Science.gov

Sample records for adult immigrant language

  1. Integrating Volunteering into the Adult Immigrant Second Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    For immigrants, the acquisition of language, specifically the ability to communicate effectively, is one prerequisite of full integration into the host society. For an adult immigrant second language (L2) learner in Canada, access to opportunities that may enhance communicative ability are often limited to the ESL classroom. However, while…

  2. Identity, Good Language Learning, and Adult Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervatiuc, Andreea

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the process of linguistic-and-cultural-identity formation as experienced by adult immigrants to Canada who consider themselves professionally successful and highly proficient in the target language. It addresses the characteristics of "good language learners" by determining how they negotiated their marginal standing in…

  3. Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Clive, Ed.

    The field manual for a series of coordinated studies of the spontaneous acquisition of a second language by adult immigrant workers provides a theoretical and practical framework for the entire project and a source of information about it for other researchers. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the project's objectives and organization. Chapter 3 reviews…

  4. Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: Exemplified Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevise, Anne; Porquier, Remy

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates some of the problems of second language (French) acquisition by adult Spanish-speaking immigrants in a natural setting through analysis of the European Project data (Perdue, 1982) in three areas: acquisition and use of the over-generalized marker "c'est"; acquisition of reference to time; and acquisition of reference to space.…

  5. Assessing the Literacy Skills of Adult Immigrants and Adult English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Heide Spruck; Chen, Jing; White, Sheida; Soroui, Jaleh

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics and performance of adult immigrants and adult English language learners on the National Assessment of Adult Literacy. These factors are related to key social outcomes such as involvement in the labor force, income, and welfare participation, and the data reported can be used in making decisions about…

  6. Adult Immigrants' Media Usage and Its Function in Host Language Training Opportunities: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Media promotes to what extent immigrants learn the host language and cultural values. Consequently, the overall aim of this paper is to identify predictors among adult immigrants in language training and its effect on host language training. The participants (n = 186)-- many of them refugees--were recruited purposefully for the study from one…

  7. Discourse in Adult Education: The Language Education of Adult Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Hannah

    1990-01-01

    A shortcoming of adult education theories is lack of attention to social, historical, and institutional contexts. A case study of language education programs for adult immigrants in Sweden illustrates how assumptions about participant-centered, needs-based education justified and legitimated the use of these programs as a tool for employment…

  8. Receptivity toward Immigrants in Rural Pennsylvania: Perceptions of Adult English as Second Language Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    This article uses interview and questionnaire data to examine how adult English as a second language (ESL) providers in rural Pennsylvania perceive community receptivity toward immigrants and the factors they believe foster or hinder receptivity and immigrants' integration. ESL providers' depictions of local responses to immigrants ranged from…

  9. Language Education of Adult Immigrants in Greece: Current Trends and Future Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheoudakis, M.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing number of immigrants living and working in Greece has proven to be a challenge for the social as well as educational policy of this country. In order to help adult immigrants to integrate into society and facilitate their access to the job market, the Greek state has introduced special language education programmes. This paper…

  10. The Connections among Immigration, Nation Building, and Adult Education English as a Second Language Instruction in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception at the turn of the last century, adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the United States has been entwined with immigration processes and ideas of the nation. In spite of current uncertainty about the overhauling of federal immigration policy, increasingly anti-immigrant laws in states such as…

  11. Language Acquisition among Adult Immigrants in Canada: The Effect of Premigration Language Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Gaining proficiency in the host country language is a key element to successful integration of new immigrants. In this article, the author adopts Bourdieu's perspective that accumulation and conversion of forms of capital is only possible through practice in a social field; therefore, the author puts forward the idea that language capital…

  12. The Community College: Bridge or Roadblock to Higher Education for US Adult Immigrant English-Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janis, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While community colleges have been accessible for adult learners with an immigrant and an English Language Learning (ELL) background, there is a gap between preparation and academic success on the college level among these students. Within community colleges, older adult English as a Second Language (ESL) students have the lowest first-semester…

  13. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

  14. Translating into Understanding: Language Brokering and Prosocial Development in Emerging Adults from Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Shu-Sha A.; Greenfield, Patricia M.; Orellana, Marjorie F.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study assessed the nature of language brokering and the relationship between language brokering and prosocial capacities in a sample of 139 college students from ethnically diverse immigrant families. The prosocial capacities of interest were empathic concern and two forms of perspective-taking: general perspective-taking…

  15. Language Testing, "Integration" and Subtractive Multilingualism in Italy: Challenges for Adult Immigrant Second Language and Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Stephanie V.

    2015-01-01

    Since Italy's unification in 1861, the establishment and diffusion of the standard Italian language at the expense of all other linguistic varieties has dominated language and education policy discourses. Today, as Italy has transformed from a country of mass "emigration" to a country of mass "immigration," the language…

  16. Reaching a Culturally Diverse Immigrant Population of Adult English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joan; Owen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) is a framework to help adult English as a second language (ESL) educators renovate their practices into effective, culturally responsive programs, readily accessible to adult learners. Four CRT strategies that can be used include (a) validation through caring, (b) valuing cultural experiences, (c) creating a…

  17. Implementing Training in Portuguese for Speakers of Other Languages in Portugal: The Case of Adult Immigrants with Little or No Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Ana Raquel; Oliveira, Nuno; Ortiz, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Courses in Portuguese for Speakers of Other Languages, in particular for adult immigrants, have been steadily expanding in Portugal over the last 15 years. These programmes aim to promote educational and labour market integration, access to Portuguese nationality, and cognitive development. This paper argues that official Portuguese learning…

  18. Agency in the Making: Adult Immigrants' Accounts of Language Learning and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers language learner agency from a poststructuralist perspective, focusing on how agency is discursively constituted as individuals position themselves and are positioned as (potential) agents within ideologically defined spaces. As such, I regard agency as inherently unstable and as a discursively mobilized capacity to act.…

  19. Immigration and Adult Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

  20. Second-Language Literacy, Immigration, and Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto Huerta, M. E.; Pérez, B.

    2015-01-01

    Second language literacy development is a significant factor influencing immigrants' opportunities to integrate with the host society. To examine the opportunities that different immigrant groups have had for obtaining both, we selected four published studies that had been originally analyzed through a sociocultural perspective, a prominent…

  1. Language and Work among Immigrants: Endogeneity in the Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

    The determinants of dominant language fluency among immigrants and the labor market impact of this fluency are examined. The model is generally applicable, but the empirical tests are performed for adult foreign-born men in Australia (1981 and 1986 Australian censuses). The findings indicate that fluency responds to incentives, including economic…

  2. Language and Opportunity in the "Land of Opportunity": Latina Immigrants' Reflections on Language Learning and Professional Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Liv Thorstensson

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the goals and realities of four educated, working, adult Latina, English as a Second language (ESL) students living in North Carolina, a region seeing particularly intense migration of Latino immigrants. The study conceptually frames adjustment issues confronted by these Latina immigrants in terms of gender, language,…

  3. The Complementarity of Language and Other Human Capital: Immigrant Earnings in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the effects of language practice on earnings among adult male immigrants in Canada. Finds that earnings increase with schooling, pre-immigration experience and duration in Canada, as well as with proficiency in the official languages (English and French). Using selective correction techniques, finds that greater proficiency in the…

  4. Adult Education, Migration and Immigrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Cossio, Roger Diaz

    Mexico is experiencing major reform in adult education. At the same time, Mexico has been the largest producer of immigrants into the United States in the last 50 years. At the beginning of the century, non-English-speaking immigrants were only required to learn enough English to perform their jobs. As the Mexican-American community grew, it…

  5. Ethnic networks and language proficiency among immigrants.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R; Miller, P W

    1996-02-01

    "This paper uses a unique data set for Australia (1988) that includes a variety of ethnic network variables to analyze the role of the language concentration measure [in immigrants' acquisition of the language of the destination country]. These ethnic variables, in particular, ethnic press, relatives in Australia, and spouse's origin language, are highly statistically significant. Their inclusion in the equation eliminates the effect of the minority-language concentration variable. The model for analyzing the determinants of English reading and English writing skills in Australia is also shown to be very similar to the model for speaking fluency, including the effect of the ethnic network variables." PMID:12291403

  6. Teacher Voices: Immigration, Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Writing Project (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents stories of six teachers who believe in the power and promise of immigrant students and English language learners. Their stories begin to help readers understand the assets these groups of students bring to classrooms, the challenges they--both students and teachers--face, and the role that teachers and schools play in their…

  7. Airport Customs and Immigration. English as a Second Language Community Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragman, June; Hinkle, Ann

    This workbook is one of a series designed for adult learners of English as a Second Language. The overall aim of this volume is that the student who is a landed immigrant in Canada and leaves the country for a vacation or family visit will be able to deal successfully with Canadian immigration and customs officials upon return to Canada. This…

  8. Community-Based Language Training for Immigrant Women and Seniors in Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Marilyn; Cap, Ihor

    Canada's Community-Based Language Training (CBLT) program was designed as a part-time, flexible language training response for non-confident, isolated immigrant women who required adult English-as-a-Second-Language (A/ESL) training to assist them in their daily lives. It addressed barriers to their participation in classes housed in educational…

  9. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  10. Telling the Life Stories of Adult Immigrants Learning English as a Second Language in the Midwest: A Chronotopic Approach Informed by Bakhtin's "Forms of Time and of the Chronotype in the Novel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yin Lam

    2013-01-01

    Adult immigrants are invaluable assets to our society as they bring along their cultural capital across borders. However, little is known about how their rich life histories reflect and refract their plights as ESL learners. This study is an investigation of three adult immigrants' English learning in an immigration center in the Midwest. The…

  11. Prospects for Reversing Language Shift (RLS) in Australia: Evidence from Its Aboriginal and Immigrant Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joshua A.

    1992-01-01

    Examines Australia's reverse language shift (RLS), presenting eight stages of RLS for immigrant-derived and Aboriginal languages and noting the severity of intergenerational dislocation. Aboriginal languages are dying quickly, and language shift continues in immigrant-based community languages. Steps to encourage second language learning are often…

  12. Shifting Identity Positions in the Development of Language Education for Immigrants: An Analysis of Discourses Associated with "Swedish for Immigrants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Jenny Karin; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    The study presented in this paper focuses upon conceptualisations of language and identity in the institutionalised arena that emerged in the post-Second World War period with the specific intention of teaching Swedish to adult immigrants in the nation-state of Sweden. Our analysis focuses upon the development of the educational programme "Swedish…

  13. Cultural and Social Processes of Language Brokering among Arab, Asian, and Latin Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Shu-Sha Angie; Nash, Afaf; Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how language and culture brokering (translating and interpreting language and culture for others) influences the acculturative experiences and self-perceptions of young adults from immigrant Arab, Asian, and Latino American backgrounds. Semi-structured interviews with 10 participants suggest that mediating information for…

  14. The Complementarity of Language and Other Human Capital: Immigrant Earnings in Canada. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

    This paper analyzes the effects of language practice on earnings among adult male immigrants in Canada using data from the 1991 Census of Canada. It examines whether destination language skills are complements to or substitutes in generating earnings with respect to other kinds of human capital (schooling and pre- and post-migration labor market…

  15. [Medical emergencies in the adult immigrant].

    PubMed

    Junyent, M; Núñez, S; Miró, O

    2006-01-01

    The need for medical care of the immigrant population is growing in proportion to the increase in the number of immigrants resident in Spain. This article reviews the socio-demographic characteristics of the immigrant population that come for consultations in the emergency services and discusses those particularities, both medical (neurocysticercosis, tuberculosis, infection by the AIDS virus, hepatitis, malaria, parasitosis, Ulysses syndrome) and paramedical (knowledge of the health card, concept of medicine, language barrier), that differentiate them from the native population. Nonetheless, since we are dealing with a young population that is in principle healthy, their reasons for consultation do not greatly differ from the general population. It is worth drawing attention to the high level of satisfaction of this population with the care afforded them in the hospital emergency services. PMID:16721415

  16. Language, Ethnicity and Education: Case Studies on Immigrant Minority Groups and Immigrant Minority Languages. Multilingual Matters 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeder, Peter; Extra, Guus

    Immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages in Europe are viewed from three perspectives (demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational) through case studies. The first part, using a demographic approach, includes research on immigrant minority groups in population statistics of both European Union and English-dominant countries…

  17. Do host country education and language training help recent immigrants exit poverty?

    PubMed

    Kaida, Lisa

    2013-05-01

    Despite growing interest in host country-specific skills, quantitative assessments of the economic benefit of host country education and training for immigrants are limited. This study addresses this gap by evaluating the impacts of host country formal education and language training on the exit from family poverty among recently arrived immigrant adults. The bivariate probit model and propensity weighting approach are used to analyze data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada. Results suggest that while English/French language training is beneficial for low income recent immigrants in general, host country education benefits only highly educated recent arrivals. This study underscores the importance of considering immigrants' selectivity into host country education and training, as simple regression analysis can improperly estimate their true benefits. PMID:23521991

  18. Immigrants' Language Skills and Visa Category. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Lee, Yew Liang; Miller, Paul W.

    This study examines the impact of visa category on the English language skills of recent immigrants to Australia, focusing on the extent to which immigration selection criteria have an impact on language skills and noting the extent to which this impact is over and above that attributable to age, skills, and behavioral factors. The study followed…

  19. Second Language Education Context and Home Language Effect: Language Dissimilarities and Variation in Immigrant Students' Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Sandra; Martins, Margarida Alves; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Heritage language speakers struggle in European classrooms with insufficient material provided for second language (SL) learning and assessment. Considering the amount of instruments and pertinent studies in English SL, immigrant students are better prepared than their peers in Romance language settings. This study investigates how factors such as…

  20. "La unión hace la fuerza": Community Organizing in Adult Education for Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlock, Russell H., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Adult English as a second language (ESL) educators have struggled to move beyond skills-based instruction to implement more student-centered, contextualized pedagogy that prepares students to become active citizens and to solve real-world problems, even as the growing number of immigrants make adult education increasingly important for determining…

  1. The 'biliterate' ballot controversy: language acquisition and cultural shift among immigrants.

    PubMed

    Loo, C M

    1985-01-01

    This US study tested the validity of assumptions made regarding multilingual electoral ballot provisions. Rationale for language assistance was found to exist on the basis of number and proportion of recent immigrants, proportion of foreign born, lag of biliterate skill behind bilingual ability, linguistic differences between the Chinese language and English, and the discriminatory structure of the labor market. In California, where close to 1/2 the population is an ethnic minority, the issue is particularly relevant. Bilingual advocates view English-only advocates as "un-American" on legal and ideological grounds, while English-only advocates consider it "un-American" to be non-English speaking. In addition to census data and the existing literature, this study relies on the structured interview survey data of a representative sample of the Chinese adult population of San Francisco's Chinatown. 2/3 of the immigrants believed an immigrant should make some cultural changes, and 1/2 of the immigrants had done so. Data failed to support the claim that immigrants are uninformed that English is necessary for sociopolitical participation. Their more recent pattern of immigration, the linguistic differences between Asian languages and the English language, and structural constraints of US society make successive language acquisition difficult for Chinese migrant adults. Policy recommendations include: 1) changing language assistance criteria in the electoral process, 2) adding Vietnamese as a single language minority, 3) not considering Asian language minorities as 1 generic category, 4) justifying electoral assistance on several grounds, 5) disseminating data bearing directly on misguided assumptions related to language and cultural shift factors, and 6) renaming the "bilingual ballots" to "biliterate ballots." PMID:12341061

  2. Using Achievement Tests to Measure Language Assimilation and Language Bias among the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akresh, Richard; Akresh, Ilana Redstone

    2011-01-01

    We measure the extent of language assimilation among children of Hispanic immigrants. Our identification strategy exploits test language randomization (English or Spanish) of Woodcock Johnson achievement tests in the New Immigrant Survey and lets us attribute test score differences solely to test language. Students scoring poorly may be tracked…

  3. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports. PMID:26274061

  4. Multilingualism and Language Attitudes: Local versus Immigrant Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarraran, Amaia; Lasagabaster, David; Sierra, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Spain took in more immigrants than any other European country in 2005, a fact which has had a clear impact on the education system. This paper examines the language attitudes held by 125 local or autochtonous (42.4%) and immigrant (57.6%) students in the Basque Country. The results showed that both groups of students held rather negative attitudes…

  5. Low-Educated Immigrants and the Social Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Scholten, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s' decoupling of the formal study of second language acquisition from pedagogical concerns, the social relevance of such research has been of little concern. Early studies, in the 1970s, of uninstructed adult learners' acquisition of morphosyntax pointed to social implications: these working class immigrants had varying…

  6. Predictors of English-Language Proficiency among Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez, Mariela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the language skills and factors that predict English-language proficiency for a sample of 209 students ages 10 to 16 from three immigrant groups--Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian. Sources of data included structured student interviews, parent interviews, and individual language assessments. On average, students'…

  7. Immigration, Cultural-Linguistic Diversity, and Topics in Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes 4 topics contributed by the author over the last 30 years of "Topics in Language Disorders" that address the issues of immigration, migration, and refugees. The focus is on the historical perspectives on evolution of terminologies from limited English proficient to English language learner and English as a new language.…

  8. Literacy Education for Low-Educated Second Language Learning Adults in Multilingual Contexts: The Case of Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jinyoung; Ziegler, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Mastery of literacy skills in the language(s) of the host country is considered a key element for the successful integration of immigrants. The current paper focuses on possibly one of the most challenging aspects of the issues of linguistic integration of immigrants, i.e., literacy acquisition by "low-literate" adult immigrants in a…

  9. Keeping up with Changes in Laws Affecting Immigrants. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 20. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses keeping up with changes in laws affecting immigrants. Its objective is to teach students to track the legal framework that affects immigrants' lives and to build problem-solving…

  10. The Evolution of Language Acquisition in Immigrant Students in Catalonia: The Role of the Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansó, Clara; Navarro, José Luis; Huguet, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The development of immigrant students' language proficiency is one of the main challenges facing education professionals today. Our study was a longitudinal analysis of Catalan and Spanish language acquisition. Method: Participants were 72 immigrant students (27 Spanish speakers and 45 non-Spanish speakers) enrolled in compulsory…

  11. Learning as a First Language: Creating Opportunities for Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges across the country that provide services tailored to immigrant learners. The majority of colleges offer basic English as a second language (ESL) classes, but many programs strive to do more than simply breach the language barrier. The most successful programs teach important job skills with a focus…

  12. Integration of Immigrants: The Role of Language Proficiency and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delander, Lennart; Hammarstedt, Mats; Mansson, Jonas; Nyberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors evaluate a Swedish pilot scheme that targeted immigrants with weak Swedish-language skills registered as unemployed at public employment offices. By sandwiching work-oriented language teaching and practical workplace training, the project aimed at enhancing the employability of project participants but also at alerting…

  13. The Japanese Immigrant Community in Brazil: Language Contact and Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Hiroki; Loveday, Leo

    1988-01-01

    Studies language contact and language shift among different generations of Japanese immigrants in Brazil. The social factors involved in the abandonment of the ethnic (Japanese) code is considered. Results indicate that, typically, ethnic identity switch is accompanied by mother tongue replacement with Portuguese by the third generation.…

  14. Explaining English Language Proficiency among Adolescent Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhill, Avary; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Paez, Mariela

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to increase understanding of factors that account for academic English language proficiency in a sample of 274 adolescent first-generation immigrant students from China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America, and Mexico. Previous research has shown the importance of English language proficiency in predicting academic…

  15. From "Muteness" to Eloquence: Immigrants' Narratives about Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelenevskaya, Maria N.; Fialkova, Larisa

    2003-01-01

    Examines personal narratives of immigrants to israel from the former Soviet Union. Interviews conducted in Russian reveal awareness that language is a status category and that the attitude towards minority languages is the Soviet Union has been transferred to the linguistic situation in Israel. In the situation of emerging bilingualism, immigrants…

  16. Family Language Policies among Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…

  17. Language use depending on news frame and immigrant origin.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Itziar; Igartua, Juan-José; Moral, Félix; Palacios, Elena; Acosta, Tania; Muñoz, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the media on individuals' specific language use in relation to a news story on immigration: the influence of the news frame and group cue. Abstraction, complexity of language use, and negative affective language were evaluated. The 523 participants were randomly distributed to each of the four experimental conditions: news frame (crime versus economic contribution) by group cue (geographical origin of the immigrants involved: Moroccans versus Latin Americans). Through content analysis of the ideas and reflections that arose after the participants read the different news stories, using the Linguistic Category Model (LCM; Semin & Fiedler, 1991) to measure abstract language and the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker, Booth, & Francis, 2007) to analyze complex language and negative affective language, it emerged that abstract language and negative affective language were more frequent in the participants assigned to the news frame on crime. Complex language was more commonly used when the news frame referred to the economic contribution of immigrants. Regression analyses showed the mediating role of attitude to immigration in the effects of news frame on negative affective language. The bootstrap method was used to assess the magnitude of the indirect effect. A significant mediator effect was also found through structural equation modeling. Analyses of covariance showed one interaction between news frame and group cue: Among those who read the news story in a frame linking immigration to crime and Moroccan origin, abstract language was more characteristic. The results are discussed from the theoretical perspective of framing. PMID:23113573

  18. Official Language Bilingualism to the Exclusion of Multilingualism: Immigrant Student Perspectives on French as a Second Official Language in "English-Dominant" Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the implications of Canada's official bilingual status on young immigrant adults who are presently studying at the undergraduate level at university. More precisely, I examine how these young adults have experienced and judge French as a second official language (FSOL) learning in "English-dominant" regions of Canada. Through a…

  19. Size & Flow: Adult Education Issues in the Senate Immigration Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Garrett Murphy and Gail Spangenberg report on the need for understanding better than in the past, the number of undocumented immigrants likely to need adult education services under provisions of Senate Immigration Bill S.744. The essay looks at why the issues of "size and flow" are important for planners, providers, and…

  20. Teaching Immigrants Norwegian Culture to Support Their Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Awal Mohammed; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with 48 adult immigrant students studying Norwegian under basic education program of the Ski Municipality Adult Education Unit between 2009-2011. Using the framework of Genc and Bada (2005), we tried to replicate their study in a new setting--Norway. The study investigated migrant students' perceptions learning Norwegian…

  1. Noncredit to Credit Transitions: The Role of Cultural Capital and Habitus for Adult Immigrant Learners in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Liza A.

    2010-01-01

    Adults who immigrate to the United States recognize the value of fluency in the dominant language as a bridge to social mobility in their new homeland. In California, many of them invest time and energy in noncredit English as a Second Language (ESL) programs offered within the community college system to gain communicative competence and enhance…

  2. Discrimination and health among Asian American immigrants: Disentangling racial from language discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether self-reported discrimination based on race and language was associated with the number of chronic health conditions among Asian American immigrants. We also examined whether these relationships were moderated by years in the United States. Data are from adults participating in an Asian American supplement to the 2001 Health Care Quality Survey. Language and racial discrimination in seeking health care were independently associated with increased number of chronic health conditions after controlling for age, sex, education, family income, health insurance, primary language, nativity, and ethnicity. Language discrimination was significantly associated with health conditions even with the presence of racial discrimination in the statistical model. Racial discrimination did not show a significant association in the full analytic model. The relationship between language discrimination and chronic conditions was stronger for Asian immigrants living in the USA 10 years or more compared to more recently arrived immigrants. Language discrimination may be an understudied type of discrimination associated with chronic illness among Asian Americans. PMID:19095340

  3. Immigration and Language Policy and Planning in Quebec and Canada: Language Learning and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrick, Maeve; Donovan, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The connections between immigration and language policy and planning in Quebec and Canada are long established. With the continuing upward trajectory in levels of immigration to Canada and Quebec the linguistic integration of these new arrivals remains an important topic. In recent years, Asia has overtaken Europe as the leading source of…

  4. The Politics of Arabic Language Education: Moroccan Immigrant Children's Language Socialization into Ethnic and Religious Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…

  5. Ethical Dimensions of Shared Ethnicity, Language, and Immigration Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria, Mabelle P.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I illustrate how some commonalities that I share with my participants--ethnic background, native language, and immigration experience--create unexpected ethical concerns. I explore how these commonalities facilitate the establishment of rapid intimacy, at the same time creating the temptations of over-identification and blurring…

  6. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy for Immigrant Children and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to provide a conceptual review of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) and a synthesis of research that documents its application to immigrant children and English language learners (ELLs). First, the significance and relevance of CRP are framed in the context of today's student population and the growing gaps in academic…

  7. Health Care and the Silent Language of Vietnamese Immigrant Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, H. Rika

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the cultural context and the silent language of health care delivery from the perspective of foreign-born, Vietnamese immigrants. Suggests that business communication instructors need to incorporate cultural health beliefs, time orientation, and the expected role of family members in the practice of health care as they prepare…

  8. Facilitating the Immigrant's Learning a Second Language in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, W. K.

    The paper discusses the major second language teaching methods used to date in contrast with the strategies and techniques all children so successfully employ in first language acquisition. Second language acquisition for adults is not identical to first language acquisition but research seems to support the theory that it is similar. Successful…

  9. Immigrants' Perceptions of Their Native Language: Challenges to Actual Use and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucherah, Winnie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined immigrants' perceptions of their native language and factors that enhance or hinder its use and maintenance. Participants (N = 208) included immigrants to the United States. Results showed that immigrants perceive their native language positively, desire that their children use it alongside English, and perceive negative…

  10. Strategies for Building Social Connection through English: Challenges for Immigrants and Implications for Teaching English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Yates, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic data from a longitudinal study of newly-arrived immigrants of non English-speaking background in the Australian Adult Migrant English Program to investigate their opportunities for using English and the language learning strategies (LLS) they used to make the most of these opportunities. Analysis of their reports…

  11. Language Attitudes and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui; Slaughter-Defoe, Diana T.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates attitudes toward heritage language (HL) maintenance among Chinese immigrant parents and their second-generation children. Specific attention is given to exploring (1) what attitudes are held by the Chinese parents and children toward Chinese language maintenance in the USA, (2) what efforts are engaged in by the…

  12. Home Language and Literacy Practices among Immigrant Second-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Wu, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Because certain home language and literacy practices have been found to be beneficial to monolingual children's literacy development, we examine immigrant children's home language and literacy practices in different countries. Presenting findings from 92 post-2000 articles, we examine research into these practices, what factors influence…

  13. Late Life Immigration and Quality of Life among Asian Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anita J; Diwan, Sadhna

    2016-09-01

    Late-life immigration among seniors for purposes of family reunification is a growing phenomenon in developed countries. Using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and other psychosocial measures related to the political/legal context of immigration, and personal and environmental autonomy (mastery, immigration status, access to transportation, and language barrier), this study examined quality of life (QoL) in Asian Indian seniors (N = 109), who immigrated to the United States to reunite with their adult children. The sample scores on Overall QoL and QoL domains (physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment) were similar to established norms. Although all QoL domains correlated significantly with Overall QoL at the bivariate level, multivariate analysis showed that only environmental domain contributed significantly to Overall QoL. Linear regressions indicated: Mastery contributed significantly to Overall QoL and all QoL domains; access to transport contributed to Overall QoL, physical health, and environmental QoL; immigration status (a proxy for political/legal context) contributed to environmental QoL whereas language barrier contributed to none. Implications for improving perceptions of QoL, mastery, access to transport and other services are discussed. PMID:27245988

  14. Immigration, Language, and Education: How Does Language Policy Structure Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Patricia; Rumberger, Russell W.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: According to U.S. Census figures, 11 million elementary and secondary students of immigrant families were enrolled in the public schools in October 2005, representing 20% of all students, and this figure is expected to grow in the coming years. Most of these students enter school as English learners (ELs), and most ELs have…

  15. Integration of immigrants: the role of language proficiency and experience.

    PubMed

    Delander, Lennart; Hammarstedt, Mats; Månsson, Jonas; Nyberg, Erik

    2005-02-01

    In this article, the authors evaluate a Swedish pilot scheme that targeted immigrants with weak Swedish-language skills registered as unemployed at public employment offices. By sandwiching work-oriented language teaching and practical workplace training, the project aimed at enhancing the employability of project participants but also at alerting them to and preparing them for available training and further education opportunities. For the evaluation, a comparison group of nonparticipants was selected using a propensity score methodology. The results show that participation in the pilot scheme project resulted in much speedier transfers from open unemployment to employment, training, and education. PMID:15604118

  16. "I Understand English but Can't Write It": The Power of Native Language Instruction for Adult English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Marguerite

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the potential of native language literacy instruction for adult immigrant English language learners who have limited formal schooling or have had interruptions in their formal education. By examining 3 programs that provide native language literacy in combination with English as a second language (ESL) instruction, this study…

  17. The Age-Length-Onset Problem in Research on Second Language Acquisition among Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating the possible effects of age at immigration (a proxy for age at onset of second language learning) on second language acquisition among immigrants often explicitly take the effect of length of residence in the destination country (a measure of exposure to opportunities to learn the second language) into account. A third…

  18. Issues Relating to Women's Immigration Status. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 8. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on issues related to women's immigration status. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills…

  19. Competing Discourses in the Ongoing Identity Construction of Adult Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Based on interviews with eight adult immigrants to Montreal, this article explores how discourses from their cultures of origin interact with discourses in the host culture to influence the process of identity construction during their acculturation to the host society. Drawing on sociocultural theory and psychological concepts of identity…

  20. Selection and Settlement of Citizens: English Language Proficiency Among Immigrant Groups in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Christine A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews variations in levels of English-language proficiency among immigrants from non-English-speaking countries to Australia. Data on 27 of the largest birthplace groups are used from the 1996 census. Discusses immigrants' motivation to learn English and be included in Australian society and Australian policies regarding immigration-selection…

  1. Effective Practices to Enhance Immigrant Kindergarteners' Second Language Vocabulary Learning through Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlapana, Elissavet; Tafa, Eufimia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of direct instruction and interactive instruction on immigrant kindergarten children's vocabulary learning during storybook reading. (In the present study the terms "immigrants" and "second language learners" are used alternatively meaning kindergarteners from immigrant families who are in…

  2. Family Matters: The Role of the Family in Immigrants' Destination Language Acquisition. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Lee, Yew Liang; Miller, Paul W.

    This study investigated the dominant language skill development of spouses within migrating units in Australia. It analyzed the English proficiency of a sample of principal applicant (PA) immigrants (immigrants upon whom the approval to immigrate is based) and their spouses, referred to as migrating unit spouses (MUSs). The study assessed whether…

  3. Bridging Canadian Adult Second Language Education and Essential Skills Policies: Approach with Caution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Tara L.

    2008-01-01

    Employing critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper examines the attempt to bridge a Canadian adult second language policy with an employment skills policy. The result is a third policy intended to improve language education and employment skills training for immigrants. The analysis reveals that the knowledge economy and human capital theory…

  4. Immigration and Language Education in Catalonia: Between National and Social Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pujolar, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Most analyses of the sociolinguistic aspects of immigration focus on contexts where a single language is official and widely used. In bilingual Catalonia, newly arriving immigrants find themselves in a situation where the administration seeks to treat Catalan as a fully functional public language while large sectors of the local population still…

  5. Immigrants' Language Skills: The Australian Experience in a Longitudinal Survey. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Lee, Yew Liang; Miller, Paul W.

    This study of immigrant language skills used data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia, which followed a cohort of settler arrivals for the first 3.5 years of their residence in Australia, surveying them at three points in time. The survey examined determinants of improvement in English language skills with time among immigrants…

  6. Predictors of English Health Literacy among U.S. Hispanic Immigrants: The importance of language, bilingualism and sociolinguistic environment

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Lauren; Soto Mas, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, data confirm that Spanish-speaking immigrants are particularly affected by the negative health outcomes associated with low health literacy. Although the literature points to variables such as age, educational background and language, only a few studies have investigated the factors that may influence health literacy in this group. Similarly, the role that bilingualism and/or multilingualism play in health literacy assessment continues to be an issue in need of further research. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of English health literacy among adult Hispanic immigrants whose self-reported primary language is Spanish, but who live and function in a bilingual community. It also explored issues related to the language of the instrument. An analysis of data collected through a randomized controlled study was conducted. Results identified English proficiency as the strongest predictor of health literacy (p < 0.001). The results further point to the importance of primary and secondary language in the assessment of heath literacy level. This study raises many questions in need of further investigation to clarify how language proficiency and sociolinguistic environment affect health literacy in language minority adults; proposes language approaches that may be more appropriate for measuring health literacy in these populations; and recommends further place-based research to determine whether the connection between language proficiency and health is generalizable to border communities. PMID:27127416

  7. The ELAA 2 Citizen Science Project: The Case for Science, Equity, and Critical Thinking in Adult English Language Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basham, M.

    2012-08-01

    This article summarizes a paper presented at the recent ASP conference Connecting People to Science in Baltimore 2011. This action research study currently in progress aims to explore the impact of integrating science into English language instruction (English Language Acquisition for Adults, or ELLA) serving largely Hispanic immigrants at an adult learning center based in Phoenix, Arizona.

  8. Preschool Latino Immigrant Children: Using the Home Language as a Resource for Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the language and literacy practices of Latino immigrant children in preschool. In spite of the monolingual framework and the readiness emphasis of current educational language policies, children draw on their home language as a resource to literacy learning. The author argues that children's use of their home language is a…

  9. Identity and Language Functions: High School Chinese Immigrant Students' Code-Switching Dilemmas in ESL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    This study examines classroom code-switching in relation to individual and group identity and to functional use of two languages. It investigates how high school Chinese immigrant students perceive the use of first language (L1) and second language (L2) in class, and how they use these languages during group activities. The interview data…

  10. Ethnolinguistic Vitality, Language Use and Social Integration Amongst Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos; Michail, Domna

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the relationship between Albanian speakers' ethnolinguistic vitality (EV) perceptions and their language maintenance, language use and choice patterns. A subjective EV questionnaire, and a language usage questionnaire capturing domain-specific language use was completed by 200 Albanian immigrants of first and…

  11. Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

  12. Effects of length of stay and language proficiency on health care experiences among immigrants in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Lydie A

    2012-04-01

    This study sought to examine the influence of length of stay and language proficiency on immigrants' access to and utilization of care in Canada and the United States (U.S,). Data came from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to foreign-born, non-elderly adults in each country (n = 12,870 in Canada and n = 7440 in the U.S.). Health care indicators included having a usual source of care; annual consultation with a health professional, dentist, and eye doctor; flu shot in the past year; and Pap test in the past 3 years. Logistic regression models were employed to estimate the relative odds of access or use of care, adjusting for need, demographic factors, socioeconomic status, and insurance coverage. In general, rates of health care access and utilization were higher in Canada than the U.S. among all immigrant groups. In both countries, adjusted analyses indicated that immigrants with shorter length of stay (less than 10 years) and limited language proficiency generally had lower rates of access/use compared with those with longer length of stay (10 years or more) and proficiency in each country's official language(s), respectively. There was one exception to this pattern in the U.S.: immigrants with limited English had higher odds of having a recent Pap test relative to English-proficient immigrants. The persistence of disparities in health care experiences based on length of stay and language proficiency in Canada suggests that universal health insurance coverage may not be sufficient for ensuring access to and utilization of primary and preventive care for this population. PMID:22326103

  13. Contextual Determinants of School Teaching Intensity in the Teaching of Adult Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Elstad, Eyvind; Turmo, Are

    2011-01-01

    The integration policies in some Northern European countries display relatively poor outcomes of passed exam rates for immigrant language training, and several groups of immigrants have very low employment rates. These measures, in many countries, are strong incentives for host-country language acquisition in addition to the obligation to document…

  14. Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass a driving…

  15. The Experiences of Immigrants from Mexico Who Speak Indigenous Languages: A Sociocultural and Postcolonial Perspective on Language, Culture, and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Frausto, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This study dealt with the experiences of immigrants from Latin America, specifically Mexico, who speak indigenous languages. This study was guided by a theoretical framework in terms of issues such as power struggle, cultural hierarchy, and identity ambiguity, which are social realities of indigenous people who have immigrated to the United…

  16. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  17. Substance Use Disorders Among First- and Second-Generation Immigrant Adults in the United States: Evidence of an Immigrant Paradox?

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Clark, Trenette T; Terzis, Lauren D; Córdova, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of studies have examined the “immigrant paradox” with respect to the use of licit and illicit substances in the United States. However, there remains a need for a comprehensive examination of the multigenerational and global links between immigration and substance use disorders among adults in the United States. Method: The present study, using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, aimed to address these gaps by comparing the prevalence of substance use disorders of first-generation (n = 3,338) and second-generation (n = 2,515) immigrants with native-born American adults (n = 15,733) in the United States. We also examined the prevalence of substance use disorders among first-generation emigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America in contrast to second-generation and native-born Americans. Results: The prevalence of substance use disorders was highest among native-born Americans, slightly lower among second-generation immigrants, and markedly lower among first-generation immigrants. Adjusted risk ratios were largest among individuals who immigrated during adolescence (ages 12–17 years) and adulthood (age 18 years or older). Results were consistent among emigrants from major world regions. Conclusions: Consistent with a broad body of literature examining the links between the immigrant paradox and health outcomes, results suggest that nativity and age at arrival are significant factors related to substance use disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants in the United States. PMID:25343653

  18. How Immigrant Students' Self-Views at School Relate to Different Patterns of First and Second Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Ute; Lilla, Nanine; Zander, Lysann; Hannover, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how students from immigrant families whose first language differs from the language of instruction at school view themselves while at school, depending on the way in which they use their first and second language. While some immigrant students are inclined to predominantly use their first language in the home environment…

  19. Transactional Associations between Supportive Family Climate and Young Children's Heritage Language Proficiency in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Heejung; Tsai, Kim M.; Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Heritage language (HL) proficiency confers developmental benefits; however, the onset of HL loss is observed among many young children from immigrant families. In this longitudinal study, transactional associations between children's HL proficiency and supportive family climate were examined in Chinese immigrant families with pre-school-aged…

  20. Affective Disruptions of "the" Immigrant Experience: Becomings in Official Language Education Research in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Monica; Arnott, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose is to use a Deleuzian-informed conceptual and theoretical framework to disrupt predominant representations of "the" immigrant experience in Canadian official language education and to open up to the affective potential of "an" immigrant life to become otherwise. Employing a rhizoanalytic research approach that…

  1. Language Socialization and Ensuing Identity Construction among Ethiopian Immigrants in Metropolitan Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldeyesus, Weldu Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to conduct a sociocultural linguistic study on Ethiopian immigrants in the Denver metropolis. It specifically examined language practice of Ethiopian immigrants at home and in church. The study centered on three Ethiopian Orthodox parish churches, taken as separate communities of practice. The study was…

  2. A Gay Immigrant Student's Perspective: Unspeakable Acts in the Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cynthia D.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a subset of the student cohort that has, until recently, been largely hidden from view in the literature of language education: gay immigrants. Little is known about what sorts of classroom experiences gay immigrant students find engaging or alienating, or why this sort of knowledge is needed. This case study uses interview…

  3. A Tale of Two Teachers: Chinese Immigrant Teachers' Professional Identity in US Foreign Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yunli

    2010-01-01

    This study looks at Chinese immigrant teachers' identity through the theoretical framework of the figured worlds, aiming to explore how the Chinese immigrant teachers navigate the cultural and educational practices and negotiate their professional identities in the figured world of foreign language classes in the US public schools, and how the two…

  4. Language, Ethnic Identity, and the Adaptation of Immigrant Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We explored the relationships between immigrant adolescents' first-and second-language proficiency and their psychological and sociocultural adaptation using three models: the ethnic identity model, the language assimilation model, and the language integration model. The study was conducted in the Netherlands. Participants were 161 Turkish and 95…

  5. English Language Proficiency and Bilingual Verbal Ability among Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez, Mariela M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes English language proficiency and bilingual verbal ability for a sample of 209 students aged 10 to 16 from three immigrant groups--Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian. Sources of data included structured student interviews, parent interviews, and individual language assessments. On average, students' English language proficiency…

  6. Language-in-Education Policies, Immigration and Social Cohesion in Catalonia: The Case of Vic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Catrin Wyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the language-in-education policies implemented to integrate international immigrants into the Catalan language community in Vic, Catalonia. It focuses on the Catalan Government's "Languages and Social Cohesion Plan" (LIC) plan, Vic city council's local education plans, which were adopted as part of LIC plan, and the…

  7. The Familial Context of Adolescent Language Brokering within Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Josephine M.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2012-01-01

    Language brokering, whereby children of immigrants provide informal translation and interpretation for others, is considered commonplace. However, the research evidence remains inconsistent concerning how language brokering relates to the psychological health of child language brokers and their relationships with their parents. Furthermore, few…

  8. Immigrant Children and the Importance of Self-Esteem in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Examines the development of the egocentric factor of self-esteem within the context of the acculturation process that immigrant children experience and shows how their self-esteem affects second language acquisition. (EKN)

  9. Success and Failure in Adult Education: The Immigrant Experience 1914-1924.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seller, Maxine S.

    The educational experience of adult immigrants to the United States between 1914-24 is discussed. Attempts of educators and Americanization agencies to reach adult immigrants are described and reasons for the failure of these attempts are given, including inadequate funding, narrowness in subject matter and methods, and insensitivity to ethnic…

  10. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  11. "It Is Difficult to Be a Woman with a Dream of an Education:" Challenging U.S. Adult Basic Education Policies to Support Women Immigrants' Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2009-01-01

    Women immigrants are an increasing population in the U.S. and in the Adult Basic Education (ABE) system, particularly in English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programmes. The authors argue that their numerical predominance and comprehensive needs are not factored into U.S. ABE policies by reformers who are anxious about the system being…

  12. Language Maintenance and Language Shift among Chinese Immigrant Parents and Their Second-Generation Children in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the language experiences of two distinct Chinese immigrant groups in the U.S.: a Mandarin-speaking group and a Fujianese-speaking group across two generations. The different language trajectories of the parents' generation, along with their social class and different settlement patterns in the U.S., shaped the second-generation…

  13. Within- and Cross-Language Relations between Oral Language Proficiency and School Outcomes in Bilingual Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen meta-analyses were conducted to examine relations of typically developing bilingual immigrant-background children's oral language proficiency in their first and second language with the school outcomes of early literacy (k = 41), reading (k = 61), spelling (k = 9), mathematics (k = 9), and academic achievement (k = 9). Moderate to strong…

  14. Immigration and the health of U.S. black adults: does country of origin matter?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Tod G; Hummer, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Previous work suggests that regional variation in pre-migration exposure to racism and discrimination, measured by a region's racial composition, predicts differences in individual-level health among black immigrants to the United States. We exploit data on both region and country of birth for black immigrants in the United States and methodology that allows for the identification of arrival cohorts to test whether there are sending country differences in the health of black adults in the United States that support this proposition. While testing this hypothesis, we also document heterogeneity in health across arrival cohorts and by duration of U.S. residence among black immigrants. Using data on working-age immigrant and U.S.-born blacks taken from the 1996-2010 waves of the March Current Population Survey, we show that relative to U.S.-born black adults, black immigrants report significantly lower odds of fair/poor health. After controlling for relevant social and demographic characteristics, immigrants' cohort of arrival, and immigrants' duration in the United States, our models show only modest differences in health between African immigrants and black immigrants who migrate from the other major sending countries or regions. Results also show that African immigrants maintain their health advantage over U.S.-born black adults after more than 20 years in the United States. In contrast, black immigrants from the Caribbean who have been in the United States for more than 20 years appear to experience some downward health assimilation. In conclusion, after accounting for relevant factors, we find that there are only modest differences in black immigrant health across countries of origin. Black immigrants appear to be very highly selected in terms of good health, although there are some indications of negative health assimilation for black immigrants from the Caribbean. PMID:21982630

  15. Written Narrative Characteristics in Adults with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddarth, Rachael; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Adults with language-based disabilities are known to have deficits in oral language; however, less is known about their written language skills. Two studies were designed to characterize the writing of adults with language-based disabilities. Method: In Study 1, 60 adults, 30 with language impairment and 30 with typical language,…

  16. Language Development among Immigrant Students from the Perspectives of Two Different Assimilated Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porras, Dehlly; Matthews, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The authors present two experiences of assimilation, "melting-pot" and "salad-bowl" processes, their connections to the WASP framework of skin color, language, and religion, and their influences in the classroom. They focus on how fluency in the English language is the dominant assimilation factor for immigrant students and share their experiences…

  17. Longitudinal Associations of Language Brokering and Parent-Adolescent Closeness in Immigrant Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilghman-Osborne, Emile M.; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra; Witherspoon, Dawn; Wadsworth, Martha E.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Language brokering is a common practice for Latino youth with immigrant parents. Yet little is known about how youth's feelings about this responsibility contribute to the parent-adolescent relationship. In this study, we examined the longitudinal associations between language brokering attitudes and parent-adolescent closeness in a sample of…

  18. What Holds Back the Second Generation? The Intergenerational Transmission of Language Human Capital among Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee

    2008-01-01

    In 2000 Census microdata, various outcomes of second-generation immigrants are related to their parents' age at arrival in the United States, and in particular whether that age fell within the "critical period" of language acquisition. We interpret this as an effect of the parents' English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for…

  19. Grappling with Language Barriers: Implications for the Professional Development of Immigrant Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramova, Inna

    2013-01-01

    In this narrative inquiry, I explored the role of language in the lives of six Russian-speaking immigrant teachers. Theoretical perspectives emphasized experience, context, and culture in understanding their beliefs, and language served as an interpretive lens through which the experiences were explored. The inquiry revealed the following…

  20. Language Policy and Latina Immigrants: An Analysis of Personal Experience and Identity in Interview Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall A.; De Fina, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Spanish-speaking Latina (im)migrants position themselves relative to US language policies. Drawing from interviews with 15 Latin American women in the USA, we illustrate how understandings of language policy are constructed through individuals' reports of everyday experiences and framed within the constraints of…

  1. Insertional Codeswitching in an Immigrant Language: "Just Borrowing or Lexical Re-orientation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Ad

    2000-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of a typology of contact mechanisms for one type of contact setting: that of a typical immigrant language, in this case the variety of Turkish that is spoken in the Netherlands. Examines the relevance of insertional code switching to the genesis of mixed languages--Dutch and Turkish. (Author/VWL)

  2. Dealing with New Multilingualism in Europe: Immigrant Minority Languages at Home and at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on immigrant minority languages in urban Western Europe. Both multidisciplinary and cross-national perspectives will be offered on two major domains in which language transmission occurs, i.e., the domestic domain and the public domain. Prototypical of these two domains are the home and the school, respectively. At home,…

  3. A Description of Language Attitudes and Achievements of Russian Immigrant Students at Haifa University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensoussan, Marsha; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies the attitudes and achievements of immigrants from the Soviet Union studying at the tertiary level at Haifa University in Israel. A series of questionnaires probing the students' language use and attitudes were administered in order to provide a general description of their linguistic profile in first, second, and third languages. (15…

  4. Inside the Language Planner's Head: Tactical Responses to a Mass Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glinert, Lewis H.

    1995-01-01

    Documents and evaluates Israel's language policy shift from its traditional Hebrew-enforcement policy to the fostering of an immigrant language as a channel of information and culture in the face of a sudden 10% addition to its population due to one-half million Soviet migrants attached to Russian culture. (33 references) (Author/CK)

  5. Indigenous Languages: Nahuatl, Quechua, & Maya--A Study of Multilingual Immigrant Students & Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrants from Latin America who speak indigenous languages perceive and respond to social, racial, linguistic, and cultural factors in the United States. It examined the multicultural and multilingual experiences of six participants, five of whom speak an indigenous language. There were three interviews conducted with…

  6. Heritage Language Maintenance and Loss among the Children of Eastern European Immigrants in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesteruk, Olena

    2010-01-01

    The present study offers an in-depth look at heritage language maintenance and loss among the children of immigrant professionals from Eastern Europe residing in the USA. Based on semi-structured interviews with 50 married mothers and fathers, I explore: (1) parental attitudes related to heritage language transmission to their children; (2)…

  7. Welcoming America's Newest Immigrants: Providing Access to Resources and Services for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2010-01-01

    America has always been a nation of immigrants, and many school libraries serve students whose first language is not English. In AASL's 2009 "School Libraries Count! Survey," 14% of the 5,824 respondents reported a student population with 25% or more English language learners. Yet 91% reported that less than 5% of their collections are in a…

  8. Beyond Language: Strategies for Promoting Academic Excellence among Immigrant Students. The Claremont Letter. Volume 2, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, William

    2007-01-01

    In this issue of "The Claremont Letter," the author argues that efforts to educate immigrant youth need to expand beyond a sole focus on language. Focusing solely on getting immigrant students to become English Proficient is short-sighted and inadequate. Efforts to educate immigrant youth need to include recognition of the various cultural and…

  9. Intersections between immigration, language, identity, and emotions: a science teacher candidate's journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.

    2008-04-01

    This study reports a subset of findings from a larger, ongoing study aimed at exploring interactions between teacher identity, learning, and classroom practices in a social justice teacher education program at a selective liberal arts college in New York. This case-study explores the journey of Elena, as an immigrant, a student, and a pre-service teacher candidate towards becoming a social justice educator. Elena reflects upon her school language experiences as an immigrant youth, her learning in a social justice teacher education program, and her field experiences in an international high school. The analysis spans macro-, meso-, and microlevels to explore the ways globalization, particularly immigration, as well as schooling policies for English language learners interact with aspects of Elena's core identity, particularly in school settings. The findings show some of the ways language and literacy verified and/or denied aspects of Elena's core identity; specific instances where second language proficiency was cast as power and privilege versus disadvantage according to ethnic, language, and class categorizations; and the struggles Elena, and other immigrant youth may face given the focus on English language acquisition and high stakes accountability in schools, at the expense of students' primary language proficiency and affirmation of core identity markers.

  10. Access to Technology in Transnational Social Fields: Simultaneity and Digital Literacy Socialization of Adult Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueron-Liu, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Some studies of technology use by immigrants have explored the role of digital media in their maintenance of affiliations with their nations of origin. However, the potential for transnational social networks to serve as "resources" that facilitate digital literacy socialization for adult immigrant learners remains unexplored. In this study, I…

  11. Mother Tongue as a Determining Variable in Language Attitudes. The Case of Immigrant Latin American Students in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Angel; Janes, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Bearing in mind the relevance of immigration in Spain, we consider the linguistic idiosyncrasy of the autonomous community of Catalonia in the present study to describe and analyse language attitudes to Catalan and Spanish in a sample of 225 students of immigrant origin living in different parts of the region. We focus on language attitudes in so…

  12. Adult English Language Learners with Limited Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Martha; Schwarz, Robin Lovrien

    2010-01-01

    Adult English language learners who lack print literacy or experience with formal education encounter a unique set of challenges in their lives and their efforts to learn English. Educators and policymakers are similarly challenged by how best to help these adults acquire English literacy. This paper reviews a variety of research, including that…

  13. Language Skills for the Workplace: Developing a Framework for College Delivery of Occupation-Specific Language Training in Ontario--Report for Citizenship and Immigration Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Ontario is Canada's largest provincial destination for immigrants. Language barriers, lack of recognition for foreign credentials and lack of work experience in Canada prevent many from gaining employment in their field of expertise. There is an urgent and growing need for occupation-specific language training in Ontario. Immigrants cannot apply…

  14. Gaps Between Immigrant Spouses in Host Country Language Proficiency: Longitudinal Effects on Marital Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Sarid, Orly; Mor, Yaron; Mirsky, Julia; Slonim-Nevo, Vered

    2016-08-17

    Research on immigration underscores the importance of language acculturation in successful adjustment to life in a new country. However, the profound impact of different levels of language proficiency between immigrant spouses on their married life is an understudied topic. The current study explores whether differences between immigrant spouses in host language proficiency predict marital satisfaction in their first four years in the host country. Using a three-wave longitudinal study, with intervals of one to two years, we collected data from 316 married couples who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union to Germany and Israel. Language proficiency and marital satisfaction were measured via self-report questionnaires. We conducted an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analysis to control for dyadic and time data dependencies. The results indicate that differences between spouses in their host language proficiency predict marital dissatisfaction, and that this effect is exacerbated over time. These associations held across gender and host country. The findings are discussed in light of the gap-distress model. PMID:27351926

  15. Language Skills and Earnings: Evidence from Childhood Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee

    Because research on the effect of language skills on earnings is complicated by the endogeneity of language skills, this study exploited the phenomenon that younger children learn languages more easily than older children to construct an instrumental variable for language proficiency. Data came from the 1990 U.S. Census, specifically the…

  16. Selection, Language Heritage, and the Earnings Trajectories of Black Immigrants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980–2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005–2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants’ birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants’ birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States. PMID:24854004

  17. Literacy and Second Language Intervention for Adult Hebrew Second Language (HSL) Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanta-Vagenshtein, Yarden

    2011-01-01

    Language proficiency is a crucial factor for immigrants to integrate successfully in the new society in all aspects of life, especially in the labor market. As a result, there is great importance in acquiring the new language as quickly and effectively as possible. Several factors affect second language acquisition, including motivation, age,…

  18. Engaging Mexican Immigrant Families in Language and Literacy Interventions: Three Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kummerer, Sharon E.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of three Mexican immigrant mothers and their young children who were participating in early intervention speech-language therapy. Mother interviews, children's therapy files, observation field notes, and parent journals contributed to the construction of instrumental case studies. Highlighting the potential…

  19. Learning Language for Work and Life: The Linguistic Socialization of Immigrant Canadians Seeking Careers in Healthcare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Patricia A.; Wong, Ping; Early, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Discusses research in English-as-a-Second-Language in the workplace, identifying gaps in the existing literature and promising directions for new explorations. Reports on a qualitative study conducted in one type of program for immigrant women and men in Western Canada seeking to become long-term resident care aides or home support workers.…

  20. Being and Becoming "A New Immigrant" in Canada: How Language Matters, or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Huamei

    2012-01-01

    Based on a four-year ethnography and informed by poststructuralist theories of identity and language, this article examines how, through lived settlement experiences in Canada, a young man from Mainland China gradually became an immigrant in the folk sense of the term. Though he was considered a success in terms of the diaspora community, he was…

  1. Race, Language, and Schooling in Italy's Immigrant Policies, Public Discourses, and Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Stephanie V.; Varghese, Manka M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we use the framework of critical race theory (CRT) to show how race, language, and schooling have played out in the historical project of the Italian nation-state. We then demonstrate how this historic racialized identity construction is currently excluding immigrants from Italian national identity. Finally, we argue that CRT can…

  2. The Wellington Indo-Fijians: Language Shift among Teenage New Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shameem, Nikhat

    1994-01-01

    The Indo-Fijian settlers, who speak Fiji Hindi, a preliterate language, migrated to New Zealand following the 1987 Fiji military coup. This article looks at the maintenance of Fiji Hindi among teenage Indi-Fijian immigrants and the factors contributing to a shift from Fiji Hindi to the use of English in all domains. (40 references) (LR)

  3. Tell Me the Name of Grant's Horse: Language Issues in the 1986 Immigration Act, March 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    The content of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act is described, its current interpretations are examined, and the implications for developing a responsible language and citizenship curriculum to conform to the legislation are discussed. Specific attention is focused on the law's requirement that illegal aliens applying for amnesty and…

  4. Immigrant Status and Home Language Background: Implications for Australian Student Performance in PISA 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, John

    2004-01-01

    The primary focus of this report is to examine the effect that immigrant status and home language background may have on the performance of Australian students who participated in the OECD/Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2000). Approximately 5,477 students from 231 schools across Australia participated in the study. In this…

  5. Understanding Students with Immigration Backgrounds: A German Case of Students' Language and Identity in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchereau Bauer, Eurydice; Guerrero, Beatriz; Hornberg, Sabine; Bos, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In this article we propose that teaching/learning is a process that involves world knowledge, identity, and future construction of oneself. The goal of this qualitative research paper is to document the experiences of 2 fourth-grade students with immigration backgrounds in Germany. Using a poststructuralist approach to language and identity, we…

  6. "Everything Goes Smoothly": A Case Study of an Immigrant Chinese Language Teacher's Personal Practical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Dekun

    2012-01-01

    Much of teacher knowledge research in teacher education has focused on Western views of teacher knowledge. By reporting on a case study of an immigrant Chinese language teacher's personal practical knowledge in teaching secondary school students, this paper presents an Eastern view of teacher knowledge, and illustrates how knowledge and identity…

  7. English Language Proficiency and Health-Related Quality of Life among Chinese and Korean Immigrant Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young; Kang, Dooyeon; Domanski, Margaret Dietz

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between English language proficiency and health outcomes in a regional probability sample (n = 205) of elderly Chinese and Korean immigrants. Data support that these two Asian ethnic subgroups differ in English proficiency and health-related quality of life. Chinese and Korean elders had poorer health than the…

  8. Co-Ethnic Network, Social Class, and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…

  9. "Hay Que Seguir Luchando": Struggles that Shaped English Language Learning of Four Cuban Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John S.; Townsend, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would…

  10. Attitudes and Psycholinguistic Aspects of First Language Maintenance among Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the social attitudes toward the Hebrew language and Israeli society and the academic skills in Russian and Hebrew of 60 Russian-Jewish immigrant high school students in Northern Israel. Addresses the linguistic social context in Israel and provides a literature review. Presents and discusses the results. Includes references. (CMK)

  11. Fight or Flight? Immigration, Competition, and Language Assistance Resources in Metropolitan Atlanta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarasawa, Beth

    2013-01-01

    As the Latino/a immigrant population increases, racial conflict historically understood in terms of Black and White in the U.S. South has expanded to include new contestants in metro-Atlanta public schools. By examining market and sociological competition theoretical perspectives, this study investigates how language assistance resource…

  12. ¿Usted Va Al Capitolio También?: Adult Immigrants' Positioning in Response to News and Digital Media about Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguerón-Liu, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which adult immigrants engaged in discussion about immigration news at a web design course during the passing of Senate Bill 1070 in Arizona. Drawing on the method and theory of mediated discourse analysis, two focal interactions reveal the diverse positions that students took up in relation to anti-immigrant…

  13. Moving Stories: Evaluation of a BSW Oral History Project with Older Adults with Diverse Immigration Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; MacMillan, Thalia; Pardasani, Manoj; Lee, Ji Seon; Moreno, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate an experiential learning project with BSW students to see if their perceptions of older adults have changed. The project consisted of an oral history project and presentation that matched BSW students with older adults from diverse ethnic backgrounds to gather their immigration narratives. The study used a…

  14. Working in a Group or Alone: The Classroom Strategies of Adult Immigrant Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunt, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Reports a study of the preferred classroom learning situation of 11 adult immigrant learners of English in an Adult Migrant English Service (AMES) program in Melbourne, Australia. Qualitative data were gathered during individual interviews when learners were asked whether they preferred to use the strategy of working alone, or the strategy of…

  15. Educational and Cultural Challenges of Bicultural Adult Immigrant and Refugee Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Abi; Lawrence, Jeanette A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the relationship between the cultural and educational challenges of immigrant adult students. Thirty-five recently arrived adults in a bridging course completed a self-administered, online computer interview to rate their exploration and commitment to their heritage and Australian cultures, and express their experiences with their own…

  16. Heritage Language Fluency, Ethnic Identity, and School Effort of Immigrant Chinese and Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.

    2008-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978

  17. Immigration Narratives in Young Adult Literature: Crossing Borders. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Although the United States prides itself as a nation of diversity, the country that boasts of its immigrant past also wrestles with much of its immigrant present. While conflicting attitudes about immigration are debated, newcomers--both legal and otherwise--continue to arrive on American soil. And books about the immigrant experience--aimed at…

  18. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  19. A Model of Identity and Language Orientations: The Case of Immigrant Students from the Former Soviet Union in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan-Cook, Pnina; Olshtain, Elite

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical model featuring the relationship between identity and language orientations within the broader constellation of variables impacting immigration and acculturation processes was proposed within the framework of the current study and its applicability was tested with regards to 152 immigrant university students from the Former Soviet…

  20. Language Policies' Impact on Immigrant Students' Lived Experiences in New York City Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gica, Diosdado Galan, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Language policies' impact is evident in how most immigrant children become English monolinguals by the third generation. Yet a large percentage continues to underperform in public schools. Formative and summative evaluations draw from a narrow methodology, thus this study strived to tell the stories of immigrant students' lived…

  1. Teaching Pronunciation to Adult English Language Learners. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaetzel, Kirsten; Low, Ee Ling

    2009-01-01

    Adult English language learners in the United States approach the learning of English pronunciation from a wide variety of native language backgrounds. They may speak languages with sound systems that vary a great deal from that of English. The pronunciation goals and needs of adult English language learners are diverse. These goals and needs…

  2. Reflections on Native Language Use in Adult ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Macias, Ana; Kephart, Kerrie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of native language (L1) use in adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes, re-examining the belief that use of the students' L1 is detrimental to target language learning. We discuss research that (a) documents language use in several adult ESL classes in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, and (b) presents survey…

  3. Why bother with testing? The validity of immigrants' self-assessed language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Edele, Aileen; Seuring, Julian; Kristen, Cornelia; Stanat, Petra

    2015-07-01

    Due to its central role in social integration, immigrants' language proficiency is a matter of considerable societal concern and scientific interest. This study examines whether commonly applied self-assessments of linguistic skills yield results that are similar to those of competence tests and thus whether these self-assessments are valid measures of language proficiency. Analyses of data for immigrant youth reveal moderate correlations between language test scores and two types of self-assessments (general ability estimates and concrete performance estimates) for the participants' first and second languages. More importantly, multiple regression models using self-assessments and models using test scores yield different results. This finding holds true for a variety of analyses and for both types of self-assessments. Our findings further suggest that self-assessed language skills are systematically biased in certain groups. Subjective measures thus seem to be inadequate estimates of language skills, and future research should use them with caution when research questions pertain to actual language skills rather than self-perceptions. PMID:26004451

  4. The Role of Heritage Language Development in the Ethnic Identity and Family Relationships of Adolescents from Immigrant Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Janet S.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of immigrant-background adolescents' heritage language (HL) proficiency and use of the language on parent-adolescent relationships and ethnic identity was investigated in a sample of 414 adolescents from Latin American and Asian backgrounds. HL proficiency, but not language use, was positively associated with the quality of…

  5. Improving Second Language Skills of Immigrant Students: A Field Trial Study Evaluating the Effects of a Summer Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanat, Petra; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jurgen; Ludtke, Oliver; Eckhardt, Andrea G.

    2012-01-01

    Immigrant students' school success is often hampered by limited second language (L2) proficiency, yet the effectiveness of different approaches to L2 support is unclear. Using a summer camp setting, we tested effects of (1) implicit support focusing on meaning of language by engaging students in language-intensive activities without drawing their…

  6. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  7. Effects of Elementary School Home Language, Immigrant Generation, Language Classification, and School's English Learner Concentration on Latinos' High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Maria Estela; Pineda, Claudia G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Relying largely on high school measures of home language use, the literature examining immigrant incorporation in schools provides contradictory evidence of home language effects on educational outcomes. More recent research has demonstrated that home language use is dynamic and thus it is important to examine the implications…

  8. Private religious practice, spiritual coping, social support, and health status among older Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hwang, Myung Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the role of spiritual factors and social support on the health status of 246 older Korean adult immigrants age 65 years or older. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that private religious practice, spiritual coping, and social support were significantly associated with improved health status. However, stressors such as the lack of English proficiency and transportation, longer residency in the United States, and financial problems were significantly associated with lower health status. Social workers need to consider providing appropriate spiritual interventions and social support programs for older Korean adult immigrants so that they may better handle their stressors and health problems. PMID:25068608

  9. Second Language Acquisition, Culture Shock and Language Stress of Adult Latina Students in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    This study identified the second language acquisition, culture shock, and language stress of adult Latinas in New York as related to language, culture, and education. Participants were eight adult Latinas, for whom Spanish was the first language, who had come to the United States 10-15 years previously and developed some functioning English as a…

  10. Second Language Acquisition and First Language Loss in Adult Early Bilinguals: Exploring Some Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the linguistic knowledge of adult second language (L2) learners, who learned the L2 after puberty, with the potentially "eroded" first language (L1) grammars of adult early bilinguals who were exposed to the target language since birth and learned the other language simultaneously, or early in childhood (before age 5). I make…

  11. Multiple Minorities or Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Plurilingual Learners? Re-Envisioning Allophone Immigrant Children and Their Inclusion in French-Language Schools in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Four out of five immigrants to Canada speak a language other than English or French as a first language. Immigration is increasingly transforming francophone minority communities. Allophone children acquire minority status on multiple levels within French-language schools, where they can become both a linguistic minority and a cultural minority…

  12. Ethiopian Emerging Adult Immigrants in Israel: Coping with Discrimination and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sophie D.; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka

    2012-01-01

    Experiences of discrimination and racism and individual coping strategies were examined among 22 emerging adult Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. In-depth interviews explored the way they perceive, understand, respond to, and cope with experiences of discrimination. Qualitative analysis identified an initial contrast between those interviewees who…

  13. Skills Education for Adult Tibetan Immigrants in the United States: Identification, Prioritization, Resources, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshi, Tenzin

    2012-01-01

    Generally, the Global Tibetan Professional Network of North America (GTPN-NA) considers lack of skills a problem among adult Tibetan immigrants. The GTPN-NA is a non-profit, volunteer-based networking forum focusing on Tibetan professionals and students from North America. By skills education, it means skills that may help support the transition…

  14. Pushouts, Shutouts, and Holdouts: Educational Experiences of Latino Immigrant Young Adults in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines educational experiences of Latino immigrant young adult dropouts in New York City, along with pre- and postmigration factors that impact school participation. Due to age, interrupted schooling, and limited English proficiency, high schools view this population as hard to serve. Increasing numbers of these youth…

  15. The Meaning of Work for Black African Immigrant Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the meaning of work for Black, sub-Saharan African immigrant adult students pursuing a 4-year college degree. Career development practitioners are in a unique position to help these students make significant life-career decisions. Seven students enrolled at an urban university located in the Midwest were…

  16. Immigrant generation and physical activity among Mexican, Chinese & Filipino adults in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Afable-Munsuz, Aimee; Ponce, Ninez A.; Rodriguez, Michael; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2011-01-01

    Migrant studies of physical activity (PA) can provide insight into the prevention of chronic disease. It is unclear, however, whether PA increases or decreases the longer migrants live in their host country. In the US, studies on immigrants’ length of residence in the US and PA are inconclusive and many studies do not adequately consider the role of socioeconomic status (SES). Using California data, we examine relationships between immigrant generation and physical activity (PA) among Mexican, Chinese and Filipino adults, who represent the three largest immigrant groups in the US, and the extent to which the relationships are confounded by SES. Data from the 2000 US Census was linked with data on adults 18 years and older from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. PA was measured in three different domains: leisure time (LTPA), non-leisure time (NLTPA) and any PA. Logistic regression was used to examine whether a wide range of SES factors, measured at the respondent and neighborhood levels, influenced the relationship between immigrant generation and PA in all domains and in different ethnic origin groups. Generation was significantly associated with LTPA among Mexican and Chinese adults and with NLTPA among all 3 ethnic origin groups; however the nature of the relationships varied. After adjusting for individual and neighborhood SES factors, a positive association between generation and LTPA remained among Mexican adults, and negative association between generation and NLTPA remained among Chinese and Filipino adults. These results underscore the importance of comparative studies of immigrant generation and PA and consideration of SES factors to identify pathways linking generation to PA. In the context of increasing rates of chronic disease, the study of transitions in PA among immigrants will continue to be critical to promoting the public health of diverse populations in countries such as the US. PMID:20378226

  17. From Immigrant Enclave to Main Street, USA: The Social Policy Implications of Real-World Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed

    This paper presents findings from a state-sponsored study of the adult education needs of limited-English-proficient (LEP) adults in California. The findings relate primarily to the situation of the over 2.3-million Spanish-speaking LEP adults, and within this population, to Mexican immigrants. Data were gathered in household surveys in three…

  18. Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilling, Sarah, Ed.; Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Adult language learners have specific learning goals that reflect their lives within a global society, and adults negotiate multiple and changing identities throughout their personal, academic, and professional lives. Chapters in "Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Adult Learners" highlight how teachers have the ability to…

  19. Heritage Language Maintenance and Cultural Identity Formation: The Case of Korean Immigrant Parents and Their Children in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boh Young

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the beliefs and attitudes that Korean immigrant parents and their children in the USA hold about their heritage language. Data were collected through interviews. This study addresses how parents' perspectives and their actual heritage language practices with their children influence their children's cultural identity…

  20. Factors Predicting Academic Success in Second and Third Language among Russian-Speaking Immigrant Students Studying in Israeli Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Orly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors predicting academic proficiency (AP), the specialised domains required for performing academic tasks, among Russian speaking (L1) immigrants currently studying Hebrew as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3) in Israeli schools. Specifically, the study examined the…

  1. She Is My Language Broker: How Does Cultural Capital Benefit Asian Immigrant Children in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2011-01-01

    Cultural capital benefits Asian immigrant children when they become language brokers. This skill can also benefit their parents and families in the United States. Language brokering may shape and possibly enhance students' academic performance and can further children's linguistic and academic achievement. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  2. Sociodemographic determinants of language transitions among the children of French and Spanish-Caribbean immigrants in the US

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, language transitions among the children of Caribbean immigrants in the US are examined from two main perspectives. First, speeds of language transitions among children in French and Spanish-Caribbean immigrant families are compared. Second, the mediating roles of sociodemographic factors and sibling characteristics in language transitions are also examined. The results reveal that with increasing assimilation, children in French-Caribbean families experience a faster transition to English monolingualism than their counterparts with Spanish-Caribbean parents. Transitions to English monolingualism are also negatively associated with the number of first generation siblings within households. However, increases in the number of second and first generation English-monolingual siblings, significantly shift children’s language use towards complete Anglicization. Instructively, this impact offsets the influence ethnically-endogamous parents have on the retention of mother tongues within immigrant families. PMID:25097451

  3. Sociodemographic determinants of language transitions among the children of French and Spanish-Caribbean immigrants in the US.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-04-01

    In this study, language transitions among the children of Caribbean immigrants in the US are examined from two main perspectives. First, speeds of language transitions among children in French and Spanish-Caribbean immigrant families are compared. Second, the mediating roles of sociodemographic factors and sibling characteristics in language transitions are also examined. The results reveal that with increasing assimilation, children in French-Caribbean families experience a faster transition to English monolingualism than their counterparts with Spanish-Caribbean parents. Transitions to English monolingualism are also negatively associated with the number of first generation siblings within households. However, increases in the number of second and first generation English-monolingual siblings, significantly shift children's language use towards complete Anglicization. Instructively, this impact offsets the influence ethnically-endogamous parents have on the retention of mother tongues within immigrant families. PMID:25097451

  4. So, What's Behind Adult English Second Language Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) grammatical knowledge to English second language reading (ESLR), with the objective of understanding this relationship in the context of the transfer of L1 skills to second language (L2) academic processes. Fifty-five adult, native Spanish-speaking English-language learners were given…

  5. Parents' Attitudes toward Heritage Language Maintenance for Their Children and Their Efforts to Help Their Children Maintain the Heritage Language: A Case Study of Korean-Canadian Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Seong Man; Sarkar, Mela

    2007-01-01

    In this study we explore Korean immigrant parents' attitudes toward heritage language maintenance for their children and their efforts to help their children maintain Korean as their heritage language in Montreal. Some implications for mainstream school policies and classroom practices are touched on briefly. Data were collected from nine Korean…

  6. Factor Analysis of the ESL/EFL Strategy Inventory for Language Learning: Generation 1.5 Korean Immigrant College Students' Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Misook; Stoffa, Rosa; Kush, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors related to the language learning strategies of second language learners, specifically Generation 1.5 Korean immigrant students--the seventh-largest and one of the fastest growing foreign-born groups in the USA. Participants in this study were members of the Korean communities located in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia who…

  7. The Creative Second Language Lesson: The Contribution of the Role-Play Technique to the Teaching of a Second Language in Immigrant Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magos, Kostas; Politi, Foteini

    2008-01-01

    Acquisition of the host country's language is a basic requirement for the occupational and social inclusion of immigrants. It has been widely acknowledged that both the teaching and the learning of a second language are substantially improved by the communicative approach. A technique employed by the latter is that of role-play. This technique…

  8. Dual language profiles of Latino children of immigrants: Stability and change over the early school years

    PubMed Central

    COLLINS, BRIAN A.; O'CONNOR, ERIN E.; SUÁREZ-OROZCO, CAROLA; NIETO-CASTAÑON, ALFONSO; TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.

    2013-01-01

    Dual language children enter school with varying levels of proficiencies in their first and second language. This study of Latino children of immigrants (N = 163) analyzes their dual language profiles at kindergarten and second grade, derived from the direct assessment of Spanish and English proficiencies (Woodcock Language Proficiency Batteries–Revised). Children were grouped based on the similarity of language profiles (competent profiles, such as dual proficient, Spanish proficient, and English proficient; and low-performing profiles, including borderline proficient and limited proficient). At kindergarten, the majority of children (63%) demonstrated a low-performing profile; by second grade, however, the majority of children (64%) had competent profiles. Change and stability of language profiles over time of individual children were then analyzed. Of concern, are children who continued to demonstrate a low-performing, high-risk profile. Factors in the linguistic environments at school and home, as well as other family and child factors associated with dual language profiles and change/stability over time were examined, with a particular focus on the persistently low-performing profile groups. PMID:24825925

  9. Health promotion and health advocacy for and by immigrants enrolled in English as a second language classes.

    PubMed

    Edwards, N; Ciliska, D; Halbert, T; Pond, M

    1992-01-01

    An intersectoral immigrant health promotion project in Hamilton, Ontario is described. The project goal was to facilitate the entry of new immigrants to the Ontario health care system and equip them with knowledge and skills to strengthen their preventive and promotive health practices. A needs assessment preceded project development. The three phases of the project are described. The first phase commenced with the development of culturally sensitive health promotion resource materials to be used with immigrants enrolled in English as a Second Language Classes. In phase two, activities focussed on strengthening the ability of ESL teachers to incorporate a preventive and promotive health focus in their classes. The final phase shifted to a community-based project. During this phase, a core immigrant group developed their skills as health advocates for their immigrant community. PMID:1617560

  10. Conflict sources and responses in mother-daughter relationships: perspectives of adult daughters of aging immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Usita, Paul M; Du Bois, Barbara C

    2005-01-01

    Mother-daughter conflict sources and responses among immigrant families are not well understood. In the research reported here, in-depth interview data about conflict were collected from 11 adult daughters of Japanese immigrant mothers. Conflict sources were mothers' unsolicited advice, daughters and mothers not living up to expectations of the other, and daughters' independence of mothers. Responses to conflict included voicing concerns, displaying loyalty, and utilizing the assistance of family. Comparisons between immigrant and nonimmigrant mother-daughter dyads' conflict experiences are discussed, and suggestions for future research on mother-daughter conflict within the immigrant context are provided. PMID:15914425

  11. Culture, food, and language: Perspectives from immigrant mothers in school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Sumi; Calabrese Barton, Angela; Contento, Isobel

    2007-04-01

    The article explores the role of immigrant parents in middle school science as both teachers and learners as part of an urban middle school curriculum, the Linking in Food and the Environment (LiFE) program. The curriculum engaged parents as partners with science teachers to teach science through food. Over a 2-year period, parents attended a series of bilingual workshops, collaborated with classroom teachers, managed activities, guided student inquiry, and assisted in classroom management. The following study analyzes the role of culture, language, and identity as four mothers navigated their position as `insiders' in a science classroom.

  12. "What about Me? I'm Not Like Chinese but I'm Not Like American": Heritage-Language Learning and Identity of Mixed-Heritage Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines heritage-language (HL) experience and identity of 12 adults of mixed-heritage backgrounds through in-depth autobiographical interviews. Each participant has an English-speaking American parent and an HL (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, or Vietnamese)-speaking immigrant parent. The interviews explored each participant's…

  13. Comparing written and oral measures of comprehension of cancer information by English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese immigrant women.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer; Todd, Laura; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-09-01

    The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (S-TOFHLA) and Cloze test are commonly used tools to measure comprehension of health information (i.e., health literacy); however, little is known about their use in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) populations. In this study, we compared written (Cloze test) and oral (Teach Back) measures of colon cancer information comprehension among ESL Chinese immigrant women to Canada. Performances on colon cancer-specific measures were compared to a general measure of health literacy (S-TOFHLA). On the S-TOFHLA, Cloze, and Teach Back, respectively, the following percentage of participants had adequate comprehension: 62.1%, 14.8%, and 89.7%. Correlation between performance on the Cloze and Teach Back was significant albeit weakly so (r = 0.38, p = 0.04); performances on the S-TOFHLA and Teach Back were not correlated. Measures of health literacy skill that require written English language skills may not be appropriate for measuring understanding of health information for ESL populations. PMID:21445682

  14. Socio-Linguistic Factors in Second Language Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Children of Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The factors affecting the mastery of the host country's language by the children of immigrants are important in the study of immigration-related issues. This exploratory study analyses the possible link between parental socio-linguistic background factors (parent-child language choice, parental proficiency in L2, educational level, socio-economic…

  15. Korean-Immigrant Parents' Support of Their American-Born Children's Development and Maintenance of the Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Korean-immigrant parents' language ideologies and practices with respect to their American-born children's language development. Participants were seven ethnic Korean families composed of immigrant parents and their American-born children, aged between five and seven, in Midwestern America. Interviews in the medium of…

  16. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  17. What Holds Back the Second Generation? The Intergenerational Transmission of Language Human Capital Among Immigrants*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee

    2007-01-01

    In 2000 Census microdata, various outcomes of second-generation immigrants are related to their parents' age at arrival to the United States, and in particular whether that age fell within the “critical period” of language acquisition. We interpret this as an effect of the parent's English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for parental English proficiency. Estimates of the effect of parent's English-speaking proficiency using two-stage least squares yield significant, positive results for children's English-speaking proficiency and preschool attendance, and significant, negative results for dropping out of high school and being below age-appropriate grade. (JEL J13, J24, J62) PMID:18584062

  18. The Latent Speaker: Attaining Adult Fluency in an Endangered Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, Charlotte; Fathman, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how latent knowledge of an ancestral or heritage language affects subsequent acquisition by adults. The "latent speaker" is defined as an individual raised in an environment where the ancestral language was spoken but who did not become a speaker of that language. The study examines how attitudes, latent knowledge and…

  19. Self-Access and the Adult Language Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Edith, Ed.

    The immediate stimulus for this collection of papers was a conference, Self-Access and the Adult Language Learner, organized by the Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research (CILT) and the Language Centre of the University of Cambridge in December 1992 at Queen's College, Cambridge. Several 1-day conferences on the same theme were…

  20. Second Language Learning by Adults: Testimonies of Bilingual Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between languages and selves in adult bicultural bilinguals who learned their second language (L2) post puberty and became writers and scholars in this language. Autobiographic narratives are used to identify and examine subsequent stages of L2 learning. (Author/VWL)

  1. Do Children and Adults with Language Impairment Recognize Prosodic Cues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Jennifer; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Gerken, LouAnn; Glattke, Theodore J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Prosodic cues are used to clarify sentence structure and meaning. Two studies, one of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and one of adults with a history of learning disabilities, were designed to determine whether individuals with poor language skills recognize prosodic cues on par with their normal-language peers. Method:…

  2. Translation of questionnaire increases the response rate in immigrants: filling the language gap or feeling of inclusion?

    PubMed

    Moradi, Tahereh; Sidorchuk, Anna; Hallqvist, Johan

    2010-12-01

    Sweden has a long history of conducting questionnaire-based Public Health Surveys (PHS) to monitor health determinants. As Sweden has become a multi-ethnic society a linguistically adapted instrument to collect data was first used in Stockholm PHS 2006 to overcome the barrier of lack of Swedish language proficiency, but more importantly to overcome the psychological barrier of being excluded. The questionnaire was translated into the six most spoken languages among Swedish immigrants, namely Arabic, English, Farsi, Finnish, Spanish, and Turkish. In spite of a decrease in participation rate (-2.9%, p < 0.0001) among native Swedes in PHS 2006 compared with PHS 2002, there was a substantial increase in participation rate among immigrants in PHS 2006 who received a translated questionnaire or were interviewed in their mother tongue. The increase in response rate varied from 2.1% among Finnish-speaking immigrants up to 12.4% among Turkish-speaking immigrants and was significant for Arabic-speaking (p < 0.0001), Farsi-speaking (p = 0.003), Spanish-speaking (p < 0.0001) and Turkish-speaking (p < 0.0001) immigrants. Various attempts to increase participation rate will be of importance to policy makers involved in the integration of the immigrant population, to healthcare professionals, and obviously to the public. PMID:20534633

  3. Reading and Adult English Language Learners: A Review of the Research. Series on Preparing Adult English Language Learners for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Adams, Rebecca

    This book summarizes the research on adult English language learners (ELLs) reading English, offering English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers and administrators suggestions for instruction and noting areas where further research is needed. It is based on an annotated bibliography of research on reading development for adult learners of English…

  4. The Situation of Minority Languages in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Marie-France

    1993-01-01

    Discusses language policy in Quebec, reviewing the rise of French as the dominant language in the province, the maintenance and promotion of heritage languages and cultures in public and private schools, and three initiatives to promote second-language study (parent-child classes for immigrants, French language courses for adults, and school…

  5. Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe: Measures to Foster Communication with Immigrant Families and Heritage Language Teaching for Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Coster, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    This document talks about immigrant children, who are defined here as either children born in another country (within or outside Europe) or children whose parents or grandparents were born in another country. So the term "immigrant children" used here covers various situations, which can be referred to in other contexts as "newly-arrived…

  6. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and Moroccan Learners of…

  7. Bilinguismo e immigrazione: una nota sociolinguistica al piano europeo di mantenimento delle lingue nazionali nelle comunita di emigrati (Bilingualism and Immigration: A Sociolinguistic View of the European Plan for the Maintainance of National Languages in Immigrant Communities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the European Economic Community's (EEC) plan for the maintainance of national languages among immigrants. Describes the variety of objectives behind the EEC's linguistic policy as incompatible with the creation of a unified instructional approach. Emphasizes that dialects spoken within immigrant families create additional problems in…

  8. New Immigrants in the United States: Readings for Second Language Educators. Cambridge Language Teaching Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee, Ed.; Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia, Ed.

    Articles include the following: "The Flowering of America: Linguistic Diversity in the United States" (R. Macias); "The American Linguistic Mosaic: Understanding Language Shift in the United States" (C. Veltman); "Bilingualism and Language Use Among Mexican Americans" (G. Valdes); "Puerto Ricans in the United States: Confronting the Linguistic…

  9. Immigrant Identities in the Digital Age: Portraits of Spanish-Speaking Young Men Learning in a Community-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel-Erickson, Gwen Rene

    2013-01-01

    Currently the United States is home to a large and increasing immigrant population. Many of these immigrant students use community-based programs for their educational needs. Despite the large number of immigrant students who currently use alternate resources, such as churches and community centers, for education, adult language learners in…

  10. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Title III: Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students. 107th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Title III: Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students. Part A describes the English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act. Its four subparts include the following: (1) grants and subgrants for English language acquisition…

  11. Language discordance and testing for latent tuberculosis infection among recent Asian and Latino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Leng, Jennifer C F; Changrani, Jyotsna; Gany, Francesca M

    2011-04-01

    The foreign-born population is disproportionately affected by tuberculosis (TB). Testing to identify persons with latent TB infection is critical. The aim of this study was to assess clinic-based testing for latent tuberculosis infection among recent Asian and Latino immigrants. A randomized controlled trial of interpreting methods and their impact on medical outcomes was conducted at the primary care clinic of a New York City municipal hospital. This study is a nested cohort of recruited patients with an indication to receive tuberculin testing, based on recent migration to the US from endemic areas. Medical record data were abstracted to determine referral for, and completion of, tuberculin testing. Bivariate analyses were used to test for differences in tuberculin testing between language concordant and discordant groups. Seven hundred and eighty-two patients were enrolled. One hundred and ninety-one had migrated within 5 years of enrollment from endemic areas. None spoke English as a primary language. Seventy percentage of patient-provider encounters were language discordant. Seventeen of 191 were referred for testing. Fifteen (88%) completed testing. Six (40%) had positive results. There were no significant differences between language concordant and discordant patients. In this at-risk population, every patient in clinical care should be considered for testing if indicated by country of origin. PMID:20697787

  12. Adolescent language brokering in diverse contexts: associations with parenting and parent-youth relationships in a new immigrant destination area.

    PubMed

    Roche, Kathleen M; Lambert, Sharon F; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Little, Todd D

    2015-01-01

    In the US, children in immigrant families have a longstanding history of language brokering for their parents. Scholars have surmised that youth's role in language brokering may influence the nature of parenting practices and parent-child relationships that are important to the positive adjustment of adolescent youth. Research findings in this regard, however, have been mixed. Drawing from the family stress model and the concept of adolescent helpfulness, the present study examined how language brokering across different contexts-school, community, and home-was associated with indicators of parental support and parental behavioral control. The sample included 118 (53% female) primarily Mexican- and Central American-origin 7th, 9th, and 11th grade children in Latino immigrant families living in suburban Atlanta, an important new immigrant destination. The results from structural equation models indicated that language brokering at home-translations for items such as bills, credit card statements, and insurance forms-was associated with less parental decision-making authority, lower levels of parental knowledge, and less parent-child closeness. Language brokering pertinent to school and community contexts, on the other hand, was not associated with variations in parenting. The adverse consequences for parenting conferred by youth translating insurance forms and family financial bills may stem from the excessive cognitive demands placed on youth in these situations, as well as the elevated power that youth gain in relationship to their immigrant parents. For the country's rapidly growing population of youth being raised by immigrant Latino parents, it is important to consider that youth's role as language broker at home may affect closeness in the parent-child relationship as well as the degree to which parents are able to maintain authority over youth's behaviors. PMID:25056805

  13. Mexican Immigrant Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Communication Disabilities, Emergent Literacy Development, and Speech-Language Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kummerer, Sharon E.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Method: Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention…

  14. Realities, Rewards, and Risks of Heritage-Language Education: Perspectives from Japanese Immigrant Parents in a Midwestern Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, R.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic case study describes how three Japanese immigrant parents in a midsize urban community in the Midwest viewed heritage-language education in relation to their children's socioemotional development as bicultural Americans. The literature review offers a comparative and historical analysis of Japanese schools in the diaspora to…

  15. That Child Is a Yellow: New Immigrant Children's Conceptions of English Language, Literacy, and Learners' Identities in the NCLB Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkan, Sultan; DaSilva Iddings, Ana Christina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we utilize the concepts of conceptual metaphors, cultural models, and master myths to discuss the ways by which three new immigrant children, native speakers of Spanish, were developing conceptions of English language, literacy, and learner's identities. Our findings point to 3 main metaphors that were often implicit in the school…

  16. Anglo-Australians' and Immigrants' Attitudes toward Language and Accent: A Review of Experimental and Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Victor J.; Gallois, Cynthia

    1987-01-01

    Anglo-Australians remain monolingual and Anglophile in their attitudes. They show preference for standard or prestige varieties of English. Second generation members of immigrant groups are under strong pressure to assimilate and to abandon their community languages. They may have more negative attitudes toward non-standard accents in English than…

  17. Immigrant and Refugee ESL Students' Challenges to Accessing Four-Year College Education: From Language Policy to Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanno, Yasuko; Varghese, Manka M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on English as a second language (ESL) students in higher education has traditionally focused on their academic writing, leaving larger issues of their college access and success unexplored. This article examines the challenges that first-generation immigrant and refugee ESL students face in accessing four-year college education through a…

  18. Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2013-10-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues. PMID:24066632

  19. Languages at the Technion and Problems of Adult Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenhouse, Judith

    A discussion of language teaching at the Technion Israel Institute of Technology emphasizes problems specific to the teaching of English, Hebrew, and Arabic, the main languages used in Israel. Three aspects of the program of instruction are examined. The first is the distinction between required and elective languages. English is required of all…

  20. Language Games and Activities. Netword 2: Teaching Languages to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langran, John; Purcell, Sue

    This guide discusses the use of games in the second language classroom and describes a number of games language teachers can use. An introductory chapter outlines different types of games and explains the use of the book. Chapter 1 offers a rationale for classroom use of games for second language learning. Chapter 2 suggests classroom techniques…

  1. Chinese new immigrant mothers' perception about adult-onset non-communicable diseases prevention during childhood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linda Dong Ling; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Wu, Joseph Tsz Kei; Fielding, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Many non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are largely preventable via behaviour change and healthy lifestyle, which may be best established during childhood. This study sought insights into Chinese new immigrant mothers' perceptions about adult-onset NCDs prevention during childhood. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with new immigrant mothers from mainland China who had at least one child aged 14 years or younger living in Hong Kong. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The present study identified three major themes: perceived causes of adult NCDs, beliefs about NCDs prevention and everyday health information practices. Unhealthy lifestyle, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of adult NCDs. Less than half of the participants recognized that parents had responsibility for helping children establish healthy behaviours from an early age to prevent diseases in later life. Most participants expressed helplessness about chronic diseases prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, being perceived as beyond individual control. Many participants experienced barriers to seeking health information, the most common sources of health information being interpersonal conversation and television. Participants' everyday information practice was passive and generally lacked awareness regarding early prevention of adult-onset NCDs. Updated understanding of this issue has notable implications for future health promotion interventions. PMID:24842077

  2. Reading and Adult English Language Learners: The Role of the First Language. ERIC Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    This brief describes how literacy in the first language (L1) can affect the acquisition of reading skills in English, examining ways that instruction should be developed. It explains that learning to read is especially difficult for adults learning to read in a second language. According to the research, all English language learners (ELLs),…

  3. New Paradigms for Adult Learning: Building on Mexican Immigrants' Prior Experience To Develop Basic Skills for the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Edward

    This paper examines basic skills competencies developed by Mexican immigrant adult learners through participation in (although not always completion of) adult basic education programs conducted by the Mexican, Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos (INEA). The comparison provides the conceptual basis for configuring instructional…

  4. Gatekeepers of the American Dream: How Teachers' Perceptions Shape the Academic Outcomes of Immigrant and Language-Minority Students

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the students' hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college. PMID:25769866

  5. Gatekeepers of the American Dream: how teachers' perceptions shape the academic outcomes of immigrant and language-minority students.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the student's hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college. PMID:25769866

  6. Literacy Development and Language Expression for Adult Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena; Moon, Ji Yoon Christine

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides examples of transitions that learners face connected to their participation in adult education and English literacy instruction. It describes their efforts to attain relevant language expression skills.

  7. Language Acculturation among Older Vietnamese Refugee Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thanh V.

    1990-01-01

    Examined English language acculturation among older Vietnamese refugees (aged 40 and older). Found that age, sex, education in Vietnam, health, and length of residence in United States had some significant relationships with language acculturation. Older Vietnamese people had more problems with language acculturation than younger counterparts, and…

  8. English as a Second Language for Adults: A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Mary; And Others

    To help improve English as a Second Language (ESL) programs for adult learners, this curriculum guide provides informative materials for the teacher and 30 sections of lessons suitable for adaptation by the teacher. Teacher information includes materials on language teaching and learning, use of the guide, needs assessment, adapting lesson plans,…

  9. Context or Key? Language in Four Adult Learning Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Clinton

    2007-01-01

    Context is a key factor in designing and delivering adult learning programmes, and in multilingual environments the choice of language plays a decisive role. Four programmes, two in Asia (Bhutan Myanmar) and two in Africa (Ghana and Uganda), which focus on learning for development, integrate language considerations in different ways, related both…

  10. Is Developing Employability Skills Relevant to Adult Language Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaven, Tita

    2016-01-01

    Open University (OU) students are typically mature students who combine studying part-time with work or caring responsibilities; the average age of OU language students has been dropping, and about 30% of our new students are now under 25. The traditional view of adult learners who study languages is that they often study for pleasure or personal…

  11. Adult Literacy, Numeracy and Language: Policy, Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Hillier, Yvonne, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book explores the social practice of literacy, numeracy and language and its implications for teaching and learning adult basic skills. Leading international experts argue that literacy, numeracy and language are more than just a set of skills or techniques, but are shaped by the social and cultural context within which they are taking place;…

  12. Toward a Better Understanding of First Language Vocabulary Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the first language (L1) vocabulary knowledge in a large-scale sample (n = 70) of second-generation Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel. The interest in this research population follows from the unique demographic, sociocultural, linguistic, and psychological distinctiveness of RJ immigration in Israel.…

  13. Examining Associations between Self-Rated Health and Proficiency in Literacy and Numeracy among Immigrants and U.S.-Born Adults: Evidence from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between self-reported health (SRH) and literacy and numeracy proficiency for immigrants compared to U.S.-born respondents and for Hispanic versus Asian immigrants. The research questions were: (1) Are literacy and numeracy scores associated with adults’ SRH? (2) Are associations between SRH and literacy and numeracy proficiency moderated by immigrant status? (3) Among immigrants, are literacy and numeracy scores more strongly associated with SRH for Hispanics versus Asians? Immigrants had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores, yet reported better health than U.S.-born respondents. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that literacy and numeracy were both positively related to SRH for immigrants and U.S.-born adults, and should therefore be viewed as part of the growing evidence that literacy is an independent and significant social determinant of health. Second, U.S.-born and immigrant adults accrued similarly positive health benefits from stronger literacy and numeracy skills. Third, although Hispanic immigrants were more disadvantaged than Asian immigrants on almost all socioeconomic characteristics and had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores and worse SRH than Asian immigrants, both Hispanic and Asian immigrants experienced similar positive health returns from literacy and numeracy proficiency. These findings underscore the potential health benefits of providing adult basic education instruction, particularly for immigrants with the least formal schooling and fewest socioeconomic resources. PMID:26132212

  14. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  15. Making the Invisible Visible: A Responsive Evaluation Study of ESL and Spanish Language Services for Immigrants in a Small Rural County in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawan, Faridah; Thomalla, Therese Groff

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a responsive evaluation study of ESL services and Spanish language services for immigrants in a rural county in Indiana. An ESL specialist led the evaluation of language services in the county from the perspectives of language providers and recipients. The responsive evaluation--a form of action research that uses…

  16. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  17. "The School of Life": Differences in U.S. and Canadian Settlement Policies and Their Effect on Individual Haitian Immigrants' Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguay, Annie Laurie

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that language proficiency in the main language of the destination country is one of the most significant factors in the integration of immigrants. This study examines the overall differences in U.S. and Canadian settlement policy, using the provision of language courses as a specific example of the ways in…

  18. Language exposure facilitates talker learning prior to language comprehension, even in adults.

    PubMed

    Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension. PMID:26113447

  19. North American Adult Literacy Programs and Latin American Immigrants: How Critical Pedagogy Can Help Nonprofit Literacy Programming in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    As nonprofit adult literacy programs are often the only options for low-income Latin American immigrants in North America, problems accompanying these programs affect the ability of immigrants to benefit from them. North American nonprofit adult literacy programs often struggle due to the difficulties inherent in using volunteer instructors (often…

  20. From Refugee Camp to Solitary Confinement: Illiterate Adults Learn Swedish as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmeroth, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Studied the factors that govern immigrants' acquisition of a second language through 22 interviews with illiterate Kurdish refugees in Sweden and immigrants with at least 6 years of schooling. The pedagogic conclusions that can be drawn relate mainly to measures for increasing motivation and the need for achieving greater contact with target…

  1. Trauma and the Adult English Language Learner. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isserlis, Janet

    English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) practitioners are familiar with adult learners' stories of disruption, political trauma, and mental upheaval. Until recently, however, little attention has been paid to personal trauma and domestic abuse. Acknowledgement of the prevalence of violence generally, and of that experienced by those in the adult ESL…

  2. Language Use in Multiethnic Literature For Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Darcy

    This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…

  3. Literacy, Language and Community Publishing. Essays in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Jane, Ed.

    This book contains an introduction and 11 essays describing reading and writing projects in which adult literacy learners enrolled in the following types of programs participated: adult literacy and/or language classes, refugee groups, oral history and reminiscence projects, and community publishing and writing workshops. The following essays are…

  4. Practitioner Toolkit: Working with Adult English Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieshoff, Sylvia Cobos; Aguilar, Noemi; McShane, Susan; Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Terrill, Lynda; Van Duzer, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This document is designed to give support to adult education and family literacy instructors who are new to serving adult English language learners and their families in rural, urban, and faith- and community-based programs. The Toolkit is designed to have a positive impact on the teaching and learning in these programs. The results of two…

  5. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  6. English as a Second Language Handbook for Adult Education Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook is designed to assist classroom teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) in meeting the needs of their adult students. The handbook is intended for use in a variety of settings and with a variety of teaching styles. The first chapter discusses adult learners' characteristics and the factors affecting their learning. The second…

  7. Systems Development in Adult Language Learning: A European Unit/Credit System for Modern Language Learning by Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    The study prepares the ground for the introduction of a language learning system for adults. Part 1 presents a draft outline of such a system, in which the language material to be learned is organized into units and credits awarded on the completion of each unit. The content is defined with reference to the nature of the learners and their…

  8. Language Learning Strategy Use by Colombian Adult English Language Learners: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Elsie Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe how Colombian adult English language learners (ELL) select and use language learning strategies (LLS). This study used Oxford's (1990a) taxonomy for LLS as its theoretical framework. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview, were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for 12…

  9. Adult Education in Israel V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Michaelson, Serena T., Ed.

    This fifth journal edition focuses on the didactics of adult education in Israel. Following a "Preface" (Meir Peretz) discussing the didactics of adult education, three major fields are examined: Learning for Adults; Hebrew Language and Culture for Immigrants; and Special Populations (adults with learning disabilities, senior citizens, and…

  10. Correlation between Transformative Learning and Cultural Context: A Case Study of Adult Participants in a Korean American Immigrant Congregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Brian Byung Joo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the nature, process, and facilitating factors of transformative learning experiences of Korean-American adults in a Korean American immigrant congregation (KAIC). The focus was on discovering how and to what extent, if any, the congregational culture of the KAIC as the learning situation played a role in…

  11. [He that knows nothing doubts nothing: availability of foreign language patient education material for immigrant patients in Germany - a survey].

    PubMed

    Bungartz, Jessica; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Patients with little knowledge of the German language have a special need for information. Due to language barriers they behave more passively in medical encounter, have a poorer knowledge about their disease and are generally less satisfied with their medical care. Foreign language patient information material could bridge the gap between medical consultation and the patients' self-responsibility and involve patients more actively in the treatment process. Based on extensive research in several areas (internet, clinic and practice leaflets, drug patient information leaflets) the present article illustrates that in all these areas foreign language patient information is very poorly available compared to German material. The reinforcement of the development of such material could lead to a higher involvement of immigrant patients' in the decision-making process, higher rates of patient safety and satisfaction and, overall, to a better quality of care for all patient groups in Germany. PMID:22176983

  12. Factors affecting immigration of adults: experimental and theoretical observations with rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seamon, Joshua; Adler, Gregory

    1997-11-01

    We examined immigration in populations of Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mice) by 1) monitoring natural immigration at 10 sites, 2) introducing experimental immigrants into eight populations, and 3) constructing qualitative models of immigration. Density of natural immigrants covaried positively with resident density, and successful assimilation was lower at low resident and immigrant densities. Females and males did not differ in their chance of achieving residency. Year, sex, and number introduced were significant predictors of assimilation by individuals. Experimentally introduced individuals had no effect on densities of those mice resident before the introductions. Results obtained from studying natural immigration differed from those obtained from studying experimental immigration. Signed digraphs and time averaging were used to model the consequences of different resident-immigrant relationships and to suggest how different sources of variation may have affected assimilation and led to differences in natural and experimental immigration. Resident and immigrant densities could have been positively correlated even if residents actively inhibited immigration. Variation in immigrant density and survival rather than resident territorial activity apparently determined patterns of assimilation.

  13. Language use affects food behaviours and food values among Mexican-origin adults in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Langellier, Brent A; Brookmeyer, Ron; Wang, May C; Glik, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have established that acculturation is associated with dietary intake among Mexican immigrants and their offspring, but few studies have investigated whether food purchasing, food preparation, or food-related values act as mechanisms of dietary acculturation. We examine the relationship between language use and a wide range of food behaviors and food-related values among Mexican American adults. Design Nationally-representative probability sample of the U.S. population. Setting 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects 2,792 Mexican American adults at least 20 years of age. Results Mexican Americans who speak only or mostly English consume more energy from fast food and sit-down restaurants and report increased consumption of non-homemade meals, fast food and pizza meals, frozen meals, and ready-to-eat meals relative to Spanish speakers. English speakers prepare one fewer homemade dinner per week and spend less time on meal preparation. English speakers are more likely than Spanish speakers to cite convenience as an important reason why they prefer fast food over cooking at home. There is no relationship between language use and the perceived importance of the nutritional quality, price, or taste of fast food. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that the well-documented relationship between acculturation and diet among Mexican Americans may be just one indicator of a broader pattern characterized by decreased home meal preparation and increased reliance on convenience foods. PMID:24698136

  14. Speech and language correlates of adults' judgments of children.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, E I; Tomblin, J B

    1990-08-01

    This two-part study explored the influence that a preschool-aged child's communication behavior has on the impression he or she makes on adults. First, the semantic differential technique was used to reveal the dimensions that describe the adults' judgments of these children. Four adult judges listened to 140 2-min samples of children conversing with an adult and rated the children on 24 bipolar adjective scales. Factor analysis of the ratings produced a three-dimensional structure (Dynamism, Maturity, and Appeal) that accounted for 80% of the total variance in the judgement data. Next, the association between six selected speech and language behaviors and the judgements on each of these dimensions were examined. Rate of speech, fluency of speech, participation in the conversation, complexity of sentences, and grammaticality of utterances were not highly correlated with adults' impressions. However, level of phonological accuracy did correlate with adults' perceptions of degree of maturity. PMID:2381190

  15. The Older Foreign Language Learner: A Challenge for Colleges and Universities. Language in Education: Theory and Practice, 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Elizabeth G.

    The adult students who are the subject of this report bring a different orientation with them to the study of language than does the typical adult immigrant or foreign student of English. This former group may be engaged in foreign language study in order to satisfy a college level language requirement or as part of a continuing education or…

  16. Importance of adult survival, local recruitment and immigration in a declining boreal forest passerine, the willow tit Parus montanus.

    PubMed

    Lampila, Satu; Orell, Markku; Belda, Eduardo; Koivula, Kari

    2006-06-01

    Population growth rate (lambda) and its components (adult survival, local recruitment, immigration and their relative contributions to lambda) were studied in the declining willow tit Parus montanus in Northern Finland. Capture-recapture models for open populations were used to estimate the population parameters and their process variation. Adult survival was fairly high with low variation (0.593, CV=0.067). As expected, local recruitment was lower and more variable (0.063, CV=0.610). During the 12-year study, the population growth rate averaged to one (0.988, CV=0.197; calculated as [see text]. However, if the present processes continue, population projections show that the population is likely to decline. There was considerable temporal variation in the relative contributions of demographic parameters to lambda. In all years, adult survival had the highest relative contribution (mean 64%) to the population growth rate and it was the least variable trait. Immigration had a higher relative contribution (22%) to lambda than local recruitment (14%). Based on the results for the contributions to lambda, the main conservation concern for willow tits is adult survival. Due to low variation, adult survival may be difficult to enhance, but at least it should be prevented from declining. High stochasticity in local recruitment and immigration is probably an inherent characteristic of highly seasonal environments, making these traits difficult to address for conservation practices. PMID:16514536

  17. Immigrant Spanish as Liability or Asset? Generational Diversity in Language Ideologies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Elaine; Mortimer, Katherine; Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly; Wortham, Stanton

    2014-01-01

    Latino students' educational success is central to America's prosperity--in traditional immigrant destinations and in New Latino Diaspora locations, previously unfamiliar with Latinos. Implicated in this success is the reception young immigrants receive, especially the ways in which they are identified in schools. We describe findings…

  18. Chinese Immigrant High School Students' Cultural Interactions, Acculturation, Family Obligations, Language Use, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Okubo, Yuki; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Shea, Munyi; Ou, Dongshu; Pituc, Stephanie T.

    2008-01-01

    When immigrant youth come to the United States, they must learn to interact with dominant and cultural groups as part of the adjustment process. The current study investigated whether the association between Chinese immigrant high school students' (N = 286) English fluency, academic and career/college help-seeking, multidimensional acculturation,…

  19. A Scoping Review of Immigrant Experience of Health Care Access Barriers in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kalich, Angela; Heinemann, Lyn; Ghahari, Setareh

    2016-06-01

    Canadian population-based surveys report comparable access to health care services between immigrant and non-immigrant populations, yet other research reports immigrant-specific access barriers. A scoping review was conducted to explore research regarding Canadian immigrants' unique experiences in accessing health care, and was guided by the research question: "What is currently known about the barriers that adult immigrants face when accessing Canadian health care services?" The findings of this study suggest that there are unmet health care access needs specific to immigrants to Canada. In reviewing research of immigrants' health care experiences, the most common access barriers were found to be language barriers, barriers to information, and cultural differences. These findings, in addition to low cultural competency reported by interviewed health care workers in the reviewed articles, indicate inequities in access to Canadian health care services for immigrant populations. Suggestions for future research and programming are discussed. PMID:26093784

  20. Sentence Processing Factors in Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2012-01-01

    Sentence imitation effectively discriminates between adults with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Little is known, however, about the factors that result in performance differences. This study evaluated the effects of working memory, processing speed, and argument status on sentence imitation. Working memory was measured by both a…

  1. Phonological Memory Predicts Second Language Oral Fluency Gains in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…

  2. The Bounds of Adult Language Acquisition: Blocking and Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…

  3. Expressive Language Style among Adolescents and Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Nicole A.; Edelson, Lisa R.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Language samples elicited through a picture description task were recorded from 38 adolescents and adults with Williams syndrome (WS) and one control group matched on age, and another matched on age, IQ, and vocabulary knowledge. The samples were coded for use of various types of inferences, dramatic devices, and verbal fillers; acoustic analyses…

  4. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…

  5. Legitimacy and Social Class in Catalan Language Education for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frekko, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Adult students of Catalan are worthy of study because they reveal complexities underlying taken-for-granted assumptions about Catalan speakers and Castilian speakers. Far from fitting into neat bundles aligning language of origin, social class, and national orientation, the students in this study exemplify the breakdown of boundaries traditionally…

  6. Adult People with Language Impairment and Their Life Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrnqvist, Maria Carlson; Thulin, Sofia; Segnestam, Ylva; Horowitz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome of language impairment (LI) was explored in interviews with three adults with LI (as children attended specialized boarding school) and four of their parents. The informants with LI expressed acceptance of LI and described themselves as independent. With driving education with adjusted pedagogy and initial governmental…

  7. Research on First Language Attrition of Morphosyntax in Adult Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Ayse

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a selective review of previous research findings on first language (L1) attrition. The review is intentionally limited in scope as it only discusses studies on morphosyntactic attrition in the L1 grammar of adult bilinguals. To this end--and in order to present the most current line of research in this field--I first report…

  8. Emerging Technologies in Adult Literacy and Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Liaw, Meei-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Although information and communication technologies have become an integral part of life in the United States, they have not yet been adequately integrated into adult language and literacy programs. This raises concerns because of the potential value of technology for enhancing learning and because of the vital role of technological proficiency as…

  9. Demographics of Adult Heritage Language Speakers in the United States: Differences by Region and Language and Their Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Heritage language (HL) speakers have received scholarly attention in recent years as an interdisciplinary research theme, but relatively less attention has been paid to their demographics. Existing studies of HL speakers' demographics often focus on young children in areas of high immigrant concentration (i.e., California, Florida, and New York);…

  10. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Miki

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  11. Uses of Technology in the Instruction of Adult English Language Learners. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sarah Catherine K.

    2009-01-01

    In program year 2006-2007, 46 percent of the adults enrolled in federally funded, state-administered adult education programs in the United States were enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. These adult English language learners represent a wide range of ages, nationalities, native languages, and English proficiency levels. In…

  12. Chinese immigrant high school students' cultural interactions, acculturation, family obligations, language use, and social support.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Christine J; Okubo, Yuki; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Shea, Munyi; Ou, Dongshu; Pituc, Stephanie T

    2008-01-01

    When immigrant youth come to the United States, they must learn to interact with dominant and cultural groups as part of the adjustment process. The current study investigated whether the association between Chinese immigrant high school students' (N = 286) English fluency, academic and career/ college help-seeking, multidimensional acculturation, family responsibilities, and social support, predicted their intercultural competence concerns (their interactions across dominant and cultural groups). Results indicate that this was the case. Implications for research and practice with immigrant youth in a high school context are discussed. PMID:19149145

  13. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Family Language Policy and Heritage Language Knowledge among Second Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila

    2008-01-01

    The family unit and home domain have been and remain important in heritage language maintenance efforts. There are complex relationships between parental language attitudes, their application in everyday language management activities and the children's knowledge of home language vocabulary. The present large-scale study examined the family policy…

  15. Language Maintenance and Loss in Preschool-Age Children of Mexican Immigrants: Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark M.; Barrett, Karen C.; Jancosek, Elizabeth G.; Itano, Christine Yoshinaga

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors plotted the Spanish language usage of 10 preschool-age children over the course of 3 years and assigned them to one of two groups: language maintenance and language loss. The authors then compared the groups' scores on structured tasks, language behaviors, and language usage/exposure variables. They found that children…

  16. Regularization of languages by adults and children: A mathematical framework.

    PubMed

    Rische, Jacquelyn L; Komarova, Natalia L

    2016-02-01

    The fascinating ability of humans to modify the linguistic input and "create" a language has been widely discussed. In the work of Newport and colleagues, it has been demonstrated that both children and adults have some ability to process inconsistent linguistic input and "improve" it by making it more consistent. In Hudson Kam and Newport (2009), artificial miniature language acquisition from an inconsistent source was studied. It was shown that (i) children are better at language regularization than adults and that (ii) adults can also regularize, depending on the structure of the input. In this paper we create a learning algorithm of the reinforcement-learning type, which exhibits patterns reported in Hudson Kam and Newport (2009) and suggests a way to explain them. It turns out that in order to capture the differences between children's and adults' learning patterns, we need to introduce a certain asymmetry in the learning algorithm. Namely, we have to assume that the reaction of the learners differs depending on whether or not the source's input coincides with the learner's internal hypothesis. We interpret this result in the context of a different reaction of children and adults to implicit, expectation-based evidence, positive or negative. We propose that a possible mechanism that contributes to the children's ability to regularize an inconsistent input is related to their heightened sensitivity to positive evidence rather than the (implicit) negative evidence. In our model, regularization comes naturally as a consequence of a stronger reaction of the children to evidence supporting their preferred hypothesis. In adults, their ability to adequately process implicit negative evidence prevents them from regularizing the inconsistent input, resulting in a weaker degree of regularization. PMID:26580218

  17. The Social Construction of Age: Adult Foreign Language Learners. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…

  18. "Invisible" Bilingualism--"Invisible" Language Ideologies: Greek Teachers' Attitudes Towards Immigrant Pupils' Heritage Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gkaintartzi, Anastasia; Kiliari, Angeliki; Tsokalidou, Roula

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from two studies--a nationwide quantitative research and an ethnographic study--on Greek schoolteachers' attitudes towards immigrant pupils' bilingualism. The quantitative data come from a large-scale questionnaire survey, which aimed at the investigation of the needs and requirements for the implementation of a…

  19. Adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment, pragmatic language impairment and autism

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Watt, Helen J; Line, E A; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have tracked children with developmental language disorder to adulthood have found that these individuals experience considerable difficulties with psychosocial adjustment (for example, academic, vocational and social aptitude). Evidence that some children also develop autistic symptomatology over time has raised suggestions that developmental language disorder may be a high-functioning form of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is not yet clear whether these outcomes vary between individuals with different subtypes of language impairment. Aims: To compare the adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment (SLI), pragmatic language impairment (PLI) and ASD. Methods & Procedures: All participants took part in research as children. In total, there were 19 young adults with a childhood history of Specific Language Impairment (M age = 24;8), seven with PLI (M age = 22;3), 11 with high functioning ASD (M age = 21;9) and 12 adults with no history of developmental disorder (Typical; n = 12; M age = 21;6). At follow-up, participants and their parents were interviewed to elicit information about psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes & Results: Participants in the SLI group were most likely to pursue vocational training and work in jobs not requiring a high level of language/literacy ability. The PLI group tended to obtain higher levels of education and work in ‘skilled’ professions. The ASD participants had lower levels of independence and more difficulty obtaining employment than the PLI and SLI participants. All groups had problems establishing social relationships, but these difficulties were most prominent in the PLI and ASD groups. A small number of participants in each group were found to experience affective disturbances. The PLI and SLI groups showed lower levels of autistic symptomatology than the ASD group. Conclusions & Implications: The between-group differences in autistic symptomatology provide

  20. Are Adult Educators and Learners "Digital Immigrants"? Examining the Evidence and Impacts for Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, Prensky's distinctions between "digital immigrants" and "digital natives" have been oft-referenced. Much has been written about digital native students as a part of the Net generation or as Millennials. However, little work fully considers the impact of digital immigrant discourse within the fields of…

  1. Functional Language Networks in Sedentary and Physically Active Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Towler, Stephen; McGregor, Keith M.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Bauer, Andrew; Phan, Stephanie; Cohen, Matthew; Marsiske, Michael; Manini, Todd M.; Crosson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified consistent age-related changes during various cognitive tasks, such that older individuals display more positive and less negative task-related activity than young adults. Recently, evidence shows that chronic physical exercise may alter aging-related changes in brain activity; however, the effect of exercise has not been studied for the neural substrates of language function. Additionally, the potential mechanisms by which aging alters neural recruitment remain understudied. To address these points, the present study enrolled elderly adults who were either sedentary or physically active to characterize the neural correlates of language function during semantic fluency between these groups in comparison to a young adult sample. Participants underwent fMRI during semantic fluency and transcranial magnetic stimulation to collect the ipsilateral silent period, a measure of interhemispheric inhibition. Results indicated that sedentary older adults displayed reductions in negative task-related activity compared to the active old group in areas of the attention network. Longer interhemispheric inhibition was associated with more negative task-related activity in the right and left posterior perisylvian cortex, suggesting that sedentary aging may result in losses in task facilitatory cortical inhibition. However, these losses may be mitigated by regular engagement in physical exercise. PMID:23458438

  2. Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142

  3. "We Communicated That Way for a Reason": Language Practices and Language Ideologies among Hearing Adults Whose Parents Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing…

  4. Teacher Education and Immigrant Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faltis, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1980s, well more than half of all immigrants and children of recent immigrants are of people of color. Many recent immigrants of color communicate in their daily lives via a language (or via languages) other than English, and many immigrant children of color are emerging bilinguals, who acquire hybrid varieties of English. While almost…

  5. Numbers Talk--Words Count: Language Policy and Adult Numeracy Education in Wales and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coben, Diana; Miller-Reilly, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review and compare language policy in relation to adult numeracy education in Wales and New Zealand with respect to the Maori and Welsh languages in the latest stage of our international comparative study of adult numeracy education. While much has been written about the relationship between language and literacy, the relationship…

  6. A Multilingual Approach to Analysing Standardized Test Results: Immigrant Primary School Children and the Role of Languages Spoken in a Bi-/Multilingual Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2014-01-01

    The present study adopts a multilingual approach to analysing the standardized test results of primary school immigrant children living in the bi-/multilingual context of South Tyrol, Italy. The standardized test results are from the Invalsi test administered across Italy in 2009/2010. In South Tyrol, several languages are spoken on a daily basis…

  7. Immigrant Learners and Their Families: Literacy To Connect the Generations. Language in Education: Theory & Practice 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein-Shr, Gail, Ed.; Quintero, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Teachers' and developers' descriptions of intergenerational literacy programs for immigrants are collected here. Topics addressed include appropriate program design, the quality of intergenerational collaboration, student journals, learner-centered curriculum design, traditional and personal storytelling as a literacy approach, education and…

  8. Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000 "Nikkeijin," or people of Japanese…

  9. Immigrant Hungarian Families' Perceptions of New Media Technologies in the Transmission of Heritage Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsi, Tunde; Szilagyi, Janka

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore thoroughly the perceptions of dispersed immigrant professionals and their bilingual and bicultural children regarding the place of new media technology in their lives. Open-ended interviewing and autoethnography were used to explore families' perceptions of the role of media technology in their children's…

  10. Voicing as an Essential Problem of Communication: Language and Education of Chinese Immigrant Children in Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Jie; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article explores voicing processes of identity construction among labor immigrants both inside China and in the Dutch Chinese Diaspora. We provide ethnographically grounded data oriented toward a theoretical point: voicing is an essential problem in communication. Whether one is able to achieve his voice--an outcome of a communicative…

  11. The Effects of Integration and Generation of Immigrants on Language and Numeracy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    In many Western countries the pressure exerted on immigrants to integrate has become intense in recent years. Efforts to preserve their ethnic identity through multicultural recognition has now been replaced by the requirements of active civic participation and assimilation. Of course integration is considered important not only for the immigrant…

  12. Language Support for Immigrant Children: A Study of State Schools in the UK and US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachron, Gail; Bhatti, Ghazala

    2005-01-01

    In recent decades, immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers have sought a new way of life in large numbers, often leaving their countries of origin behind in search of places that offer a better way of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate how elementary and middle school students in state schools in Reading, England (primarily…

  13. Language Lessons on Immigrant Identity, Food Culture, and the Search for Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Maricel G.; McClelland, Jeff; Handley, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The concept of transnationalism in many disciplines has deepened appreciation for stories of immigrant adaptation in today's globalizing world--stories that reveal shifting conceptualizations of "home," the everyday practices (e.g., cooking) that help families establish meaningful connections to home, as well as the struggles to maintain those…

  14. Framework for Quality Professional Development for Practitioners Working with Adult English Language Learners. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Adult English Language Acquisition, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Adult English Language Acquisition (CAELA) Network, under contract with the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), has created a framework that can be used to plan, implement, and evaluate professional development for practitioners working with adult English language learners at the state, regional, and program levels. The…

  15. List Memory in Young Adults With Language Learning Disability

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. Results The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Conclusion Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact. PMID:25652445

  16. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers: Using Student Response System Technology to Collect Quality Program Evaluation Data from Immigrant Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Mao, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Student response system technology was employed for parenting education program evaluation data collection with Karen adults. The technology, with translation and use of an interpreter, provided an efficient and secure method that respected oral language and collective learning preferences and accommodated literacy needs. The method was popular…

  17. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  18. Processing Prosodic Structure by Adults with Language-Based Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahl, Megha; Plante, Elena; Gerken, LouAnn

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the ability of adults with a history of language-based learning disability (hLLD) and their normal language (NL) peers to learn prosodic patterns of a novel language. Participants were exposed to stimuli from an artificial language and tested on items that required generalization of the stress patterns and the…

  19. Meaning and Function of Dummy Auxiliaries in Adult Acquisition of Dutch as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, Manuela; van Hout, Roeland; van de Craats, Ineke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of experimental data on language production and comprehension. These show that adult learners of Dutch as an additional language, with different language backgrounds, and a L2 proficiency below level A2 (Waystage) of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR; Council of Europe, 2001), use…

  20. Adult Readers' Problems: How a Language-Based Approach Can Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winser, W. N.

    In order to help adult readers with problems, it is necessary to develop an approach to teaching them that is sensitive to language and that makes explicit reference to the way language works to make meaning in texts. A language-based approach requires teachers to become more aware of the relatively invisible language system that lies behind the…

  1. Parents' Perceptions, Decisions, and Influences: Korean Immigrant Parents Look at Language Learning and Their Children's Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hye Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The growing population of young English language learners (ELLs) in American schools creates an urgency for educators to understand, value, and support the wide array of students' native language practices as a way to support both the ELLs' first language and their native cultures and communities. Considerable research shows the importance of…

  2. Urban and rural immigrant Latino youths' and adults' knowledge and beliefs about mental health resources.

    PubMed

    García, Carolyn Marie; Gilchrist, Lauren; Vazquez, Gabriela; Leite, Amy; Raymond, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    Immigrant Latino youth experience mental health problems in the U.S. Cultural beliefs and knowledge may influence help-seeking behaviors. Two hundred thirty-four immigrant Latino respondents between 12 and 44 years of age completed a questionnaire assessing knowledge of and cultural beliefs regarding mental health resources for adolescents, symptoms, and help-seeking. Multivariate analyses showed that rural respondents were significantly less likely to know of mental health resources than urban-based immigrant Latinos. Knowledge and belief outcomes were also affected by age, gender, and length of time living in the community. Immigrant Latinos appear willing to seek professional help for mental health problems but may not know how to access this type of care, or may lack available services. Future research to inform interventions that increase awareness of accessible mental health services is suggested. Findings support systems-level changes including increased availability of culturally-specific mental health services, especially in rural areas. PMID:20835762

  3. Mortality in Adult Offspring of Immigrants: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Manhica, Hélio; Toivanen, Susanna; Hjern, Anders; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective. Methods We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (<7 years) were defined as “offspring of immigrants.” We used Cox regression models to examine the association between parental country of birth and mortality between 1990 and 2008, with adjustment for education, income, age and family type. Results Male offspring of immigrants from the Middle East (HR:2.00, CI:1.66-2.26), other non-European countries (HR:1.80, CI:1.36-2.36) and Finland (HR:1.56, CI:1.48-1.65) showed an age-adjusted excess mortality risk from all causes of death when compared to offspring with Swedish-born parents. Income, but not education, greatly attenuated these increased mortality risks. No excess mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants, with the exception of external cause of death among offspring of Finnish immigrants. Conclusion The study demonstrates high mortality rates in male offspring of immigrants from Finland and non-European countries that are associated with economic, but not educational, disadvantage. No increased mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants. Future studies are needed to explain this gender differential and why income, but not education, predicts mortality in male offspring of immigrants. PMID:25706297

  4. Becoming Literate in English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Susan R., Ed.; Trueba, Henry T., Ed.

    A collection of articles on English-as-a-Second-Language literacy and literacy education include: "Contextual Issues in the Study of Second Language Literacy" (Susan R. Goldman); "Mexican Adult Literacy: New Directions for Immigrants" (Concha Delgado-Gaitan); "Factors Affecting Development of Second Language Literacy" (Richard Duran); "Reading in…

  5. Loneliness of Older Immigrant Groups in Canada: Effects of Ethnic-Cultural Background.

    PubMed

    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants. PMID:25982532

  6. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time. PMID:24482055

  7. Papers from the Scandinavian-German Symposium on the Language of Immigrant Workers and Their Children (1st, Roskilde, Denmark, March 19-23, 1978). ROLIG-papir 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Norbert, Ed.; And Others

    Papers included in this volume are: "The Muted Voice of Immigrant Workers;""The Situation of Foreign Workers in Sweden"; "Situation of Foreign Workers in the Federal Republic of Germany"; "Teaching German to Immigrant Children"; "Using Language Typology in Contrastive Studies"; "On Determining Developmental Stages in Natural Second Language…

  8. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  9. Communication Is More than Language: Adult ESL Classes Foster Parent-School Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Public-school policy and federal law both emphasize parental involvement, yet there is insufficient research guiding meaningful collaboration between school practitioners and immigrant parents. This article reports on results gleaned from a larger study of school-based adult ESL classes, focusing on the role that these classes could play in…

  10. The Role of Mexican Immigrant Mothers' Beliefs on Parental Involvement in Speech-Language Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kummerer, Sharon E.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.

    2006-01-01

    The "sociocultural framework" highlights the contributions of children's cultural and linguistic contexts to early language and literacy development. To collaborate with parents in early intervention programs, including speech-language therapy, there must be a sincere commitment to the development of cultural competence. Hispanics are one of the…

  11. Improving Immigrants' Access to Public Services in the United States: Language Access Policy and Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Language access mandates in the USA, which require that governmental services be provided in any needed language, have been largely ignored since their first enacting. However, the past decade has seen an increase in the number of national, state, and local efforts to accommodate limited English-proficient individuals. This article provides an…

  12. Understanding Changes in Chinese Immigrant Language Learners' Beliefs in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Qunyan Maggie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in language learners' beliefs in second language acquisition (SLA). Nonetheless, few studies to date have investigated the extent to which learners' beliefs develop, and the factors that contribute to this development have not been examined seriously. Employing a naturalistic inquiry,…

  13. Language Usage and Culture Maintenance: A Study of Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Mothers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejía, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the usage of the Spanish language by Hispanic mothers with their children, their views on language maintenance and culture within their bilingual families and their opinions on the benefits of bilingualism in a globalised world. Drawing upon detailed case studies of 16 native Spanish-speaking mothers married to…

  14. Family obligations and individuation among immigrant youth: Do generational status and age at immigration matter?

    PubMed

    Oznobishin, Olga; Kurman, Jenny

    2016-08-01

    Immigrant children and adolescents often assume parental roles in their families and may feel guilty about psychologically separating and individuating from the family. However, little is known about this phenomenon and youth' generational status and age at immigration. We investigated various aspects of family obligations (instrumental and emotional roles, language and culture brokering, perceived unfairness) and individuation among 302 immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel: first-generation (n = 44) and second-generation immigrant adolescents (n = 56); young adults who had arrived in Israel before the age of nine (n = 72) and from this age onward (n = 130). Immigrants who had arrived at age nine and older reported adopting more family obligations than other groups. Among the second-generation immigrants, family obligations were related to lower individuation compared to the first-generation immigrants. Possible explanations for the relations between family obligations and individuation according to generational status are suggested. PMID:27348550

  15. A Home-Language Free Adult Pre-Vocational Audio-Visual Course in English-as-a-Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Philip D., Jr.

    A pre-vocational English-as-a-second language course for adults was developed for the non-native speaker based upon the following assumptions: the teacher does not have to speak the language of the student; students in a class do not have to speak each others' language; the teacher need not be professionally trained in the field of teaching ESL;…

  16. Teachers as Agents of Reception: An Analysis of Teacher Preference for Immigrant-Origin Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabach, Dafney Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Scholarship on immigrant integration often examines immigrant characteristics and the host society's contexts of reception. This article explores how teachers fit within this framework by presenting findings on teachers' preferences to teach immigrant-origin youth who are classified as "English learners" (ELs) within separate content courses known…

  17. Immigrant Stories: Generation 1.5 Mexican American Students and English Language Learning in an Illinois Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    The number of recent immigrants to the United States has increased dramatically in the last few years, and more of these immigrants are members of a group often designated as "Generation 1.5" students. These immigrant students were born in another country, came to the United States at the age of 13 or older, and graduated from high school in this…

  18. Reimagining Diversity Work: Multigenerational Learning, Adult Immigrants, and Dialogical Community-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yep, Kathleen S.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between universities and surrounding communities have the potential to create empowering education through community engagement. Innovative "town/gown" relationships such as multigenerational learning communities with immigrant communities may foster positive student learning outcomes while at the same time strengthen local…

  19. Immigration, Racial Profiling, and White Privilege: Community-Based Challenges and Practices for Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Luis J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the author will explore the significance of race from a social constructionist perspective. He will focus on immigration laws and on examples of legal cases that have set the stage for current definitions of whiteness and racial identification. A community-based transformational organizing model will be presented. The model will…

  20. Critical Adult Learning of Asian Immigrant Workers: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mosung; Madyun, Na'im

    2008-01-01

    This study reveals how the social networks of immigrant workers play a key role in mediating critical learning towards a particular political attitude. Theoretical relationships between critical learning and political attitudes were set up and four types of political attitudes were identified. A "resistant political attitude" was conceptually…

  1. Supportive Adult Relationships and the Academic Engagement of Latin American Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, G.; Rhodes, J.; Hirsch, A. H.; Suarez-Orozco, C.; Camic, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study was to explore the academic engagement trajectories of a sample of recently arrived immigrant students from Latin America. Using an analytic framework that can dynamically model time-sensitive fluctuations (HLM; [Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchicical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis…

  2. "We Thought They Had Forgotten Us": Research, Policy, and Practice in the Education of Latino Immigrant Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Marguerite M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses English-only policies as they relate to second language teaching for children and adults; explores popular perceptions and misconceptions about learning English; and discusses types of programs best suited for different students, depending on educational background. Examples from research and practice highlight the value of…

  3. Error Analysis of Present Simple Tense in the Interlanguage of Adult Arab English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses errors on present simple tense among adult Arab English language learners. It focuses on the error on 3sg "-s" (the third person singular present tense agreement morpheme "-s"). The learners are undergraduate adult Arabic speakers learning English as a foreign language. The study gathered data from…

  4. Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…

  5. Story Writing Skills of Adults with a History Language-Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Lock, Karen M.; Nickels, Lyndsey; Mortensen, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the story writing skills of adults with a history of oral language impairment. It was hypothesized that writing text would pose difficulty for adults with a history of language impairment (LI), and that this difficulty would manifest itself as reduced grammatical complexity and increased errors in…

  6. Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to Increase Vocalizations of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…

  7. Languaging as Agent and Constituent of Cognitive Change in an Older Adult: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Vygotsky's writings have established the critical importance of language in the development of higher mental functions, including memory and attention. One of the processes involved in this development is languaging, the activity of mediating cognitively complex ideas using language (Swain, 2006). The present study of an older adult with mild…

  8. Children Learning Language: How Adults Can Help. Study Guide [and Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Naomi; Schrank, Louise Welsh

    Intended for parents and others caring for young children, this viewer's guide and videotape leads adults along the path of child's language acquisition and demonstrates how to use a language-rich environment to communicate with infants, toddlers, and preschool children in ways to foster language development. The first half of the guide presents…

  9. Child-Adult Differences in Implicit and Explicit Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream linguistics has long held that there is a fundamental difference between adult and child language learning (Bley-Vroman, 1990; Johnson & Newport, 1989; DeKeyser, 2000; Paradis, 2004). This difference is often framed as a change from implicit language learning in childhood to explicit language learning in adulthood, which is…

  10. Language, Literacy, Children's Literature: The Link to Communicative Competency for ESOL Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flickinger, Gayle Glidden

    Developing literacy in adults who speak English as a second language (ESL) means more than rote memorization of letters and sounds, because literacy implies a familiarity with the language and culture sufficient for comfortable interaction and communication of ideas to others. Literacy can be defined as (1) a matter of language, (2) having many…

  11. Approaches to Adult ESL Literacy Instruction. Language in Education: Theory and Practice 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, JoAnn, Ed.; Peyton, Joy Kreeft, Ed.

    This book focuses on functional and holistic approaches to English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy, including competency-based education; whole language, language experience, and Freirean or participatory; and writing-based programs that result in published materials to be read by other adults. Chapter 1, "Literacy Through a Competency-Based…

  12. Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

  13. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  14. Language Training for Adult Refugees: The Integrate Ireland Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmartin, Emer

    2008-01-01

    In a report on meeting the language needs of refugees in Ireland, Little (2000) identifies two sets of language rights for refugees--stemming from the right to preserve their own language or languages as a central element of identity, and the right to enjoy free access to Irish society which entails the right to develop language proficiency in…

  15. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults

    PubMed Central

    Weikum, Whitney M.; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  16. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  17. Why Words are Hard for Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. METHOD: Sixty-nine 18-25-year-olds with LI or without (ND) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings immediately after training (encoding) and 12-hours, 24-hours, and 1-week later (remembering). Half of the participants trained in the morning and half in the evening. RESULTS: At immediate posttest, those with LI performed more poorly on form and meaning than those with ND. Poor performance was more likely among those with more severe LI. The LI and ND groups demonstrated no difference in remembering word meanings over one week. In both groups, participants who trained in the evening, and therefore slept shortly after training, demonstrated greater gains in meaning recall than those who trained in the morning. In contrast, the LI-ND gap for word form recall widened over the week. CONCLUSIONS: Some adults with LI have encoding deficits that limit the addition of word forms and meanings to the lexicon. Similarities and differences in patterns of remembering in the LI and ND groups motivate the hypothesis that consolidation of declarative memory is a strength for adults with LI. PMID:24023376

  18. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  19. Socialisation interculturelle et dynamiques identitaires chez les jeunes adultes issus de l'immigration maghrébine en France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qribi, Adelhak; Courtinat, Amélie; Prêteur, Yves

    2010-12-01

    Intercultural socialisation and identity dynamics among young adults of Maghrebi immigrant descent - This study analyses different identity orientations expressed by young people of North African immigrant descent in France in relation to their conditions of socialisation. Identity is considered in terms of cultural identification, self-esteem and the activeness or passiveness of the relationship with reality. Socialisation is studied from the perspective of the interrelationship between family education and school experience. A survey was conducted by questionnaire among 120 young people aged between 18 and 25, of both sexes, from a working-class background. A multivariate analysis (Descending Hierarchical Classification) determined a structure of four groups in terms of differentiation or assimilation and conformity or individuation. It was found that strategies balancing ontological and pragmatic concerns appear to play a role in the dynamics of a subject's self-affirmation and autonomy. The attachment to a certain religious tradition in these cases seems to be compatible with modernity and is a factor of psychological balance and social integration.

  20. Immigrant Children from Latin America at Japanese Schools: Homogeneity, Ethnicity, Gender and Language in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Vazquez, Genaro

    2009-01-01

    An ethnographic study conducted between 2003 and 2006 followed three children from Latin America attending three different public Japanese primary schools. The investigation concerned a Japanese-language tutoring programme for foreign children, which was evaluated by participant observation and a set of in-depth interviews with officials, school…

  1. Immigrants, English, and the Workplace: Evaluating Employer Demand for Language Education in Manufacturing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval-Couetil, Nathalie; Mikulecky, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of limited English proficiency on employee performance in manufacturing companies to help explain the degree to which employers are willing to invest in ESL or other initiatives designed to overcome language barriers. Design/methodology/approach: While the primary emphasis of this study…

  2. Social Competence and Oral Language Development for Young Children of Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Bryant; Reese, Leslie; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra; Bennett, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In this study we analyze how parent and teacher ratings of young Latino children's social competencies in rural California are associated with children's oral language development. We find (a) that there is considerable incongruence between parent and teacher ratings of child social competence, (b) that both parent and teacher…

  3. The Interface of Global Migrations, Local English Language Learning, and Identity Transmutations of the Immigrant Academician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Charles B.; Quach, Lan; Wiggan, Greg

    2006-01-01

    As global migrations of both teachers and students have increased, so has the need to re-learn English in response to local parlances. Thus, the use of formal and informal language styles, the masking of accents, and the understanding of the differential use of certain specific words, expressions, and the like become critical for teachers and…

  4. Working for and with Latino/Latina Immigrant Newcomers in the English Language Arts Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musetti, Bernadette; Salas, Spencer; Perez, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    "Newcomers" are English learners who are new to the United States and arrive with limited or interrupted formal schooling. These students have below-grade-level literacy skills in their home language and do not speak English. Newcomers' arrivals to the middle school and high school classrooms often present a formidable "what to do" for classroom…

  5. Les mecanismes psychologiques sous-jacents a l'apprentissage d'une langue seconde (The Psychological Mechanisms Related to the Learning of a Second Language). Publication B-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gendron, Jean-Denis, Ed.; Vigneault, Richard, Ed.

    Articles include: (1) "Variables psychologiques et sociales reliees a l'apprentissage d'une langue seconde par l'immigrant adulte en situation scolaire" (Psychological and Social Variables Related to the Learning of a Second Language by the Adult Immigrant in the Academic Situation) by A. d'Anglejan and C. Renaud, (2) "Les contacts…

  6. Disparities in Healthcare Access and Utilization among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder from Immigrant Non-English Primary Language Households in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sue C.; Yu, Stella M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in United State (US) has surged from 1 in 150 children in 2007 to 1 in 88 children in 2012 with substantial increase in immigrant minority groups including Hispanic and Somali children. Our study objective is to examine the associations between household language among children with ASD and national health quality indicators attainment. Methods: We conducted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using cross-sectional data from the publicly-available 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) to investigate the association between household language use and quality indicators of medical home, adequate insurance, and early and continuous screening. Results: Approximately, 28% of parents of children with ASD from non-English primary language (NEPL) households reported their child having severe ASD as compared with 13% of parents from English primary language (EPL) households. Older children were more likely to have care that met the early and continuous screening quality indicator, while lower income children and uninsured children were less likely to have met this indicator. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Despite the lack of differences in the attainment of quality indicators by household language, the higher severity found in children in NEPL households suggests that they are exceptionally vulnerable. Enhanced early screening and identification for these children and supporting their parents in navigating the complex US health care delivery system would increase their participation in early intervention services. Immigration of children with special health care needs from around the world to the US has been increasing from countries with diverse healthcare systems. Our findings will help to inform policies and interventions to reduce health disparities for children with ASD from immigrant populations. As the prevalence of ASD has increased

  7. Factors Beyond the Language Barrier in Providing Health Care to Immigrant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fatahi, Nabi; Krupic, Ferid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the enormous migration as the result of war and disasters during the last decades, health systems in Europe are faced with various cultural traditions and both healthcare systems and healthcare professionals are challenged by human rights and values. In order to minimize difficulties in providing healthcare services to patients with different cultural backgrounds, cultural competence healthcare professionals are needed. Material and Methods: Four focus group interviews, were conducted with Kurdish immigrants in Scandinavian countries (N=26). The majority were males (n=18) aged between 33-61 years (M= 51.6 years) and a few were (n=8) females aged 41-63 years (M=50.7 years). The data were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis method. Results: According to the study results participants experienced that diversities both in culture and healthcare routines create a number of difficulties regarding contact with healthcare services. Though culture related aspects influenced the process of all contact with health care services, the obstacles were more obvious in the case of psychological issues. The results of the study showed that cultural diversities were an obvious reason for immigrants’ attitudes regarding healthcare services in resettlement countries. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed a number of difficulties beyond linguistic problems regarding immigrants’ contact with healthcare services in Scandinavian countries. Problems were rooted both in diversities in healthcare services and cultural aspects. Immigrants’ views of healthcare systems and healthcare professionals’ approach in providing healthcare were some of the problems mentioned. PMID:26980935

  8. Developmental Diversity in the Academic Language-Learning Experiences of Adult English as a Second or Other Language Learners: A Constructive-Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Academic language is a challenging yet increasingly important skill for Adult Basic Education/English as a Second or Other Language learners. Related to academic language learning is an adult's developmental perspective. Developmental perspectives have been shown to vary in adulthood and shape qualitatively distinct ways of reasoning and learning…

  9. An fMRI study of language lateralization in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Holland, Scott K.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Byars, Anna W.

    2005-01-01

    Language lateralization in the brain is dependent on family history of handedness, personal handedness, pathology, and other factors. The influence of age on language lateralization is not completely understood. Increasing left lateralization of language with age has been observed in children while the reverse has been noted in healthy young adults. It is not known whether the trend of decreasing language lateralization with age continues in the late decades of life and at what age the inflection in language lateralization trend as a function of age occurs. In this study, we examined the effect of age on language lateralization in 170 healthy right-handed children and adults ages 5 – 67 using functional MRI (fMRI) and a verb generation task. Our findings indicate that language lateralization to the dominant hemisphere increases between the ages 5 and 20 years, plateaus between 20 and 25 years, and slowly decreases between 25 and 70 years. PMID:16035047

  10. THE COGNITIVE COMPETENCES OF IMMIGRANT AND NATIVE STUDENTS ACROSS THE WORLD: AN ANALYSIS OF GAPS, POSSIBLE CAUSES AND IMPACT.

    PubMed

    Rindermann, Heiner; Thompson, James

    2016-01-01

    Immigration, immigration policies and education of immigrants alter competence levels. This study analysed their effects using PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS data (1995 to 2012, N=93 nations) for natives' and immigrants' competences, competence gaps and their population proportions. The mean gap is equivalent to 4.71 IQ points. There are large differences across countries in these gaps ranging from around +12 to -10 IQ points. Migrants' proportions grow roughly 4% per decade. The largest immigrant-based 'brain gains' are observed for Arabian oil-based economies, and the largest 'brain losses' for Central Europe. Regarding causes of native-immigrant gaps, language problems do not seem to explain them. However, English-speaking countries show an advantage. Acculturation within one generation and intermarriage usually reduce native-immigrant gaps (≅1 IQ point). National educational quality reduces gaps, especially school enrolment at a young age, the use of tests and school autonomy. A one standard deviation increase in school quality represents a closing of around 1 IQ point in the native-immigrant gap. A new Greenwich IQ estimation based on UK natives' cognitive ability mean is recommended. An analysis of the first adult OECD study PIAAC revealed that larger proportions of immigrants among adults reduce average competence levels and positive Flynn effects. The effects on economic development and suggestions for immigration and educational policy are discussed. PMID:25376963

  11. Toward Participatory Communal Citizenship: Rendering Visible the Civic Teaching, Learning, and Actions of African Immigrant Youth and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Michelle G.; Watson, Vaughn W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rendering visible African immigrants' shared and differing experiences of civic learning and action, the authors present findings from in-depth semi-structured interviews with second- and 1.5-generation African immigrants in New York City. Drawing on an interdisciplinary framework of African immigrant identities constructions and civic…

  12. Dominant Language Transfer in Adult Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    The effects of language transfer have been amply documented in second language (L2) acquisition and, to a lesser extent, in the language contact/loss literature (Cook, 2003). In both cases, the stronger and often dominant language encroaches into the structure of the less dominant language in systematic ways. But are transfer effects in these two…

  13. Migration and Adult Language Learning: Global Flows and Local Transpositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne; Roberts, Celia

    2010-01-01

    In the 21st century, global flows politically, socially, economically, and environmentally are creating widespread movements of people around the world and giving rise to increased resettlements of immigrants and refugees internationally. The reality in most countries worldwide is that contemporary populations are multifaceted, multicultural,…

  14. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    PubMed Central

    Coolidge, Trilby; Chambers, Mark A; Garcia, Laura J; Heaton, Lisa J; Coldwell, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS), as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS). Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability), and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations) for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish versions of the DFS and NS

  15. Language Difference and Identity in Multicultural Classrooms: The Views of "Immigrant-Background" Children in French and English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welply, Oakleigh

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the views of "immigrant-background" children on their own linguistic and cultural "differences" within the different educational contexts of primary classrooms in France and England. With the increase in and changing composition of immigration in Europe, the integration of populations from diverse linguistic and cultural…

  16. The Role of Language in Adult Education and Poverty Reduction in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the role of language in reducing poverty in Botswana through adult-education programs. Because language is the medium through which human beings communicate and grow intellectually and socially, it should form the basis of any discussion involving the relation between development and education. In order best to respond to societal changes and bridge the gap between the less privileged and the more privileged, adult-education programs should be guided by language policies that are sensitive to this pivotal role that language plays. Language is important in any discussion of poverty reduction because it determines who has access to educational, political and economic resources. The author recommends that adult-education programs in Botswana take account of the multilingual nature of society and so allow learners to participate freely, make use of their indigenous knowledge, and enhance their self-esteem and identity.

  17. "Cheap" "c'est quoi"? Immigrant Teenagers in Quest of Multilingual Competence and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasanga, Luanga Adrien

    2008-01-01

    Second generation immigrants tend to shift their loyalty from their own languages ("immigrant language") to the language of the host country ("societal language"), given the socioeconomically weak vitality position of the immigrant languages. This language shift makes intergenerational communication, especially with folk left at home, often…

  18. Balanced intervention for adolescents and adults with language impairment: a clinical framework.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Karen A; Katz, Lauren A; Carlberg, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    Providing effective intervention services for adolescents and adults who struggle with spoken and written language presents a variety of unique challenges. This article discusses the 5S Framework (skills, strategies, school, student buy-in, and stakeholders) for designing and implementing balanced spoken and written language interventions for adolescents and adults. An in-depth case illustration highlights the usefulness of the framework for targeting the language and literacy skills of adolescents and young adults. By describing and illustrating the five key components of the intervention framework, the article provides a useful clinical tool to help guide clinicians and educators who serve the needs of adolescents and adults who struggle with spoken and written language. PMID:25633140

  19. Implicit Language Learning: Adults' Ability to Segment Words in Norwegian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittleson, Megan M.; Aguilar, Jessica M.; Tokerud, Gry Line; Plante, Elena; Asbjornsen, Arve E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous language learning research reveals that the statistical properties of the input offer sufficient information to allow listeners to segment words from fluent speech in an artificial language. The current pair of studies uses a natural language to test the ecological validity of these findings and to determine whether a listener's language…

  20. Response Time in Adults with a History of Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol A.; Poll, Gerard H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate speed of processing in college students with a history of problems with language. Affected individuals (n = 16) were identified through a self-reported history of language and/or reading difficulties, and compared to a group of 16 unaffected individuals. Measures of language ability and a battery of…

  1. Problems for the Average Adult in Understanding Medical Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crismore, Avon

    Like legal language, medical language is a private language, a separate stratum containing some words specially defined for medical purposes, some existing only in the medical vocabulary, and some adding precision or solemnity. These characteristics often cause a breakdown in patient-doctor communication. Analysis of data obtained from prototype…

  2. Factors Underlying Second Language Reading Motivation of Adult EAP Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komiyama, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of English for Academic Purposes students' second language (L2) motivation were examined by identifying underlying motivational factors. Using the motivation constructs created by first language reading researchers, a survey was developed and administered to 2,018 students from 53 English language programs in the U.S. Survey…

  3. Dynamic Assessment in a Yugtun Second Language Intermediate Adult Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Stephen Walkie

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic Assessment is a new theoretical framework for language assessment, and it is particularly relevant for underrepresented languages and learners. For this study the process is investigated in the context of Yugtun second language learners at a university level. This qualitative teacher action research was a study that involved seven…

  4. Pathways into STEM among low-income, urban immigrant emergent bilingual/multilingual young adults: Opportunity, access, and persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, Jeremy Benjamin

    This project builds upon the author's multi-year critical ethnographic study of urban immigrant students and their trajectories into STEM (science, technology, engineering, or mathematics) from high school through their transition to college. At its core, this study investigates the paths of over three dozen newcomer immigrant English language learner students in high-poverty urban neighborhoods who are not generally considered "legitimate contenders" for Bachelor's degrees in STEM fields on the basis of such characteristics as test scores, high school and prior preparation, and age. The students are followed through their high school experiences, their transition to college, and through their current progress in college, with explicit attention paid to key mediating experiences and relationships in and especially outside of the classroom that were associated with their toward persistence and success. Thick description and analysis of the students and their experiences, among those who persisted as well as the minority who switched out of STEM majors, helps to demonstrate a proof-of-concept of these students' ability to succeed while painting a comprehensive picture of their march forward to degrees in STEM fields against a backdrop of economic, linguistic, and other barriers to entry and success. Using a framework of social and capital and resilience theories, this work has uncovered a number of themes and factors that will help educators to better understand the evolution of these traditionally marginalized students' STEM-related interests, skills, and career plans. The findings center around students' exposure to research internships and other STEM enrichment and outreach experiences, long-term mentoring and other key relationships, and integration of STEM and college access efforts in setting them up for a successful transition to college, as well as an emphasis on the importance of students' calling upon their own resilience and other strengths and prior

  5. Taking Limited English Proficient Adults into Account in the Federal Adult Education Funding Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Fix, Michael; McHugh, Margie; Lin, Serena Yi-Ying

    2009-01-01

    This new report by Migration Policy Institute's (MPI's) National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy examines the funding formula used to distribute Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Title II federal funds for adult education, literacy, and English as a Second Language instruction. Though all adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) are…

  6. From gesture to sign language: conventionalization of classifier constructions by adult hearing learners of British Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Chloë R; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There has long been interest in why languages are shaped the way they are, and in the relationship between sign language and gesture. In sign languages, entity classifiers are handshapes that encode how objects move, how they are located relative to one another, and how multiple objects of the same type are distributed in space. Previous studies have shown that hearing adults who are asked to use only manual gestures to describe how objects move in space will use gestures that bear some similarities to classifiers. We investigated how accurately hearing adults, who had been learning British Sign Language (BSL) for 1-3 years, produce and comprehend classifiers in (static) locative and distributive constructions. In a production task, learners of BSL knew that they could use their hands to represent objects, but they had difficulty choosing the same, conventionalized, handshapes as native signers. They were, however, highly accurate at encoding location and orientation information. Learners therefore show the same pattern found in sign-naïve gesturers. In contrast, handshape, orientation, and location were comprehended with equal (high) accuracy, and testing a group of sign-naïve adults showed that they too were able to understand classifiers with higher than chance accuracy. We conclude that adult learners of BSL bring their visuo-spatial knowledge and gestural abilities to the tasks of understanding and producing constructions that contain entity classifiers. We speculate that investigating the time course of adult sign language acquisition might shed light on how gesture became (and, indeed, becomes) conventionalized during the genesis of sign languages. PMID:25329326

  7. Adult Reading in a Foreign Language: A Necessary Competence for Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra-Treviño, Marta Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents several "tips" for Spanish speaking adults who start a reading comprehension course in English. The document is the product of my twenty-five years of experience as a language teacher. By using these practical pieces of advice, learners understand the differences between English and their own language, are able read,…

  8. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Mastering Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Research of language learning strategy (LLS) has provided insight for language learners from many international cultures since this branch of research began in the 1970s. Despite the urgent need for competence in the use of business English in Western Europe, LLS studies have not been conducted on Spanish adults who use English for business. The…

  9. Aptitude, Phonological Memory, and Second Language Proficiency in Nonnovice Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between aptitude, phonological memory (PM), and second language (L2) proficiency in nonnovice adult learners of English as an L2. Native speakers of French (N = 77) enrolled in a university Teaching English as a Second Language program were the participants in the study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed…

  10. English Learning Predictors of Listening and Speaking Self-Efficacy for Adult Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafals, Zoraida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was conducted to compare English communicative competency achievement between two different models of instruction. Adult English language learners (AELLs) participated in either the communicative task-based (CTB) or in a more traditional (MT) language instructional approach. The goal of the…

  11. The Effects of Adult Literacy and Demographics on Eighth Grade Mathematics and Language Arts Literacy Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David V.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of environmental conditions of adult literacy and demographics prevalent during infancy and early childhood on mathematics and language arts literacy scores on eighth grade achievement tests. This study collected published scores for eighth grade math and language literacy from public schools…

  12. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  13. Foreign Language Pronunciation Skills and Musical Aptitude: A Study of Finnish Adults with Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milovanov, Riia; Pietila, Paivi; Tervaniemi, Mari; Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine second language production and discrimination skills in the light of musical aptitude. Our study was conducted in university settings in south-western Finland. English was used as a model for the second language due to its popularity among young adults. There were three types of tests used in this study: a…

  14. The Role of Intonation in Language Discrimination by Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicenik, Chad Joseph

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely shown that infants and adults are capable of using only prosodic information to discriminate between languages. However, it remains unclear which aspects of prosody, either rhythm or intonation, listeners attend to for language discrimination. Previous researchers have suggested that rhythm, the duration and timing of speech…

  15. Adult Second-Language Reading Research: How May It Inform Assessment and Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Maria S.; Sylvester, Ellen Skilton

    Research studies on how adults learn and develop second-language reading competence were considered in the context of a componential theory of reading. In particular, C. A. Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory (VET) was used as a framework in which to organize and evaluate the studies' contribution to the field of second-language reading. The…

  16. An Examination of the Self-Directed Learning Practices of ESL Adult Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Kendra S.; Miller, Michael T.; Swearingen, Brent; Wood, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Self-directed learning is one of the preeminent theories in the field of adult education. This study explored how English as a Second Language learners directed their own learning outside of the formal classroom through the use of practices that potentially advance their English language proficiency. Results from a survey of over 400 ESL students…

  17. Societal Responses to Adult Difficulties in L2 Acquisition: Toward an Evolutionary Perspective on Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that second language (L2) acquisition becomes more difficult as one grows older and that success in adult L2 acquisition is highly variable. Nevertheless, humans in language contact situations have to cope with intergroup communication. This article examines the ways society has responded to this challenge. It describes…

  18. Developing a New Course for Adult Learners. TESOL Language Curriculum Development Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Marguerite Ann, Ed.; Kamhi-Stein, Lia, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL), introduces "Developing a New Course for Adult Learners," edited by Marguerite Ann Snow and Lia Kamhi-Stein. This volume in TESOL's Language Curriculum Development Series presents the stories of teachers, curriculum developers, and administrators from all over the world who seek to…

  19. Practices Used in English as a Second Language Classes for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Joyce Fowlkes

    This collection of techniques used in adult English-as-a-Second-Language instruction consists of practices that complement or supplement regular instruction. These techniques have been contributed by classroom teachers, and are categorized by language proficiency level (beginning, intermediate, and advanced). The activities focus on: vocabulary…

  20. Relationships amongst Age, Language and Related Skills in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, Teresa; Torr, Jennifer; Wong, Hui Yi

    2010-01-01

    Studies into the effects of ageing on language in adults with Down syndrome (DS) have tended to rely on measures that lack sensitivity to change because they fail to explore across linguistic domains or rely on proxy reports. The study aim was to use measures of receptive and expressive language from studies of younger individuals with DS in…

  1. Involving Adult Service Users with Learning Disabilities in the Training of Speech and Language Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Celia

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project carried out at City University London, Department of Language and Communication Science, where adult service users with learning disabilities trained first-year speech and language therapy students. The training involved presentations by the service users on their involvement in interviewing support staff,…

  2. Building the Foundations: Outcomes from the Adult Language, Literacy and Numeracy Search Conference. Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Adult language, literacy and numeracy are essential ingredients for greater workforce participation, productivity and social inclusion. Both national and international research demonstrate the relationship between increasing levels of language, literacy and numeracy proficiency and positive outcomes for individuals, as well as for communities and…

  3. Knowledge of an Aboriginal Language and School Outcomes for Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevremont, Anne; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…

  4. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-10-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language-neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409

  5. Workplace concentration of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-12-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer-employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37 % of an immigrant's coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14 % of a native-born worker's coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  6. The Gender Gap in Second Language Acquisition: Gender Differences in the Acquisition of Dutch among Immigrants from 88 Countries with 49 Mother Tongues.

    PubMed

    van der Slik, Frans W P; van Hout, Roeland W N M; Schepens, Job J

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences were analyzed across countries of origin and continents, and across mother tongues and language families, using a large-scale database, containing information on 27,119 adult learners of Dutch as a second language. Female learners consistently outperformed male learners in speaking and writing proficiency in Dutch as a second language. This gender gap remained remarkably robust and constant when other learner characteristics were taken into account, such as education, age of arrival, length of residence and hours studying Dutch. For reading and listening skills in Dutch, no gender gap was found. In addition, we found a general gender by education effect for all four language skills in Dutch for speaking, writing, reading, and listening. Female language learners turned out to profit more from higher educational training than male learners do in adult second language acquisition. These findings do not seem to match nurture-oriented explanatory frameworks based for instance on a human capital approach or gender-specific acculturation processes. Rather, they seem to corroborate a nature-based, gene-environment correlational framework in which language proficiency being a genetically-influenced ability interacting with environmental factors such as motivation, orientation, education, and learner strategies that still mediate between endowment and acquiring language proficiency at an adult stage. PMID:26540465

  7. The Gender Gap in Second Language Acquisition: Gender Differences in the Acquisition of Dutch among Immigrants from 88 Countries with 49 Mother Tongues

    PubMed Central

    van der Slik, Frans W. P.; van Hout, Roeland W. N. M.; Schepens, Job J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences were analyzed across countries of origin and continents, and across mother tongues and language families, using a large-scale database, containing information on 27,119 adult learners of Dutch as a second language. Female learners consistently outperformed male learners in speaking and writing proficiency in Dutch as a second language. This gender gap remained remarkably robust and constant when other learner characteristics were taken into account, such as education, age of arrival, length of residence and hours studying Dutch. For reading and listening skills in Dutch, no gender gap was found. In addition, we found a general gender by education effect for all four language skills in Dutch for speaking, writing, reading, and listening. Female language learners turned out to profit more from higher educational training than male learners do in adult second language acquisition. These findings do not seem to match nurture-oriented explanatory frameworks based for instance on a human capital approach or gender-specific acculturation processes. Rather, they seem to corroborate a nature-based, gene-environment correlational framework in which language proficiency being a genetically-influenced ability interacting with environmental factors such as motivation, orientation, education, and learner strategies that still mediate between endowment and acquiring language proficiency at an adult stage. PMID:26540465

  8. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  9. Closed-Caption Television and Adult Students of English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jennifer J.

    The use of closed-caption television (CCTV) to help teach English as a Second Language (ESL) to adults was studied with a group of adult students in the Arlington, Virginia, Education and Employment Program. Although CCTV is designed for the hearing impaired, its combination of written with spoken English in the visual context of television makes…

  10. What Word-Level Knowledge Can Adult Learners Acquire after Minimal Exposure to a New Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…

  11. Adult Learning Satisfaction and Instructional Perspective in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Linda Jo

    2009-01-01

    Adult education literature suggests that the instructional perspective of the teacher has an important effect on adult satisfaction with learning. In this study, the relationships between instructional perspective, satisfaction with language learning, and certain teacher and student characteristics were investigated. Study participants were adult…

  12. De Facto Language Policy in Legislation Defining Adult Basic Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanek, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of differing interpretation of federal education policy in three different states. The policy, the Workforce Investment Act Title II, has defined the services provided for adult English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in Adult Basic Education programs in the United States since it was passed in 1998. At the…

  13. Do Deaf Adults with Limited Language Have Advanced Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Jian; Su, Yanjie; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies show that deaf children have deficits in false belief understanding due to their language impairment. However, it is not clear whether deaf adults still have problems in advanced theory of mind (ToM). The present study examined deaf adults' performance on three aspects of advanced ToM. All of the deaf groups lacking mental state…

  14. Adult Education in Continental Europe: An Annotated Bibliography of English-Language Materials, 1945-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra

    This annotated bibliography aims at bringing together most of the English-language materials on adult education in Continental Europe published during the 25 years since the end of the Second World War. In accord with the variety of concepts and differences of opinion on definitions of what does or does not constitute adult education, which abound…

  15. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…

  16. Implications of an Advice-Giving and Teacher Role on Language Production in Adults with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Bourgeois, Michelle; Youmans, Gina; Hancock, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the two studies described in this paper was to assess whether adults with dementia could assume an advice-giving role (Study 1) and a teacher role (Study 2) despite their cognitive impairments. So far, no research on adults with dementia has compared language production in a social conversation condition with that in an…

  17. Word Reading and Word Spelling in French Adult Literacy Students: The Relationship with Oral Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eme, Elsa; Lambert, Eric; Alamargot, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We analysed word reading and spelling in French adults with low levels of literacy (A-IL). As well as examining phonological and lexical processes, we explored the relationship between literacy and oral language skills. Fifty-two adult literacy students were compared with reading level-matched pupils in Years 1-3 of primary school on reading tasks…

  18. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language–neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409

  19. Individual Variables, Literacy History, and ESL Progress Among Kurdish and Bosnian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Sheena; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between individual variables and the progress in English as a Second Language (ESL) among Kurdish and Bosnian adult immigrants living in Canada. Findings reveal significant correlations between the dependent variables of oral and written progress and the independent variables of literacy level, years of schooling, and…

  20. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  1. Immigrant Success Stories in ESL Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliver, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Immigrant success stories found in English as a second language (ESL) textbooks used in government-funded language instruction in Canada imagine Canada as a redeemer of immigrant newcomers. Through a critical discourse analysis of ESL textbooks used in Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada classes in Ontario, I identify two primary…

  2. Age-Related Differences in the Brain Areas outside the Classical Language Areas among Adults Using Category Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yong Won; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Joo Hwa; Lee, Hui Joong; Yi, Sang Doe; Chang, Hyuk Won; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-01-01

    Older adults perform much like younger adults on language. This similar level of performance, however, may come about through different underlying brain processes. In the present study, we evaluated age-related differences in the brain areas outside the typical language areas among adults using a category decision task. Our results showed that…

  3. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature, for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks. PMID:26997850

  4. Exploiting the Theory of Universals in Adult Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiah, Thiru

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a bilingual teaching strategy based on Noam Chomsky's universalist hypothesis, which emphasizes the "universal" aspects of human language. The strategy focuses on the matching process that all learners carry out between the first (L1) and second (L2) language, as well as the differences between L1 and L2. (58 references) (MDM)

  5. Memory and Language Impairment in Children and Adults: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.

    This book contains articles from two issues of "Topics in Language Disorders" that focus on recent developments in the understanding of short-term memory, working memory, and long-term memory systems and their relationship to language comprehension, lexical development, early academic development, later academic development, and communication…

  6. Native Language Literacy and Adult ESL Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Klaudia

    There are no good figures on the number of limited English speakers who are also illiterate in their native languages. This data is worth having because there is research indicating that literacy in the native language plays an important role in the acquisition of oral English and the development of English literacy. This digest reviews recent…

  7. Early Language Impairment and Young Adult Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E.B.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct- disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study…

  8. Language in Our Time: Bilingual Education and Official English, Ebonics and Standardized English, Immigration, and the Unz Initiative. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (Washington, DC, May 6-8, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alatis, James E., Ed.; Tan, Ai-Hui, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Introduction to the Volume" (James E. Alatis); "Adults Learning To Read in a Second Script: What We've Learned" (David L. Red); "Trends in Peace Corps Volunteer Language Proficiency" (Margaret E. Malone); "Evidence for the Greater Ease of Use of the ILR Language Skill Level Descriptions for…

  9. Language, Identity, and Power: Navajo and Pueblo Young Adults' Perspectives and Experiences with Competing Language Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany S.

    2009-01-01

    Native American languages, contemporary youth identity, and powerful messages from mainstream society and Native communities create complex interactions that require deconstruction for the benefit of Native-language revitalization. This study showed how Native youth negotiate mixed messages such as the necessity of Indigenous languages for…

  10. Who Are Our Students? Measuring Learner Characteristics in Adult Immigrants Studying English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Olga D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot a questionnaire that would (a) provide teachers and administrators of adult ESL programs with important information about their students and (b) enable large-scale data collection among these students for program-planning and research purposes. The questionnaire focuses on these students' goals,…

  11. Digital Immigrants, Digital Learning: Reaching Adults through Information Literacy Instruction Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapchak, Marcia; Behary, Robert

    2013-01-01

    As information literacy programs become more robust, finding methods of reaching students beyond the traditional undergraduate has become a priority for many institutions. At Duquesne University, efforts have been made to reach adult learners in an accelerated program targeted to nontraditional students, much of which is provided online. This…

  12. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  13. Adult Education in Continental Europe: An Annotated Bibliography of English-language Materials l980-1982. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra, Comp.

    This bibliography contains 682 listings covering English language materials on adult education in Europe published during 1980-82. Materials were chosen in accord with a broad definition of adult education that includes vocational education for adults; training in business and industry; adult secondary and postsecondary study; activities of…

  14. Countering Narratives: Teachers' Discourses about Immigrants and Their Experiences within the Realm of Children's and Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary issues in education should include conversations about immigration which has shaped our past, defines our present, and will enrich our collective future. This article explores a cadre of K-12 and collegiate United States (US) educators' participation in a graduate course on the construction of immigrants in multicultural literature…

  15. Participation in a Technological World: The Meaning of Educational Technology in the Lives of Young Adult Central American Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt-Mentle, Davina S.

    Many communities throughout the United States are experiencing a large influx of Central American immigrants. Langley Park, Maryland is typical of the pockets that are formed by the new arrivals. Community members of Latino background now account for 60% of the population, while in 1990 they were only 40% (US Census, 2000). As the immigrants move…

  16. Sociocultural Dynamics of ESL Learning (De)Motivation: An Activity Theory Analysis of Two Adult Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the longitudinal trajectories of two Korean ESL immigrants' L2 learning motivation from an Activity Theory perspective. Two highly skilled immigrants participated in monthly semistructured interviews over a period of 10 months. The research questions are as follows: (1) How does the relationship between ESL learners and their…

  17. Delayed Anticipatory Spoken Language Processing in Adults with Dyslexia—Evidence from Eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing. PMID:25820191

  18. Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

    2011-01-01

    For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

  19. Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2013-08-01

    Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication. PMID:23609237

  20. Development of the First Language Is Not a Barrier to Second-Language Acquisition: Evidence from Vietnamese Immigrants to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Anne; Shin, Fay; Krashen, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Elementary and middle school children in California who speak Vietnamese as a first language reported high levels of oral competence in Vietnamese and a desire to maintain Vietnamese language and culture. There was no evidence that the development of the first language was a barrier to second language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  1. Spousal support in diabetes self-management among Korean immigrant older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Lee, Jennifer J; Park, Jenny J; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the current article investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean older adults and their spouses. Two focus groups were conducted with diabetic participants from the greater Los Angeles Korean community, and three were conducted with their spouses. In the focus groups, participants were asked to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group comprised four to nine participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and medical regimen among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean older adults may have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  2. Feelings about Language Brokering and Family Relations among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children and adolescents of immigrant and non-English proficient parents often translate for their parents and other adults, a practice known as language brokering. The personal and emotional impact for adolescents of having to language broker for parents is not well understood. Ninety-eight Mexican American 7th graders (female = 47, male = 49,…

  3. Latino Language-Minority College Going: Adolescent Boys' Language Use and Girls' Social Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the postsecondary pathways of Latino language-minority young adults in the United States. Using data from the Texas Higher Education Opportunity Project (THEOP) and controlling on background characteristics as well as high-school academic achievement, this study explores the social and linguistic integration of immigrant and…

  4. Second Language Acquisition across Modalities: Production Variability in Adult L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…

  5. Grammatical Processing of Spoken Language in Child and Adult Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felser, Claudia; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a selective overview of studies that have investigated auditory language processing in children and late second-language (L2) learners using online methods such as event-related potentials (ERPs), eye-movement monitoring, or the cross-modal priming paradigm. Two grammatical phenomena are examined in detail, children's and…

  6. Association between lesion location and language function in adult glioma using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Pia; Leu, Kevin; Harris, Robert J.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L.; Pope, Whitney B.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Ellingson, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management of language difficulties is an important aspect of clinical care for glioma patients, and accurately identifying the possible language deficits in patients based on lesion location would be beneficial to clinicians. To that end, we examined the relationship between lesion presence and language performance on tests of receptive language and expressive language using a highly specific voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping (VLSM) approach in glioma patients. Methods 98 adults with primary glioma, who were pre-surgical candidates, were administered seven neurocognitive tests within the domains of receptive language and expressive language. The association between language performance and lesion presence was examined using VLSM. Statistical parametric maps were created for each test, and composite maps for both receptive language and expressive language were created to display the significant voxels common to all tests within these language domains. Results We identified clusters of voxels with a significant relationship between lesion presence and language performance. All tasks were associated with several white matter pathways. The receptive language tasks were additionally all associated with regions primarily within the lateral temporal lobe and medial temporal lobe. In contrast, the expressive language tasks shared little overlap, despite each task being independently associated with large anatomic areas. Conclusions Our findings identify the key anatomic structures involved in language functioning in adult glioma patients using an innovative lesion analysis technique and suggest that expressive language abilities may be more task-dependent and distributed than receptive language abilities. PMID:26740915

  7. Struggling with the Languages of the "Legitimate Market" and the "Islets of Liberty" (Bourdieu). A Case Study of Pupils with Immigrational Background in the Trilingual School-System of Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer-Hetto, Marie-Paule

    2009-01-01

    Two Portuguese children of immigrants were observed over a period of two years within the complex sociolinguistic context of the Luxembourgish multilingual school-system. The data allow the analysis of their relations with the languages they learn at school: Luxembourgish, German, French and Portuguese. The observations focus on the two pupils…

  8. The Second-Language Vocabulary Trajectories of Turkish Immigrant Children in Norway from Ages Five to Ten: The Role of Preschool Talk Exposure, Maternal Education, and Coethnic Concentration in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydland, Veslemoy; Grover, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twenty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of…

  9. Validating Self-Reported Language Proficiency by Testing Performance in an Immigrant Community: The Wellington Indo-Fijians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shameem, Nikhat

    1998-01-01

    Examined the validity of aural and oral self-report scales for determining the Fiji Hindi proficiency of new adolescent immigrants in New Zealand. Participants completed self-reports and performance tests (oral interviews, listening-comprehension tests, and vocabulary tests). Performance tests correlated strongly with self-reports. Respondents…

  10. Children of Immigrants' Self-Esteem in Early Adolescence: The Role of Ethnicity, Context, Language, and Family in Cultural Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.

    This study examined the extent to which self-esteem differences existed across various groups of immigrant adolescents and the role of factors operating at structural and subjective levels. Data came from the Youth Adaptation and Growth Questionnaire developed for the Second Generation Project in Miami, Florida and San Diego, California. The…

  11. Critically Evaluating Prensky in a Language Learning Context: The "Digital Natives/Immigrants Debate" and Its Implications for CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benini, Silvia; Murray, Liam

    2013-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since the first introduction of the term "digital natives" in Prensky's (2001a, 2001b) two seminal articles. Prensky argues that students today, having grown up in the Digital Age, learn differently from their predecessors, or "digital immigrants". As such, the pedagogical tools and methods used…

  12. English as a Second Language: Content Standards for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These English as a Second Language (ESL) Content Standards were developed to accommodate the local conditions Pennsylvania's ESL students and teachers face across the state and to align state standards with the National Reporting System Educational Functioning Levels. The standards are designed as a teaching tool in the development of…

  13. Why Words Are Hard for Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. Method: Sixty-nine 18-to 25-year-olds with LI or without (the normal development [ND] group) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings…

  14. Adult English as a Second Language Program in Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattran, Kenneth J.

    If only ten percent of the total estimated non-English-speaking potential of the Chicago area were actually non-functional in English, there would be some 40,000 people in need of English language training. In investigating to what degree this obvious need is being met, the writer was surprised to discover that some, including teachers, question…

  15. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted. PMID:17900857

  16. Brain function differences in language processing in children and adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Williams, Diane L; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Mason, Robert A; Keller, Timothy A; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-08-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children and adults with autism had lower functional connectivity (synchronization of brain activity among activated areas) than their age and ability comparison group in the left hemisphere language network during irony processing, and neither autism group had an increase in functional connectivity in response to increased task demands. Activation differences for the literal and irony conditions occurred in key language-processing regions (left middle temporal, left pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left medial frontal, and right middle temporal). The children and adults with autism differed from each other in the use of some brain regions during the irony task, with the adults with autism having activation levels similar to those of the control groups. Overall, the children and adults with autism differed from the adult and child controls in (a) the degree of network coordination, (b) the distribution of the workload among member nodes, and (3) the dynamic recruitment of regions in response to text content. Moreover, the differences between the two autism age groups may be indicative of positive changes in the neural function related to language processing associated with maturation and/or educational experience. PMID:23495230

  17. Brain Function Differences in Language Processing in Children and Adults with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Diane L.; Cherkassky, Vladimir L.; Mason, Robert A.; Keller, Timothy A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children and adults with autism had lower functional connectivity (synchronization of brain activity among activated areas) than their age and ability comparison group in the left hemisphere language network during irony processing, and neither autism group had an increase in functional connectivity in response to increased task demands. Activation differences for the literal and irony conditions occurred in key language-processing regions (left middle temporal, left pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left medial frontal, and right middle temporal). The children and adults with autism differed from each other in the use of some brain regions during the irony task, with the adults with autism having activation levels similar to those of the control groups. Overall, the children and adults with autism differed from the adult and child controls in (a) the degree of network coordination, (b) the distribution of the workload among member nodes, and (3) the dynamic recruitment of regions in response to text content. Moreover, the differences between the two autism age groups may be indicative of positive changes in the neural function related to language processing associated with maturation and/or educational experience. PMID:23495230

  18. Teaching Practice in the Making: Shaping and Reshaping the Field of Adult Language, Literacy and Numeracy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widin, Jacquie; Yasukawa, Keiko; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The field of adult language, literacy and numeracy in Australia is a site of struggle as policy changes, new learner groups and new economic imperatives challenge teachers' expertise and beliefs about good teaching practice. This article examines the ways in which experienced adult language, literacy and numeracy teachers shape and reshape their…

  19. The Curse of Knowledge: First Language Knowledge Impairs Adult Learners' Use of Novel Statistics for Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Amy S.; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether adult learners' knowledge of phonotactic restrictions on word forms from their first language impacts their ability to use statistical information to segment words in a novel language. Adults were exposed to a speech stream where English phonotactics and phoneme co-occurrence information conflicted. A control where these…

  20. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Adult Brain and Success in Second-Language Learning.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Berken, Jonathan A; Barbeau, Elise B; Soles, Jennika; Callahan, Megan; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise

    2016-01-20

    There is considerable variability in an individual's ability to acquire a second language (L2) during adulthood. Using resting-state fMRI data acquired before training in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course, we investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity relate to a person's ability to acquire an L2. We focused on two key aspects of language processing--lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed--and computed whole-brain functional connectivity from two regions of interest in the language network, namely the left anterior insula/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and the visual word form area (VWFA). Connectivity between the left AI/FO and left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and between the left AI/FO and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex correlated positively with improvement in L2 lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech. Connectivity between the VWFA and left mid-STG correlated positively with improvement in L2 reading speed. These findings are consistent with the different language functions subserved by subcomponents of the language network and suggest that the human capacity to learn an L2 can be predicted by an individual's intrinsic functional connectivity within the language network. Significance statement: There is considerable variability in second-language learning abilities during adulthood. We investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic functional connectivity in the adult brain relate to success in second-language learning, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course. We found that pretraining functional connectivity within two different language subnetworks correlated strongly with learning outcome in two different language skills: lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed. Our results suggest that the human

  1. Emerging Voices: "Speak White": Language Policy, Immigration Discourse, and Tactical Authenticity in a French Enclave in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a historical case study of the Sentinelle Affair, a conflict between French language rights and the English Only educational policies of the Catholic Church in New England in the 1920s. An analysis of this conflict reveals a correspondence between programs of language centralization and the production of language differences…

  2. Adult English Language Learners' Perceptions of Audience Response Systems (Clickers) as Communication Aides: A Q-Methodology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lisa Ann; Shepard, MaryFriend

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of adult English language learners about audience response systems (clickers) as tools to facilitate communication. According to second language acquisition theory, learners' receptive capabilities in the early stages of second language acquisition surpass expressive capabilities, often rendering them silent in…

  3. Enhancing oral and written language for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pelatti, Christina Yeager

    2015-02-01

    Oral and written language development for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (Ds) are particularly challenging. Yet, research supports a syndrome-specific profile highlighting strengths and particular areas of difficulty for this group of individuals. For example, adolescents and young adults with Ds tend to understand more than they produce. In terms of oral language development, the domains of semantics and pragmatics are relative strengths whereas morphosyntax is particularly difficult. Much less is known about written language development because most adolescents and young adults with Ds are at the emergent literacy or word identification (i.e., ability to recognize and name single words) stages; however, relative strengths emerge in the area of word identification. The purpose of this article is to explore the research findings on oral and written language strengths and weaknesses and intervention strategies and techniques that facilitate development in these two interrelated domains. In addition, a case study example is provided to further enhance the clinical skills of speech-language pathologists who work with this population. PMID:25633144

  4. Biliterate Immigrants in a Community Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacio-Lindin, Dino

    Every immigrant has a right to literacy in his native language, but native language literacy alone does not guarantee success. The objective of a program begun in the 1970s in New York City was to develop biliteracy in immigrants so they could start and manage small businesses in the community. Despite a lack of political protection for the…

  5. The Effects of Interactive Images on Language Acquisition for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Farough

    1996-01-01

    Progression is an interactive mnemonic strategy using a series of five panels: the first displaying a stimulus item, the last, a response item, and the intermediate panels showing a metamorphosis from the first to the last. Adults viewing progressive displays of foreign words had significantly greater recall of meaning than those viewing…

  6. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

  7. Learners' Cultures as "Knowledge"? Sudanese Teachers' Perceptions of Cultures and Languages in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fean, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the status of indigenous knowledges as forms of knowledge in the multicultural context of Sudan, through exploration of Sudanese adult education teachers' perceptions of culture, language and knowledge in education. Drawing on critical and poststructural theoretical concepts, cultural discourses in education are shown to…

  8. Learned Attention in Adult Language Acquisition: A Replication and Generalization Study and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates associative learning explanations of the limited attainment of adult compared to child language acquisition in terms of learned attention to cues. It replicates and extends Ellis and Sagarra (2010) in demonstrating short- and long-term learned attention in the acquisition of temporal reference in Latin. In Experiment 1,…

  9. Cultural Fantasy Narratives and Heritage Language Learning: A Case Study of Adult Heritage Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryell, Joellen E.; Clark, M. Carolyn; Pomerantz, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the case of 7 female heritage learners of Spanish who have chosen, as adults, to enroll in online Spanish language instruction at the postsecondary level. Drawing on symbolic convergence theory, it identifies a cultural fantasy metanarrative that participants collectively constructed as they made sense of their language…

  10. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

  11. Positive Thinking. Language, Literacy and Numeracy Resources on HIV/AIDS for Teachers of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrish, Dilys

    This resource guide is a collection of stories, articles, and worksheets on issues surrounding HIV/AIDS. It is intended to be informative and useful for adult language, literacy, and numeracy students. An HIV/AIDS introduction for teacher is followed by a section on further resources, which lists organizations which may provide guest speakers,…

  12. Syntax in a Native Language Still Continues to Develop in Adults: Honorification Judgment in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momo, Kanako; Sakai, Hiromu; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.

    2008-01-01

    Native languages (L1s) are tacitly assumed to be complete and stable in adults. Here we report an unexpected individual variation in judgment of L1 regarding Japanese sentences including honorification, and further clarify its neural basis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). By contrasting an honorification judgment task with a…

  13. Language Arts. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on language arts is divided into six topics. The topics included are Dictionary Usage, Vocabulary, Speech, Poetry, Writing, and Literature Analysis. Competency statements and performance…

  14. Teaching Grammar to Adult English Language Learners: Focus on Form. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallup Rodriguez, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Many adult English language learners place a high value on learning grammar. Perceiving a link between grammatical accuracy and effective communication, they associate excellent grammar with opportunities for employment and promotion, the attainment of educational goals, and social acceptance by native speakers. Reflecting the disagreement that…

  15. ESL Bibliography: Materials for Teaching English as a Second Language to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Vickie L., Ed.

    This bibliography lists instructional materials for teaching adult learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). The resources listed are print materials made available through the Free Library of Philadelphia's Reader Development Program. All are on or below the eighth grade reading level, as determined with the Gunning Fog readability formula.…

  16. Competency-Based Adult Education/English as a Second Language Modules: Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Diane, Ed.

    This packet contains four Competency-Based Adult Education/English as a Second Language (ESL) lessons in the health content area designed for beginning level students. Each lesson revolves around one central character who, in the course of the four lessons, successfully performs four life-coping skills: (1) calling for a doctor's appointment, (2)…

  17. Examining English Language Learning Motivation of Adult International Learners Studying Abroad in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the motivations of adult, international learners of English, studying English 20 hours a week in a US-based Intensive English Program (IEP). Though often used as participants in language acquisition studies, there are few studies of these learners' motivational profiles. In the current study, a questionnaire designed…

  18. Mixed Ability Teaching: Meeting Learners' Needs. Netword 3: Teaching Languages to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainslie, Susan

    This guide, designed for teachers of second languages to adults, discusses instruction for student groups of mixed abilities. The first chapter examines the factors that determine mixed ability, including: student motivation, interests, and needs; linguistic ability; general educational background; learning style; age; external pressures and time…

  19. Short-Term and Working Memory Differences in Language/Learning Disabled and Normal Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaki, Emi; Plante, Elena

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen adults who reported a childhood history of speech-language and/or learning disability were tested on two verbal memory tasks. Their performance on sentence repetitions and reading span measures was compared to a control group. Results indicated statistically significant group performance differences on both short-term and working memory…

  20. Auditory-Visual Speech Integration by Adults with and without Language-Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrix, Linda W.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Auditory and auditory-visual (AV) speech perception skills were examined in adults with and without language-learning disabilities (LLD). The AV stimuli consisted of congruent consonant-vowel syllables (auditory and visual syllables matched in terms of syllable being produced) and incongruent McGurk syllables (auditory syllable differed from…

  1. Sensitivity to Word Order Cues by Normal and Language/Learning Disabled Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Elena; Gomez, Rebecca; Gerken, LouAnn

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen adults with language/learning disabilities (L/LD) and 16 controls participated in a study testing sensitivity to word order cues that signaled grammatical versus ungrammatical word strings belonging to an artificial grammar. Participants with L/LD performed significantly below the comparison group, suggesting that this skill is problematic…

  2. Speaking the Same Language: A CILT Guide to Partnership in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnisch, Henriette; Swanton, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The conflicting pressures of supply and demand often raise significant challenges for providers of languages for adults. Numbers of learners are inconveniently patchy, trends in take-up often short lived and provision vulnerable due to funding pressures. This makes institution-based curriculum planning very precarious. The answer, it seems more…

  3. The Influence of Phonological Similarity in Adults Learning Words in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamer, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood density refers to the number of similar sounding words to a target word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998) and influences first language word learning in adults learning English (Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006). There are two processes in word learning: lexical configuration and lexical engagement (Leach & Samuel, 2007). Lexical configuration…

  4. Preparing Adult Educators: The Need to Develop Communicative Language Teaching Skills in College-Level Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines why communicative language teaching (CLT) fails to improve student learning in certain contexts by assessing two adult educators' communicative and noncommunicative practices through qualitative case studies, interviews, and participant observations. Results show no inherent CLT problems that prevent teachers from grasping…

  5. A Native Language Immersion Program for Adults: Reflections on Year 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maracle, David Kanatawakhon; Richards, Merle

    An adult immersion program in the Mohawk language took place in an Iroquois community in southern Ontario. The class was limited to 12 students who had taken a readiness course that introduced them to basic grammar and vocabulary. The class met daily in the relaxed setting of a house. The preparation and sharing of meals, the presence of fluent…

  6. Intercultural Communicative Competence: Beliefs and Practices of Adult English as a Second Language Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickley, Celeste; Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective and appropriate communication is critical for the successful integration of newcomers in Canada. In this paper, we describe the intercultural communicative competence beliefs and practices of 70 adult English as a second language (ESL) instructors. Responses to an online survey indicated a strong belief in the value of integrating…

  7. English for Speakers of Other Languages: Adult ESOL Courses [and] Special Interest Courses. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broward County Schools, Fort Lauderdale, FL.

    This curriculum guide outlines courses in English as a Second Language (ESL) offered by the Broward County (Florida) adult education program. An introductory section outlines the general student needs on which the curricula are based, program policies for placement and promotion, instructional delivery, and student progression, and the…

  8. Integrating the Personal and the Professional: Marking the Career Paths of Adult Language Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappel, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores details of research that examined how the personal backgrounds of educators connected with organizational contexts to inform teacher practice within the area of adult English language teaching. Using life history as a research methodology and basing research on a framework of teacher authenticity, the primary goal of this…

  9. Child-adult differences in second-language phonological learning: the role of cross-language similarity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Wendy; Trofimovich, Pavel; Flege, James E; Mack, Molly; Halter, Randall

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated whether age effects on second language (L2) speech learning derive from changes in how the native language (L1) and L2 sound systems interact. According to the "interaction hypothesis" (IH), the older the L2 learner, the less likely the learner is able to establish new vowel categories needed for accurate L2 vowel production and perception because, with age, L1 vowel categories become more likely to perceptually encompass neighboring L2 vowels. These IH predictions were evaluated in two experiments involving 64 native Korean- and English-speaking children and adults. Experiment 1 determined, as predicted, that the Korean children were less likely than the Korean adults to perceive L2 vowels as instances of a single L1 vowel category. Experiment 2 showed that the Korean children surpassed the Korean adults in production of certain vowels but equaled them in vowel perception. These findings, which partially support the IH, are discussed in relation to L2 speech learning. PMID:19348154

  10. "I Learn More at School": A Critical Perspective on Workplace-Related Second Language Learning In and Out of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandwall, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a student involved in language learning at a work placement, as part of the basic Swedish language programme for adult immigrants, Svenska for invandrare (Sfi), in Gothenburg, Sweden. In accordance with the predominant economic agenda, this system is assumed to accelerate labour market entrance as well as…

  11. Speaking of Belonging: Learning to Be "Good Citizens" in the Context of Voluntary Language Coaching Projects in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Rhiannon

    2015-01-01

    This article explores citizenship education for adult immigrants through informal language education in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Based on data collected over thirteen months of ethnographic research among volunteer Dutch language coaches in Amsterdam, the primary methods used in this study were in-depth semi-structured interviews and…

  12. The effect of immigrant generation and duration on self-rated health among US adults 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Bates, Lisa M; Osypuk, Theresa L; McArdle, Nancy

    2010-09-01

    Global self-rated health (SRH) is increasingly a key indicator in the assessment of immigrant health. However, evidence of the impact on SRH of generational status, duration of residence in the US, and socioeconomic status (SES) among immigrants and their offspring is limited and inconsistent. We overcome limitations in existing research on this topic by using a uniquely large and diverse data source, the March Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey (CPS; 2003-2007) (n = 637,209). As a result, we are able to disaggregate results by race/ethnicity, account for country of origin, and consider the role of multiple dimensions of SES. We find that overall first-generation immigrants in the US have lower odds of poor/fair SRH compared to the third-generation. This association is particularly strong for blacks and Hispanics but not significant for Asians. Among first-generation Asians and Hispanics, longer duration of residence is positively associated with poor/fair SRH. Finally, socioeconomic gradients in SRH tend to be less pronounced among the first-generation (versus the third) and, within the first-generation, among recent arrivals (versus those with longer durations). Our results highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for multiple immigration-related variables and their interactions with race/ethnicity and SES. Otherwise, studies may misestimate SRH differences by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The continued growth of the US immigrant population and the second-generation underscore the need to examine patterns in immigrant health systematically. PMID:20624666

  13. Contribution of Implicit Sequence Learning to Spoken Language Processing: Some Preliminary Findings With Hearing Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher M.; Karpicke, Jennifer; Pisoni, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language consists of a complex, sequentially arrayed signal that contains patterns that can be described in terms of statistical relations among language units. Previous research has suggested that a domain-general ability to learn structured sequential patterns may underlie language acquisition. To test this prediction, we examined the extent to which implicit sequence learning of probabilistically structured patterns in hearing adults is correlated with a spoken sentence perception task under degraded listening conditions. Performance on the sentence perception task was found to be correlated with implicit sequence learning, but only when the sequences were composed of stimuli that were easy to encode verbally. Implicit learning of phonological sequences thus appears to underlie spoken language processing and may indicate a hitherto unexplored cognitive factor that may account for the enormous variability in language outcomes in deaf children with cochlear implants. The present findings highlight the importance of investigating individual differences in specific cognitive abilities as a way to understand and explain language in deaf learners and, in particular, variability in language outcomes following cochlear implantation. PMID:17548805

  14. Socio-Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: A Case Study of Adventurous Adult Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozfidan, Burhan; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Demir, Husamettin

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural theories consider language learning as a social practice examines students as active participants in the construction of learning processes. This study investigates sociocultural theories' central concepts, which includes peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy. The present study is a case study of twenty…

  15. Cerebral Dominance for Language Function in Adults with Specific Language Impairment or Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2008-01-01

    A link between developmental language disorders and atypical cerebral lateralization has been postulated since the 1920s, but evidence has been indirect and inconsistent. The current study investigated this proposal using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD), which assesses blood flow through the middle cerebral arteries serving…

  16. First Language Grapheme-Phoneme Transparency Effects in Adult Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…

  17. Adult Psychosocial Outcomes of Children with Specific Language Impairment, Pragmatic Language Impairment and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Watt, Helen J.; Line, E. A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have tracked children with developmental language disorder to adulthood have found that these individuals experience considerable difficulties with psychosocial adjustment (for example, academic, vocational and social aptitude). Evidence that some children also develop autistic symptomatology over time has raised…

  18. Language dominance and inhibition abilities in bilingual older adults*

    PubMed Central

    GORAL, MIRA; CAMPANELLI, LUCA; SPIRO, AVRON

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the so-called bilingual advantage in older adults’ performance in three cognitive domains and to identify whether language use and bilingual type (dominant vs. balanced) predicted performance. The participants were 106 Spanish–English bilinguals ranging in age from 50 years to 84 years. Three cognitive domains were examined (each by a single test): inhibition (the Simon task), alternating attention (the Trail Making test), and working memory (Month Ordering). The data revealed that age was negatively correlated to performance in each domain. Bilingual type – balanced vs. dominant – predicted performance and interacted with age only on the inhibition measure (the Simon task). Balanced bilinguals showed age-related inhibition decline (i.e., greater Simon effect with increasing age); in contrast, dominant bilinguals showed little or no age-related change. The findings suggest that bilingualism may offer cognitive advantage in older age only for a subset of bilinguals.

  19. [The psychopathology of immigrants and refugees].

    PubMed

    Ekşi, Aysel

    2002-01-01

    The twentieth century witnessed major waves of emigration, exile and taking refuge abroad. In this paper, a review of the psychiatric literature published between 1990 and 2000 in English and Turkish is presented. Although refugees are considered to differ from economic migrants in a number of respects, they both experience culture and language change and may experience family disruption, social isolation, and hostility from the population of the host country. Accordingly, all refugees and immigrants go through stages of resettlement and need to integrate their past cultural experiences into their new life and culture. The process of integration depends on the subjects' age, mental integrity, and on the conditions he/she lives in. Research indicates that children acculturate more quickly and learn language faster than elders; but they may suffer from role reversal when they are expected to be linguistic and cultural translators for their parents. Young adults at the stage of identity formation can be cut off and feel alienated. Elderly persons have a higher risk of culture shock as they leave behind more memories and connections. These trigger different types of anxieties. The literature shows high levels of acculturative distress, and psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression, and refugees are considered to be at risk for suicidal behavior. The complex social and psychological needs of refugee and immigrant families place demands on special services for children, adolescents and adults. PMID:12794656

  20. "Do You Know Naomi?": Researching the Intercultural Competence of Teachers Who Teach Greek as a Second Language in Immigrant Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magos, Kostas; Simopoulos, George

    2009-01-01

    The view according to which second/foreign language teaching should include an intercultural dimension has gained ground during recent decades. The basic aim of teaching a second/foreign language concerns not only the acquisition of communicational competence, but also the acquisition of intercultural communicational competence. This paper…

  1. Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

  2. Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and young adults with FXS, and 21 younger children with typical development (TD). Narrative samples were assessed at the macrostructural level using the Narrative Scoring Scheme (NSS; Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts, & Dunaway, 2010). Three group comparisons were made using: (a) the full sample matched on nonverbal mental age, (b) a subset of the participants individually matched on nonverbal mental age, and (c) a subset of participants individually matched on mean length of utterance. Results Study analyses revealed that the DS and FXS groups significantly outperformed the TD group on a limited number of NSS measures. No significant differences emerged between the DS and FXS groups. Conclusions Study results suggest that some aspects of macrostructural narrative language may be relative strengths for adolescents and young adults with DS and those with FXS. These results can be used to create a more nuanced and informed approach to assessment and intervention for these populations. PMID:22049405

  3. Imagined Futures: Thoughts on the State of Policy and Research Concerning Undocumented Immigrant Youth and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    The situation of undocumented immigrant youth is one of the most important issues today. Since the introduction of the federal Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act in 2001, their circumstances have captured the attention of the American public as well as the academic community. Fourteen years have passed without any…

  4. Trades-Related Post-Secondary Educational Attainment among Immigrant and Canadian-Born Young Adults in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…

  5. Language Treatment in Israel: Especially the Development and Spread of Hebrew. Language Planning Newsletter, Vol. 2 No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Chaim

    One of the main problems Israeli language planning has focused on is the linguistic integration of newcomers and of not-so-recent immigrants whose linguistic adaptation has been slow. The bodies active in this are the Section of Adult Education of the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Ministry of Absorption, and the Jewish Agency for Israel.…

  6. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  7. Health Insurance Disparities among Immigrants: Are Some Legal Immigrants More Vulnerable than Others?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Kagotho, Njeri

    2010-01-01

    This study examined health insurance disparities among recent immigrants. The authors analyzed all working-age adult immigrants between the ages of 18 and 64 using the New Immigrant Survey data collected in 2003. This survey is a cross-sectional interview of recent legal permanent residents on their social, economic, and health status. Respondents…

  8. Auditory processing deficits among language-learning disordered children and adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayland, Ratree; Lombardino, Linda

    2003-10-01

    It has been estimated that approximately 5%-9% of school-aged children in the United States are diagnosed with some kind of learning disorders. Moreover, previous research has established that many of these children exhibited perceptual deficits in response to auditory stimuli, suggesting that an auditory perceptual deficit may underlie their learning disabilities. The goal of this research is to examine the ability to auditorily process speech and nonspeech stimuli among language-learning disabled (LLD) children and adults. The two questions that will be addressed in this study are: (a) Are there subtypes of LLD children/adults based on their auditory processing deficit, and (b) Is there any relationship between types of auditory processing deficits and types of language deficits as measured by a battery of psychoeducational tests.

  9. Immigration, ethnicity, and the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 coincided with a major wave of immigration to the United States. More than 23.5 million newcomers arrived between 1880 and the 1920s, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Mexico. During earlier epidemics, the foreign-born were often stigmatized as disease carriers whose very presence endangered their hosts. Because this influenza struck individuals of all groups and classes throughout the country, no single immigrant group was blamed, although there were many local cases of medicalized prejudice. The foreign-born needed information and assistance in coping with influenza. Among the two largest immigrant groups, Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews, immigrant physicians, community spokespeople, newspapers, and religious and fraternal groups shouldered the burden. They disseminated public health information to their respective communities in culturally sensitive manners and in the languages the newcomers understood, offering crucial services to immigrants and American public health officials. PMID:20568574

  10. Individual differences in adult foreign language learning: the mediating effect of metalinguistic awareness.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Patricia J; Kempe, Vera

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we sought to identify cognitive predictors of individual differences in adult foreign-language learning and to test whether metalinguistic awareness mediated the observed relationships. Using a miniature language-learning paradigm, adults (N = 77) learned Russian vocabulary and grammar (gender agreement and case marking) over six 1-h sessions, completing tasks that encouraged attention to phrases without explicitly teaching grammatical rules. The participants' ability to describe the Russian gender and case-marking patterns mediated the effects of nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning on grammar learning and generalization. Hence, even under implicit-learning conditions, individual differences stemmed from explicit metalinguistic awareness of the underlying grammar, which, in turn, was linked to nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning. Prior knowledge of languages with grammatical gender (predominantly Spanish) predicted learning of gender agreement. Transfer of knowledge of gender from other languages to Russian was not mediated by awareness, which suggests that transfer operates through an implicit process akin to structural priming. PMID:23055121

  11. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  12. A focus group study of healthy eating knowledge, practices, and barriers among adult and adolescent immigrants and refugees in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant and refugee communities in the Midwestern United States. Methods Using a community based participatory research approach, we conducted a qualitative research study with 16 audio-recorded focus groups with adults and adolescents who self-identified as Mexican, Somali, Cambodian, and Sudanese. Focus group topics were eating patterns, perceptions of healthy eating in the country of origin and in the U.S., how food decisions are made and who in the family is involved in food preparation and decisions, barriers and facilitators to healthy eating, and gender and generational differences in eating practices. A team of investigators and community research partners analyzed all transcripts in full before reducing data to codes through consensus. Broader themes were created to encompass multiple codes. Results Results show that participants have similar perspectives about the barriers (personal, environmental, structural) and benefits of healthy eating (e.g., ‘junk food is bad’). We identified four themes consistent across all four communities: Ways of Knowing about Healthy Eating (‘Meanings;’ ‘Motivations;’ ‘Knowledge Sources’), Eating Practices (‘Family Practices;’ ‘Americanized Eating Practices’ ‘Eating What’s Easy’), Barriers (‘Taste and Cravings;’ ‘Easy Access to Junk Food;’ ‘Role of Family;’ Cultural Foods and Traditions;’ ‘Time;’ ‘Finances’), and Preferences for Intervention (‘Family Counseling;’ Community Education;’ and ‘Healthier Traditional Meals.’). Some generational (adult vs. adolescents) and gender differences were observed. Conclusions Our study

  13. Conflicting Ideologies of Mexican Immigrant English across Levels of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly; Allard, Elaine; Wortham, Stanton; Mortimer, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how language ideologies--beliefs about immigrant students' language use--carry conflicting images of Spanish speakers in one New Latino Diaspora town. We describe how teachers and students encounter, negotiate, and appropriate divergent ideologies about immigrant students' language use during routine schooling…

  14. Current and Future Professional Development Needs of the Language, Literacy and Numeracy Workforce. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Sandra; Burgoyne, Ursula; Warwick, Diane; Cipollone, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    The question of how the skills and knowledge of the adult language, literacy and numeracy workforce can be improved is particularly relevant in view of the ongoing debate on how language, literacy and numeracy skills should be taught. This study reflects on the professional development needs of the three sectors--vocational trainers, specialist…

  15. Using Oral Language Skills to Build on the Emerging Literacy of Adult English Learners. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinogradov, Patsy; Bigelow, Martha

    2010-01-01

    In addition to learning to read and write for the first time, adult English language learners with limited or emerging literacy skills must acquire oral English. Often, learners with limited print literacy in their first language have oral skills in English that exceed their English literacy skills (Geva & Zadeh, 2006). While this mismatch of oral…

  16. Use of the Initial Teaching Alphabet in English as a Second Language. Classes for Spanish Speaking Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Byrl Elmer

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of the initial teaching alphabet (ITA) would have a beneficial effect upon English language learning when used with adult Spanish speaking students. The study consisted of five randomly selected English as a Second Language classes in the Los Angeles City Unified School District divided…

  17. ESL Idea Book: A Bibliography of Instructor-Developed Materials for Teaching English as a Second Language to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Martha A.

    This bibliography contains annotated citations of primarily non-commercial instructional materials for adult literacy education in English as a Second Language (ESL). All are for learners at beginning to intermediate English language skill levels, and were selected for ease of use by volunteers, relevance to an urban area, overall applicability to…

  18. The Effects of Variation on Learning Word Order Rules by Adults with and without Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunow, Hope; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Plante, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Non-adjacent dependencies characterize numerous features of English syntax, including certain verb tense structures and subject-verb agreement. This study utilized an artificial language paradigm to examine the contribution of item variability to the learning of these types of dependencies. Adult subjects with and without language-based learning…

  19. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    These six issues of a periodical intended for teachers and tutors of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students offer articles and features including the following: readers' comments and questions; in-class map practice ideas; songs for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learning; suggested films to show in class; conversation activities;…

  20. An Overview of Adult English as a Second Language Programs for Limited English Proficient Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education and Literacy.

    A summary of state activities to serve the limited English proficient (LEP) adult population includes the following: (1) brief state-by-state descriptions of programs and services offered; (2) a table of educational program enrollment rates for all the states listed, the District of Columbia, and territories for July 1, 1987-June 30, 1988; (3) a…