Perdue, Clive, Ed.
The field manual for a series of coordinated studies of the spontaneous acquisition of a second language by adult immigrant workers provides a theoretical and practical framework for the entire project and a source of information about it for other researchers. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the project's objectives and organization. Chapter 3 reviews…
Media promotes to what extent immigrants learn the host language and cultural values. Consequently, the overall aim of this paper is to identify predictors among adult immigrants in language training and its effect on host language training. The participants (n = 186)-- many of them refugees--were recruited purposefully for the study from one…
Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson
This article uses interview and questionnaire data to examine how adult English as a second language (ESL) providers in rural Pennsylvania perceive community receptivity toward immigrants and the factors they believe foster or hinder receptivity and immigrants' integration. ESL providers' depictions of local responses to immigrants ranged from…
Ding, Hongliu; Hargraves, Lee
The healthy migrant hypothesis supported by the 'Hispanic paradox' suggests that immigrants are healthier than non-immigrants. To test the generalizability of this hypothesis, we studied the stress-associated health status of adult immigrants with a language barrier in the USA. Three stress-related conditions (Unhappiness, Depression, and Anxiety) and self-reported health status were ascertained from participants of the Community Tracking Study Health Survey conducted in 2003. The associations between these conditions as well as the immigrants' length of time living in the USA and health were assessed. Our results demonstrated that the three stress-related conditions were significantly associated with a dramatically elevated poor health status (Unhappiness: OR = 5.22, 95% CI: 4.43-6.14; Depression: OR = 3.03, 95% CI: 2.31-3.98; Anxiety: OR = 5.12, 95% CI: 3.53-7.41). Compared to US citizens without a language barrier, immigrants with a language barrier were more likely to report poor health (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.66-2.78). After adjustment for stressors, the likelihood of reporting poor health among immigrants with a language barrier decreased significantly (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.05-2.91). In addition, these immigrants were more likely to report poor health within the first 10 years of their living in the USA (
Since its inception at the turn of the last century, adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the United States has been entwined with immigration processes and ideas of the nation. In spite of current uncertainty about the overhauling of federal immigration policy, increasingly anti-immigrant laws in states such as…
This article maps critical literacies conceptually and empirically in the context of adult immigrant language classrooms. It begins by describing Deleuze and Guattari's cartographic approach. Then it traces critical literacies situated conceptually within a Freirean paradigm before mapping them differently through the Deleuzian-informed Multiple…
Gaining proficiency in the host country language is a key element to successful integration of new immigrants. In this article, the author adopts Bourdieu's perspective that accumulation and conversion of forms of capital is only possible through practice in a social field; therefore, the author puts forward the idea that language capital…
Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min
Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.
Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.
Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio);…
Guan, Shu-Sha A.; Greenfield, Patricia M.; Orellana, Marjorie F.
This mixed-method study assessed the nature of language brokering and the relationship between language brokering and prosocial capacities in a sample of 139 college students from ethnically diverse immigrant families. The prosocial capacities of interest were empathic concern and two forms of perspective-taking: general perspective-taking…
Love, Stephanie V.
Since Italy's unification in 1861, the establishment and diffusion of the standard Italian language at the expense of all other linguistic varieties has dominated language and education policy discourses. Today, as Italy has transformed from a country of mass "emigration" to a country of mass "immigration," the language…
Johnson, Joan; Owen, Linda
Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) is a framework to help adult English as a second language (ESL) educators renovate their practices into effective, culturally responsive programs, readily accessible to adult learners. Four CRT strategies that can be used include (a) validation through caring, (b) valuing cultural experiences, (c) creating a…
Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz
Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its
Matias, Ana Raquel; Oliveira, Nuno; Ortiz, Alejandra
Courses in Portuguese for Speakers of Other Languages, in particular for adult immigrants, have been steadily expanding in Portugal over the last 15 years. These programmes aim to promote educational and labour market integration, access to Portuguese nationality, and cognitive development. This paper argues that official Portuguese learning…
Taylor, Laura E; Taylor-Henley, Sharon; Doan, Lan
Later-life immigration and a lack of dominant language competency present many challenges to mental health for older adults. English as a Second Language (ESL) classes for seniors, often regarded as the sole domain of ESL teachers, offer mental health professionals opportunities for mental health promotion and education. This paper examines some of the mental health issues that emerged from stories written by older adults in an ESL for Seniors program. The program is presented as an example of best practices in an ESL for Seniors program because of its specific development to meet the needs of ESL older persons.
Miller, Elizabeth R.
This article considers language learner agency from a poststructuralist perspective, focusing on how agency is discursively constituted as individuals position themselves and are positioned as (potential) agents within ideologically defined spaces. As such, I regard agency as inherently unstable and as a discursively mobilized capacity to act.…
Clarke, Andrew; Isphording, Ingo E
We study the impact of language deficiency on the health status of childhood migrants to Australia. Our identification strategy relies on a quasi-experiment comparing immigrants arriving at different ages and from different linguistic origins. In the presence of considerable non-classical measurement error in self-reported language proficiency, our results provide lower and upper bounds for a strong negative effect of English deficiency on health of between one half and a full standard deviation in the health score. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz
Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…
Morales, Alejandro; Yakushko, Oksana F.; Castro, Antonio J.
Language brokering (LB) is the act of translating and interpreting within immigrant families by children and adolescents for their parents, other family members, and other adults. Although LB is a common phenomenon among immigrant families in the United States, research regarding its impact on immigrant families mainly focuses on the experiences…
Soto Huerta, M. E.; Pérez, B.
Second language literacy development is a significant factor influencing immigrants' opportunities to integrate with the host society. To examine the opportunities that different immigrant groups have had for obtaining both, we selected four published studies that had been originally analyzed through a sociocultural perspective, a prominent…
Davila, Liv Thorstensson
This study analyzes the goals and realities of four educated, working, adult Latina, English as a Second language (ESL) students living in North Carolina, a region seeing particularly intense migration of Latino immigrants. The study conceptually frames adjustment issues confronted by these Latina immigrants in terms of gender, language,…
de Cossio, Roger Diaz
Mexico is experiencing major reform in adult education. At the same time, Mexico has been the largest producer of immigrants into the United States in the last 50 years. At the beginning of the century, non-English-speaking immigrants were only required to learn enough English to perform their jobs. As the Mexican-American community grew, it…
Dragman, June; Hinkle, Ann
This workbook is one of a series designed for adult learners of English as a Second Language. The overall aim of this volume is that the student who is a landed immigrant in Canada and leaves the country for a vacation or family visit will be able to deal successfully with Canadian immigration and customs officials upon return to Canada. This…
Wong, Shelley Diane
A survey of 211 adult Chinese immigrants in a community school in Los Angeles, California reports on the adults' need and desire for survival English instruction. The study investigated: the situations and contexts for which English instruction was needed; individuals' desire to increase the range of transactions in which they can function in…
Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans
About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…
Rosen, Jenny Karin; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
The study presented in this paper focuses upon conceptualisations of language and identity in the institutionalised arena that emerged in the post-Second World War period with the specific intention of teaching Swedish to adult immigrants in the nation-state of Sweden. Our analysis focuses upon the development of the educational programme…
Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…
Guan, Shu-Sha Angie; Nash, Afaf; Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich
This study examines how language and culture brokering (translating and interpreting language and culture for others) influences the acculturative experiences and self-perceptions of young adults from immigrant Arab, Asian, and Latino American backgrounds. Semi-structured interviews with 10 participants suggest that mediating information for…
Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.
This paper analyzes the effects of language practice on earnings among adult male immigrants in Canada using data from the 1991 Census of Canada. It examines whether destination language skills are complements to or substitutes in generating earnings with respect to other kinds of human capital (schooling and pre- and post-migration labor market…
Broeder, Peter; Extra, Guus
Immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages in Europe are viewed from three perspectives (demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational) through case studies. The first part, using a demographic approach, includes research on immigrant minority groups in population statistics of both European Union and English-dominant countries…
Clifford, Elizabeth; Kalyanpur, Maya
As of 2008, about 23% of children in the United States were immigrants or the children of immigrants. This paper examines how immigrants are portrayed in books aimed at teenagers. From a sample of 20 young-adult novels we look at the demographics of both protagonist and author and examine how three main themes are addressed: (1) experiences prior…
Carlock, Russell H., Jr.
Adult English as a second language (ESL) educators have struggled to move beyond skills-based instruction to implement more student-centered, contextualized pedagogy that prepares students to become active citizens and to solve real-world problems, even as the growing number of immigrants make adult education increasingly important for determining…
Figueiredo, Sandra; Martins, Margarida Alves; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes
Heritage language speakers struggle in European classrooms with insufficient material provided for second language (SL) learning and assessment. Considering the amount of instruments and pertinent studies in English SL, immigrant students are better prepared than their peers in Romance language settings. This study investigates how factors such as…
Batalova, Jeanne; Fix, Michael
This article examines the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) to develop a profile of immigrant adults with varying levels of oral English proficiency. The NAAL data on adult limited English proficient (LEP) immigrants are used here to examine their education levels, workforce involvement, incomes, use of public benefits,…
Fernández, Itziar; Igartua, Juan-José; Moral, Félix; Palacios, Elena; Acosta, Tania; Muñoz, Dolores
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the media on individuals' specific language use in relation to a news story on immigration: the influence of the news frame and group cue. Abstraction, complexity of language use, and negative affective language were evaluated. The 523 participants were randomly distributed to each of the four experimental conditions: news frame (crime versus economic contribution) by group cue (geographical origin of the immigrants involved: Moroccans versus Latin Americans). Through content analysis of the ideas and reflections that arose after the participants read the different news stories, using the Linguistic Category Model (LCM; Semin & Fiedler, 1991) to measure abstract language and the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker, Booth, & Francis, 2007) to analyze complex language and negative affective language, it emerged that abstract language and negative affective language were more frequent in the participants assigned to the news frame on crime. Complex language was more commonly used when the news frame referred to the economic contribution of immigrants. Regression analyses showed the mediating role of attitude to immigration in the effects of news frame on negative affective language. The bootstrap method was used to assess the magnitude of the indirect effect. A significant mediator effect was also found through structural equation modeling. Analyses of covariance showed one interaction between news frame and group cue: Among those who read the news story in a frame linking immigration to crime and Moroccan origin, abstract language was more characteristic. The results are discussed from the theoretical perspective of framing.
Ibarraran, Amaia; Lasagabaster, David; Sierra, Juan Manuel
Spain took in more immigrants than any other European country in 2005, a fact which has had a clear impact on the education system. This paper examines the language attitudes held by 125 local or autochtonous (42.4%) and immigrant (57.6%) students in the Basque Country. The results showed that both groups of students held rather negative attitudes…
Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne
This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.
Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly
This article summarizes 4 topics contributed by the author over the last 30 years of "Topics in Language Disorders" that address the issues of immigration, migration, and refugees. The focus is on the historical perspectives on evolution of terminologies from limited English proficient to English language learner and English as a new language.…
Since the 1980s' decoupling of the formal study of second language acquisition from pedagogical concerns, the social relevance of such research has been of little concern. Early studies, in the 1970s, of uninstructed adult learners' acquisition of morphosyntax pointed to social implications: these working class immigrants had varying levels of…
Mukan, Nataliya; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria
In the article the problem of adult immigrants' learning in Canada has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as: analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; analysis of the adult immigrants' learning system in Canada; and the perspectives for creative…
Hornberger, Nancy H.
Indigenous languages are under siege, not only in the United States but also around the world, in danger of disappearing because they are not being transmitted to the next generation. Immigrants and their languages worldwide are similarly subject to seemingly irresistible social, political, and economic pressures. Yet, at a time when phrases such…
Choi, Jinyoung; Ziegler, Gudrun
Mastery of literacy skills in the language(s) of the host country is considered a key element for the successful integration of immigrants. The current paper focuses on possibly one of the most challenging aspects of the issues of linguistic integration of immigrants, i.e., literacy acquisition by "low-literate" adult immigrants in a…
Kang, Hyeyoung; Okazaki, Sumie; Abelmann, Nancy; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Lan, Shanshan
Korean American youth experience immigration-related parent-child challenges including language barriers, parent-child conflicts, and generational cultural divides. Using grounded theory methods, this article examines the ways in which 18 Korean American college-enrolled emerging adults retrospectively made sense out of their experiences of…
Sansó, Clara; Navarro, José Luis; Huguet, Ángel
Introduction: The development of immigrant students' language proficiency is one of the main challenges facing education professionals today. Our study was a longitudinal analysis of Catalan and Spanish language acquisition. Method: Participants were 72 immigrant students (27 Spanish speakers and 45 non-Spanish speakers) enrolled in compulsory…
This article describes several community colleges across the country that provide services tailored to immigrant learners. The majority of colleges offer basic English as a second language (ESL) classes, but many programs strive to do more than simply breach the language barrier. The most successful programs teach important job skills with a focus…
Yelenevskaya, Maria N.; Fialkova, Larisa
Examines personal narratives of immigrants to israel from the former Soviet Union. Interviews conducted in Russian reveal awareness that language is a status category and that the attitude towards minority languages is the Soviet Union has been transferred to the linguistic situation in Israel. In the situation of emerging bilingualism, immigrants…
Carhill, Avary; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Paez, Mariela
This study aims to increase understanding of factors that account for academic English language proficiency in a sample of 274 adolescent first-generation immigrant students from China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America, and Mexico. Previous research has shown the importance of English language proficiency in predicting academic…
Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina
This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…
Trim, J. L. M.
Increasing attention is being paid to the teaching of languages to adults. Communications improvements, tourism, immigration and international commerce are all contributing factors. Emerging third-world states often require a European language for internal and outside communication. Close contact among European nations demands knowledge of a…
Aroian, Karen J.; Kaskiri, Eleni A.; Templin, Thomas N.
This study extends prior work with the Russian-language version of the Demands of Immigration Scale (DIS) with former Soviet immigrants and evaluates the reliability and validity of the Arabic-language version of the DIS with Arab immigrants. Three hundred and ninety-four Arab immigrant women completed the Arabic DIS and two measures of mood.…
Murphy, Garrett; Spangenberg, Gail
In this essay Garrett Murphy and Gail Spangenberg report on the need for understanding better than in the past, the number of undocumented immigrants likely to need adult education services under provisions of Senate Immigration Bill S.744. The essay looks at why the issues of "size and flow" are important for planners, providers, and…
Chiswick, B R
"This paper uses the 1983 Census of Israel to analyze Hebrew speaking skills and the effects of Hebrew fluency on the earnings of adult male immigrants. Hebrew fluency increases with a longer duration in Israel, the presence of children in the household, marrying after immigration, living in an area in which a smaller proportion speak one's mother tongue, a younger age at migration, a higher level of schooling and varies by country of birth. Earnings increase monotonically with the use of Hebrew. Speaking English as a second language is associated with higher earnings, even when country of origin is held constant."
Alhassan, Awal Mohammed; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa
This study was conducted with 48 adult immigrant students studying Norwegian under basic education program of the Ski Municipality Adult Education Unit between 2009-2011. Using the framework of Genc and Bada (2005), we tried to replicate their study in a new setting--Norway. The study investigated migrant students' perceptions learning Norwegian…
Akoglu, Gözde; Yagmur, Kutlay
The interdependence between the first and second language of bilingual immigrant children has not received sufficient attention in research. Most studies concentrate on mainstream language skills of immigrant pupils. In some studies, the gaps in the language development of immigrant children are documented by comparing mainstream pupils with…
Becker, Liza A.
Adults who immigrate to the United States recognize the value of fluency in the dominant language as a bridge to social mobility in their new homeland. In California, many of them invest time and energy in noncredit English as a Second Language (ESL) programs offered within the community college system to gain communicative competence and enhance…
Conrick, Maeve; Donovan, Paula
The connections between immigration and language policy and planning in Quebec and Canada are long established. With the continuing upward trajectory in levels of immigration to Canada and Quebec the linguistic integration of these new arrivals remains an important topic. In recent years, Asia has overtaken Europe as the leading source of…
Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.
This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…
Lee, Jin Sook
The goal of this chapter is to provide a conceptual review of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) and a synthesis of research that documents its application to immigrant children and English language learners (ELLs). First, the significance and relevance of CRP are framed in the context of today's student population and the growing gaps in academic…
Victoria, Mabelle P.
In this article I illustrate how some commonalities that I share with my participants--ethnic background, native language, and immigration experience--create unexpected ethical concerns. I explore how these commonalities facilitate the establishment of rapid intimacy, at the same time creating the temptations of over-identification and blurring…
Peirce, Bonny Norton
This paper argues, using a feminist poststructuralist perspective, that second language acquisition (SLA) theorists have struggled to explore the relationship between the language learner and the social world because they do not question how structures of power in the social world impact on individual language learners and the opportunities they…
Mukherjee, Anita J; Diwan, Sadhna
Late-life immigration among seniors for purposes of family reunification is a growing phenomenon in developed countries. Using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and other psychosocial measures related to the political/legal context of immigration, and personal and environmental autonomy (mastery, immigration status, access to transportation, and language barrier), this study examined quality of life (QoL) in Asian Indian seniors (N = 109), who immigrated to the United States to reunite with their adult children. The sample scores on Overall QoL and QoL domains (physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment) were similar to established norms. Although all QoL domains correlated significantly with Overall QoL at the bivariate level, multivariate analysis showed that only environmental domain contributed significantly to Overall QoL. Linear regressions indicated: Mastery contributed significantly to Overall QoL and all QoL domains; access to transport contributed to Overall QoL, physical health, and environmental QoL; immigration status (a proxy for political/legal context) contributed to environmental QoL whereas language barrier contributed to none. Implications for improving perceptions of QoL, mastery, access to transport and other services are discussed.
Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Yates, Lynda
This article draws on ethnographic data from a longitudinal study of newly-arrived immigrants of non English-speaking background in the Australian Adult Migrant English Program to investigate their opportunities for using English and the language learning strategies (LLS) they used to make the most of these opportunities. Analysis of their reports…
Dixon, L. Quentin; Wu, Shuang
Because certain home language and literacy practices have been found to be beneficial to monolingual children's literacy development, we examine immigrant children's home language and literacy practices in different countries. Presenting findings from 92 post-2000 articles, we examine research into these practices, what factors influence…
Zhang, Donghui; Slaughter-Defoe, Diana T.
This qualitative study investigates attitudes toward heritage language (HL) maintenance among Chinese immigrant parents and their second-generation children. Specific attention is given to exploring (1) what attitudes are held by the Chinese parents and children toward Chinese language maintenance in the USA, (2) what efforts are engaged in by the…
Bahrick, H P; Hall, L K; Goggin, J P; Bahrick, L E; Berger, S A
Spanish language tests of 801 Cuban and Mexican immigrants showed no evidence of language loss during 50 years of U.S. residence; a few years after immigration, their English vocabulary approximated that of English monolinguals. The critical-age hypothesis was not supported for the acquisition of English vocabulary when English schooling and language usage were controlled by multiple regression. Most Ss continued to speak about as much Spanish as English; but read, wrote, and heard (on television and radio) far more English than Spanish. Under these conditions, Ss maintained Spanish dominance on tests of vocabulary recognition, lexical decision, and oral comprehension. Dominance was task specific and shifted to English on a category generation task about 12 years after immigration. No evidence of bilingual language interference was found; this is attributed to the strong Spanish foundation of the participants.
Gandara, Patricia; Rumberger, Russell W.
Background/Context: According to U.S. Census figures, 11 million elementary and secondary students of immigrant families were enrolled in the public schools in October 2005, representing 20% of all students, and this figure is expected to grow in the coming years. Most of these students enter school as English learners (ELs), and most ELs have…
Based on interviews with eight adult immigrants to Montreal, this article explores how discourses from their cultures of origin interact with discourses in the host culture to influence the process of identity construction during their acculturation to the host society. Drawing on sociocultural theory and psychological concepts of identity…
Masny, Diana; Waterhouse, Monica
Immigration for Australia and Canada is critical to sustain economic growth. Each country's immigration policy stems from its vision of a nation that includes the role of language and literacy and a program of economic outcomes. While the authors acknowledge that economic integration through employment dominates immigration policies in Canada and…
Chlapana, Elissavet; Tafa, Eufimia
This study examined the impact of direct instruction and interactive instruction on immigrant kindergarten children's vocabulary learning during storybook reading. (In the present study the terms "immigrants" and "second language learners" are used alternatively meaning kindergarteners from immigrant families who are in the…
Jun, Byoungchul Joseph
This study examined a Korean immigrant adult learning program, the Reading Facilitator Training program, at a Korean immigrant church in Los Angeles, CA, in 2008. The purpose of this research was to discover how Korean immigrant adults learn in a way that has meaning and brings about change and how the local church can function as a safe learning…
Investigates whether speakers of standard German and Dutch maintain their language variety better than speakers of German and Dutch dialects. Also investigates the phenomenon of diglossia in immigrant societies and shows that the type of diglossia prevalent in the immigrant's home country significantly affects the language situation in the new…
de Bot, Kees; Clyne, Michael
Speech material gathered from Dutch-English bilinguals in Australia questioned in 1971 and 1987 was analyzed, showing no evidence of attrition in Dutch. It is concluded that first-language attrition does not necessarily occur in an immigrant setting and that immigrants who maintain their language in the first years of their stay will likely remain…
Gibb, Tara L.
Employing critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper examines the attempt to bridge a Canadian adult second language policy with an employment skills policy. The result is a third policy intended to improve language education and employment skills training for immigrants. The analysis reveals that the knowledge economy and human capital theory…
Hund, Lauren; Soto Mas, Francisco
In the United States, data confirm that Spanish-speaking immigrants are particularly affected by the negative health outcomes associated with low health literacy. Although the literature points to variables such as age, educational background and language, only a few studies have investigated the factors that may influence health literacy in this group. Similarly, the role that bilingualism and/or multilingualism play in health literacy assessment continues to be an issue in need of further research. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of English health literacy among adult Hispanic immigrants whose self-reported primary language is Spanish, but who live and function in a bilingual community. It also explored issues related to the language of the instrument. An analysis of data collected through a randomized controlled study was conducted. Results identified English proficiency as the strongest predictor of health literacy (p < 0.001). The results further point to the importance of primary and secondary language in the assessment of heath literacy level. This study raises many questions in need of further investigation to clarify how language proficiency and sociolinguistic environment affect health literacy in language minority adults; proposes language approaches that may be more appropriate for measuring health literacy in these populations; and recommends further place-based research to determine whether the connection between language proficiency and health is generalizable to border communities. PMID:27127416
Zhang, Shu; Morris, Michael W; Cheng, Chi-Ying; Yap, Andy J
For bicultural individuals, visual cues of a setting's cultural expectations can activate associated representations, switching the frames that guide their judgments. Research suggests that cultural cues may affect judgments through automatic priming, but has yet to investigate consequences for linguistic performance. The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants' second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants' English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing. We discuss conceptual implications for the automaticity and adaptiveness of cultural priming and practical implications for immigrant acculturation and second-language learning.
Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Jiyun; Kim, Miyong T; Kim, Kim B
While the need for understanding the issue of health literacy among ethnic minority groups with limited English skills is rapidly increasing in the US, it is difficult to find valid and useful health literacy tools for certain linguistic minorities. This study was designed to validate the Korean translation of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults-Short form (S-TOFHLA). Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA were administered to 98 Korean American women, together with REALM-English. Participants were first-generation immigrants who were educated in Korea. Both Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA resulted in a negatively-skewed distribution. REALM-English yielded well-distributed groups with significant correlations with Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P = 0.003 and 0.22, P = 0.03, respectively). Educational level was significantly correlated with REALM-English and Korean S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.39, P = 0.000 and 0.25, P = 0.014), but not with REALM-Korean. The translation of REALM and S-TOFHLA into the Korean language did not lead to a valid assessment of health literacy. A more systematic approach is needed to assess health literacy in immigrants with limited English skills, particularly those with a phonetic primary language. Meanwhile, REALM-English could be used as a crude health literacy test for individuals with some English skills.
This article explores the language and literacy practices of Latino immigrant children in preschool. In spite of the monolingual framework and the readiness emphasis of current educational language policies, children draw on their home language as a resource to literacy learning. The author argues that children's use of their home language is a…
Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Elstad, Eyvind; Turmo, Are
The integration policies in some Northern European countries display relatively poor outcomes of passed exam rates for immigrant language training, and several groups of immigrants have very low employment rates. These measures, in many countries, are strong incentives for host-country language acquisition in addition to the obligation to document…
This article summarizes a paper presented at the recent ASP conference Connecting People to Science in Baltimore 2011. This action research study currently in progress aims to explore the impact of integrating science into English language instruction (English Language Acquisition for Adults, or ELLA) serving largely Hispanic immigrants at an adult learning center based in Phoenix, Arizona.
This study dealt with the experiences of immigrants from Latin America, specifically Mexico, who speak indigenous languages. This study was guided by a theoretical framework in terms of issues such as power struggle, cultural hierarchy, and identity ambiguity, which are social realities of indigenous people who have immigrated to the United…
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…
Gabriel, Ute; Lilla, Nanine; Zander, Lysann; Hannover, Bettina
This research investigates how students from immigrant families whose first language differs from the language of instruction at school view themselves while at school, depending on the way in which they use their first and second language. While some immigrant students are inclined to predominantly use their first language in the home environment…
This study looks at Chinese immigrant teachers' identity through the theoretical framework of the figured worlds, aiming to explore how the Chinese immigrant teachers navigate the cultural and educational practices and negotiate their professional identities in the figured world of foreign language classes in the US public schools, and how the two…
Waterhouse, Monica; Arnott, Stephanie
Our purpose is to use a Deleuzian-informed conceptual and theoretical framework to disrupt predominant representations of "the" immigrant experience in Canadian official language education and to open up to the affective potential of "an" immigrant life to become otherwise. Employing a rhizoanalytic research approach that…
Gast, Melanie Jones; Okamoto, Dina G.; Feldman, Valerie
Past research suggests that community after-school programs (ASPs) are crucial sites for culturally relevant programming for minority and immigrant youth; yet, we know little about how ASPs address language in their programming. Using an ethnographic fieldwork approach, we examine the goals and practices of ASP workers serving immigrant youth with…
Gica, Diosdado Galan, Jr.
Language policies' impact is evident in how most immigrant children become English monolinguals by the third generation. Yet a large percentage continues to underperform in public schools. Formative and summative evaluations draw from a narrow methodology, thus this study strived to tell the stories of immigrant students' lived experiences in New…
Nelson, Cynthia D.
This article focuses on a subset of the student cohort that has, until recently, been largely hidden from view in the literature of language education: gay immigrants. Little is known about what sorts of classroom experiences gay immigrant students find engaging or alienating, or why this sort of knowledge is needed. This case study uses interview…
Weldeyesus, Weldu Michael
The purpose of this dissertation was to conduct a sociocultural linguistic study on Ethiopian immigrants in the Denver metropolis. It specifically examined language practice of Ethiopian immigrants at home and in church. The study centered on three Ethiopian Orthodox parish churches, taken as separate communities of practice. The study was…
Park, Heejung; Tsai, Kim M.; Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.
Heritage language (HL) proficiency confers developmental benefits; however, the onset of HL loss is observed among many young children from immigrant families. In this longitudinal study, transactional associations between children's HL proficiency and supportive family climate were examined in Chinese immigrant families with pre-school-aged…
Weltens, Bert; de Bot, Kees
Reports a study of language learning and language attitudes among immigrants to the Netherlands. Questionnaires obtained from college students studying Dutch showed no evidence that Dutch was threatened by English and indicated that the importance attached to English as an international language did not lessen the value of Dutch for living in the…
Hua, Josephine M.; Costigan, Catherine L.
Language brokering, whereby children of immigrants provide informal translation and interpretation for others, is considered commonplace. However, the research evidence remains inconsistent concerning how language brokering relates to the psychological health of child language brokers and their relationships with their parents. Furthermore, few…
Edwards, Catrin Wyn
This paper analyses the language-in-education policies implemented to integrate international immigrants into the Catalan language community in Vic, Catalonia. It focuses on the Catalan Government's "Languages and Social Cohesion Plan" (LIC) plan, Vic city council's local education plans, which were adopted as part of LIC plan, and the…
Paez, Mariela M.
This article describes English language proficiency and bilingual verbal ability for a sample of 209 students aged 10 to 16 from three immigrant groups--Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian. Sources of data included structured student interviews, parent interviews, and individual language assessments. On average, students' English language proficiency…
Seller, Maxine S.
The educational experience of adult immigrants to the United States between 1914-24 is discussed. Attempts of educators and Americanization agencies to reach adult immigrants are described and reasons for the failure of these attempts are given, including inadequate funding, narrowness in subject matter and methods, and insensitivity to ethnic…
Beck, Audrey; Corak, Miles; Tienda, Marta
Immigrants' age at arrival matters for schooling outcomes in a way that is predicted by child development theory: the chances of being a high school dropout increase significantly each year for children who arrive in a host country after the age of eight. The authors document this process for immigrants in the United States from a number of regions relative to appropriate comparison regions. Using instrumental variables, the authors find that the variation in education outcomes associated with variation in age at arrival influences adult outcomes that are important in the American mainstream, notably English-language proficiency and intermarriage. The authors conclude that children experience migration differently from adults depending on the timing of migration and show that migration during the early years of child development influences educational outcomes. The authors also find that variation in education outcomes induced by the interaction of migration and age at arrival changes the capacity of children to become fully integrated into the American mainstream as adults.
Baker, Colin; Andrews, Hunydd; Gruffydd, Ifor; Lewis, Gwyn
This article discusses the importance of adult language learning when a minority language is threatened. Language acquisition planning attempts to reproduce the language across generations. The research context is Wales with its strong history of adults learning Welsh. The history of the Welsh language shows a decline in the last century, but…
Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.
"Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass…
Hamilton, Tod G; Hummer, Robert A
Previous work suggests that regional variation in pre-migration exposure to racism and discrimination, measured by a region's racial composition, predicts differences in individual-level health among black immigrants to the United States. We exploit data on both region and country of birth for black immigrants in the United States and methodology that allows for the identification of arrival cohorts to test whether there are sending country differences in the health of black adults in the United States that support this proposition. While testing this hypothesis, we also document heterogeneity in health across arrival cohorts and by duration of U.S. residence among black immigrants. Using data on working-age immigrant and U.S.-born blacks taken from the 1996-2010 waves of the March Current Population Survey, we show that relative to U.S.-born black adults, black immigrants report significantly lower odds of fair/poor health. After controlling for relevant social and demographic characteristics, immigrants' cohort of arrival, and immigrants' duration in the United States, our models show only modest differences in health between African immigrants and black immigrants who migrate from the other major sending countries or regions. Results also show that African immigrants maintain their health advantage over U.S.-born black adults after more than 20 years in the United States. In contrast, black immigrants from the Caribbean who have been in the United States for more than 20 years appear to experience some downward health assimilation. In conclusion, after accounting for relevant factors, we find that there are only modest differences in black immigrant health across countries of origin. Black immigrants appear to be very highly selected in terms of good health, although there are some indications of negative health assimilation for black immigrants from the Caribbean.
Cuban, Sondra; Stromquist, Nelly P.
Women immigrants are an increasing population in the U.S. and in the Adult Basic Education (ABE) system, particularly in English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programmes. The authors argue that their numerical predominance and comprehensive needs are not factored into U.S. ABE policies by reformers who are anxious about the system being…
Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Sixteen meta-analyses were conducted to examine relations of typically developing bilingual immigrant-background children's oral language proficiency in their first and second language with the school outcomes of early literacy (k = 41), reading (k = 61), spelling (k = 9), mathematics (k = 9), and academic achievement (k = 9). Moderate to strong…
This study examines the language experiences of two distinct Chinese immigrant groups in the U.S.: a Mandarin-speaking group and a Fujianese-speaking group across two generations. The different language trajectories of the parents' generation, along with their social class and different settlement patterns in the U.S., shaped the second-generation…
In this narrative inquiry, I explored the role of language in the lives of six Russian-speaking immigrant teachers. Theoretical perspectives emphasized experience, context, and culture in understanding their beliefs, and language served as an interpretive lens through which the experiences were explored. The inquiry revealed the following…
Bosher, Susan; Rowekamp, Jenise
There has been a growing awareness and concern in recent years about the language proficiency and academic preparedness of refugee/immigrant students at the post-secondary level. Using this population at the General College, University of Minnesota, as subjects, this paper investigate's the relationship between English language proficiency, as…
Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee
In 2000 Census microdata, various outcomes of second-generation immigrants are related to their parents' age at arrival in the United States, and in particular whether that age fell within the "critical period" of language acquisition. We interpret this as an effect of the parents' English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for…
Porras, Dehlly; Matthews, Robert
The authors present two experiences of assimilation, "melting-pot" and "salad-bowl" processes, their connections to the WASP framework of skin color, language, and religion, and their influences in the classroom. They focus on how fluency in the English language is the dominant assimilation factor for immigrant students and share their experiences…
The focus of this paper is on immigrant minority languages in urban Western Europe. Both multidisciplinary and cross-national perspectives will be offered on two major domains in which language transmission occurs, i.e., the domestic domain and the public domain. Prototypical of these two domains are the home and the school, respectively. At home,…
This study investigated how immigrants from Latin America who speak indigenous languages perceive and respond to social, racial, linguistic, and cultural factors in the United States. It examined the multicultural and multilingual experiences of six participants, five of whom speak an indigenous language. There were three interviews conducted with…
This article reports on a diary study conducted to explore third language acquisition in the immersion setting in Mexico as experienced by a bilingual Russian/English learner of Spanish who had recently immigrated to the USA from Russia. Language learning is approached as a socialization process that involves negotiation of meaning (Vygotsky,…
Tilghman-Osborne, Emile M.; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra; Witherspoon, Dawn; Wadsworth, Martha E.; Hecht, Michael L.
Language brokering is a common practice for Latino youth with immigrant parents. Yet little is known about how youth's feelings about this responsibility contribute to the parent-adolescent relationship. In this study, we examined the longitudinal associations between language brokering attitudes and parent-adolescent closeness in a sample of…
The present study offers an in-depth look at heritage language maintenance and loss among the children of immigrant professionals from Eastern Europe residing in the USA. Based on semi-structured interviews with 50 married mothers and fathers, I explore: (1) parental attitudes related to heritage language transmission to their children; (2)…
Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda K.; Baird, Ashley Simpson; Parr, Alyssa; Bergey, Rebecca
We examined the language practices of five mother-child dyads during a structured play activity, particularly in relation to maternal question use. The study includes second-generation, 4-year-old children of Mexican immigrants who demonstrate either high vocabulary levels in English and Spanish or low levels of vocabulary in both languages.…
The first waves of immigrants arriving in Palestine were faced with the problem of forming a new culture and creating a new language, actually, reviving Hebrew, an ancient language. The children were faced with creating their own traditions, games, and folklore; in so doing, through straight borrowing, spontaneous translation (loan translation),…
Tynell, Lena Lyngholt; Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Jervelund, Signe Smith
Objective: In most European countries, immigrants do not systematically learn about the host countries' healthcare system when arriving. This study investigated how newly arrived immigrants perceived the information they received about the Danish healthcare system. Methods: Immigrants attending a language school in Copenhagen in 2012 received…
Some studies of technology use by immigrants have explored the role of digital media in their maintenance of affiliations with their nations of origin. However, the potential for transnational social networks to serve as "resources" that facilitate digital literacy socialization for adult immigrant learners remains unexplored. In this…
The necessity of forming foreign communicative competence of adult immigrants has been substantiated. The topicality of this issue for Ukraine has been defined. The experience of Global Talent Bridge, an initiative of World Education Services that is dedicated to helping skilled immigrants fully utilize their talents and education in the United…
Hutson, Barbara A.; Liebermann, Jo
In an examination of the relationship between language skill and reading achievement in adults, measures of syntactic knowledge and reading achievement were obtained for 41 students in an adult basic education center. Moderate correlations were found for language skill and reading achievement, with students reading at or below the fourth grade…
Hamilton, Tod G
Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980-2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005-2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants' birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants' birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States.
Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena
Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…
Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.
This study reports a subset of findings from a larger, ongoing study aimed at exploring interactions between teacher identity, learning, and classroom practices in a social justice teacher education program at a selective liberal arts college in New York. This case-study explores the journey of Elena, as an immigrant, a student, and a pre-service teacher candidate towards becoming a social justice educator. Elena reflects upon her school language experiences as an immigrant youth, her learning in a social justice teacher education program, and her field experiences in an international high school. The analysis spans macro-, meso-, and microlevels to explore the ways globalization, particularly immigration, as well as schooling policies for English language learners interact with aspects of Elena's core identity, particularly in school settings. The findings show some of the ways language and literacy verified and/or denied aspects of Elena's core identity; specific instances where second language proficiency was cast as power and privilege versus disadvantage according to ethnic, language, and class categorizations; and the struggles Elena, and other immigrant youth may face given the focus on English language acquisition and high stakes accountability in schools, at the expense of students' primary language proficiency and affirmation of core identity markers.
Huguet, Angel; Janes, Judit
Bearing in mind the relevance of immigration in Spain, we consider the linguistic idiosyncrasy of the autonomous community of Catalonia in the present study to describe and analyse language attitudes to Catalan and Spanish in a sample of 225 students of immigrant origin living in different parts of the region. We focus on language attitudes in so…
This study explores Korean-immigrant parents' language ideologies and practices with respect to their American-born children's language development. Participants were seven ethnic Korean families composed of immigrant parents and their American-born children, aged between five and seven, in Midwestern America. Interviews in the medium of Korean…
Hutson, Barbara A.; Liebermann, Jo
Measures of syntactic knowledge and reading achievement were obtained for 41 students in an adult basic education center. Adults reading at or below fourth-grade level showed significantly less knowledge of syntax than adults at higher levels, even though the language test involved neither reading nor writing. (Author/CT)
BECK, AUDREy; CORAK, MILES; TIENDA, MARTA
Immigrants’ age at arrival matters for schooling outcomes in a way that is predicted by child development theory: the chances of being a high school dropout increase significantly each year for children who arrive in a host country after the age of eight. The authors document this process for immigrants in the United States from a number of regions relative to appropriate comparison regions. Using instrumental variables, the authors find that the variation in education outcomes associated with variation in age at arrival influences adult outcomes that are important in the American mainstream, notably English-language proficiency and intermarriage. The authors conclude that children experience migration differently from adults depending on the timing of migration and show that migration during the early years of child development influences educational outcomes. The authors also find that variation in education outcomes induced by the interaction of migration and age at arrival changes the capacity of children to become fully integrated into the American mainstream as adults. PMID:23105147
Purpose Immigrant Latino adolescents experience health disparities and barriers to accessing health care. The purpose of this study is to describe barriers experienced by immigrant Latino adolescents seeking U.S. health care. Design Focused ethnography using one-to-one interviews. Results Participants identified language barriers to accessing care at all stages in the process. Discussion Immigrant Latino youth experience barriers when accessing U.S. health care, resulting in negative perceptions and likelihood of reduced health seeking. Implications for practice Health care providers can lead positive change in health care delivery resulting in minimized language barriers and improved culturally relevant care for immigrant Latino youth and their families. PMID:19824291
The Indo-Fijian settlers, who speak Fiji Hindi, a preliterate language, migrated to New Zealand following the 1987 Fiji military coup. This article looks at the maintenance of Fiji Hindi among teenage Indi-Fijian immigrants and the factors contributing to a shift from Fiji Hindi to the use of English in all domains. (40 references) (LR)
Butcher, John S.; Townsend, Jane S.
Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would…
This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…
Wrigley, Heide Spruck
The content of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act is described, its current interpretations are examined, and the implications for developing a responsible language and citizenship curriculum to conform to the legislation are discussed. Specific attention is focused on the law's requirement that illegal aliens applying for amnesty and…
Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young; Kang, Dooyeon; Domanski, Margaret Dietz
This study examined the association between English language proficiency and health outcomes in a regional probability sample (n = 205) of elderly Chinese and Korean immigrants. Data support that these two Asian ethnic subgroups differ in English proficiency and health-related quality of life. Chinese and Korean elders had poorer health than the…
This article traces how a language and soft skills training approach to Canadian immigrant integration emerged with Canada's shift towards a post-industrial tertiary economy. In this economy, soft skills index characteristics of ideal workers that fit the needs of Canada's post-Fordist labour regime. It examines how skills' training is not viewed…
Based on a four-year ethnography and informed by poststructuralist theories of identity and language, this article examines how, through lived settlement experiences in Canada, a young man from Mainland China gradually became an immigrant in the folk sense of the term. Though he was considered a success in terms of the diaspora community, he was…
As the Latino/a immigrant population increases, racial conflict historically understood in terms of Black and White in the U.S. South has expanded to include new contestants in metro-Atlanta public schools. By examining market and sociological competition theoretical perspectives, this study investigates how language assistance resource…
Bouchereau Bauer, Eurydice; Guerrero, Beatriz; Hornberg, Sabine; Bos, Wilfried
In this article we propose that teaching/learning is a process that involves world knowledge, identity, and future construction of oneself. The goal of this qualitative research paper is to document the experiences of 2 fourth-grade students with immigration backgrounds in Germany. Using a poststructuralist approach to language and identity, we…
This article explores the ways in which adult immigrants engaged in discussion about immigration news at a web design course during the passing of Senate Bill 1070 in Arizona. Drawing on the method and theory of mediated discourse analysis, two focal interactions reveal the diverse positions that students took up in relation to anti-immigrant…
Bigelow, Martha; Schwarz, Robin Lovrien
Adult English language learners who lack print literacy or experience with formal education encounter a unique set of challenges in their lives and their efforts to learn English. Educators and policymakers are similarly challenged by how best to help these adults acquire English literacy. This paper reviews a variety of research, including that…
Brooker, Abi; Lawrence, Jeanette A.
We report the relationship between the cultural and educational challenges of immigrant adult students. Thirty-five recently arrived adults in a bridging course completed a self-administered, online computer interview to rate their exploration and commitment to their heritage and Australian cultures, and express their experiences with their own…
Li, Kelin; Wen, Ming
In this study we scrutinize prevalence of current smoking and binge drinking among adult US immigrants, and examine whether age at migration predicts these two behaviors and moderates the effect of length of residence. Immigrant groups include those from Latin America/Caribbean, East and South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe/Central Asia, and Middle East/North Africa. Multivariate logistic regressions are estimated using cross-sectional data from the New Immigrant Survey (N = 7,397). Results show that patterns of smoking and binge drinking vary by gender and by region of origins. In addition, arriving at age 0-9 are directly associated with higher odds of binge drinking among adult women. Among adult men, age at migration moderates the association between length of residence and substance use. Specifically, length of residence has more detrimental effects for adolescent immigrants (arriving at age 10-18) on smoking, while its detrimental effects are more pronounced for childhood immigrants (arriving at age 0-9) on binge drinking. We interpret our findings within the critical period model in epidemiological research, concluding that adolescence and childhood are critical life stages that are associated with differential effects of length of residence when looking at smoking and binge drinking among immigrant men.
Although the United States prides itself as a nation of diversity, the country that boasts of its immigrant past also wrestles with much of its immigrant present. While conflicting attitudes about immigration are debated, newcomers--both legal and otherwise--continue to arrive on American soil. And books about the immigrant experience--aimed at…
Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.
The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978
Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K
The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.
Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna; Shkandrij, Myroslav
Since the symbolization of an immigrant child is created and recreated in a process involving many stages and modifications of behavior, it is important for a teacher to observe and stimulate children. Reaching a satisfying balance may never be completely possible and the child may as an adult struggle all his/her life, but guidance toward such…
Dorner, Lisa M.; Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich; Jimenez, Rosa
This article examines how immigrant adolescent development is shaped by the cultural and linguistic practice of language brokering. Framed by theories on interdependent/independent developmental scripts, the changing experiences and views of 12 Latino/a children of U.S. immigrants over 5 years were analyzed. It was found that translating is a…
This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…
This dissertation explores the work-based language education practices of undocumented Latino and Korean immigrants employed in Korean supermarkets and restaurants of Koreatown, New York City. The primary goal of this dissertation is to understand how immigrants educate each other about the communication strategies necessary for accomplishing work…
Golan-Cook, Pnina; Olshtain, Elite
A theoretical model featuring the relationship between identity and language orientations within the broader constellation of variables impacting immigration and acculturation processes was proposed within the framework of the current study and its applicability was tested with regards to 152 immigrant university students from the Former Soviet…
Language proficiency is a crucial factor for immigrants to integrate successfully in the new society in all aspects of life, especially in the labor market. As a result, there is great importance in acquiring the new language as quickly and effectively as possible. Several factors affect second language acquisition, including motivation, age,…
Edele, Aileen; Seuring, Julian; Kristen, Cornelia; Stanat, Petra
Due to its central role in social integration, immigrants' language proficiency is a matter of considerable societal concern and scientific interest. This study examines whether commonly applied self-assessments of linguistic skills yield results that are similar to those of competence tests and thus whether these self-assessments are valid measures of language proficiency. Analyses of data for immigrant youth reveal moderate correlations between language test scores and two types of self-assessments (general ability estimates and concrete performance estimates) for the participants' first and second languages. More importantly, multiple regression models using self-assessments and models using test scores yield different results. This finding holds true for a variety of analyses and for both types of self-assessments. Our findings further suggest that self-assessed language skills are systematically biased in certain groups. Subjective measures thus seem to be inadequate estimates of language skills, and future research should use them with caution when research questions pertain to actual language skills rather than self-perceptions.
Stanat, Petra; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jurgen; Ludtke, Oliver; Eckhardt, Andrea G.
Immigrant students' school success is often hampered by limited second language (L2) proficiency, yet the effectiveness of different approaches to L2 support is unclear. Using a summer camp setting, we tested effects of (1) implicit support focusing on meaning of language by engaging students in language-intensive activities without drawing their…
Oh, Janet S.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
The influence of immigrant-background adolescents' heritage language (HL) proficiency and use of the language on parent-adolescent relationships and ethnic identity was investigated in a sample of 414 adolescents from Latin American and Asian backgrounds. HL proficiency, but not language use, was positively associated with the quality of…
Afable-Munsuz, Aimee; Ponce, Ninez A; Rodriguez, Michael; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J
Migrant studies of physical activity (PA) can provide insight into the prevention of chronic disease. It is unclear, however, whether PA increases or decreases the longer migrants live in their host country. In the US, studies on immigrants' length of residence in the US and PA are inconclusive and many studies do not adequately consider the role of socioeconomic status (SES). Using California data, we examine relationships between immigrant generation and physical activity (PA) among Mexican, Chinese and Filipino adults, who represent the three largest immigrant groups in the US, and the extent to which the relationships are confounded by SES. Data from the 2000 US Census was linked with data on adults 18 years and older from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. PA was measured in three different domains: leisure time (LTPA), non-leisure time (NLTPA) and any PA. Logistic regression was used to examine whether a wide range of SES factors, measured at the respondent and neighborhood levels, influenced the relationship between immigrant generation and PA in all domains and in different ethnic origin groups. Generation was significantly associated with LTPA among Mexican and Chinese adults and with NLTPA among all 3 ethnic origin groups; however the nature of the relationships varied. After adjusting for individual and neighborhood SES factors, a positive association between generation and LTPA remained among Mexican adults, and negative association between generation and NLTPA remained among Chinese and Filipino adults. These results underscore the importance of comparative studies of immigrant generation and PA and consideration of SES factors to identify pathways linking generation to PA. In the context of increasing rates of chronic disease, the study of transitions in PA among immigrants will continue to be critical to promoting the public health of diverse populations in countries such as the US.
Examples of culturally relevant education for Navajo adults are described: (1) Arizona State Prison Literacy Program; (2) Dine College Teacher Preservice Program; (3) Salt Lake City East Community School; and (4) Family and Child Education Program. The examples attest to the power of native language literacy. (SK)
Walsh, Sophie D.; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka
Experiences of discrimination and racism and individual coping strategies were examined among 22 emerging adult Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. In-depth interviews explored the way they perceive, understand, respond to, and cope with experiences of discrimination. Qualitative analysis identified an initial contrast between those interviewees who…
This mixed-methods study examines educational experiences of Latino immigrant young adult dropouts in New York City, along with pre- and postmigration factors that impact school participation. Due to age, interrupted schooling, and limited English proficiency, high schools view this population as hard to serve. Increasing numbers of these youth…
Generally, the Global Tibetan Professional Network of North America (GTPN-NA) considers lack of skills a problem among adult Tibetan immigrants. The GTPN-NA is a non-profit, volunteer-based networking forum focusing on Tibetan professionals and students from North America. By skills education, it means skills that may help support the transition…
Sadowski, Michael, Ed
According to federal survey data, there are 4.5 million English-language learners (ELLs) enrolled in U.S. public schools (preK?12), nearly one-third more than in 1997?98. Given this fast-growing number of linguistically and culturally diverse children, principals are dealt an increasingly urgent responsibility: to lead their schools in helping all…
Kamalova, Lera A.; Zakirova, Venera G.
The relevance of this study is due to migration processes in Russia, the emergence in Russian schools of migrant children. School practice shows that the education of migrant children the Russian language has its own specifics related to the problems of bilingualism (bilingualism), ethnic identification, insufficient knowledge of the Russian…
Four out of five immigrants to Canada speak a language other than English or French as a first language. Immigration is increasingly transforming francophone minority communities. Allophone children acquire minority status on multiple levels within French-language schools, where they can become both a linguistic minority and a cultural minority…
Musso, Pasquale; Inguglia, Cristiano; Lo Coco, Alida; Albiero, Paolo; Berry, John W
Few studies examine intercultural relations in emerging adulthood. Framed from the perspective of the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies (MIRIPS) project, the current paper examined the mediating role of tolerance and perceived consequences of immigration in the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants. Additionally, the moderating role of context was analysed. A two-group structural equation modelling was performed on data collected from 305 Italian emerging adults living both in northern and in southern Italy with different socio-political climates towards immigrants. In both groups, tolerance and perceived consequences of immigration mediated the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants. Also, this indirect relationship was significantly higher for the northern than southern Italians. These findings provide provisional evidence of mediating and moderating processes in the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants and suggest important implications for practitioners interested in promoting intercultural relations among emerging adults.
Schaetzel, Kirsten; Low, Ee Ling
Adult English language learners in the United States approach the learning of English pronunciation from a wide variety of native language backgrounds. They may speak languages with sound systems that vary a great deal from that of English. The pronunciation goals and needs of adult English language learners are diverse. These goals and needs…
Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E
For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.
Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.
For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung
Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors predicting academic proficiency (AP), the specialised domains required for performing academic tasks, among Russian speaking (L1) immigrants currently studying Hebrew as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3) in Israeli schools. Specifically, the study examined the…
Lee, Boh Young
This study explores the beliefs and attitudes that Korean immigrant parents and their children in the USA hold about their heritage language. Data were collected through interviews. This study addresses how parents' perspectives and their actual heritage language practices with their children influence their children's cultural identity and…
Sook Lee, Jin; Choi, Jane Y.; Marqués-Pascual, Laura
For children from immigrant families, opportunities to develop additive bilingualism exist, yet bilingual attainment has varied widely. Given the significance of language development opportunities in home settings, this study examines the home language use of 20 second-generation children (ages 6-8) of Mexican and Korean descent in the United…
Cultural capital benefits Asian immigrant children when they become language brokers. This skill can also benefit their parents and families in the United States. Language brokering may shape and possibly enhance students' academic performance and can further children's linguistic and academic achievement. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)
Lommel, Lisa L; Chen, Jyu-Lin
We systematically reviewed studies to identify the association between acculturation and self-rated health (SRH) and the impact of nativity and language use in Asian and Hispanic adult immigrants. Six electronic databases were searched. Data on nativity and limited English proficiency (LEP) was extracted and analyzed. Nine studies met review criteria. A positive association between acculturation and fair/poor SRH among Asians and Hispanics was found. For both Asians and Hispanics, six out of eight studies showed nativity and all three studies reporting LEP were associated with worse SRH compared to whites. Nativity and LEP were found to be risk factors for reporting worse SRH in Hispanics compared to Asians. The degree of association between nativity and LEP and worse SRH was found to vary by Asian and Hispanic subgroup. Further studies are needed to accurately assess the health status of these populations, which will be essential to eliminating disparities.
COLLINS, BRIAN A.; O'CONNOR, ERIN E.; SUÁREZ-OROZCO, CAROLA; NIETO-CASTAÑON, ALFONSO; TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.
Dual language children enter school with varying levels of proficiencies in their first and second language. This study of Latino children of immigrants (N = 163) analyzes their dual language profiles at kindergarten and second grade, derived from the direct assessment of Spanish and English proficiencies (Woodcock Language Proficiency Batteries–Revised). Children were grouped based on the similarity of language profiles (competent profiles, such as dual proficient, Spanish proficient, and English proficient; and low-performing profiles, including borderline proficient and limited proficient). At kindergarten, the majority of children (63%) demonstrated a low-performing profile; by second grade, however, the majority of children (64%) had competent profiles. Change and stability of language profiles over time of individual children were then analyzed. Of concern, are children who continued to demonstrate a low-performing, high-risk profile. Factors in the linguistic environments at school and home, as well as other family and child factors associated with dual language profiles and change/stability over time were examined, with a particular focus on the persistently low-performing profile groups. PMID:24825925
Magos, Kostas; Politi, Foteini
Acquisition of the host country's language is a basic requirement for the occupational and social inclusion of immigrants. It has been widely acknowledged that both the teaching and the learning of a second language are substantially improved by the communicative approach. A technique employed by the latter is that of role-play. This technique…
Park, Seong Man; Sarkar, Mela
In this study we explore Korean immigrant parents' attitudes toward heritage language maintenance for their children and their efforts to help their children maintain Korean as their heritage language in Montreal. Some implications for mainstream school policies and classroom practices are touched on briefly. Data were collected from nine Korean…
Heo, Misook; Stoffa, Rosa; Kush, Joseph C.
This study explores factors related to the language learning strategies of second language learners, specifically Generation 1.5 Korean immigrant students--the seventh-largest and one of the fastest growing foreign-born groups in the USA. Participants in this study were members of the Korean communities located in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia who…
Zanchetta, Margareth S; Poureslami, Iraj M
The Second Canadian Conference on Literacy and Health addressed issues of health literacy, culture, and linguistic diversity. This article aims to introduce the presenters' ideas, reports of the learners' discussion, and attendees' recommendations. There is also a literature review of the links between health literacy and use of health services among newcomers in Canada. Newcomers to Canada tend to be unfamiliar with the Canadian health care system in terms of navigating needed services and/or seeking health-related information. Health professionals report difficulties in communicating effectively with these populations about risk-taking behaviours. Educational resources and approaches only partially reach people from cultural minorities. E-health information does little for those with language and literacy limitations. Barriers to accessing information, specifically written material, are widely reported. Consequently, many ethnocultural groups do not participate in health promotion initiatives. Among newcomers to Canada, the problems of adapting to a new health culture are linked to both a lack of information about the new health care available and subsequently their experience with that health care system. There is also a structural barrier. It includes lack of access to preventive health care services and the lack of a formal and informal support network. This results in less effective use of these preventive services. Linguistic, religious, and cultural factors contribute to the newcomers' social isolation. Multidisciplinary work to enhance health literacy and awareness about health and healthy lifestyles will permit ethnocultural populations to develop their potential and more fully enjoy their lives in Canada. Simultaneously, health educators should have the opportunity to realize their limitations and challenges in dealing with the complexity of providing health education to this population. There remain gaps in our knowledge about the access and use of
Gkaintartzi, Anastasia; Kiliari, Angeliki; Tsokalidou, Roula
This paper presents data from two studies--a nationwide quantitative research and an ethnographic study--on Greek schoolteachers' attitudes towards immigrant pupils' bilingualism. The quantitative data come from a large-scale questionnaire survey, which aimed at the investigation of the needs and requirements for the implementation of a pilot…
Hagiwara, Sumi; Calabrese Barton, Angela; Contento, Isobel
The article explores the role of immigrant parents in middle school science as both teachers and learners as part of an urban middle school curriculum, the Linking in Food and the Environment (LiFE) program. The curriculum engaged parents as partners with science teachers to teach science through food. Over a 2-year period, parents attended a series of bilingual workshops, collaborated with classroom teachers, managed activities, guided student inquiry, and assisted in classroom management. The following study analyzes the role of culture, language, and identity as four mothers navigated their position as `insiders' in a science classroom.
von Grünigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Françoise D
The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports on 541 (286 boys and 255 girls) immigrant and Swiss native 5-to-6 year-old kindergarteners. Results showed the immigrant children were less fluent in the local language compared to native Swiss classmates. Moreover, results from structural equation models, with bootstrap tests of indirect effects, indicated that social behaviors mediated the link between LLC and the quality of children's peer relationships. Implications of these findings for school professionals are discussed, such as the need to help immigrant children make a smoother transition to their host communities by providing additional language and social supports while children acculturate and acclimate to their new surroundings and peer group.
Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark
The factors affecting the mastery of the host country's language by the children of immigrants are important in the study of immigration-related issues. This exploratory study analyses the possible link between parental socio-linguistic background factors (parent-child language choice, parental proficiency in L2, educational level, socio-economic…
McWhirter, Jennifer; Todd, Laura; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie
The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (S-TOFHLA) and Cloze test are commonly used tools to measure comprehension of health information (i.e., health literacy); however, little is known about their use in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) populations. In this study, we compared written (Cloze test) and oral (Teach Back) measures of colon cancer information comprehension among ESL Chinese immigrant women to Canada. Performances on colon cancer-specific measures were compared to a general measure of health literacy (S-TOFHLA). On the S-TOFHLA, Cloze, and Teach Back, respectively, the following percentage of participants had adequate comprehension: 62.1%, 14.8%, and 89.7%. Correlation between performance on the Cloze and Teach Back was significant albeit weakly so (r = 0.38, p = 0.04); performances on the S-TOFHLA and Teach Back were not correlated. Measures of health literacy skill that require written English language skills may not be appropriate for measuring understanding of health information for ESL populations.
Rilling, Sarah, Ed.; Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.
Adult language learners have specific learning goals that reflect their lives within a global society, and adults negotiate multiple and changing identities throughout their personal, academic, and professional lives. Chapters in "Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Adult Learners" highlight how teachers have the ability…
Seals, Corinne A.; Peyton, Joy Kreeft
This article argues for the value of heritage language programs and the micro-level language policies that support them, focusing on a case study of a program in the USA to make this argument. We also argue for the importance of recognizing students' heritage languages, cultures, and individual goals and identities in mainstream school programs.…
Wang, XiaoRong; Hardin, Heather K; Zhou, Lei; Fang, Lei; Shi, Pan; Robinson, Karen M
This article describes the implementation and evaluation of the chronic-disease self-management (CDSM) program, developed by Stanford University, among Chinese older adults in a metro area of a large Southeastern City of the U.S. The method of Practical Participatory Evaluation through an academic-community partnership between university researchers and local Chinese communities was used to develop the program and assess its applicability in the population. Results suggested that language proficiency, communication, social network and culture of the population were the most influential factors for U.S. Chinese immigrants to attend the CDSM program. The program increased participants' knowledge, skills and confidence in CDSM, whereas its capability in addressing culture differences needed improvement. Knowledge learned in this project was instrumental in implementing similar projects among immigrants.
This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) grammatical knowledge to English second language reading (ESLR), with the objective of understanding this relationship in the context of the transfer of L1 skills to second language (L2) academic processes. Fifty-five adult, native Spanish-speaking English-language learners were given…
Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee
In 2000 Census microdata, various outcomes of second-generation immigrants are related to their parents' age at arrival to the United States, and in particular whether that age fell within the “critical period” of language acquisition. We interpret this as an effect of the parent's English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for parental English proficiency. Estimates of the effect of parent's English-speaking proficiency using two-stage least squares yield significant, positive results for children's English-speaking proficiency and preschool attendance, and significant, negative results for dropping out of high school and being below age-appropriate grade. (JEL J13, J24, J62) PMID:18584062
De Coster, Isabelle
This document talks about immigrant children, who are defined here as either children born in another country (within or outside Europe) or children whose parents or grandparents were born in another country. So the term "immigrant children" used here covers various situations, which can be referred to in other contexts as…
Van Duzer, Carol; Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham
This book provides educators and education policy makers a picture of where the field of teaching adult English language learners is today in order to build a more effective delivery system for the future. It places adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) in the broader context of the U.S. education system (K-12 and adult education), then…
Bilinguismo e immigrazione: una nota sociolinguistica al piano europeo di mantenimento delle lingue nazionali nelle comunita di emigrati (Bilingualism and Immigration: A Sociolinguistic View of the European Plan for the Maintainance of National Languages in Immigrant Communities).
Outlines the European Economic Community's (EEC) plan for the maintainance of national languages among immigrants. Describes the variety of objectives behind the EEC's linguistic policy as incompatible with the creation of a unified instructional approach. Emphasizes that dialects spoken within immigrant families create additional problems in…
Shin, Sarah J.
This study examines heritage-language (HL) experience and identity of 12 adults of mixed-heritage backgrounds through in-depth autobiographical interviews. Each participant has an English-speaking American parent and an HL (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, or Vietnamese)-speaking immigrant parent. The interviews explored each participant's…
Creel-Erickson, Gwen Rene
Currently the United States is home to a large and increasing immigrant population. Many of these immigrant students use community-based programs for their educational needs. Despite the large number of immigrant students who currently use alternate resources, such as churches and community centers, for education, adult language learners in…
Leng, Jennifer C F; Changrani, Jyotsna; Gany, Francesca M
The foreign-born population is disproportionately affected by tuberculosis (TB). Testing to identify persons with latent TB infection is critical. The aim of this study was to assess clinic-based testing for latent tuberculosis infection among recent Asian and Latino immigrants. A randomized controlled trial of interpreting methods and their impact on medical outcomes was conducted at the primary care clinic of a New York City municipal hospital. This study is a nested cohort of recruited patients with an indication to receive tuberculin testing, based on recent migration to the US from endemic areas. Medical record data were abstracted to determine referral for, and completion of, tuberculin testing. Bivariate analyses were used to test for differences in tuberculin testing between language concordant and discordant groups. Seven hundred and eighty-two patients were enrolled. One hundred and ninety-one had migrated within 5 years of enrollment from endemic areas. None spoke English as a primary language. Seventy percentage of patient-provider encounters were language discordant. Seventeen of 191 were referred for testing. Fifteen (88%) completed testing. Six (40%) had positive results. There were no significant differences between language concordant and discordant patients. In this at-risk population, every patient in clinical care should be considered for testing if indicated by country of origin.
Roche, Kathleen M; Lambert, Sharon F; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Little, Todd D
In the US, children in immigrant families have a longstanding history of language brokering for their parents. Scholars have surmised that youth's role in language brokering may influence the nature of parenting practices and parent-child relationships that are important to the positive adjustment of adolescent youth. Research findings in this regard, however, have been mixed. Drawing from the family stress model and the concept of adolescent helpfulness, the present study examined how language brokering across different contexts-school, community, and home-was associated with indicators of parental support and parental behavioral control. The sample included 118 (53% female) primarily Mexican- and Central American-origin 7th, 9th, and 11th grade children in Latino immigrant families living in suburban Atlanta, an important new immigrant destination. The results from structural equation models indicated that language brokering at home-translations for items such as bills, credit card statements, and insurance forms-was associated with less parental decision-making authority, lower levels of parental knowledge, and less parent-child closeness. Language brokering pertinent to school and community contexts, on the other hand, was not associated with variations in parenting. The adverse consequences for parenting conferred by youth translating insurance forms and family financial bills may stem from the excessive cognitive demands placed on youth in these situations, as well as the elevated power that youth gain in relationship to their immigrant parents. For the country's rapidly growing population of youth being raised by immigrant Latino parents, it is important to consider that youth's role as language broker at home may affect closeness in the parent-child relationship as well as the degree to which parents are able to maintain authority over youth's behaviors.
McKay, Sandra Lee, Ed.; Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia, Ed.
Articles include the following: "The Flowering of America: Linguistic Diversity in the United States" (R. Macias); "The American Linguistic Mosaic: Understanding Language Shift in the United States" (C. Veltman); "Bilingualism and Language Use Among Mexican Americans" (G. Valdes); "Puerto Ricans in the United…
Tseng, Marilyn; Olufade, Temitope O; Evers, Kathryn A; Byrne, Celia
We examined recalled measures of adolescent diet, physical activity, and body size in relation to adult breast density in 201 U.S. Chinese immigrant women recruited in January 2002 to May 2003 from Philadelphia region screening programs. Mammographic images were classified into 1 of 4 categories ranging from "entirely fatty" to "extremely dense." Questionnaires assessed diet and physical activity between ages 12-17, relative weight and height at age 10, and weight at age 18. To estimate odds ratios (ORs), we conducted logistic regression analyses using proportional odds models for polychotomous outcomes. Higher adult breast density was significantly associated with adolescent red meat intake (adjusted 3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-6.4, trend P = 0.003) but not with other adolescent factors. For the association of adult acculturation with breast density, adjustment for adolescent red meat intake attenuated the OR for the highest vs. lowest level of acculturation from 2.5 (95% CI 1.2-5.3) to 1.9 (95% CI 0.9-4.0). Greater adolescent red meat intake may have increased adult breast density and partly accounted for the strong association between acculturation and breast density in this sample of immigrant Chinese women. If confirmed by further study, dietary prevention efforts for breast cancer should be considered earlier in life.
Wang, Linda Dong Ling; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Wu, Joseph Tsz Kei; Fielding, Richard
Many non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are largely preventable via behaviour change and healthy lifestyle, which may be best established during childhood. This study sought insights into Chinese new immigrant mothers' perceptions about adult-onset NCDs prevention during childhood. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with new immigrant mothers from mainland China who had at least one child aged 14 years or younger living in Hong Kong. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The present study identified three major themes: perceived causes of adult NCDs, beliefs about NCDs prevention and everyday health information practices. Unhealthy lifestyle, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of adult NCDs. Less than half of the participants recognized that parents had responsibility for helping children establish healthy behaviours from an early age to prevent diseases in later life. Most participants expressed helplessness about chronic diseases prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, being perceived as beyond individual control. Many participants experienced barriers to seeking health information, the most common sources of health information being interpersonal conversation and television. Participants' everyday information practice was passive and generally lacked awareness regarding early prevention of adult-onset NCDs. Updated understanding of this issue has notable implications for future health promotion interventions.
Kummerer, Sharon E.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.; Hughes, Marie Tejero
Purpose: This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Method: Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention…
Turkan, Sultan; DaSilva Iddings, Ana Christina
In this article, we utilize the concepts of conceptual metaphors, cultural models, and master myths to discuss the ways by which three new immigrant children, native speakers of Spanish, were developing conceptions of English language, literacy, and learner's identities. Our findings point to 3 main metaphors that were often implicit in the school…
This ethnographic case study describes how three Japanese immigrant parents in a midsize urban community in the Midwest viewed heritage-language education in relation to their children's socioemotional development as bicultural Americans. The literature review offers a comparative and historical analysis of Japanese schools in the diaspora to…
Callan, Victor J.; Gallois, Cynthia
Anglo-Australians remain monolingual and Anglophile in their attitudes. They show preference for standard or prestige varieties of English. Second generation members of immigrant groups are under strong pressure to assimilate and to abandon their community languages. They may have more negative attitudes toward non-standard accents in English than…
Kanno, Yasuko; Varghese, Manka M.
Research on English as a second language (ESL) students in higher education has traditionally focused on their academic writing, leaving larger issues of their college access and success unexplored. This article examines the challenges that first-generation immigrant and refugee ESL students face in accessing four-year college education through a…
Verbal interactions in 15 Dutch classes with immigrant children were audiotaped during 5 types of activity: pupil-centered conversation, instructional exchange, children's group, small-group-with-teacher, and special second-language group. Several input and production features were analyzed. (57 references) (Author/LB)
Murphy, Kevin B.
This paper uses data from the 2000 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:2000) and the 1996 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:96/01) to examine some behaviors and outcomes for immigrants and/or students who spoke a primary language other than English as children as compared to those of other citizens and English…
In this article, the current state of our knowledge of pragmatic disorders in adults with language impairment is assessed. A brief historical background of clinical pragmatics is presented, and the place of adult language pathology within the development of this field is discussed. A comprehensive review is undertaken of pragmatic deficits in adults with language impairments of diverse etiologies. Specifically, pragmatic deficits are examined in adults with left-hemisphere damage, often resulting in aphasia, and in adults with right-hemisphere damage, traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders (principally, Alzheimer's disease). Although many pragmatic phenomena have been examined in these clinical populations, studies have also tended to neglect important areas of pragmatic functioning in adults with these disorders. Several such areas are identified within a wider discussion of how researchers and clinicians can best pursue future investigations of pragmatics in adults with language impairment.
Garcia‐Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K.
Abstract Background and objectives Medical risk communication has been infrequently studied in immigrants with limited non‐native language proficiency, even though they may be at greatest risk of illness. In a study, we examined to what extent Polish immigrants to the UK have difficulties in understanding treatment risk reduction expressed as ratios either in their native language or in a non‐native language (English). We further investigated whether this population can be aided by using visual displays to enhance comprehension. Design, setting, and participants A survey was conducted in the UK in spring, 2009, involving a sample of Polish immigrants (n = 96). Outcome measures Estimates of treatment risk reduction, confidence in estimates, and perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Results When assessing treatment risk reduction, participants often paid too much attention to the number of treated and non‐treated patients who died (i.e. numerators) and insufficient attention to the overall number of treated and non‐treated patients (i.e. denominators). This denominator neglect was especially noticeable when treatment risk reduction was not expressed in participants’ native language. However, provision of visual aids in addition to the numerical information about risk reduction proved to be an effective method for eliminating denominator neglect. The visual aids drew participants’ attention to the overall number of treated and non‐treated patients and helped them to make more accurate risk estimates. Conclusions When communicating risks to immigrants with limited non‐native language proficiency, we should move beyond the simple, direct translation of health messages that are already being used with the indigenous population to messages that are more appropriate. The use of materials that include visual aids is an effective method of communicating medical risk information to immigrant populations. PMID:21323820
Pickett, Joyce M.; Flynn, Pauline T.
Analysis of surveys completed by 50 speech/language pathologists at facilities serving mentally retarded adults revealed that a wide array of language assessment instruments were used. The need to examine many commercial tests (developed and standardized on children) for adults is stressed. (CL)
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…
Examining Associations between Self-Rated Health and Proficiency in Literacy and Numeracy among Immigrants and U.S.-Born Adults: Evidence from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC).
Prins, Esther; Monnat, Shannon
This paper uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between self-reported health (SRH) and literacy and numeracy proficiency for immigrants compared to U.S.-born respondents and for Hispanic versus Asian immigrants. The research questions were: (1) Are literacy and numeracy scores associated with adults' SRH? (2) Are associations between SRH and literacy and numeracy proficiency moderated by immigrant status? (3) Among immigrants, are literacy and numeracy scores more strongly associated with SRH for Hispanics versus Asians? Immigrants had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores, yet reported better health than U.S.-born respondents. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that literacy and numeracy were both positively related to SRH for immigrants and U.S.-born adults, and should therefore be viewed as part of the growing evidence that literacy is an independent and significant social determinant of health. Second, U.S.-born and immigrant adults accrued similarly positive health benefits from stronger literacy and numeracy skills. Third, although Hispanic immigrants were more disadvantaged than Asian immigrants on almost all socioeconomic characteristics and had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores and worse SRH than Asian immigrants, both Hispanic and Asian immigrants experienced similar positive health returns from literacy and numeracy proficiency. These findings underscore the potential health benefits of providing adult basic education instruction, particularly for immigrants with the least formal schooling and fewest socioeconomic resources.
Esch, Edith, Ed.
The immediate stimulus for this collection of papers was a conference, Self-Access and the Adult Language Learner, organized by the Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research (CILT) and the Language Centre of the University of Cambridge in December 1992 at Queen's College, Cambridge. Several 1-day conferences on the same theme were…
Comstock, Renee; Kamara, Carol A.
A language/learning disability (LLD) is a disorder that may affect the comprehension and use of spoken or written language as well as nonverbal language, such as eye contact and tone of speech in both adults and children. Most research, treatment, and support resources emphasize childhood LLD, but the problems do not disappear once a person has…
Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.
Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…
Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra
High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the student's hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college.
Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark
The objective of this study was to evaluate the first language (L1) vocabulary knowledge in a large-scale sample (n = 70) of second-generation Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel. The interest in this research population follows from the unique demographic, sociocultural, linguistic, and psychological distinctiveness of RJ immigration in Israel.…
Caricati, Luca; Mancini, Tiziana; Marletta, Giuseppe
This research investigated the relationship among perception of ingroup threats (realistic and symbolic), conservative ideologies (social dominance orientation [SDO] and right-wing authoritarianism [RWA]), and prejudice against immigrants. Data were collected with a cross-sectional design in two samples: non-student Italian adults (n = 223) and healthcare professionals (n = 679). Results were similar in both samples and indicated that symbolic and realistic threats, as well as SDO and RWA, positively and significantly predicted anti-immigrant prejudice. Moreover, the model considering SDO and RWA as mediators of threats' effects on prejudice showed a better fit than the model in which ingroup threats mediated the effects of SDO and RWA on prejudice against immigrants. Accordingly, SDO and RWA partially mediated the effect of both symbolic and realistic threats, which maintained a significant effect on prejudice against immigrants, however.
Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.
Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…
Duguay, Annie Laurie
A growing body of literature suggests that language proficiency in the main language of the destination country is one of the most significant factors in the integration of immigrants. This study examines the overall differences in U.S. and Canadian settlement policy, using the provision of language courses as a specific example of the ways in…
Investigated the behaviors for processing language input demonstrated by five adults beginning to learn Hindi as a second language through the Total Physical Response method. The study suggests that, when adult learners are provided with comprehensive input, they engage in a variety of behaviors to extract meaning from it. (73 references) (GLR)
Larrotta, Clarena; Moon, Ji Yoon Christine
This chapter provides examples of transitions that learners face connected to their participation in adult education and English literacy instruction. It describes their efforts to attain relevant language expression skills.
Tran, Thanh V.
Examined English language acculturation among older Vietnamese refugees (aged 40 and older). Found that age, sex, education in Vietnam, health, and length of residence in United States had some significant relationships with language acculturation. Older Vietnamese people had more problems with language acculturation than younger counterparts, and…
Studied the factors that govern immigrants' acquisition of a second language through 22 interviews with illiterate Kurdish refugees in Sweden and immigrants with at least 6 years of schooling. The pedagogic conclusions that can be drawn relate mainly to measures for increasing motivation and the need for achieving greater contact with target…
Context is a key factor in designing and delivering adult learning programmes, and in multilingual environments the choice of language plays a decisive role. Four programmes, two in Asia (Bhutan Myanmar) and two in Africa (Ghana and Uganda), which focus on learning for development, integrate language considerations in different ways, related both…
Selman, Mary; And Others
To help improve English as a Second Language (ESL) programs for adult learners, this curriculum guide provides informative materials for the teacher and 30 sections of lessons suitable for adaptation by the teacher. Teacher information includes materials on language teaching and learning, use of the guide, needs assessment, adapting lesson plans,…
Open University (OU) students are typically mature students who combine studying part-time with work or caring responsibilities; the average age of OU language students has been dropping, and about 30% of our new students are now under 25. The traditional view of adult learners who study languages is that they often study for pleasure or personal…
Conversations between adult students of English as a second language were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in order to establish principles of extralinguistic conversational repair technique among second language learners. A variety of gestural and kinesic features were discovered; these are described in detail and their use is contextualized…
Tett, Lyn, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Hillier, Yvonne, Ed.
This book explores the social practice of literacy, numeracy and language and its implications for teaching and learning adult basic skills. Leading international experts argue that literacy, numeracy and language are more than just a set of skills or techniques, but are shaped by the social and cultural context within which they are taking place;…
The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…
Bungartz, Jessica; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie
Patients with little knowledge of the German language have a special need for information. Due to language barriers they behave more passively in medical encounter, have a poorer knowledge about their disease and are generally less satisfied with their medical care. Foreign language patient information material could bridge the gap between medical consultation and the patients' self-responsibility and involve patients more actively in the treatment process. Based on extensive research in several areas (internet, clinic and practice leaflets, drug patient information leaflets) the present article illustrates that in all these areas foreign language patient information is very poorly available compared to German material. The reinforcement of the development of such material could lead to a higher involvement of immigrant patients' in the decision-making process, higher rates of patient safety and satisfaction and, overall, to a better quality of care for all patient groups in Germany.
Olneck, Michael R.
In this article, I argue that there has been a basic continuity between what immigrants historically have sought from American schools and what contemporary immigrants seek. In neither case have immigrants sought to utilize the schools to "reproduce" or to "preserve" cultures separate from the American mainstream. Rather, immigrants have…
Lim, Wen Li; Yusof, Yuhani; Rosli, Norhayati
Yusof-Goode (Y-G) rule, a new symbolization of representing rule in splicing system under framework of formal language theory to model the recombinant behaviors of DNA molecules, was introduced by Yusof in 2012. A language that contains the strings resulting from a splicing system is called splicing language. Limit language is a subset of splicing language where it is restricted to the molecules that will be present in the system after the reaction has run to completion. Adult language is a subset of limit language where it does not participate in further splicing. In this paper, the new concept of single stage splicing languages is introduced and some theorems have been formulated to stipulate the final state product of single stage limit languages of Yusof-Goode splicing system based on the characteristic of one initial string andone rule.
Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda
Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension.
Jenning, E A; Lubinski, R B
The purpose of this article is to discuss a cognitive approach to therapy with a language impaired adult. Two types of productive thinking are explored in this research: concept awareness and problem solving. These are dynamic and creative processes underlying the development and use of cognition and language. This single subject study follows an ABAB design and describes techniques used in therapy and methods for measuring productive thinking in a 66-yr-old moderately language impaired adult. Results indicate a sharp increase in the subject's thought productivity in a variety of contexts. A critical appraisal of reasons for therapy effectiveness are given.
Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights. PMID:22230180
This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…
National Center for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE), 2003
This report provides an overview of the field of adult English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) instruction in the United States today. First, it places adult ESOL in the broader context of the U.S. education system, and then it describes trends and issues in the areas of program design and instructional practice, assessment, teacher…
Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…
Mace, Jane, Ed.
This book contains an introduction and 11 essays describing reading and writing projects in which adult literacy learners enrolled in the following types of programs participated: adult literacy and/or language classes, refugee groups, oral history and reminiscence projects, and community publishing and writing workshops. The following essays are…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Adult, Alternative, and Continuation Education Div.
The manual is designed to assist California educators and public in understanding the various aspects of an effective English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program for adults. It provides theory-based and practical guidelines for conceptualizing, planning, designing, managing, and evaluating such programs. Chapters address these topics: the adult ESL…
Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; And Others
This volume contains 13 articles that reflect the development of adult education in Israel during recent years. The material relates to the principal areas with which the Division of Adult Education deals: formal and nonformal education for adults, language and cultural absorption of new immigrants, and training of facilitators for parental…
An analysis of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), which requires basic English language proficiency and knowledge of United States history and civics of illegal aliens seeking permanent residency status, suggests that the Act is an example of poor language planning. The analysis has three components. First, the legalization…
Allard, Elaine; Mortimer, Katherine; Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly; Wortham, Stanton
Latino students' educational success is central to America's prosperity--in traditional immigrant destinations and in New Latino Diaspora locations, previously unfamiliar with Latinos. Implicated in this success is the reception young immigrants receive, especially the ways in which they are identified in schools. We describe findings from 6 years…
Chan, Lilian Y. O.
The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)
Background Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease worldwide. Neurological events are among the most worrisome clinical complications of SCD and are frequently accompanied by cognitive impairment. Intellectual function in SCD may vary according to genetic and environmental factors. Immigrant children with SCD are increasing at a global level and display specific health care needs. The aim of our multicenter study was to describe the intellectual function of first generation African immigrants with SCD and the influence of sociodemographic factors on its characteristics. Methods The Wechsler Intelligence Scales were administered to evaluate broad intellectual functions in children with SCD and in age-matched healthy siblings. Patients’ clinical, socio-demographic, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Angiography (MRA) data were correlated to intellectual function scores. Results 68 children, mean age 8.95 years were evaluated. 72% spoke three languages, 21% two. FSIQ was <75 in 25% of the children. Mean VIQ was lower than PIQ in 75%. Mean verbal subtest scores were lower than performance scores. Female gender, number of languages spoken at home and mother’s employment were associated with single subtest performances (p < 0.05). MRA was abnormal in 73.4% and MRI in 35.9%. No significant correlation was established between silent lesions and intellectual function, even if patients with lesions performed worse. Fifteen siblings performed better than patients on cognitive domains, including language (p < 0.05). Conclusions Immigrant bilingual children with SCD seem to display a rate of cognitive impairment similar to their monolingual counterparts but a more pronounced and precocious onset of language difficulties. Adjunctive tests need to be considered in this group of patients to better define their specific deficits. PMID:23735165
Paredes, Elsie Elena
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe how Colombian adult English language learners (ELL) select and use language learning strategies (LLS). This study used Oxford's (1990a) taxonomy for LLS as its theoretical framework. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview, were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for 12…
A study of the kinds of requests for foreign language information made by adult students of Spanish, and a comparison of the kinds of inquiries made by students aged 19 to 23 and those over 55 years, are reported. The objective was to learn more about what language learning processes are contributing to the difference in success of the two groups.…
Yeh, Christine J; Okubo, Yuki; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Shea, Munyi; Ou, Dongshu; Pituc, Stephanie T
When immigrant youth come to the United States, they must learn to interact with dominant and cultural groups as part of the adjustment process. The current study investigated whether the association between Chinese immigrant high school students' (N = 286) English fluency, academic and career/ college help-seeking, multidimensional acculturation, family responsibilities, and social support, predicted their intercultural competence concerns (their interactions across dominant and cultural groups). Results indicate that this was the case. Implications for research and practice with immigrant youth in a high school context are discussed.
Extra, Guus; Ya Mur, Kutlay
Language transmission occurs both in the domestic and in the public domain. These domains are typically represented by the home and the school. Viewed from the perspectives of majority-language versus minority-language speakers, language transmission becomes a very different issue. In the case of majority language speakers, language transmission…
Laevers, Ferre; Buyse, Evelien; Willekens, Annemieke; Janssen, Tine
This research aims to develop instruments to assess language development in under-3s and the adult interventions that support it. After an extensive literature search, observations were conducted in 17 groups of children spread over two day-care centres. In total 42 children were observed during a 30-minute slot and 25 adults during a half day.…
Holyoke Community Coll., MA.
The document describes the Changes Project, a participatory action research project conducted by adult learners at five adult literacy and education programs in Western Massachusetts. It is a 3-year project aimed at examining the impact of welfare reform, immigration reform, and the changing workplace on adult learners. The Changes Project is…
Joiner, Elizabeth G.
The adult students who are the subject of this report bring a different orientation with them to the study of language than does the typical adult immigrant or foreign student of English. This former group may be engaged in foreign language study in order to satisfy a college level language requirement or as part of a continuing education or…
Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D; Finn, Amy S; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D E
Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual's native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information.
Guiberson, Mark M.; Barrett, Karen C.; Jancosek, Elizabeth G.; Itano, Christine Yoshinaga
In this study, the authors plotted the Spanish language usage of 10 preschool-age children over the course of 3 years and assigned them to one of two groups: language maintenance and language loss. The authors then compared the groups' scores on structured tasks, language behaviors, and language usage/exposure variables. They found that children…
Over the past decade, Prensky's distinctions between "digital immigrants" and "digital natives" have been oft-referenced. Much has been written about digital native students as a part of the Net generation or as Millennials. However, little work fully considers the impact of digital immigrant discourse within the fields of…
The family unit and home domain have been and remain important in heritage language maintenance efforts. There are complex relationships between parental language attitudes, their application in everyday language management activities and the children's knowledge of home language vocabulary. The present large-scale study examined the family policy…
The purpose of this preliminary, qualitative study was to describe elderly Korean immigrants' perception of stressors they experienced through immigration and the acculturation process. The methodology used was naturalistic inquiry, a descriptive approach used to elicit the elderly immigrants' own perception of their immigration and acculturation experiences. The six elderly Korean immigrants were interviewed via a semi-structured, open-ended interview guide. The main stressors identified by the subjects as a result of adjusting to life in the United States were language barriers, isolation and loneliness, fear of dependence upon their children, fear of being a burden, financial problems, transportation problems, discrimination, and fear of death. These Korean elders also perceived changes in the traditional family values of respect for elders and support for the aged. The results of this research help to provide an understanding of the immigration and acculturation experiences of elderly Korean immigrants.
Heritage language (HL) speakers have received scholarly attention in recent years as an interdisciplinary research theme, but relatively less attention has been paid to their demographics. Existing studies of HL speakers' demographics often focus on young children in areas of high immigrant concentration (i.e., California, Florida, and New York);…
Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…
Frekko, Susan E.
Adult students of Catalan are worthy of study because they reveal complexities underlying taken-for-granted assumptions about Catalan speakers and Castilian speakers. Far from fitting into neat bundles aligning language of origin, social class, and national orientation, the students in this study exemplify the breakdown of boundaries traditionally…
Torrnqvist, Maria Carlson; Thulin, Sofia; Segnestam, Ylva; Horowitz, Laura
Psychosocial outcome of language impairment (LI) was explored in interviews with three adults with LI (as children attended specialized boarding school) and four of their parents. The informants with LI expressed acceptance of LI and described themselves as independent. With driving education with adjusted pedagogy and initial governmental…
Despite increasing ethnic diversity globally, there has been little research into meeting the further education needs of these learners (Bidgood, Saebi, & May, 2006). In particular, the international literature provides scant understanding of how organizations go about meeting the literacy needs of adult English language learners (ELLs). It is…
Warschauer, Mark; Liaw, Meei-Ling
Although information and communication technologies have become an integral part of life in the United States, they have not yet been adequately integrated into adult language and literacy programs. This raises concerns because of the potential value of technology for enhancing learning and because of the vital role of technological proficiency as…
Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria
The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…
Davis, G Albyn
Cognitive pragmatics is the study of the mental structures and processes involved in the use of language in communicative contexts. Paradigms of cognitive psychology (off-line and on-line) have been applied to the study of the abilities to go beyond the literal (inference) and derive meaning in relation to context (e.g., metaphor and sarcasm). These pragmatic functions have been examined for the involvement of processes of meaning activation, embellishment, and revision. Clinical investigators have explored abilities and deficits in acquired aphasia, right hemisphere dysfunction, and closed head injury. This article reviews and provides some analysis of clinical studies that are consistent with the themes constituting cognitive pragmatics.
This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…
Since the 1980s, well more than half of all immigrants and children of recent immigrants are of people of color. Many recent immigrants of color communicate in their daily lives via a language (or via languages) other than English, and many immigrant children of color are emerging bilinguals, who acquire hybrid varieties of English. While almost…
Cai, Qiao Yu
Due to globalization and the formation of the global village, people worldwide interact in multiple languages frequently. Concurrently, there has been an increase in motivation to learn different languages for individual purposes. As well, we see that the importance of language education is also being promoted. Past language methods have merit,…
Abdullah, Shumaila; Akhter, Javed
The aim of this research paper is to find out by comparing and contrasting between the adults and children in second language learning process how language ego of adult learners affects them to learn second language, and how it becomes a barrier for them in second language learning process. Nowadays learning English as foreign and second language…
Schaetzel, Kirsten; Young, Sarah
Adult English language learners comprise a substantial proportion of the adult education population in the United States. In program year 2006-2007, 46% of participants enrolled in state-administered adult education programs were in English as a second language (ESL) classes. This percentage does not include English language learners enrolled in…
Coryell, Joellen E.; Chlup, Dominique T.
The growing use of both computers and the Internet in adult English language classrooms has widespread implications for English language programs. As computer access increases, so do new learning technologies in adult literacy education. Specifically, this paper is interested in the case of adult English language instruction, also commonly…
Moore, Sarah Catherine K.
In program year 2006-2007, 46 percent of the adults enrolled in federally funded, state-administered adult education programs in the United States were enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. These adult English language learners represent a wide range of ages, nationalities, native languages, and English proficiency levels. In…
Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Prado, Guillermo
Objective To evaluate the risk factors associated with the initiation of driving under the influence (DUI) among Hispanics in a longitudinal and nationally-representative sample of adolescents and young adults. Specifically, this study tests the effect of demographic variables, individual-level risk factors, and eco-processes (e.g., peer drug use, parental involvement) during adolescence on DUI among Hispanic young adults. Methods Data were derived from 1,734 Hispanic adolescents surveyed for the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Survey logistic regression procedures were used to examine the effects of nativity status on DUI initiation, to evaluate the independent effect of each risk factor (demographic, individual-level, and eco-processes), and to identify whether and to what extent these factors are associated with the initiation of DUI. Results The overall prevalence of DUI initiation was 18.3%. Differences were observed in the rates of DUI initiation by nativity status: first-generation immigrants reported the lowest rates of DUI initiation (15.4%) when compared with second-generation US-born Hispanic youth (17.4%) and third-generation and beyond US-born Hispanic youth (21.5%). US-born Hispanic youth were also more likely to report higher frequency of alcohol use (t=3.46, p=.001) and marijuana use (t=2.34, p=.021) compared to immigrant adolescents. After adjusting for a number of risk factors, men (OR=2.86), marijuana users (OR=1.98), and those who reported feeling safe in their neighborhoods (OR=2.02) were at an increased risk DUI initiation. Conclusions Findings provide support for the “immigrant paradox”: immigrant youth reported lower rates of DUI initiation and other high-risk behaviors when compared with US-born Hispanic youth. PMID:21216535
Schatz, Henriette F.
A study investigated the general occurrence of English lexical elements in the recorded speech of 285 Dutch pre-World War I immigrants and their descendants in Massachusetts, Iowa, and Wisconsin. The problems encountered in analyzing a massive data corpus and the methods used to resolve these problems are the focus of the paper. The difficulties…
Dong, Jie; Dong, Yan
This article explores voicing processes of identity construction among labor immigrants both inside China and in the Dutch Chinese Diaspora. We provide ethnographically grounded data oriented toward a theoretical point: voicing is an essential problem in communication. Whether one is able to achieve his voice--an outcome of a communicative…
Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.
Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000…
Weinstein-Shr, Gail, Ed.; Quintero, Elizabeth, Ed.
Teachers' and developers' descriptions of intergenerational literacy programs for immigrants are collected here. Topics addressed include appropriate program design, the quality of intergenerational collaboration, student journals, learner-centered curriculum design, traditional and personal storytelling as a literacy approach, education and…
Szecsi, Tunde; Szilagyi, Janka
The goal of this research was to explore thoroughly the perceptions of dispersed immigrant professionals and their bilingual and bicultural children regarding the place of new media technology in their lives. Open-ended interviewing and autoethnography were used to explore families' perceptions of the role of media technology in their children's…
Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U
Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes
Under the 1986 Immigration Reform Act, illegal aliens could fulfill English, history, and civics knowledge requirements by attending instructional programs. Because the goal was to grant these aliens residency before foreign nationals applying under other programs, not to help individuals achieve English competency, the language policy has been…
De Angelis, Gessica
The present study adopts a multilingual approach to analysing the standardized test results of primary school immigrant children living in the bi-/multilingual context of South Tyrol, Italy. The standardized test results are from the Invalsi test administered across Italy in 2009/2010. In South Tyrol, several languages are spoken on a daily basis…
Goldberg, Michelle P.; Corson, David
The extent to which Canadian employers recognize the informally acquired first languages of immigrants and aboriginal persons as prior learning qualifications for formal employment in the business, government, and education sectors was examined through a survey of organizations across Ontario. Personalized questionnaires were mailed to a sample of…
Sheehan, Diana M; Dillon, Frank R; Babino, Rosa; Melton, James; Spadola, Christine; Da Silva, Nicole; De La Rosa, Mario
The authors interviewed 4 researchers to identify facilitators in recruiting and assessing Latina immigrants. The 4 researchers recruited 530 recent Latina immigrants (ages 18-23 years) for a study of social and cultural determinants of health. Consensual qualitative research methods revealed that respondent-driven sampling was an effective recruitment method. Fear of deportation was a barrier. Stigma about sensitive topics (e.g., sex, drug use) did not affect participation. Findings can help counselors conduct health disparities research.
Manhica, Hélio; Toivanen, Susanna; Hjern, Anders; Rostila, Mikael
Background Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective. Methods We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (<7 years) were defined as “offspring of immigrants.” We used Cox regression models to examine the association between parental country of birth and mortality between 1990 and 2008, with adjustment for education, income, age and family type. Results Male offspring of immigrants from the Middle East (HR:2.00, CI:1.66-2.26), other non-European countries (HR:1.80, CI:1.36-2.36) and Finland (HR:1.56, CI:1.48-1.65) showed an age-adjusted excess mortality risk from all causes of death when compared to offspring with Swedish-born parents. Income, but not education, greatly attenuated these increased mortality risks. No excess mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants, with the exception of external cause of death among offspring of Finnish immigrants. Conclusion The study demonstrates high mortality rates in male offspring of immigrants from Finland and non-European countries that are associated with economic, but not educational, disadvantage. No increased mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants. Future studies are needed to explain this gender differential and why income, but not education, predicts mortality in male offspring of immigrants. PMID:25706297
This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…
Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe
The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time.
Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Bishop, Dorothy V M
A link between developmental language disorders and atypical cerebral lateralization has been postulated since the 1920s, but evidence has been indirect and inconsistent. The current study investigated this proposal using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD), which assesses blood flow through the middle cerebral arteries serving the left and right cerebral hemispheres. A group of young adults with specific language impairment (SLI; n = 11) were recruited along with three comparison groups: (i) adults with a history of childhood SLI, but who did not meet criteria for language impairment in adulthood (SLI-history; n = 9); (ii) adults with an autism spectrum disorder and a comorbid language impairment (ASD; n = 11) and (iii) adults with no history of developmental disorder (typical; n = 11). There was no difference between the chronological age of the four groups, and the SLI and typical groups were individually matched on gender and handedness. During fTCD measurement, participants were asked to silently generate words starting with a given letter and then later required to verbalize these. All of the participants in the SLI-history group and the majority of participants in the ASD (81.8%) and typical (90.9%) groups had greater activation in the left compared to the right middle cerebral arteries, indicating left hemisphere dominance. In contrast, the majority of participants in the SLI groups had language function lateralized to the right hemisphere (54.5%) or dispersed bilaterally (27.3%). These findings suggest that atypical cerebral dominance is not implicated in all cases of poor language development (i.e. ASD and SLI-history groups), but may act as a biological marker of persisting SLI.
Walker, Susan K.; Mao, Dung
Student response system technology was employed for parenting education program evaluation data collection with Karen adults. The technology, with translation and use of an interpreter, provided an efficient and secure method that respected oral language and collective learning preferences and accommodated literacy needs. The method was popular…
De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah
This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants.
Noh, Marianne S; Rueda, Sergio; Bekele, Tsegaye; Fenta, Haile; Gardner, Sandra; Hamilton, Hayley; Hart, Trevor A; Li, Alan; Noh, Samuel; Rourke, Sean B
Investigation on the mental health of HIV-positive immigrants is severely limited. We examine the independent and combined effects of HIV symptom and coping resources on depressive symptoms among HIV-positive immigrants (n = 259). Ordinary Least Squares regression models were estimated with data from a survey of clinical and social-psychological outcomes in people receiving treatment for HIV infection. We tested for the impact of two HIV-related stressors, one life events stressor and three buffering resources on depressive symptoms, controlling for thirteen demographic, clinical and acculturative factors. HIV-related stressors were found to be positively related to depressive symptom severity. Coping resources, namely self-mastery, mediate the relationships between HIV-related stressors and depressive symptoms. Results from this study provide the first empirical assessment of stress processes for immigrants living with HIV. Although more research is needed to understand mental health among HIV-positive immigrants, the study results suggest that health care providers focus on self-mastery enhancement among HIV-positive immigrants.
Yusa, Noriaki; Kim, Jungho; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta
Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to adult second language acquisition of syntactic rules. Does learning second language syntactic rules through social interactions with a native speaker or without such interactions impact behavior and the brain? The current study aims to answer this question. Adult Japanese participants learned a new foreign language, Japanese sign language (JSL), either through a native deaf signer or via DVDs. Neural correlates of acquiring new linguistic knowledge were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants in each group were indistinguishable in terms of their behavioral data after the instruction. The fMRI data, however, revealed significant differences in the neural activities between two groups. Significant activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were found for the participants who learned JSL through interactions with the native signer. In contrast, no cortical activation change in the left IFG was found for the group who experienced the same visual input for the same duration via the DVD presentation. Given that the left IFG is involved in the syntactic processing of language, spoken or signed, learning through social interactions resulted in an fMRI signature typical of native speakers: activation of the left IFG. Thus, broadly speaking, availability of communicative interaction is necessary for second language acquisition and this results in observed changes in the brain.
Pallier, C; Dehaene, S; Poline, J-B; LeBihan, D; Argenti, A-M; Dupoux, E; Mehler, J
Do the neural circuits that subserve language acquisition lose plasticity as they become tuned to the maternal language? We tested adult subjects born in Korea and adopted by French families in childhood; they have become fluent in their second language and report no conscious recollection of their native language. In behavioral tests assessing their memory for Korean, we found that they do not perform better than a control group of native French subjects who have never been exposed to Korean. We also used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor cortical activations while the Korean adoptees and native French listened to sentences spoken in Korean, French and other, unknown, foreign languages. The adopted subjects did not show any specific activations to Korean stimuli relative to unknown languages. The areas activated more by French stimuli than by foreign stimuli were similar in the Korean adoptees and in the French native subjects, but with relatively larger extents of activation in the latter group. We discuss these data in light of the critical period hypothesis for language acquisition.
Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth
Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142
Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P.
Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing…
Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P
Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing communities. Despite this variation, the interviewees' moral judgments of their own and others' communicative behavior suggest that these adults share a language ideology concerning the obligation of all family members to expend effort to overcome potential communication barriers. To our knowledge, such a language ideology is not similarly pervasive among spoken-language bilingual families, raising the question of whether there is something unique about family bimodal bilingualism that imposes different rights and responsibilities on family members than spoken-language family bilingualism does. This ideology unites an otherwise diverse group of interviewees, where each one preemptively denied being a "typical CODA [children of deaf adult]."
Almost 46% of the foreign pupils leaving vocational training colleges do not take their final exams. This alarming trend, which can be observed nationwide, raises the question as to which conditions are crucial for the school career of children and teenagers of immigrant families and which conditions affect their success at school. Attitudes have been influenced by the assumption that by extending the length of stay of the immigrant families the problems of integration would diminish; consequently it could be assumed that unhindered access to the institutions of education would automatically promise success. This expectation is mainly responsible for the fact that teaching has not been aligned with the specific needs of these children. Extracurricular support, e. g. like helping with the homework, was seen as a completion of and support for a school system which was considered apt for teaching children from other ethnic backgrounds and was not questioned except for special model projects. Precisely these model projects demonstrated that all children, both foreign and German, profit from a way of teaching which has been adjusted to the intercultural conditions of a class rather than denying them. Health care services for youngsters can essentially support the process of internal school reforms as doctors point out the excessive demands on the immigrated families by traditional teaching, which actually impairs the efficiency of performing well at school. Furthermore, health care can also explain that the proper development of a child can be impaired if its specific learning structures--based on the linguistic and cultural background--are ignored by the school.
This article discusses the usage of the Spanish language by Hispanic mothers with their children, their views on language maintenance and culture within their bilingual families and their opinions on the benefits of bilingualism in a globalised world. Drawing upon detailed case studies of 16 native Spanish-speaking mothers married to…
Billings, Elsa S.; Martin-Beltran, Melinda; Hernandez, Anita
Educational policies for English language learners (ELLs) tend to focus on English language acquisition. In this chapter, the authors argue that educators need to give more attention to the development of bilingualism and biliteracy to draw upon the tremendous intellectual, linguistic, and cultural resources that bilingual children bring to the…
Cortès-Colomé, Montserrat; Barrieras, Mònica; Comellas, Pere
This paper presents the results of a study based on the change in language attitudes experienced by some allochthonous individuals through contact with the sociolinguistic situation in Catalonia. Previous studies have suggested that in some cases, contact with Catalan--a minority language with a valued identity--acts as a stimulus for some…
Phinney, Jean S.; Romero, Irma; Nava, Monica; Huang, Dan
Surveyed adolescents and parents from 81 Armenian, 47 Vietnamese, and 88 Mexican families. Adolescents completed measures of ethnic language proficiency, peer social interaction, and ethnic identity, while parents completed a measure of support for cultural maintenance. Across all groups, ethnic language proficiency and in-group peer interaction…
Zhong, Qunyan Maggie
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in language learners' beliefs in second language acquisition (SLA). Nonetheless, few studies to date have investigated the extent to which learners' beliefs develop, and the factors that contribute to this development have not been examined seriously. Employing a naturalistic inquiry, this…
Yep, Kathleen S.
Interactions between universities and surrounding communities have the potential to create empowering education through community engagement. Innovative "town/gown" relationships such as multigenerational learning communities with immigrant communities may foster positive student learning outcomes while at the same time strengthen local…
Kong, Luis J.
In this chapter, the author will explore the significance of race from a social constructionist perspective. He will focus on immigration laws and on examples of legal cases that have set the stage for current definitions of whiteness and racial identification. A community-based transformational organizing model will be presented. The model will…
Green, G.; Rhodes, J.; Hirsch, A. H.; Suarez-Orozco, C.; Camic, P. M.
The central aim of this study was to explore the academic engagement trajectories of a sample of recently arrived immigrant students from Latin America. Using an analytic framework that can dynamically model time-sensitive fluctuations (HLM; [Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchicical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis…
Weisskirch, Robert S; Kim, Su Yeong; Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Bersamin, Melina; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Children from immigrant families often translate communication for parents, a process known as language brokering (LB). LB begins in childhood, but may continue through emerging adulthood, even when individuals are in college. We surveyed 1,222 university students with two immigrant parents and compared non-language brokers, infrequent language brokers, and frequent language brokers on a variety of ethnic, cultural, and identity measures. Significant differences emerged for cultural heritage value orientation, ethnic identity, and dimensions of acculturation with frequent language brokers scoring highest, infrequent language brokers scoring in the middle, and non-language brokers scoring the lowest on these measures. There were no significant differences on acculturative stress among these three groups. These results suggest that LB experiences may contribute to the development of psychological assets for ethnic minority, emerging adults from immigrant families.
Goldman, Susan R., Ed.; Trueba, Henry T., Ed.
A collection of articles on English-as-a-Second-Language literacy and literacy education include: "Contextual Issues in the Study of Second Language Literacy" (Susan R. Goldman); "Mexican Adult Literacy: New Directions for Immigrants" (Concha Delgado-Gaitan); "Factors Affecting Development of Second Language Literacy" (Richard Duran); "Reading in…
Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. Results The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Conclusion Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact. PMID:25652445
Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert
Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Winser, W. N.
In order to help adult readers with problems, it is necessary to develop an approach to teaching them that is sensitive to language and that makes explicit reference to the way language works to make meaning in texts. A language-based approach requires teachers to become more aware of the relatively invisible language system that lies behind the…
Bahl, Megha; Plante, Elena; Gerken, LouAnn
Two experiments investigated the ability of adults with a history of language-based learning disability (hLLD) and their normal language (NL) peers to learn prosodic patterns of a novel language. Participants were exposed to stimuli from an artificial language and tested on items that required generalization of the stress patterns and the…
Julien, Manuela; van Hout, Roeland; van de Craats, Ineke
This article presents the results of experimental data on language production and comprehension. These show that adult learners of Dutch as an additional language, with different language backgrounds, and a L2 proficiency below level A2 (Waystage) of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR; Council of Europe, 2001), use…
Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at…
Hansen, Thomas L.
The number of recent immigrants to the United States has increased dramatically in the last few years, and more of these immigrants are members of a group often designated as "Generation 1.5" students. These immigrant students were born in another country, came to the United States at the age of 13 or older, and graduated from high school in this…
Since 1890, every U.S. census but one has asked about the language characteristics of the U.S. population. This almost uninterrupted data series, however, has been shaped by contemporaneous presumptions about the ties between language and ethnicity, the likelihood of proficiency in English among various subgroups, and practical constraints. I describe shifts across censuses in the phrasing of questions about language, the coding of responses, and the subpopulations for which the questions were asked and the results were published. I then describe the data generated by these items and discuss their interpretation. I conclude with a summary of the major insights and limitations of a century's worth of data.
Lukes, Marguerite M.
This article discusses English-only policies as they relate to second language teaching for children and adults; explores popular perceptions and misconceptions about learning English; and discusses types of programs best suited for different students, depending on educational background. Examples from research and practice highlight the value of…
Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…
Lopez, Felipe H.; Munro, Pamela
Interviews with 20 Zapotec immigrants from Oaxaca (Mexico) to Los Angeles examined their immigration experiences and adjustment to life in the United States. Discussion covers immigration from Oaxaca; living conditions, illiteracy, education, and language usage in the village of San Lucas Quiavini; immigration patterns; ethnicity and Oaxacan…
Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank et al., 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank’s model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956
Lee, Joanna C; Tomblin, J Bruce
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI.
Interchange (Population Education Newsletter), 1982
This issue of "Interchange" contains a reading, discussion questions, activities, and ideas to help educators teach secondary students and adults about immigration issues. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading entitled "Immigration: Questions and Answers." This reading analyzes the concerns about current levels of immigration and…
González-López, J R; Rodríguez-Gázquez, M A; Lomas-Campos, M M
The immigrant population in Seville has grown over the last 10 years, most of which are Latin Americans. Our aim was to describe the health status perceived in this emerging population. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was performed on a representative sample of 190 Latin American immigrants between the ages of 25 and 44 years residing in Seville (Spain). The self-sensed health status was 18% excellent, 28% very good, 42% good, 11% regular, and 1% poor. The average number of days of satisfactory health status during the last month was 22. Statistically significant differences were found: (a) higher satisfactory perception of health in men than in women (30 vs. 9%) and (b) higher average number of days with excellent health in people with satisfactory perception than those with an unsatisfactory perception of their health status (23 and 15, respectively). Logistic regression, educational level, number of days of good health, and doing physical exercise were the variables that best explained the satisfactory perception of health status. Most people studied have a positive self-assessment of their health status, especially men, who engage in physical activity and those who have 3 and more weeks of good health per month. Our results permit us to support, to a large extent, the theory of the "healthy immigrant".
Qribi, Adelhak; Courtinat, Amélie; Prêteur, Yves
Intercultural socialisation and identity dynamics among young adults of Maghrebi immigrant descent - This study analyses different identity orientations expressed by young people of North African immigrant descent in France in relation to their conditions of socialisation. Identity is considered in terms of cultural identification, self-esteem and the activeness or passiveness of the relationship with reality. Socialisation is studied from the perspective of the interrelationship between family education and school experience. A survey was conducted by questionnaire among 120 young people aged between 18 and 25, of both sexes, from a working-class background. A multivariate analysis (Descending Hierarchical Classification) determined a structure of four groups in terms of differentiation or assimilation and conformity or individuation. It was found that strategies balancing ontological and pragmatic concerns appear to play a role in the dynamics of a subject's self-affirmation and autonomy. The attachment to a certain religious tradition in these cases seems to be compatible with modernity and is a factor of psychological balance and social integration.
Public-school policy and federal law both emphasize parental involvement, yet there is insufficient research guiding meaningful collaboration between school practitioners and immigrant parents. This article reports on results gleaned from a larger study of school-based adult ESL classes, focusing on the role that these classes could play in…
Maxfield, Nathan D.; Olsen, Wendy; Kleinman, Daniel; Frisch, Stefan; Ferreira, Victor; Lister, Jennifer
Objective We investigated whether language production is atypically resource-demanding in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically-fluent adults (TFA). Methods Fifteen TFA and 15 AWS named pictures overlaid with printed Semantic, Phonological or Unrelated Distractor words while monitoring frequent low tones versus rare high tones. Tones were presented at a short or long stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) relative to picture onset. Group, Tone Type, Tone SOA and Distractor type effects on P3 amplitudes were the main focus. P3 amplitude was also investigated separately in a simple tone oddball task. Results P3 morphology was similar between groups in the simple task. In the dual task, a P3 effect was detected in TFA in all three Distractor conditions at each Tone SOA. In AWS, a P3 effect was attenuated or undetectable at the Short Tone SOA depending on Distractor type. Conclusions In TFA, attentional resources were available for P3-indexed processes in tone perception and categorization in all Distractor conditions at both Tone SOAs. For AWS, availability of attentional resources for secondary task processing was reduced as competition in word retrieval was resolved. Significance Results suggest that language production can be atypically resource-demanding in AWS. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26971476
Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.
Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303
Zakirova, Venera G.; Kamalova, Lera A.
In this article, the authors begin by outlining the basic principles of teaching children-migrants at the elementary school level. These principles include: (1) Learning Russian is focused on the development of children's ability to communicate; (2) Language is learned by migrant children as a mean of communication; (3) Students can see the…
An ethnographic study conducted between 2003 and 2006 followed three children from Latin America attending three different public Japanese primary schools. The investigation concerned a Japanese-language tutoring programme for foreign children, which was evaluated by participant observation and a set of in-depth interviews with officials, school…
This digest draws on a set of linguistic autobiographies written by Asian-American college students in classes at the University of California at Berkeley over the last several years, and examines the pattern of language shift that takes place in the young first- and second-generation student and why this shift takes place. It also looks at the…
Musetti, Bernadette; Salas, Spencer; Perez, Theresa
"Newcomers" are English learners who are new to the United States and arrive with limited or interrupted formal schooling. These students have below-grade-level literacy skills in their home language and do not speak English. Newcomers' arrivals to the middle school and high school classrooms often present a formidable "what to…
Jensen, Bryant; Reese, Leslie; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra; Bennett, Courtney
Research Findings: In this study we analyze how parent and teacher ratings of young Latino children's social competencies in rural California are associated with children's oral language development. We find (a) that there is considerable incongruence between parent and teacher ratings of child social competence, (b) that both parent and teacher…
Hutchison, Charles B.; Quach, Lan; Wiggan, Greg
As global migrations of both teachers and students have increased, so has the need to re-learn English in response to local parlances. Thus, the use of formal and informal language styles, the masking of accents, and the understanding of the differential use of certain specific words, expressions, and the like become critical for teachers and…
Fatahi, Nabi; Krupic, Ferid
Background: Due to the enormous migration as the result of war and disasters during the last decades, health systems in Europe are faced with various cultural traditions and both healthcare systems and healthcare professionals are challenged by human rights and values. In order to minimize difficulties in providing healthcare services to patients with different cultural backgrounds, cultural competence healthcare professionals are needed. Material and Methods: Four focus group interviews, were conducted with Kurdish immigrants in Scandinavian countries (N=26). The majority were males (n=18) aged between 33-61 years (M= 51.6 years) and a few were (n=8) females aged 41-63 years (M=50.7 years). The data were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis method. Results: According to the study results participants experienced that diversities both in culture and healthcare routines create a number of difficulties regarding contact with healthcare services. Though culture related aspects influenced the process of all contact with health care services, the obstacles were more obvious in the case of psychological issues. The results of the study showed that cultural diversities were an obvious reason for immigrants’ attitudes regarding healthcare services in resettlement countries. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed a number of difficulties beyond linguistic problems regarding immigrants’ contact with healthcare services in Scandinavian countries. Problems were rooted both in diversities in healthcare services and cultural aspects. Immigrants’ views of healthcare systems and healthcare professionals’ approach in providing healthcare were some of the problems mentioned. PMID:26980935
Knight, Michelle G.; Watson, Vaughn W. M.
Rendering visible African immigrants' shared and differing experiences of civic learning and action, the authors present findings from in-depth semi-structured interviews with second- and 1.5-generation African immigrants in New York City. Drawing on an interdisciplinary framework of African immigrant identities constructions and civic engagement,…
Kim, Bum Jung
The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life (QOL) for low-income older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles County, CA. A cross-sectional survey of low-income older Korean immigrants who use ADHC programs was conducted. Self-reported measures included sociocultural characteristics, acculturation, cognitive function, family network, utilization of ADHC, and QOL. The study found that for QOL, two variables had only direct effects: years in ADHC and acculturation. Family network was directly associated with QOL and indirectly associated with it through the variable "years in ADHC." Our findings indicate that a strong family network is positively associated with more years of attendance in ADHC, and with higher QOL scores. Thus, policy makers and practitioners should be aware of the positive association among social networks, attendance in ADHC, and higher QOL among low-income older Korean immigrants.
Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem
The present study analyses errors on present simple tense among adult Arab English language learners. It focuses on the error on 3sg "-s" (the third person singular present tense agreement morpheme "-s"). The learners are undergraduate adult Arabic speakers learning English as a foreign language. The study gathered data from…
Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard
Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…
LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.
The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…
Smith-Lock, Karen M.; Nickels, Lyndsey; Mortensen, Lynne
The purpose of this study was to investigate the story writing skills of adults with a history of oral language impairment. It was hypothesized that writing text would pose difficulty for adults with a history of language impairment (LI), and that this difficulty would manifest itself as reduced grammatical complexity and increased errors in…
Marinac, Julie V.; Woodyatt, Gail C.; Ozanne, Anne E.
This paper reports the design and trial of an original Observational Framework for quantitative investigation of young children's responses to adult language in their typical language learning environments. The Framework permits recording of both the response expectation of the adult utterances, and the degree of compliance in the child's…
Fabiani, Massimo; Riccardo, Flavia; Di Napoli, Anteo; Gargiulo, Lidia; Declich, Silvia; Petrelli, Alessio
Background Due to their increased vulnerability, immigrants are considered a priority group for communicable disease prevention and control in Europe. This study aims to compare influenza vaccination coverage (IVC) between regular immigrants and Italian citizens at risk for its complications and evaluate factors affecting differences. Methods Based on data collected by the National Institute of Statistics during a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Italy in 2012–2013, we analysed information on 42,048 adult residents (≥ 18 years) at risk for influenza-related complications and with free access to vaccination (elderly residents ≥ 65 years and residents with specific chronic diseases). We compared IVC between 885 regular immigrants and 41,163 Italian citizens using log-binomial models and stratifying immigrants by area of origin and length of stay in Italy (recent: < 10 years; long-term: ≥ 10 years). Results IVC among all immigrants was 16.9% compared to 40.2% among Italian citizens (vaccination coverage ratio (VCR) = 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36–0.49). Adjusting for sex, age and area of residence, this difference was greatly reduced but remained statistically significant (VCR = 0.71, 95 CI: 0.61–0.81). Further adjustment for socio-economic factors (education, occupation, family composition and economic status) and a composite indicator of health-services utilization did not affect the difference (VCR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68–0.90). However, after adjustments, only long-term immigrants from Africa (VCR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.28–0.85) and recent immigrants (VCR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.43–0.78) showed a significantly different IVC compared to Italian citizens. Conclusions Differences in demographic characteristics, socio-economic conditions and health-services utilization explained the reduced IVC in most long-term immigrants compared to Italian citizens. By contrast, these differences did not explain the reduced IVC in long
Rindermann, Heiner; Thompson, James
Immigration, immigration policies and education of immigrants alter competence levels. This study analysed their effects using PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS data (1995 to 2012, N=93 nations) for natives' and immigrants' competences, competence gaps and their population proportions. The mean gap is equivalent to 4.71 IQ points. There are large differences across countries in these gaps ranging from around +12 to -10 IQ points. Migrants' proportions grow roughly 4% per decade. The largest immigrant-based 'brain gains' are observed for Arabian oil-based economies, and the largest 'brain losses' for Central Europe. Regarding causes of native-immigrant gaps, language problems do not seem to explain them. However, English-speaking countries show an advantage. Acculturation within one generation and intermarriage usually reduce native-immigrant gaps (≅1 IQ point). National educational quality reduces gaps, especially school enrolment at a young age, the use of tests and school autonomy. A one standard deviation increase in school quality represents a closing of around 1 IQ point in the native-immigrant gap. A new Greenwich IQ estimation based on UK natives' cognitive ability mean is recommended. An analysis of the first adult OECD study PIAAC revealed that larger proportions of immigrants among adults reduce average competence levels and positive Flynn effects. The effects on economic development and suggestions for immigration and educational policy are discussed.
Lichtman, Karen Melissa
Mainstream linguistics has long held that there is a fundamental difference between adult and child language learning (Bley-Vroman, 1990; Johnson & Newport, 1989; DeKeyser, 2000; Paradis, 2004). This difference is often framed as a change from implicit language learning in childhood to explicit language learning in adulthood, which is…
Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…
Brooks-Lewis, Kimberly Anne
This article challenges the theory and practice of the exclusion of the adult learner's first language (L1) by reporting learners' overwhelmingly positive perceptions of its incorporation in foreign language teaching and learning. Classroom-based research was undertaken with university students in an English as a foreign language course which…
Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).
An editorial and articles are presented on a European unit/credit system for modern language learning by adults. The contents are as follows: "A European Unit Credit System" by J. L. M. Trim; "The Analysis of Language Needs: Illusion--Pretext--Necessity" by Rene Richterich; "Learning a Language Is Learning to Communicate" by D. A. Wilkins; "The…
This introspective paper proves Iranian young adults' ego-centricism and its cognitive functioning an encumbrance in English language learning. Thru a brief look at the initiation of language acquisition in children and the generalizibility to language teaching and learning programs, it is realized that the ego of every learner is the main axis of…
Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon
Vygotsky's writings have established the critical importance of language in the development of higher mental functions, including memory and attention. One of the processes involved in this development is languaging, the activity of mediating cognitively complex ideas using language (Swain, 2006). The present study of an older adult with mild…
Goral, Mira; Campanelli, Luca; Spiro, Avron
This study aimed to examine the so-called bilingual advantage in older adults' performance in three cognitive domains and to identify whether language use and bilingual type (dominant vs. balanced) predicted performance. The participants were 106 Spanish-English bilinguals ranging in age from 50 years to 84 years. Three cognitive domains were examined (each by a single test): inhibition (the Simon task), alternating attention (the Trail Making test), and working memory (Month Ordering). The data revealed that age was negatively correlated to performance in each domain. Bilingual type - balanced vs. dominant - predicted performance and interacted with age only on the inhibition measure (the Simon task). Balanced bilinguals showed age-related inhibition decline (i.e., greater Simon effect with increasing age); in contrast, dominant bilinguals showed little or no age-related change. The findings suggest that bilingualism may offer cognitive advantage in older age only for a subset of bilinguals.
Lubetkin, Erica I; Zabor, Emily C; Brennessel, Debra; Kemeny, M Margaret; Hay, Jennifer L
The federal government promotes "patient-centered medical homes" to plan care with respect to patients' cultures and values and support patients' self-care efforts. To promote self-care, the medical home would be best utilized by activated, engaged patients. The objective of this study was to measure and compare patient activation scores in English-, Spanish-, and Haitian Creole-speaking patients seen at an inner-city hospital ambulatory care practice. Patient activation was measured using the patient activation measure (PAM). Mean PAM scores and activation levels differed according to survey language (p < 0.001). US-born participants had higher mean PAM scores than persons born outside of the US. Participants living in the US longer had higher mean PAM scores than participants newer to the US. Levels of activation and mean PAM scores increased with greater comfort reading, speaking, and thinking in English. The mean PAM (SD) score of 61.5 (16.5) for Haitian Creole-speaking Caribbean Blacks was significantly lower than the mean PAM score of 68.8 (15.6) for English-speaking Caribbean Blacks (p value = 0.006). Although mean PAM scores did not significantly differ between Haitian Creole and Spanish speakers, PAM stages differed according to language of survey completion (p < 0.001), with a greater percentage of Haitian Creole speakers being categorized as stage 1 (least activated) as well as stage 4 (most activated). Spanish and Haitian Creole speakers have lower mean PAM scores than English speakers. Mean PAM scores did not differ between Hispanics and non-Hispanics or according to race, illustrating the need to examine the role of language and culture on patient activation.
Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth
Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer-employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37 % of an immigrant's coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14 % of a native-born worker's coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks.
Theodoros, Deborah; Hill, Anne; Russell, Trevor; Ward, Elizabeth; Wootton, Richard
Aphasia, a language disturbance, frequently occurs following acquired brain impairment in adults. Because management of aphasia is often long-term, provision of ongoing and equitable access to treatment creates a significant challenge to speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of assessing aphasia using standardized language assessments via an Internet-based videoconferencing system using a bandwidth of 128 kbits/sec. Thirty-two participants with aphasia due to stroke or traumatic brain injury were assessed simultaneously in either a face-to-face or online-led environment by two SLPs. Short forms of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE-3) and the Boston Naming Test (BNT, 2nd edition) were administered. An eight-item participant satisfaction questionnaire was completed by 15 participants assigned to the online-led assessment. Results failed to identify any significant differences between the 24 subtest scores of the BDAE-3 and the BNT scores obtained in the online and face-to-face test environments (p > 0.01). Weighted kappa statistics indicated moderate to very good agreement (0.59-1.00) between the two assessors for the 24 subtests and eight rating scales of the BDAE-3, the BNT, and for aphasia diagnosis. Good to very good inter- and intra-rater reliability for the online assessment was found across the majority of assessment tasks. Participants reported high overall satisfaction, comfort level, and audio and visual quality in the online environment. This study supports the validity and reliability of delivering standardized assessments of aphasia online and provides a basis for ongoing development of telerehabilitation as an alternate mode of service delivery to persons with aphasia.
Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.
Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…
Gendron, Jean-Denis, Ed.; Vigneault, Richard, Ed.
Articles include: (1) "Variables psychologiques et sociales reliees a l'apprentissage d'une langue seconde par l'immigrant adulte en situation scolaire" (Psychological and Social Variables Related to the Learning of a Second Language by the Adult Immigrant in the Academic Situation) by A. d'Anglejan and C. Renaud, (2) "Les contacts…
Heyman, Jeremy Benjamin
This project builds upon the author's multi-year critical ethnographic study of urban immigrant students and their trajectories into STEM (science, technology, engineering, or mathematics) from high school through their transition to college. At its core, this study investigates the paths of over three dozen newcomer immigrant English language learner students in high-poverty urban neighborhoods who are not generally considered "legitimate contenders" for Bachelor's degrees in STEM fields on the basis of such characteristics as test scores, high school and prior preparation, and age. The students are followed through their high school experiences, their transition to college, and through their current progress in college, with explicit attention paid to key mediating experiences and relationships in and especially outside of the classroom that were associated with their toward persistence and success. Thick description and analysis of the students and their experiences, among those who persisted as well as the minority who switched out of STEM majors, helps to demonstrate a proof-of-concept of these students' ability to succeed while painting a comprehensive picture of their march forward to degrees in STEM fields against a backdrop of economic, linguistic, and other barriers to entry and success. Using a framework of social and capital and resilience theories, this work has uncovered a number of themes and factors that will help educators to better understand the evolution of these traditionally marginalized students' STEM-related interests, skills, and career plans. The findings center around students' exposure to research internships and other STEM enrichment and outreach experiences, long-term mentoring and other key relationships, and integration of STEM and college access efforts in setting them up for a successful transition to college, as well as an emphasis on the importance of students' calling upon their own resilience and other strengths and prior
Weikum, Whitney M.; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F.
Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020
Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F
Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood.
McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth
PURPOSE: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. METHOD: Sixty-nine 18-25-year-olds with LI or without (ND) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings immediately after training (encoding) and 12-hours, 24-hours, and 1-week later (remembering). Half of the participants trained in the morning and half in the evening. RESULTS: At immediate posttest, those with LI performed more poorly on form and meaning than those with ND. Poor performance was more likely among those with more severe LI. The LI and ND groups demonstrated no difference in remembering word meanings over one week. In both groups, participants who trained in the evening, and therefore slept shortly after training, demonstrated greater gains in meaning recall than those who trained in the morning. In contrast, the LI-ND gap for word form recall widened over the week. CONCLUSIONS: Some adults with LI have encoding deficits that limit the addition of word forms and meanings to the lexicon. Similarities and differences in patterns of remembering in the LI and ND groups motivate the hypothesis that consolidation of declarative memory is a strength for adults with LI. PMID:24023376
Kasanga, Luanga Adrien
Second generation immigrants tend to shift their loyalty from their own languages ("immigrant language") to the language of the host country ("societal language"), given the socioeconomically weak vitality position of the immigrant languages. This language shift makes intergenerational communication, especially with folk left…
Waters, Mary C.
This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…
The focus of this article is on adult literacy in adult basic education (ABE) programs with special emphasis on English as a Second Language (ESL) students. The article intends to highlight several relevant points in ABE ESL literacy instruction. It focuses on (a) the nature of adult learning, (b) the structure of ABE programs, (c) who the…
Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer R.
Academic language is a challenging yet increasingly important skill for Adult Basic Education/English as a Second or Other Language learners. Related to academic language learning is an adult's developmental perspective. Developmental perspectives have been shown to vary in adulthood and shape qualitatively distinct ways of reasoning and learning…
Immigrant success stories found in English as a second language (ESL) textbooks used in government-funded language instruction in Canada imagine Canada as a redeemer of immigrant newcomers. Through a critical discourse analysis of ESL textbooks used in Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada classes in Ontario, I identify two primary…
Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth
Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452
Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Holland, Scott K.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Byars, Anna W.
Language lateralization in the brain is dependent on family history of handedness, personal handedness, pathology, and other factors. The influence of age on language lateralization is not completely understood. Increasing left lateralization of language with age has been observed in children while the reverse has been noted in healthy young adults. It is not known whether the trend of decreasing language lateralization with age continues in the late decades of life and at what age the inflection in language lateralization trend as a function of age occurs. In this study, we examined the effect of age on language lateralization in 170 healthy right-handed children and adults ages 5 – 67 using functional MRI (fMRI) and a verb generation task. Our findings indicate that language lateralization to the dominant hemisphere increases between the ages 5 and 20 years, plateaus between 20 and 25 years, and slowly decreases between 25 and 70 years. PMID:16035047
Burns, Anne; Roberts, Celia
In the 21st century, global flows politically, socially, economically, and environmentally are creating widespread movements of people around the world and giving rise to increased resettlements of immigrants and refugees internationally. The reality in most countries worldwide is that contemporary populations are multifaceted, multicultural,…
Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny
This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…
van der Slik, Frans W P; van Hout, Roeland W N M; Schepens, Job J
Gender differences were analyzed across countries of origin and continents, and across mother tongues and language families, using a large-scale database, containing information on 27,119 adult learners of Dutch as a second language. Female learners consistently outperformed male learners in speaking and writing proficiency in Dutch as a second language. This gender gap remained remarkably robust and constant when other learner characteristics were taken into account, such as education, age of arrival, length of residence and hours studying Dutch. For reading and listening skills in Dutch, no gender gap was found. In addition, we found a general gender by education effect for all four language skills in Dutch for speaking, writing, reading, and listening. Female language learners turned out to profit more from higher educational training than male learners do in adult second language acquisition. These findings do not seem to match nurture-oriented explanatory frameworks based for instance on a human capital approach or gender-specific acculturation processes. Rather, they seem to corroborate a nature-based, gene-environment correlational framework in which language proficiency being a genetically-influenced ability interacting with environmental factors such as motivation, orientation, education, and learner strategies that still mediate between endowment and acquiring language proficiency at an adult stage.
van der Slik, Frans W. P.; van Hout, Roeland W. N. M.; Schepens, Job J.
Gender differences were analyzed across countries of origin and continents, and across mother tongues and language families, using a large-scale database, containing information on 27,119 adult learners of Dutch as a second language. Female learners consistently outperformed male learners in speaking and writing proficiency in Dutch as a second language. This gender gap remained remarkably robust and constant when other learner characteristics were taken into account, such as education, age of arrival, length of residence and hours studying Dutch. For reading and listening skills in Dutch, no gender gap was found. In addition, we found a general gender by education effect for all four language skills in Dutch for speaking, writing, reading, and listening. Female language learners turned out to profit more from higher educational training than male learners do in adult second language acquisition. These findings do not seem to match nurture-oriented explanatory frameworks based for instance on a human capital approach or gender-specific acculturation processes. Rather, they seem to corroborate a nature-based, gene-environment correlational framework in which language proficiency being a genetically-influenced ability interacting with environmental factors such as motivation, orientation, education, and learner strategies that still mediate between endowment and acquiring language proficiency at an adult stage. PMID:26540465
Rapchak, Marcia; Behary, Robert
As information literacy programs become more robust, finding methods of reaching students beyond the traditional undergraduate has become a priority for many institutions. At Duquesne University, efforts have been made to reach adult learners in an accelerated program targeted to nontraditional students, much of which is provided online. This…
The effects of language transfer have been amply documented in second language (L2) acquisition and, to a lesser extent, in the language contact/loss literature (Cook, 2003). In both cases, the stronger and often dominant language encroaches into the structure of the less dominant language in systematic ways. But are transfer effects in these two…
Coolidge, Trilby; Chambers, Mark A; Garcia, Laura J; Heaton, Lisa J; Coldwell, Susan E
Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS), as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS). Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability), and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations) for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish versions of the DFS and NS
Flynn, Suzanne; Foley, Claire; Vinnitskaya, Inna
In this paper we argue that investigation of third language (L3) acquisition by adults and children provides essential new insights about the language learning process that neither the study of first language (L1) nor second language (L2) acquisition alone can provide. The focus of this paper concerns the role the learner's L1 plays in succeeding…
This study examines the longitudinal trajectories of two Korean ESL immigrants' L2 learning motivation from an Activity Theory perspective. Two highly skilled immigrants participated in monthly semistructured interviews over a period of 10 months. The research questions are as follows: (1) How does the relationship between ESL learners and their…
Teranishi, Robert T; Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo
Immigrant youth and children of immigrants make up a large and increasing share of the nation's population, and over the next few decades they will constitute a significant portion of the U.S. workforce. Robert Teranishi, Carola Suárez-Orozco, and Marcelo Suárez-Orozco argue that increasing their educational attainment, economic productivity, and civic engagement should thus be a national priority. Community colleges offer one particularly important venue for achieving this objective. Because they are conveniently located, cost much less than four-year colleges, feature open admissions, and accommodate students who work or have family responsibilities, community colleges are well suited to meet the educational needs of immigrants who want to obtain an affordable postsecondary education, learn English-language skills, and prepare for the labor market. The authors explore how community colleges can serve immigrant students more effectively. Already, more immigrant students attend community colleges than any other type of post-secondary institution. But community colleges could attract even more immigrant students through outreach programs that help them to apply and to navigate the financial aid system. Federal reforms should also allow financial aid to cover tuition for English as a Second Language courses. Community colleges themselves could raise funds to provide scholarships for immigrants and undocumented students. Although there are many good ideas for interventions that can boost enrollment and improve the performance of immigrant students in community colleges, rigorous research on effective programs is scant. The research community and community colleges need to work together closely to evaluate these programs with a view toward what works and why. Without such research, policy makers will find it difficult to improve the role of community colleges in increasing the educational achievement of immigrant students.
This study examines the role of language in reducing poverty in Botswana through adult-education programs. Because language is the medium through which human beings communicate and grow intellectually and socially, it should form the basis of any discussion involving the relation between development and education. In order best to respond to societal changes and bridge the gap between the less privileged and the more privileged, adult-education programs should be guided by language policies that are sensitive to this pivotal role that language plays. Language is important in any discussion of poverty reduction because it determines who has access to educational, political and economic resources. The author recommends that adult-education programs in Botswana take account of the multilingual nature of society and so allow learners to participate freely, make use of their indigenous knowledge, and enhance their self-esteem and identity.
Fallon, Karen A; Katz, Lauren A; Carlberg, Rachel
Providing effective intervention services for adolescents and adults who struggle with spoken and written language presents a variety of unique challenges. This article discusses the 5S Framework (skills, strategies, school, student buy-in, and stakeholders) for designing and implementing balanced spoken and written language interventions for adolescents and adults. An in-depth case illustration highlights the usefulness of the framework for targeting the language and literacy skills of adolescents and young adults. By describing and illustrating the five key components of the intervention framework, the article provides a useful clinical tool to help guide clinicians and educators who serve the needs of adolescents and adults who struggle with spoken and written language.
Weibel, Marguerite Crowley
Looks at a literature-based approach to reading instruction and the whole-language approach to teaching adult literacy. Describes the instructional procedure used in a workplace literacy program serving employees of the Ohio State University hospital staff. (JOW)
Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham
Listening and speaking, the most used language skills in the classroom, are critical for functioning in an English language context, and are logical starting points for language instruction for low-literacy learners. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving, and processing information. A…
Like legal language, medical language is a private language, a separate stratum containing some words specially defined for medical purposes, some existing only in the medical vocabulary, and some adding precision or solemnity. These characteristics often cause a breakdown in patient-doctor communication. Analysis of data obtained from prototype…
Characteristics of English for Academic Purposes students' second language (L2) motivation were examined by identifying underlying motivational factors. Using the motivation constructs created by first language reading researchers, a survey was developed and administered to 2,018 students from 53 English language programs in the U.S. Survey…
Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras
For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…
Leon County Schools, Tallahassee, FL.
This resource guide has been compiled to assist teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) in meeting the needs of immigrant families. Its purpose is to help reduce immigrant stress by making important information readily available to immigrant families. The guide is divided into the major categories of socialization, education,…
For teachers to effectively teach students who enter the U.S. educational system from other countries, they must first learn about the complexity of the immigrant experience, taking into account themes such as race, generational immigration, class, formal education, and language. When these themes are taught through the immigrant narrative, they…
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon
One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language-neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity.
Marshall, Chloë R; Morgan, Gary
There has long been interest in why languages are shaped the way they are, and in the relationship between sign language and gesture. In sign languages, entity classifiers are handshapes that encode how objects move, how they are located relative to one another, and how multiple objects of the same type are distributed in space. Previous studies have shown that hearing adults who are asked to use only manual gestures to describe how objects move in space will use gestures that bear some similarities to classifiers. We investigated how accurately hearing adults, who had been learning British Sign Language (BSL) for 1-3 years, produce and comprehend classifiers in (static) locative and distributive constructions. In a production task, learners of BSL knew that they could use their hands to represent objects, but they had difficulty choosing the same, conventionalized, handshapes as native signers. They were, however, highly accurate at encoding location and orientation information. Learners therefore show the same pattern found in sign-naïve gesturers. In contrast, handshape, orientation, and location were comprehended with equal (high) accuracy, and testing a group of sign-naïve adults showed that they too were able to understand classifiers with higher than chance accuracy. We conclude that adult learners of BSL bring their visuo-spatial knowledge and gestural abilities to the tasks of understanding and producing constructions that contain entity classifiers. We speculate that investigating the time course of adult sign language acquisition might shed light on how gesture became (and, indeed, becomes) conventionalized during the genesis of sign languages.
Guerra-Treviño, Marta Elena
This paper presents several "tips" for Spanish speaking adults who start a reading comprehension course in English. The document is the product of my twenty-five years of experience as a language teacher. By using these practical pieces of advice, learners understand the differences between English and their own language, are able read,…
This article describes a pilot project carried out at City University London, Department of Language and Communication Science, where adult service users with learning disabilities trained first-year speech and language therapy students. The training involved presentations by the service users on their involvement in interviewing support staff,…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011
Adult language, literacy and numeracy are essential ingredients for greater workforce participation, productivity and social inclusion. Both national and international research demonstrate the relationship between increasing levels of language, literacy and numeracy proficiency and positive outcomes for individuals, as well as for communities and…
Iacono, Teresa; Torr, Jennifer; Wong, Hui Yi
Studies into the effects of ageing on language in adults with Down syndrome (DS) have tended to rely on measures that lack sensitivity to change because they fail to explore across linguistic domains or rely on proxy reports. The study aim was to use measures of receptive and expressive language from studies of younger individuals with DS in…
Guevremont, Anne; Kohen, Dafna E.
This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…
Vicenik, Chad Joseph
It has been widely shown that infants and adults are capable of using only prosodic information to discriminate between languages. However, it remains unclear which aspects of prosody, either rhythm or intonation, listeners attend to for language discrimination. Previous researchers have suggested that rhythm, the duration and timing of speech…
Snow, Marguerite Ann, Ed.; Kamhi-Stein, Lia, Ed.
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL), introduces "Developing a New Course for Adult Learners," edited by Marguerite Ann Snow and Lia Kamhi-Stein. This volume in TESOL's Language Curriculum Development Series presents the stories of teachers, curriculum developers, and administrators from all over the world who…
Hummel, Kirsten M.
This study explores the relationship between aptitude, phonological memory (PM), and second language (L2) proficiency in nonnovice adult learners of English as an L2. Native speakers of French (N = 77) enrolled in a university Teaching English as a Second Language program were the participants in the study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed…
The experiments outlined in this paper assess the relative effectiveness of two approaches to teaching foreign language grammar to adults. One approach, called the "Implicit Method," is based on the audiolingual habit theory of language learning. Grammar is taught inductively through the reading of dialogues and practice with carefully…
Judge, Jeffrey Wallace
Research of language learning strategy (LLS) has provided insight for language learners from many international cultures since this branch of research began in the 1970s. Despite the urgent need for competence in the use of business English in Western Europe, LLS studies have not been conducted on Spanish adults who use English for business. The…
The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was conducted to compare English communicative competency achievement between two different models of instruction. Adult English language learners (AELLs) participated in either the communicative task-based (CTB) or in a more traditional (MT) language instructional approach. The goal of the…
Golovatch, Yelena; Vanderplank, Robert
This article reports on an investigation into the attributions of success and perceived areas of strength and weakness of adult learners of English as a foreign language in the Department of Continuing Education at Minsk State Linguistic University, Belarus. The students attributed their limited progress in learning the foreign language mainly to…
Grover, Kendra S.; Miller, Michael T.; Swearingen, Brent; Wood, Nancy
Self-directed learning is one of the preeminent theories in the field of adult education. This study explored how English as a Second Language learners directed their own learning outside of the formal classroom through the use of practices that potentially advance their English language proficiency. Results from a survey of over 400 ESL students…
Kemper, Susan; And Others
Comparison of oral and written language samples collected from young and elderly adults revealed an age-related decrease in language complexity. Better-educated subjects had higher vocabulary test scores and produced longer utterances. Subjects with greater memory capacity produced more complex utterances and used more right- and left-branching…
This article provides a synthesis and review of 41 recent research studies focusing on the population of adult English language learners (ELLs) studying in nonacademic contexts. It notes the unique qualities and importance of understanding the English-language needs of this population, provides a critical overview of the existing literature, and…
Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.
Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…
Schumann, John H.
It is generally accepted that second language (L2) acquisition becomes more difficult as one grows older and that success in adult L2 acquisition is highly variable. Nevertheless, humans in language contact situations have to cope with intergroup communication. This article examines the ways society has responded to this challenge. It describes…
Castro, Nichol; James, Lori E
Young and older participants produced oral picture descriptions that were analyzed to determine the impact of negative emotional content on spoken language production. An interaction was found for speech disfluencies: young adults' disfluencies did not vary, whereas older adults' disfluencies increased, for negative compared to neutral pictures. Young adults adopted a faster speech rate while describing negative compared to neutral pictures, but older adults did not. Reference errors were uncommon for both age groups, but occurred more during descriptions of negative than neutral pictures. Our findings indicate that negative content can be differentially disruptive to older adults' spoken language production, and add to the literature on aging, emotion, and cognition by exploring effects within the domain of language production.
Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E
Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication.
has been a renewed emphasis on language acquisition and retention throughout the United States Military, whether due to responsibilities in the Global...you’re bilingual . If you can speak only one language you’re an American. ~Author Unknown1 Across the military over the past several years...there has been a renewed emphasis on language acquisition and retention, especially in response to the Global War on Terrorism and an increased focus on
Miller, Kevin J.; Rosenthal, Lore Lyon
Describes a classroom-based project that examines whether three deaf adults enrolled in an adult literacy program could use American Sign Language to access English and improve their literacy skills. The project focused on their first attempt at reading and discussing a novel. Describes a three-step process that guided the learners toward…
Judge, Jeffrey Wallace
The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…
This paper investigates the impact of differing interpretation of federal education policy in three different states. The policy, the Workforce Investment Act Title II, has defined the services provided for adult English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in Adult Basic Education programs in the United States since it was passed in 1998. At the…
This guide is an ideabook for teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) to adult students. The first three sections list, respectively, specific instructional techniques and class activities, suggested materials, and questions submitted by adult basic education instructors and answers to the questions. Appended materials, which constitute the…
Cila, Jorida; Lalonde, Richard N.
The present study examined the practice of language brokering (LB) among South Asian Canadian college-age adults and how such practice relates to acculturation to mainstream and heritage cultures, as well as personal empowerment. One hundred and twenty-four young adults reported on three different indices of LB (brokering frequency, diversity of…
Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine
Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…
Ryan, Linda Jo
Adult education literature suggests that the instructional perspective of the teacher has an important effect on adult satisfaction with learning. In this study, the relationships between instructional perspective, satisfaction with language learning, and certain teacher and student characteristics were investigated. Study participants were adult…
Francis, Norbert; Gomez, Pablo Rogelio Navarrete
This study on code-mixing focuses on the influence of Spanish in Nahuatl discourse as revealed in narratives produced by adults and children. Results indicate differences in frequency of content word embedded language (Spanish), lexical items across grade level (for children), grade level attained (for adults), and correlations (for children)…
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon
One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language–neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409
Cho, Yong Won; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Joo Hwa; Lee, Hui Joong; Yi, Sang Doe; Chang, Hyuk Won; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Chang, Yongmin
Older adults perform much like younger adults on language. This similar level of performance, however, may come about through different underlying brain processes. In the present study, we evaluated age-related differences in the brain areas outside the typical language areas among adults using a category decision task. Our results showed that…
Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.
This study examined the extent to which self-esteem differences existed across various groups of immigrant adolescents and the role of factors operating at structural and subjective levels. Data came from the Youth Adaptation and Growth Questionnaire developed for the Second Generation Project in Miami, Florida and San Diego, California. The…
Benini, Silvia; Murray, Liam
More than 10 years have passed since the first introduction of the term "digital natives" in Prensky's (2001a, 2001b) two seminal articles. Prensky argues that students today, having grown up in the Digital Age, learn differently from their predecessors, or "digital immigrants". As such, the pedagogical tools and methods used…
Brownlie, E.B.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori
Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct- disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study…
Gillam, Ronald B.
This book contains articles from two issues of "Topics in Language Disorders" that focus on recent developments in the understanding of short-term memory, working memory, and long-term memory systems and their relationship to language comprehension, lexical development, early academic development, later academic development, and communication…
This article presents a bilingual teaching strategy based on Noam Chomsky's universalist hypothesis, which emphasizes the "universal" aspects of human language. The strategy focuses on the matching process that all learners carry out between the first (L1) and second (L2) language, as well as the differences between L1 and L2. (58…
Cline, Tony; Crafter, Sarah; O'Dell, Lindsay; de Abreu, Guida
In recently arrived immigrant families, children and young people often act as language brokers for their parents and other adults. In public and academic debate, this activity is sometimes portrayed negatively as imposing excessive burdens of responsibility on the young people. This paper reports an analysis of qualitative data from a broader…
Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F
Adult-provided language shapes event memory in children who are preverbal and in those who are able to discuss the past using language. The research conducted to date, however, has not yet established whether infant language comprehension abilities moderate the extent to which preverbal infants benefit from adult-provided supportive language. The present study was conducted to address this question by examining immediate imitation and 1-week delayed generalization across cues in 20-month-old infants as a function of (a) variability in adult-provided linguistic support at encoding and test, (b) infant language comprehension abilities, and (c) their interaction. The provision of supportive adult language at encoding and test was associated with delayed generalization across cues although supportive adult language at encoding did not influence performance at immediate imitation. Infant language comprehension abilities were associated with performance at immediate imitation and delayed generalization across cues. In addition, infant language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which infants benefited from adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test. The findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating that adult language use and infant language comprehension are independently and differentially associated with immediate imitation and 1-week delayed generalization across cues but also serve to jointly structure event memory in the second year of life.
It is widely known that educational attainment has considerable influence on the prevalence of disability among native-born non-Hispanic older adults in the US. However, few studies have examined whether educational attainment has a similar effect on disability among foreign-born Asian older adults. If it does not have a similar effect on these adults, why not, and is its effect influenced by the age at which they immigrated to the US? This study addresses these questions by using the 2006 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample (ACS PUMS). Logistic regression analyses reveal that education has differential effects on the two racial groups. Education protects foreign-born Asians less than native-born non-Hispanic whites. In addition, Asian adults who immigrated earlier are less likely to experience disability. Interestingly, the interaction between age at immigration and educational attainment for foreign-born Asian older adults indicates that less educated Asians are more likely to benefit from early immigration. Heterogeneity within the Asian group is also examined. The findings suggest that educational attainment has differential effects not only on the two racial groups but also on the foreign-born Asian group depending on age at immigration.
Recent trends in immigration to Poland are reviewed, including both voluntary migration and migration forced by extreme political or economic circumstances. Data are also presented on illegal immigrants and on their countries of origin.
This annotated bibliography lists dictionaries and reading materials including stories and legends, biographies, works relating to cinema, theatre and French civilization, magazines, and educational activities and games for introductory instruction of French as a foreign language to adults and adolescents. (Text is in French.) (CLK)
Delker, Paul V.
The paper describes the American immigrant experience, discusses the process of acculturation, and recounts the evolution to a value of cultural pluralism from the melting pot concept, as background to a consideration of the problem of educating the adult immigrant in the U.S., focused specifically on the current U.S. immigration experience with…
Lee, Tiffany S.
Native American languages, contemporary youth identity, and powerful messages from mainstream society and Native communities create complex interactions that require deconstruction for the benefit of Native-language revitalization. This study showed how Native youth negotiate mixed messages such as the necessity of Indigenous languages for…
Mueller, Kimberly Diggle; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Turkstra, Lyn S.; Riedeman, Sarah K.; LaRue, Asenath; Clark, Lindsay R.; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A.; Johnson, Sterling C.
Connected language is often impaired among people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), yet little is known about when language difficulties first emerge on the path to a clinical diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether individuals with psychometric (preclinical) evidence of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (pMCI) showed deficits in connected language measures. Participants were 39 pMCI and 39 cognitively healthy (CH) adults drawn from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who were matched for age, literacy, and sex. Participants completed a connected language task in which they described the Cookie Theft picture from the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. Language samples were analyzed across 3 language domains: content, syntactic complexity, and speech fluency. Paired t-tests were used to compare CH and pMCI groups on all variables, and Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for each comparison. The CH and pMCI groups differed significantly on measures of content (e.g., CH group produced more semantic units, more unique words and had larger idea density, on average, than the pMCI group). The picture description findings are consistent with previous retrospective studies showing semantic language differences in adults with autopsy-confirmed AD. Given that these comparisons are between cognitively healthy and pMCI individuals (before a clinical MCI diagnosis), these findings may represent subtle language difficulty in spontaneous speech, and may be predictive of larger language changes over time. PMID:27636838
Wieland, Mark L; Nelson, Jonathan; Palmer, Tiffany; O'Hara, Connie; Weis, Jennifer A; Nigon, Julie A; Sia, Irene G
Tuberculosis disproportionately affects immigrants and refugees to the United States. Upon arrival to the United States, many of these individuals attend adult education centers, but little is known about how to deliver tuberculosis health information at these venues. Therefore, the authors used a participatory approach to design and evaluate a tuberculosis education video in this setting. The authors used focus group data to inform the content of the video that was produced and delivered by adult learners and their teachers. The video was evaluated by learners for acceptability through 3 items with a 3-point Likert scale. Knowledge (4 items) and self-efficacy (2 items) about tuberculosis were evaluated before and after viewing the video. A total of 159 learners (94%) rated the video as highly acceptable. Knowledge about tuberculosis improved after viewing the video (56% correct vs. 82% correct; p <.001), as did tuberculosis-related self-efficacy (77% vs. 90%; p <.001). Adult education centers that serve large immigrant and refugee populations may be excellent venues for health education, and a video may be an effective tool to educate these populations. Furthermore, a participatory approach in designing health education materials may enhance the efficacy of these tools.
Wieland, Mark L.; Nelson, Jonathan; Palmer, Tiffany; O’Hara, Connie; Weis, Jennifer A.; Nigron, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.
Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants and refugees to the United States. Upon arrival to the US, many of these individuals attend adult education centers, but little is known about how to deliver TB health information at these venues. Therefore, a participatory approach was used to design and evaluate a tuberculosis education video in this setting. Focus groups data were used to inform the content of the video that was produced and delivered by adult learners and their teachers. The video was evaluated by learners for acceptability through 3 items with a 3-point Likert scale. Knowledge (4 items) and self-efficacy (2 items) about TB were evaluated before and after viewing the video. A total of 159 learners (94%) rated the video as highly acceptable. Knowledge about TB improved after viewing the video (56% correct vs. 82% correct; p=<0.001), as did TB-related self-efficacy (77% vs. 90%; p=<0.001). Adult education centers that serve large immigrant and refugee populations may be excellent venues for health education, and a video may be an effective tool to educate these populations. Furthermore, a participatory approach in designing health education materials may enhance the efficacy of these tools. PMID:23237382
Every immigrant has a right to literacy in his native language, but native language literacy alone does not guarantee success. The objective of a program begun in the 1970s in New York City was to develop biliteracy in immigrants so they could start and manage small businesses in the community. Despite a lack of political protection for the…
This article provides a historical case study of the Sentinelle Affair, a conflict between French language rights and the English Only educational policies of the Catholic Church in New England in the 1920s. An analysis of this conflict reveals a correspondence between programs of language centralization and the production of language differences…
Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne
It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing.
Zhang, Haobo; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Wen, Wei; Kochan, Nicole A.; Crawford, John D.; Brodaty, Henry; Slavin, Melissa J.; Reppermund, Simone; Kang, Kristan; Trollor, Julian N.
Language has been extensively investigated by functional neuroimaging studies. However, only a limited number of structural neuroimaging studies have examined the relationship between language performance and brain structure in healthy adults, and the number is even less in older adults. The present study sought to investigate correlations between grey matter volumes and three standardized language tests in late life. The participants were 344 non-demented, community-dwelling adults aged 70-90 years, who were drawn from the population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. The three language tests included the Controlled Oral Word Association Task (COWAT), Category Fluency (CF), and Boston Naming Test (BNT). Correlation analyses between voxel-wise GM volumes and language tests showed distinctive GM correlation patterns for each language test. The GM correlates were located in the right frontal and left temporal lobes for COWAT, in the left frontal and temporal lobes for CF, and in bilateral temporal lobes for BNT. Our findings largely corresponded to the neural substrates of language tasks revealed in fMRI studies, and we also observed a less hemispheric asymmetry in the GM correlates of the language tests. Furthermore, we divided the participants into two age groups (70-79 and 80-90 years old), and then examined the correlations between structural laterality indices and language performance for each group. A trend toward significant difference in the correlations was found between the two age groups, with stronger correlations in the group of 70-79 years old than those in the group of 80-90 years old. This difference might suggest a further decline of language lateralization in different stages of late life. PMID:24224044
Codina, Charlotte J; Pascalis, Olivier; Baseler, Heidi A; Levine, Alexandra T; Buckley, David
Following auditory deprivation, the remaining sense of vision has shown selective enhancement in visual cognition, especially in the area of near peripheral vision. Visual acuity is poor in the far periphery and may be an area where sound confers the greatest advantage in hearing persons. Experience with a visuospatial language such as British Sign Language (BSL) makes additional demands on the visual system. To test the different and separable effects of deafness and use of a visuo-spatial language on far peripheral visual processing, we investigated visual reaction times (RTs) and response accuracy to visual stimuli, between 30° and 85° along the four cardinal and four inter-cardinal meridians. We used three luminances of static, briefly illuminated stimuli in visually normal adults. The cohort tested included profoundly congenitally deaf adults (N = 17), hearing fluent BSL users (N = 8) and hearing non-signing adults (N = 18). All participants were tested using a peripheral forced choice paradigm designed previously to test deaf and hearing children (Codina et al., 2011a). Deaf adults demonstrated significantly faster RTs to all far peripheral stimuli and exceeded the abilities of both signing and non-signing hearing adults. Deaf adults were significantly faster than BSL interpreters, who in turn were significantly faster than hearing non-signing adults. The differences in RT demonstrated between groups were consistent across all visual field meridians and were not localized to any one region of the visual field. There were no differences found between any groups in accuracy of detecting these static stimuli at any retinal location. Early onset auditory deprivation appears to lead to a response time visual advantage in far peripheral responses to briefly presented, static LED stimuli, especially in the right visual field. Fluency in BSL facilitates faster visuo-motor responses in the peripheral visual field, but to a lesser extent than congenital, profound
Codina, Charlotte J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Baseler, Heidi A.; Levine, Alexandra T.; Buckley, David
Following auditory deprivation, the remaining sense of vision has shown selective enhancement in visual cognition, especially in the area of near peripheral vision. Visual acuity is poor in the far periphery and may be an area where sound confers the greatest advantage in hearing persons. Experience with a visuospatial language such as British Sign Language (BSL) makes additional demands on the visual system. To test the different and separable effects of deafness and use of a visuo-spatial language on far peripheral visual processing, we investigated visual reaction times (RTs) and response accuracy to visual stimuli, between 30° and 85° along the four cardinal and four inter-cardinal meridians. We used three luminances of static, briefly illuminated stimuli in visually normal adults. The cohort tested included profoundly congenitally deaf adults (N = 17), hearing fluent BSL users (N = 8) and hearing non-signing adults (N = 18). All participants were tested using a peripheral forced choice paradigm designed previously to test deaf and hearing children (Codina et al., 2011a). Deaf adults demonstrated significantly faster RTs to all far peripheral stimuli and exceeded the abilities of both signing and non-signing hearing adults. Deaf adults were significantly faster than BSL interpreters, who in turn were significantly faster than hearing non-signing adults. The differences in RT demonstrated between groups were consistent across all visual field meridians and were not localized to any one region of the visual field. There were no differences found between any groups in accuracy of detecting these static stimuli at any retinal location. Early onset auditory deprivation appears to lead to a response time visual advantage in far peripheral responses to briefly presented, static LED stimuli, especially in the right visual field. Fluency in BSL facilitates faster visuo-motor responses in the peripheral visual field, but to a lesser extent than congenital, profound
Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge
The evaluation of language and communication skills in adults who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in general and key word signing (KWS) in particular, can be an elaborate task. Besides being time-consuming and not very similar to natural communication, standard language tests often do not take AAC or KWS into account. Therefore, we developed a narrative task specifically for adults with intellectual disability (ID) who use KWS. The task was evaluated in a group of 40 adult KWS users. Outcome measures on the narrative task correlated significantly with measures of standard language and communication tests for verbal language, but not for use of manual signs. All narrative measures, for both verbal language and manual signing, correlated highly with similar measures from a conversation sample. The developed narrative task proved useful and valid to evaluate the language and communication skills of adults with ID taking into account both their verbal language and manual sign use.
MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN
In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313
Grove, Nicola; Woll, Bencie
Manual signing is one of the most widely used approaches to support the communication and language skills of children and adults who have intellectual or developmental disabilities, and problems with communication in spoken language. A recent series of papers reporting findings from this population raises critical issues for professionals in the assessment of multimodal language skills of key word signers. Approaches to assessment will differ depending on whether key word signing (KWS) is viewed as discrete from, or related to, natural sign languages. Two available assessments from these different perspectives are compared. Procedures appropriate to the assessment of sign language production are recommended as a valuable addition to the clinician's toolkit. Sign and speech need to be viewed as multimodal, complementary communicative endeavours, rather than as polarities. Whilst narrative has been shown to be a fruitful context for eliciting language samples, assessments for adult users should be designed to suit the strengths, needs and values of adult signers with intellectual disabilities, using materials that are compatible with their life course stage rather than those designed for young children.
Samara, Anna; Smith, Kenny; Brown, Helen; Wonnacott, Elizabeth
Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups. Furthermore, artificial language learning experiments have shown that children have a tendency to eliminate variation, a process which could potentially work against their acquisition of sociolinguistic variation. The current study used a semi-artificial language learning paradigm to investigate learning of the sociolinguistic cue of speaker identity in 6-year-olds and adults. Participants were trained and tested on an artificial language where nouns were obligatorily followed by one of two meaningless particles and were produced by one of two speakers (one male, one female). Particle usage was conditioned deterministically on speaker identity (Experiment 1), probabilistically (Experiment 2), or not at all (Experiment 3). Participants were given tests of production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2, both children and adults successfully acquired the speaker identity cue, although the effect was stronger for adults and in Experiment 1. In addition, in all three experiments, there was evidence of regularization in participants' productions, although the type of regularization differed with age: children showed regularization by boosting the frequency of one particle at the expense of the other, while adults regularized by conditioning particle usage on lexical items. Overall, results
Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.
A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…
Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey
This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…
Gonzales, Roberto G.
The situation of undocumented immigrant youth is one of the most important issues today. Since the introduction of the federal Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act in 2001, their circumstances have captured the attention of the American public as well as the academic community. Fourteen years have passed without any…
McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth
Purpose: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. Method: Sixty-nine 18-to 25-year-olds with LI or without (the normal development [ND] group) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings…
Berent, Gerald P.
First language acquisition studies reveal that children overextend the minimal distance principle (MDP) during their acquisition of infinitive complement structures. The MDP dictates the interpretation of the logical subject of the infinitive in these structures and overrides marked lexical features such as subject control. Misinterpretations by…
Daltrozzo, Jerome; Emerson, Samantha N; Deocampo, Joanne; Singh, Sonia; Freggens, Marjorie; Branum-Martin, Lee; Conway, Christopher M
Statistical learning (SL) is believed to enable language acquisition by allowing individuals to learn regularities within linguistic input. However, neural evidence supporting a direct relationship between SL and language ability is scarce. We investigated whether there are associations between event-related potential (ERP) correlates of SL and language abilities while controlling for the general level of selective attention. Seventeen adults completed tests of visual SL, receptive vocabulary, grammatical ability, and sentence completion. Response times and ERPs showed that SL is related to receptive vocabulary and grammatical ability. ERPs indicated that the relationship between SL and grammatical ability was independent of attention while the association between SL and receptive vocabulary depended on attention. The implications of these dissociative relationships in terms of underlying mechanisms of SL and language are discussed. These results further elucidate the cognitive nature of the links between SL mechanisms and language abilities.
In response to growing linguistic diversity, many U.S. universities have implemented language policies that include procedures for English learner (EL) identification. Institutional labels such as "English learner" and "limited English proficiency" are regularly used to identify students who may need English language support;…
Williams, Diane L; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Mason, Robert A; Keller, Timothy A; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam
Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children and adults with autism had lower functional connectivity (synchronization of brain activity among activated areas) than their age and ability comparison group in the left hemisphere language network during irony processing, and neither autism group had an increase in functional connectivity in response to increased task demands. Activation differences for the literal and irony conditions occurred in key language-processing regions (left middle temporal, left pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left medial frontal, and right middle temporal). The children and adults with autism differed from each other in the use of some brain regions during the irony task, with the adults with autism having activation levels similar to those of the control groups. Overall, the children and adults with autism differed from the adult and child controls in (a) the degree of network coordination, (b) the distribution of the workload among member nodes, and (3) the dynamic recruitment of regions in response to text content. Moreover, the differences between the two autism age groups may be indicative of positive changes in the neural function related to language processing associated with maturation and/or educational experience.
Pandey, Shanta; Kagotho, Njeri
This study examined health insurance disparities among recent immigrants. The authors analyzed all working-age adult immigrants between the ages of 18 and 64 using the New Immigrant Survey data collected in 2003. This survey is a cross-sectional interview of recent legal permanent residents on their social, economic, and health status. Respondents…
Chai, Xiaoqian J; Berken, Jonathan A; Barbeau, Elise B; Soles, Jennika; Callahan, Megan; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise
There is considerable variability in an individual's ability to acquire a second language (L2) during adulthood. Using resting-state fMRI data acquired before training in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course, we investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity relate to a person's ability to acquire an L2. We focused on two key aspects of language processing--lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed--and computed whole-brain functional connectivity from two regions of interest in the language network, namely the left anterior insula/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and the visual word form area (VWFA). Connectivity between the left AI/FO and left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and between the left AI/FO and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex correlated positively with improvement in L2 lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech. Connectivity between the VWFA and left mid-STG correlated positively with improvement in L2 reading speed. These findings are consistent with the different language functions subserved by subcomponents of the language network and suggest that the human capacity to learn an L2 can be predicted by an individual's intrinsic functional connectivity within the language network. Significance statement: There is considerable variability in second-language learning abilities during adulthood. We investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic functional connectivity in the adult brain relate to success in second-language learning, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course. We found that pretraining functional connectivity within two different language subnetworks correlated strongly with learning outcome in two different language skills: lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed. Our results suggest that the human
Kraut, Alan M
The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 coincided with a major wave of immigration to the United States. More than 23.5 million newcomers arrived between 1880 and the 1920s, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Mexico. During earlier epidemics, the foreign-born were often stigmatized as disease carriers whose very presence endangered their hosts. Because this influenza struck individuals of all groups and classes throughout the country, no single immigrant group was blamed, although there were many local cases of medicalized prejudice. The foreign-born needed information and assistance in coping with influenza. Among the two largest immigrant groups, Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews, immigrant physicians, community spokespeople, newspapers, and religious and fraternal groups shouldered the burden. They disseminated public health information to their respective communities in culturally sensitive manners and in the languages the newcomers understood, offering crucial services to immigrants and American public health officials.
Rodriguez, Lisa Ann; Shepard, MaryFriend
This study explored the perceptions of adult English language learners about audience response systems (clickers) as tools to facilitate communication. According to second language acquisition theory, learners' receptive capabilities in the early stages of second language acquisition surpass expressive capabilities, often rendering them silent in…
Kwon, Hyun Joo; Schallert, Diane L.
Ten adult readers, advanced in their control of two languages, Korean and English, were recruited for a study of academic literacy practices to examine the various linguistic repertoires on which they drew. Analysis of their language use revealed many instances of "translanguaging," that is, a flexible reliance on two languages to serve…
Stein, M; Dierks, T; Brandeis, D; Wirth, M; Strik, W; Koenig, T
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace changes in brain activity related to progress in second language learning. Twelve English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were recruited. ERPs to visually presented single words from the subjects' native language (English), second language (German) and an unknown language (Romansh) were measured before (day 1) and after (day 2) 5 months of intense German language learning. When comparing ERPs to German words from day 1 and day 2, we found topographic differences between 396 and 540 ms. These differences could be interpreted as a latency shift indicating faster processing of German words on day 2. Source analysis indicated that the topographic differences were accounted for by shorter activation of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on day 2. In ERPs to English words, we found Global Field Power differences between 472 and 644 ms. This may due to memory traces related to English words being less easily activated on day 2. Alternatively, it might reflect the fact that--with German words becoming familiar on day 2--English words loose their oddball character and thus produce a weaker P300-like effect on day 2. In ERPs to Romansh words, no differences were observed. Our results reflect plasticity in the neuronal networks underlying second language acquisition. They indicate that with a higher level of second language proficiency, second language word processing is faster and requires shorter frontal activation. Thus, our results suggest that the reduced IFG activation found in previous fMRI studies might not reflect a generally lower activation but rather a shorter duration of activity.
Pelatti, Christina Yeager
Oral and written language development for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (Ds) are particularly challenging. Yet, research supports a syndrome-specific profile highlighting strengths and particular areas of difficulty for this group of individuals. For example, adolescents and young adults with Ds tend to understand more than they produce. In terms of oral language development, the domains of semantics and pragmatics are relative strengths whereas morphosyntax is particularly difficult. Much less is known about written language development because most adolescents and young adults with Ds are at the emergent literacy or word identification (i.e., ability to recognize and name single words) stages; however, relative strengths emerge in the area of word identification. The purpose of this article is to explore the research findings on oral and written language strengths and weaknesses and intervention strategies and techniques that facilitate development in these two interrelated domains. In addition, a case study example is provided to further enhance the clinical skills of speech-language pathologists who work with this population.
GREEN, RUSSEL F.; MARTINEZ, JUAN N.
A NEED FOR AN ADEQUATELY DEVELOPED AND STANDARDIZED INTELLIGENCE SCALE IN THE WHOLE OF LATIN AMERICA RESULTED IN THE WAIS PROJECT WHOSE AIM WAS TO TRANSLATE INTO SPANISH, ADAPT TO SPANISH CULTURE, AND STANDARDIZE THE WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE IN PUERTO RICO. FOLLOWING A DISCUSSION OF THE FOUR GENERAL GOALS, THE PROJECT REPORT OUTLINES THE…
Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair
The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie
Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…
Outlines an approach to cultural instruction in adult second language education called "culture exploration," which calls for the recognition of ambiguity embedded in cross-cultural encounters. Culture exploration consists of employing techniques of ethnographic participant observation in and outside the classroom and holding reflective,…
Norrix, Linda W.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca
Auditory and auditory-visual (AV) speech perception skills were examined in adults with and without language-learning disabilities (LLD). The AV stimuli consisted of congruent consonant-vowel syllables (auditory and visual syllables matched in terms of syllable being produced) and incongruent McGurk syllables (auditory syllable differed from…
Von Pein, Margreta; Altarriba, Jeanette
The present study was designed to investigate the ways in which notions of semantics and phonology are acquired by adult naive learners of American Sign Language (ASL) when they are first exposed to a set of simple signs. First, a set of ASL signs was tested for nontransparency and a set of signs was selected for subsequent use. Next, a set of…
This article considers the status of indigenous knowledges as forms of knowledge in the multicultural context of Sudan, through exploration of Sudanese adult education teachers' perceptions of culture, language and knowledge in education. Drawing on critical and poststructural theoretical concepts, cultural discourses in education are shown to…
Momo, Kanako; Sakai, Hiromu; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.
Native languages (L1s) are tacitly assumed to be complete and stable in adults. Here we report an unexpected individual variation in judgment of L1 regarding Japanese sentences including honorification, and further clarify its neural basis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). By contrasting an honorification judgment task with a…
This guide, designed for teachers of second languages to adults, discusses instruction for student groups of mixed abilities. The first chapter examines the factors that determine mixed ability, including: student motivation, interests, and needs; linguistic ability; general educational background; learning style; age; external pressures and time…
Dorman, Marni Alexandra
Positioned within the social constructivist view of learning that individuals make meaning from their experiences and through their social actions and interactions, this qualitative study explores the ways in which nine instructors of underprepared adult English as a Second Language students made meaning of their classroom experiences. Through…
Bickley, Celeste; Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.
Effective and appropriate communication is critical for the successful integration of newcomers in Canada. In this paper, we describe the intercultural communicative competence beliefs and practices of 70 adult English as a second language (ESL) instructors. Responses to an online survey indicated a strong belief in the value of integrating…
Langdon, Henriette W.; Wiig, Elisabeth H.; Nielsen, Niels Peter
This study compared the efficacy of measures of naming speed, verbal fluency and self-ratings for establishing language dominance in 25 bilingual English-Spanish adults with college degrees. Naming speed was measured by total naming times (in seconds) for five "Alzheimer's Quick Test" tasks (Wiig, Nielsen, Minthon & Warkentin, 2002)…
Collins, Vickie L., Ed.
This bibliography lists instructional materials for teaching adult learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). The resources listed are print materials made available through the Free Library of Philadelphia's Reader Development Program. All are on or below the eighth grade reading level, as determined with the Gunning Fog readability formula.…
Reel, Leigh Ann; Hicks, Candace Bourland
Purpose: The authors assessed adult selective auditory attention to determine effects of (a) differences between the vocal/speaking characteristics of different mixed-gender pairs of masking talkers and (b) the rhythmic structure of the language of the competing speech. Method: Reception thresholds for English sentences were measured for 50…
Acha, Joana; Laka, Itziar; Perea, Manuel
Do typological properties of language, such as agglutination (i.e., the morphological process of adding affixes to the lexeme of a word), have an impact on the development of visual word recognition? To answer this question, we carried out an experiment in which beginning, intermediate, and adult Basque readers (n = 32 each, average age = 7, 11,…
Wrigley, Heide Spruck; Richer, Elise; Martinson, Karin; Kubo, Hitomi; Strawn, Julie
This paper describes the demographics and economic circumstances of low income adults with limited English proficiency (LEP), noting the language and job training services available to them and providing recommendations for policy and practice that would increase opportunities to gain access to higher paying jobs. More then eight million…
Weger, Heather D.
The present study reports on the motivations of adult, international learners of English, studying English 20 hours a week in a US-based Intensive English Program (IEP). Though often used as participants in language acquisition studies, there are few studies of these learners' motivational profiles. In the current study, a questionnaire designed…
Rappel, Linda J.
This article explores details of research that examined how the personal backgrounds of educators connected with organizational contexts to inform teacher practice within the area of adult English language teaching. Using life history as a research methodology and basing research on a framework of teacher authenticity, the primary goal of this…
Maracle, David Kanatawakhon; Richards, Merle
An adult immersion program in the Mohawk language took place in an Iroquois community in southern Ontario. The class was limited to 12 students who had taken a readiness course that introduced them to basic grammar and vocabulary. The class met daily in the relaxed setting of a house. The preparation and sharing of meals, the presence of fluent…
Moss, Donna; Van Duzer, Carol
Project-based learning is an instructional approach that contextualizes learning by presenting learners with problems to solve or products to develop. For example, learners may research adult education resources in their community and create a handbook to share with other language learners in their program, or they might interview local employers…
Gallup Rodriguez, Amber
Many adult English language learners place a high value on learning grammar. Perceiving a link between grammatical accuracy and effective communication, they associate excellent grammar with opportunities for employment and promotion, the attainment of educational goals, and social acceptance by native speakers. Reflecting the disagreement that…
Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria
This study investigates associative learning explanations of the limited attainment of adult compared to child language acquisition in terms of learned attention to cues. It replicates and extends Ellis and Sagarra (2010) in demonstrating short- and long-term learned attention in the acquisition of temporal reference in Latin. In Experiment 1,…
This paper examines why communicative language teaching (CLT) fails to improve student learning in certain contexts by assessing two adult educators' communicative and noncommunicative practices through qualitative case studies, interviews, and participant observations. Results show no inherent CLT problems that prevent teachers from grasping…
Language in Our Time: Bilingual Education and Official English, Ebonics and Standardized English, Immigration, and the Unz Initiative. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (Washington, DC, May 6-8, 1999).
Alatis, James E., Ed.; Tan, Ai-Hui, Ed.
This collection of papers includes the following: "Introduction to the Volume" (James E. Alatis); "Adults Learning To Read in a Second Script: What We've Learned" (David L. Red); "Trends in Peace Corps Volunteer Language Proficiency" (Margaret E. Malone); "Evidence for the Greater Ease of Use of the ILR Language…
This article explores citizenship education for adult immigrants through informal language education in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Based on data collected over thirteen months of ethnographic research among volunteer Dutch language coaches in Amsterdam, the primary methods used in this study were in-depth semi-structured interviews and…
This article presents a case study of a student involved in language learning at a work placement, as part of the basic Swedish language programme for adult immigrants, Svenska for invandrare (Sfi), in Gothenburg, Sweden. In accordance with the predominant economic agenda, this system is assumed to accelerate labour market entrance as well as…
Roychoudhuri, Kesaban S.; Prasad, Seema G.; Mishra, Ramesh K.
We examined if iconic pictures belonging to one's native culture interfere with second language production in bilinguals in an object naming task. Bengali-English bilinguals named pictures in both L1 and L2 against iconic cultural images representing Bengali culture or neutral images. Participants named in both “Blocked” and “Mixed” language conditions. In both conditions, participants were significantly slower in naming in English when the background was an iconic Bengali culture picture than a neutral image. These data suggest that native language culture cues lead to activation of the L1 lexicon that competed against L2 words creating an interference. These results provide further support to earlier observations where such culture related interference has been observed in bilingual language production. We discuss the results in the context of cultural influence on the psycholinguistic processes in bilingual object naming. PMID:27761121
Aguila, Emma; Escarce, Jose; Leng, Mei; Morales, Leo
Objectives Investigate the “salmon-bias” hypothesis, which posits that Mexicans in the U.S. return to Mexico due to poor health, as an explanation for the Hispanic health paradox in which Hispanics in the United States are healthier than might be expected from their socioeconomic status. Method Sample includes Mexicans age 50 or above living in the U.S. and Mexico from the 2003 Mexican Health and Aging Study and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study. Logistic regressions examine whether non-migrants or return migrants have different odds than immigrants of reporting a health outcome. Results The “salmon-bias” hypothesis holds for select health outcomes. However, non-migrants and return migrants have better health outcomes than immigrants on a variety of indicators. Discussion Overall, the results of this study do not support the salmon bias hypothesis; other explanations for the paradox could be explored. PMID:23264441
Background Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant and refugee communities in the Midwestern United States. Methods Using a community based participatory research approach, we conducted a qualitative research study with 16 audio-recorded focus groups with adults and adolescents who self-identified as Mexican, Somali, Cambodian, and Sudanese. Focus group topics were eating patterns, perceptions of healthy eating in the country of origin and in the U.S., how food decisions are made and who in the family is involved in food preparation and decisions, barriers and facilitators to healthy eating, and gender and generational differences in eating practices. A team of investigators and community research partners analyzed all transcripts in full before reducing data to codes through consensus. Broader themes were created to encompass multiple codes. Results Results show that participants have similar perspectives about the barriers (personal, environmental, structural) and benefits of healthy eating (e.g., ‘junk food is bad’). We identified four themes consistent across all four communities: Ways of Knowing about Healthy Eating (‘Meanings;’ ‘Motivations;’ ‘Knowledge Sources’), Eating Practices (‘Family Practices;’ ‘Americanized Eating Practices’ ‘Eating What’s Easy’), Barriers (‘Taste and Cravings;’ ‘Easy Access to Junk Food;’ ‘Role of Family;’ Cultural Foods and Traditions;’ ‘Time;’ ‘Finances’), and Preferences for Intervention (‘Family Counseling;’ Community Education;’ and ‘Healthier Traditional Meals.’). Some generational (adult vs. adolescents) and gender differences were observed. Conclusions Our study
Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly; Allard, Elaine; Wortham, Stanton; Mortimer, Katherine
This article explores how language ideologies--beliefs about immigrant students' language use--carry conflicting images of Spanish speakers in one New Latino Diaspora town. We describe how teachers and students encounter, negotiate, and appropriate divergent ideologies about immigrant students' language use during routine schooling practices, and…
A study explored the use of television by immigrant children in terms of language learning, investigating whether immigrant children watch television for purposes of language learning and whether they learn language through TV viewing. Unstructured interviews were conducted with eight Chinese immigrant children and seven of their mothers. The…
Akresh, Ilana Redstone
Objectives. We sought to quantify the extent of health selection (i.e., the degree to which potential immigrants migrate, or fail to migrate, on the basis of their health status) among contemporary US immigrant groups and evaluate the degree that selection explains variation in self-rated health among US legal permanent residents. Methods. Data came from the New Immigrant Survey 2003 cohort. We estimated the extent of positive and negative health selection through a unique series of questions asking immigrants in the United States to evaluate their health and compare it to that of citizens in their country of origin. Results. The extent of positive health selection differed significantly across immigrant groups and was related to compositional differences in the socioeconomic profiles of immigrant streams. Conclusions. The salience of socioeconomic status and English-language ability in explaining health differentials across immigrant groups reinforces the importance of further research on the role of these factors in contributing to the health of immigrants above and beyond the need for additional attention to the health selection process. PMID:18309141
In an August 14, 2008 story, the New York Times reported that ethnic and racial minorities will likely be a majority of the U.S. population by 2042. Many of the blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and others constituting this emerging majority will be immigrants or the children of immigrants; the number of foreigners hitting these shores is projected to…
One of the main problems Israeli language planning has focused on is the linguistic integration of newcomers and of not-so-recent immigrants whose linguistic adaptation has been slow. The bodies active in this are the Section of Adult Education of the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Ministry of Absorption, and the Jewish Agency for Israel.…
Ozfidan, Burhan; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Demir, Husamettin
Sociocultural theories consider language learning as a social practice examines students as active participants in the construction of learning processes. This study investigates sociocultural theories' central concepts, which includes peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy. The present study is a case study of twenty…
Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.
The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…
Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.
A link between developmental language disorders and atypical cerebral lateralization has been postulated since the 1920s, but evidence has been indirect and inconsistent. The current study investigated this proposal using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD), which assesses blood flow through the middle cerebral arteries serving…
Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Watt, Helen J.; Line, E. A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.
Background: The few studies that have tracked children with developmental language disorder to adulthood have found that these individuals experience considerable difficulties with psychosocial adjustment (for example, academic, vocational and social aptitude). Evidence that some children also develop autistic symptomatology over time has raised…
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Britigan, Denise H.; Murnan, Judy; King, Keith; Vaughn, Lisa M.
The purposes of the study were to determine the health literacy levels of Latinos in the Greater Cincinnati Area in both English and Spanish by utilizing two standardized quantitative measures of health literacy, and to undertake an assessment of the relationship between language, health literacy and acculturation in this community. Given a rapid…
von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.
The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…
Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P
U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to
Stratton, Tamiko; Pang, Valerie Ooka; Madueno, Marcelina; Park, Cynthia D.; Atlas, Miriam; Page, Cindy; Oliger, Jennifer
This article describes composites of actual students, but examples of hardworking immigrant students and their families can be found in every state. Many young immigrants are negotiating their place in society. They believe in the American Dream and struggle with issues of poverty, language, cultural assimilation, and the desire to further their…
Immigrant parents bring their values, language, culture, religion, and educational backgrounds to our schools, enriching our educational environments. The literature on immigrant parents, however, uses a deficit model. This study explored the value of and knowledge of immigrant parents on the margins of the public education system. Data were…
Stewart, David W.
Changes in immigration patterns bring problems and opportunities to higher education. New federal law significantly changes the ethnic and skills mix of the immigrant pool. Issues emerging include potential brain drain; pressure for curriculum change; language as a barrier to access; and the rights of illegal immigrants to higher education. (MSE)
National Coalition of Advocates for Students, Boston, MA.
Immigrant children face serious problems in gaining access to a free public education. Many schools discourage immigrant children from enrolling; once inside the schoolhouse, these children continue to experience barriers to a comprehensive and effective education. Immigrant students lack the quality language assistance programs they need to…
Ratiu, Ileana; Azuma, Tamiko
Adults with a history of traumatic brain injury often show deficits in executive functioning (EF), including the ability to inhibit, switch, and attend to tasks. These abilities are critical for language processing in bilinguals. This study examined the effect of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on EF and language processing in bilinguals using behavioral and eye-tracking measures. Twenty-two bilinguals with a history of mTBI and twenty healthy control bilinguals were administered executive function and language processing tasks. Bilinguals with a history of mTBI showed deficits in specific EFs and had higher rates of language processing errors than healthy control bilinguals. Additionally, individuals with a history of mTBI have different patterns of eye movements during reading than healthy control bilinguals. These data suggest that language processing deficits are related to underlying EF abilities. The findings provide important information regarding specific EF and language control deficits in bilinguals with a history mTBI.
Yitzhaki, Moshe; Richter, Nava
Millions of people have immigrated to Israel throughout the 1900s and before. Immigration waves are considered the most important social, political, and economical turning points in the history of Israel. This study analyzes the content of Israeli children's books dealing with immigrants and immigration to determine the image of immigrants and…
Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia
Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals. PMID:18834625
Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia
Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.
Sanchez, Karen Renee
This study explores the self-efficacy of students learning English as a Second Language on the computer-based Rosetta Stone program. The research uses a qualitative approach to explore how a readily available computer-based learning program, Rosetta Stone, can help adult immigrant students gain some English competence and so acquire a greater…
Brooks, Patricia J; Kempe, Vera
In this study, we sought to identify cognitive predictors of individual differences in adult foreign-language learning and to test whether metalinguistic awareness mediated the observed relationships. Using a miniature language-learning paradigm, adults (N = 77) learned Russian vocabulary and grammar (gender agreement and case marking) over six 1-h sessions, completing tasks that encouraged attention to phrases without explicitly teaching grammatical rules. The participants' ability to describe the Russian gender and case-marking patterns mediated the effects of nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning on grammar learning and generalization. Hence, even under implicit-learning conditions, individual differences stemmed from explicit metalinguistic awareness of the underlying grammar, which, in turn, was linked to nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning. Prior knowledge of languages with grammatical gender (predominantly Spanish) predicted learning of gender agreement. Transfer of knowledge of gender from other languages to Russian was not mediated by awareness, which suggests that transfer operates through an implicit process akin to structural priming.
Amalric, Marie; Wang, Liping; Pica, Pierre; Figueira, Santiago; Sigman, Mariano; Dehaene, Stanislas
During language processing, humans form complex embedded representations from sequential inputs. Here, we ask whether a "geometrical language" with recursive embedding also underlies the human ability to encode sequences of spatial locations. We introduce a novel paradigm in which subjects are exposed to a sequence of spatial locations on an octagon, and are asked to predict future locations. The sequences vary in complexity according to a well-defined language comprising elementary primitives and recursive rules. A detailed analysis of error patterns indicates that primitives of symmetry and rotation are spontaneously detected and used by adults, preschoolers, and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Munduruku, who have a restricted numerical and geometrical lexicon and limited access to schooling. Furthermore, subjects readily combine these geometrical primitives into hierarchically organized expressions. By evaluating a large set of such combinations, we obtained a first view of the language needed to account for the representation of visuospatial sequences in humans, and conclude that they encode visuospatial sequences by minimizing the complexity of the structured expressions that capture them.