factors for young adults: testing a model across ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, P M; Rodriguez, P J; Garcia, P

    2001-06-01

    A general path model based on existing suicide risk research was developed to test factors contributing to current suicidal ideation in young adults. A sample of 673 undergraduate students completed a packet of questionnaires containing the Beck Depression Inventory, Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, and Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale. They also provided information on history of suicidality and exposure to attempted and completed suicide in others. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the data to the hypothesized model. Goodness-of-fit indices were adequate and supported the interactive effects of exposure, repulsion by life, depression, and history of self-harm on current ideation. Model fit for three subgroups based on race/ethnicity (i.e., White, Black, and Hispanic) determined that repulsion by life and depression function differently across groups. Implications of these findings for current methods of suicide risk assessment and future research are discussed in the context of the importance of culture. PMID:11803983

  16. Monitoring Cognitive Functioning: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT)

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Margie E.; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Tun, Patricia A.; Weaver, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument which includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. We administered the battery to a national sample (N = 4,268), aged 32 to 84, from the study of Midlife in the United States and examined age, education and sex differences, reliability, and factor structure. We found good evidence for construct validity with a subsample tested in person. Implications of the findings are considered for efficient neuropsychological assessment and monitoring changes in cognitive aging, for clinical and research applications by telephone or in person. PMID:24322011

  17. Development and testing of a measure of perceived caregiver rewards in adults.

    PubMed

    Picot, S J; Youngblut, J; Zeller, R

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of the rewards of caregiving is pertinent to a holistic view of the caregiving experience and design of health promotion interventions for caregivers. Few measures of caregiver positive appraisals exist. This paper describes the development and pilot testing of the Picot Caregiver Rewards Scale (PCRS) for adult caregivers. Derived from the choice and social exchange theory, caregiver interviews, and literature, 25 items compose the scale. Psychometric testings of the PCRS were conducted in a nonrandom sample of 83 Black female caregivers and a random sample of 256 Black and White female and male caregivers. Alphas of .83 and .88 demonstrated acceptable internal consistency of the revised 16-item PCRS. Construct validity was demonstrated by support of hypothesized relationships with caregiving demands, palliative coping, depression, and caregiver burden, as well as confirmatory factor analysis. Further psychometric study of the PCRS is recommended. PMID:9505468

  18. Canoeists' disorientation following cold immersion

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S.; Atha, J.

    1981-01-01

    As an initial step to a broader study of the disorientating effects of cold water immersions on top class competitive canoeists a survey was made of the incidence of hazardous immersions amongst a majority sample of the better canoeists in the country. Virtually the entire entry to one of the most important national competitive meets was canvassed. A total of 288 canoeists in the 1st and 2nd divisions were identified and asked to participate. Replies were received from 247 (86%). All those responding had had extensive experience of canoeing in winter spate and were capable of fast and efficient first-time canoe rolls in cases of capsize. Particular interest was focussed on the 85 (34%) who had experienced at least one capsize in cold water during training or competition in mid-winter. Respondents viewed the winter capsize seriously. Despite their familiarity with the conditions in which they trained all 85, recalling their capsize experiences, reported being concerned, most (79%) only modestly so, but a significant proportion (21%) confessed to feelings of extreme alarm. A number of marked physical symptoms that regularly attend on a capsize were widely reported, the most usual of which was severe pain in the forehead (89%) and breathing and speaking difficulties when afloat (64%). Additionally 62% reported sensory problems including visual difficulties, dizziness and disorientation. Five canoeists admitted fainting. Despite these hazards few preventive measures were taken and clothing with negligible thermal insulation properties was commonly worn. It is concluded that transient cold immersions can be disturbing, and can disorientate the canoeist, but that although conscious of this and to his own potentially high cost, he takes little notice of it in his desire to compete successfully. Imagesp111-ap111-bp112-ap113-ap114-a PMID:7272652

  19. Incremental shuttle walk test: Reference values and predictive equation for healthy Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Bela; Shah, Monal; Andhare, Nilesh; Mullerpatan, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Physical inactivity in Indians is leading to an increase in noncommunicable disorders at an early age in life. Early identification and quantification of the lack of physical activity using simple and reliable exercise testing is the need of the hour. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an externally paced walk test widely used for the evaluation of exercise capacity. Currently the normative values available for clinical reference are generated from Western populations. Hence, the study was conducted to find normative values for the ISWT in healthy Indian adults (17-75 years). Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 862 subjects was recruited after ethical approval was obtained. All subjects were divided into groups as per age and gender. For age, the grouping was as follows: Group 1: Young adulthood (17-40 years), group 2: Middle adulthood (40-65 years), and group 3: Old adulthood (>65 years). The ISWT was performed as per standard protocol by Sally Singh. Results: The average distance walked were 709.2m,556.4m and 441.3m in females and 807.9 m, 639.6 m and 478.2 m in males in the three respective age groups. Stepwise regression analysis revealed age and gender as key variables correlating with incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD). The derived predictive equations for males and females may be given as follows: 740.351 - (5.676 × age) + (99.007 × gender). Conclusion: Reference values were generated for healthy Indian adults. Physiological response to the ISWT was shown to be affected by gender and increasing age. Easily measurable variables explained 68% of the variance seen in the test, making the reference equation a relevant part of the evaluation of the ISWT. PMID:26933305

  20. Hepatitis B testing and vaccination among adults with sexually transmitted infections in a large managed care organization.

    PubMed

    Hechter, Rulin C; Jacobsen, Steven J; Luo, Yi; Nomura, Jim H; Towner, William J; Tartof, Sara Y; Tseng, Hung Fu

    2014-06-01

    Data on viral hepatitis B (HBV) testing and vaccination in primary care settings among persons at sexual risk for HBV infection have been sparse. We examined rates and factors associated with HBV serologic testing and vaccination rates in adults infected with sexually transmitted infections. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults diagnosed with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis in Kaiser Permanente Southern California in 2008-2011. The vaccine series initiation was examined in subjects who were tested susceptible. The 90-day hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing rate was 28.1% in 15 357 adults. Testing rates increased through the study period. Only 8.8% of patients received both HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antibody tests to determine prior exposure and susceptibility to HBV. Among those who were tested susceptible, 116 (10.6%) subjects initiated the vaccine series. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the odds of receiving testing was inversely associated with female sex, black race, other/unknown race, or having prespecified chronic comorbidities. In survival analysis, adults aged 25-34 years and ≥55 years were more likely to initiate hepatitis B vaccine series compared with those aged 18-24 years. There are missed opportunities in HBV testing and vaccination in primary care. Implementation of provider decision-making support tools in the electronic medical record system may potentially improve hepatitis B testing and vaccination rates. PMID:24571863

  1. Gestural interfaces for immersive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Todd

    2014-02-01

    We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

  2. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  3. Relationship between Barthel index with physical tests in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Pérez-Cruzado, David

    2014-01-01

    We usually find low levels of fitness condition affect other aspects of living for people with ID like dependency in carrying out activivities of daily living. Therefore we find high levels of dependency in activities of daily living due to poor fitness condition. The aim of the study is to explore the criterion validity of the Barthel index with a physical fitness test. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted. Data from the Barthel index and a physical fitness test were measured in 122 adults with intellectual disability. The data were analysed to find out the relationship between four categories of the physical fitness test and the Barthel index. It needs to be stressed that the correlations between the Barthel index and leg, abdominal and arm strength can confirm that these physical test are predictive of the Barthel index. The correlations between the balance variables as functional reach and single-leg stance with eyes open shown relationships with Barthel Index. We found important correlations between the physical fitness test and the Barthel index, so we can affirm that some physical fitness features are predictor variables of the Barthel index. PMID:25332853

  4. Development of a music perception test for adult hearing-aid users.

    PubMed

    Uys, Marinda; van Dijk, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this research was twofold: firstly, to develop a music perception test (MPT) for hearing-aid users, and secondly, to evaluate the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on music perception with the use of the self-compiled test. This article focuses on the description of the development and validation of the MPT. To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing-aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. As hearing-aid technology has improved, interest has grown in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing-aid users' quality of life. The MPT was designed to evaluate different aspects of rhythm, timbre, pitch and melody. The development of the MPT could be described as design-based. Phase 1 of the study included test development and recording, while phase 2 entailed presentation of stimuli to normal hearing listeners (n = 15) and hearing-aid users (n = 4). Based on the findings of phase 2, item analysis was performed to eliminate or change stimuli that resulted in high error rates. During phase 3 the adapted version of the test was performed on a smaller group of normal hearing listeners (n = 4) and 20 hearing-aid users. Results proved that adults with normal hearing as well as adults using hearing aids were able to complete all the sub-tests of the MPT, although hearing-aid users scored lower on the various sub-tests than normal hearing listeners. For the rhythm section of the MPT normal hearing listeners scored on average 93.8% versus 75.5% of hearing-aid users; for the timbre section the scores were 83% versus 62.3% respectively. Normal hearing listeners obtained an average score of 86.3% for the pitch section and 88.2% for the melody section, compared with the 70.8% and 61.9% respectively obtained by hearing-aid users. This implies that the MPT can be used successfully for assessment of music perception in hearing-aid users within the South African context and may therefore result in

  5. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions. PMID:26674408

  6. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  7. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. Methods A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing “junk food” and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Results Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a

  8. Cardiovascular responses to apneic facial immersion during altered cardiac filling.

    PubMed

    Journeay, W Shane; Reardon, Francis D; Kenny, Glen P

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis that reduced cardiac filling, as a result of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and postexercise hypotension (PEH), would attenuate the reflex changes to heart rate (HR), skin blood flow (SkBF), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) normally induced by facial immersion was tested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular control mechanisms associated with apneic facial immersion during different cardiovascular challenges. Six subjects randomly performed 30-s apneic facial immersions in 6.0 +/- 1.2 degrees C water under the following conditions: 1) -20 mmHg LBNP, 2) +40 mmHg lower body positive pressure (LBPP), 3) during a period of PEH, and 4) normal resting (control). Measurements included SkBF at one acral (distal phalanx of the thumb) and one nonacral region of skin (ventral forearm), HR, and MAP. Facial immersion reduced HR and SkBF at both sites and increased MAP under all conditions (P < 0.05). Reduced cardiac filling during LBNP and PEH significantly attenuated the absolute HR nadir observed during the control immersion (P < 0.05). The LBPP condition did not result in a lower HR nadir than control but did result in a nadir significantly lower than that of the LBNP and PEH conditions (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in either SkBF or MAP between conditions; however, the magnitude of SkBF reduction was greater at the acral site than at the nonacral site for all conditions (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the cardiac parasympathetic response during facial immersion can be attenuated when cardiac filling is compromised. PMID:12598488

  9. Young adult reference ranges for thyroid function tests on the Centaur immunoassay analyser.

    PubMed

    Alqahatani, M; Tamimi, W; Aldaker, M; Alenzi, F; Tamim, H; Alsadhan, A

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to establish reference ranges for thyroid tests in young Saudi adults using the Centaur immunoassay method. Physical examination is performed and thyroid function tests include thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3). These are performed on 291 young Saudi adults (182 [63%] females and 109 [37%] males; average age: 27 years [range 18-50]). Clinical thyroid abnormality, related symptoms and/or abnormal thyroid function tests exclude a person from the study and thus a total of 276 subjects (171 [62%] females and 105 [38%] males) are used to establish the new reference ranges. Combined female and male ranges for TSH, FT4, and FT3 were found to be 0.48-6.30 miu/L (9.00-18.62 pmol/L and 3.39-6.85 pmol/L, respectively). Mean TSH and FT4 levels were significantly different (P<0.0001) from those quoted by the manufacturer. Ranges for TSH were 0.48-6.30 miu/L (female) and 0.52-4.89 miu/L (male) (P=0.08). Female ranges for FT4 and FT3 were 9.00-17.15 pmol/L and 3.39-5.82 pmol/L, respectively. Male ranges were 9.92-18.62 pmol/L (P=0.0001) and 4.36-6.85 pmol/L (P<0.0001). The range of TSH levels in the young local Saudi population proved to be higher than that quoted by the manufacturer. FT4 range was lower and narrower than that quoted by the manufacturer. Significant differences between female and male populations suggest that partitioning of the reference ranges by gender is necessary. PMID:17201204

  10. Physical factors underlying the Timed "Up and Go" test in older adults.

    PubMed

    Benavent-Caballer, Vicent; Sendín-Magdalena, Alejandro; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rosado-Calatayud, Pedro; Amer-Cuenca, Juan José; Salvador-Coloma, Pablo; Segura-Ortí, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a range of selected physical measures for their relative contributions and extent to which they may explain the performance of the Timed "Up and Go" test (TUG) in a sample of healthy older adults. The participants where 194 adults aged 65 and older with no cognitive impairment and independent in their daily activities from local senior centres and a geriatric nursing home in Valencia, Spain. Age, body mass index (BMI), TUG, Berg balance scale (BBS), One-leg stand test (OLS), grip strength, chair stand test (STS-5), knee extension strength and rectus femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) where measured. Moderate to high significant associations were found between the TUG performance and BBS and knee extension strength (r = -.561 and -.397). A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the BBS was a significant and independent predictor (AdjR(2) = .373) for the TUG performance. The TUG is highly correlated with the BBS score and knee extension strength, measures that represent common performance tasks in everyday life. The BBS was demonstrated to be the most significant factor explaining the TUG performance. The TUG is demonstrated to be a useful tool for predicting changes in functional balance measured with the BBS. The mobility decline may be better explained as the sum of deficits across multiple domains rather than as a single entity. Clinicians would benefit of those findings by a better understanding of the physical measures, in addition to designing more accurate interventions focusing on the enhancement of mobility. PMID:26707544

  11. Cardiac mechanics are impaired during fatiguing exercise and cold pressor test in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Matthew D.; Mast, Jessica L.; Patel, Hardikkumar

    2013-01-01

    We sought to determine how the aging left ventricle (LV) responds to sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. Three separate echocardiographic experiments were conducted in 11 healthy young (26 ± 1 yr) and 11 healthy older (64 ± 1 yr) adults. Tissue Doppler imaging was used to measure systolic myocardial velocity (Sm), early diastolic myocardial velocity (Em), and late diastolic myocardial velocity (Am) during isometric fatiguing handgrip (IFHG), a 2-min cold pressor test (CPT), and 5 min of normobaric hypoxia. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were also monitored on a beat-by-beat basis; rate pressure product (RPP) was used as an index of myocardial oxygen demand. At peak IFHG, the groups had similar increases in RPP, but the ΔSm was significantly greater (i.e., larger impairment) in the older subjects (−0.82 ± 0.13 cm/s) compared with the young subjects (0.37 ± 0.30 cm/s). At peak IFHG, the ΔEm was similar between older (−1.59 ± 0.68 cm/s) and young subjects (−1.06 ± 0.76 cm/s). In response to the CPT, both Sm and Em were reduced in the older adults but did not change relative to baseline in the young subjects. Normobaric hypoxia elevated HR and RPP in both groups but did not alter Tissue Doppler parameters. These data indicate that Sm and Em are reduced in healthy older adults during IFHG and CPT. We speculate that suboptimal LV adaptations to SNS stress may partly explain why acute heavy exertion can trigger myocardial ischemia. PMID:23154996

  12. Crowding and visual acuity measured in adults using paediatric test letters, pictures and symbols.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Sarah J H; Formankiewicz, Monika A; Waugh, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Crowding refers to the degradation of visual acuity for target optotypes with, versus without, surrounding features. Crowding is important clinically, however the effect of target-flanker spacing on acuity for symbols and pictures, compared to letters, has not been investigated. Five adults with corrected-to-normal vision had visual acuity measured for modified single target versions of Kay Pictures, Lea Symbols, HOTV and Cambridge Crowding Cards, tests. Single optotypes were presented in isolation and with surrounding features placed 0-5 stroke-widths away. Visual acuity measured with Kay Picture optotypes is 0.13-0.19logMAR better than for other test optotypes and varies significantly across picture. The magnitude of crowding is strongest when the surrounding features abut, or are placed 1 stroke-width away from the target optotype. The slope of the psychometric function is steeper in the region just beyond maximum crowding. Crowding is strongest and the psychometric function steepest, with the Cambridge Crowding Cards arrangement, than when any single optotype is surrounded by a box. Estimates of crowding extent are less variable across test when expressed in units of stroke-width, than optotype-width. Crowding for single target presentations of letters, symbols and pictures used in paediatric visual acuity tests can be maximised and made more sensitive to change in visual acuity, by careful selection of optotype, by surrounding the target with similar flankers, and by using a closer target-flanker separation than half an optotype-width. PMID:26878696

  13. An Internet-Based Computer-Tailored Intervention to Promote Responsible Drinking: Findings from a Pilot Test with Employed Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, Leanne M.; Gökbayrak, N. Simay; Van Marter, Deborah F.; Paiva, Andrea L.; Prochaska, Janice M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes pilot test findings of an Internet-based, Transtheoretical Model-based, computer tailored intervention for adults who exceed national guidelines for low-risk drinking. In a pilot test, 166 adults recruited from worksites completed one session and evaluated the program. Pre and post assessments indicate intention to make behavioral changes. Importantly, 94.3% of participants indicated that they would recommend the program. Ratings were positive with the majority of participants ‘agreeing’ or ‘strongly agreeing’ with all 14 evaluation items. Feasibility was demonstrated by recruiting and engaging employed adults. This program is a cost-effective prevention program promoting responsible drinking to adults. PMID:22448087

  14. A numerical comparison with an exact solution for the transient response of a cylinder immersed in a fluid. [computer simulated underwater tests to determine transient response of a submerged cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giltrud, M. E.; Lucas, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    The transient response of an elastic cylindrical shell immersed in an acoustic media that is engulfed by a plane wave is determined numerically. The method applies to the USA-STAGS code which utilizes the finite element method for the structural analysis and the doubly asymptotic approximation for the fluid-structure interaction. The calculations are compared to an exact analysis for two separate loading cases: a plane step wave and an exponentially decaying plane wave.

  15. Pathogenesis of sudden death following water immersion (immersion syndrome)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhring, M.; Spies, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    Sympathetic activity under cold stress is investigated. Predominantly vagal cardio-depressive reflexes are discussed besides currently known mechanisms of sudden death after water immersion. Pronounced circulatory centralization in diving animals as well as following exposure in cold water indicates additional sympathetic activity. In cold water baths of 15 C, measurements indicate an increase in plasma catecholamine levels by more than 300 percent. This may lead to cardiac arrhythmias by the following mechanisms: cold water essentially induces sinus bradycardia; brady-and tachycardiarrhythmias may supervene as secondary complications; sinusbradycardia may be enhanced by sympathetic hypertonus. Furthermore, ectopic dysrhythmias are liable to be induced by the strictly sympathetic innervation of the ventricle. Myocardial ischemia following a rise in peripheral blood pressure constitutes another arrhythmogenic factor. Some of these reactions are enhanced by alcohol intoxication.

  16. 78 FR 75550 - Tests Determined To Be Suitable for Use in the National Reporting System for Adult Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... for Adult Education (NRS regulations) (73 FR 2306). The NRS regulations established the process the... regulations (73 FR 20616). On February 2, 2010, we published in the Federal Register a notice (February 2010... FR 5303). The Secretary determined tests and test forms to be suitable for a period of either...

  17. 77 FR 46749 - Tests Determined To Be Suitable for Use in the National Reporting System for Adult Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... for Adult Education (NRS regulations) (73 FR 2306). The NRS regulations established the process the... opportunity to submit tests for review under the NRS regulations (73 FR 20616). On February 2, 2010, we... Secretary determined to be suitable for use in the NRS (75 FR 5303). The Secretary determined tests and...

  18. Effects of Diurnal Variation and Caffeine Consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Momjian, Ani J.; Wong, Keri K.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample…

  19. Comparing contact and immersion freezing from continuous flow diffusion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagare, Baban; Marcolli, Claudia; Welti, André; Stetzer, Olaf; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere are responsible for glaciating cloud droplets between 237 and 273 K. Different mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation can compete under mixed-phase cloud conditions. Contact freezing is considered relevant because higher ice nucleation temperatures than for immersion freezing for the same INPs were observed. It has limitations because its efficiency depends on the number of collisions between cloud droplets and INPs. To date, direct comparisons of contact and immersion freezing with the same INP, for similar residence times and concentrations, are lacking. This study compares immersion and contact freezing efficiencies of three different INPs. The contact freezing data were obtained with the ETH CoLlision Ice Nucleation CHamber (CLINCH) using 80 µm diameter droplets, which can interact with INPs for residence times of 2 and 4 s in the chamber. The contact freezing efficiency was calculated by estimating the number of collisions between droplets and particles. Theoretical formulations of collision efficiencies gave too high freezing efficiencies for all investigated INPs, namely AgI particles with 200 nm electrical mobility diameter, 400 and 800 nm diameter Arizona Test Dust (ATD) and kaolinite particles. Comparison of freezing efficiencies by contact and immersion freezing is therefore limited by the accuracy of collision efficiencies. The concentration of particles was 1000 cm-3 for ATD and kaolinite and 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 cm-3 for AgI. For concentrations < 5000 cm-3, the droplets collect only one particle on average during their time in the chamber. For ATD and kaolinite particles, contact freezing efficiencies at 2 s residence time were smaller than at 4 s, which is in disagreement with a collisional contact freezing process but in accordance with immersion freezing or adhesion freezing. With "adhesion freezing", we refer to a contact nucleation process that is enhanced compared to immersion freezing

  20. Test of the depression distress amplification model in young adults with elevated risk of current suicidality.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Lamis, Dorian A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-11-30

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among young adults and the rate of suicide has been increasing for decades. A depression distress amplification model posits that young adults with comorbid depression and anxiety have elevated suicide rates due to the intensification of their depressive symptoms by anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The current study tested the effects of anxiety sensitivity subfactors as well as the depression distress amplification model in a very large sample of college students with elevated suicide risk. Participants were 721 college students who were at elevated risk of suicidality (scored>0 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation). Consistent with prior work, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, but not physical or social concerns, were associated with suicidal ideation. Consistent with the depression distress amplification model, in individuals high in depression, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns predicted elevated suicidal ideation but not among those with low depression. The results of this study corroborate the role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and the depression distress amplification model in suicidal ideation among a large potentially high-risk group of college students. The depression distress amplification model suggests a specific mechanism, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, that may be responsible for increased suicide rates among those with comorbid anxiety and depression. PMID:25063018

  1. Testing of applicability of mutuality scale with Mexican American caregivers of older adults.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; Lynn, Mary R; Crist, Janice D

    2013-03-01

    By 2050, Mexican Americans (MAs) will become the largest aged minority subgroup in the United States. Although older MAs often depend on family for care, no standard instrument is available to scale the motive for filial obligation. Building on previous work, the purpose of this study is to establish psychometric properties of the bilingual Mutuality Scale (MS) for use with MA family caregivers of older adults. A methodological design with a convenience sample is used. Through Principal Axis Factoring with Oblimin(©) rotation, a two-factor structure emerge--interaction between the caregiving dyad and reaction from the care recipient--which accounted for 63% of the variance in MS scores. Cronbach's alphas are .87 in both cases and test-retest estimates across three weeks are r = .93 and .94, respectively. Despite needing further refinement, the MS shows potential to measure the motive involved in older adult care, which may be useful in designing culturally relevant interventions for the MA population. PMID:25474218

  2. Psychometric testing of the Revised Humane Caring Scale for adult patients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, Mien Li; Ang, Emily N K; Chan, Yiong-Huak; He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we examined the validity and reliability of the Revised Humane Caring Scale as used by adult patients in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A three-phase descriptive quantitative study was conducted. In phase I, an expert panel of nurses and inpatients examined the content validity of the scale; phase II comprised a pilot study on 20 patients; and in phase III, a large-scale study on 235 patients was implemented to test the internal consistency of the scale. The results revealed that the content validity index of the scale ranged from 0.856 to 1, and the scale had a high inter-rater agreement kappa value of 0.940. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.798 to 0.877 in phase II, and from 0.579 to 0.760 in phase III, respectively. The Revised Humane Caring Scale revealed good content validity and an acceptable level of internal consistency. The scale is an acceptable measurement tool for evaluating adult patients' satisfaction during hospitalization. PMID:25783792

  3. Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Links with measures of psychopathology and adult attachment

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F.; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26620463

  4. Silicon immersion gratings and their spectroscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Powell, Scott; Fletcher, Adam; Wan, Xiaoke; Chang, Liang; Jakeman, Hali; Koukis, Dimitrios; Tanner, David B.; Ebbets, Dennis; Weinberg, Jonathan; Lipscy, Sarah; Nyquist, Rich; Bally, John

    2012-09-01

    Silicon immersion gratings (SIGs) offer several advantages over the commercial echelle gratings for high resolution infrared (IR) spectroscopy: 3.4 times the gain in dispersion or ~10 times the reduction in the instrument volume, a multiplex gain for a large continuous wavelength coverage and low cost. We present results from lab characterization of a large format SIG of astronomical observation quality. This SIG, with a 54.74 degree blaze angle (R1.4), 16.1 l/mm groove density, and 50x86 mm2 grating area, was developed for high resolution IR spectroscopy (R~70,000) in the near IR (1.1-2.5 μm). Its entrance surface was coated with a single layer of silicon nitride antireflection (AR) coating and its grating surface was coated with a thin layer of gold to increase its throughput at 1.1-2.5 μm. The lab measurements have shown that the SIG delivered a spectral resolution of R=114,000 at 1.55 μm with a lab testing spectrograph with a 20 mm diameter pupil. The measured peak grating efficiency is 72% at 1.55 μm, which is consistent with the measurements in the optical wavelengths from the grating surface at the air side. This SIG is being implemented in a new generation cryogenic IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectrometer (FIRST), to offer broad-band high resolution IR spectroscopy with R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 um under a typical seeing condition in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array at the robotically controlled Tennessee State University 2-meter Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. FIRST is designed to provide high precision Doppler measurements (~4 m/s) for the identification and characterization of extrasolar planets, especially rocky planets in habitable zones, orbiting low mass M dwarf stars. It will also be used for other high resolution IR spectroscopic observations of such as young stars, brown dwarfs, magnetic fields, star formation and interstellar mediums. An optimally designed

  5. Derived Trail Making Test indices: demographics and cognitive background variables across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Christidi, Foteini; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Anagnostouli, Maria; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    We examined the contribution of demographics and cognitive background variables (processing speed, visuospatial skill, working memory, and interference control) on derived Trail Making Test (TMT) scores in a large sample of Greek healthy participants. We included 775 participants and administered the TMT (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Wechsler Intelligence Adult Scale (WAIS). Direct (TMT-A & TMT-B time-to-completion) and derived [difference TMT-(B - A) & ratio TMT-(B/A)] scores were calculated. Demographics (age, age(2), education, and gender) and WAIS Full Intelligence Quotient significantly predicted the direct TMT-A (R(2) = 0.426) and TMT-B (R(2) = 0.593) scores and to a lesser extent, the derived TMT-(B - A) (R(2) = 0.343) and TMT-(B/A) (R(2) = 0.088) scores. In a subsample of 537 healthy participants who also completed the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST), demographics (age and education), WAIS Digit Symbol, Block Design, Arithmetic, and SNST accounted for 44.8% and 59.7% of the variance on TMT-A and TMT-B, and 32.5% and 9.6% of the variance on TMT-(B - A) and TMT-(B/A), respectively. We found minimal influence of Block Design and Arithmetic on TMT-(B - A) and an absence of significant influence of any cognitive variable on TMT-(B/A) score. Concluding, derived TMT scores are suggested as indices to detect impairment in cognitive flexibility across the adult life span, since they minimize the effect of demographics and other cognitive background variables. PMID:25798536

  6. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop…

  7. Factors associated with the 6-minute walk test in nursing home residents and community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Caballer, Vicent-Benavent; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rosado-Calatayud, Pedro; Amer-Cuenca, Juan José; Segura-Orti, Eva

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The main objective of this study was to determine the contributions and extent to which certain physical measurements explain performance in the 6-minute walk test in healthy older adults living in a geriatric nursing home and for older adults dwelling in the community. [Subjects] The subjects were 122 adults aged 65 and older with no cognitive impairment who were independent in their daily activities. [Methods] The 6-minute walk test, age, body mass index, walking speed, chair stand test, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go test, rectus femoris cross-sectional area, Short Physical Performance Battery, and hand-grip strength were examined. [Results] Strong significant associations were found between mobility, lower-limb function, balance, and the 6-minute walk test. A stepwise multiple regression on the entire sample showed that lower-limb function was a significant and independent predictor for the 6-minute walk test. Additionally, lower-limb function was a strong predictor for the 6-minute walk test in our nursing home group, whereas mobility was found to be the best predictor in our community-dwelling group. [Conclusion] Better lower-limb function, balance, and mobility result in a higher distance covered by healthy older adults. Lower-limb function and mobility appeared to best determine walking performance in the nursing home and community-dwelling groups, respectively. PMID:26696740

  8. Game engines and immersive displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  9. Induction of gene silencing in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks through immersion in double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Galay, Remil Linggatong; Hernandez, Emmanuel Pacia; Talactac, Melbourne Rio; Maeda, Hiroki; Kusakisako, Kodai; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Mochizuki, Masami; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tanaka, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    The continuous emergence of tick-borne diseases and chemical acaricide-resistant tick strains necessitates the development of new and more effective control strategies. RNA interference through the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been a very useful tool in tick research for evaluating gene function. However, this technique can be sophisticated due to the required equipment and technique. Here we studied the feasibility of an immersion technique to induce gene silencing in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks. We targeted the Hlfer1 gene, previously shown to be crucial in successful blood feeding and reproduction. Larval, nymphal, and adult female H. longicornis ticks were immersed in Hlfer1 or Luciferase dsRNA for control. The dsRNA dissolving medium, incubation temperature and time were varied to establish the optimum conditions. RT-PCR was performed to confirm gene silencing. It was found that immersing the ticks in dsRNA dissolved in nuclease-free water at 15°C for 12h resulted in clear gene silencing. The phenotypes of adult ticks immersed in dsRNA were then compared with those of adult ticks injected with dsRNA. Similar to dsRNA injection, the post-blood meal weight of ticks immersed in Hlfer1 dsRNA was significantly lower than the control group. Moreover, high post-blood meal mortality and low egg output was observed both from ticks injected with and immersed in Hlfer1 dsRNA. Our results here suggest that immersion in dsRNA can effectively induce gene silencing and not only offers an alternative method to dsRNA injection but also opens the possibility of applying dsRNA for tick control. PMID:27062446

  10. Immersive video for virtual tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Luis A.; Taibo, Javier; Seoane, Antonio J.

    2001-11-01

    This paper describes a new panoramic, 360 degree(s) video system and its use in a real application for virtual tourism. The development of this system has required to design new hardware for multi-camera recording, and software for video processing in order to elaborate the panorama frames and to playback the resulting high resolution video footage on a regular PC. The system makes use of new VR display hardware, such as WindowVR, in order to make the view dependent on the viewer's spatial orientation and so enhance immersiveness. There are very few examples of similar technologies and the existing ones are extremely expensive and/or impossible to be implemented on personal computers with acceptable quality. The idea of the system starts from the concept of Panorama picture, developed in technologies such as QuickTimeVR. This idea is extended to the concept of panorama frame that leads to panorama video. However, many problems are to be solved to implement this simple scheme. Data acquisition involves simultaneously footage recording in every direction, and latter processing to convert every set of frames in a single high resolution panorama frame. Since there is no common hardware capable of 4096x512 video playback at 25 fps rate, it must be stripped in smaller pieces which the system must manage to get the right frames of the right parts as the user movement demands it. As the system must be immersive, the physical interface to watch the 360 degree(s) video is a WindowVR, that is, a flat screen with an orientation tracker that the user holds in his hands, moving it like if it were a virtual window through which the city and its activity is being shown.

  11. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the

  12. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃ 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the

  13. Effects of seated and standing cold water immersion on recovery from repeated sprinting.

    PubMed

    Leeder, Jonathan D C; van Someren, Ken A; Bell, Phillip G; Spence, John R; Jewell, Andrew P; Gaze, David; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two different hydrostatic pressures (seated or standing) during cold water immersion at attenuating the deleterious effects of strenuous exercise on indices of damage and recovery. Twenty four male well-trained games players (age 23 ± 3 years; body mass 81.4 ± 8.7 kg: [Formula: see text]O2max 57.5 ± 4.9 ml∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) and were randomly assigned to either a control, seated cold water immersion or a standing cold water immersion (14 min at 14°C). Maximal isometric voluntary contraction, counter-movement jump, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured before and up to 72 h following the LIST. All dependent variables showed main effects for time (P < 0.05) following the LIST, indicating physiological stress and muscle damage following the exercise. There were no significant group differences between control and either of the cold water immersion interventions. Seated cold water immersion was associated with lower DOMS than standing cold water immersion (effect size = 1.86; P = 0.001). These data suggest that increasing hydrostatic pressure by standing in cold water does not provide an additional recovery benefit over seated cold water immersion, and that both seated and standing immersions have no benefit in promoting recovery following intermittent sprint exercise. PMID:25573221

  14. Trench Foot or Immersion Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor ... Heat Prevention Guide (Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme ...

  15. Wettability changes in polyether impression materials subjected to immersion disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Shweta; Kamat, Giridhar; Shetty, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Disinfection of impression materials prevents cross-contamination; however, the disinfectants may alter the wettability property. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the wettability changes of polyether impression material after immersing in four different chemical disinfectant solutions for a period of 10 min and 30 min, respectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 samples of polyether dental impression material (Impregum soft, 3MESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) were randomly divided into nine groups with five specimens each. Each specimen was disc shaped, flat of 32 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness. The samples were immersed in four disinfectant solutions: 2% Glutaraldehyde, 5% sodium hypochlorite, 0.05% iodophor, and 5.25% phenol for 10 min and 30 min, respectively. The control was without disinfection. Wettability of the samples was assessed by measuring the contact angle by using the Telescopic Goniometer. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (Fisher's test) and Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons at 5% level of significance. Results: The contact angle of 20.21° ± 0.22° were recorded in the control samples. After 10 min, the samples that were immersed in 5% sodium hypochlorite and 5.25% phenol showed significant statistical increase in the contact angle as compared to the control (P < 0.001). After 30 min of disinfection, only the samples immersed in 0.05% iodophor showed there were no significant changes in the contact angle, whereas the other disinfectants significantly increased the contact angle and decreased the wettability of the polyether material. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, 2% glutaraldehyde proved safe for 10 min of immersion disinfection while 0.05% iodophor holds promise as an effective disinfectant without affecting the wettability of the material. PMID:24130593

  16. Social Interaction Development through Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity…

  17. The Balancing Act of Bilingual Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    2005-01-01

    Hadi-Tabassum believes having a separate life context for each language she learned in childhood enabled her to switch easily among five different tongues. She states that the success of dual immersion bilingual programs is largely dependent on whether they immerse students in each of the involved languages separately and help students have a…

  18. Immersion Education in China: Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip; Chi, Yanping

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the views of immersion teachers in Hong Kong and Xi'an towards the immersion curriculum they are teaching. Teachers are important stakeholders in any curriculum implementation and their views are significant in both evaluating progress and determining future directions. The teachers' views were gathered from questionnaires…

  19. Immersive virtual reality simulations in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Kilmon, Carol A; Brown, Leonard; Ghosh, Sumit; Mikitiuk, Artur

    2010-01-01

    This article explores immersive virtual reality as a potential educational strategy for nursing education and describes an immersive learning experience now being developed for nurses. This pioneering project is a virtual reality application targeting speed and accuracy of nurse response in emergency situations requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other potential uses and implications for the development of virtual reality learning programs are discussed. PMID:21086871

  20. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-20

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, lens means for receiving the light, refracting the light, and focusing the light; an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the lens means and defracts the light, the immersed diffraction grating directing the detracted light back to the lens means; and a detector that receives the light from the lens means.

  1. The Two-Way Immersion Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth; Sugarman, Julie; Perdomo, Marleny; Adger, Carolyn Temple

    2005-01-01

    This Toolkit is meant to be a resource for teachers, parents, and administrators involved with two-way immersion (TWI) programs, particularly those at the elementary level. Two-way immersion is a form of dual language instruction that brings together students from two native language groups for language, literacy, and academic content instruction…

  2. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  3. Research on evaluation techniques for immersive multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Aslinda M.; Romli, Fakaruddin Fahmi; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays Immersive Multimedia covers most usage in tremendous ways, such as healthcare/surgery, military, architecture, art, entertainment, education, business, media, sport, rehabilitation/treatment and training areas. Moreover, the significant of Immersive Multimedia to directly meet the end-users, clients and customers needs for a diversity of feature and purpose is the assembly of multiple elements that drive effective Immersive Multimedia system design, so evaluation techniques is crucial for Immersive Multimedia environments. A brief general idea of virtual environment (VE) context and `realism' concept that formulate the Immersive Multimedia environments is then provided. This is followed by a concise summary of the elements of VE assessment technique that is applied in Immersive Multimedia system design, which outlines the classification space for Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques and gives an overview of the types of results reported. A particular focus is placed on the implications of the Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques in relation to the elements of VE assessment technique, which is the primary purpose of producing this research. The paper will then conclude with an extensive overview of the recommendations emanating from the research.

  4. Depth of immersion as a determinant of the natriuresis of water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Miller, M.; Schneider, N.

    1974-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to further assess the contribution of an immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient on the redistribution of blood volume. The rate of sodium excretion by seated subjects was significantly increased by water immersion up to the chest and neck compared to waist immersion and controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that whereas immersion to the level of the diaphragm merely cancels the intravascular hydrostatic pressure gradient by providing an identical external gradient, immersion above the diaphragm level results in increased water pressure which tends to favor a shift in blood volume from the lower extremities.

  5. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-07-03

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

  6. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly directed at reducing alcohol abuse. Methods Tests were conducted on the impact of the CPOL intervention on alcohol use patterns across communities in rural Zimbabwe over three waves from 2003 to 2007, including community- and individual-level tests using data based on in-person interviews of adult men and women (ages 18 to 30; N = 5,543). Data were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests, as well as logistic and ordinary least-squares regression with random effects. Results Higher drinking (any use, more frequent use, greater quantity, and/or frequent drunkenness) was generally associated with being male, older, not married, more highly educated, of Shona ethnicity, away from home frequently, employed, having no religious affiliation, or living in areas with a higher crude death rate or lower population density. Over the study period, significant declines in alcohol use and abuse were found in intervention and control sites at relatively equal levels. Conclusions Although no support was found for the effectiveness of the CPOL study in reducing alcohol abuse, Zimbabwe is similar to other countries in the impact of socio-demographic and cultural factors on alcohol use and abuse. PMID:22386686

  7. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Makey, Colleen M.; McClean, Michael D.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M.; Webster, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. Objectives: We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. Methods: From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at approximately 6-month intervals from 52 healthy adult office workers from Boston, Massachusetts, for analysis of PBDE congeners and THs. Results: The geometric mean sum concentrations of the most prevalent PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) were 22 ng/g lipid in winter 2010, 23 ng/g lipid in summer 2010, and 19 ng/g lipid in winter 2011. BDE-47 was the predominant congener. Based on a multivariable mixed regression model, we estimated that on average, a 1-ng/g serum increase in BDE-47 was associated with a 2.6-μg/dL decrease in total thyroxine (T4) (95% CI: –4.7, –0.35). Total T4 was inversely associated with each PBDE congener. Serum concentrations of PBDEs were not strongly associated with total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Conclusion: These results are consistent with those from animal studies showing that exposure to PBDEs is associated with a decrease in serum T4. Because the other TH concentrations did not appear to be associated with BDE exposures, our findings do not indicate effects on the pituitary–thyroid axis. Taken together, our findings suggest that PBDE exposure might decrease the binding of T4 to serum T4 binding proteins. Citation: Makey CM, McClean MD, Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He XM, Sjödin A, Weinberg JM, Webster TF. 2016. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and thyroid function tests in North American adults. Environ Health Perspect 124:420–425; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  8. Marijuana use motives: A confirmatory test and evaluation among young adult marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Bernstein, Amit; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Marshall, Erin C; Leyro, Teresa M

    2007-12-01

    The present investigation evaluated the measurement model and construct validity of marijuana use motives as measured by the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM; [Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., and Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 265-273]). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and incremental tests of validity of marijuana use motives were conducted on a sample of young adult marijuana users (n=227, 127 women; M(age)=20.11, SD=4.30 years). As hypothesized, CFA analysis of marijuana use motives, as indexed by the MMM, demonstrated support for a multidimensional measurement model; specifically, a five-factor solution denoting Enhancement, Conformity, Expansion, Coping, and Social motives for marijuana use, each with satisfactory levels of internal consistency. Subsequent tests of incremental validity suggested that only certain motives were uniquely related to current substance use and cognitive-affective factors. Results are discussed in relation to refining the scientific understanding of marijuana use motives. PMID:17602842

  9. Metabolic alterations in liver and testes of adult and newborn rats following cadmium administration

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.K.

    1988-04-01

    A large number of studies have been conducted to understand the effect of cadmium on cellular intermediary metabolism. Although, most of the metal is stored in liver and kidney, the organ affected most in acute toxicity is testis. Increased lipid peroxidation and decreased mitochondrial respiration along with other cellular enzyme activities have been reported to take place due to cadmium administration. The present experiment was designed to study the effect of acute cadmium administration on the activities of some of the tissue enzyme systems that provide the reducing equivalent NADPH. The levels of NADH and NADPH were also measured. All the measurements were conducted in two tissues: liver and testes. The effect of simultaneous administration of zinc on cadmium induced changes was also determined. Newborn animals have been found to be resistant to many effects of cadmium. The present studies were also conducted in newborn rat liver and testes. The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of cadmium on adult and new born rats.

  10. Changes in cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Do-Youn; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test. [Subjects and Methods] University students (13 males and 27 females) participated in this study. Before and after the Rockport 1 mile walking test, pulmonary function, respiratory pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. [Results] Significant improvements in forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure were observed after the Rockport 1 mile walking test in males, and significant improvements in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 s, maximal inspiratory pressure, and maximal expiratory pressure were observed after the Rockport 1 mile walking test in females. However, the maximal oxygen uptake was not significantly different. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that the Rockport 1 mile walking test changes cardiopulmonary function in males and females, and that it may improve cardiopulmonary function in middle-aged and older adults and provide basic data on cardiopulmonary endurance. PMID:26356048

  11. Comparative study on collaborative interaction in non-immersive and immersive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Qonita M.; Kwon, Yong-Moo; Ko, Heedong; Mayangsari, Maria N.; Yamasaki, Shoko; Nishino, Hiroaki

    2007-09-01

    This research studies the Virtual Reality simulation for collaborative interaction so that different people from different places can interact with one object concurrently. Our focus is the real-time handling of inputs from multiple users, where object's behavior is determined by the combination of the multiple inputs. Issues addressed in this research are: 1) The effects of using haptics on a collaborative interaction, 2) The possibilities of collaboration between users from different environments. We conducted user tests on our system in several cases: 1) Comparison between non-haptics and haptics collaborative interaction over LAN, 2) Comparison between non-haptics and haptics collaborative interaction over Internet, and 3) Analysis of collaborative interaction between non-immersive and immersive display environments. The case studies are the interaction of users in two cases: collaborative authoring of a 3D model by two users, and collaborative haptic interaction by multiple users. In Virtual Dollhouse, users can observe physics law while constructing a dollhouse using existing building blocks, under gravity effects. In Virtual Stretcher, multiple users can collaborate on moving a stretcher together while feeling each other's haptic motions.

  12. Age-Differences in Environment Route Learning: The Role of Input and Recall-Test Modalities in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Gyselinck, Valerie; De Beni, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine age-related differences in young and older adults in route learning, using different types of learning and recall test modalities. A sample of young adults (20-30 years old) and older adults (60-70 years old) learned a city route by using either a map or a description; they then performed a verification…

  13. Investigation on plasma immersion ion implantation treated medical implants.

    PubMed

    Mändl, S; Sader, R; Thorwarth, G; Krause, D; Zeilhofer, H-F; Horch, H H; Rauschenbach, B

    2002-08-01

    In this work the biocompatibility of osteosynsthesis plates treated with plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was tested using a rat model. Small rods (Ø 0.9 mm, and length 10 mm) prepared from different materials-pure Ti, anodised Ti, and two NiTi alloys (SE 508, and SM 495)-were implanted with oxygen by PIII to form a rutile surface layer and subsequently inserted into rat femurs, together with a control group of untreated samples. The results of the biomechanical tests correlate with the histological results, and show that plasma immersion ion implantation leads to an increase of biocompatibility and osseointegration of titanium and NiTi, albeit no improvement of the (bad) biocompatibility of the anodised Ti. Despite the layer thickness of up to 0.5 microm a strong influence of the base material is still present. PMID:12202173

  14. Recent HIV Testing Prevalence, Determinants, and Disparities Among US Older Adult Respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.; Godette, Dionne C.; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Gaines, Tommi L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although routine human immune deficiency virus (HIV) testing during health care visits is recommended for most adults, many older adults (i.e., ages 50–64 years) do not receive it. This study identified factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (i.e., recent HIV testing) among US adults in the 3 categories of older adulthood (50–54, 55–59, and 60–64 years) for which routine HIV testing is recommended. Method This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from US older adult respondents to the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated prevalence (proportions) of HIV testing by age category and race/ethnicity. Using multiple logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with recent HIV testing within and across age categories, by race/ethnicity and controlling for covariates. Results HIV testing prevalence was low (<5%), varied by race/ethnicity, and decreased with age. Within and across age categories, the odds of testing were highest among blacks (odds ratio [OR], 3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.82–4.25) and higher among Latinos (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.50–2.84) and the oldest and youngest categories of American Indians/Alaska Natives (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.11–5.55; OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.49–5.95) than among whites. Those reporting a recent doctor visit (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.92–2.74) or HIV risk behaviors (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.67–4.59) had higher odds of HIV testing. Conclusion Regardless of risk, the oldest older adults, whites, and older women may forego HIV testing. Doctor visits may facilitate HIV testing. Additional research is needed to understand why eligible older adults seen by providers may not be screened for HIV infection. PMID:26165428

  15. Treatment of seawater immersion-complicated open-knee joint fracture.

    PubMed

    Ai, J G; Zhao, F; Gao, Z M; Dai, W; Zhang, L; Chen, H B; Zhou, J G

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to select suitable remedies for seawater immersion-complicated open-knee joint fracture by exploring the effects of different treatment methods. Forty adult rabbits weighing 2.20 ± 0.25 kg were divided equally into internal fracture fixation group (A), seawater-immersed group with primary internal fixation (B), seawater-immersed group with secondary internal fixation (C), and seawater-immersed group with external fixation (D), using the random-digit table method. Open-femoral internal condylar fracture models were established. Group A was left untreated for 2 h, whereas the other three groups were subjected to seawater immersion for 2 h. Afterwards, groups A and B underwent debridement and steel plate and screw internal fixation. Group C underwent debridement and external fixation, which was followed by secondary steel plate and screw internal fixation after the wound healed. Group D underwent transarticular arthrodesis. Wound infection, joint functional rehabilitation, and radiological and histopathological changes in fracture healing in each group were assessed. The results showed that delayed internal fixation effectively reduces the infection rate of seawater immersion-complicated open fracture and benefits joint function rehabilitation. PMID:25117308

  16. Extending immersion lithography with high-index materials: results of a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; Mulkens, Jan; Graeupner, Paul; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Donders, Sjoerd; Samarakone, Nandasiri; Duesing, Rudiger

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we report the status of our feasibility work on high index immersion. The development of high index fluids (n>1.64) and high index glass materials (n>1.9) is reported. Questions answered are related to the design of a high NA optics immersion system for fluid containment and fluid handling, and to the compatibility of the fluid with ArF resist processes. Optical design and manufacturing challenges are related to the use of high index glass materials such as crystalline LuAG or ceramic Spinel. Progress on the material development will be reviewed. Progress on immersion fluids development has been sustained. Second-generation fluids are available from many suppliers. For the practical use of second-generation fluids in immersion scanners, we have evaluated and tested fluid recycling concepts in combination with ArF radiation of the fluids. Results on the stability of the fluid and the fluid glass interface will be reported. Fluid containment with immersion hood structures under the lens has been evaluated and tested for several scan speeds and various fluids. Experimental results on scan speed limitations will be presented. The application part of the feasibility study includes the imaging of 29nm L/S structures on a 2-beam interference printer, fluid/resist interaction testing with pre- and post-soak testing. Immersion defect testing using a fluid misting setup was also carried out. Results of these application-related experiments will be presented and discussed.

  17. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-05-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

  18. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  19. The Cambridge Mindreading (CAM) Face-Voice Battery: Testing Complex Emotion Recognition in Adults with and without Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) can recognise simple emotions and pass basic theory of mind tasks, but have difficulties recognising more complex emotions and mental states. This study describes a new battery of tasks, testing recognition of 20 complex emotions and mental states from faces and voices. The battery was given to males and females…

  20. Survey of projection-based immersive displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Dan

    2000-05-01

    Projection-based immersive displays are rapidly becoming the visualization system of choice for applications requiring the comprehension of complex datasets and the collaborative sharing of insights. The wide variety of display configurations can be grouped into five categories: benches, flat-screen walls, curved-screen theaters, concave-screen domes and spatially-immersive rooms. Each have their strengths and weaknesses with the appropriateness of each dependent on one's application and budget. The paper outlines the components common to all projection-based displays and describes the characteristics of each particular category. Key image metrics, implementation considerations and immersive display trends are also considered.

  1. Measuring the continuum of literacy skills among adults: educational testing and the LAMP experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadalupe, Cesar; Cardoso, Manuel

    2011-08-01

    The field of educational testing has become increasingly important for providing different stakeholders and decision-makers with information. This paper discusses basic standards for methodological approaches used in measuring literacy skills among adults. The authors address the increasing interest in skills measurement, the discourses on how this should be done with scientific integrity and UNESCO's experience regarding the Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP). The increase in interest is due to the evolving notion of literacy as a continuum. Its recognition in surveys and data collection is ensured in the first commitment in section 11 of the Belém Framework for Action. The discourse on how measurements should be carried out concerns the need to find valid parsimonious approaches, also their relevance in different institutional, cultural and linguistic contexts as well as issues of ownership and sustainability. Finally, UNESCO's experience with LAMP shows how important addressing these different issues is in order to equip countries with an approach that is fit for purpose.

  2. Physiologic Dysfunction Scores and Cognitive Function Test Performance in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kobrosly, Roni W; Seplaki, Christopher L; Jones, Courtney M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between a measure of cumulative physiologic dysfunction and specific domains of cognitive function. Methods We examined a summary score measuring physiological dysfunction, a multisystem measure of the body’s ability to effectively adapt to physical and psychological demands, in relation to cognitive function deficits in a population of 4511 adults aged 20 to 59 who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Measures of cognitive function comprised three domains: working memory, visuomotor speed, and perceptual-motor speed. ‘Physiologic dysfunction’ scores summarizing measures of cardiovascular, immunologic, kidney, and liver function were explored. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate associations between cognitive function measures and physiological dysfunction scores, adjusting for socioeconomic factors, test conditions, and self-reported health factors. Results We noted a dose-response relationship between physiologic dysfunction and working memory (coefficient = 0.207, 95% CI = (0.066, 0.348), p < 0.0001) that persisted after adjustment for all covariates (p = 0.03). We did not observe any significant relationships between dysfunction scores and visuomotor (p = 0.37) or perceptual-motor ability (p = 0.33). Conclusions Our findings suggest that multisystem physiologic dysfunction is associated with working memory. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and explore the persistency of this association into later life. We suggest that such studies should incorporate physiologic data, neuroendocrine parameters, and a wide range of specific cognitive domains. PMID:22155941

  3. Thymoquinone supplementation reverses lead-induced oxidative stress in adult rat testes.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Aymen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the major active ingredient of volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, against Pb-induced testicular oxidative stress. Adult male rats were randomized into four groups: control group which received no treatment, Pb group was exposed to 2000 ppm Pb acetate in drinking water, Pb-TQ group was co-treated with Pb plus TQ (5 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.) and TQ group receiving only TQ (5 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.). All treatments were applied for 5 weeks. Pb treatment induced oxidative stress status in testes as evidenced by a significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and in the reduced glutathione content and in a significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde. Interestingly, TQ supplementation completely reversed these biochemical changes caused by Pb to the control values. In conclusion, our results suggest, for the first time, that TQ is very efficient in preventing Pb-induced testicular oxidative stress. This study will open new perspectives for the clinical use of TQ in Pb intoxication. PMID:25367764

  4. Facilitators and barriers related to voluntary counseling and testing for HIV among young adults in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Bhoobun, Shalinee; Jetty, Anuradha; Koroma, Mohamed A; Kamara, Mohamed J; Kabia, Mohamed; Coulson, Reginald; Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, we interviewed a population-based sample of 285 young adult residents (age 18-35 years) of the city of Bo, Sierra Leone, about their attitudes toward and experience with voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) for HIV. In total, 33% of the participants (44% of women and 25% of men) reported having been tested for HIV at least once. More than 85% of those not previously tested indicated a willingness to be tested in the near future, but untested participants were nearly twice as likely as tested participants to report fears about family/partner rejection, job loss, and other potential consequences of testing. More than 90% of participants expressed a high desire for testing privacy, and the majority reported a preference for VCT at a facility far from home where no one would know them. Social barriers to HIV testing remain a challenge for HIV prevention in Sierra Leone. PMID:24203408

  5. Testing Covariates of Type 2 Diabetes-Cognition Associations in Older Adults: Moderating or Mediating Effects?

    PubMed Central

    McFall, G. Peggy; Geall, Bonnie P.; Fischer, Ashley L.; Dolcos, Sanda; Dixon, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The general goal of this study was to advance our understanding of Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-cognition relationships in older adults by linking and testing comprehensive sets of potential moderators, potential mediators, and multiple cognitive outcomes. Method We identified in the literature 13 health-related (but T2D-distal) potential covariates, representing four informal domains (i.e., biological vitality, personal affect, subjective health, lifestyle activities). Cross-sectional data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (age range = 53-90 years; n = 41 T2D and n = 458 control participants) were used. We first examined whether any of the 13 potential covariates influenced T2D-cognition associations, as measured by a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (15 measures). Next, using standard regression-based moderator and mediator analyses, we systematically tested whether the identified covariates would significantly alter observed T2D-cognition relationships. Results Six potential covariates were found to be sensitive to T2D associations with performance on seven cognitive measures. Three factors (systolic blood pressure, gait-balance composite, subjective health) were significant mediators. Each mediated multiple cognitive outcomes, especially measures of neurocognitive speed, executive functioning, and episodic memory. Conclusions Our findings offer a relatively comprehensive perspective of T2D-related cognitive deficits, comorbidities, and modulating influences. The implications for future research reach across several fields of study and application. These include (a) neuropsychological research on neural and biological bases of T2D-related cognitive decline, (b) clinical research on intervention and treatment strategies, and (c) larger-scale longitudinal studies examining the potential multilateral and dynamic relationships among T2D status, related comorbidities, and cognitive outcomes. PMID:20804243

  6. "Ducking and Diving" Adult Educator Agency in Testing Times: Insights from England and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the possibilities for adult educators to exercise professional agency in contexts which have become dominated by neoliberalism. It draws on research undertaken in England and New Zealand which investigated the impact of global discourses and policies on experienced adult educators whose philosophy of practice was orientated…

  7. Stroop-like interference in the real animal size test and the pictorial animal size test in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study examined prepotent response inhibition among 653 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults divided into five age groups: forty-six 5- to 6-year-olds, one hundred fifty-eight 7- to 8-year-olds, one hundred ninety-six 9- to 10-year-olds, one hundred eighty-three 11- to 12-year-olds, and 70 young adults (19- to 22-year-olds). Two paper-and-pencil versions of Stroop-like tasks were administered: the Real Animal Size Test and the Pictorial Animal Size Test. In these tests, participants are presented with pictures of animals (large animals such as an elephant, a giraffe, and a whale vs. small animals such as a frog, a bird, and a squirrel) printed as either big or small images that are mismatched with the animal's real size. Participants are required to decide the size of the animals (big vs. small) based on either the size in real life or the size of the picture. The results indicated the following: (a) The Pictorial Animal Size Test elicited robust interference, whereas the Real Animal Size Test elicited no interference; (b) prepotent response inhibition develops markedly in childhood and between children and young adults; and (c) error correction increased rapidly after age 8. The mechanism of interference and the influence of metacognition on prepotent response inhibition are discussed. PMID:24716870

  8. Functional equivalence of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell reading tests and NART norms in the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Kim M; Luszcz, Mary A; Piguet, Olivier; Christensen, Helen; Bennett, Hayley; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the functional equivalence of two measures of irregular word pronunciation--National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell--which are popular instruments used to assess verbal neurocognitive functioning and to estimate premorbid IQ. We report norms for the NART in a pooled sample from 3 Australian population-based studies of adults aged 65-103 years. Norms were stratified by sex and age left school in 5-year age groups. The NART and the Schonell had a strong linear relation, allowing for the imputation of NART scores based on Schonell performance within 1 study. Neither measure was sensitive to the effects of sex after adjusting for the effects of age and education. Early school leavers performed worse on both measures. Data pooling enables greater precision and improved generalizability of NART norms than do methods that use single older adult samples. PMID:21132592

  9. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently. PMID:22101890

  10. Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

  11. Effects of the immediate recall trial on Delayed Recall performance in the Rey Complex Figure Test in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This study determines whether the presence or absence of the Immediate Recall trial influences performance among healthy young and older adults on the 30-min Delayed Recall task of the Rey Complex Figure Test. Participants in the 1-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) underwent the Copy trial and 30-min Delayed Recall trial only, while participants in the 2-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) completed the Copy trial, the Immediate Recall trial, and the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. Both older and younger participants in the 2-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the 1-test condition on the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was discussed. PMID:25255784

  12. A locally stabilized immersed boundary method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, C.; Hader, C.; Fasel, H. F.

    2015-08-01

    A higher-order immersed boundary method for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The distinguishing feature of this new immersed boundary method is that the coefficients of the irregular finite-difference stencils in the vicinity of the immersed boundary are optimized to obtain improved numerical stability. This basic idea was introduced in a previous publication by the authors for the advection step in the projection method used to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. This paper extends the original approach to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations considering flux vector splitting schemes and viscous wall boundary conditions at the immersed geometry. In addition to the stencil optimization procedure for the convective terms, this paper discusses other key aspects of the method, such as imposing flux boundary conditions at the immersed boundary and the discretization of the viscous flux in the vicinity of the boundary. Extensive linear stability investigations of the immersed scheme confirm that a linearly stable method is obtained. The method of manufactured solutions is used to validate the expected higher-order accuracy and to study the error convergence properties of this new method. Steady and unsteady, 2D and 3D canonical test cases are used for validation of the immersed boundary approach. Finally, the method is employed to simulate the laminar to turbulent transition process of a hypersonic Mach 6 boundary layer flow over a porous wall and subsonic boundary layer flow over a three-dimensional spherical roughness element.

  13. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test. PMID:23130898

  14. The 2-Minute Step Test is Independently Associated with Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Waechter, Donna; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Cognitive impairment is common in persons with heart failure (HF), and measures like the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) are known to correspond to level of impairment. The 2-minute step test (2MST) has been suggested as a more practical alternative to the 6MWT, though no study has examined whether it is associated with cognitive impairment in persons with HF. This study examined whether the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF. Methods Older adults with HF (N = 145; 68.97±9.31 years) completed the 2MST and a neuropsychological test battery that assessed function in multiple cognitive domains. Results Consistent with past work, HF patients exhibited high rates of cognitive impairment. Hierarchical regression analyses adjusting for demographic and medical characteistics found that the 2MST accounted for unique variance in global cognitive function (ΔR2 = .09, p < .001), executive function (ΔR2 = .03, p < .05), and language (ΔR2 = .10, p < .001). A trend emerged for attention (ΔR2 = .02, p = .09), Follow-up tests indicated that better 2MST performance was significantly correlated with better global, attention, executive, and language test performance. Conclusion The current results indicate that the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF. Further work is needed to clarify underlying mechanisms for this association and the value of implementing the 2MST during routine visits. PMID:22182711

  15. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.

  16. Immersion suit insulation: the effect of dampening on survival estimates.

    PubMed

    Light, I M; Avery, A; Grieve, A M

    1987-10-01

    Immersion suit leakage values were obtained from realistic testing of helicopter passenger immersion suits using eight subjects. Simulated helicopter underwater escape resulted in mean leakages of 198 +/- 103, 283 +/- 127, 203 +/- 179, and 45.7 +/- 31.6 g (mean +/- S.D.) when wearing four different immersion suits. Suit leakages obtained from a 20-min swim test to simulate vital in-water survival actions produced leakages of 213 +/- 224, 1398 +/- 691, 145 +/- 96.5, and 177 +/- 139 g (mean +/- S.D.). Dampening of undergarments during simulated helicopter travel at an elevated cabin temperature of 30 degrees C was 115 +/- 47.3 (mean +/- S.D.; n = 4) when wearing an impermeable suit and 19 +/- 16.7 g (mean +/- S.D.; n = 4) when wearing a vapour-permeable suit. The commensurate loss of insulation with the impermeable suit at the upper level of temperature could reduce clothing insulation by 17%. A reduction of less than 5% may result under similar conditions when wearing the permeable suit. The combined dampening effect of sweating, helicopter underwater escape, and performance of vital survival actions could result in a total dampening of 247-1712 g, depending on the type of suit worn. The respective loss of insulation would be 15% and 50% respectively. This could reduce, for the 10th percentile thin man, his survival time in water at 5 degrees C from 3.5 h to between 2.4 h and 1.1 h, respectively. PMID:3675468

  17. Conformal Visualization for Partially-Immersive Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhang, Min; Kaufman, Arie E.; Gu, Xianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Current immersive VR systems such as the CAVE provide an effective platform for the immersive exploration of large 3D data. A major limitation is that in most cases at least one display surface is missing due to space, access or cost constraints. This partially-immersive visualization results in a substantial loss of visual information that may be acceptable for some applications, however it becomes a major obstacle for critical tasks, such as the analysis of medical data. We propose a conformal deformation rendering pipeline for the visualization of datasets on partially-immersive platforms. The angle-preserving conformal mapping approach is used to map the 360°3D view volume to arbitrary display configurations. It has the desirable property of preserving shapes under distortion, which is important for identifying features, especially in medical data. The conformal mapping is used for rasterization, realtime raytracing and volume rendering of the datasets. Since the technique is applied during the rendering, we can construct stereoscopic images from the data, which is usually not true for image-based distortion approaches. We demonstrate the stereo conformal mapping rendering pipeline in the partially-immersive 5-wall Immersive Cabin (IC) for virtual colonoscopy and architectural review. PMID:26279083

  18. Human adaptation to repeated cold immersions.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, F S; Tipton, M J

    1988-01-01

    1. The present investigation was designed to examine human adaptation to intermittent severe cold exposure and to assess the effect of exercise on any adaptation obtained. 2. Sixteen subjects were divided into two equal groups. Each subject performed ten head-out immersions; two into thermoneutral water which was then cooled until they shivered vigorously, and eight into water at 15 degrees C for 40 min. During the majority of the 15 degrees C immersions, one group (dynamic group) exercised whilst the other (static group) rested. 3. Results showed that both groups responded to repeated cold immersions with a reduction in their initial responses to cold. The time course of these reductions varied, however, between responses. 4. Only the static group developed a reduced metabolic response to prolonged resting immersion. 5. It is concluded that repeated resting exposure to cold was the more effective way of producing an adaptation. The performance of exercise during repeated exposure to cold prevented the development of an adaptive reduction in the metabolic response to cold during a subsequent resting immersion. In addition, many of the adaptations obtained during repeated resting exposure were overridden or masked during a subsequent exercising immersion. PMID:3411500

  19. Self-segregating materials for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Daniel P.; Sundberg, Linda K.; Brock, Phillip J.; Ito, Hiroshi; Truong, Hoa D.; Allen, Robert D.; McIntyre, Gregory R.; Goldfarb, Dario L.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we employ the self-segregating materials approach used in topcoat-free resists for water immersion lithography to extend the performance of topcoat materials for water immersion and to increase the contact angles of organic fluids on topcoat-free resists for high index immersion lithography. By tailoring polymers that segregate to the air and resist interfaces of the topcoat, high contact angle topcoats with relatively low fluorine content are achieved. While graded topcoats may extend the performance and/or reduce the cost of topcoat materials, the large amount of unprotected acidic groups necessary for TMAH development prevent them from achieving the high contact angles and low hysteresis exhibited by topcoat-free resists. Another application of this self-segregating approach is tailoring resist surfaces for high index immersion. Due to the low surface tension and higher viscosities of organic fluids relative to water and their lower contact angles on most surfaces, film pulling cannot be prevented without dramatically reducing wafer scan rates; however, tuning the surface energy of the resist may be important to control stain morphology and facilitate fluid removal from the wafer. By tailoring fluoropolymer additives for high contact angles with second generation organic high index immersion fluids, we show herein that topcoat-free resists can be developed specifically for high index immersion lithography with good contact angles and lithographic imaging performance.

  20. Data Visualization Using Immersive Virtual Reality Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioc, Alexandru; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Lawler, E.; Sauer, F.; Longo, G.

    2013-01-01

    The growing complexity of scientific data poses serious challenges for an effective visualization. Data sets, e.g., catalogs of objects detected in sky surveys, can have a very high dimensionality, ~ 100 - 1000. Visualizing such hyper-dimensional data parameter spaces is essentially impossible, but there are ways of visualizing up to ~ 10 dimensions in a pseudo-3D display. We have been experimenting with the emerging technologies of immersive virtual reality (VR) as a platform for a scientific, interactive, collaborative data visualization. Our initial experiments used the virtual world of Second Life, and more recently VR worlds based on its open source code, OpenSimulator. There we can visualize up to ~ 100,000 data points in ~ 7 - 8 dimensions (3 spatial and others encoded as shapes, colors, sizes, etc.), in an immersive virtual space where scientists can interact with their data and with each other. We are now developing a more scalable visualization environment using the popular (practically an emerging standard) Unity 3D Game Engine, coded using C#, JavaScript, and the Unity Scripting Language. This visualization tool can be used through a standard web browser, or a standalone browser of its own. Rather than merely plotting data points, the application creates interactive three-dimensional objects of various shapes, colors, and sizes, and of course the XYZ positions, encoding various dimensions of the parameter space, that can be associated interactively. Multiple users can navigate through this data space simultaneously, either with their own, independent vantage points, or with a shared view. At this stage ~ 100,000 data points can be easily visualized within seconds on a simple laptop. The displayed data points can contain linked information; e.g., upon a clicking on a data point, a webpage with additional information can be rendered within the 3D world. A range of functionalities has been already deployed, and more are being added. We expect to make this

  1. An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Garthe, Alexander; Kempermann, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis. In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number, and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons. We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well-suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the dentate gyrus (DG) facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places. In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped

  2. Development of a field test for evaluating aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults: validity of a 15-m incremental shuttle walk and run test.

    PubMed

    Mikawa, Kotaro; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized and externally paced field test (15-m Incremental Shuttle Walk and Run Test [15mISWRT]), incorporating an incremental and progressive structure, to assess aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults. 68 middle-aged men performed three tests in random order between one to two week intervals: 15-m ISWRT, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX), and 1500-m fast walk. Variables evaluated were 15-m ISWRT performance (distance completed), VO2max measured by CPX, 1500-m fast walk performance (walking time), and HR response in 15-m ISWRT and 1500-m fast walk. Validity of the 15-m ISWRT was tested by comparing the associations among the 15-m ISWRT performance, VO2max and the 1500-m fast walk performance. Changes in HR response during the 15-m ISWRT and the 1500-m fast walk were also compared. Correlations between each variable were as follows: the correlation between 15- m ISWRT performance and VO2max was very high, r = 0.86 (p < 0.01), the correlation between the 1500-m fast walk and VO2max was r = -0.51 (p < 0.01). HR response during the 15-m ISWRT gently increased initially, whereas HR response during the 1500-m fast walk rapidly increased from the start. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the 15-m ISWRT is valid and safe for evaluating VO2max in middle-aged adults. Key pointsThe 15-m ISWRT is valid and safe for evaluating VO2max in middle-aged adults.In comparison with the 1500-m fast walk, the 15-m ISWRT may be a more favourable field-based assessment of aerobic fitness in the middle-aged adults.The 15-m ISWRT could become a valid means for evaluating aerobic fitness as an alternative to CPX in institutions and situations where CPX is difficult to implement. PMID:24149563

  3. Predictors of young adults' representations of and behavior in their current romantic relationship: prospective tests of the prototype hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn I; Collins, W Andrew; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2005-06-01

    Although attachment theory suggests that childhood experiences with caregivers serve as a prototype for adult love relationships, few explicit tests of this hypothesis exist in the literature. Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort followed from birth to young adulthood, this paper examined correlates and antecedents of young adults' representations of and behavior in their current romantic relationship. Young adults who experienced a secure relationship with their primary caregiver in infancy as assessed in the Strange Situation were more likely to (a) produce coherent discourse regarding their current romantic partnership in the context of the Current Relationship Interview (CRI) and (b) have a higher quality romantic relationship as observed in standard conflict and collaboration tasks. Infant security accounted for variation in CRI security above and beyond the observed quality of participants' current romantic relationship. In contrast, the association between infant and romantic security was partially mediated by individuals' self-reports about their romantic experiences, suggesting that one plausible mechanism by which early experiences with caregivers shape young adults' representations of their attachments with romantic partners is through adults' expectations for and perceptions of love relationships. PMID:16096189

  4. The Reliability and Validity of Short Online Questionnaires to Measure Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults: The Fruit Test and Vegetable Test

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Steenhuyzen, Saidja; Dejaegere, Liesbet; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test over time and whether the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test are capable of measuring fruit and vegetable intake with consistency. Second, the study aimed to examine criterion (concurrent) validity of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test by testing their agreement with 7-day food diary-derived measures of fruit and vegetable intake. In total 58 adults (31% male, mean age = 30.0±12.09y) completed the Flemish Fruit and Vegetable test by indicating the frequency of days that they ate fruit and vegetables and the number of portions during the past week. Validity was tested by using a 7-day food diary as a golden standard. Adults were asked to register their fruit and vegetable intake daily in a diary during one week. Spearman correlations were measured to compare total intake reported in the Fruit and Vegetable Test and in the 7-day diary. Agreement plots were used to illustrate absolute agreement. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by having participants completing the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test twice. The Fruit Test (ICC = 0.81) and Vegetable Test (ICC = 0.78) showed excellent and substantial reliability. The Fruit Test (ρ = 0.73) and Vegetable Test showed good validity. Agreement plots showed modest variability in differences between vegetable and fruit intake as measured by the Vegetable and Fruit Test and the 7-day food diary. Also a small underestimation of fruit intake in the Fruit test and vegetable intake in the Vegetable test against the 7-day food diary was shown. Based on the results, it is suggested to include portion size pictures and consumption of mixed vegetables to prevent underestimation. To prevent overestimation, it is concluded to add a moderate number of representative fruit and vegetable items, questions on portion size, household sizes with sufficient detail and food items highly tailored to the dietary behaviors and local food items of the

  5. Effect of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test on Bone Turnover Markers in Adults with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Shou-Kui; Wan, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Hua; Ma, Jin-Hong; Hua, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well known that enteral nutrients result in acute suppression of bone turnover markers (BTMs), and incretin hormones are believed to play a significant role in this physiological skeletal response. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of parenteral nutrients on BTMs. Our aim was to assess the influence of intravenous glucose on BTMs in adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Material/Methods We conducted 1-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in 24 subjects with NGT. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min after administration of glucose, then serum levels of bone formation marker procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and resorption marker C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX) were measured. Results During IVGTT, the fasting CTX level fell gradually and reached a nadir of 80.4% of the basal value at 60 min. Conversely, the fasting P1NP level decreased mildly and reached a nadir of 90.6% of the basal value at 15 min, then gradually increased and reached 96.6% at 60 min. The CTX-to-P1NP ratio increased slightly and reached a peak of 104.3% of the basal value at 10 min, then fell gradually and reached a nadir of 83% at 60 min. Conclusions Our study indicates that intravenous glucose results in an acute suppression of BTMs in the absence of incretin hormones. The mechanism responsible for this needs further investigation. PMID:27447783

  6. Effect of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test on Bone Turnover Markers in Adults with Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shou-Kui; Wan, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Hua; Ma, Jin-Hong; Hua, Fei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is well known that enteral nutrients result in acute suppression of bone turnover markers (BTMs), and incretin hormones are believed to play a significant role in this physiological skeletal response. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of parenteral nutrients on BTMs. Our aim was to assess the influence of intravenous glucose on BTMs in adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted 1-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in 24 subjects with NGT. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min after administration of glucose, then serum levels of bone formation marker procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and resorption marker C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX) were measured. RESULTS During IVGTT, the fasting CTX level fell gradually and reached a nadir of 80.4% of the basal value at 60 min. Conversely, the fasting P1NP level decreased mildly and reached a nadir of 90.6% of the basal value at 15 min, then gradually increased and reached 96.6% at 60 min. The CTX-to-P1NP ratio increased slightly and reached a peak of 104.3% of the basal value at 10 min, then fell gradually and reached a nadir of 83% at 60 min. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicates that intravenous glucose results in an acute suppression of BTMs in the absence of incretin hormones. The mechanism responsible for this needs further investigation. PMID:27447783

  7. Primary culture of purified Leydig cells isolated from adult rat testes.

    PubMed

    Browning, J Y; Heindel, J J; Grotjan, H E

    1983-02-01

    Methods for isolating highly purified Leydig cells permit the study of acute responses and biochemical properties of Leydig cells independent of other testicular cell types. The present study describes the development of a primary culture system for purified Leydig cells from adult rats in which the cells retain their ability to secrete testosterone for at least 72 h in culture. When Leydig cells were cultured in tissue culture medium 199--0.1% BSA (M199-BSA), basal testosterone secretion declined by 72 h, whereas hCGB-stimulated testosterone secretion was reduced by 48 h. Changing the culture medium twice daily or adding 0.5% fetal calf serum (fcs) enhanced basal and gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone secretion at 72 h in culture, although responsiveness to hCG was reduced to 57% of that in freshly isolated cells. Incubation of Leydig cells in the defined culture medium Dulbecco's Modified Eagles-Ham's F-12 (1:1, vol/vol) supplemented with 15 mM Hepes buffer, transferrin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor (DHG:F12 + Hepes + TIE) in either the presence or absence of 0.5% fcs yielded functional Leydig cells for longer intervals in culture. Furthermore, testosterone secretion was greater in DHG:F12 + Hepes + TIE than in M199-BSA at all time intervals tested. In DHG:F12 + Hepes + TIE, basal and gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells were maintained for 72 h in culture. Degenerative changes in morphology were apparent in some cells at 72 h, but not at earlier times in culture. This primary culture system for isolated Leydig cells provides a valuable tool to examine the temporally regulated events in Leydig cell function. PMID:6848362

  8. ZnSe immersion grating in the short NIR region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kuzmenko, Paul; Little, Steve L.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Alameda, Jennifer B.; Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Yasui, Chikako; Kondo, Sohei; Fukue, Kei; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2014-07-01

    ZnSe has a high refractive index (n~ 2.45) and low optical loss (< 0.1/cm) from 0.8 to 12 um. Therefore ZnSe immersion gratings can enable high-resolution spectroscopy over a wide wavelength range. We are developing ZnSe immersion gratings for a ground-based NIR high-resolution spectrograph WINERED. We previously produced a large prism-shaped ZnSe immersion grating with a grooved area 50 mm x 58 mm (Ikeda et al. 2010). However, we find two problems as NIR immersion grating: (i) serious chipping of the grooves, and (ii) inter-order ghosts in the diffraction pattern. We believed the chipping to be due to micro cracks just beneath surface present prior to diamond machining. Therefore we removed this damaged region, a few tens of microns thick, by etching the ZnSe grating blank with a mixture of HCl and HNO3. Ghosts appearing halfway between main diffraction orders originate from small differences in spacing between odd and even grooves. Apparently the blank shifts repeatably by about 120 nm in the direction orthogonal to the grooves depending on whether the translation stage holding the blank is moving right to left or left to right. Therefore we remachined the grating only cutting grooves with the stage moving from right to left. After re-cutting, we also deposit the Cu coating with an enhanced interface layer of SiO2 on the groove, which is developed in our previous study. We evaluated the optical performances of this immersion grating. It shows light scattering of 3.8 % at 1μm, no prominent ghosts, and a spectral resolution of 91,200 at 1 μm. However we measured an absolute diffraction efficiency of only 27.3% for TE and 25.9 % for TM waves at 1.55 μm. A non-immersed measurement of the diffraction efficiency of the facet blazed near 20º exceeded 60%, much closer to theoretical predictions. We plan to carry out more tests to resolve this discrepancy.

  9. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  10. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  11. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  12. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  13. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  14. Do High-Risk Young Adults Use the HIV Self-Test Appropriately? Observations from a Think-Aloud Study.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Rebecca; John, Rita Marie; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand high-risk young adults' use of the rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-test. The highest rate of new HIV infections occurs in people between 15 and 24 years. Improving identification of young people infected with HIV is a critical public health priority. The first rapid HIV self-testing kit was approved in the US in 2012. Despite the product's promise, its use by untrained young adults is not well-understood. We conducted a mixed methods study using surveys, a think-aloud protocol, observations, and in-depth interviews. A systematic checklist was developed to assess participants' use of the test. A total of 21 racial and/or ethnic minority young adults aged 18-24 participated in this study. Analysis of our interview data was guided by the theory of reasoned action (TRA). Participants completed the initial procedures of the test with a mean time of 8:36 min (range of 2:04'-16:33'). On a 14-point checklist, participants had a mean score of 10.8 (SD 2.26, range 3-14). In the qualitative analysis of the participants' interviews, guided by the theoretical constructs of the TRA, the following themes emerged: "Did I use it correctly?", "Can I trust the results?" (attitude); "How will my partner react?!", "What will people think?" (subjective norm); "Quick, easy and blood free," and "Avoids the hassle of dealing with the healthcare system" (behavioral intention). This study provided evidence of the usefulness of the test perceived by young adults, especially in light of their concerns about lack of privacy in medical settings. Since many participants did not follow all of the instructions while using the test, it is not evident that young adults can correctly use the HIV self-test. Development of instructions manuals that are understandable and guide proper use of medical devices is a great need, especially in the context of home testing technology. PMID:26518679

  15. A New Agility Test for Adults: Its Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change in Untrained Women and Men Aged 28-55.

    PubMed

    Manderoos, Sirpa A; Vaara, Mariitta E; Mäki, P Juhani; Mälkiä, Esko A; Aunola, Sirkka K; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa

    2016-08-01

    Manderoos, SA, Vaara, ME, Mäki, PJ, Mälkiä, EA, Aunola, SK, and Karppi, S-L. A new agility test for adults: its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change in untrained women and men aged 28-55. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2226-2234, 2016-The aims of this study were to present a new Agility Test for Adults (ATA), to investigate its test-retest reliability and to quantify minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence interval (MDC95). Both the relative and absolute reliabilities were evaluated. Altogether 52 healthy untrained volunteers (25 women: age 43.3 ± 6.6 years; 27 men: age 42.8 ± 7.2 years) were recruited into the study. The subjects performed 3 ATA tests repeated after 2 different intervals: the first test session was baseline, session 2 was a week later, and session 3 was half an hour after session 2. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM of the performance time of ATA were 0.91 and 0.27 seconds (same day), 0.94 and 0.20 seconds (1 week) for women, and 0.95, 0.13 seconds, and 0.94, 0.19 seconds for men, respectively. MDC95 was 0.76 seconds (same day) and 0.56 seconds (1 week) for women, and respectively 0.37 and 0.51 seconds for men. The results showed that ATA is stable and reliable when evaluating agility characteristics in untrained adults. The properties of ATA make it appropriate for screening people to find early signs of declined agility and allow possibility to clinicians and physical trainers to monitor true changes in performance time at agility test by applying the knowledge of MDC95 coefficient. Furthermore, ATA can give tips for planning appropriate exercise programes to prevent clumsiness and falls with more serious consequences among aging people. PMID:26705068

  16. Development of immersion quenching of small diameter bars

    SciTech Connect

    Bunte, C.

    1996-12-31

    A change of process in the quenching of 25.40 mm (1 inch) bars in UNI41Cr4 (SAE 5140) was implemented. The change consisted in the passage from induction quenching to immersion quenching in a polymer solution bath. The tests were made on bars of 6.00 meters long, disposed in separate layers. The results were satisfactory: (a) A good homogeneity in the average center hardness of bars. (b) Low distortion of bars. (c) No cracks were found. Afterwards, tests were made on longer bars (9.50 meters) with the same results. This change of process allowed an important reduction of fabrication costs.

  17. [Effect of water immersion as a model of weightlessness on lung closing volume].

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, M A; Kondakov, A V; Asiamolova, N M; Volkov, M Iu

    1983-01-01

    The effect of 7-day water immersion combined at night with head-down (6 degrees) tilting on the volumes of lung expiratory closing was examined in 6 healthy male test subjects, aged 25-35. During immersion they showed, along with a stable reduction of the lung vital and functional residual capacity (by 4.2 and 14.8%, respectively), an increase in the fraction parameters of the expiratory closing volumes. The increase in the closing volume (up to 40%) (P less than 0.05) was particularly distinct on immersion day 2. Subsequent changes indicated gradual recovery of the closing volumes and a decline in regional nonuniformity of lung ventilation. The time-course variations in the closing volumes may be attributed to an increase in the intrapulmonary blood volume at the early stage of adaptation to immersion and to a decrease in the nonuniformity of the ventilation-perfusion ratios. PMID:6843068

  18. Effect of longitudinal physical training and water immersion on orthostatic tolerance in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Dunn, E. R.; Nesvig, C.; Keil, L. C.; Harrison, M. H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of six months of moderately intense aerobic training on 60-deg head-up tilt tolerance was assessed before and after 6 hrs of water-immersion deconditioning by comparing the orthostatic and fluid-electrolyte-endocrine responses of five male subjects before and after these tests. It was found that six months of training has no significant effect on 60-deg head-up tilt tolerance. Thus, during pretraining, the water immersion tilt-tolerance was found to decrease from about 74 min before to 34 min after water immersion, while during posttraining, water immersion tilt tolerance decreased from 74 min to 44 min. Fluid-electrolyte-endocrine responses were also essentially the same during all four tilts. Plasma volume decreased by 9.0 to 12.6 percent; plasma sodium and osmotic concentrations were unchanged; and serum protein and plasma renin activity increased.

  19. Patterns of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes in Children and Adults: Tests in the Domain of Religion

    PubMed Central

    Heiphetz, Larisa; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Banaji, Mahzarin R.

    2012-01-01

    Among the most replicated results in social cognition is the split between explicit and implicit attitudes; adults demonstrate weaker group-based preferences on explicit rather than implicit measures. However, the developmental origins of this pattern remain unclear. If implicit attitudes develop over a protracted period of time, children should not demonstrate the implicit preferences observed among adults. Additionally, unlike adults, children may report group-based preferences due to their lesser concern with social desirability. In Study 1, Christian adults showed the expected pattern of robust implicit preference but no explicit preference. In four additional experiments, 6–8 year old children whose parents identified them as Christian viewed characters described as belonging to two starkly different religious groups (“strong religious difference”) or two relatively similar religious groups (“weak religious difference”). Participants then completed explicit and implicit (IAT) measures of attitude toward Christians and either Hindus (Study 2) or Jews (Studies 3–5). Three main results emerged. First, like adults, children showed significant implicit pro-Christian preferences across all studies. Second, unlike adults, children in the “strong religious difference” case reported preferences of approximately the same magnitude as their implicit attitudes (i.e., no dissociation). Third, even in the “weak religious difference” case, children showed implicit pro-Christian preferences (although, like adults, their explicit attitudes were not sensitive to intergroup difference). These data suggest that the seeds of implicit religious preferences are sown early and that children's explicit preferences are influenced by the social distance between groups. PMID:22905875

  20. Trends in HIV Testing Among U.S. Older Adults Prior to and Since Release of CDC's Routine HIV Testing Recommendations: National Findings from the BRFSS

    PubMed Central

    Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Godette, Dionne C.; Gaines, Tommi L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined temporal trends in HIV testing among U.S. older adults (50–64 years of age) before and after the release of CDC's routine HIV testing recommendations in 2006. Methods The sample (n=872,797; 51.4% female) comprised 2003–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents in the oldest categories to which the recommendations apply: 50–54 years (34.5%, n=301,519), 55–59 years (34.1%, n=297,865), and 60–64 years (31.3%, n=273,413). We calculated (1) four-year pooled prevalences of past-year HIV testing before and after 2006, when the recommendations were released; and (2) annual prevalences of HIV testing overall and by age category from 2003–2010. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined binary (pre- vs. post-recommendations) and annual changes in testing, controlling for covariates. We stratified the data by recent doctor visits, examined racial/ethnic differences, and tested for linear and quadratic temporal trends. Results Overall and within age categories, the pooled prevalence of past-year HIV testing decreased following release of the recommendations (p<0.001). The annual prevalence decreased monotonically from 2003 (5.5%) to 2006 (3.6%) (b=–0.16, p<0.001) and then increased immediately after release of the recommendations, but decreased to 3.7% after 2009 (b=0.01, p<0.001). By race/ethnicity, testing increased over time among non-Hispanic black people only. Annual prevalence also increased among respondents with recent doctor visits. Conclusion CDC's HIV testing recommendations were associated with a reversal in the downward trend in past-year HIV testing among older adults; however, the gains were neither universal nor sustained over time. PMID:26327729

  1. An immersed structure approach for fluid-vegetation interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattis, Steven A.; Dawson, Clint N.; Kees, Christopher E.; Farthing, Matthew W.

    2015-06-01

    We present an immersed structure approach for modeling the interaction between surface flows and vegetation. Fluid flow and rigid and flexible vegetative obstacles are coupled through a local drag relation that conserves momentum. In the presented method, separate meshes are used for the fluid domain and vegetative obstacles. Taking techniques from immersed boundary finite element methods, the effects of the fluid on the vegetative structures and vice versa are calculated using integral transforms. Using a simple elastic structure model we incorporate bending and moving vegetative obstacles. We model flexible vegetation as thin, elastic, inextensible cantilever beams. Using the immersed structure approach, a fully coupled fluid-vegetation interaction model is developed assuming dynamic fluid flow and quasi-static bending. This relatively computationally inexpensive model allows for thousands of vegetative obstacles to be included in a simulation without requiring an extremely refined fluid mesh. The method is validated with comparisons to mean velocity profiles and bent vegetation heights from experiments that are reproduced computationally. We test the method on several channel flow setups. We calculate the bulk drag coefficient in these flow scenarios and analyze their trends with changing model parameters including stem population density and flow Reynolds number. Bulk drag models are the primary method of incorporating small-scale drag from individual plants into a value that can be used in larger-scale models. Upscaled bulk drag quantities from this method may be utilized in larger-scale simulations of flow through vegetation regions.

  2. Learning Environments in Immersion and Non-Immersion Classrooms: Are They Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Viviane; Rehorick, Sally

    1990-01-01

    A study compared immersion and nonimmersion learning environments, as perceived by students, in 95 New Brunswick grade 6, 7, and 9 classes. In grade 6, no significant differences in perception were found; in grade 7, immersion students see their environment more positively; and in grade 9, the differences seem to disappear. (25 references)…

  3. Initial validation of a web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery for older adults and seniors

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Tor Ivar; Haferstrom, Elise Christina D.; Brunner, Jan F.; Lehn, Hanne; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized neuropsychological tests are effective in assessing different cognitive domains, but are often limited by the need of proprietary hardware and technical staff. Web-based tests can be more accessible and flexible. We aimed to investigate validity, effects of computer familiarity, education, and age, and the feasibility of a new web-based self-administered neuropsychological test battery (Memoro) in older adults and seniors. Method: A total of 62 (37 female) participants (mean age 60.7 years) completed the Memoro web-based neuropsychological test battery and a traditional battery composed of similar tests intended to measure the same cognitive constructs. Participants were assessed on computer familiarity and how they experienced the two batteries. To properly test the factor structure of Memoro, an additional factor analysis in 218 individuals from the HUNT population was performed. Results: Comparing Memoro to traditional tests, we observed good concurrent validity (r = .49–.63). The performance on the traditional and Memoro test battery was consistent, but differences in raw scores were observed with higher scores on verbal memory and lower in spatial memory in Memoro. Factor analysis indicated two factors: verbal and spatial memory. There were no correlations between test performance and computer familiarity after adjustment for age or age and education. Subjects reported that they preferred web-based testing as it allowed them to set their own pace, and they did not feel scrutinized by an administrator. Conclusions: Memoro showed good concurrent validity compared to neuropsychological tests measuring similar cognitive constructs. Based on the current results, Memoro appears to be a tool that can be used to assess cognitive function in older and senior adults. Further work is necessary to ascertain its validity and reliability. PMID:26009791

  4. How incorporation of scents could enhance immersive virtual experiences.

    PubMed

    Ischer, Matthieu; Baron, Naëm; Mermoud, Christophe; Cayeux, Isabelle; Porcherot, Christelle; Sander, David; Delplanque, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Under normal everyday conditions, senses all work together to create experiences that fill a typical person's life. Unfortunately for behavioral and cognitive researchers who investigate such experiences, standard laboratory tests are usually conducted in a nondescript room in front of a computer screen. They are very far from replicating the complexity of real world experiences. Recently, immersive virtual reality (IVR) environments became promising methods to immerse people into an almost real environment that involves more senses. IVR environments provide many similarities to the complexity of the real world and at the same time allow experimenters to constrain experimental parameters to obtain empirical data. This can eventually lead to better treatment options and/or new mechanistic hypotheses. The idea that increasing sensory modalities improve the realism of IVR environments has been empirically supported, but the senses used did not usually include olfaction. In this technology report, we will present an odor delivery system applied to a state-of-the-art IVR technology. The platform provides a three-dimensional, immersive, and fully interactive visualization environment called "Brain and Behavioral Laboratory-Immersive System" (BBL-IS). The solution we propose can reliably deliver various complex scents during different virtual scenarios, at a precise time and space and without contamination of the environment. The main features of this platform are: (i) the limited cross-contamination between odorant streams with a fast odor delivery (< 500 ms), (ii) the ease of use and control, and (iii) the possibility to synchronize the delivery of the odorant with pictures, videos or sounds. How this unique technology could be used to investigate typical research questions in olfaction (e.g., emotional elicitation, memory encoding or attentional capture by scents) will also be addressed. PMID:25101017

  5. Motion sickness potentiates core cooling during immersion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Tipton, Michael J; Gennser, Mikael; Eiken, Ola

    2001-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that motion sickness affects thermoregulatory responses to cooling in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers underwent three separate head-out immersions in 28 °C water after different preparatory procedures. In the ‘control’ procedure immersion was preceded by a rest period. In the ‘motion sickness’ procedure immersion was preceded by provocation of motion sickness in a human centrifuge. This comprised rapid and repeated alterations of the gravitational (G-) stress in the head-to-foot direction, plus a standardized regimen of head movements at increased G-stress. In the ‘G-control’ procedure, the subjects were exposed to similar G-stress, but without the motion sickness provocation. During immersion mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the forearm and 3rd digit of the right hand (ΔTforearm-fingertip), oxygen uptake and heart rate were recorded. Subjects provided ratings of temperature perception, thermal comfort and level of motion sickness discomfort at regular intervals. No differences were observed in any of the variables between control and G-control procedures. In the motion sickness procedure, the ΔTforearm-fingertip response was significantly attenuated, indicating a blunted vasoconstrictor response, and rectal temperature decreased at a faster rate. No other differences were observed. Motion sickness attenuates the vasoconstrictor response to skin and core cooling, thereby enhancing heat loss and the magnitude of the fall in deep body temperature. Motion sickness may predispose individuals to hypothermia, and have significant implications for survival time in maritime accidents. PMID:11533150

  6. How incorporation of scents could enhance immersive virtual experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ischer, Matthieu; Baron, Naëm; Mermoud, Christophe; Cayeux, Isabelle; Porcherot, Christelle; Sander, David; Delplanque, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Under normal everyday conditions, senses all work together to create experiences that fill a typical person's life. Unfortunately for behavioral and cognitive researchers who investigate such experiences, standard laboratory tests are usually conducted in a nondescript room in front of a computer screen. They are very far from replicating the complexity of real world experiences. Recently, immersive virtual reality (IVR) environments became promising methods to immerse people into an almost real environment that involves more senses. IVR environments provide many similarities to the complexity of the real world and at the same time allow experimenters to constrain experimental parameters to obtain empirical data. This can eventually lead to better treatment options and/or new mechanistic hypotheses. The idea that increasing sensory modalities improve the realism of IVR environments has been empirically supported, but the senses used did not usually include olfaction. In this technology report, we will present an odor delivery system applied to a state-of-the-art IVR technology. The platform provides a three-dimensional, immersive, and fully interactive visualization environment called “Brain and Behavioral Laboratory—Immersive System” (BBL-IS). The solution we propose can reliably deliver various complex scents during different virtual scenarios, at a precise time and space and without contamination of the environment. The main features of this platform are: (i) the limited cross-contamination between odorant streams with a fast odor delivery (< 500 ms), (ii) the ease of use and control, and (iii) the possibility to synchronize the delivery of the odorant with pictures, videos or sounds. How this unique technology could be used to investigate typical research questions in olfaction (e.g., emotional elicitation, memory encoding or attentional capture by scents) will also be addressed. PMID:25101017

  7. Building an immersion topcoat from the ground up: materials perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khojasteh, Mahmoud; Popova, Irene; Varanasi, P. Rao; Sundberg, Linda; Robinson, C.; Corliss, D.; Lawson, Margaret; Dabbagh, G.; Slezak, M.; Colburn, Matthew; Petrillo, K.

    2007-03-01

    Over a period of last several years 193 nm immersion lithography from a remote and unlikely possibility gradually became a reality in many fabrication facilities across the globe and solid candidate for high volume manufacturing for the next generation technology node. It is being widely understood in the industry that top-coatless resist approach is a desirable final stage of the immersion process development. However creating low-defect high performance top-coatless resist materials requires understanding of the fundamental material properties of the top layer, responsible for leaching suppression, immersion fluid meniscus stability, and in this way enabling high speed low-defect scanning. While a lot of progress has been made in implementing specific top coat materials into the process flow, clear understanding effects of the top coat properties on the lithographic conditions and printing capability is still lacking. This paper will discuss top coat materials design, properties and functional characteristics in application to novel fluoroalcohol polymer-based immersion top coat. We have used our fluoroalcohol based-series designs (titled MVP top coat materials further on in the paper) as a test vehicle for establishing correlations between top coat performance and its physical and chemical properties including hydrophobicity, molecular weight/dispersity etc. Effects of polymer-solvent interactions on the contact angle and characteristics of the top coat material are explored, providing valuable understanding transferable to design of new generation top coats and top-coatless materials. Our resultant new designs demonstrated excellent lithographic performance, profiles and low leaching levels with commercially available resist and high receding contact angles, comparable to the commercial top coat materials.

  8. Regulation of seminiferous tubule-associated stem Leydig cells in adult rat testes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoheng; Wang, Zhao; Jiang, Zhenming; Guo, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuxi; Li, Chenhao; Chung, Jinyong; Folmer, Janet; Liu, June; Lian, Qingquan; Ge, Renshan; Zirkin, Barry R; Chen, Haolin

    2016-03-01

    Testicular Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone in males. Adult Leydig cells have been shown to arise from stem cells present in the neonatal testis. Once established, adult Leydig cells turn over only slowly during adult life, but when these cells are eliminated experimentally from the adult testis, new Leydig cells rapidly reappear. As in the neonatal testis, stem cells in the adult testis are presumed to be the source of the new Leydig cells. As yet, the mechanisms involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of these stem cells remain unknown. We developed a unique in vitro system of cultured seminiferous tubules to assess the ability of factors from the seminiferous tubules to regulate the proliferation of the tubule-associated stem cells, and their subsequent entry into the Leydig cell lineage. The proliferation of the stem Leydig cells was stimulated by paracrine factors including Desert hedgehog (DHH), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and activin. Suppression of proliferation occurred with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). The differentiation of the stem cells was regulated positively by DHH, lithium- induced signaling, and activin, and negatively by TGF-β, PDGFBB, and FGF2. DHH functioned as a commitment factor, inducing the transition of stem cells to the progenitor stage and thus into the Leydig cell lineage. Additionally, CD90 (Thy1) was found to be a unique stem cell surface marker that was used to obtain purified stem cells by flow cytometry. PMID:26929346

  9. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  10. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  11. Mental models or methodological artefacts? Adults' 'naïve' responses to a test of children's conceptions of the earth.

    PubMed

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2009-05-01

    Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children's drawings and answers to questions show that they have naive, theory-like 'mental models' of the earth; for example, they believe it to be flat, or hollow with people inside. However, recent studies that have used different methods have found little or no evidence of these misconceptions. The contrasting accounts, and possible reasons for the inconsistent findings, were tested by giving adults (N = 484) either the original task (designed for 5-year olds) or a new version in which the same drawing instructions and questions were rephrased and clarified. Many adults' responses to the original version were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings and answers. The new version elicited substantially fewer non-scientific responses. These findings indicate that even adults find the original instructions and questions ambiguous and confusing, and that this is the principal reason for their non-scientific drawings and answers. Since children must find the task even more confusing than adults, this explanation very probably applies to many of their non-scientific responses, too, and therefore accounts for the discrepant findings of previous research. 'Naïve' responses result largely from misinterpretation of Vosniadou and Brewer's apparently simple task, rather than from mental models of the earth. PMID:18680639

  12. Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills of High-Risk Young Adults to Use the HIV Self-Test.

    PubMed

    Brown, William; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; John, Rita Marie; Schnall, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    HIV self tests (HIVST) have the potential to increase testing among young adults. However, little is known about high-risk young adults' perception of the HIVST as a risk reduction tool and how they would use the HIVST in their everyday lives. Our study sought to examine these factors. Twenty-one ethnically diverse participants (ages 18-24) used the HIVST at our study site, completed surveys, and underwent an in-depth interview. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey responses, and interview data were coded using constructs from the information-motivation-behavioral skills model. Information deficits included: how to use the HIVST and the "window period" for sero-conversion. Motivations supporting HIVST use included: not needing to visit the clinic, fast results, easy access, and use in non-monogamous relationships. Behavioral skills discussed included: coping with a positive test, handling partner violence after a positive test, and accessing HIV services. These findings can inform the use of the HIVST for improving HIV testing rates and reducing HIV risk behavior. PMID:26885813

  13. Ventilatory drive during face immersion in man.

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, M R; Patrick, J M

    1986-01-01

    Four series of experiments have been performed in normal subjects to determine whether face immersion gives rise to a reduction in ventilatory drive. Such a response might be advantageous, like the cardiovascular components of the 'diving response', in prolonging breath-hold diving. In the first series, ventilatory drive was measured indirectly as the maximal voluntary breath-holding time, starting each breath-hold at the same alveolar partial pressures and at the same lung volume. When the face was immersed in cold water, breath-holding times were increased by 14%. The breaking point occurred at a higher alveolar PCO2 and the rate of rise of PCO2 was not affected. Control immersions in warm water had no effect. In the second and third series, subjects lay prone and breathed either air or 5% CO2 through a valve in the bottom of a bowl. Minute ventilation was measured before, during and after 5 min of face immersion in cold water. Transient hypoventilations of 13% and 10% respectively were seen, accompanied by small rises in alveolar PCO2. In control experiments, immersion of the forearm in cold water produced the opposite responses. In the fourth series, a cold wet pack was applied to the face during moderate steady-state exercise. A small irregular hypoventilation was seen, but not in control experiments when a warm pack was applied. Face temperatures fell by about 10 degrees C in these experiments. No material changes were found in the temperatures of the inspired air or of the aural canal. It is concluded that face immersion in cold water causes a modest reduction in ventilatory drive in man. This appears to be a component of the 'diving response'. PMID:3083097

  14. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

  15. Applied Writing: A Writing Skills Curriculum for Adult Learners. Second Field Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Carole; August, Bonne

    This writing skills curriculum provides Adult Basic Education (ABE) teachers with a perspective on intended writing goals for their ABE students, delineates specific writing objectives, and presents a framework within which writing activities can effectively take place. Introductory material provides a guide to the use of the curriculum and…

  16. The influence of fledgling location on adult provisioning: a test of the blackmail hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A. M.; Raihani, N. J.; Hockey, P. A. R.; Britton, A.; Finch, F. M.; Ridley, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    One theory to explain the existence of conspicuous solicitation is that it is a way for young to ‘blackmail’ carers into provisioning them, by threatening their own destruction. Fledgling birds offer a unique opportunity to investigate the ‘blackmail theory’, as their mobility enables them to influence the predation risk they face. We investigated a novel solicitation behaviour in fledgling pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), where fledglings use their location to influence provisioning rates. We show that fledglings face a trade-off: the ground is a much more profitable location in terms of provisioning rate from adult carers, but they are at greater risk from predators owing to their limited flying ability and slow response to alarm calls. Young babbler fledglings move to the ground when hungry, signalling their state, and this stimulates adults to increase their provisioning rates. Once satiated, fledglings return to the safety of cover. By experimentally increasing terrestrial predation risk, we found that adults increased their provisioning rate to terrestrial but not arboreal fledglings. Thus, by moving to a riskier location, fledglings revealed their need and were able to manipulate adults to achieve higher provisioning rates. These results provide support for the ‘blackmail theory’. PMID:23576792

  17. Treating Adult Marijuana Dependence: A Test of the Relapse Prevention Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Robert S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Randomly assigned adults (n=212) seeking treatment for marijuana use to relapse prevention (RP) or social support (SSP) group discussion intervention. Data collected at 12 months posttreatment revealed substantial reductions in frequency of marijuana use and associated problems; no significant difference between treatments on days of marijuana…

  18. Cultural Immersion as a Strategy for Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jennell P

    2015-01-01

    Cultural immersion experiences offered through study abroad opportunities for nursing students have been increasing in recent years. Examining the impact of these experiences has largely focused on students and not on the faculty leading the experiences. It is important to understand the impact of these experiences on all participants. Exploring the literature on empowerment provides some clarity on the relationship between studying abroad and its impact on participants. Further research linking cultural immersion experiences with empowerment is needed to better understand this relationship and the possibilities of empowering both students and faculty engaged in these exciting opportunities. PMID:26376576

  19. Subwavelength-size solid immersion lens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myun-Sik; Scharf, Toralf; Haq, Mohammad Tahdiul; Nakagawa, Wataru; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2011-10-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale solid immersion lenses (nano-SILs) with sizes down to a subwavelength range. Submicrometer-scale cylinders fabricated by electron-beam lithography are thermally reflowed to form a spherical shape. Subsequent soft lithography leads to nano-SILs on transparent substrates for optical characterization. The optical characterization is performed using a high-resolution interference microscope with illumination at 642 nm wavelength. The focal spots produced by the nano-SILs show both spot-size reduction and enhanced optical intensity, which are consistent with the immersion effect. PMID:21964145

  20. Cross-Validation of the Recumbent Stepper Submaximal Exercise Test to Predict Peak Oxygen Uptake in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Herda, Ashley A.; Lentz, Angela A.; Mattlage, Anna E.; Sisante, Jason-Flor

    2014-01-01

    Background Submaximal exercise testing can have a greater application in clinical settings because peak exercise testing is generally not available. In previous work, a prediction equation was developed to estimate peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2) using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS) and the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) protocol in adults who were healthy. Objective The purpose of the present study was to cross-validate the TBRS peak V̇o2 prediction equation in older adults. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods Thirty participants (22 female, 8 male; mean age=66.8 years, SD=5.52; mean weight=68.51 kg, SD=13.39) who previously completed a peak exercise test and met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the cross-validation study. Within 5 days of the peak V̇o2 test, participants completed the TBRS submaximal exercise test. The TBRS submaximal exercise test equation was used to estimate peak V̇o2. The variables in the equation included age, weight, sex, watts (at the end of the submaximal exercise test), and heart rate (at the end of the submaximal exercise test). Results A strong correlation was found between the predicted peak V̇o2 and the measured peak V̇o2. The difference between the values was 0.9 mL·kg−1·min−1, which was not statistically different. The standard error of the estimate was 4.2 mL·kg−1·min−1. Limitations The sample included individuals who volunteered to perform a peak exercise test, which may have biased the results toward those willing to exercise to fatigue. Conclusion The data suggest the TBRS submaximal exercise test and prediction equation can be used to predict peak V̇o2 in older adults. This finding is important for health care professionals wanting to provide information to their patients or clients regarding their fitness level. PMID:24435104

  1. Effects of Timing, Sex, and Age on Site-Specific Gastrointestinal Permeability Testing in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    McOmber, Mark E.; Ou, Ching-Nan; Shulman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives Measurement of gastrointestinal (GI) permeability is used commonly in research and often clinically. Despite its utility, little is known about sugar excretion timeframes or the potential effects of age and gender in GI permeability testing. We sought to determine the timeframes of sugar excretion and the potential effects of age and gender on urinary recovery of the sugars. Methods Healthy adults (n=17) and children (n=15) fasted four hours after the evening meal and then ingested a solution of sucrose, lactulose, mannitol, and sucralose. Urine was collected at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after ingestion and then each time the subjects voided over the next 24 hr. Each urine void was collected separately. Results Median age for the adults was 47.5 yr. (range 21-57 yr.) and for children 10 yr. (5-17). There were no differences between children and adults in mean percent dose of sugar recovered. The time of peak urinary recovery of the sugars was generally similar between children and adults. Sucrose urinary recovery declined with age (P = 0.008; r2 = 0.19) unrelated to gender. Lactulose and sucralose urinary recovery declined with age in females (P = 0.05, r2 = 0.24 and P = 0.011, r2 = 0.41, respectively) but not in males. Conclusions Overall, sugar urinary recovery is comparable in children and adults. Specific sugar urinary recovery may change as a function of age and/or gender. These results need to be taken into account when planning and interpreting GI permeability studies. PMID:20081547

  2. Assessing Knowledge Retention of an Immersive Serious Game vs. a Traditional Education Method in Aviation Safety.

    PubMed

    Chittaro, Luca; Buttussi, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Thanks to the increasing availability of consumer head-mounted displays, educational applications of immersive VR could now reach to the general public, especially if they include gaming elements (immersive serious games). Safety education of citizens could be a particularly promising domain for immersive serious games, because people tend not to pay attention to and benefit from current safety materials. In this paper, we propose an HMD-based immersive game for educating passengers about aviation safety that allows players to experience a serious aircraft emergency with the goal of surviving it. We compare the proposed approach to a traditional aviation safety education method (the safety card) used by airlines. Unlike most studies of VR for safety knowledge acquisition, we do not focus only on assessing learning immediately after the experience but we extend our attention to knowledge retention over a longer time span. This is a fundamental requirement, because people need to retain safety procedures in order to apply them when faced with danger. A knowledge test administered before, immediately after and one week after the experimental condition showed that the immersive serious game was superior to the safety card. Moreover, subjective as well as physiological measurements employed in the study showed that the immersive serious game was more engaging and fear-arousing than the safety card, a factor that can contribute to explain the obtained superior retention, as we discuss in the paper. PMID:26357103

  3. An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide temperature range.

    PubMed

    Tobo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at temperatures of -25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide temperature range. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at temperatures above -30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire temperature range (about -30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation. PMID:27596247

  4. An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide temperature range

    PubMed Central

    Tobo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at temperatures of −25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide temperature range. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at temperatures above −30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire temperature range (about −30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation. PMID:27596247

  5. Joint Factor Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Ron; And Others

    The organization of cognitive factors in a sample of older adults was investigated by a joint factor analysis of the subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised (WJ-R) and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-Adult (DTLA-A). Two extensive batteries were administered, following R. W. Woodcock's recommendation that in…

  6. Specific food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite. A forced-choice test conducted in various care settings.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Finlayson, Graham S; Oosten, Babette S H; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-07-01

    A poor appetite in older adults is an important determinant of reduced food intake and undernutrition. Food preferences may influence food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite and compare these with preferences of older adults with a good appetite. Older adults (n = 349, aged 65-101 years) in nursing/residential care homes, hospitals or at home receiving home care participated in a computer-based forced-choice food preference assessment. Self-reported appetite in the past week was classified as 'good' or 'poor' using a validated instrument. Food preferences were determined by counting the relative frequency of choices for food images according to 11 dichotomous categories: high/low 1) protein; 2) fat; 3) carbohydrates; 4) fiber; 5) variation; and 6) animal/vegetarian proteins; 7) sweet/savory taste; 8) solid/liquid texture; 9) dairy/non-dairy; with/without 10) sauce or 11) color variation. Specific food preferences in participants with a poor appetite were identified by one-sample t-tests comparing frequencies to the expected value of 48. Preference differences between those with a good and a poor appetite were analyzed using GLM adjusting for confounders. The results showed that older adults with a poor appetite (n = 113; 32.4%) preferred variation (51.6 vs. 48, P < 0.001), color variation (55.9 vs. 48, P < 0.01), non-dairy (53.0 vs. 48, P < 0.001), high-fiber (51.8 vs. 48, P < 0.05), and solid texture (53.5 vs. 48, P < 0.05). Participants with a poor appetite had a higher frequency score for variation than participants with a good appetite (51.6 vs. 48.5, P < 0.001). In conclusion, older adults with a poor appetite may have specific food preferences. Their preference for variation differs from those with a good appetite. These results may be used to develop meals that are preferred by older adults with poor appetite in order to increase food intake and prevent

  7. Cigarette smoking and submaximal exercise test duration in a biracial population of young adults: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Sidney, S; Sternfeld, B; Gidding, S S; Jacobs, D R; Bild, D E; Oberman, A; Haskell, W L; Crow, R S; Gardin, J M

    1993-08-01

    Symptom-limited, graded exercise treadmill testing was performed by 4,968 white and black adults, ages 18-30 yr, during the baseline examination for the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Compared with nonsmokers, the mean exercise test duration of smokers was 29-64 s shorter depending on race/gender group (all P < 0.001), but mean duration to heart rate 130 (beats.min-1) ranged from 20-50 s longer (P < 0.05). In each race/gender group, test duration to heart rates up to 150 was 15-35 s longer (P < 0.05) in smokers than in nonsmokers after adjustment for age, sum of skinfolds, hemoglobin, and physical activity score. The mean maximum heart rate was lower in smokers than in nonsmokers (difference ranging from 6.7 beats.min-1 in white men to 11.2 beats.min-1 lower in black women, P < 0.001), although maximum rating of perceived exertion was nearly identical in smokers and nonsmokers. Chronic smoking appears to blunt the heart rate response to exercise, so that exercise duration to submaximal heart rates is increased even though maximal performance is impaired. This may result from downloading of beta-receptors caused by smoking. Smoking status should be considered in the evaluation of physical fitness data utilizing submaximal test protocols, or else the fitness of smokers relative to nonsmokers is likely to be overestimated. PMID:8371651

  8. Testing reliability and validity of the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) for older adults recruited online.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seon-Yoon; Nahm, Eun-Shim

    2015-04-01

    Currently, vast amounts of health information and health management tools are available to the public online. To maximize the benefits of these e-health technologies, it is important to assess the e-health literacy of individuals. The eHealth Literacy Scale has been used widely in the past several years, but mainly in younger populations. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric aspects of the eHealth Literacy Scale for older adults using a secondary data analysis (N=866; mean age, 62.8±8.5 years). Reliability of the eHealth Literacy Scale was examined by calculating α coefficients and conducting test-retest procedures. Its validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and the hypothesis testing procedure. Findings demonstrated that eHealth Literacy Scale was internally consistent (α=.94) and stable (t244=-1.48, P=.140). The exploratory factor analysis yielded a single factor structure explaining 67.3% of the variance. The hypothesis testing also supported the validity of eHealth Literacy Scale. In recent years, there have been great efforts to use e-health interventions to engage patients in healthcare and to help them manage their own health. Our study suggests that the eHealth Literacy Scale, a short screening tool for e-health literacy, can be successfully used for older adults. PMID:25783223

  9. Testing Reliability and Validity of the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) for Older Adults Recruited Online

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Eun-Shim

    2015-01-01

    Currently, vast amounts of health information and health management tools are available to the public online. To maximize the benefits of these eHealth technologies, it is important to assess the eHealth literacy of individuals. The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) has been used widely in the past several years, but mainly in younger populations. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric aspects of the eHEALS for older adults using a secondary data analysis (N = 866, mean age, 62.8 ± 8.5 years). Reliability of the eHEALS was examined by calculating alpha coefficients and conducting test-retest procedures. Its validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and the hypothesis testing procedure. Findings demonstrated that eHEALS was internally consistent (α = .94) and stable (t [244] = −1.48, p = .140). The exploratory factor analysis yielded a single factor structure explaining 67.3% of the variance. The hypothesis testing also supported the validity of eHEALS. In recent years, there have been great efforts to use eHealth interventions to engage patients in health care and to help them manage their own health. Our study suggests that the eHEALS, a short screening tool for eHealth literacy, can be successfully used for older adults. PMID:25783223

  10. Three-Dimensional User Interfaces for Immersive Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, Andries

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this grant was to experiment with novel user interfaces for immersive Virtual Reality (VR) systems, and thus to advance the state of the art of user interface technology for this domain. Our primary test application was a scientific visualization application for viewing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) datasets. This technology has been transferred to NASA via periodic status reports and papers relating to this grant that have been published in conference proceedings. This final report summarizes the research completed over the past year, and extends last year's final report of the first three years of the grant.

  11. Investigation of electrical noise in selenium-immersed thermistor bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarpley, J. L.; Sarmiento, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    The selenium immersed, thermistor bolometer, IR detector failed due to spurious and escalating electrical noise outburst as a function of time at elevated temperatures during routine ground based testing in a space simulated environment. Spectrographic analysis of failed bolometers revealed selenium pure zones in the insulating selenium arsenic (Se-As) glass film which surrounds the active sintered Mn, Ni, Co oxide flake. The selenium pure film was identified as a potentially serious failure mechanism. Significant changes were instituted in the manufacturing techniques along with more stringent process controls which eliminated the selenium pure film and successfully produced 22study bolometers.

  12. Validation of a refined short-term adult fish reproductive test with improved power for mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) to test complex effluents.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Thijs; Hewitt, L Mark; Munkittrick, Kelly R; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2010-10-01

    Short-term adult fish reproductive tests are widely used to assess the toxicity of chemicals and waste streams. However, these tests often have low power to detect differences in egg production among treatments, due to high variance and small sample sizes, limiting their effectiveness for informing regulatory decisions. A protocol for a fish reproductive test using mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) was refined to increase statistical power. Three studies using the original protocol were compared with three studies using the refined protocol. Tank pre-selection and sample size increased the a priori power from 11.2% to 85.7%. After exposure, average power levels were 62.0%, a more than five-fold increase compared to studies that used the original protocol (power of 15.0%). There was a high level of consistency compared to the original protocol; differences >33% in female and male gonad size and egg production could be detected among treatments. This study demonstrates that a refinement process can address shortcomings in short-term adult fish reproductive protocols, creating a solid foundation for further standardization and possible regulatory use. PMID:20708267

  13. Immersion versus interactivity and analytic field.

    PubMed

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Losing oneself in a story, a film or a picture is nothing but another step in the suspension of disbelief that permits one to become immersed in the 'novel' of reality. It is not by chance that the text-world metaphor informs classical aesthetics that, more than anything else, emphasizes emotional involvement. On the contrary, as in much of modern art, self-reflexivity and metafictional attention to the rhetoric of the real, to the framework, to the conventions and to the processes of meaning production, all involve a disenchanted, detached and sceptic vision--in short, an aesthetics of the text as game. By analogy, any analytic style or model that aims to produce a transformative experience must satisfactorily resolve the conflict between immersion (the analyst's emotional participation and sticking to the dreamlike or fictional climate of the session, dreaming knowing it's a dream) and interactivity (for the most part, interpretation as an anti-immersive device that 'wakes' one from fiction and demystifies consciousness). In analytic field theory the setting can be defined--because of the weight given to performativity of language, to the sensory matrix of the transference and the transparency of the medium--the place where an ideal balance is sought between immersion and interaction. PMID:18405284

  14. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  15. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  16. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  17. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  18. Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

  19. How One Class Experienced Cultural Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allery, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one teacher candidates and faculty from Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC, Belcourt, North Dakota) and Cikana Cankdeska Community College (CCCC, Fort Totten, North Dakota) traveled by train from North Dakota to Minneapolis, Minnesota, for an immersion experience as part of their Human Relations and Multicultural Education. The group…

  20. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  1. Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

  2. Using Immersive Virtual Environments for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R.; Cruz-Neira, C.

    1998-01-01

    Immersive virtual environments (VEs) technology has matured to the point where it can be utilized as a scientific and engineering problem solving tool. In particular, VEs are starting to be used to design and evaluate safety-critical systems that involve human operators, such as flight and driving simulators, complex machinery training, and emergency rescue strategies.

  3. Language and Culture Immersion: A Winning Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Raymond

    A second language program developed at Wilson College (Chambersburg, Pennsylvania) with a federal grant uses the Rassias Method of theatrical, dramatic language saturation. In the first application of the program at the college, peer tutors (who would be assistant teachers in the subsequent immersion program) were trained in a three-day workshop.…

  4. Learning in an immersive digital theater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.; Weber, W.

    2008-12-01

    The Houston Museum of Natural Science, in collaboration with Rice University has an outreach program taking portable digital theaters to schools and community sites for over five years and has conducted research on student learning in this immersive environment. By using an external independent evaluator, the effectiveness of NASA-funded Education and Public Outreach (EPO) projects can be assessed. This paper documents interactive techniques and learning strategies in full-dome digital theaters. The presentation is divided into Evaluation Strategies and Results and Interactivity Strategies and Results. All learners from grades 3-12 showed statistically significant short-term increase in knowledge of basic Earth science concepts after a single 22-min show. Improvements were more significant on items that were taught using more than one modality of instruction: hearing, seeing, discussion, and immersion. Thus immersive theater can be an effective as well as engaging teaching method for Earth and Space science concepts, particularly those that are intrinsically three-dimensional and thus most effectively taught in an immersive environment. The portable system allows taking the educational experience to rural and tribal sites where the underserved students could not afford the time or expense to travel to museums.

  5. Immersion Teachers' Perceptions of Learning Strategies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Capital Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.

    Researchers worked with French, Japanese, and Spanish immersion teachers in metropolitan Washington, DC elementary schools (grades 1-6) to implement language learning strategies in their classrooms. Workshops, materials, and observations were provided for professional support. Teachers were debriefed on the effectiveness of the teacher training…

  6. Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

  7. Immersion Calorimetry: Molecular Packing Effects in Micropores.

    PubMed

    Madani, S Hadi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana; Biggs, Mark J; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Pendleton, Phillip

    2015-12-21

    Repeated and controlled immersion calorimetry experiments were performed to determine the specific surface area and pore-size distribution (PSD) of a well-characterized, microporous poly(furfuryl alcohol)-based activated carbon. The PSD derived from nitrogen gas adsorption indicated a narrow distribution centered at 0.57±0.05 nm. Immersion into liquids of increasing molecular sizes ranging from 0.33 nm (dichloromethane) to 0.70 nm (α-pinene) showed a decreasing enthalpy of immersion at a critical probe size (0.43-0.48 nm), followed by an increase at 0.48-0.56 nm, and a second decrease at 0.56-0.60 nm. This maximum has not been reported previously. After consideration of possible reasons for this new observation, it is concluded that the effect arises from molecular packing inside the micropores, interpreted in terms of 2D packing. The immersion enthalpy PSD was consistent with that from quenched solid density functional theory (QSDFT) analysis of the nitrogen adsorption isotherm. PMID:26394883

  8. Beyond Language in Indigenous Language Immersion Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stairs, Arlene; Peters, Margaret; Perkins, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The Akwesasne Freedom School, on the Akwesasne Mohawk reservation (New York and Canada), is an independent immersion school that preserves not only the Mohawk language but also socialization patterns, styles of interpersonal relations, ethical principles, and aesthetic sensibilities. The curriculum is based on the Iroquoian Thanksgiving Address,…

  9. Early Predictors of Biliteracy Development in Children in French Immersion: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2011-01-01

    English language predictors of English and French reading development were investigated in a group of 140 children who were enrolled in French immersion programs. Children were first tested in kindergarten, and their reading achievement was tested yearly in both English and French from Grades 1 to 3, with word-level and passage-level measures that…

  10. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J.

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  11. IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF INHIBIN/ACTIVIN SUBUNITS AND STEROIDOGENIC ENZYMES IN THE TESTES OF AN ADULT AFRICAN ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA).

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglin; Lu, Lu; Weng, Qiang; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Saito, Eriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    In this case report, the authors investigated immunolocalization of inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits, as well as steroidogenic enzymes, in the testes of an African elephant. Testes were collected from a reproductively active male African elephant (24 yr old) at autopsy. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature-phase spermatozoa were found in the seminiferous tubules. Positive immunostaining for inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits was observed in Sertoli and Leydig cells. In addition, P450scc, 3βHSD, P450c17, and P450arom were also detected in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. These results suggested that Leydig cells of adult African elephant testes have the ability to synthesize progestin, androgen, and estrogen, whereas both Sertoli and Leydig cells appear as a major source of inhibin secretion in the male African elephant. PMID:27468011

  12. Sensory consonance and the perceptual similarity of complex-tone harmonic intervals: tests of adult and infant listeners.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E G; Trainor, L J

    1996-11-01

    Two experiments examined the influence of sensory consonance on the perceptual similarity of simultaneous pairs of complex tones (harmonic intervals). In experiment 1, adults heard a sequence of five consonant intervals (each a perfect fifth, or 7 semitones) and judged whether a subsequently presented test interval was a member of the sequence. Discrimination performance was better when the test interval was dissonant (tritone, 6 semitones) rather than consonant (perfect fourth, 5 semitones), despite the fact that the change in interval width was twice as great for the consonant than for the dissonant comparison. In experiment 2, 7-month-old infants were tested with an operant headturn procedure in a similar design and exhibited an identical pattern of responding. Hence, for both age groups, consonance was more important than interval width in determining the perceived similarity of harmonic intervals. PMID:8914313

  13. Hydrodynamic ram modeling with the immersed boundary method

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.W.; Kashiwa, B.A.; Rauenzahn, R.M.

    1998-03-01

    The authors have modeled a hydrodynamic ram experiment conducted at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. In the experiment, a projectile traveling at 200 ft/sec impacted and penetrated a simulated airplane wing containing water. The structure consisted of composite panels with stiffeners and rivets, and an aluminum panel. The test included instrumentation to measure strains, accelerations, and pressures. The technique used for modeling this experiment was a multifluid compressible finite volume approach. The solid fields, namely the projectile and the plates which comprised the structure, were represented by a set of discrete, Lagrangian-frame, mass points. These mass points were followed throughout the computation. The contribution of the stress state at each mass point was applied on the grid to determine the stress divergence contribution to the equations of motion and resulting grid based accelerations. This approach has been defined as the immersed boundary method. The immersed boundary method allows the modeling of fluid-structure interaction problems involving material failure. The authors implemented a plate theory to allow the representation of each plate by a surface of mass points. This theory includes bending terms and transverse shear. Arbitrary constitutive models may be used for each plate. Here they describe the immersed boundary method as they have implemented. They then describe the plate theory and its implementation. They discuss the hydrodynamic ram experiment and describe how they modeled it. They compare computed results with test data. They finally conclude with a discussion of benefits and difficulties associated with this modeling approach and possible improvement to it.

  14. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  15. The effect of repeated mild cold water immersions on the adaptation of the vasomotor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Kuroki, Hideto; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    There are several types of cold adaptation based on the alteration of thermoregulatory response. It has been thought that the temperature of repeated cold exposures during the adaptation period is one of the factors affecting the type of cold adaptation developed. This study tested the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersions would induce an insulative cold adaptation but would not alter the metabolic response. Seven healthy male participants were immersed to their xiphoid process level repeatedly in 26°C water for 60 min, 3 days every week, for 4 weeks. During the first and last exposure of this cold acclimation period, the participants underwent body immersion tests measuring their thermoregulatory responses to cold. Separately, they conducted finger immersion into 5°C water for 30 min to assess their cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) response before and after cold acclimation. During the immersion to xiphoid process, participants showed significantly lower mean skin temperature and skin blood flow in the forearm post-acclimation, while no adaptation was observed in the metabolic response. Additionally, blunted CIVD responses were observed after cold acclimation. From these results, it was considered that the participants showed an insulative-type of cold acclimation after the repeated mild cold immersions. The major finding of this study was the acceptance of the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersion was sufficient to induce insulative cold adaptation but did not alter the metabolic response. It is suggested that the adaptation in the thermoregulatory response is specific to the response which is repeatedly stimulated during the adaptation process.

  16. Do Different Tests of Episodic Memory Produce Consistent Results in Human Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    A number of different philosophical, theoretical, and empirical perspectives on episodic memory have led to the development of very different tests with which to assess it. Although these tests putatively assess the same psychological capacity, they have rarely been directly compared. Here, a sample of undergraduates was tested on three different…

  17. The Use of Psychological Tests in Predicting Vocational Success of Disadvantaged Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Charlton S.

    A study of the relationship between certain test scores and probable training and vocational success was made. Examined were three major training areas: power sewing machine, nurse aide, and clerical office work. Six tests were tested for their ability to predict success: the WAIS Revised Beta; Purdue Pegboard; English, California Surveys of…

  18. Testing and Accountability in Adult Literacy Education: Focus on Workplace Literacy Resources for Program Design, Assessment, Testing, & Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.

    This report provides information on design and evaluation of workplace literacy programs (WLPs) to improve work force readiness and an overview of concepts about the nature, uses, and abuses of standardized tests in program evaluation and accountability. Chapter 1 takes a sociohistorical and sociopolitical perspective in discussing the knowledge…

  19. Composite resin color stability: influence of light sources and immersion media

    PubMed Central

    DOMINGOS, Patricia Aleixo dos Santos; GARCIA, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso; de OLIVEIRA, Ana Luisa Botta Martins; PALMA-DIBB, Regina Guenka

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the influence of light sources and immersion media on the color stability of a nanofilled composite resin. Material and Methods Conventional halogen, high-power-density halogen and high-power-density light-emitting diode (LED) units were used. There were 4 immersion media: coffee, tea, Coke® and artificial saliva. A total of 180 specimens (10 mm x 2 mm) were prepared, immersed in artificial saliva for 24 h at 37±1ºC, and had their initial color measured with a spectrophotometer according to the CIELab system. Then, the specimens were immersed in the 4 media during 60 days. Data from the color change and luminosity were collected and subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskall-Wallis test (p<0.05). For immersion time, the data were subjected to two-way ANOVA test and Fisher's test (p<0.05). Results High-power-density LED (∆E=1.91) promoted similar color stability of the composite resin to that of the tested halogen curing units (Jet Lite 4000 plus - ∆E=2.05; XL 3000 - ∆E=2.28). Coffee (∆E=8.40; ∆L=-5.21) showed the highest influence on color stability of the studied composite resin. Conclusion There was no significant difference in color stability regardless of the light sources, and coffee was the immersion medium that promoted the highest color changes on the tested composite resin. PMID:21625734

  20. Perceived Impact of Two-Way Dual Immersion Programs on Latino Students' Relationships in Their Families and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how participation of Latino students in two-way dual immersion versus mainstream programs might have impacted students' relationships with Spanish-speaking adults, thus affecting contexts for students to develop resiliency. Participants were parents of 90 fifth- and sixth-grade students (initially English proficient [EP] as…

  1. Visual scoring of non-cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries active adults

    PubMed Central

    Brown, JP; Amaechi, BT; Bader, JD; Gilbert, GH; Makhija, SK; Lozano-Pineda, J; Leo, MC; Chuhe, C; Vollmer, WM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults, and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency. Methods As part of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), non-cavitated and cavitated caries lesions were assessed in subjects who were experiencing the disease. The trial was a test of the effectiveness of 5 grams/day of xylitol, consumed by dissolving in the mouth five 1 gram lozenges spaced across each day, compared with a sucralose placebo. For this analysis, seeking trial efficiency, 538 subjects aged 21–80, with complete data for four dental examinations were selected from the 691 randomized into the three year trial, conducted at three sites. Acceptable inter and intra examiner reliability before and during the trial was quantified using the kappa statistic. Results The mean annualized non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion transition scores in coronal and root surfaces, from sound to carious favoured xylitol over placebo, during the three cumulative periods of 12, 24, and 33 months, but these clinically and statistically non-significant differences declined in magnitude over time. Restricting the present assessment to those subjects with a higher baseline lifetime caries experience showed possible but inconsistent benefit. Conclusions There was no clear and clinically relevant preventive effect of xylitol on caries in adults with adequate fluoride exposure when non-cavitated plus cavitated lesions were assessed. This conformed to the X-ACT trial result assessing cavitated lesions. Including non-cavitated lesion assessment in this full scale, placebo controlled, multi site, randomized, double blinded clinical trial in adults experiencing dental caries, did not achieve added trial efficiency or demonstrate practical benefit of xylitol. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:24205951

  2. Testing the efficacy of the theory of planned behavior to explain strength training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dean, Rachel N; Farrell, Jocelyn M; Kelley, Mary Lou; Taylor, M Jane; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the constructs of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to gain a better understanding of the factors influencing older adults' participation in strength training. Two hundred men and women age 55 years and older were purposely sampled from seniors' centers in Ontario Canada. Participants completed a TPB questionnaire and reported their current physical activity participation. It was hypothesized that perceived behavioral control followed by attitude would be the strongest determinants of strength-training intentions and that intention would be the strongest determinant of strength-training behavior. Regression analyses revealed that subjective norm and perceived behavioral control explained 42% of the variance in intention and intention explained 40% of the variance in behavior. Gender and current strength-training participation did not significantly moderate the relationship between the TPB variables. The results suggest that interventions targeting subjective norm and perceived control might be helpful in promoting strength-training behavior among older adults. PMID:17387225

  3. Genetic basis of adult migration timing in anadromous steelhead discovered through multivariate association testing.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jon E; Zendt, Joseph S; Matala, Amanda R; Narum, Shawn R

    2016-05-11

    Migration traits are presumed to be complex and to involve interaction among multiple genes. We used both univariate analyses and a multivariate random forest (RF) machine learning algorithm to conduct association mapping of 15 239 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for adult migration-timing phenotype in steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Our study focused on a model natural population of steelhead that exhibits two distinct migration-timing life histories with high levels of admixture in nature. Neutral divergence was limited between fish exhibiting summer- and winter-run migration owing to high levels of interbreeding, but a univariate mixed linear model found three SNPs from a major effect gene to be significantly associated with migration timing (p < 0.000005) that explained 46% of trait variation. Alignment to the annotated Salmo salar genome provided evidence that all three SNPs localize within a 46 kb region overlapping GREB1-like (an oestrogen target gene) on chromosome Ssa03. Additionally, multivariate analyses with RF identified that these three SNPs plus 15 additional SNPs explained up to 60% of trait variation. These candidate SNPs may provide the ability to predict adult migration timing of steelhead to facilitate conservation management of this species, and this study demonstrates the benefit of multivariate analyses for association studies. PMID:27170720

  4. Modeling viscoelastic networks and cell deformation in the context of the immersed boundary method

    SciTech Connect

    Bottino, D.C.

    1998-11-20

    The author presents a straightforward numerical technique for modeling passive viscoelastic networks, such as the actin cytoskeleton of ameboid cells, in the context of the immersed boundary method. The technique involves modeling the cytoskeletal material as a network of dynamic elastic links immersed in the ambient cytosol. Linking rules of varying complexity allow the numerical network to exhibit varying degrees of viscosity, elasticity, shear thinning, and thixotropy (stress-overshoot). A series of simulated viscometer tests are used to analyze the mechanical properties of the model networks and the effects of input parameters on these properties. The numerical network is then used in the context of a full-cell model involving simulated micropipette aspiration. These micropipette aspiration tests indicate that the immersed boundary method--with the added enhancement of the viscoelastic network model presented here--can be developed into a versatile tool for studying the free-boundary deformations of passively stressed and actively moving ameboid cells.

  5. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOEpatents

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  6. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  7. 46 CFR 108.649 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys. 108.649... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.649 Lifejackets, immersion... with the appropriate symbol from IMO Resolution A.760(18). (c) Each immersion suit or...

  8. Two-Way Immersion: A Key to Global Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of two-way immersion education to provide students with opportunities to understand and appreciate other countries and cultures. The main features of two-way immersion education are bilingual language instruction, cross-cultural understanding, and international exchanges. Includes case study of two-way immersion at the Alicia…

  9. Immersive Training Systems: Virtual Reality and Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psotka, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Describes virtual reality (VR) technology and VR research on education and training. Focuses on immersion as the key added value of VR, analyzes cognitive variables connected to immersion, how it is generated in synthetic environments and its benefits. Discusses value of tracked, immersive visual displays over nonimmersive simulations. Contains 78…

  10. Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Siv; Mård-Miettinen, Karita; Savijärvi, Marjo

    2014-01-01

    Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first…

  11. French Immersion in Canada: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obadia, Andre A.

    This brochure, intended for the parents of current and prospective French immersion students, answers commonly-asked questions about immersion education, including who should participate, how good the child's French will be, whether immersion students are likely to lose ground in English or academic subjects, how parents can provide support at…

  12. 7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305.22... Hot water immersion treatment schedules. (a) T102-d. (1) Fruit must be grown and treated in Hawaii. (2) Fruit must be submerged at least 4 inches below the water's surface in a hot water immersion...

  13. Life in Language Immersion Classrooms. Multilingual Matters 86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Elizabeth B., Ed.

    In contrast to other volumes on language immersion programs that have discussed language outcomes, this book focuses on how teachers and school administrators implement and carry on the daily operations of immersion schooling. It chronicles a 2-year research project that involved the staff and principals of two immersion schools in the midwest, in…

  14. The Flostation - an Immersive Cyberspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A flostation is a computer-controlled apparatus that, along with one or more computer(s) and other computer-controlled equipment, is part of an immersive cyberspace system. The system is said to be immersive in two senses of the word: (1) It supports the body in a modified form neutral posture experienced in zero gravity and (2) it is equipped with computer-controlled display equipment that helps to give the occupant of the chair a feeling of immersion in an environment that the system is designed to simulate. Neutral immersion was conceived during the Gemini program as a means of training astronauts for working in a zerogravity environment. Current derivatives include neutral-buoyancy tanks and the KC-135 airplane, each of which mimics the effects of zero gravity. While these have performed well in simulating the shorter-duration flights typical of the space program to date, a training device that can take astronauts to the next level will be needed for simulating longer-duration flights such as that of the International Space Station. The flostation is expected to satisfy this need. The flostation could also be adapted and replicated for use in commercial ventures ranging from home entertainment to medical treatment. The use of neutral immersion in the flostation enables the occupant to recline in an optimal posture of rest and meditation. This posture, combines savasana (known to practitioners of yoga) and a modified form of the neutral posture assumed by astronauts in outer space. As the occupant relaxes, awareness of the physical body is reduced. The neutral body posture, which can be maintained for hours without discomfort, is extended to the eyes, ears, and hands. The occupant can be surrounded with a full-field-of-view visual display and nearphone sound, and can be stimulated with full-body vibration and motion cueing. Once fully immersed, the occupant can use neutral hand controllers (that is, hand-posture sensors) to control various aspects of the

  15. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  16. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery. PMID:25882162

  17. Simulation of Physical Experiments in Immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Wasfy, Tamer M.

    2001-01-01

    An object-oriented event-driven immersive Virtual environment is described for the creation of virtual labs (VLs) for simulating physical experiments. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects of the VLs, including interface devices, software objects, and various applications. The VLs interface with output devices, including immersive stereoscopic screed(s) and stereo speakers; and a variety of input devices, including body tracking (head and hands), haptic gloves, wand, joystick, mouse, microphone, and keyboard. The VL incorporates the following types of primitive software objects: interface objects, support objects, geometric entities, and finite elements. Each object encapsulates a set of properties, methods, and events that define its behavior, appearance, and functions. A container object allows grouping of several objects. Applications of the VLs include viewing the results of the physical experiment, viewing a computer simulation of the physical experiment, simulation of the experiments procedure, computational steering, and remote control of the physical experiment. In addition, the VL can be used as a risk-free (safe) environment for training. The implementation of virtual structures testing machines, virtual wind tunnels, and a virtual acoustic testing facility is described.

  18. Authentic Research Immersion Experiences: the Key to Enduring Understandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Do authentic research experiences have a role in today's classrooms? Where do they fit into the constrained curriculum units and high-stakes testing regimen that define a teacher's world? It is possible, even in today's somewhat narrow teaching environment, to integrate authentic research into the classroom and evolve away from the worksheets and lessons that simply "teach to the test"? Authentic research immersion experiences must be carefully packaged the for classroom use with clear alignment to standards and a learning curve that is not too daunting. By helping teachers to see the value in replacing curricular units with authentic research experiences and designing the research program to fit within a teacher's needs, the rate of successful adoption of the research program becomes much higher. As a result, not only do their students reap the educational rewards of becoming active research participants in the process of science and learn it from the inside out, but the opportunity for the teachers to grow professionally in content and science process knowledge is also an additional benefit. NASA has had and continues to have a significant role in providing these data and mission- related immersion experiences for elementary classrooms through graduate school students.

  19. Why take an HIV test? Concerns, benefits, and strategies to promote HIV testing among low-income heterosexual African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Scyatta A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J; Townsend, Tiffany G; Miller, Kim S

    2011-10-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data analysis was completed using AnSWR software. Many participants expressed that learning one's HIV status, regardless of the result, was a benefit of taking an HIV test because this was perceived to produce emotional relief. Additional benefits included the avoidance of unknowingly spreading the virus, being offered treatment access if HIV-positive, and taking time to assess and modify risky sexual behaviors if HIV-negative. If diagnosed HIV-positive, HIV testing concerns included the recognition of one's mortality, the experience of social stigma, and concerns about accessing affordable treatment. Recommended promotion strategies included the use of HIV-positive individuals, pop culture icons, and the media to promote HIV testing messages. PMID:21464204

  20. Immersed boundary method for the MHD flows of liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriadis, D. G. E.; Kassinos, S. C.; Votyakov, E. V.

    2009-02-01

    Wall-bounded magnetohydrodynamic (MHD hereafter) flows are of great theoretical and practical interest. Even for laminar cases, MHD simulations are associated with very high computational cost due to the resolution requirements for the Hartmann and side layers developing in the presence of solid obstacles. In the presence of turbulence, these difficulties are further compounded. Thus, MHD simulations in complex geometries are currently a challenge. The immersed boundary (IB hereafter) method is a reliable numerical tool for efficient hydrodynamic field simulations in arbitrarily geometries, but it has not yet been extended for MHD simulations. The present study forms the first attempt to apply the IB methodology for the computation of both the hydrodynamic and MHD fields. A consistent numerical methodology is presented that is appropriate for efficient 3D MHD simulations in geometrically complicated domains using cartesian flow solvers. For that purpose, a projection scheme for the electric current density is presented, based on an electric potential correction algorithm. A suitable forcing scheme for electric density currents in the vicinity of non-conducting immersed surfaces is also proposed. The proposed methodology has been first extensively tested for Hartmann layers in fully-developed and developing channel and duct flows at Hartmann numbers Ha=500-2000. In order to demonstrate the potential of the method, the three-dimensional MHD flow around a circular cylinder at Reynolds number Re=200 is also presented. The effects of grid resolution and variable arrangement on the simulation accuracy and consistency were examined. When compared with existing numerical or analytic solutions, excellent agreement was found for all the cases considered. The proposed projection and forcing schemes for current densities were found capable of satisfying the charge conservation law in the presence of immersed non-conducting boundaries. Finally, we show how the proposed

  1. Adult Learners: Relationships of Reading, MCAT, and USMLE Step 1 Test Results for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haught, Patricia A.; Walls, Richard T.

    This study examined the possible relationship between scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (current forms G and H) and performance on the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 examination scores. Participants were 730 medical students at a mid-Atlantic university, and for 572…

  2. Difference in Standard Scores of Adults on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Revised and Third Edition)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankratz, Mary; Morrison, Andrea; Plante, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Differences in the standard scores for the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R; L. M. Dunn & L. M. Dunn, 1981) and the PPVT-Third Edition (PPVT-III; Dunn & Dunn, 1997b) are known to exist for children, with typically higher scores occurring on the PPVT-III. However, these tests are administered into adulthood as well, and score…

  3. A Psychometric Measurement Model for Adult English Language Learners: Pearson Test of English Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply Rasch modeling to an examination of the psychometric properties of the "Pearson Test of English Academic" (PTE Academic). Analyzed were 140 test-takers' scores derived from the PTE Academic database. The mean age of the participants was 26.45 (SD = 5.82), ranging from 17 to 46. Conformity of the participants'…

  4. Clinical Applications of Continuous Performance Tests: Measuring Attention and Impulsive Responding in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Lowe, Patricia A.

    This handbook examines the similarities and differences in continuous performance test (CPT) techniques and their research literature, with thorough reviews of the four major CPTs in use today and overviews of their applications. The chapters are: (1) "Neurobiology of Attention and Executive Control"; (2) "Continuous Performance Test Paradigms and…

  5. The 14-day repeated dose liver micronucleus test with methapyrilene hydrochloride using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenji; Ochi, Akimu; Koda, Akira; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Doi, Takaaki

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that can be integrated into a general toxicity study. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by 19 Japanese facilities. Methapyrilene hydrochloride (MP), known to be a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was examined in the present study. MP was dosed orally at 10, 30 and 100mg/kg/day to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats daily for 14 days. Treatment with MP resulted in an increase in micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) with a dosage of only 100mg/kg/day. At this dose level, cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell growth was noted in the liver. These findings suggest that MP may induce clastogenic effects indirectly on the liver or hepatotoxicity of MP followed by regeneration may cause increase in spontaneous incidence of MNHEPs. PMID:24768639

  6. Testing a Family-centered Intervention to Promote Functional and Cognitive Recovery in Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2016-01-01

    A comparative trial using repeated measures design evaluated the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-centered Function-focused Care (Fam-FFC) intervention intended to promote functional recovery in the hospitalized older adult. A three component intervention (1) environmental assessment/ modification, 2) staff education, 3) family/patient education and partnership in care planning with post-acute follow-up) was implemented by a family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion. Control units were exposed to function-focused care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients age 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. The majority of patients were female (53%); white (89%), married (51%) or widowed (40%), with a mean age of 80.8 (± 7.5). The majority of FCGs were married (78%) daughters (34%), followed by female spouses/partners (31%), in the age range of 46–65 (38%). Outcomes for patients included: functional outcomes (ADL and walking performance, gait, balance), and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and duration of delirium, and better ADL and walking performance, but not gait/balance as compared to the control group. FCG who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving, less anxiety and less depression from admission to two months post-discharge, but no significant differences in strain and mutuality, as compared to FCG in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and family caregivers. PMID:25481973

  7. An Immersive VR System for Sports Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

    The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

  8. Immersed Boundary Simulations of Active Fluid Droplets.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Carl A; Hawkins, Rhoda J

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of active fluid droplets immersed in an external fluid in 2-dimensions using an Immersed Boundary method to simulate the fluid droplet interface as a Lagrangian mesh. We present results from two example systems, firstly an active isotropic fluid boundary consisting of particles that can bind and unbind from the interface and generate surface tension gradients through active contractility. Secondly, a droplet filled with an active polar fluid with homeotropic anchoring at the droplet interface. These two systems demonstrate spontaneous symmetry breaking and steady state dynamics resembling cell motility and division and show complex feedback mechanisms with minimal degrees of freedom. The simulations outlined here will be useful for quantifying the wide range of dynamics observable in these active systems and modelling the effects of confinement in a consistent and adaptable way. PMID:27606609

  9. Immersion in water in labour and birth

    PubMed Central

    Cluett, Elizabeth R; Burns, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    Background Enthusiasts suggest that labouring in water and waterbirth increase maternal relaxation, reduce analgesia requirements and promote a midwifery model of care. Critics cite the risk of neonatal water inhalation and maternal/neonatal infection. Objectives To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials about immersion in water during labour and waterbirth on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing immersion in any bath tub/pool with no immersion, or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management during labour and/or birth, in women during labour who were considered to be at low risk of complications, as defined by the researchers. Data collection and analysis We assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data independently. One review author entered data and the other checked for accuracy. Main results This review includes 12 trials (3243 women): eight related to just the first stage of labour: one to early versus late immersion in the first stage of labour; two to the first and second stages; and another to the second stage only. We identified no trials evaluating different baths/pools, or the management of third stage of labour. Results for the first stage of labour showed there was a significant reduction in the epidural/spinal/paracervical analgesia/anaesthesia rate amongst women allocated to water immersion compared to controls (478/1254 versus 529/1245; risk ratio (RR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.99, six trials). There was also a reduction in duration of the first stage of labour (mean difference −32.4 minutes; 95% CI −58.7 to −6.13). There was no difference in assisted vaginal deliveries (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, seven trials), caesarean sections (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.68, eight

  10. The effect of immersion time on burying depth of the bivalve Macoma balthica (Tellinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goeij, Petra; Honkoop, Pieter J. C.

    2002-03-01

    As a characteristic buried tellinid bivalve, Macoma balthica has a long inhalent siphon that enables it to feed in two different ways: deposit and suspension feeding. To deposit feed efficiently on benthic microalgae, Macoma has to live close to the sediment surface, where it can graze an extensive surface area, but is within reach of many predators. Individuals that are more safely buried at a greater depth can only suspension feed, or deposit feed from a small surface area. We expected local differences in burying depth on intertidal mudflats to be caused by differences in immersion time (i.e. time available for feeding, particularly suspension feeding), since immersion time has been shown experimentally to affect body condition positively, and since body condition and burying depth in Macoma are postively related in the field. To test this we experimentally manipulated immersion time, and followed changes in burying depth and body condition. In the experiments, longer immersion time went consistently with greater burying depth of Macoma and higher body condition. On a transect in the western Wadden Sea, the deepest Macoma were indeed found at the intertidal level with the longest immersion time, but these were at that time not the animals with the highest body condition. Within each locality, however, body condition was positively correlated with burying depth. The experimental data and the within-locality data support the hypothesis that longer immersion time may influence burying depth through body condition. However, the fact that between-locality differences in burying depth seemed to be consistently related to immersion time, but not to body condition, indicates that body condition alone does not explain place-to-place variation in burying depth.

  11. When to Tell and Test for Genetic Carrier Status: Perspectives of Adolescents and Young Adults from Fragile X Families

    PubMed Central

    Wehbe, Ramsey M.; Spiridigliozzi, Gail A.; Melvin, Elizabeth; Dawson, Deborah V.; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn

    2009-01-01

    We report here our findings from adolescent and young adult females (ages 14–25) with a family history of fragile X syndrome regarding their perceptions of the optimal ages for 1) learning fragile X is inherited, 2) learning one could be a carrier for fragile X, and 3) offering carrier testing for fragile X. Three groups were enrolled: those who knew they were carriers or noncarriers and those who knew only they were at-risk to be a carrier. Only two of the 53 participants felt that offering carrier testing should be delayed until the age of 18 years. Participants who knew only that they were at-risk to be a carrier provided older optimal ages for offering carrier testing than those who knew their actual carrier status. Participants did not express regret or negative emotions about the timing of the disclosure of genetic risk information regarding their own experiences. Participants’ reasoning behind reported ages for informing about genetic risk and offering carrier testing varied depending on what type of information was being disclosed, which carrier status group the participant belonged to, and the preferred age for learning the information. Study findings suggest that decisions regarding the timing to inform about genetic risk and offer testing should be tailored to the individual needs of the child and his/her family. PMID:19449413

  12. Liquid immersion apparatus for minute articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. G., Jr.; Hollis, B. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for immersing minute integrated circuit chips in an etching solution in manufacturing integrated circuits during research and development. The apparatus includes a holder, having a handle and basket support for carrying a removable unitary basket and lid structure where fluid flow-through passages are formed, and wherein graduated openings in the handle provide for adjustably supporting the basket in a breaker at a desired level.

  13. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition. PMID:26224273

  14. Immersion pulmonary oedema and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Andrew; Edmonds, Carl

    2015-12-01

    A 67-year-old female scuba diver developed a typical immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE), but investigations strongly indicated Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC). The cardiac abnormalities included increased cardiac enzymes, electrocardiographic anomalies and echocardiographic changes, all reverting to normal within days. This case demonstrates a similarity and association between IPE and TC, and the importance of prompt cardiac investigations both in the investigation of IPE and in making the diagnosis of TC. PMID:26687314

  15. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  16. Comparison of the microhardness of primary and permanent teeth after immersion in two types of carbonated beverages

    PubMed Central

    Haghgou, Hamid R.; Haghgoo, Roza; Asdollah, Fatemah Molla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The consumption of carbonated beverages is one of the etiological factors that cause dental erosion. The purpose of this research was to compare changes in the microhardness of permanent and primary teeth after immersion in two types of carbonated beverages. Materials and Methods: This investigation was done on 30 healthy permanent molars and 30 healthy primary canines. Each group of primary and permanent teeth was subdivided into three groups of 10 teeth. The teeth was immersed in 40 ml of each of the three beverages for 5 min. One subgroup was immersed in water (as a control). The next was immersed in Lemon Delster and the last subgroup was immersed in Coca-Cola. The microhardness of enamel was measured using the Vickers method before and after immersion. Finally, the data was analyzed by paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and t-test. Results: Microhardness reduction in the primary teeth was significant in both the Lemon Delster and Coca-Cola groups (P < 0.05). This reduction was also statistically significant in the permanent teeth (P < 0.05). A comparison of the enamel changes in the primary teeth with permanent teeth after immersion in both beverages showed a greater microhardness reduction in the primary teeth in both the experimental groups. Conclusions: Coca-Cola and Lemon Delster caused a significant reduction of microhardness in tooth enamel. This reduction was greater in primary teeth than in permanent teeth, and was also greater after immersion in Coca-Cola than after immersion in Lemon Delster. PMID:27583223

  17. Testing the effects of a pharmaceutical program on fall rates in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zanetos, Joanne Marie; Lux, Kathleen Mary; Richardson, Luann G

    2014-01-01

    A pretest-posttest no control group design was used to test knowledge on fall incidence in residents of a rehabilitation center. Twenty-six staff nurses were educated on fundamental geriatric pharmacology. Results of a two-tailed t test showed a significant increase in posttest scores (t test(50) = 3.53, p = .003). Retrospective fall and medication data collected over 2 months in 2011 and 2 months in 2012 were compared. The incidence of falls decreased (44.7%) with total number of residents falling (30.7%) post intervention in 2012. Staff nurses need to have continuing pharmaceutical education and medication management classes about the elderly. PMID:24845093

  18. Development of cleaning process for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching Yu; Yu, D. C.; Lin, John C.; Lin, Burn J.

    2006-03-01

    In immersion lithography, DI water fills the space between the resist surface and the last lens element. However water is also a good solvent for most of the leaching compounds from resists. The leaching materials from the resist and the original impurities in the water from pipelines pose a significant risk on bottom lens deterioration, wafer surface particles, and facility contamination. If the bottom lens surface deteriorates, it can cause flare and reduce transparency. Particles on the wafer surface can degrade image formation. In addition to contaminating the facility, the impurity inside the water can cause stains or defects after the water is evaporated from the wafer surface. In order to reduce the impact of such contamination, we have evaluated many chemicals for removing organic contamination as well as particles. We have collected and characterized immersion-induced particles from cleaning studies on bare silicon wafers. We have also used oxide wafers to simulate the lens damage caused by the cleaning chemicals. In case, a mega sonic power is not suitable for scanners last lens element in production FABs, the emulsion concept has also been adopted to remove the lens organic contaminants. We have studied many chemical and mechanical methods for tool cleaning, and identified those that possess good organic solubility and particle removal efficiency. These cleaning methods will be used in periodic maintenance procedures to ensure freedom from defects in immersion lithography.

  19. Respiratory drive during sudden cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Mekjavić, I B; La Prairie, A; Burke, W; Lindborg, B

    1987-10-01

    Sudden decreases in cutaneous temperature induce an immediate ventilatory response, which has been termed the inspiratory or 'gasp' reflex. This respiratory response has been implicated as a contributing factor to cold water immersion drowning. In the present study, five subjects wearing either shorts or a variety of thermal protective apparel were immersed on separate occasions in 10 degrees C water. The observed peak mean skin temperature cooling rates (dTs/dt) for the different conditions varied from 6.9 +/- 2.1 degrees C/min for the shorts condition to 1.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C/min for a helicopter pilot suit made of cotton ventile material. During the immersion, recordings were made of respiratory drive, as indicated by the mouth occlusion pressure at 100 msec following the onset of inspiration (P0.1). The respiratory drive, an indicator of central inspiratory activity, correlated well with peak dTs/dt. The slope P0.1/(dTs/dt) was subject dependent and did not appear to be related to body composition. The substantial intersubject variability in the respiratory response is suggested to result from differences in the central integration of thermoafferent information. It is concluded that the inspiratory reflex is the result of cutaneous thermoreceptor activity. PMID:3659607

  20. Surface properties of multilayered, acrylic resin artificial teeth after immersion in staining beverages

    PubMed Central

    NEPPELENBROEK, Karin Hermana; KUROISHI, Eduardo; HOTTA, Juliana; MARQUES, Vinicius Rizzo; MOFFA, Eduardo Buozi; SOARES, Simone; URBAN, Vanessa Migliorini

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of staining beverages (coffee, orange juice, and red wine) on the Vickers hardness and surface roughness of the base (BL) and enamel (EL) layers of improved artificial teeth (Vivodent and Trilux). Material and Methods Specimens (n=8) were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then submitted to the tests. Afterwards, specimens were immersed in one of the staining solutions or distilled water (control) at 37°C, and the tests were also performed after 15 and 30 days of immersion. Data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results Vivodent teeth exhibited a continuous decrease (p<0.0005) in hardness of both layers for up to 30 days of immersion in all solutions. For Trilux teeth, similar results were found for the EL (p<0.004), and the BL showed a decrease in hardness after 15 days of immersion (p<0.01). At the end of 30 days, this reduction was not observed for coffee and water (p>0.15), but red wine and orange juice continuously reduced hardness values (p<0.0004). Red wine caused the most significant hardness changes, followed by orange juice, coffee, and water (p<0.006). No significant differences in roughness were observed for both layers of the teeth during the immersion period, despite the beverage (p>0.06). Conclusions Hardness of the two brands of acrylic teeth was reduced by all staining beverages, mainly for red wine. Roughness of both layers of the teeth was not affected by long-term immersion in the beverages. PMID:26398509

  1. Hypervolemia and plasma vasopressin response during water immersion in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Morse, J. T.; Barnes, P. R.; Silver, J.; Keil, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Immersion studies were performed on seven mildly dehydrated male subjects to examine the effect of suppression of plasma vasopressin (PVP) on diuresis in water immersion. The water was kept at close to 34.5 C and the subjects remained in the water for 4 hr after sitting for 2 hr. Na and K levels in the serum and urine were analyzed, as were osmolality, red blood cell count, renin activity, total protein, albumin amounts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Plasma volume was monitored from samples drawn at specified intervals during immersion. The plasma volume increased significantly 30 min after immersion, but no PVP was observed. The dehydration induced elevated serum osmotic concentrations. It is concluded that the hydration condition before immersion and the volume of fluid intake during immersion affects the hemodilution during immersion.

  2. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  3. Testing the Feasibility and Psychometric Properties of a Mobile Diary (myWHI) in Adolescents and Young Adults With Headaches

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Headaches are prevalent among teens and young adults. Self-monitoring is essential for managing headaches and can be accomplished with the help of electronic headache diaries. An increasing number of electronic headache diaries exist, yet the absence of quality standards compromises their use for research and clinical purposes. Objective Our goal was to develop and test the usability, feasibility, and psychometric properties of an electronic diary iPhone application for self-monitoring by adolescents and young adults with headaches. Methods We used an iterative participatory design to develop and test our electronic headache diary. Participants aged 14-28 years old with recurrent headaches were recruited internationally. Screening and consent were conducted online. Following completion of an online pre-questionnaire, participants downloaded the diary to use in their natural environment for 14 days. An online post-questionnaire was completed following testing. The diary’s usability and feasibility were tested first and determined to be complete when improvements to the diary did not result in a statistically significant impact on indicators of feasibility and adherence. Interviews were conducted with participants of usability and feasibility testing. The psychometric properties of the diary were then tested, and a case study analysis of one participant was completed. Results Three cycles to test the usability and feasibility were conducted. Each cycle included 11-19 unique participants ranging in age from 16 to 28 years. Following the testing period for each cycle, 15% to 25% of participants took part in the post-cycle interview. Participants perceived the final version of the diary as useful, easy to learn, and efficient to use. Psychometric properties were then tested with a sample of 65 participants (6 aged 14-17 years old; 59 aged 18-28 years old). All items in the diary had substantial between- and within-subjects variability (percent of variance

  4. Repeated dose liver micronucleus assay using adult mice with multiple genotoxicity assays concurrently performed as a combination test.

    PubMed

    Hagio, Soichiro; Furukawa, Satoshi; Abe, Masayoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Hayashi, Seigo; Ogawa, Izumi

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the liver micronucleus (MN) assay using young adult rats with repeated administrations has been investigated by employing a new method without partial hepatectomy or in situcollagenase perfusion as the repeated dose liver MN (RDLMN) assay by Narumi et al. (2012). In our study, in order to investigate the possibility of the RDLMN assay using young adult mice instead of rats and the feasibility of employing some genotoxicity assays along with the RDLMN assay as a combination test, two genotoxic carcinogens (N,N-diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) and cisplatin (CIS)) and a nongenotoxic carcinogen (phenobarbital sodium (PHE)) were administered to mice for 15 or 29 days. Then, the liver MN assay, peripheral blood (PB) MN assay and comet assay using the liver and kidney were concurrently performed as a combination test. DEN showed positive responses to all endpoints except MN induction in PB after 15 days of repeat administration. A cross-linking agent, CIS, showed MN induction in liver after 29 days of repeat administration, and in PB after 15 and 29 days of repeat administration, although the comet assay yielded negative responses for both organs at both sampling times. PHE yielded negative responses for all endpoints. In conclusion, it is suggested that the RDLMN assay using mice is a feasible method to be integrated into the general repeated toxicity test along with the combination assays, i.e., comet assay or PB MN assay, which would help in risk assessment for carcinogenicity by comparing the results of combination assays with each other. PMID:24849678

  5. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates The Damage Induced by Cyclophosphamide on Adult Mice Testes

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiary, Zahra; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Soltanalinejad, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Background Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a chemotherapy drug which causes deleterious effects on testicular tissue and increases free radicals in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on testicular improvement in CP treated animals. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 15 male mice (6-8 weeks) were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline (0.1 ml/day), intraperitoneal (IP), CP group received CP (15 mg/kg/week, IP), and the CP+EP group received EP (40 mg/kg/day, IP) plus CP. After 35 days, we assessed serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) along with histomorphometric and histochemical analyses of the testicles. Results The mean thickness of the germinal epithelium, diameter of seminiferous tubules, and the number of Leydig cells in the CP+EP group were higher than those of the CP group (P<0.05). The number of the mast cells in the CP+EP group significantly reduced compared with the CP group (P<0.05). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), periodic acid-schiff (PAS) positive reactions and lipid granules in cytoplasm of the Leydig cells in the CP group increased compared with the other groups (P<0.05). TAC in the CP group significantly reduced compared with the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion This study showed the ability of EP to reduce the destructive side effects of CP in the adult mice reproductive system. PMID:27123204

  6. Sodium metabisulfite-induced changes on testes, spermatogenesis and epididymal morphometric values in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Ebrahimi, Zahra; Hoseini, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10), 100mg/kg (S100), and 260 mg/kg (S260) while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats. PMID:27141536

  7. Assessment of executive functioning in children and young adults treated for frontal lobe tumours using ecologically valid tests.

    PubMed

    Longaud-Valès, A; Chevignard, M; Dufour, C; Grill, J; Puget, S; Sainte-Rose, C; Valteau-Couanet, D; Dellatolas, G

    2016-08-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing executive functions (EF) using ecologically valid tests in children with frontal lobe lesions. This study aimed to (1) evaluate EF in children, adolescents and young adults treated for childhood frontal lobe tumours, (2) identify factors influencing performance, such as age at diagnosis or type of treatment, and (3) examine correlations between intellectual ability and classical and ecological tests of EF. Twenty-one patients, aged 8-27 years, treated for a childhood benign or malignant frontal lobe tumour, and 42 healthy controls (matched for gender, age and socio-economic status) were assessed using classical tests of EF, and the BADS-C ecological battery. Patients also underwent assessment of intellectual ability and parent and teacher ratings of the BRIEF questionnaire. IQ scores ranged from 45 to 125 (mean FSIQ = 84) and were lower in case of epilepsy, hydrocephalus and lower parental education. Patients displayed deficits in most, but not all measures of EF. Most classical and ecological measures of EF were strongly correlated to IQ. This study confirms the frequency of EF deficits in this population; it also highlights the utility of ecological measures of EF and some limitations of classical tests of EF in children. PMID:26272265

  8. Accuracy and Acceptability of Oral Fluid HIV Self-Testing in a General Adult Population in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Ann E; Cleland, Charles M; Chhun, Nok; Sidle, John E; Were, Edwin; Naanyu, Violet; Emonyi, Wilfred; Macharia, Stephen M; Sang, Edwin; Siika, Abraham M

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated performance, accuracy, and acceptability parameters of unsupervised oral fluid (OF) HIV self-testing (HIVST) in a general population in western Kenya. In a prospective validation design, we enrolled 240 adults to perform rapid OF HIVST and compared results to staff administered OF and rapid fingerstick tests. All reactive, discrepant, and a proportion of negative results were confirmed with lab ELISA. Twenty participants were video-recorded conducting self-testing. All participants completed a staff administered survey before and after HIVST to assess attitudes towards OF HIVST acceptability. HIV prevalence was 14.6 %. Thirty-six of the 239 HIVSTs were invalid (15.1 %; 95 % CI 11.1-20.1 %), with males twice as likely to have invalid results as females. HIVST sensitivity was 89.7 % (95 % CI 73-98 %) and specificity was 98 % (95 % CI 89-99 %). Although sensitivity was somewhat lower than expected, there is clear interest in, and high acceptability (94 %) of OF HIV self-testing. PMID:26438487

  9. The Instrumented Sit-to-Stand Test (iSTS) Has Greater Clinical Relevance than the Manually Recorded Sit-to-Stand Test in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Maier, Andrea B.; Ainsworth, Erik; Beek, Peter J.; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to rise from sitting to standing is critical to an individual’s quality of life, as it is a prerequisite for functional independence. The purpose of the current study was to examine the hypothesis that test durations as assessed with the instrumented repeated Sit-To-Stand (STS) show stronger associations with health status, functional status and daily physical activity of older adults than manually recorded test durations. Methods In 63 older participants (mean age 83 ±6.9 years, 51 female), health status was assessed using the European Quality of Life questionnaire and functional status was assessed using the physical function index of the of the RAND-36. Physical performance was measured using a wearable sensor-based STS test. From this test, durations, sub-durations and kinematics of the STS movements were estimated and analysed. In addition, physical activity was measured for one week using an activity monitor and episodes of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion were identified. Associations between STS parameters with health status, functional status and daily physical activity were assessed. Results The manually recorded STS times were not significantly associated with health status (p = 0.457) and functional status (p = 0.055), whereas the instrumented STS times were (both p = 0.009). The manually recorded STS durations showed a significant association to daily physical activity for mean sitting durations (p = 0.042), but not for mean standing durations (p = 0.230) and mean number of locomotion periods (p = 0.218). Furthermore, durations of the dynamic sit-to-stand phase of the instrumented STS showed more significant associations with health status, functional status and daily physical activity (all p = 0.001) than the static phases standing and sitting (p = 0.043–0.422). Conclusions As hypothesized, instrumented STS durations were more strongly associated with participant health status, functional status and physical activity

  10. Perceptions of a HIV testing message targeted for at-risk adults with low functional health literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Susan L.

    This study analyses warehoused data collected by Georgia State University and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (GSU/CDC) researchers after developing an HIV testing message for urban adults with low functional health literacy. It expands previous work by examining data collected when 202 primarily African-American homeless clients of an urban community based organization (CBO) reviewed both the low literacy brochure (Wallace et al., 2006) and a standard HIV brochure (Georgia Department of Human Resources, 1997). Participants' health literacy was assessed using 2 measures; the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine or REALM (Davis, Crouch, Long & Green) and the Test of Functional Health Literacy Assessment or TOFHLA (Nurss, Parker & Baker, 2001). HIV risk was determined using an interview questionnaire developed by the research group (Belcher, Deming, Hunter & Wallace, 2005) which allowed participants to self-report recent alcohol and drug use, sexual behavior, sexually transmitted disease (STD) history and exposure to abuse and sexual coercion. Open-ended response questions regarding readability, understanding, main message, and importance for each brochure provided the qualitative data. This analysis confirms previous work showing accessibility, readability, cultural sensitivity and user-friendly formatting are important when attempting to engage at-risk adults with varying levels of functional health literacy in an HIV testing message. The visual aspects of the brochure can be essential in capturing the reader's attention and should be relevant to the target audience (Wallace, Deming, Hunter, Belcher & Choi, 2006). Mono-colored graphics may be perceived as dated and irrelevant or worse yet, threatening to some readers. Whenever possible culturally appropriate color photos of people depicting relevant content should replace excess text and difficult medical terms should be eliminated. Wording on the cover and within the brochure should be used to

  11. Corrosion Properties of Polydopamine Coatings Formed in One-Step Immersion Process on Magnesium.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ferdinand; Schlesak, Magdalena; Mebert, Caroline; Höhn, Sarah; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2015-12-01

    Polydopamine layers were polymerized directly from Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-buffered solution in a one-step immersion process onto magnesium surface. Scanning electron microscopy showed successful formation of a ∼1 μm thick layer. ASTM D3359-09 "Tape test" revealed excellent adhesion of the layer. X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy verified the presence of polydopamine on the surface. Corrosion measurements were performed in 0.1 M NaCl solution investigating the influence of coating parameters: dopamine concentration, immersion time, solution pH, and immersion angle. Tafel analysis revealed strong improvement of corrosion behavior compared to bare magnesium. Polydopamine layers prepared with optimized coating procedure showed promising corrosion properties in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium. In summary, polydopamine coatings offer a simple treatment for magnesium to improve the corrosion behavior and could further act as intermediate layer for further surface functionalization. PMID:26561489

  12. Effects of water immersion to the neck on pulmonary circulation and tissue volume in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begin, R.; Epstein, M.; Sackner, M. A.; Levinson, R.; Dougherty, R.; Duncan, D.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid noninvasive breathing method is used to obtain serial measurements of the pulmonary capillary blood flow, diffusing capacity per unit of alveolar volume, combined pulmonary tissue plus capillary volume, functional residual capacity, and oxygen consumption in five normal subjects undergoing 6 h of sitting, 4 h of sitting while immersed to the neck in thermoneutral water, and 4 h of lying in thermoneutral water to the neck. The rebreathing method employed a test gas mixture containing 0.5% C2H2, 0.3% C(18)O, 10% He, 21% O2, and balance N2. It is shown that immersion to the neck in the seated posture results in significant increases in sodium excretion cardiac output, and diffusing capacity per unit of alveolar volume. The pulmonary tissue plus capillary volume did not change, demonstrating that the central vascular engorgement induced by water immersion is not accompanied by significant extravasation of fluid into the pulmonary interstitial space.

  13. A set of innovative immersed grating based spectrometer designs for METIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agócs, Tibor; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; van Amerongen, Aaldert H.; Tol, Paul J. J.; van Brug, Hedser; Brandl, Bernhard R.; Molster, Frank; Todd, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    We present innovative, immersed grating based optical designs for the SMO (Spectrograph Main Optics) module of the Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph, METIS. The immersed grating allows a significant reduction of SMO volume compared to conventional echelle grating designs, because the diffraction takes place in high refractive index silicon. Additionally, using novel optimization techniques and technical solutions in silicon micromachining offered by the semiconductor industry, further improvements can be achieved. We show optical architectures based on compact, double-pass Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) designs, which appear advantageous in terms of one or several of the following: optical performance, reduction of volume, ease of manufacturing and testing. We explore optical designs, where the emphasis is put on manufacturability and we investigate optical solutions, where the ultimate goal is the highest possible optical performance. These novel, silicon immersed grating based design concepts are applicable for future earth and space based spectrometers.

  14. Physiology of Fluid and Electrolyte Responses During Inactivity: Water Immersion and Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1984-01-01

    This manuscript emphasizes the physiology of fluid-electrolyte-hormonal responses during the prolonged inactivity of bed rest and water immersion. An understanding of the total mechanism of adaptation (deconditioning) should provide more insight into the conditioning process. Findings that need to be confirmed during bed rest and immersion are: (1) the volume and tissues of origin of fluid shifted to the thorax and head; (2) interstitial fluid pressure changes in muscle and subcutaneous tissue, particularly during immersion; and (3) the composition of the incoming presumably interstitial fluid that contributes to the early hypervolemia. Better resolution of the time course and source of the diuretic fluid is needed. Important data will be forthcoming when hypotheses are tested involving the probable action of the emerging diuretic and natriuretic hormones, between themselves and among vasopressin and aldosterone, on diuresis and blood pressure control.

  15. Phase shift migration for imaging layered objects and objects immersed in water.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Tomas

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes the use of phase shift migration for ultrasonic imaging of layered objects and objects immersed in water. The method, which was developed in reflection seismology, is a frequency domain technique that in a computationally efficient way restores images of objects that are isotropic and homogeneous in the lateral direction but inhomogeneous in depth. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using immersion test data from a block with side-drilled holes with an additional scatterer residing in water. In this way, the method's capability of simultaneously imaging scatterers in different media and at different depths was investigated. The method was also applied to a copper block with flat bottom holes. The results verify that the proposed method is capable of producing high-resolution and low-noise images for layered or immersed objects. PMID:21041139

  16. Effect of Hemorrhage on Cardiac Output, PVP, Alodosterone and Diuresis during Immersion in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, K.; Greenleaf, John E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Wade, C. E.; Keil, L. C.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a reduction in blood volume would attenuate or eliminate immersion-induced increases in cardiac output (Q (sup dot) sub co)) and urine excretion, and to investigate accompanying vasoactive and fluid-electrolyte hormonal responses.

  17. Chemical additive to maximize antimicrobial effect of chlorine during pilot scale immersion chilling of broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prior laboratory scale study demonstrated the potential for T-128, a proprietary blend including propylene glycol and phosphoric acid, to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine during immersion chilling of broiler parts. The objective of the current study was to test the addition of T-128...

  18. A Study of the Achievement Level Criteria for Nonveteran Adult Students' Eligibility for Taking the Test of General Educational Development in Louisiana. Bulletin No. 1267.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauzat, Sam V.; And Others

    The investigation tested the mean overall grade level placement of senior students in Louisiana secondary schools for the 1973-74 school session to see if they could meet the same standard that was used for adult students as the prerequisite for General Educational Development (GED) testing for the high school equivalency diploma (that is a…

  19. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  20. Serologic and bacteriologic test results after adult vaccination with strain 19 in three dairy herds infected with brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Breitmeyer, R E; Hird, D W; Carpenter, T E

    1992-03-15

    Milk culture data and serologic test results were evaluated after adult vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19 in cattle of 3 large California dairy herds infected with brucellosis. Strain-19 organisms were isolated by culture of milk from 1.9% of the vaccinated cows. Isolation of field strain of B abortus varied directly with magnitude of complement-fixation (CF) and rivanol titers. At time of milk culture, 74% of cows from which field strain was isolated had CF titer greater than or equal to 160, compared with 58% of cows from which strain 19 was isolated. Cows with CF titer greater than or equal to 160 at 2 months or greater than or equal to 80 to 4 months after adult vaccination were more likely to be correctly classified as reactors (on the basis of subsequent milk culture results and/or persistently high serologic titer) than were cows with lower CF titer at these times. Cows from which B abortus strain 19 was isolated from milk were more likely to maintain persistent serologic titer than were cows from which neither strain of B abortus was isolated. PMID:1568926

  1. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  2. Belief in AIDS-Related Conspiracy Theories and Mistrust in the Government: Relationship With HIV Testing Among At-Risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: One in 4 persons living with HIV/AIDS is an older adult (age 50 or older); unfortunately, older adults are disproportionately diagnosed in late stages of HIV disease. Psychological barriers, including belief in AIDS-related conspiracy theories (e.g., HIV was created to eliminate certain groups) and mistrust in the government, may influence whether adults undergo HIV testing. We examined relationships between these factors and recent HIV testing among at-risk, older adults. Design and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among older adults enrolled in a large venue–based study. None had a previous diagnosis of HIV/AIDS; all were seeking care at venues with high HIV prevalence. We used multiple logistic regression to estimate the associations between self-reported belief in AIDS-related conspiracy theories, mistrust in the government, and HIV testing performed within the past 12 months. Results: Among the 226 participants, 30% reported belief in AIDS conspiracy theories, 72% reported government mistrust, and 45% reported not undergoing HIV testing within the past 12 months. Belief in conspiracy theories was positively associated with recent HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05–3.60), whereas mistrust in the government was negatively associated with testing (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26–0.73). Implications: Psychological barriers are prevalent among at-risk older adults seeking services at venues with high HIV prevalences and may influence HIV testing. Identifying particular sources of misinformation and mistrust would appear useful for appropriate targeting of HIV testing strategies. PMID:23362210

  3. Adult Learners: New Norms on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test for Healthcare Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haught, Patricia A.; Walls, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    Presents new norms on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test for healthcare-professional students. Notes that it is generally accepted that professional and graduate schools require students with good reading ability because of the quantity of material to be read. Presents standard scores, percentile ranks, and stanine scores as revised norms based on test…

  4. Test-Retest Reliability of Two Patient-Report Measures for Use in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matza, Louis S.; Van Brunt, David L.; Cates, Charlotte; Murray, Lindsey T.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood and continues to impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). Thus, it is important to have validated symptom and HRQL measures for assessing treatment outcomes in this population. The purpose of the current analysis was to assess test-retest…

  5. The Development and Testing of a Typology of Adult Education Programs in University Residential Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskey, John H.

    This study was designed to develop and field test a typology of framework providing for the systematic description, definition, and classification of activities in university continuing education centers. Basic questions pertained to whether such a typology could be developed, and whether other investigators and practitioners could use the…

  6. Exploring the Flynn Effect in Mentally Retarded Adults by Using a Nonverbal Intelligence Test for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence…

  7. Evidence of Compensatory Processing in Adults with Developmental Language Impairment: Testing the Predictions of the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Poll, Gerard H.; Miller, Carol A.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) proposes that individuals with primary developmental language impairment (DLI) have a deficient procedural memory, compromising their syntactic abilities. Individuals with DLI may compensate for procedural memory deficits by engaging declarative memory for syntactic tasks. Arguments are part of the lexicon whereas adjuncts rely on syntactic processing. As a result, individuals with DLI may have unusual difficulty processing adjuncts. Alternatively, processing for adjuncts may be typical for individuals with DLI but show frequency effects, indicating compensatory use of declarative memory. Aims Our goal was to test the predictions of the PDH by comparing argument and adjunct processing times for adults with and without DLI, and to seek evidence of compensatory use of declarative memory for adjunct processing. We further evaluated group performance on measures of visual procedural and declarative memory. Methods & Procedures Forty-four adults, 21 with DLI, completed a self-paced listening task, a procedural memory task, and a declarative memory task. The self-paced listening task tracked the word-by-word processing time for sentences that included prepositional phrases acting as arguments or adjuncts. We used regression analysis to determine effects of group membership and argument or adjunct status on processing times. Correlation analyses evaluated relationships between argument and adjunct frequency on processing times by group. Results & Outcomes We found no effect of group membership on the processing time for arguments and adjuncts in the self-paced listening task. Argument phrases were processed more easily by both groups. There were frequency effects for adjunct processing for the group with DLI, but not the group with typical language. We did not find the expected frequency effects for argument processing. The group with DLI also performed more poorly in both the procedural and declarative memory tasks

  8. Current understanding of genetics and genetic testing and information needs and preferences of adults with inherited retinal disease.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, Martin; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Allsop, Matthew J; Downey, Louise; Gale, Richard; Grant, Hilary Louise; Potrata, Barbara; Willis, Thomas A; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Advances in sequencing technology and the movement of genetic testing into all areas of medicine will increase opportunities for molecular confirmation of a clinical diagnosis. For health-care professionals without formal genetics training, there is a need to know what patients understand about genetics and genetic testing and their information needs and preferences for the disclosure of genetic testing results. These topics were explored during face-to-face interviews with 50 adults with inherited retinal disease, selected in order to provide a diversity of opinions. Participants had variable understanding of genetics and genetic testing, including basic concepts such as inheritance patterns and the risk to dependents, and many did not understand the term 'genetic counselling'. Most were keen for extra information on the risk to others, the process for genetic testing and how to share the information with other family members. Participants were divided as to whether genetic testing should be offered at the time of the initial diagnosis or later. Many would prefer the results to be given by face-to-face consultation, supplemented by further information in a format accessible to those with visual impairment. Health-care professionals and either leaflets or websites of trusted agencies were the preferred sources of information. Permission should be sought for disclosure of genetic information to other family members. The information needs of many patients with inherited retinal disease appear to be unmet. An understanding of their information needs and preferences is required to help health-care professionals provide optimal services that meet patient expectations. PMID:24398793

  9. Prenatal endotoxin exposure alters behavioural pain responses to lipopolysaccharide in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Walker, F Rohan; Krivanek, Klara M; Clifton, Vicki L; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2010-05-11

    Evidence suggests that exposure to bacterial endotoxin in early life can alter the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in later life. This phenomenon may have significant consequences for pain and pain related behaviours as pro-inflammatory cytokines heighten pain sensitivity. This association has yet to be examined. As such, the aim of the present study was to characterize pain behaviours in adult rat offspring following prenatal endotoxin (PE) exposure. Pregnant F344 rats received endotoxin (200microg/kg, s.c.) or saline on gestational days 16, 18 and 20. Pain thresholds were assessed in the adult PE offspring (n=23) and control offspring (n=24) prior to and 4h following administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100microg/kg, s.c.). Three assays of pain were employed - the hot plate, tail immersion and von Frey tests. Results demonstrated sex-specific effects of prenatal endotoxin on the offspring, with PE males displaying unaltered pain thresholds on the von Frey test post-LPS administration (p<0.01), while male control offspring (n=24) displayed the expected hyperalgesia. Male PE offspring also displayed increased pain thresholds on the tail immersion test (p<0.01), while no change in pain sensitivity was observed in control males following LPS exposure. No difference in response was observed between the female PE and control offspring on the von Frey test, however PE female offspring displayed increased thresholds on the tail immersion test compared to baseline - an effect not observed in the control female offspring. Pain sensitivity on the hot plate test was unaffected by prenatal exposure to endotoxin. These data suggest that prenatal exposure to products associated with bacterial infection have the capacity to alter pain responses, which are evident in the adult offspring. PMID:20184906

  10. Neurocognitive testing and cochlear implantation: insights into performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cosetti, Maura K; Pinkston, James B; Flores, Jose M; Friedmann, David R; Jones, Callie B; Roland, J Thomas; Waltzman, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this case series was to assess the impact of auditory rehabilitation with cochlear implantation on the cognitive function of elderly patients over time. Design This is a longitudinal case series of prospective data assessing neurocognitive function and speech perception in an elderly cohort pre- and post-implantation. Setting University cochlear implant center. Participants The patients were post-lingually deafened elderly female (mean, 73.6 years; SD, 5.82; range, 67–81 years) cochlear implant recipients (n=7). Measurements A neurocognitive battery of 20 tests assessing intellectual function, learning, short- and long-term memory, verbal fluency, attention, mental flexibility, and processing speed was performed prior to and 2–4.1 years (mean, 3.7) after cochlear implant (CI). Speech perception testing using Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant words was performed prior to implantation and at regular intervals postoperatively. Individual and aggregate differences in cognitive function pre- and post-CI were estimated. Logistic regression with cluster adjustment was used to estimate the association (%improvement or %decline) between speech understanding and years from implantation at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-CI. Results Improvements after CI were observed in 14 (70%) of all subtests administered. Declines occurred in five (25%) subtests. In 55 individual tests (43%), post-CI performance improved compared to a patient’s own performance before implantation. Of these, nine (45%) showed moderate or pronounced improvement. Overall, improvements were largest in the verbal and memory domains. Logistic regression demonstrated a significant relationship between speech perception and cognitive function over time. Five neurocognitive tests were predictive of improved speech perception following implantation. Conclusion Comprehensive neurocognitive testing of elderly women demonstrated areas of improvement in cognitive function and auditory

  11. Patterns of Performance on the Modified Cued Recall Test in Spanish Adults With Down Syndrome With and Without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Benejam, Bessy; Fortea, Juan; Molina-López, Rafael; Videla, Sebastià

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of memory decline in people with intellectual disability (ID) is more difficult than in the general population, due to a lack of appropriate instruments and to preexisting cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to describe performance of healthy adults with Down syndrome (healthy-DS; prospectively cohort) on a Spanish version of the modified Cued Recall Test (mCRT). We also recruited retrospectively a cohort of DS subjects with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DS-DAT). Healthy-DS obtained higher scores on free recall and total score than DS-DAT. Age was the main factor associated with decreasing mCRT scores. The mCRT was useful in DS subjects with ID at the upper end of the spectrum or ID in the middle range of the spectrum, and discriminated well between DS subjects with and without DAT. PMID:26505869

  12. [Maternal methyl-containing dietary supplementation alters the ability to learn in adult rats in swimming Morris test].

    PubMed

    Pliusnina, I Z; Os'kina, I N; Shchepina, O A; Prasolova, L A; Trut, L N

    2006-01-01

    Maternal choline diet influences the spatial learning processes. In this work, the learning ability of adult progeny of mothers who had received methyl diet enriched with choline and betain during pregnancy and lactation was studied in Morris test. The introduction of the diet to pregnant rats resulted in an increase in the time of search for invisible platform and time of swimming near the pool walls in offsprings, which meant a worsening of their learning ability. It was also found that change in platform searching strategy was not associated with an increase in anxiety of male rats. Possible involvement of maternal methyl diet in the change of expression of genes which control development of the nervous system is discussed. PMID:16869262

  13. Multidimensional Measurement Within Adult Protective Services: Design and Initial Testing of the Tool for Risk, Interventions, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, David H.; Henderson, Linda B.; Snider, Marcy A.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development, field utility, reliability, and validity of the multidimensional Tool for Risk, Interventions, and Outcomes (TRIO) for use in Adult Protective Services (APS). The TRIO is designed to facilitate consistent APS practice and collect data related to multiple dimensions of typical interactions with APS clients, including the investigation and assessment of risks, the provision of APS interventions, and associated health and safety outcomes. Initial tests of the TRIO indicated high field utility, social worker “relevance and buy-in,” and inter-rater reliability. TRIO concurrent validity was demonstrated via appropriate patterns of TRIO item differentiation based on the type of observed confirmed abuse or neglect; and predictive validity was demonstrated by prediction of the risk of actual APS recurrence. The TRIO is a promising new tool that can help meet the challenges of providing and documenting effective APS practices and identifying those at high risk for future APS recurrence. PMID:24848994

  14. Improving asthma self-efficacy: Developing and testing a pilot community-based asthma intervention for African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Molly A.; Catrambone, Catherine D.; Kee, Romina A.; Evans, Arthur T.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Lyttle, Christopher; Rucker-Whitaker, Cheryl; Weiss, Kevin B.; Shannon, John Jay

    2009-01-01

    Background Low-income African American adults in Chicago have disproportionately high asthma morbidity and mortality rates. Interventions that improve asthma self-efficacy for appropriate self-management behaviors may ultimately improve asthma control in this population. Objective To pilot test an intervention to improve asthma self-efficacy for appropriate self-management behaviors. Methods Participants for this trial were recruited through two primary care clinics located in the largest African American community in Chicago. Participants were then randomized into two groups. The control group received mailed asthma education. The intervention group was offered 4 group sessions lead by a community social worker and 6 home visits by community health workers. Telephone interviews were conducted at baseline (pre-intervention), 3 months (post-intervention), and 6 months (maintenance). Results The 42 participants were predominantly African American, low income, and had poorly controlled persistent asthma. The intervention group had significantly higher asthma self-efficacy at 3 months (p<0.001) after the completion of the intervention. Asthma action plans were more common in the intervention group at 3 months (p=0.06). At 6 months, the intervention group had improved asthma quality of life (p=0.002), and improved coping (p=0.01) compared to controls. Trends in behavioral and clinical outcomes favored the intervention group but were not statistically significant. Conclusions This community-based asthma intervention improved asthma self-efficacy, self-perceived coping skills, and asthma quality of life for low income African American adults. Larger trials are needed to test the efficacy of this intervention to reduce asthma morbidity in similar high-risk populations. PMID:19130936

  15. A preliminary study on the Trail-making Test in Arabic-English bilingual young adults.

    PubMed

    Abdul Razzak, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The Trail-Making Test (TMT) is used in different neuropsychological test batteries. It consists of two parts: TMT-Part A, which tests visual scanning and psychomotor speed, and TMT-Part B, which assesses more complex cognitive processes. TMT normative data have been established in many non-Arab countries either using the original English version or a version developed with the native language. The aim of this study was to compare TMT performance between the English TMT and a constructed Arabic TMT in young Arabic-English bilingual college students from three Arabian Gulf states. Scores from 83 participants who took the English TMT and 52 who took the Arabic TMT were included. Arabic TMT (both parts) scores were significantly poorer compared with English TMT scores. Arabic TMT scores were also poorer than were other norms for this age group and education level, but they were better than those reported from another study using the Arabic TMT. Moreover, there were nonsignificant differences in performance between participants from these three countries; however, these findings are inconclusive as sample sizes were small. These findings suggest that Arabic TMT norms cannot be unified for all Arabic countries, and separate Arabic TMT norms including all age groups and education levels must be established for each Arabic country. PMID:23373685

  16. From “Aisle” to “Labile”: A Hierarchical National Adult Reading Test Scale Revealed by Mokken Scaling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive ability is a core diagnostic criterion for dementia. Knowing the extent of decline requires a baseline score from which change can be reckoned. In the absence of prior cognitive ability scores, vocabulary-based cognitive tests are used to estimate premorbid cognitive ability. It is important that such tests are short yet informative, to maximize information and practicability. The National Adult Reading Test (NART) is commonly used to estimate premorbid intelligence. People are asked to pronounce 50 words ranging from easy to difficult but whether its words conform to a hierarchy is unknown. Five hundred eighty-seven healthy community-dwelling older people with known age 11 IQ scores completed the NART as part of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. Mokken analysis was used to explore item responses for unidimensional, ordinal, and hierarchical scales. A strong hierarchical scale (“mini-NART”) of 23 of the 50 items was identified. These items are invariantly ordered across all ability levels. The validity of the interpretation of this briefer scale’s score as an estimate of premorbid ability was examined using the actual age 11 IQ score. The mini-NART accounted for a similar amount of the variance in age 11 IQ as the full NART (NART = 46.5%, mini-NART = 44.8%). The mini-NART is proposed as a useful short clinical tool to estimate prior cognitive ability. The mini-NART has clinical relevance, comprising highly discriminatory, invariantly ordered items allowing for sensitive measurement, and adaptive testing, reducing test administration time, and patient stress. PMID:26302224

  17. Test-retest reproducibility of the relative dose response for vitamin A status in Guatemalan adults: issues of diagnostic sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Morrow, F D; Vasquez, A; Bulux, J; Guerrero, A M; Russell, R M

    1990-07-01

    The relative dose response (RDR) test has been used as a functional measure of whole-body stores of vitamin A in humans. We have examined the reproducibility of the RDR procedure in a population of Guatemalan adult subjects who would be expected to show a moderate prevalence of hypovitaminosis A. Fifty-one subjects were administered a standard RDR test, and the plasma samples were analyzed for retinol, tocopherol, retinol binding protein (RBP) and prealbumin (PAL). Thirty-four of the subjects underwent repeat RDR tests 7 d later. Plasma levels in fasted subjects were as follows: retinol, 1.35 +/- 0.30 mumol/L; RBP, 37.8 +/- 7.7 mg/L; PAL, 187.0 +/- 39.0 mg/L; and tocopherol, 16.6 +/- 6.2 mumol/L. RDRs ranged from -35.2% to +63.1%, with a mean of 2.6 +/- 10.4%. Overall, we observed poor within-subject reproducibility of the RDR procedure whether expressed numerically or by diagnostic classification. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies in children, we observed fewer positive RDR tests than would be expected for the population studied. Nevertheless, the mean RDR was inversely proportional to fasting retinol levels, thus confirming the validity of the biological basis of the RDR procedure in humans. Because of high intra-individual variability with this test, investigators should be cautious when using the RDR procedure in serial studies to monitor the efficacy of therapeutic interventions or subject compliance to dietary regimens. PMID:2366107

  18. 3DIVS: 3-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Sculpting

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, F; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I; Uva, A E

    2001-10-03

    Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to revolutionize traditional product design by enabling the transition from conventional CAD to fully digital product development. The presented prototype system targets closing the ''digital gap'' as introduced by the need for physical models such as clay models or mockups in the traditional product design and evaluation cycle. We describe a design environment that provides an intuitive human-machine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) models in a semi-immersive design space, focusing on ease of use and increased productivity for both designer and CAD engineers.

  19. Cavitation Inception in Immersed Jet Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockett, R. D.; Ndamuso, N.; Price, R.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation inception occurring in immersed jets was investigated in a purpose-built mechanical flow rig. The rig utilized custom-built cylindrical and conical nozzles to direct high-velocity jets of variable concentration n-octane-hexadecane mixtures into a fused silica optically accessible receiver. The fluid pressure upstream and down-stream of the nozzles were manually controlled. The study employed a variety of acrylic and metal nozzles. The results show that the critical upstream pressure to downstream pressure ratio for incipient cavitation decreases with increasing n-octane concentration for the cylindrical nozzles, and increases with increasing n-octane concentration for the conical nozzle.

  20. Film stacking architecture for immersion lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tomohiro; Sanada, Masakazu; Miyagi, Tadashi; Shigemori, Kazuhito; Kanaoka, Masashi; Yasuda, Shuichi; Tamada, Osamu; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    In immersion lithography process, film stacking architecture will be necessary due to film peeling. However, the architecture will restrict lithographic area within a wafer due to top side EBR accuracy In this paper, we report an effective film stacking architecture that also allows maximum lithographic area. This study used a new bevel rinse system on RF3 for all materials to make suitable film stacking on the top side bevel. This evaluation showed that the new bevel rinse system allows the maximum lithographic area and a clean wafer edge. Patterning defects were improved with suitable film stacking.

  1. HIV Testing among Heterosexual Young Adults: The Influence of Individual Attitudes and Behaviors, Partner’s Risk-Taking and Relationship Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Longmore, Monica A.; Johnson, Wendi L.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2012-01-01

    This study relies on survey (N=704) and in-depth qualitative (N = 100) interviews (Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study) to examine individual, partner, and relationship barriers and facilitators to HIV testing in a sample of young adults. Consistent with the public health goal of routine testing, nearly 40% of respondents had an HIV test within the context of their current sexual relationship, and women were significantly more likely to have tested within the current relationship than were men. For women, it was both their own risky behavior, and the partners’ characteristics and related relationship dynamics that distinguished testers from non-testers. In contrast, for men their own risky behavior was the most salient factor influencing their odds of being tested. These results showcase gender specific approaches to best promote sexual health, i.e., routine HIV testing among young adults. PMID:22489753

  2. Population normative data for the CERAD Word List and Victoria Stroop Test in younger- and middle-aged adults: Cross-sectional analyses from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hankee, Lisa D.; Preis, Sarah R.; Piers, Ryan J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Liu, Yulin; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide baseline normative data on tests of verbal memory and executive function for non-demented young to middle age adults. Methods The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Word List task (CERAD-WL) and Victoria Stroop Test (VST) were administered to 3362 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) volunteer participants aged 24-78 years. Analyses of the effects of age, sex and education were conducted. Normative data on traditional measures and error responses are reported for each test. Results Traditional measures were significantly associated with both age and education in this younger-aged cohort. Error responses also evidenced significant age and education effects. Conclusion These data provide a normative comparison for assessment of verbal memory and executive functioning capabilities in young adults and may be utilized as a tool for preclinical studies of disease in younger aged adults. PMID:27410241

  3. Disentangling recoding processes and evaluative associations in a gender attitude implicit association test among adult males.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    The course of male development of implicit gender attitudes between young age (N = 30, age 17-26 years) and old age (N = 34, age 56-78 years) was investigated. The findings demonstrated that younger males had a stronger implicit preference for females relative to males than did older participants, shedding light on the nature of age differences in gender attitudes in regard to implicit measures. Although younger and older participants demonstrated different levels of gender bias on an implicit association test (IAT), the application of the ReAL model [Meissner, F., & Rothermund, K. (2013). Estimating the contributions of associations and recoding in the implicit association test: The ReAL model for the IAT. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(1), 45-69.] showed that evaluative associations of both female and male were activated at equivalent levels among both the young and old age groups, but younger males were more able to recode the female gender and a positive evaluation into common categories. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses between younger and older males exaggerated the differences in the underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and concealed the differences in recoding processes. These findings have important implications for the measurement and interpretation of implicit gender attitudes. PMID:26933754

  4. Test-retest reliability of the driving habits questionnaire in older self-driving adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Chun, Byung-Yoon; Chung, Hyun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the Driving Habits Questionnaire in community-dwelling older self-drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four participants were recruited by convenience sampling from local rehabilitation centers. This was a cross-sectional study design that used two clinical measures: the Driving Habits Questionnaire and Mini-mental State Examination. To examine the test-retest reliability of the Driving Habits Questionnaire, the clinical tool was measured twice, five days apart. [Results] The Driving Habits Questionnaire showed good reliability for older community-dwelling self-drivers. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the four domains of dependence (0.572), difficulty (0.871), crashes and citations (0.689), and driving space (0.961) of the Driving Habits Questionnaire indicated good or high internal consistency. Driving difficulty correlated significantly with self-reported crashes and citations and driving space. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the Driving Habits Questionnaire is a reliable measure of self-reported interview-based driving behavior in the community-dwelling elderly. PMID:26696745

  5. Test-retest reliability of the driving habits questionnaire in older self-driving adults.

    PubMed

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Chun, Byung-Yoon; Chung, Hyun-Sook

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the Driving Habits Questionnaire in community-dwelling older self-drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four participants were recruited by convenience sampling from local rehabilitation centers. This was a cross-sectional study design that used two clinical measures: the Driving Habits Questionnaire and Mini-mental State Examination. To examine the test-retest reliability of the Driving Habits Questionnaire, the clinical tool was measured twice, five days apart. [Results] The Driving Habits Questionnaire showed good reliability for older community-dwelling self-drivers. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the four domains of dependence (0.572), difficulty (0.871), crashes and citations (0.689), and driving space (0.961) of the Driving Habits Questionnaire indicated good or high internal consistency. Driving difficulty correlated significantly with self-reported crashes and citations and driving space. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the Driving Habits Questionnaire is a reliable measure of self-reported interview-based driving behavior in the community-dwelling elderly. PMID:26696745

  6. Immersion francaise precoce: Musique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Music for Grades 1-7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This curriculum guide in music is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. The program is presented as one that contributes to the development of the child, calls for flexibility and diversification, and requires a solid music education on the part of the teacher. The guide presents the following topics: (1) statements…

  7. Reclassification Patterns among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umansky, Ilana M.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to "fluent English proficient" status as quickly as possible. This article examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual,…

  8. The Feel Good Factor: Comparing Immersion by Design and Immersion by Default Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Fiona; Leahy, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploratory research project entitled "Gaelscoileanna and Multicultural classrooms: the potential for transfer to enhance L2 learning experiences". The project focussed on two language immersion contexts in Ireland which, despite obvious differences, share a range of significant commonalities. One…

  9. The CPF Immersion Registry, 1996. A Guide to French Immersion Programs throughout Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Judy, Ed.

    The directory lists French immersion programs at the elementary and secondary school levels in each province and territory of Canada. They are arranged alphabetically by province or territory, then by city or town within those categories. Data pertain to the 1995-96 school year. Information provided for each region includes general information on…

  10. Diagnosis and office-based treatment of urinary incontinence in adults. Part one: diagnosis and testing

    PubMed Central

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J.; Jimbo, Masahito

    2013-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem in both men and women. This review article addresses its prevalence, risk factors, cost, the various types of incontinence, as well as how to diagnose them. The US Preventive Services Task Force, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PubMed were reviewed for articles focusing on urinary incontinence. Incontinence is a common problem with a high societal cost. It is frequently underreported by patients so it is appropriate for primary-care providers to screen all women and older men during visits. A thorough history and physical examination combined with easy office-based tests can often yield a clear diagnosis and rule out other transient illnesses contributing to the incontinence. Specialist referral is occasionally needed in specific situations before embarking on a treatment plan. PMID:23904857

  11. Effects of characteristics of image quality in an immersive environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Lin, James J W.; Kenyon, Robert V.; Parker, Donald E.; Furness, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    Image quality issues such as field of view (FOV) and resolution are important for evaluating "presence" and simulator sickness (SS) in virtual environments (VEs). This research examined effects on postural stability of varying FOV, image resolution, and scene content in an immersive visual display. Two different scenes (a photograph of a fountain and a simple radial pattern) at two different resolutions were tested using six FOVs (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 deg.). Both postural stability, recorded by force plates, and subjective difficulty ratings varied as a function of FOV, scene content, and image resolution. Subjects exhibited more balance disturbance and reported more difficulty in maintaining posture in the wide-FOV, high-resolution, and natural scene conditions.

  12. Interpolation functions in the immersed boundary and finite element methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingshi; Zhang, Lucy T.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we review the existing interpolation functions and introduce a finite element interpolation function to be used in the immersed boundary and finite element methods. This straightforward finite element interpolation function for unstructured grids enables us to obtain a sharper interface that yields more accurate interfacial solutions. The solution accuracy is compared with the existing interpolation functions such as the discretized Dirac delta function and the reproducing kernel interpolation function. The finite element shape function is easy to implement and it naturally satisfies the reproducing condition. They are interpolated through only one element layer instead of smearing to several elements. A pressure jump is clearly captured at the fluid-solid interface. Two example problems are studied and results are compared with other numerical methods. A convergence test is thoroughly conducted for the independent fluid and solid meshes in a fluid-structure interaction system. The required mesh size ratio between the fluid and solid domains is obtained.

  13. Ultrasonic field modeling for immersed components using Gaussian beam superposition.

    PubMed

    Spies, Martin

    2007-05-01

    The Gaussian beam (GB) superposition approach can be applied to model ultrasound propagation in complex-structured materials and components. In this article, progress made in extending and applying the Gaussian beam superposition technique to model the beam fields generated by transducers with flat and focused rectangular apertures as well as with circular focused apertures is addressed. The refraction of transducer beam fields through curved surfaces is illustrated by calculation results for beam fields generated in curved components during immersion testing. In particular, the following developments are put forward: (i) the use of individually determined sets of GBs to model transducer beam fields with a number of less than ten beams; (ii) the application of the GB representation of rectangular transducers to focusing probes, as well as to the problem of transmission through interfaces; and (iii) computationally efficient transient modeling by superposition of 'temporally limited' GBs. PMID:17335863

  14. Immersive 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Berthier, J.; Da Rocha, J.; Deparis, N.; Derriere, S.; Gaultier, P.; Houpin, R.; Normand, J.; Ocvirk, P.

    2015-09-01

    The immersive-3D visualization, or Virtual Reality in our study, was previously dedicated to specific uses (research, flight simulators, etc.) The investment in infrastructure and its cost was reserved to large laboratories or companies. Lately we saw the development of immersive-3D masks intended for wide distribution, for example the Oculus Rift and the Sony Morpheus projects. The usual reaction is to say that these tools are primarily intended for games since it is easy to imagine a player in a virtual environment and the added value to conventional 2D screens. Yet it is likely that there are many applications in the professional field if these tools are becoming common. Introducing this technology into existing applications or new developments makes sense only if interest is properly evaluated. The use in Astronomy is clear for education, it is easy to imagine mobile and light planetariums or to reproduce poorly accessible environments (e.g., large instruments). In contrast, in the field of professional astronomy the use is probably less obvious and it requires to conduct studies to determine the most appropriate ones and to assess the contributions compared to the other display modes.

  15. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  16. Characteristics of metabolism during prolonged water immersion.

    PubMed

    Tigranyan, R A

    1975-01-01

    The effect on the organism of a 12-day stay in a water immersion medium (head on the water surface) was studied on 10 subjects. The condition of the metabolic processes in the subjects was judged from the investigation of the parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, the activity of a number of enzymes and steroid hormones. The venous blood and diurnal urine served as the material for conducting the corresponding biochemical determinations. The stay in an immersion medium is accompanied by a significant increase in the content of residual nitrogen in the blood, by a reduction of the creatinine content in the blood and by an increase of the creatine content of the blood with the simultaneous increase of the excretion of creatinine and creatine with the urine, by a significant increase of the glucose and lactate content in the blood, by the development of acidosis of a respiratory and metabolic character, as well as by a significant increase of the activity of creatine phosphokinase and the isoenzyme fraction of lactate dehydrogenase3. In all the subjects, an expressed intensification of the glucocorticoid and androgenic functions of the adrenal cortex is noted during the experimental period. PMID:11887912

  17. An immersed boundary method for endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Hau; Huang, Huaxiong

    2014-09-01

    Endocytosis is one of the cellular functions for capturing (engulfing) vesicles or microorganisms. Understanding the biophysical mechanisms of this cellular process is essential from a bioengineering point of view since it will provide guidance for developing effective targeted drug delivery therapies. In this paper, we propose an immersed boundary (IB) method that can be used to simulate the dynamical process of this important biological function. In our model, membranes of the vesicle and the cell are treated as Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian interfaces. The membrane-bound molecules are modeled as insoluble surfactants such that the molecules after binding are regarded as a product of a “chemical” reaction. Our numerical examples show that the immersed boundary method is a useful simulation tool for studying endocytosis, where the roles of interfacial energy, fluid flow and viscous dissipation in the success of the endocytosis process can be investigated in detail. A distinct feature of our IB method is the treatment of the two binding membranes that is different from the merging of fluid-fluid interfaces. Another important feature of our method is the strict conservation of membrane-borne receptors and ligands, which is important for predicting the dynamics of the endocytosis process.

  18. Immersion defectivity study with volume production immersion lithography tool for 45 nm node and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Nagaoka, Shiro; Yoshida, Masato; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Owa, Soichi

    2008-03-01

    Volume production of 45nm node devices utilizing Nikon's S610C immersion lithography tool has started. Important to the success in achieving high-yields in volume production with immersion lithography has been defectivity reduction. In this study we evaluate several methods of defectivity reduction. The tools used in our defectivity analysis included a dedicated immersion cluster tools consisting of a Nikon S610C, a volume production immersion exposure tool with NA of 1.3, and a resist coater-developer LITHIUS i+ from TEL. In our initial procedure we evaluated defectivity behavior by comparing on a topcoat-less resist process to a conventional topcoat process. Because of its simplicity the topcoatless resist shows lower defect levels than the topcoat process. In a second study we evaluated the defect reduction by introducing the TEL bevel rinse and pre-immersion bevel cleaning techniques. This technique was shown to successfully reduce the defect levels by reducing the particles at the wafer bevel region. For the third defect reduction method, two types of tool cleaning processes are shown. Finally, we discuss the overall defectivity behavior at the 45nm node. To facilitate an understanding of the root cause of the defects, defect source analysis (DSA) was applied to separate the defects into three classes according to the source of defects. DSA analysis revealed that more than 99% of defects relate to material and process, and less than 1% of the defects relate to the exposure tool. Material and process optimization by collaborative work between exposure tool vendors, track vendors and material vendors is a key for success of 45nm node device manufacturing.

  19. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-01-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β0 thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population. PMID:25847915

  20. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  1. Judgment in older adults: development and psychometric evaluation of the Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J).

    PubMed

    Rabin, L A; Borgos, M J; Saykin, A J; Wishart, H A; Crane, P K; Nutter-Upham, K E; Flashman, L A

    2007-10-01

    This article reports on the development and validation of a novel, objective test of judgment for use with older adults. The Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J) is an open-ended measure that evaluates judgment related to safety, medical, social/ethical, and financial issues. Psychometric features were examined in a sample of 134 euthymic individuals with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitive complaints but intact neuropsychological performance (CC), and demographically-matched healthy controls (HC). Measures of reliability were adequate to high, and TOP-J scores correlated with select measures of executive functioning, language, and memory. AD participants obtained impaired TOP-J scores relative to HCs, while MCI and CC participants showed an intermediate level of performance. Confirmatory factor analyses were consistent with a unidimensional structure. Results encourage further development of the TOP-J as an indicator of practical judgment skills in clinical and research settings. Longitudinal assessments are being performed to examine predictive validity of the TOP-J for cognitive progression in our clinical groups. PMID:17896200

  2. Judgment in older adults: Development and psychometric evaluation of the Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J)

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, L.A.; Borgos, M.J.; Saykin, A.J.; Wishart, H.A.; Crane, P.K.; Nutter-Upham, K.E.; Flashman, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the development and validation of a novel, objective test of judgment for use with older adults. The Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J) is an open-ended measure that evaluates judgment related to safety, medical, social/ethical, and financial issues. Psychometric features were examined in a sample of 134 euthymic individuals with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitive complaints but intact neuropsychological performance (CC), and demographically-matched healthy controls (HC). Measures of reliability were adequate to high, and TOP-J scores correlated with select measures of executive functioning, language, and memory. AD participants obtained impaired TOP-J scores relative to HCs, while MCI and CC participants showed an intermediate level of performance. Confirmatory factor analyses were consistent with a unidimensional structure. Results encourage further development of the TOP-J as an indicator of practical judgment skills in clinical and research settings. Longitudinal assessments are being performed to examine predictive validity of the TOP-J for cognitive progression in our clinical groups. PMID:17896200

  3. Taking Immersive VR Leap in Training of Landing Signal Officers.

    PubMed

    Greunke, Larry; Sadagic, Amela

    2016-04-01

    A major training device used to train all Landing Signal Officers (LSOs) for several decades has been the Landing Signal Officer Trainer, Device 2H111. This simulator, located in Oceana, VA, is contained within a two story tall room; it consists of several large screens and a physical rendition of the actual instruments used by LSOs in their operational environment. The young officers who serve in this specialty will typically encounter this system for only a short period of formal instruction (six one-hour long sessions), leaving multiple gaps in training. While experience with 2H111 is extremely valuable for all LSO officers, the amount of time they can spend using this training device is undeniably too short. The need to provide LSOs with an unlimited number of training opportunities unrestricted by location and time, married with recent advancements in commercial off the shelf (COTS) immersive technologies, provided an ideal platform to create a lightweight training solution that would fill those gaps and extend beyond the capabilities currently offered in the 2H111 simulator. This paper details our efforts on task analysis, surveying of user domain, mapping of 2H111 training capabilities to new prototype system to ensure its support of major training objectives of 2H111, design and development of prototype training system, and a feasibility study that included tests of technical system performance and informal testing with trainees at the LSO Schoolhouse. The results achieved in this effort indicate that the time for LSO training to make the leap to immersive VR has decidedly come. PMID:26780800

  4. Antinociceptive Effects of Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Nociceptive Behavior of Adult Rats during the Formalin Test

    PubMed Central

    Onifer, Stephen M.; Reed, William R.; Sozio, Randall S.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing pain relief resulting from spinal manipulative therapies, including low velocity variable amplitude spinal manipulation (LVVA-SM), requires determining their mechanisms. Pain models that incorporate simulated spinal manipulative therapy treatments are needed for these studies. The antinociceptive effects of a single LVVA-SM treatment on rat nociceptive behavior during the commonly used formalin test were investigated. Dilute formalin was injected subcutaneously into a plantar hindpaw. Licking behavior was video-recorded for 5 minutes. Ten minutes of LVVA-SM at 20° flexion was administered with a custom-made device at the lumbar (L5) vertebra of isoflurane-anesthetized experimental rats (n = 12) beginning 10 minutes after formalin injection. Hindpaw licking was video-recorded for 60 minutes beginning 5 minutes after LVVA-SM. Control rats (n = 12) underwent the same methods except for LVVA-SM. The mean times spent licking the formalin-injected hindpaw of both groups 1–5 minutes after injection were not different. The mean licking time during the first 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM of experimental rats was significantly less than that of control rats (P < 0.001). The mean licking times of both groups during the second and third 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM were not different. Administration of LVVA-SM had a short-term, remote antinociceptive effect similar to clinical findings. Therefore, mechanistic investigations using this experimental approach are warranted. PMID:26693243

  5. [Usefulness of clinical data and rapid diagnostic tests to identify bacterial etiology in adult respiratory infections].

    PubMed

    Toledano-Sierra, Pilar; Arriola-Hernández, Maite; Orueta-Sánchez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a common complaint and most of them, such as common cold and laryngitis, are viral in origin, so antibiotic use should be exceptional. However, there are other respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, pharyngitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) where a bacterial etiology is responsible for a non-negligible percentage, and antibiotics are often empirically indicated. The aim of the study is to identify the strength of the data obtained from the symptoms, physical examination and rapid diagnostic methods in respiratory infections in which antibiotic use is frequently proposed in order to improve diagnosis and influence the decision to prescribe these drugs. The review concludes that history, physical examination and rapid tests are useful to guide the need for antibiotic treatment in diseases such as acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, exacerbation of lower respiratory tract infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, no isolated data is accurate enough by itself to confirm or rule out the need for antibiotics. Therefore, clinical prediction rules bring together history and physical examination, thereby improving the accuracy of the decision to indicate or not antibiotics. PMID:25646631

  6. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion.

    PubMed

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  7. Impact resistance of oil-immersed lignum vitae

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wei; Shan, Lei; Lu, Hongyu; Zheng, Yelong; Han, Zhiwu; Tian, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Biological materials immersed in vegetable and mineral oil, such as rattan armor and wooden sleepers, have been extensively used since ancient times because of their excellent mechanical properties. This study quantitatively investigated the viscoelasticity and tribological performance of lignum vitae immersed in poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and tung oils (Aleuritesfordii Hemsl.) to reveal the mechanism of impact resistance. The acceleration of samples immersed in tung oil was higher than that of dry and PAO-immersed samples in the first impact. The elastic modulus of the samples immersed in tung oil increased slightly. The impact damage on the samples immersed in tung oil was reduced because of the low friction coefficient (0.07) resulted in a low wear rate. The extent of impact damage on the samples immersed in tung oil was approximately 34% and 58% lower than that on the dry and PAO oil-immersed samples, respectively, under an angle of 20° and a height of 10 cm. The impact damage on the PAO-immersed samples was reduced because of low friction coefficient. However, impact damage increased because of large elastic modulus. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for the application of modified biological materials with high strength and wear resistance. PMID:27425829

  8. Impact resistance of oil-immersed lignum vitae.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Shan, Lei; Lu, Hongyu; Zheng, Yelong; Han, Zhiwu; Tian, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Biological materials immersed in vegetable and mineral oil, such as rattan armor and wooden sleepers, have been extensively used since ancient times because of their excellent mechanical properties. This study quantitatively investigated the viscoelasticity and tribological performance of lignum vitae immersed in poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and tung oils (Aleuritesfordii Hemsl.) to reveal the mechanism of impact resistance. The acceleration of samples immersed in tung oil was higher than that of dry and PAO-immersed samples in the first impact. The elastic modulus of the samples immersed in tung oil increased slightly. The impact damage on the samples immersed in tung oil was reduced because of the low friction coefficient (0.07) resulted in a low wear rate. The extent of impact damage on the samples immersed in tung oil was approximately 34% and 58% lower than that on the dry and PAO oil-immersed samples, respectively, under an angle of 20° and a height of 10 cm. The impact damage on the PAO-immersed samples was reduced because of low friction coefficient. However, impact damage increased because of large elastic modulus. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for the application of modified biological materials with high strength and wear resistance. PMID:27425829

  9. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  10. Solving Fluid Structure Interaction Problems with an Immersed Boundary Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barad, Michael F.; Brehm, Christoph; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2016-01-01

    An immersed boundary method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be used for moving boundary problems as well as fully coupled fluid-structure interaction is presented. The underlying Cartesian immersed boundary method of the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) framework, based on the locally stabilized immersed boundary method previously presented by the authors, is extended to account for unsteady boundary motion and coupled to linear and geometrically nonlinear structural finite element solvers. The approach is validated for moving boundary problems with prescribed body motion and fully coupled fluid structure interaction problems. Keywords: Immersed Boundary Method, Higher-Order Finite Difference Method, Fluid Structure Interaction.

  11. Immersive Theater - a Proven Way to Enhance Learning Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Zimmerman, L.; Spillane, S.; Sumners, C.

    2014-12-01

    The portable immersive theater has gone from our first demonstration at fall AGU 2003 to a product offered by multiple companies in various versions to literally millions of users per year. As part of our NASA funded outreach program, we conducted a test of learning in a portable Discovery Dome as contrasted with learning the same materials (visuals and sound track) on a computer screen. We tested 200 middle school students (primarily underserved minorities). Paired t-tests and an independent t-test were used to compare the amount of learning that students achieved. Interest questionnaires were administered to participants in formal (public school) settings and focus groups were conducted in informal (museum camp and educational festival) settings. Overall results from the informal and formal educational setting indicated that there was a statistically significant increase in test scores after viewing We Choose Space. There was a statistically significant increase in test scores for students who viewed We Choose Space in the portable Discovery Dome (9.75) as well as with the computer (8.88). However, long-term retention of the material tested on the questionnaire indicated that for students who watched We Choose Space in the portable Discovery Dome, there was a statistically significant long-term increase in test scores (10.47), whereas, six weeks after learning on the computer, the improvements over the initial baseline (3.49) were far less and were not statistically significant. The test score improvement six weeks after learning in the dome was essentially the same as the post test immediately after watching the show, demonstrating virtually no loss of gained information in the six week interval. In the formal educational setting, approximately 34% of the respondents indicated that they wanted to learn more about becoming a scientist, while 35% expressed an interest in a career in space science. In the informal setting, 26% indicated that they were interested in

  12. Influence of water immersion, water gymnastics and swimming on cardiac output in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Jean‐Paul; Noveanu, Markus; Morger, Cyrill; Gaillet, Raymond; Capoferri, Mauro; Anderegg, Matthias; Saner, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Background Whole‐body water immersion leads to a significant shift of blood from the periphery to the intrathoracic circulation, followed by an increase in central venous pressure and heart volume. In patients with severely reduced left ventricular function, this hydrostatically induced volume shift might overstrain the cardiovascular adaptive mechanisms and lead to cardiac decompensation. Aim To assess the haemodynamic response to water immersion, gymnastics and swimming in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods 10 patients with compensated CHF (62.9 (6.3) years, ejection fraction 31.5% (4.1%), peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2) 19.4 (2.8) ml/kg/min), 10 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) but preserved left ventricular function (57.2 (5.6) years, ejection fraction 63.9% (5.5%), peak V̇o2 28 (6.3) ml/kg/min), and 10 healthy controls (32.8 (7.2) years, peak V̇o2 45.6 (6) ml/kg/min) were examined. Haemodynamic response to thermoneutral (32°C) water immersion and exercise was measured using a non‐invasive foreign gas rebreathing method during stepwise water immersion, water gymnastics and swimming. Results Water immersion up to the chest increased cardiac index by 19% in controls, by 21% in patients with CAD and by 16% in patients with CHF. Although some patients with CHF showed a decrease of stroke volume during immersion, all subjects were able to increase cardiac index (by 87% in healthy subjects, by 77% in patients with CAD and by 53% in patients with CHF). V̇o2 during swimming was 9.7 (3.3) ml/kg/min in patients with CHF, 12.4 (3.5) ml/kg/min in patients with CAD and 13.9 (4) ml/kg/min in controls. Conclusions Patients with severely reduced left ventricular function but stable clinical conditions and a minimal peak V̇o2 of at least 15 ml/kg/min during a symptom‐limited exercise stress test tolerate water immersion and swimming in thermoneutral water well. Although cardiac index and V̇o2 are lower than in patients

  13. Enhanced GSH synthesis by Bisphenol A exposure promoted DNA methylation process in the testes of adult rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cong; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Zaizhao

    2016-09-01

    DNA methylation is a commonly studied epigenetic modification. The mechanism of BPA on DNA methylation is poorly understood. The present study aims to explore whether GSH synthesis affects DNA methylation in the testes of adult male rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus in response to Bisphenol A (BPA). Male G. rarus was exposed to 1, 15 and 225μgL(-1) BPA for 7 days. The levels of global DNA methylation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glutathione (GSH) in the testes were analyzed. Meanwhile, the levels of enzymes involved in DNA methylation and de novo GSH synthesis, and the substrate contents for GSH production were measured. Furthermore, gene expression profiles of the corresponding genes of all studied enzymes were analyzed. Results indicated that BPA at 15 and 225μgL(-1) caused hypermethylation of global DNA in the testes. The 15μgL(-1) BPA resulted in significant decrease of ten-eleven translocation proteins (TETs) while 225μgL(-1) BPA caused significant increase of DNA methyltransferase proteins (DNMTs). Moreover, 225μgL(-1) BPA caused significant increase of H2O2 and GSH levels, and the de novo GSH synthesis was enhanced. These results indicated that the significant decrease of the level of TETs may be sufficient to cause the DNA hypermethylation by 15μgL(-1) BPA. However, the significantly increased of DNMTs contributed to the significant increase of DNA methylation levels by 225μgL(-1) BPA. Moreover, the elevated de novo GSH synthesis may promote the DNA methylation process. PMID:27474941

  14. Genetic Pharmacotherapy as an Early CNS Drug Development Strategy: Testing Glutaminase Inhibition for Schizophrenia Treatment in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Masson, Justine; Gellman, Celia; Thomsen, Gretchen M.; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Merker, Robert J.; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna; Wang, Yvonne; Ernst, Rachel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genetic pharmacotherapy is an early drug development strategy for the identification of novel CNS targets in mouse models prior to the development of specific ligands. Here for the first time, we have implemented this strategy to address the potential therapeutic value of a glutamate-based pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia involving inhibition of the glutamate recycling enzyme phosphate-activated glutaminase. Mice constitutively heterozygous for GLS1, the gene encoding glutaminase, manifest a schizophrenia resilience phenotype, a key dimension of which is an attenuated locomotor response to propsychotic amphetamine challenge. If resilience is due to glutaminase deficiency in adulthood, then glutaminase inhibitors should have therapeutic potential. However, this has been difficult to test given the dearth of neuroactive glutaminase inhibitors. So, we used genetic pharmacotherapy to ask whether adult induction of GLS1 heterozygosity would attenuate amphetamine responsiveness. We generated conditional floxGLS1 mice and crossed them with global CAGERT2cre∕+ mice to produce GLS1 iHET mice, susceptible to tamoxifen induction of GLS1 heterozygosity. One month after tamoxifen treatment of adult GLS1 iHET mice, we found a 50% reduction in GLS1 allelic abundance and glutaminase mRNA levels in the brain. While GLS1 iHET mice showed some recombination prior to tamoxifen, there was no impact on mRNA levels. We then asked whether induction of GLS heterozygosity would attenuate the locomotor response to propsychotic amphetamine challenge. Before tamoxifen, control and GLS1 iHET mice did not differ in their response to amphetamine. One month after tamoxifen treatment, amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion was blocked in GLS1 iHET mice. The block was largely maintained after 5 months. Thus, a genetically induced glutaminase reduction—mimicking pharmacological inhibition—strongly attenuated the response to a propsychotic challenge, suggesting that glutaminase may be a novel

  15. Assessing Specific Cognitive Deficits Associated with Dementia in Older Adults with Down Syndrome: Use and Validity of the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB)

    PubMed Central

    Sinai, Amanda; Hassiotis, Angela; Rantell, Khadija; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Background Down syndrome is associated with specific cognitive deficits. Alongside this, older adults with Down syndrome are a high risk group for dementia. The Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB), a cognitive assessment battery specifically developed for use with individuals with Down syndrome, has been proposed for use as outcome measures for clinical trials in this population. It has not been validated in older adults with Down syndrome. This study aims to assess the use and validity of the ACTB in older adults with Down syndrome. Methods Participants with Down syndrome aged 45 and over were assessed using the ACTB, standard tabletop tests and informant ratings. Results Assessment outcomes of 49 participants were analysed. Of these, 19 (39%) had a diagnosis of dementia or possible dementia. Most participants were able to attempt most of the tasks, although some tasks had high floor effects (including CANTAB Intra-Extra Dimensional shift stages completed and Modified Dots Task). Of the ACTB tasks, statistically significant differences were observed between the dementia and no dementia groups on CANTAB Simple Reaction Time median latency, NEPSY Visuomotor Precision—Car and Motorbike and CANTAB Paired Associates Learning stages completed. No significant differences were observed for CANTAB Intra-Extra Dimensional Shift, Modified Dots Task, Finger Sequencing, NEPSY Visuomotor precision—Train and Car and CANTAB Paired Associates Learning first trial memory score. Several of the tasks in the ACTB can be used in older adults with Down syndrome and have mild to moderate concurrent validity when compared to tabletop tests and informant ratings, although this varies on a test by test basis. Conclusions Overall, scores for a number of tests in the ACTB were similar when comparing dementia and no dementia groups of older adults with Down syndrome, suggesting that it would not be an appropriate outcome measure of cognitive function for clinical trials of dementia

  16. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L M; Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S

    2016-02-01

    Non-overweight individuals may follow aggressive weight management approaches alongside overweight/obese friends or family members; thus, research has begun to evaluate subsequent effects among non-overweight populations. A prior study evaluated the short-term effects of an immersion weight loss programme on healthy young adult staff leaders. Results indicated that participation seemed to benefit, not harm, the young adults. The current investigation examined 1-year eating disorder and weight trajectories in this sample. The total sample (N = 244) consisted of staff leaders (44.3%) and demographically similar comparison participants who completed eating disorder and weight assessments across four time points: baseline, end of summer, 6-week follow-up and 1-year follow-up. Forty-seven per cent of the original sample responded to all time points (staff leaders n = 60; comparison n = 55). Over the course of 1 year, risk trajectories did not differ between groups. Staff leaders did not report significant changes in body mass index, suggesting that they maintained healthy weight over the course of 1 year. Participation as an immersion weight loss programme leader appeared to be protective against weight gain, without increasing eating disorder risk, for healthy young adults. This provides further support for using weight management interventions across a wide range of individuals. PMID:26638779

  17. Effect of immersion in various media on the sorption, solubility, elution of unreacted monomers, and flexural properties of two model dental composite compositions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujie; Xu, Jingwei

    2008-06-01

    Immersion in various media has different effect on the properties of dental composites, such as sorption, solubility, elution of unreacted monomers, flexural strength, and flexural elastic modulus. In the present work, the effect of immersion in various media and the relationship between the variation of these properties and the components of dental composite were investigated. Two model dental composites were immersed in three different media-distilled water, artificial saliva, and ethanol/water, respectively, for a certain time. Their sorption, solubility, flexural strength, and flexural elastic modulus were tested according to the international standard. Elution of unreacted monomers was analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the surface morphology of samples after immersion was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the effect on properties depended on the immersion media where ethanol/water had the most significant effect and these properties were related to the components of dental composite. PMID:18253815

  18. Readability and Test-Retest Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Designed to Assess HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Beliefs, Behaviours and Sources of HIV Prevention Information of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…

  19. Significant Discrepancies between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement with a College Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, Shawn Amig; Salvia, John

    1986-01-01

    Significant differences were found between college freshmen science (N=50) and nonscience (N=50) majors who were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement. (Author/CB)

  20. The Association between Parent Early Adult Drug Use Disorder and Later Observed Parenting Practices and Child Behavior Problems: Testing Alternate Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the association between parent illicit drug use disorder (DUD) in early adulthood and observed parenting practices at ages 27-28 and examined the following 3 theoretically derived models explaining this link: (a) a disrupted parent adult functioning model,(b) a preexisting parent personality factor model, and (c) a disrupted…