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Sample records for adult immune function

  1. Immune Influence on Adult Neural Stem Cell Regulation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Pamela A.; Palmer, Theo D.

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) lie at the heart of central nervous system development and repair, and deficiency or dysregulation of NSCs or their progeny can have significant consequences at any stage of life. Immune signaling is emerging as one of the influential variables that define resident NSC behavior. Perturbations in local immune signaling accompany virtually every injury or disease state and signaling cascades that mediate immune activation, resolution, or chronic persistence influence resident stem and progenitor cells. Some aspects of immune signaling are beneficial, promoting intrinsic plasticity and cell replacement, while others appear to inhibit the very type of regenerative response that might restore or replace neural networks lost in injury or disease. Here we review known and speculative roles that immune signaling plays in the postnatal and adult brain, focusing on how environments encountered in disease or injury may influence the activity and fate of endogenous or transplanted NSCs. PMID:19840551

  2. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  3. Comparison of the Functional microRNA Expression in Immune Cell Subsets of Neonates and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsu, Te-Yao; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou; Yang, Kuender D.; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Diversity of biological molecules in newborn and adult immune cells contributes to differences in cell function and atopic properties. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are reported to involve in the regulation of immune system. Therefore, determining the miRNA expression profile of leukocyte subpopulations is important for understanding immune system regulation. In order to explore the unique miRNA profiling that contribute to altered immune in neonates, we comprehensively analyzed the functional miRNA signatures of eight leukocyte subsets (polymorphonuclear cells, monocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and myeloid dendritic cells) from both neonatal and adult umbilical cord and peripheral blood samples, respectively. We observed distinct miRNA profiles between adult and neonatal blood leukocyte subsets, including unique miRNA signatures for each cell lineage. Leukocyte miRNA signatures were altered after stimulation. Adult peripheral leukocytes had higher let-7b-5p expression levels compared to neonatal cord leukocytes across multiple subsets, irrespective of stimulation. Transfecting neonatal monocytes with a let-7b-5p mimic resulted in a reduction of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6 and TNF-α production, while transfection of a let-7b-5p inhibitor into adult monocytes enhanced IL-6 and TNF-α production. With this functional approach, we provide intact differential miRNA expression profiling of specific immune cell subsets between neonates and adults. These studies serve as a basis to further understand the altered immune response observed in neonates and advance the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:28066425

  4. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Older Adults: Effects on Executive Function, Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Jan A.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Klorman, Rafael; Krasner, Michael S.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Brown, Kirk Warren; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has enhanced cognition, positive emotion, and immunity in younger and middle-aged samples; its benefits are less well known for older persons. Here we report on a randomized controlled trial of MBSR for older adults and its effects on executive function, left frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha band, and antibody response. Methods Older adults (n = 201) were randomized to MBSR or waiting list control. The outcome measures were: the Trail Making Test part B/A (Trails B/A) ratio, a measure of executive function; changes in left frontal alpha asymmetry, an indicator of positive emotions or approach motivation; depression, mindfulness, and perceived stress scores, and the immunoglobulin G response to a protein antigen, a measure of adaptive immunity. Results MBSR participants had a lower Trails B/A ratio immediately after intervention (p <0.05); reduced shift to rightward frontal alpha activation after intervention (p = 0.03); higher baseline antibody levels after intervention (p <0.01), but lower antibody responses 24 weeks after antigen challenge (p <0.04), and improved mindfulness after intervention (p = 0.023) and at 21 weeks of follow-up (p = 0.006). Conclusions MBSR produced small but significant changes in executive function, mindfulness, and sustained left frontal alpha asymmetry. The antibody findings at follow-up were unexpected. Further study of the effects of MBSR on immune function should assess changes in antibody responses in comparison to T-cell-mediated effector functions, which decline as a function of age. PMID:23774986

  5. Recommended Immunizations for Adults 50+

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Health Screenings and Immunizations Recommended Immunizations For Adults 50+ The content in this section ... out more, visit How Vaccines Prevent Disease . Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunizations Understanding the difference between vaccines, vaccinations, ...

  6. Rapid evolution of larval life history, adult immune function and flight muscles in a poleward-moving damselfly.

    PubMed

    Therry, L; Nilsson-Örtman, V; Bonte, D; Stoks, R

    2014-01-01

    Although a growing number of studies have documented the evolution of adult dispersal-related traits at the range edge of poleward-expanding species, we know little about evolutionary changes in immune function or traits expressed by nondispersing larvae. We investigated differentiation in larval (growth and development) and adult traits (immune function and flight-related traits) between replicated core and edge populations of the poleward-moving damselfly Coenagrion scitulum. These traits were measured on individuals reared in a common garden experiment at two different food levels, as allocation trade-offs may be easier to detect under energy shortage. Edge individuals had a faster larval life history (growth and development rates), a higher adult immune function and a nearly significant higher relative flight muscle mass. Most of the differentiation between core and edge populations remained and edge populations had a higher relative flight muscle mass when corrected for latitude-specific thermal regimes, and hence could likely be attributed to the range expansion process per se. We here for the first time document a higher immune function in individuals at the expansion front of a poleward-expanding species and documented the rarely investigated evolution of faster life histories during range expansion. The rapid multivariate evolution in these ecological relevant traits between edge and core populations is expected to translate into changed ecological interactions and therefore has the potential to generate novel eco-evolutionary dynamics at the expansion front.

  7. Effects of dietary antioxidants on the immune function of middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A

    1999-02-01

    The immune system is highly reliant on accurate cell-cell communication for optimal function, and any damage to the signalling systems involved will result in an impaired immune responsiveness. Oxidant-mediated tissue injury is a particular hazard to the immune system, since phagocytic cells produce reactive oxygen species as part of the body's defence against infection. Adequate amounts of neutralizing antioxidants are required, therefore, to prevent damage to the immune cells themselves. Many antioxidants can be obtained directly from the diet (e.g. ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and polyphenolic flavonoids) or require micronutrients as integral components (e.g. Se in the metalloenzyme glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9)). Numerous epidemiological studies have found strong associations between diets rich in antioxidant nutrients and a reduced incidence of cancer, and it has been suggested that a boost to the body's immune system by antioxidants might, at least in part, account for this. Although more striking effects have been observed in the elderly, there is also evidence that antioxidant nutrients can modify cell-mediated immune responses in younger individuals. Indeed, it might be essential to have an adequate intake of antioxidant nutrients from an early age in order to help prevent the development of, or at least delay the onset of, several degenerative disorders. The present paper will review the effects of specific nutrients on immune function in young to middle-aged human subjects, focusing on the antioxidant vitamins C and E, and on Se. A further review, dealing more specifically with the effects of carotenoids on human immune function, will be presented at a forthcoming meeting of the Nutrition Society.

  8. Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-07-15

    Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship

  9. A method for high purity intestinal epithelial cell culture from adult human and murine tissues for the investigation of innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christina L; Harden, Scott W; LaPato, Melissa; Nelson, Michael; Amador, Byron; Sorenson, Heather; Frazier, Charles J; Wallet, Shannon M

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) serve as an important physiologic barrier between environmental antigens and the host intestinal immune system. Thus, IECs serve as a first line of defense and may act as sentinel cells during inflammatory insults. Despite recent renewed interest in IEC contributions to host immune function, the study of primary IEC has been hindered by lack of a robust culture technique, particularly for small intestinal and adult tissues. Here, a novel adaptation for culture of primary IEC is described for human duodenal organ donor tissue as well as duodenum and colon of adult mice. These epithelial cell cultures display characteristic phenotypes and are of high purity. In addition, the innate immune function of human primary IEC, specifically with regard to Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and microbial ligand responsiveness, is contrasted with a commonly used intestinal epithelial cell line (HT-29). Specifically, TLR expression at the mRNA level and production of cytokine (IFNγ and TNFα) in response to TLR agonist stimulation is assessed. Differential expression of TLRs as well as innate immune responses to ligand stimulation is observed in human-derived cultures compared to that of HT-29. Thus, use of this adapted method to culture primary epithelial cells from adult human donors and from adult mice will allow for more appropriate studies of IECs as innate immune effectors.

  10. Obtaining consent for the immunization of adults

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Effective immunization in adults is a desired health outcome, however it is not mandatory. Immunization of adults must be undertaken in accordance with a patient's real and informed consent. This paper discusses requirements for the lawful administration of an immunization to both capable and incapable adults. PMID:26619268

  11. Corticosteroid Risk Function of Severe Infection in Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia Adults. A Nationwide Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Moulis, Guillaume; Palmaro, Aurore; Sailler, Laurent; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Corticosteroid (CS)-related infection risk in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the adjusted CS risk function of severe infection in persistent or chronic primary ITP adults. We designed a nested case-control study in the FAITH cohort. This cohort is built through the French national health insurance database named SNIIRAM and includes all treated incident persistent or chronic primary ITP adults in France (ENCePP n°4574). Patients who entered the FAITH cohort between 2009 and 2012 were eligible (n = 1805). Cases were patients with infection as primary diagnosis code during hospitalization. Index date was the date of first hospitalization for infection. A 2:1 matching was performed on age and entry date in the cohort. Various CS exposure time-windows were defined: current user, exposure during the 1/3/6 months preceding index date and from the entry date. CS doses were converted in prednisone equivalent (PEQ). The cumulative CS doses were averaged in each time-window to obtain daily PEQ dosages. Each CS exposure definition was assessed using multivariate conditional regression models. During the study period, 161 cases (9 opportunistic) occurred. The model with the best goodness of fit was CS exposure during the month before the index date (OR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.61-3.83). The dose-effect relation showed that the risk existed from averaged daily doses ≥5 mg PEQ (vs. <5 mg: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.17-3.71). The risk of infection was mainly supported by current or recent exposure to CS, even with low doses.

  12. Lipids and immune function.

    PubMed

    Vitale, J J; Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    There is in vitro and in vivo evidence to suggest that dietary lipids play a role in modulating immune function. A review of the current literature on the interrelationships among dietary lipids, blood cholesterol levels, immunosuppression, and tumorigenesis makes for a very strong argument that (a) immunosuppression may be causally related to lymphoproliferative disorders, as well as to tumorigenesis and (b) diets high in polyunsaturated fat, relative to diets high in saturated fat, are more immunosuppressive and are better promotors of tumorigenesis. The effects of dietary fat on immune function seem to be mediated though its component parts, the unsaturated fatty acids, specially linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic. It is not clear how these components affect immune function. Several studies suggest that one effect is mediated by altering the lipid component of the cell membrane and thus its fluidity; the more fluid the membrane, the less responsive it is. Thus, fluidity of both immune cells and those to be destroyed or protected may be affected. The effects of saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids may be mediated by modulating serum lipoprotein levels, prostaglandin metabolism, and cholesterol concentrations and metabolism.

  13. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  14. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  15. Adult immunization in India: Importance and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent infectious diseases and their sequelae. Vaccines are crucial to prevent mortality in that >25% of deaths are due to infections. Vaccines are recommended for adults on the basis of a range of factors. Substantial improvement and increases in adult vaccination are needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Incomplete and inadequate immunization in India against these communicable diseases results in substantial and unnecessary costs both in terms of hospitalization and treatment. The government of India as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) consider childhood vaccination as the first priority, but there is not yet focus on adult immunization. Adult immunization in India is the most ignored part of heath care services. The Expert Group recommended that data on infectious diseases in India should be updated, refined, and reviewed periodically and published regularly. This group suggested that the consensus guidelines about adult immunization should be reviewed every 3 years to incorporate new strategies from any emerging research from India. There is an immediate need to address the problem of adult immunization in India. Although many issues revolving around efficacy, safety, and cost of introducing vaccines for adults at the national level are yet to be resolved, there is an urgent need to sensitize the health planners as well as health care providers regarding this pertinent issue.

  16. Exercise, nutrition and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking.

  17. Coping and Immune Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    immunization, and a single session of inescapable shock. The results are superimposable on thoce shown in Figure 1. The fact that we can obtain our...effect with a single session of shock following a single immunization with KLH makes exploration of factors such as antigen-stress timing much simpler. We

  18. Effective Smallpox Immunization of Young Adults.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    Immunization of Young Adults by Abram S. Benenson, M.D. and Irving A. Phillips University of Kentucky College of Medicine Department of Community Medicine...sPRINB.fELD, VA. 22161 U.SLI WUmmn * cIn*= Umb Tech" lmof to. Wri AD-A027 210 EFFECTIVE SMALLPOX IMMUNIZATION OF YOUNG ADULTS KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY PREPARED...shedding 0: V N -5I uWrIVE SMALLPOX IMNIZATION OF YOUNG ADULTS Abrim S. Denenson and Irving A. Phillips University of Kentucky College of Medicine

  19. Hepatitis B immunization for indigenous adults, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, J Kevin; Beard, Frank; Wesselingh, Steve; Cowie, Benjamin; Ward, James; Macartney, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify the disparity in incidence of hepatitis B between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia, and to estimate the potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults. Methods Using national data on persons with newly acquired hepatitis B disease notified between 2005 and 2012, we estimated incident infection rates and rate ratios comparing indigenous and non-indigenous people, with adjustments for underreporting. The potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults was projected using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation model. Findings Of the 54 522 persons with hepatitis B disease notified between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012, 1953  infections were newly acquired. Acute hepatitis B infection notification rates were significantly higher for indigenous than non-indigenous Australians. The rates per 100 000 population for all ages were 3.6 (156/4 368 511) and 1.1 (1797/168 449 302) for indigenous and non-indigenous people respectively. The rate ratio of age-standardized notifications was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.7–4.3). If 50% of non-immune indigenous adults (20% of all indigenous adults) were vaccinated over a 10-year programme a projected 527–549 new cases of acute hepatitis B would be prevented. Conclusion There continues to be significant health inequity between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in relation to vaccine-preventable hepatitis B disease. An immunization programme targeting indigenous Australian adults could have considerable impact in terms of cases of acute hepatitis B prevented, with a relatively low number needed to vaccinate to prevent each case. PMID:27821885

  20. Vitamin D and Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Prietl, Barbara; Treiber, Gerlies; Pieber, Thomas R.; Amrein, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes a more tolerogenic immunological status. In vivo data from animals and from human vitamin D supplementation studies have shown beneficial effects of vitamin D on immune function, in particular in the context of autoimmunity. In this review, currently available data are summarized to give an overview of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system in general and on the regulation of inflammatory responses, as well as regulatory mechanisms connected to autoimmune diseases particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23857223

  1. Platelet serotonin modulates immune functions.

    PubMed

    Mauler, M; Bode, C; Duerschmied, D

    2016-01-01

    This short review addresses immune functions of platelet serotonin. Platelets transport serotonin at a high concentration in dense granules and release it upon activation. Besides haemostatic, vasotonic and developmental modulation, serotonin also influences a variety of immune functions (mediated by different serotonin receptors). First, platelet serotonergic effects are directed against invading pathogens via activation and proliferation of lymphocytes, modulation of cytokine release, and recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation by induction of selectin expression on endothelial cells. Second, serotonin levels are elevated in autoimmune diseases, such as asthma or rheumatoid arthritis, and during tissue regeneration after ischemia of myocardium or brain. Specific antagonism of serotonin receptors appears to improve survival after myocardial infarction or sepsis and to attenuate asthmatic attacks in animal models. It will be of great clinical relevance if these findings can be translated into human applications. In conclusion, targeting immune modulatory effects of platelet serotonin may provide novel therapeutic options for common health problems.

  2. Vitamin A and immune function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of death from infectious diseases in infants and young children in areas of the world where vitamin A deficiency is common. This increased risk apparently results from impaired innate and adaptive immune function. Retinoic acid is the major metabolite of vit...

  3. Stress, age, and immune function: toward a lifespan approach.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer E; Christian, Lisa M; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2006-08-01

    Both aging processes and psychological stress affect the immune system: Each can dysregulate immune function with a potentially substantial impact on physical health. Worse, the effects of stress and age are interactive. Psychological stress can both mimic and exacerbate the effects of aging, with older adults often showing greater immunological impairment to stress than younger adults. In addition, stressful experiences very early in life can alter the responsiveness of the nervous system and immune system. We review the unique impact of aging and stress on immune function, followed by evidence of interactions between age and stress. Further, we suggest that prenatal or early life stress may increase the likelihood of maladaptive immune responses to stress in late life. An understanding of the interactive effects of stress and age is critical to efforts to determine underlying mechanisms, clarify the directionality of effects, and develop effective interventions in early and late life.

  4. Stress, Age, and Immune Function: Toward a Lifespan Approach

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jennifer E.; Christian, Lisa M.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2009-01-01

    Both aging processes and psychological stress affect the immune system: Each can dysregulate immune function with a potentially substantial impact on physical health. Worse, the effects of stress and age are interactive. Psychological stress can both mimic and exacerbate the effects of aging, with older adults often showing greater immunological impairment to stress than younger adults. In addition, stressful experiences very early in life can alter the responsiveness of the nervous system and immune system. We review the unique impact of aging and stress on immune function, followed by evidence of interactions between age and stress. Further, we suggest that prenatal or early life stress may increase the likelihood of maladaptive immune responses to stress in late life. An understanding of the interactive effects of stress and age is critical to efforts to determine underlying mechanisms, clarify the directionality of effects, and develop effective interventions in early and late life. PMID:16715331

  5. ``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.

  6. Influenza immunization in adults with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Feery, B J; Hartman, L J; Hampson, A W; Proietto, J

    1983-01-01

    The antibody responses to influenza vaccination of a group of adult diabetic patients were compared with responses in a healthy group of regular volunteer vaccinees. The initial and final geometric mean hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers were lower in the patient group, but the relative increase in titers was greater for each of the vaccine components. The percentage of fourfold rises in individual titers was greater in the diabetic group than in the control group. It was concluded that patients with diabetes mellitus responded normally to influenza vaccination. This was confirmed in an additional study. There was no significant difference in the antibody responses of patients treated with insulin or oral antidiabetic agents. There was no impairment of diabetic control as a result of influenza vaccination when this was evaluated by measuring the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin, or by random blood glucose estimations. There was no significant change in the serum insulin level after immunization in patients on oral diabetic agents. It was concluded that influenza vaccination was safe and effective in adult diabetic patients.

  7. Barriers to adult immunization and solutions: Personalized approaches

    PubMed Central

    Alici, Devrim Emel; Sayiner, Abdullah; Unal, Serhat

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunization is an important component of preventive healthcare services aiming to prevent and eventually eradicate infectious diseases by immunizing people before they become infected. Although immunization is an integral part of children's healthcare, this fact is underrated, even ignored in adults. In Turkey, adult immunization is available only for certain high risk groups such as health care professionals and populations aged > 65 y and under certain conditions including pregnancy, military service, travel-pilgrimage, and employment procedures. The fact that diseases such as pneumococcal pneumonia, influenza, rubeola, varicella, hepatitis A, and tetanus, which could be associated with severe complications in adults, are vaccine-preventable indicates the importance of adult immunization. In addition to the healthcare providers' knowledge about immunization, effective policies of related professional associations and the management of this issue by regulatory authorities, people's awareness in protecting their own health is of utmost importance in achieving the targeted level of adult immunization. This article focuses on the characteristics of the individuals as one of the 3 main cornerstones (individual, healthcare providers, regulatory authorities and supporting organizations) of immunization practices and discusses barriers to adult immunization and recommends solutions. PMID:27669411

  8. Immune Response Genotypes and Risk of Young Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    1) To identify, enroll and collect blood specimens from 368 adolescents and young adults 18 years of age or older at the time of participation... Young Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wendy Cozen, Victoria Cortessis...COVERED 1 Sep 2007 – 31 Aug 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Immune Response Genotypes and Risk of Young Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma 5b

  9. Adult Functional Competency: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Div. of Extension.

    The Adult Performance Level (APL) project summary specifies the competencies which are functional to economic and educational success in society and describes devices developed for assessing those competencies. The APL theory of functional competency identifies adult needs in general knowledge areas (consumer economics, occupational knowledge,…

  10. Immune function during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

    2002-01-01

    It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

  11. Risk and prognosis of adult primary immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Nørgaard, Mette

    2012-04-01

    Adult immune thrombocytopenia was previously considered a benign disease affecting young people and with a low risk of severe bleeding. This view was challenged by studies published during the past decade, as the median age of adult immune thrombocytopenia patients has been found to be 55-60 years and the incidence increases with age. Recent studies reported that mortality and morbidity are increased compared with the general population. In this review, we describe patient-specific factors associated with the outcome of disease, the clinical course of immune thrombocytopenia including the potential adverse impact of some treatments and finally the overall prognosis.

  12. Xylo-oligosaccharides alone or in synbiotic combination with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis induce bifidogenesis and modulate markers of immune function in healthy adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, factorial cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Childs, Caroline E; Röytiö, Henna; Alhoniemi, Esa; Fekete, Agnes A; Forssten, Sofia D; Hudjec, Natasa; Lim, Ying Ni; Steger, Cara J; Yaqoob, Parveen; Tuohy, Kieran M; Rastall, Robert A; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Gibson, Glenn R

    2014-06-14

    Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics are dietary ingredients with the potential to influence health and mucosal and systemic immune function by altering the composition of the gut microbiota. In the present study, a candidate prebiotic (xylo-oligosaccharide, XOS, 8 g/d), probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07, 109 colony-forming units (CFU)/d) or synbiotic (8 g XOS+109 CFU Bi-07/d) was given to healthy adults (25-65 years) for 21 d. The aim was to identify the effect of the supplements on bowel habits, self-reported mood, composition of the gut microbiota, blood lipid concentrations and immune function. XOS supplementation increased mean bowel movements per d (P= 0·009), but did not alter the symptoms of bloating, abdominal pain or flatulence or the incidence of any reported adverse events compared with maltodextrin supplementation. XOS supplementation significantly increased participant-reported vitality (P= 0·003) and happiness (P= 0·034). Lowest reported use of analgesics was observed during the XOS+Bi-07 supplementation period (P= 0·004). XOS supplementation significantly increased faecal bifidobacterial counts (P= 0·008) and fasting plasma HDL concentrations (P= 0·005). Bi-07 supplementation significantly increased faecal B. lactis content (P= 0·007), lowered lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-4 secretion in whole-blood cultures (P= 0·035) and salivary IgA content (P= 0·040) and increased IL-6 secretion (P= 0·009). XOS supplementation resulted in lower expression of CD16/56 on natural killer T cells (P= 0·027) and lower IL-10 secretion (P= 0·049), while XOS and Bi-07 supplementation reduced the expression of CD19 on B cells (XOS × Bi-07, P= 0·009). The present study demonstrates that XOS induce bifidogenesis, improve aspects of the plasma lipid profile and modulate the markers of immune function in healthy adults. The provision of XOS+Bi-07 as a synbiotic may confer further benefits due to the discrete effects of Bi-07 on the gut

  13. Ontogenetic immune challenges shape adult personality in mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; Toomey, Matthew B; McGraw, Kevin J; Rowe, Melissah

    2012-01-22

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour are widespread in animals, but the proximate mechanisms driving these differences remain largely unresolved. Parasitism and immune challenges are hypothesized to shape the expression of animal personality traits, but few studies have examined the influence of neonatal immune status on the development of adult personality. We examined how non-pathogenic immune challenges, administered at different stages of development, affected two common measures of personality, activity and exploratory behaviour, as well as colour-dependent novel object exploration in adult male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). We found that individuals that were immune-challenged during the middle (immediately following the completion of somatic growth) and late (during the acquisition of nuptial plumage) stages of development were more active in novel environments as adults relative to developmentally unchallenged birds or those challenged at an earlier developmental time point. Additionally, individuals challenged during the middle stage of development preferred orange and avoided red objects more than those that were not immune-challenged during development. Our results demonstrate that, in accordance with our predictions, early-life immune system perturbations alter the expression of personality traits later in life, emphasizing the role that developmental plasticity plays in shaping adult personality, and lending support to recent theoretical models that suggest that parasite pressure may play an important role in animal personality development.

  14. Modulation of Immune Functions by Foods

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Evidence is rapidly accumulating as to the beneficial effects of foods. However, it is not always clear whether the information is based on data evaluated impartially in a scientific fashion. Human research into whether foods modulate immune functions in either intervention studies or randomized controlled trials can be classified into three categories according to the physical state of subjects enrolled for investigation: (i) studies examining the effect of foods in healthy individuals; (ii) studies analyzing the effect of foods on patients with hypersensitivity; and (iii) studies checking the effect of foods on immunocompromized subjects, including patients who had undergone surgical resection of cancer and newborns. The systematization of reported studies has made it reasonable to conclude that foods are able to modulate immune functions manifesting as either innate immunity (phagocytic activity, NK cell activity) or acquired immunity (T cell response, antibody production). Moreover, improvement of immune functions by foods can normalize the physical state of allergic patients or cancer patients, and may reduce the risk of diseases in healthy individuals. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the immune-modulating abilities of foods by measuring at least one parameter of either innate or acquired immunity. PMID:15841257

  15. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  16. The effects of ozone on immune function.

    PubMed Central

    Jakab, G J; Spannhake, E W; Canning, B J; Kleeberger, S R; Gilmour, M I

    1995-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals that ozone (O3) exposure can either suppress or enhance immune responsiveness. These disparate effects elicited by O3 exposure depend, in large part, on the experimental design used, the immune parameters examined as well as the animal species studied. Despite the apparent contradictions, a general pattern of response to O3 exposure can be recognized. Most studies indicate that continuous O3 exposure leads to an early (days 0-3) impairment of immune responsiveness followed, with continued exposures, by a form of adaptation to O3 that results in a re-establishment of the immune response. The effects of O3 exposure on the response to antigenic stimulation also depend on the time at which O3 exposure occurred. Whereas O3 exposure prior to immunization is without effect on the response to antigen, O3 exposure subsequent to immunization suppresses the response to antigen. Although most studies have focused on immune responses in the lung, numerous investigators have provided functional and anatomical evidence to support the hypothesis that O3 exposure can have profound effects on systemic immunity. PMID:7614952

  17. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    PubMed Central

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Otten, Leila S; de Kruijff, Deborah; van de Loo, Aurora JAE; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ), and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001), perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002), and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001). Conclusion A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. PMID:28356753

  18. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A.; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health – General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339

  19. The neonate versus adult mammalian immune system in cardiac repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Susanne; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    The immune system is a crucial player in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. A sophisticated cascade of events triggered upon injury ensures protection from infection and initiates and orchestrates healing. While the neonatal mammal can readily regenerate damaged tissues, adult regenerative capacity is limited to specific tissue types, and in organs such as the heart, adult wound healing results in fibrotic repair and loss of function. Growing evidence suggests that the immune system greatly influences the balance between regeneration and fibrotic repair. The neonate mammalian immune system has impaired pro-inflammatory function, is prone to T-helper type 2 responses and has an immature adaptive immune system skewed towards regulatory T cells. While these characteristics make infants susceptible to infection and prone to allergies, it may also provide an immunological environment permissive of regeneration. In this review we will give a comprehensive overview of the immune cells involved in healing and regeneration of the heart and explore differences between the adult and neonate immune system that may explain differences in regenerative ability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  20. Macrophages in homeostatic immune function

    PubMed Central

    Jantsch, Jonathan; Binger, Katrina J.; Müller, Dominik N.; Titze, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are not only involved in inflammatory and anti-infective processes, but also play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent evidence investigating the role of macrophages in controlling angiogenesis, metabolism as well as salt and water balance. Particularly, we summarize the importance of macrophage tonicity enhancer binding protein (TonEBP, also termed nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 [NFAT5]) expression in the regulation of salt and water homeostasis. Further understanding of homeostatic macrophage function may lead to new therapeutic approaches to treat ischemia, hypertension and metabolic disorders. PMID:24847274

  1. Immune Response to Invasive Group B Streptococcus Disease in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rench, Marcia A.; Rinaudo, C. Daniela; Fabbrini, Monica; Tuscano, Giovanna; Buffi, Giada; Bartolini, Erika; Bonacci, Stefano; Baker, Carol J.; Margarit, Immaculada

    2016-01-01

    Immunization of nonpregnant adults could help prevent invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections, but adult immune responses have not been investigated. We defined capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and pilus island (PI) surface antigen distribution and expression and immune responses to GBS infection in nonpregnant adults. Prospective surveillance from 7 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA, identified 102 adults with GBS bacteremia; 43% had skin/soft tissue infection, 16% bacteremia without focus, and 12% osteomyelitis. CPS-specific IgG was determined by ELISA and pilus-specific IgG by multiplex immunoassay. CPS types were Ia (24.5%), Ib (12.7%), II (9.8%), III (16.7%), IV (13.7%), and V (12.7%); 9.8% were nontypeable by serologic methods. Pili, expressed by 89%, were most often PI-2a. CPS and pilus-specific IgG increased during convalescence among patients with strains expressing CPS or PI. All GBS expressed CPS or PI; 79% expressed both. Increased antibodies to CPS and PI during recovery suggests that GBS bacteremia in adults is potentially vaccine preventable. PMID:27767008

  2. Larval nutritional stress affects vector immune traits in adult yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti).

    PubMed

    Telang, A; Qayum, A A; Parker, A; Sacchetta, B R; Byrnes, G R

    2012-09-01

    We report key physiological traits that link larval nutritional experience to adult immune status in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae). Many lines of defence make up the innate immune system of mosquitoes. Among defences, the epithelium-lined midgut is the first barrier, circulating haemocytes are cellular components of innate immunity and, when triggered, the Toll and Imd pathways signal production of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) as part of humoral defences. We quantified three lines of defence in Ae. aegypti in response to larval nutritional stress, and our data show that important female immune functions are modified by the larval rearing environment. Adult midgut basal lamina thickness was not affected by larval nutrient stress as has been observed in another Aedes sp. However, nutrient stresses experienced by larvae lead to a reduced number of haemocytes in females. Transcripts of Spaetzle (upstream regulator of Toll pathway that leads to induction of AMPs) and some immune-related genes were less abundant in stressed larvae but showed increased expression in females derived from stressed larvae. Results indicate a potential for compensation by the humoral branch for a reduced cellular branch of innate immunity in adults in response to larval nutrient stress.

  3. Flagella-induced immunity against experimental cholera in adult rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Yancey, R J; Willis, D L; Berry, L J

    1979-01-01

    The adult rabbit ligated ileal loop model was used to evaluate the prophylactic potential of a crude flagellar (CF) vaccine produced from the classical. Inaba strain CA401. A greater than 1,000-fold increase in the challenge inoculum was required to induce an intestinal fluid response in actively immunized adult rabbits equivalent to that produced in unimmunized animals. Similar protection was afforded against challenge with classical and El Tor biotypes of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Highly virulent 35S-labeled vibrios were inhibited in their ability to associated with the intestinal mucosa of CF-immunized rabbits. The protection conferred by CF immunization was found to be superior to that of a commercial bivalent vaccine and also to that of glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid. The critical immunogenic component of CF appears to be a flagella-derived protein. The immunogenicity of CF was destroyed by heat treatment, and absorption of CF-immune serum with aflagellated mutant vibrios did not diminish its ability to confer a high level of passive protection. The intestinal protection of CF-immunized rabbits was completely reversed by the introduction of both goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins A and G, but by neither alone. PMID:478635

  4. Immune cell phenotype and function in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Rimmelé, Thomas; Payen, Didier; Cantaluppi, Vincenzo; Marshall, John; Gomez, Hernando; Gomez, Alonso; Murray, Patrick; Kellum, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems play a critical role in the host response to sepsis. Moreover, their accessibility for sampling and their capacity to respond dynamically to an acute threat increases the possibility that leukocytes might serve as a measure of a systemic state of altered responsiveness in sepsis. The working group of the 14th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) conference sought to obtain consensus on the characteristic functional and phenotypic changes in cells of the innate and adaptive immune system in the setting of sepsis. Techniques for the study of circulating leukocytes were also reviewed and the impact on cellular phenotypes and leukocyte function of non extracorporeal treatments and extracorporeal blood purification therapies proposed for sepsis was analyzed. A large number of alterations in the expression of distinct neutrophil and monocyte surface markers have been reported in septic patients. The most consistent alteration seen in septic neutrophils is their activation of a survival program that resists apoptotic death. Reduced expression of HLA-DR is a characteristic finding on septic monocytes but monocyte antimicrobial function does not appear to be significantly altered in sepsis. Regarding adaptive immunity, sepsis-induced apoptosis leads to lymphopenia in patients with septic shock and it involves all types of T cells (CD4, CD8 and Natural Killer) except T regulatory cells, thus favoring immunosuppression. Finally, numerous promising therapies targeting the host immune response to sepsis are under investigation. These potential treatments can have an effect on the number of immune cells, the proportion of cell subtypes and the cell function. PMID:26529661

  5. Impact of ozone depletion on immune function

    SciTech Connect

    Jeevan, A.; Kripke, M.L. . Dept. of Immunology)

    1993-06-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone is expected to lead to an increase in the amount of UV-B radiation present in sunlight. In addition to its well known ability to cause skin cancer, UV-B radiation has been shown to alter the immune system. The immune system is the body's primary defense mechanism against infectious diseases and protects against the development of certain types of cancer. Any impairment of immune function may jeopardize health by increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases, increasing the severity of infections, or delaying recovery for infections. In addition, impaired immune function can increase the incidence of certain cancers, particularly cancers of the skin. Research carried out with laboratory animals over the past 15 years has demonstrated that exposure of the skin to UV-B radiation can suppress certain types of immune responses. These include rejection of UV-induced skin cancers and melanomas, contact allergy reactions to chemicals, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to microbial and other antigens, and phagocytosis and elimination of certain bacteria from lymphoid tissues. Recent studies with mycobacterial infection of mice demonstrated that exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the delayed hypersensitivity response to mycobacterial antigens and increased the severity of infection. In humans, UV-B radiation has also been shown to impair the contact allergy response. These studies demonstrate that UV radiation can decrease immune responses in humans and laboratory and raise the possibility that increased exposure to UV-B radiation could adversely affect human health by increasing the incidence or severity of certain infectious diseases.

  6. Normal and Malignant Muscle Cell Transplantation into Immune Compromised Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John C.; Langenau, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful tool for assessing development, regeneration, and cancer. More recently, allograft cell transplantation protocols have been developed that permit engraftment of normal and malignant cells into irradiated, syngeneic, and immune compromised adult zebrafish. These models when coupled with optimized cell transplantation protocols allow for the rapid assessment of stem cell function, regeneration following injury, and cancer. Here, we present a method for cell transplantation of zebrafish adult skeletal muscle and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS), a pediatric sarcoma that shares features with embryonic muscle, into immune compromised adult rag2E450fs homozygous mutant zebrafish. Importantly, these animals lack T cells and have reduced B cell function, facilitating engraftment of a wide range of tissues from unrelated donor animals. Our optimized protocols show that fluorescently labeled muscle cell preparations from α-actin-RFP transgenic zebrafish engraft robustly when implanted into the dorsal musculature of rag2 homozygous mutant fish. We also demonstrate engraftment of fluorescent-transgenic ERMS where fluorescence is confined to cells based on differentiation status. Specifically, ERMS were created in AB-strain myf5-GFP; mylpfa-mCherry double transgenic animals and tumors injected into the peritoneum of adult immune compromised fish. The utility of these protocols extends to engraftment of a wide range of normal and malignant donor cells that can be implanted into dorsal musculature or peritoneum of adult zebrafish. PMID:25591079

  7. The Developmental Intestinal Regulator ELT-2 Controls p38-Dependent Immune Responses in Adult C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Block, Dena H. S.; Twumasi-Boateng, Kwame; Kang, Hae Sung; Carlisle, Jolie A.; Hanganu, Alexandru; Lai, Ty Yu-Jen; Shapira, Michael

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors play critical roles in cellular differentiation and development. However, their roles in mature tissues are less understood. In C. elegans larvae, the transcription factor ELT-2 regulates terminal differentiation of the intestine. It is also expressed in the adult intestine, where it was suggested to maintain intestinal structure and function, and where it was additionally shown to contribute to infection resistance. To study the function of elt-2 in adults we characterized elt-2-dependent gene expression following its knock-down specifically in adults. Microarray analysis identified two ELT-2-regulated gene subsets: one, enriched for hydrolytic enzymes, pointed at regulation of constitutive digestive functions as a dominant role of adult elt-2; the second was enriched for immune genes that are induced in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Focusing on the latter, we used genetic analyses coupled to survival assays and quantitative RT-PCR to interrogate the mechanism(s) through which elt-2 contributes to immunity. We show that elt-2 controls p38-dependent gene induction, cooperating with two p38-activated transcription factors, ATF-7 and SKN-1. This demonstrates a mechanism through which the constitutively nuclear elt-2 can impact induced responses, and play a dominant role in C. elegans immunity. PMID:26016853

  8. The Developmental Intestinal Regulator ELT-2 Controls p38-Dependent Immune Responses in Adult C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Block, Dena H S; Twumasi-Boateng, Kwame; Kang, Hae Sung; Carlisle, Jolie A; Hanganu, Alexandru; Lai, Ty Yu-Jen; Shapira, Michael

    2015-05-01

    GATA transcription factors play critical roles in cellular differentiation and development. However, their roles in mature tissues are less understood. In C. elegans larvae, the transcription factor ELT-2 regulates terminal differentiation of the intestine. It is also expressed in the adult intestine, where it was suggested to maintain intestinal structure and function, and where it was additionally shown to contribute to infection resistance. To study the function of elt-2 in adults we characterized elt-2-dependent gene expression following its knock-down specifically in adults. Microarray analysis identified two ELT-2-regulated gene subsets: one, enriched for hydrolytic enzymes, pointed at regulation of constitutive digestive functions as a dominant role of adult elt-2; the second was enriched for immune genes that are induced in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Focusing on the latter, we used genetic analyses coupled to survival assays and quantitative RT-PCR to interrogate the mechanism(s) through which elt-2 contributes to immunity. We show that elt-2 controls p38-dependent gene induction, cooperating with two p38-activated transcription factors, ATF-7 and SKN-1. This demonstrates a mechanism through which the constitutively nuclear elt-2 can impact induced responses, and play a dominant role in C. elegans immunity.

  9. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation. PMID:26886066

  10. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng

    2016-05-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation.

  11. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Tonk, Elisa C.M.; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R.; Loveren, Henk van; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  12. Impact of nutrition on immune function and the inflammatory response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The review utilizes data on three micronutrients (vitamin A, zinc and iron), anthropometrically defined undernutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) and obesity to evaluate the effect on immune function, recovery of immune function in response to nutritional interventions, related health outco...

  13. Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    2016-01-12

    In order to examine the effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the immune system we chose to examine an amplified adaptive cellular immunity response. This response is Type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity also called contact hypersensitivity. The agent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is a low molecular weight, lipophilic, reactive, fluorescent molecule that can be applied to the skin where it (hapten) reacts with proteins (carriers) to become a complete antigen. Exposure to FITC leads to sensitization which is easily measured as a hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction following a subsequent exposure to the ear. Ear swelling, eosinophil infiltration, immunoglobulin E production and cytokine secretion patterns characteristic of a “Th2 polarized” immune response are the components of the reaction. The reaction requires successful implementation of antigen processing and presentation by antigen presenting Langerhans cells, communication with naïve T lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes, expansion of activated T cell clones, migration of activated T cells to the circulation, and recruitment of memory T cells, macrophages and eosinophils to the site of the secondary challenge. Using this model our approach was to quantify system function rather than relying only on indirect biomarkers of cell. We measured the FITC-induced hypersensitivity reaction over a range of doses from 2 cGy to 2 Gy. Irradiations were performed during key events or prior to key events to deplete critical cell populations. In addition to quantifying the final inflammatory response, we assessed cell populations in peripheral blood and spleen, cytokine signatures, IgE levels and expression of genes associated with key processes in sensitization and elicitation/recall. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation would produce a biphasic effect on immune system function resulting in an enhancement at low doses and a depression at higher doses and suggested that this transition would occur in the

  14. Vitamin D and mucosal immune function

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Significant advances have been made in the characterization of Vitamin D and the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) in immune function. The studies of signaling pathways involved in the response to infection and inflammation have led to a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to Vitamin D through VDR. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding how Vitamin D contributes to mucosal immune function, particularly in relation to the molecular mechanisms by which Vitamin D and VDR influence mucosal immunity, bacterial infection, and inflammation. Recent findings Recently, it was shown that Vitamin D modulates the T cell antigen receptor, further demonstrating that Vitamin D has a nonclassical role in immunoregulation. The anti-inflammation and anti-infection functions for Vitamin D are newly identified and highly significant activities. Vitamin D/VDR have multiple critical functions in regulating the response to intestinal homeostasis, tight junctions, pathogen invasion, commensal bacterial colonization, antimicrobe peptide secretion, and mucosal defense. Interestingly, microorganisms modulate the VDR signaling pathway. Summary Vitamin D is known as a key player in calcium homeostasis and electrolyte and blood pressure regulation. Recently, important progress has been made in understanding how the noncanonical activities of Vitamin D influence the pathogenesis and prevention of human disease. Vitamin D and VDR are directly involved in T cell antigen receptor signaling. The involvement of Vitamin D/VDR in anti-inflammation and anti-infection represents a newly identified and highly significant activity for VDR. Studies have indicated that the dysregulation of VDR may lead to exaggerated inflammatory responses, raising the possibility that defects in Vitamin D and VDR signaling transduction may be linked to bacterial infection and chronic inflammation. Further characterization of Vitamin D/VDR will help elucidate the pathogenesis of

  15. Immune Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butel, Janet S.

    1999-01-01

    A major concern associated with long-duration space flight is the possibility of infectious diseases posing an unacceptable medical risk to crew members. One major hypothesis addressed in this project is that space flight will cause alterations in the immune system that will allow latent viruses that are endogenous in the human population to reactivate and shed to higher levels than normal, which may affect the health of crew members. The second major hypothesis being examined is that the effects of space flight will alter the mucosal immune system, the first line of defense against many microbial infections, including herpesviruses, polyomaviruses, and gastroenteritis viruses, rendering crew members more susceptible to virus infections across the mucosa. We are focusing the virus studies on the human herpesviruses and polyomaviruses, important pathogens known to establish latent infections in most of the human population. Both primary infection and reactivation from latent infection with these groups of viruses (especially certain herpesviruses) can cause a variety of illnesses that result in morbidity and, occasionally, mortality. Both herpesviruses and polyomaviruses have been associated with human cancer, as well. Effective vaccines exist for only one of the eight known human herpesviruses and available antivirals are of limited use. Whereas normal individuals display minimal consequences from latent viral infections, events which alter immune function (such as immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplantation) are known to increase the risk of complications as a result of viral reactivations.

  16. Innate immunity is not related to the sex of adult Tree Swallows during the nestling period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houdek, Bradley J.; Lombardo, Michael P.; Thorpe, Patrick A.; Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that exposure to more diverse pathogens will result in the evolution of a more robust immune response. We predicted that during the breeding season the innate immune function of female Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) should be more effective than that of males because (1) the transmission of sexually transmitted microbes during copulation puts females at greater risk because ejaculates move from males to females, (2) females copulate with multiple males, exposing them to the potentially pathogenic microbes in semen, and (3) females spend more time in the nest than do males so may be more exposed to nest microbes and ectoparasites that can be vectors of bacterial and viral pathogens. In addition, elevated testosterone in males may suppress immune function. We tested our prediction during the 2009 breeding season with microbicidal assays in vitro to assess the ability of the innate immune system to kill Escherichia coli. The sexes did not differ in the ability of their whole blood to kill E. coli. We also found no significant relationships between the ability of whole blood to kill E. coli and the reproductive performance or the physical condition of males or females. These results indicate that during the nestling period there are no sexual differences in this component of the innate immune system. In addition, they suggest that there is little association between this component of innate immunity and the reproductive performance and physical condition during the nestling period of adult Tree Swallows.

  17. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older - United States, 2017.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Riley, Laura E; Harriman, Kathleen H; Hunter, Paul; Bridges, Carolyn B

    2017-02-10

    In October 2016, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted to approve the Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older-United States, 2017. The 2017 adult immunization schedule summarizes ACIP recommendations in two figures, footnotes for the figures, and a table of contraindications and precautions for vaccines recommended for adults. These documents are available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules. The full ACIP recommendations for each vaccine can be found at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/index.html. The 2017 adult immunization schedule was also reviewed and approved by the American College of Physicians (https://www.acponline.org), the American Academy of Family Physicians (https://www.aafp.org), the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (http://www.acog.org), and the American College of Nurse-Midwives (http://www.midwife.org).

  18. A possible role for the immune system in adult neurogenesis: new insights from an invertebrate model.

    PubMed

    Harzsch, Steffen; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain of both vertebrates and invertebrates was previously considered to be driven by self-renewing neuronal stem cells of ectodermal origin. Recent findings in an invertebrate model challenge this view and instead provide evidence for a recruitment of neuronal precursors from a non-neuronal source. In the brain of adult crayfish, a neurogenic niche was identified that contributes progeny to the adult central olfactory pathway. The niche may function in attracting cells from the hemolymph and transforming them into cells with a neuronal fate. This finding implies that the first-generation neuronal precursors located in the crayfish neurogenic niche are not self-renewing. Evidence is summarized in support of a critical re-evaluation of long-term self-renewal of mammalian neuronal stem cells. Latest findings suggest that a tight link between the immune system and the system driving adult neurogenesis may not only exist in the crayfish but also in mammals.

  19. Functional Classification of Immune Regulatory Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Rotem; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.; Fiser, Andras

    2013-05-01

    Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) control innate and adaptive immunity and are prime targets for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and malignancies. We describe a computational method, termed the Brotherhood algorithm, which utilizes intermediate sequence information to classify proteins into functionally related families. This approach identifies functional relationships within the IgSF and predicts additional receptor-ligand interactions. As a specific example, we examine the nectin/nectin-like family of cell adhesion and signaling proteins and propose receptor-ligand interactions within this family. We were guided by the Brotherhood approach and present the high-resolution structural characterization of a homophilic interaction involving the class-I MHC-restricted T-cell-associated molecule, which we now classify as a nectin-like family member. The Brotherhood algorithm is likely to have a significant impact on structural immunology by identifying those proteins and complexes for which structural characterization will be particularly informative.

  20. Opioid System Modulates the Immune Function: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xuan; Liu, Renyu; Chen, Chunhua; Ji, Fang; Li, Tianzuo

    2016-01-01

    Opioid receptors and their ligands produce powerful analgesia that is effective in perioperative period and chronic pain managements accompanied with various side effects including respiratory depression, constipation and addiction etc. Opioids can also interfere with the immune system, not only participating in the function of the immune cells, but also modulating innate and acquired immune responses. The traditional notion of opioids is immunosuppressive. Recent studies indicate that the role of opioid receptors on immune function is complicated, working through various different mechanisms. Different opioids or opioids administrations show various effects on the immune system: immunosuppressive, immunostimulatory, or dual effect. It is important to elucidate the relationship between opioids and immune function, since immune system plays critical role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including the inflammation, tumor growth and metastasis, drug abuse, and so on. This review article tends to have an overview of the recent work and perspectives on opioids and the immune function. PMID:26985446

  1. Opioid System Modulates the Immune Function: A Review.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuan; Liu, Renyu; Chen, Chunhua; Ji, Fang; Li, Tianzuo

    Opioid receptors and their ligands produce powerful analgesia that is effective in perioperative period and chronic pain managements accompanied with various side effects including respiratory depression, constipation and addiction etc. Opioids can also interfere with the immune system, not only participating in the function of the immune cells, but also modulating innate and acquired immune responses. The traditional notion of opioids is immunosuppressive. Recent studies indicate that the role of opioid receptors on immune function is complicated, working through various different mechanisms. Different opioids or opioids administrations show various effects on the immune system: immunosuppressive, immunostimulatory, or dual effect. It is important to elucidate the relationship between opioids and immune function, since immune system plays critical role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including the inflammation, tumor growth and metastasis, drug abuse, and so on. This review article tends to have an overview of the recent work and perspectives on opioids and the immune function.

  2. A Reading Profile of Functionally Illiterate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Bette H.; Russell, Sheldon Noel

    In order to identify the reading behavior and instructional needs of functionally illiterate adults reading below fourth grade level, 50 adults were identified and diagnosed on the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty test and the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to Oklahoma City…

  3. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2016-02-05

    In October 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2016. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Although the figures in the adult immunization schedule illustrate recommended vaccinations that begin at age 19 years, the footnotes contain information on vaccines that are recommended for adults that may begin at age younger than age 19 years. The footnotes also contain vaccine dosing, intervals between doses, and other important information and should be read with the figures.

  4. Endogenous opioid peptides in regulation of innate immunity cell functions.

    PubMed

    Gein, S V; Baeva, T A

    2011-03-01

    Endogenous opioid peptides comprise a group of bioregulatory factors involved in regulation of functional activity of various physiological systems of an organism. One of most important functions of endogenous opioids is their involvement in the interaction between cells of the nervous and immune systems. Summary data on the effects of opioid peptides on regulation of functions of innate immunity cells are presented.

  5. Investment in Constitutive Immune Function by North American Elk Experimentally Maintained at Two Different Population Densities

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Cynthia J.; Stewart, Kelley M.; Dick, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection favors individuals that respond with effective and appropriate immune responses to macro or microparasites. Animals living in populations close to ecological carrying capacity experience increased intraspecific competition, and as a result are often in poor nutritional condition. Nutritional condition, in turn, affects the amount of endogenous resources that are available for investment in immune function. Our objective was to understand the relationship between immune function and density dependence mediated by trade-offs between immune function, nutritional condition, and reproduction. To determine how immune function relates to density-dependent processes, we quantified bacteria killing ability, hemolytic-complement activity, and nutritional condition of North American elk (Cervus elaphus) from populations maintained at experimentally high- and low-population densities. When compared with elk from the low-density population, those from the high-density population had higher bacteria killing ability and hemolytic-complement activity despite their lower nutritional condition. Similarly, when compared with adults, yearlings had higher bacteria killing ability, higher hemolytic-complement activity, and lower nutritional condition. Pregnancy status and lactational status did not change either measure of constitutive immunity. Density-dependent processes affected both nutritional condition and investment in constitutive immune function. Although the mechanism for how density affects immunity is ambiguous, we hypothesize two possibilities: (i) individuals in higher population densities and in poorer nutritional condition invested more into constitutive immune defenses, or (ii) had higher parasite loads causing higher induced immune responses. Those explanations are not mutually exclusive, and might be synergistic, but overall our results provide stronger support for the hypothesis that animals in poorer nutritional condition invest more in

  6. Investment in constitutive immune function by North American elk experimentally maintained at two different population densities.

    PubMed

    Downs, Cynthia J; Stewart, Kelley M; Dick, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection favors individuals that respond with effective and appropriate immune responses to macro or microparasites. Animals living in populations close to ecological carrying capacity experience increased intraspecific competition, and as a result are often in poor nutritional condition. Nutritional condition, in turn, affects the amount of endogenous resources that are available for investment in immune function. Our objective was to understand the relationship between immune function and density dependence mediated by trade-offs between immune function, nutritional condition, and reproduction. To determine how immune function relates to density-dependent processes, we quantified bacteria killing ability, hemolytic-complement activity, and nutritional condition of North American elk (Cervus elaphus) from populations maintained at experimentally high- and low-population densities. When compared with elk from the low-density population, those from the high-density population had higher bacteria killing ability and hemolytic-complement activity despite their lower nutritional condition. Similarly, when compared with adults, yearlings had higher bacteria killing ability, higher hemolytic-complement activity, and lower nutritional condition. Pregnancy status and lactational status did not change either measure of constitutive immunity. Density-dependent processes affected both nutritional condition and investment in constitutive immune function. Although the mechanism for how density affects immunity is ambiguous, we hypothesize two possibilities: (i) individuals in higher population densities and in poorer nutritional condition invested more into constitutive immune defenses, or (ii) had higher parasite loads causing higher induced immune responses. Those explanations are not mutually exclusive, and might be synergistic, but overall our results provide stronger support for the hypothesis that animals in poorer nutritional condition invest more in

  7. The first national adult immunization summit 2012: implementing change through action.

    PubMed

    Shen, Angela K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Tan, Litjen

    2013-01-02

    To address lagging vaccine coverage among adults in the United States, over 150 organizations representing a wide range of immunization partners convened in Atlanta, GA from May 15-16, 2012 for the inaugural National Adult Immunization Summit. The meeting called for solution-oriented discussion toward improving current immunization levels, implementing the 2011 National Vaccine Advisory Committee adult immunization recommendations, and capitalizing on new opportunities to improve coverage. Provisions in the federal health reform law that increase access to preventive services, including immunizations, and the increasing numbers of complementary vaccine providers such as pharmacists, create new opportunities to increase access for immunization services and improve coverage for adults. The Summit organized around five focal areas: empowering providers, quality and performance measures, increasing access and collaboration, educating patients, and informing decision-makers. These focal areas formed the basis of working groups, charged to coordinate efforts by the participating organizations to address gaps in the current immunization system. Summit participants identified priority themes to address as tasks during the coming year, including better communicating the value of immunizations to increase demand for immunizations, creating a central repository of resources for providers, patients, and others interested in improving adult immunization levels, examining performance and quality measures and evaluating means to use such measures to motivate vaccine providers, increasing engagement with employer and employee groups to increase awareness and demand for vaccinations, improving the use of immunization information systems and electronic health reports, decreasing barriers to all vaccine providers including pharmacists and community vaccinators, decreasing the complexity of the adult vaccine schedule where possible, engaging adult immunization champions and leaders in

  8. The Microbiome, Systemic Immune Function, and Allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Anoma; Fishman, Jay A

    2016-01-01

    Diverse effects of the microbiome on solid organ transplantation are beginning to be recognized. In allograft recipients, microbial networks are disrupted by immunosuppression, nosocomial and community-based infectious exposures, antimicrobial therapies, surgery, and immune processes. Shifting microbial patterns, including acute infectious exposures, have dynamic and reciprocal interactions with local and systemic immune systems. Both individual microbial species and microbial networks have central roles in the induction and control of innate and adaptive immune responses, in graft rejection, and in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Understanding the diverse interactions between the microbiome and the immune system of allograft recipients may facilitate clinical management in the future.

  9. The Microbiome, Systemic Immune Function, and Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Anoma

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Diverse effects of the microbiome on solid organ transplantation are beginning to be recognized. In allograft recipients, microbial networks are disrupted by immunosuppression, nosocomial and community-based infectious exposures, antimicrobial therapies, surgery, and immune processes. Shifting microbial patterns, including acute infectious exposures, have dynamic and reciprocal interactions with local and systemic immune systems. Both individual microbial species and microbial networks have central roles in the induction and control of innate and adaptive immune responses, in graft rejection, and in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Understanding the diverse interactions between the microbiome and the immune system of allograft recipients may facilitate clinical management in the future. PMID:26656674

  10. Measuring the immune system: a comprehensive approach for the analysis of immune functions in humans.

    PubMed

    Claus, Maren; Dychus, Nicole; Ebel, Melanie; Damaschke, Jürgen; Maydych, Viktoriya; Wolf, Oliver T; Kleinsorge, Thomas; Watzl, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    The immune system is essential to provide protection from infections and cancer. Disturbances in immune function can therefore directly affect the health of the affected individual. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as exposure to chemicals, stress, nutrition and age have been reported to influence the immune system. These influences can affect various components of the immune system, and we are just beginning to understand the causalities of these changes. To investigate such disturbances, it is therefore essential to analyze the different components of the immune system in a comprehensive fashion. Here, we demonstrate such an approach which provides information about total number of leukocytes, detailed quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of lymphocyte subsets, cytokine levels in serum and functional properties of T cells, NK cells and monocytes. Using samples from a cohort of 24 healthy volunteers, we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach to detect changes in immune functions.

  11. Immune function trade-offs in response to parasite threats.

    PubMed

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Quade, Adam H; Zera, Anthony J; Warne, Robin W

    2017-04-01

    Immune function is often involved in physiological trade-offs because of the energetic costs of maintaining constitutive immunity and mounting responses to infection. However, immune function is a collection of discrete immunity factors and animals should allocate towards factors that combat the parasite threat with the highest fitness cost. For example, animals on dispersal fronts of expanding population may be released from density-dependent diseases. The costs of immunity, however, and life history trade-offs in general, are often context dependent. Trade-offs are often most apparent under conditions of unusually limited resources or when animals are particularly stressed, because the stress response can shift priorities. In this study we tested how humoral and cellular immune factors vary between phenotypes of a wing dimorphic cricket and how physiological stress influences these immune factors. We measured constitutive lysozyme activity, a humoral immune factor, and encapsulation response, a cellular immune factor. We also stressed the crickets with a sham predator in a full factorial design. We found that immune strategy could be explained by the selective pressures encountered by each morph and that stress decreased encapsulation, but not lysozyme activity. These results suggest a possible trade-off between humoral and cellular immunity. Given limited resources and the expense of immune factors, parasite pressures could play a key factor in maintaining insect polyphenism via disruptive selection.

  12. Immune function in patients with chromosome deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Nurmi, T; Uhari, M; Linna, S L; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, S; Koskela, M; Kiuttu, J; Tiilikainen, A

    1982-01-01

    Non-specific, cell-mediated and humoral immunity were evaluated in six patients with different autosomal deletions, and in two patients with X-chromosome deletions. Six had an increased number of bacterial, viral, and mycotic infections. Mild disturbances were found in the immunological functions of almost every patient. Granulocyte phagocytosis and killing of bacteria were normal in all patients. The chemotactic response was increased in two, and normal in the others. The responses to phytohaemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen were normal in all patients and the response to concanavalin A was decreased in one patient. The lymphocyte response to purified protein derivative was decreased in the patients as a group when compared to the controls (P less than 0 . 005), but normal to oidiomycin. The number of acid-alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase positive cells was low in four patients. One had a high titre of antinuclear and antithyroid antibodies. One had a low concentration of serum IgA, C3 and C4. One had a high concentration of IgM. Two had elevated levels of C3 and C4. Our results show that several different chromosomal deletions are associated with immunological abnormality. PMID:6979446

  13. Redox Regulation in Plant Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Frederickson Matika, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) occurs rapidly in response to attempted pathogen invasion of potential host plants. Such reduction–oxidation (redox) changes are sensed and transmitted to engage immune function, including the hypersensitive response, a programmed execution of challenged plant cells. Recent Advances: Pathogen elicitors trigger changes in calcium that are sensed by calmodulin, calmodulin-like proteins, and calcium-dependent protein kinases, which activate ROS and RNS production. The ROS and RNS production is compartmentalized within the cell and occurs through multiple routes. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are engaged upstream and downstream of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) production. NO is increasingly recognized as a key signaling molecule, regulating downstream protein function through S-nitrosylation, the addition of an NO moiety to a reactive cysteine thiol. Critical Issues: How multiple sources of ROS and RNS are coordinated is unclear. The putative protein sensors that detect and translate fluxes in ROS and RNS into differential gene expression are obscure. Protein tyrosine nitration following reaction of peroxynitrite with tyrosine residues has been proposed as another signaling mechanism or as a marker leading to protein degradation, but the reversibility remains to be established. Future Directions: Research is needed to identify the full spectrum of NO-modified proteins with special emphasis on redox-activated transcription factors and their cognate target genes. A systems approach will be required to uncover the complexities integral to redox regulation of MAPK cascades, transcription factors, and defense genes through the combined effects of calcium, phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation, and protein tyrosine nitration. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1373–1388. PMID:24206122

  14. Sleep and immune function: glial contributions and consequences of aging.

    PubMed

    Ingiosi, Ashley M; Opp, Mark R; Krueger, James M

    2013-10-01

    The reciprocal interactions between sleep and immune function are well-studied. Insufficient sleep induces innate immune responses as evidenced by increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the brain and periphery. Conversely, immune challenges upregulate immunomodulator expression, which alters central nervous system-mediated processes and behaviors, including sleep. Recent studies indicate that glial cells, namely microglia and astrocytes, are active contributors to sleep and immune system interactions. Evidence suggests glial regulation of these interactions is mediated, in part, by adenosine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate actions at purinergic type 1 and type 2 receptors. Furthermore, microglia and astrocytes may modulate declines in sleep-wake behavior and immunity observed in aging.

  15. Suitable hepatitis B vaccine for adult immunization in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linna; Yao, Jun; Li, Jing; Chen, Yongdi; Jiang, Zheng-Gang; Ren, Jing-Jing; Xu, Kai-Jin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shi-Gui; Wang, Bing; Xie, Tian-Sheng; Li, Qian

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in adults, the immunogenicity of six hepatitis B vaccines with different doses or different manufacturers in the Chinese market and to provide evidence to support adult hepatitis B vaccination. Participants were randomly divided into six groups (I-VI). Six vaccines (4 at 10 μg/dose and 2 at 20 μg/dose) were administered intramuscularly to healthy adults at 0, 1 and 6 month intervals. All participants (16-50 years) who were negative for any hepatitis B virus serological markers were vaccinated. Anti-HBs levels were assessed 1 month and 1 year after the third vaccination. The anti-HBs seroconversion rate (anti-HBs >10 mIU/ml) was 99.4 % (99.9 % for 10 μg dose groups and 97.9 % for 20 μg dose groups) 1 month after the third vaccination, and the anti-HBs seroreversion rate was 77.0 % (75.3 and 82.6 %) 1 year after the third vaccination (n = 1036). One month after completing the vaccinations, the seroconversion rates were not significantly different (100.0, 100.0, 99.6, 100.0 %) for the four 10 μg dose and two 20 μg dose groups (99.1, 96.9 %). One year after the third vaccination, the group II positive rate was significantly higher than the other three 10 μg dose groups, and the group VI positive rate was significantly higher than the other 20 μg dose group. Groups II and VI showed a significantly higher positive rate and anti-HBs geometric mean titer (GMT) than the other groups. The anti-HBs level declined with increasing age, and the seroreversion rate and GMT decreased over time. All six vaccines had high anti-HBs seroconversion rates and good immunization effects. The 10 μg dose vaccine (Dalian High-Tech) and the 20 μg dose vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline) are recommended for adults.

  16. Large-Scale and Comprehensive Immune Profiling and Functional Analysis of Normal Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Chan C.; Siebert, Janet; Newman, Aaron M.; Du, Hong-wu; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Goronzy, Jorg; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Krishnan, Eswar; Fathman, C. Garrison; Maecker, Holden T.

    2015-01-01

    While many age-associated immune changes have been reported, a comprehensive set of metrics of immune aging is lacking. Here we report data from 243 healthy adults aged 40–97, for whom we measured clinical and functional parameters, serum cytokines, cytokines and gene expression in stimulated and unstimulated PBMC, PBMC phenotypes, and cytokine-stimulated pSTAT signaling in whole blood. Although highly heterogeneous across individuals, many of these assays revealed trends by age, sex, and CMV status, to greater or lesser degrees. Age, then sex and CMV status, showed the greatest impact on the immune system, as measured by the percentage of assay readouts with significant differences. An elastic net regression model could optimally predict age with 14 analytes from different assays. This reinforces the importance of multivariate analysis for defining a healthy immune system. These data provide a reference for others measuring immune parameters in older people. PMID:26197454

  17. Frank A. Beach award: programming of neuroendocrine function by early-life experience: a critical role for the immune system.

    PubMed

    Bilbo, Staci D

    2013-05-01

    Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with a strong dysregulation of the immune system, and several have a striking etiology in development as well. Our recent evidence using a rodent model of neonatal Escherichia coli infection has revealed novel insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in adulthood, and suggests that the early-life immune history of an individual may be critical to understanding the relative risk of developing later-life mental health disorders in humans. A single neonatal infection programs the function of immune cells within the brain, called microglia, for the life of the rodent such that an adult immune challenge results in exaggerated cytokine production within the brain and associated cognitive deficits. I describe the important role of the immune system, notably microglia, during brain development, and discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, and cognition.

  18. Immunity to porcine rubulavirus infection in adult swine.

    PubMed

    Hernández, J; Reyes-Leyva, J; Zenteno, R; Ramírez, H; Hernández-Jauregui, P; Zenteno, E

    1998-08-31

    The immune response against the porcine rubulavirus was analyzed in experimentally infected adult pigs. High titers of virus neutralizing and hemagglutinating inhibitory antibodies were identified in infected animals. The antibody specificity was directed towards HN, M, and NP rubula virion proteins; immunodominance of HN proteins was demonstrated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from infected, but not from non-infected pigs proliferated in vitro in response to virus antigenic stimuli, showing a bell-shaped plot with the highest peak at 5 weeks post-infection. Virus-induced lymphoblasts expressed CD4+ CD8+ phenotype, whereas lectin-induced lymphoblasts were mainly identified as CD4+ CD8- cells. Phenotype analysis of freshly prepared PBMC revealed increased number of both monocytes (PoM1+) and total T lymphocytes (CD2+) early during infection, with reduced values of B lymphocytes at 4 weeks post-infection. Decrease in CD4+ CD8- blood cells was observed at 3 weeks post-infection, whereas both CD4- CD8+ and CD4+ CD8+ cells increased 1 and 4 weeks post-infection, respectively. This work discusses the relevance of CD4+ CD8+ T cells in the control of porcine rubulavirus infection.

  19. HLA Immune Function Genes in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Anthony R.; Westover, Jonna B.; Rosenspire, Allen J.

    2012-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes on chromosome 6 are instrumental in many innate and adaptive immune responses. The HLA genes/haplotypes can also be involved in immune dysfunction and autoimmune diseases. It is now becoming apparent that many of the non-antigen-presenting HLA genes make significant contributions to autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, it has been reported that autism subjects often have associations with HLA genes/haplotypes, suggesting an underlying dysregulation of the immune system mediated by HLA genes. Genetic studies have only succeeded in identifying autism-causing genes in a small number of subjects suggesting that the genome has not been adequately interrogated. Close examination of the HLA region in autism has been relatively ignored, largely due to extraordinary genetic complexity. It is our proposition that genetic polymorphisms in the HLA region, especially in the non-antigen-presenting regions, may be important in the etiology of autism in certain subjects. PMID:22928105

  20. Immune function of Chinese formula Qingwen Baidu granule in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shijun; Xu, Qianqian; Zhang, Zhimei; Wang, Yanping; Shen, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of Qingwen Baidu granules on the antibody level, immune organ index and the lymphocyte transformation of broilers. Hy-line variety white cocks of 30 days were used to evaluate the antibody titer of Newcastle Disease in each serum group, and MTT method was used to determine the T lymphocyte proliferation, and organ weighing methods to measure the immune organ index 21 days after immunization. The results showed that Qingwen Baidu granules could prolong the residue time in the body, improve the lymphocyte conversion ratio, increase the bursa, thymus and spleen index and promote immune organ development. These results suggested that Qingwen Baidu granules could improve the serum Newcastle disease antibody level, improve peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation, enhance the cellular immune function, and elevate the immune organ index and growth, in order to raise the immune function in chicken. The above demonstrates that the Qingwen Baidu granules have significant effects on the cytoimmunity and humoral immunity, and the potentiation of the immune function in broilers. PMID:26557027

  1. Nutritional control of immunity: Balancing the metabolic requirements with an appropriate immune function.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna; Colamatteo, Alessandra; Laccetti, Roberta; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The immune system is a highly integrated network of cells sensitive to a number of environmental factors. Interestingly, recent years have seen a dramatic increase in our understanding of how diet makes a crucial contribution to human health, affecting the immune system, secretion of adipocytokines and metabolic pathways. Recent experimental evidence indicates that diet and its components are able to profoundly influence immune responses, thus affecting the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This review aims to discuss some of the main topics concerning the impact of nutrients and their relative composition on immune cell development and function that may be particularly important for regulating the balance between inflammatory and tolerogenic processes. We also highlight the effects of diet on commensal bacteria and how changes in the composition of the microbiota alter intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis. Finally, we summarize the effects of dietary compounds on epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of several immune related genes.

  2. Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Praag, Henriette; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Christie, Brian R.; Toni, Nicolas; Palmer, Theo D.; Gage, Fred H.

    2002-02-01

    There is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory. However, it is not known whether these new neurons become functional, as the methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited to fixed tissue. We use here a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein that only labels dividing cells, and that can be visualized in live hippocampal slices. We report that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells. Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain.

  3. Training Effects on Immune Function in Judoists

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu; Hyung, Gu Am; Park, Jeong Hun; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Han Byeol; Jung, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that high intensity long term training in elite athletes may increase risk of immune function. Objectives: This study is to examine training effects on immunoglobulin and changes of physiological stress and physical fitness level induced by increased cold stress during 12-week winter off-season training in elite Judoists. Patients and Methods: Twenty-nine male participants (20 ± 1 years) were assigned to only Judo training (CG, n = 9), resistance training combined with Judo training (RJ, n = 10), and interval training combined with Judo training (IJ, n = 10). Blood samples collected at rest, immediately after all-out exercise, and 30-minute recovery period were analyzed for testing IgA, IgG, and IgM, albumin and catecholamine levels. Results: VO2max and anaerobic mean power in IJ (P < 0.05) and anaerobic power in RJ (P < 0.05) were significantly increased after 12-week training compared to CG. There was no significant interaction effect (group × period) in albumin after 12-week training; however, there was a significant interaction effect (group × period) in epinephrine after 12-week training (F (4, 52) = 3.216, P = 0.002) and immediately after all-out exercise and at 30-minute recovery (F (2, 26) = 14.564, P = 0.008). There was significantly higher changes in epinephrine of RJ compared to IJ at 30-minute recovery (P = 0.045). There was a significant interaction effect (group × period) in norepinephrine after 12-week training (F (4, 52) = 8.141, P < 0.0001), at rest and immediately after all-out exercise (F (2, 26) = 9.570, P = 0.001), and immediately after all-out exercise and at 30-minute recovery (F (2, 26) = 8.862, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Winter off-season training of IJ increased physical fitness level as well as physical stress induced by overtraining. Along with increased physical stress, all groups showed reduced trend of IgA; however, there was no group difference based on different training methods. PMID:26448852

  4. Epigenetic and immune function profiles associated with posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Monica; Aiello, Allison E.; Wildman, Derek E.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Pawelec, Graham; de los Santos, Regina; Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The biologic underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been fully elucidated. Previous work suggests that alterations in the immune system are characteristic of the disorder. Identifying the biologic mechanisms by which such alterations occur could provide fundamental insights into the etiology and treatment of PTSD. Here we identify specific epigenetic profiles underlying immune system changes associated with PTSD. Using blood samples (n = 100) obtained from an ongoing, prospective epidemiologic study in Detroit, the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, we applied methylation microarrays to assay CpG sites from more than 14,000 genes among 23 PTSD-affected and 77 PTSD-unaffected individuals. We show that immune system functions are significantly overrepresented among the annotations associated with genes uniquely unmethylated among those with PTSD. We further demonstrate that genes whose methylation levels are significantly and negatively correlated with traumatic burden show a similar strong signal of immune function among the PTSD affected. The observed epigenetic variability in immune function by PTSD is corroborated using an independent biologic marker of immune response to infection, CMV—a typically latent herpesvirus whose activity was significantly higher among those with PTSD. This report of peripheral epigenomic and CMV profiles associated with mental illness suggests a biologic model of PTSD etiology in which an externally experienced traumatic event induces downstream alterations in immune function by reducing methylation levels of immune-related genes. PMID:20439746

  5. Does Exercise Alter Immune Function and Respiratory Infections?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieman, David C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines whether physical activity influences immune function as a consequence risk of infection from the common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and whether the immune system responds differently to moderate versus intense physical exertion. Research indicates that people who participate in regular moderate…

  6. Serological immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in healthy adults in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sonal; Jais, Manoj; Dutta, Renu; Dutta, A K

    2009-07-01

    Widespread childhood immunization with DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) has largely eradicated diphtheria and tetanus from many countries. The reduction in the circulation of toxigenic strains has resulted in less natural boosting of adult immunity. As a result, the adult population in countries with high childhood immunization coverage have become susceptible to the disease. The duration of immunity after primary immunization to diphtheria and tetanus is limited and a reduction in immunity is common in adults. With this perspective, the present study was carried out on a random serum sample of 255 healthy individuals aged 20-50 years. The serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin G levels against diphtheria and tetanus by enzyme immuno assays. Fifty-three per cent of adults were unprotected; 22 % were seen to have only a basic protection against diphtheria; 25% were protected against both diseases; and 47% were susceptible to tetanus. The susceptibility was seen to increase with age. To avoid epidemics in the future, immunity must be improved. It is important to treat even the most trivial wound with care and tetanus toxoid immunization. Also, it is necessary to monitor the community for immunity to diphtheria using standard techniques in order to undertake epidemiological surveillances of, and prevention from, these dreadful diseases.

  7. Neuroendocrine control of photoperiodic changes in immune function

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Zachary M.; Borniger, Jeremy C.; Cisse, Yasmine M.; Abi Salloum, Bachir A.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal variation in immune function putatively maximizes survival and reproductive success. Day length (photoperiod) is the most potent signal for time of year. Animals typically organize breeding, growth, and behavior to adapt to spatial and temporal niches. Outside the tropics individuals monitor photoperiod to support adaptations favoring survival and reproductive success. Changes in day length allow anticipation of seasonal changes in temperature and food availability that are critical for reproductive success. Immune function is typically bolstered during winter, whereas reproduction and growth are favored during summer. We provide an overview of how photoperiod influences neuronal function and melatonin secretion, how melatonin acts directly and indirectly to govern seasonal changes in immune function, and the manner by which other neuroendocrine effectors such as glucocorticoids, prolactin, thyroid, and sex steroid hormones modulate seasonal variations in immune function. Potential future research avenues include commensal gut microbiota and light pollution influences on photoperiodic responses. PMID:25456047

  8. Continuous Dual Resetting of the Immune Repertoire as a Basic Principle of the Immune System Function

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic chronic inflammatory conditions (ICIC) such as allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and various autoimmune conditions are a worldwide health problem. Understanding the pathogenesis of ICIC is essential for their successful therapy and prevention. However, efforts are hindered by the lack of comprehensive understanding of the human immune system function. In line with those efforts, described here is a concept of stochastic continuous dual resetting (CDR) of the immune repertoire as a basic principle that governs the function of immunity. The CDR functions as a consequence of system's thermodynamically determined intrinsic tendency to acquire new states of inner equilibrium and equilibrium against the environment. Consequently, immune repertoire undergoes continuous dual (two-way) resetting: against the physiologic continuous changes of self and against the continuously changing environment. The CDR-based dynamic concept of immunity describes mechanisms of self-regulation, tolerance, and immunosenescence, and emphasizes the significance of immune system's compartmentalization in the pathogenesis of ICIC. The CDR concept's relative simplicity and concomitantly documented congruency with empirical, clinical, and experimental data suggest it may represent a plausible theoretical framework to better understand the human immune system function. PMID:28246613

  9. Continuous Dual Resetting of the Immune Repertoire as a Basic Principle of the Immune System Function.

    PubMed

    Balzar, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic chronic inflammatory conditions (ICIC) such as allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and various autoimmune conditions are a worldwide health problem. Understanding the pathogenesis of ICIC is essential for their successful therapy and prevention. However, efforts are hindered by the lack of comprehensive understanding of the human immune system function. In line with those efforts, described here is a concept of stochastic continuous dual resetting (CDR) of the immune repertoire as a basic principle that governs the function of immunity. The CDR functions as a consequence of system's thermodynamically determined intrinsic tendency to acquire new states of inner equilibrium and equilibrium against the environment. Consequently, immune repertoire undergoes continuous dual (two-way) resetting: against the physiologic continuous changes of self and against the continuously changing environment. The CDR-based dynamic concept of immunity describes mechanisms of self-regulation, tolerance, and immunosenescence, and emphasizes the significance of immune system's compartmentalization in the pathogenesis of ICIC. The CDR concept's relative simplicity and concomitantly documented congruency with empirical, clinical, and experimental data suggest it may represent a plausible theoretical framework to better understand the human immune system function.

  10. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function SDBI-1900, SMO-015 - Integrated Immune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Nehlsen-Cannarella, Sandra; Morukov, Boris; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2007-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation. This may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. The clinical risk from prolonged immune dysregulation during space flight are not yet determined, but may include increased incidence of infection, allergy, hypersensitivity, hematological malignancy or altered wound healing. Each of the clinical events resulting from immune dysfunction has the potential to impact mission critical objectives during exploration-class missions. To date, precious little in-flight immune data has been generated to assess this phenomenon. The majority of recent flight immune studies have been post-flight assessments, which may not accurately reflect the in-flight condition. There are no procedures currently in place to monitor immune function or its effect on crew health. The objective of this Supplemental Medical Objective (SMO) is to develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. This SMO will assess the clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of space flight on the human immune system and will validate a flight-compatible immune monitoring strategy. Characterization of the clinical risk and the development of a monitoring strategy are necessary prerequisite activities prior to validating countermeasures. This study will determine, to the best level allowed by current technology, the in-flight status of crewmembers immune system. Pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight assessments of immune status, immune function, viral reactivation and physiological stress will be performed. The in-flight samples will allow a distinction between legitimate in-flight alterations and the physiological stresses of landing and readaptation which are believed to alter landing day assessments. The overall status of the immune system during flight (activation

  11. Plasma Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations and Immune Function in Postmenopausal Women☆

    PubMed Central

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjodin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 μg/mL PHA-TLP per 50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. PMID:24721136

  12. Contrasting Adult and Infant Immune Responses to HIV Infection and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, David R.; Permar, Sallie R.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies have demonstrated that infant immune responses are distinct from those of adults. Despite these differences, infant immunization can elicit protective immune responses at levels comparable to or, in some cases, higher than adult immune responses to many vaccines. To date, only a few HIV vaccine candidates have been tested in infant populations, and none of them evaluated vaccine efficacy. Recent exciting studies showing that HIV-infected infants can develop broad neutralizing antibody responses and that some HIV vaccine regimens can elicit high levels of potentially protective antibodies in infants provide support for the development and testing of HIV vaccines in pediatric populations. In this review, we discuss the differences in adult and infant immune responses in the setting of HIV infection and vaccination. PMID:26656117

  13. Social Functioning in Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Susan A.; Forness, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on possible causes of social functioning deficits in adults with learning disabilities including language disorders, information processing deficits, and behavioral and/or attention problems. Discusses co-occurrence of social functioning deficits with nonverbal learning disability, and effects of educational isolation,…

  14. Predictors of immune function in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, William T.; Zhang, Shaojie; Reuben, James M.; Lee, Bang-Ning; Butel, Janet S.

    2007-02-01

    Of all of the environmental conditions of space flight that might have an adverse effect upon human immunity and the incidence of infection, space radiation stands out as the single-most important threat. As important as this would be on humans engaged in long and deep space flight, it obviously is not possible to plan Earth-bound radiation and infection studies in humans. Therefore, we propose to develop a murine model that could predict the adverse effects of space flight radiation and reactivation of latent virus infection for humans. Recent observations on the effects of gamma and latent virus infection demonstrate latent virus reactivation and loss of T cell mediated immune responses in a murine model. We conclude that using this small animal method of quantitating the amounts of radiation and latent virus infection and resulting alterations in immune responses, it may be possible to predict the degree of immunosuppression in interplanetary space travel for humans. Moreover, this model could be extended to include other space flight conditions, such as microgravity, sleep deprivation, and isolation, to obtain a more complete assessment of space flight risks for humans.

  15. Flavonoids and immune function in human: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Miglio, Cristiana; Morabito, Giuseppa; Ioannone, Francesca; Serafini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, through a modulation of immune function, have been suggested to be involved in the role played by plant foods in disease prevention. We performed a systematic search in the MEDLINE database to review the effect of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids supplements on immune function. A total of 58 studies, were identified as suitable: 41 addressed in vivo proinflammatory cytokines and 15 measured ex vivo markers of immune function. According to our findings and on the basis of single food items, the number of studies in humans is limited and, for galenic supplements, only quercetin has been investigated. More evidences are needed to clarify the role of flavonoids as modulator of immune function in humans.

  16. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  17. Modular and coordinated expression of immune system regulatory and signaling components in the developing and adult nervous system.

    PubMed

    Monzón-Sandoval, Jimena; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Crampton, Sean; McKelvey, Laura; Nolan, Aoife; O'Keeffe, Gerard; Gutierrez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    During development, the nervous system (NS) is assembled and sculpted through a concerted series of neurodevelopmental events orchestrated by a complex genetic programme. While neural-specific gene expression plays a critical part in this process, in recent years, a number of immune-related signaling and regulatory components have also been shown to play key physiological roles in the developing and adult NS. While the involvement of individual immune-related signaling components in neural functions may reflect their ubiquitous character, it may also reflect a much wider, as yet undescribed, genetic network of immune-related molecules acting as an intrinsic component of the neural-specific regulatory machinery that ultimately shapes the NS. In order to gain insights into the scale and wider functional organization of immune-related genetic networks in the NS, we examined the large scale pattern of expression of these genes in the brain. Our results show a highly significant correlated expression and transcriptional clustering among immune-related genes in the developing and adult brain, and this correlation was the highest in the brain when compared to muscle, liver, kidney and endothelial cells. We experimentally tested the regulatory clustering of immune system (IS) genes by using microarray expression profiling in cultures of dissociated neurons stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, and found a highly significant enrichment of immune system-related genes among the resulting differentially expressed genes. Our findings strongly suggest a coherent recruitment of entire immune-related genetic regulatory modules by the neural-specific genetic programme that shapes the NS.

  18. Aging and Immune Function: Molecular Mechanisms to Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ponnappan, Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The immune system of an organism is an essential component of the defense mechanism aimed at combating pathogenic stress. Age-associated immune dysfunction, also dubbed “immune senescence,” manifests as increased susceptibility to infections, increased onset and progression of autoimmune diseases, and onset of neoplasia. Over the years, extensive research has generated consensus in terms of the phenotypic and functional defects within the immune system in various organisms, including humans. Indeed, age-associated alterations such as thymic involution, T cell repertoire skewing, decreased ability to activate naïve T cells and to generate robust memory responses, have been shown to have a causative role in immune decline. Further, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of proteotoxic stress, DNA damage response, modulation of ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and regulation of transcription factor NFκB activation, in immune decline, have paved the way to delineating signaling pathways that cross-talk and impact immune senescence. Given the role of the immune system in combating infections, its effectiveness with age may well be a marker of health and a predictor of longevity. It is therefore believed that a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune senescence will lead to an effective interventional strategy aimed at improving the health span of individuals. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1551–1585. PMID:20812785

  19. Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older--United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2015-02-06

    In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2015. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Changes in the 2015 adult immunization schedule from the 2014 schedule included the August 2014 recommendation for routine administration of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in series with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for all adults aged 65 years or older, the August 2014 revision on contraindications and precautions for the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), and the October 2014 approval by the Food and Drug Administration to expand the approved age for use of recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). These revisions were also reviewed and approved by the American College of Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  20. Psychoneuroimmunology: psychological influences on immune function and health.

    PubMed

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; McGuire, Lynanne; Robles, Theodore F; Glaser, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    This review focuses on human psychoneuroimmunology studies published in the past decade. Issues discussed include the routes through which psychological factors influence immune function, how a stressor's duration may influence the changes observed, individual difference variables, the ability of interventions to modulate immune function, and the health consequences of psychosocially mediated immune dysregulation. The importance of negative affect and supportive personal relationships are highlighted. Recent data suggest that immune dysregulation may be one core mechanism for a spectrum of conditions associated with aging, including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and frailty and functional decline; production of proinflammatory cytokines that influence these and other conditions can be stimulated directly by negative emotions and indirectly by prolonged infection.

  1. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2008-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation. This may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. The clinical risk (if any) from prolonged immune dysregulation during exploration-class space flight has not yet been determined, but may include increased incidence of infection, allergy, hypersensitivity, hematological malignancy or altered wound healing. Each of the clinical events resulting from immune dysfunction has the potential to impact mission critical objectives during exploration-class missions. To date, precious little in-flight immune data has been generated to assess this phenomenon. The majority of recent flight immune studies have been post-flight assessments, which may not accurately reflect the in-flight status of immunity as it resolves over prolonged flight. There are no procedures currently in place to monitor immune function or its effect on crew health. The objective of this Supplemental Medical Objective (SMO) is to develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. This SMO will assess immunity, latent viral reactivation and physiological stress during both short and long duration flights. Upon completion, it is expected that any clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of space flight on the human immune system will have been determined. In addition, a flight-compatible immune monitoring strategy will have been developed with which countermeasures validation could be performed. This study will determine, to the best level allowed by current technology, the in-flight status of crewmembers' immune systems. The in-flight samples will allow a distinction between legitimate in-flight alterations and the physiological stresses of landing and readaptation which are believed to alter R+0 assessments. The overall status of the immune system during flight

  2. 76 FR 12117 - Call for Comments on the Draft Report of the Adult Immunization Working Group to the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Call for Comments on the Draft Report of the Adult Immunization Working Group to the... Immunization Working Group (AIWG) of NVAC has developed a draft report and recommendations for the... Adult Immunization Working Group, Telephone (202) 260-2325; Fax: (202) 690-4631; E-mail:...

  3. A strong immune response in young adult honeybees masks their increased susceptibility to infection compared to older bees.

    PubMed

    Bull, James C; Ryabov, Eugene V; Prince, Gill; Mead, Andrew; Zhang, Cunjin; Baxter, Laura A; Pell, Judith K; Osborne, Juliet L; Chandler, Dave

    2012-12-01

    Honeybees, Apis mellifera, show age-related division of labor in which young adults perform maintenance ("housekeeping") tasks inside the colony before switching to outside foraging at approximately 23 days old. Disease resistance is an important feature of honeybee biology, but little is known about the interaction of pathogens and age-related division of labor. We tested a hypothesis that older forager bees and younger "house" bees differ in susceptibility to infection. We coupled an infection bioassay with a functional analysis of gene expression in individual bees using a whole genome microarray. Forager bees treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. survived for significantly longer than house bees. This was concomitant with substantial differences in gene expression including genes associated with immune function. In house bees, infection was associated with differential expression of 35 candidate immune genes contrasted with differential expression of only two candidate immune genes in forager bees. For control bees (i.e. not treated with M. anisopliae) the development from the house to the forager stage was associated with differential expression of 49 candidate immune genes, including up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptide gene abaecin, plus major components of the Toll pathway, serine proteases, and serpins. We infer that reduced pathogen susceptibility in forager bees was associated with age-related activation of specific immune system pathways. Our findings contrast with the view that the immunocompetence in social insects declines with the onset of foraging as a result of a trade-off in the allocation of resources for foraging. The up-regulation of immune-related genes in young adult bees in response to M. anisopliae infection was an indicator of disease susceptibility; this also challenges previous research in social insects, in which an elevated immune status has been used as a marker of increased disease resistance and

  4. Immune Response Genotypes and Risk of Young Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    TECHNICAL OBJECTIVES 1) To identify, enroll and collect blood specimens from 368 adolescents and young adults 18-to 45 years old diagnosed with Hodgkin... Young Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wendy Cozen Victoria Cortessis, Ph.D. David Conti, Ph.D. David...Genotypes and Risk of Young Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0683 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wendy Cozen

  5. Constant illumination reduces circulating melatonin and impairs immune function in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Joanna; Michaelides, Ellie B; Rupasinghe, Thusitha; Tull, Dedreia; Green, Mark P; Jones, Therésa M

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to constant light has a range of negative effects on behaviour and physiology, including reduced immune function in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is proposed that the associated suppression of melatonin (a ubiquitous hormone and powerful antioxidant) in response to the presence of light at night could be an underlying mechanistic link driving the changes to immune function. Here, we investigated the relationship between constant illumination, melatonin and immune function, using a model invertebrate species, the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Crickets were reared under either a 12 h light: 12 h dark regimen or a constant 24 h light regimen. Circulating melatonin concentration and immune function (haemocyte concentration, lytic activity and phenoloxidase (PO) activity) were assessed in individual adult crickets through the analysis of haemolymph. Constant illumination reduced melatonin and had a negative impact on haemocyte concentrations and lytic activity, but its effect on PO activity was less apparent. Our data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a link between exposure to constant illumination and variation in haemocyte concentration in an invertebrate model, while also highlighting the potential complexity of the immune response following exposure to constant illumination. This study provides insight into the possible negative effect of artificial night-time lighting on the physiology of invertebrates, but whether lower and potentially more ecologically relevant levels of light at night produce comparable results, as has been reported in several vertebrate taxa, remains to be tested.

  6. Constant illumination reduces circulating melatonin and impairs immune function in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Ellie B.; Rupasinghe, Thusitha; Tull, Dedreia; Green, Mark P.; Jones, Therésa M.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to constant light has a range of negative effects on behaviour and physiology, including reduced immune function in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is proposed that the associated suppression of melatonin (a ubiquitous hormone and powerful antioxidant) in response to the presence of light at night could be an underlying mechanistic link driving the changes to immune function. Here, we investigated the relationship between constant illumination, melatonin and immune function, using a model invertebrate species, the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Crickets were reared under either a 12 h light: 12 h dark regimen or a constant 24 h light regimen. Circulating melatonin concentration and immune function (haemocyte concentration, lytic activity and phenoloxidase (PO) activity) were assessed in individual adult crickets through the analysis of haemolymph. Constant illumination reduced melatonin and had a negative impact on haemocyte concentrations and lytic activity, but its effect on PO activity was less apparent. Our data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a link between exposure to constant illumination and variation in haemocyte concentration in an invertebrate model, while also highlighting the potential complexity of the immune response following exposure to constant illumination. This study provides insight into the possible negative effect of artificial night-time lighting on the physiology of invertebrates, but whether lower and potentially more ecologically relevant levels of light at night produce comparable results, as has been reported in several vertebrate taxa, remains to be tested. PMID:26339535

  7. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying

  8. Immune function parameters as markers of biological age and predictors of longevity

    PubMed Central

    de Toda, Irene Martínez; Maté, Ianire; Vida, Carmen; Cruces, Julia; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Chronological age is not a good indicator of how each individual ages and thus how to maintain good health. Due to the long lifespan in humans and the consequent difficulty of carrying out longitudinal studies, finding valid biomarkers of the biological age has been a challenge both for research and clinical studies. The aim was to identify and validate several immune cell function parameters as markers of biological age. Adult, mature, elderly and long-lived human volunteers were used. The chemotaxis, phagocytosis, natural killer activity and lymphoproliferation in neutrophils and lymphocytes of peripheral blood were analyzed. The same functions were measured in peritoneal immune cells from mice, at the corresponding ages (adult, mature, old and long lived) in a longitudinal study. The results showed that the evolution of these functions was similar in humans and mice, with a decrease in old subjects. However, the long-lived individuals maintained values similar to those in adults. In addition, the values of these functions in adult prematurely aging mice were similar to those in chronologically old animals, and they died before their non-prematurely aging mice counterparts. Thus, the parameters studied are good markers of the rate of aging, allowing the determination of biological age. PMID:27899767

  9. [Impact of thymic function in age-related immune deterioration].

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; de la Fuente, Mónica; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Leal, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Age-related biological deterioration also includes immune system deterioration and, in consequence, a rise in the incidence and prevalence of infections and cancers, as well as low responses to vaccination strategies. Out of all immune cell subsets, T-lymphocytes seem to be involved in most of the age-related defects. Since T-lymphocytes mature during their passage through the thymus, and the thymus shows an age-related process of atrophy, thymic regression has been proposed as the triggering event of this immune deterioration in elderly people. Historically, it has been accepted that the young thymus sets the T-lymphocyte repertoire during the childhood, whereupon atrophy begins until the elderly thymus is a non-functional evolutionary trace. However, a rising body of knowledge points toward the thymus functioning during adulthood. In the elderly, higher thymic function is associated with a younger immune system, while thymic function failure is associated with all-cause mortality. Therefore, any new strategy focused on the improvement of the elderly quality of life, especially those trying to influence the immune system, should take into account, together with peripheral homeostasis, thymus function as a key element in slowing down age-related decline.

  10. 78 FR 46589 - Solicitation of Written Comments on the Draft Report of the National Adult Immunization Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... immunization environment by updating adult immunization standards of practice with the intention of ultimately impacting Healthy People 2020 goals. A review group was established to address this charge on behalf of...

  11. Th17 Cell Plasticity and Functions in Cancer Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Guéry, Leslie; Hugues, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Th17 cells represent a particular subset of T helper lymphocytes characterized by high production of IL-17 and other inflammatory cytokines. Th17 cells participate in antimicrobial immunity at mucosal and epithelial barriers and particularly fight against extracellular bacteria and fungi. While a role for Th17 cells in promoting inflammation and autoimmune disorders has been extensively and elegantly demonstrated, it is still controversial whether and how Th17 cells influence tumor immunity. Although Th17 cells specifically accumulate in many different types of tumors compared to healthy tissues, the outcome might however differ from a tumor type to another. Th17 cells were consequently associated with both good and bad prognoses. The high plasticity of those cells toward cells exhibiting either anti-inflammatory or in contrast pathogenic functions might contribute to Th17 versatile functions in the tumor context. On one hand, Th17 cells promote tumor growth by inducing angiogenesis (via IL-17) and by exerting themselves immunosuppressive functions. On the other hand, Th17 cells drive antitumor immune responses by recruiting immune cells into tumors, activating effector CD8+ T cells, or even directly by converting toward Th1 phenotype and producing IFN-γ. In this review, we are discussing the impact of the tumor microenvironment on Th17 cell plasticity and function and its implications in cancer immunity. PMID:26583099

  12. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND IMMUNE FUNCTION AMONG TODDLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Response to vaccination may be a sensitive indicator of immunollogic health in young children. Toddlers residing in an intenseive agricultural area along the US/Mexican border were enrolled in a pilot study investigating immunologic function and pesticide exposure by multiple ...

  13. Siglec regulation of immune cell function in disease

    PubMed Central

    Macauley, Matthew S.; Crocker, Paul R.; Paulson, James C.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian cells display a diverse array of glycan structures that differ from those found on microbial pathogens. Siglecs are a family of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like receptors that participate in the discrimination of ‘self’ and ‘non-self’ and regulate the functions of cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems through recognition of their glycan ligands. In this review, we describe the recent advances in our understanding of the roles of Siglecs in the regulation of immune cell functions in infectious diseases, inflammation, neurodegeneration, autoimmune diseases and cancer. PMID:25234143

  14. Functions of Cationic Host Defense Peptides in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Anaparti, Vidyanand; Mookherjee, Neeloffer

    2016-01-01

    Cationic host defense peptides are a widely distributed family of immunomodulatory molecules with antimicrobial properties. The biological functions of these peptides include the ability to influence innate and adaptive immunity for efficient resolution of infections and simultaneous modulation of inflammatory responses. This unique dual bioactivity of controlling infections and inflammation has gained substantial attention in the last three decades and consequent interest in the development of these peptide mimics as immunomodulatory therapeutic candidates. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the wide range of functions of cationic host defense peptides in the context of the mammalian immune system. PMID:27384571

  15. Antibodies enhance CXCL10 production during RSV infection of infant and adult immune cells.

    PubMed

    Vissers, Marloes; Schreurs, Inge; Jans, Jop; Heldens, Jacco; de Groot, Ronald; de Jonge, Marien I; Ferwerda, Gerben

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a major burden in infants below three months of age, when the primary immune response is mainly dependent on innate immunity and maternal antibodies. We investigated the influence of antibodies on innate immunity during RSV infection. PBMCs from infants and adults were stimulated with live RSV and inactivated RSV in combination with antibody-containing and antibody-depleted serum. The immune response was determined by transcriptome analysis and chemokine levels were measured using ELISA and flow cytometry. Microarray data showed that CXCL10 gene transcription was RSV dependent, whereas CXCL11 and IFNα were upregulated in an antibody-dependent manner. Although the presence of antibodies reduces RSV infection rate, it enhances the innate immune response. In adult immune cells, antibodies enhance CXCL10, CXCL11, IFNα and IFNγ production in response to RSV infection. Contrary, in infant immune cells only CXCL10 was enhanced in an antibody-dependent manner. Monocytes are the main source of CXCL10 and they produce CXCL10 in both an antibody- and virus-dependent manner. This study shows that antibodies enhance CXCL10 production in infant immune cells. CXCL10 has been implicated in exuberating the inflammatory response during viral infections and antibodies could therefore play a role in the pathogenesis of RSV infections.

  16. Functional literacy of Young Guyanese Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-05-01

    Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.

  17. Spaceflight alters immune cell function and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Mandel, Adrian D.; Konstantinova, Irina V.; Berry, Wallace D.; Taylor, Gerald R.; Lesniak, A. T.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments are described which were performed onboard Cosmos 2044 to determine spaceflight effects on immunologically important cell function and distribution. Results indicate that bone marrow cells from flown and suspended rats exhibited a decreased response to a granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with the bone marrow cells from control rats. Bone marrow cells showed an increase in the percentage of cells expressing markers for helper T-cells in the myelogenous population and increased percentages of anti-asialo granulocyte/monocyte-1-bearing interleulin-2 receptor bearing pan T- and helper T-cells in the lymphocytic population.

  18. Calnexin functions in antibacterial immunity of Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wang, Xiu-Qing; Jiang, Hai-Shan; Jia, Wen-Ming; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Calnexin (Cnx) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound lectin chaperone that comprises a dedicated maturation system with another lectin chaperone calreticulin (Crt). This maturation system is known as the Cnx/Crt cycle. The main functions of Cnx are Ca(2+) storage, glycoprotein folding, and quality control of synthesis. Recent studies have shown that Cnx is important in phagocytosis and in optimizing dendritic cell immunity. However, the functions of Cnx in invertebrate innate immunity remain unclear. In this research, we characterized Cnx in the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (designated as MjCnx) and detected its function in shrimp immunity. The expression of MjCnx was upregulated in several tissues challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. Recombinant MjCnx could bind to bacteria by binding polysaccharides. MjCnx protein existed in the cytoplasm and on the membrane of hemocytes and was upregulated by bacterial challenge. The recombinant MjCnx enhanced the clearance of V. anguillarum in vivo, and the clearance effects were impaired after silencing MjCnx with RNA interference assay. Recombinant MjCnx promoted phagocytosis efficiency of hemocytes. These results suggest that MjCnx functions as one of the pattern recognition receptors and has crucial functions in shrimp antibacterial immunity.

  19. The expression and function of human CD300 receptors on blood circulating mononuclear cells are distinct in neonates and adults

    PubMed Central

    Zenarruzabeitia, Olatz; Vitallé, Joana; García-Obregón, Susana; Astigarraga, Itziar; Eguizabal, Cristina; Santos, Silvia; Simhadri, Venkateswara R.; Borrego, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Neonates are more susceptible to infections than adults. This susceptibility is thought to reflect neonates’ qualitative and quantitative defects in the adaptive and innate immune responses. Differential expression of cell surface receptors may result in altered thresholds of neonatal immune cell activation. We determined whether the expression and function of the lipid-binding CD300 family of receptors are different on neonatal immune cells compared to adult immune cells. A multiparametric flow cytometry analysis was performed to determine the expression of CD300 receptors on adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neonatal cord blood mononuclear cells. The expression of the CD300a inhibitory receptor was significantly reduced on cells from the newborn adaptive immune system, and neonatal antigen presenting cells exhibited a different CD300 receptors expression pattern. We also found differential LPS-mediated regulation of CD300 receptors expression on adult monocytes compared to cord blood monocytes, and that CD300c and CD300e-mediated activation was quantitatively different in neonatal monocytes. This is the first complete study examining the expression of CD300 receptors on human neonatal immune cells compared with adult immune cells. Significant differences in the expression and function of CD300 receptors may help to explain the peculiarities and distinctness of the neonatal immune responses. PMID:27595670

  20. Emerging functions of the unfolded protein response in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Sophie; Pulendran, Bali; Lambrecht, Bart N.

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) has traditionally been viewed as an adaptive response triggered upon accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), aimed at restoring ER function. The UPR can also be an anticipatory response that is activated well before the disruption of protein homeostasis. UPR signaling intersects at many levels with the innate and adaptive immune response. In some immune cell types like dendritic cells and B cells, particular UPR sensors appear constitutively active in the absence of traditional UPR gene program induction, necessary for antigen presentation and immunoglobulin synthesis. The UPR also influences Toll-like receptor signaling and NF-κB activation, and some pathogens subvert the UPR. This review summarizes these emerging non-canonical functions of the UPR in immunity. PMID:25232821

  1. Epicutaneous exposure to proteins and skin immune function.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Basketter, David A; McFadden, John P; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    The skin has a sophisticated and highly orchestrated immune system. The ability of proteins encountered at skin surfaces to access that immune system remains controversial, however. In this article the question considered is whether proteins encountered epicutaneously (on the skin) at abraded or tape-stripped skin surfaces, but also at sites where the skin is intact, can engage with the cutaneous immune system to provoke and regulate responses. The available evidence suggests that epicutaneous exposure to foreign proteins is able to elicit immune and allergic responses, and that encounter with protein via this route may favour the development of selective Th2 responses and allergic sensitisation. It is also clear that proteins can modify immunological function when delivered topically and that intact skin may provide an effective route of exposure for active immunotherapy of allergic disease. An appreciation that epicutaneously applied proteins can interact with the skin immune system, even when delivered at intact skin sites, opens up important opportunities for immunotherapy, local immune modulation and the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. It also indicates that this route of exposure must be considered as part of the safety assessment and risk management of protein-induced allergic sensitisation.

  2. Early childhood poverty, immune-mediated disease processes, and adult productivity.

    PubMed

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Duncan, Greg J; Kalil, Ariel; Boyce, W Thomas

    2012-10-16

    This study seeks to understand whether poverty very early in life is associated with early-onset adult conditions related to immune-mediated chronic diseases. It also tests the role that these immune-mediated chronic diseases may play in accounting for the associations between early poverty and adult productivity. Data (n = 1,070) come from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics and include economic conditions in utero and throughout childhood and adolescence coupled with adult (age 30-41 y) self-reports of health and economic productivity. Results show that low income, particularly in very early childhood (between the prenatal and second year of life), is associated with increases in early-adult hypertension, arthritis, and limitations on activities of daily living. Moreover, these relationships and particularly arthritis partially account for the associations between early childhood poverty and adult productivity as measured by adult work hours and earnings. The results suggest that the associations between early childhood poverty and these adult disease states may be immune-mediated.

  3. Exercising in environmental extremes : a greater threat to immune function?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Neil P; Whitham, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Athletes, military personnel, fire fighters, mountaineers and astronauts may be required to perform in environmental extremes (e.g. heat, cold, high altitude and microgravity). Exercising in hot versus thermoneutral conditions (where core temperature is > or = 1 degrees C higher in hot conditions) augments circulating stress hormones, catecholamines and cytokines with associated increases in circulating leukocytes. Studies that have clamped the rise in core temperature during exercise (by exercising in cool water) demonstrate a large contribution of the rise in core temperature in the leukocytosis and cytokinaemia of exercise. However, with the exception of lowered stimulated lymphocyte responses after exercise in the heat, and in exertional heat illness patients (core temperature > 40 degrees C), recent laboratory studies show a limited effect of exercise in the heat on neutrophil function, monocyte function, natural killer cell activity and mucosal immunity. Therefore, most of the available evidence does not support the contention that exercising in the heat poses a greater threat to immune function (vs thermoneutral conditions). From a critical standpoint, due to ethical committee restrictions, most laboratory studies have evoked modest core temperature responses (< 39 degrees C). Given that core temperature during exercise in the field often exceeds levels associated with fever and hyperthermia (approximately 39.5 degrees C) field studies may provide an opportunity to determine the effects of severe heat stress on immunity. Field studies may also provide insight into the possible involvement of immune modulation in the aetiology of exertional heat stroke (core temperature > 40.6 degrees C) and identify the effects of acclimatisation on neuroendocrine and immune responses to exercise-heat stress. Laboratory studies can provide useful information by, for example, applying the thermal clamp model to examine the involvement of the rise in core temperature in the

  4. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Carolyn B; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2014-02-07

    Vaccines are recommended for adults on the basis of their age, prior vaccinations, health conditions, lifestyle, occupation, and travel. Reasons for current low levels of vaccination coverage for adult vaccines are multifactorial and include limited awareness among the public about vaccines for adults and gaps in incorporation of regular assessments of vaccine needs and vaccination into routine medical care. Updated standards for immunization of adults were approved by the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) in September 2013. These standards acknowledge the current low levels of vaccination coverage among adults and the role that all health-care providers, including those who do not offer all recommended adult vaccines in their practices, have in ensuring that their patients are up-to-date on recommended vaccines. NVAC recommends that providers assess vaccination needs for their patients at each visit, recommend needed vaccines, and then, ideally, offer the vaccine or, if the provider does not stock the needed vaccines, refer the patient to a provider who does vaccinate. Vaccinating providers should also ensure that patients and their referring health-care providers have documentation of the vaccination.

  5. Immune responses in sprague-dawley rats exposed to dibutyltin dichloride in drinking water as adults.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Jamie C; Copeland, Carey B; Luebke, Robert W

    2005-07-01

    Organotins are used commercially as agricultural pesticides, antifouling agents, and stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. Mono- and di-substituted methyl and butyltins, used in PVC pipe production, are of concern as they leach from supply pipes into drinking water and have been reported to cause multisystem toxicity, including immunotoxicity. As part of an ongoing study to evaluate immunotoxic effects of organotins, we assessed immune function in adult Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats after exposure to dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC). Individually-housed adult male and female CD rats were given drinking water containing 0, 10, or 25 mg DBTC/L (final concentration) in 0.5% Alkamuls for 28 days. Water bottles were changed and water consumption was monitored twice weekly and body weights (BW) were recorded weekly. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), primary and secondary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, and natural killer (NK) cell activity were evaluated in separate groups of treated and control animals on day 29 of exposure. Water consumption was significantly decreased in both sexes at 25 mg DBTC/L. BW, immune organ weights, the DTH response, and NK cell activity did not vary by dose. Different results for antibody responses in male rats were obtained in two experimental replicates. In the first replicate, IgG was elevated at the highest dose whereas in the second replicate, IgM was suppressed. However, as these effects occurred at the high dose of 25 mg DBTC/L, which is a concentration a million times higher than levels of DBTC reported in drinking water, our data suggest that DBTC is unlikely to cause immunotoxicity at concentrations found in drinking water supplies.

  6. Indirect Effects of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in National Immunization Programs for Children on Adult Pneumococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was developed to overcome the limitations of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which produces poor immunogenicity in infants younger than 2 years. As many countries have included PCVs in national immunization programs for children, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine type Streptococcus pneumoniae has declined markedly, not only among the vaccinated pediatric population, but also among unvaccinated adults. In this review, we present a concise overview of the indirect effects of mass pediatric PCV immunization on unvaccinated adults. PMID:28032483

  7. Using vaccinations to assess in vivo immune function in psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Burns, Victoria E

    2012-01-01

    Finding clinically relevant measures of immune function is an important challenge in psychoneuroimmunological research. Here, we discuss the advantages of the vaccination model, and provide guidance on the methodological decisions that are important to consider in the use of this technique. These include the choice of vaccination, timing of assessments, and the available outcome measures.

  8. Disclosure of Traumas and Immune Function: Health Implications for Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennebaker, James W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 50 healthy undergraduates the task of writing about either traumatic experiences or superficial topics for four consecutive days. Examination of cellular-immune system function and health center visits suggests that confronting traumatic experiences was physically beneficial. Discusses implications of such active confrontation of…

  9. Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ingvartsen, K L; Moyes, K

    2013-03-01

    The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta

  10. Absence of protective immunity against diphtheria in a large proportion of young adults.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, R; Podda, A; Giovannoni, F; Nencioni, L; Peragallo, M; Francolini, P

    1993-01-01

    The schedule of vaccination recommended worldwide for diphtheria, tetanus and other diseases, provides good immunity during childhood. However, little attention has been paid to effective immunity in adults. We have collected sera from 334 Italian Army recruits and tested them for the presence of protective immunity against diphtheria and tetanus. In vivo neutralization assays were performed on rabbits and mice and values below 1/100 IU ml-1 were considered negative. Of the recruits, 22.9% were negative for diphtheria, while only 5.3% had no protective immunity against tetanus. This finding shows that a large proportion of Italian young adults are susceptible to diphtheria, and this could be dangerous if they travel to sites where this disease is still endemic, or if they come into contact with people coming from such areas. A booster vaccination of young adults against diphtheria should become common practice to avoid this risk. To reduce the side effects which are often associated with diphtheria vaccination in adults, we have developed a vaccine which contains a highly purified, non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin. This vaccine is combined with tetanus toxoid and can be routinely used as a booster in adults.

  11. Adult pulmonary tuberculosis as a pathological manifestation of hyperactive antimycobacterial immune response.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan

    2016-12-01

    The intricate relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and immune system remains poorly understood. It is generally believed that weakening of the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to reactivation of latent infection into the active pulmonary disease. However, heterogeneous nature of TB and failure of rationally designed vaccines in clinical trials raises serious questions against the simplistic view of TB as an outcome of weakened immunity. In the wake of accumulating human TB data, it is argued here that a hyperactive antimycobacterial immune response is to blame for the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB in immunocompetent adults. Direct and indirect evidence supporting this notion is presented in this article. Revisiting the role of immune system in TB pathogenesis will pave the way for effective anti-TB vaccines.

  12. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations.

    PubMed

    Slike, Bonnie M; Creegan, Matthew; Marovich, Mary; Ngauy, Viseth

    2017-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity) may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to vaccinia waned after 5-10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 250 to baseline (<20) after 10-20 years post vaccination. This contrasted with a comparator group of adults, ages 35-49, who were vaccinated with Dryvax® as children. In the childhood vaccinees, titers persisted for >30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112-3234). This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program.

  13. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations

    PubMed Central

    Slike, Bonnie M.; Creegan, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity) may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to vaccinia waned after 5–10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 250 to baseline (<20) after 10–20 years post vaccination. This contrasted with a comparator group of adults, ages 35–49, who were vaccinated with Dryvax® as children. In the childhood vaccinees, titers persisted for >30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112–3234). This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program. PMID:28046039

  14. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Sams, Clarence

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this Supplemental Medical Objective (SMO) is to determine the status of the immune system, physiological stress and latent viral reactivation (a clinical outcome that can be measured) during both short and long-duration spaceflight. In addition, this study will develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. Pre-mission, in-flight and post-flight blood and saliva samples will be obtained from participating crewmembers. Assays included peripheral immunophenotype, T cell function, cytokine profiles, viral-specific immunity, latent viral reactivation (EBV, CMV, VZV), and stress hormone measurements. To date, 18 short duration (now completed) and 8 long-duration crewmembers have completed the study. The long-duration phase of this study is ongoing. For this presentation, the final data set for the short duration subjects will be discussed.

  15. Adult immunization with 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in Campania region, South Italy: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Giorgio; Parlato, Antonino; Zamparelli, Alessandro Sanduzzi; Belfiore, Patrizia; Gallé, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Riganti, Carla; Zamparelli, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia has a high clinical burden in terms of morbidity, mortality and hospitalization rate, with heavy implications for worldwide health systems. In particular, higher incidence and mortality rates of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) cases, with related costs, are registered among elderly. This study aimed to an economic evaluation about the immunization with PCV13 in the adult population in Campania region, South Italy. For this purpose we performed, considering a period of 5 y, a budget impact analysis (BIA) and a cost-effectiveness analysis which considered 2 scenarios of immunization compared with lack of immunization for 2 targeted cohorts: first, the high risk subjects aged 50-79 y, and second the high risk individuals aged 50-64 y, together with all those aged 65 y. Regarding the first group, the decrease of pneumonia could give savings equal to €29,005,660, while the immunization of the second cohort could allow savings equal to €10,006,017. The economic evaluation of pneumococcal vaccine for adult groups represents an essential instrument to support health policies. This study showed that both hypothesized immunization strategies could produce savings. Obtained results support the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for adults. This strategy could represent a sustainable and savings-producer health policy.

  16. Selenium status alters the immune response and expulsion of adult Heligmosomodies bakeri in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heligmosomoides bakeri is a nematode with parasitic development exclusively in the small intestine of infected mice that induces a potent STAT6-dependent Th2 immune response. We previously demonstrated that host protective expulsion of adult H. bakeri was delayed in selenium (Se) deficient mice. ...

  17. Kinetics of antibody responses after primary immunization with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine or secondary immunization with either conjugate or polysaccharide vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    de Voer, Richarda M; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Engels, Carla W A M; Schepp, Rutger M; van de Kassteele, Jan; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Rijkers, Ger T; Berbers, Guy A M

    2009-11-23

    In the Netherlands the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccine is administered as a single dose at 14 months. We evaluated the kinetics of isotype-specific antibodies in adults (n=21) after primary immunization with MenCC or secondary immunization with MenCC or plain MenC polysaccharide vaccine. Blood samples were collected prior to immunization and at 6 additional time points, from 3 to 25 days post-immunization. Secondary immunization resulted in 5-10-fold higher IgG titers compared to the primary immunization group, 25 days post-immunization. Prior to the secondary immunization, but 5 years after the first immunization, protective bactericidal antibodies and levels of MenC-specific IgG and IgM were still present. Furthermore, IgG antibodies present before secondary immunization were of higher avidity compared to antibodies produced one month after primary immunization. In addition, secondary immunization with nonconjugated MenC polysaccharide seemed to induce a higher IgG2 response compared to MenCC immunization. The kinetics of the observed secondary immune responses were not really faster than the observed primary responses. However, the rate of increase in antibodies seemed faster than the primary responses, representing a booster response. As the course of infection by Neisseria meningitidis can be very rapid, these data support the idea that sustainment of high antibody levels induced by MenCC are important for immediate protection.

  18. Maternal Immune Activation Leads to Selective Functional Deficits in Offspring Parvalbumin Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Canetta, Sarah; Bolkan, Scott; Padilla-Coreano, Nancy; Song, LouJin; Sahn, Ryan; Harrison, Neil; Gordon, Joshua A.; Brown, Alan; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abnormalities in prefrontal GABAergic transmission, particularly in fast-spiking interneurons that express parvalbumin (PV), are hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and depression. While primarily histological abnormalities have been observed in patients and in animal models of psychiatric disease, evidence for abnormalities in functional neurotransmission at the level of specific interneuron populations has been lacking in animal models and is difficult to establish in human patients. Using an animal model of a psychiatric disease risk factor, prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA), we found reduced functional GABAergic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult MIA offspring. Decreased transmission was selective for interneurons expressing PV, and was not observed in calretinin-expressing neurons. This deficit in PV function in MIA offspring was associated with increased anxiety-like behavior and impairments in attentional set shifting, but did not affect working memory. Furthermore, cell-type specific optogenetic inhibition of mPFC PV interneurons was sufficient to impair attentional set shifting and enhance anxiety levels. Finally, we found that in vivo mPFC gamma oscillations, which are supported by PV interneuron function, were linearly correlated with the degree of anxiety displayed in adult mice, and that this correlation was disrupted in MIA offspring. These results demonstrate a selective functional vulnerability of PV interneurons to maternal immune activation, leading to affective and cognitive symptoms that have high relevance for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:26830140

  19. Herpes zoster immunization in older adults has big benefits.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Harald

    2015-06-01

    The value and importance of providing herpes zoster immunization to reduce the incidence and severity of acute herpes zoster neuralgia, especially in older patients, is described. The prevention of postherpetic neuralgia can profoundly impact patients' quality of life. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 4, © Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the website: www.paineurope.com at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources.

  20. Herpes Zoster Immunization in Older Adults Has Big Benefits.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Harald

    2015-09-01

    A case of acute herpes zoster neuralgia (shingles) in a 78-year-old patient is described. The value and importance of immunizing against herpes zoster to decrease the incidence and severity of both acute herpes zoster neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia are described. --This report is adapted from paineurope 2015: Issue 1, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the Web site: www.paineurope.com , at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources.

  1. Determining the Function of Long Noncoding RNA in Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The advent of deep sequencing technologies has provided us with an unprecedented view of the human genome. Over 85 % of the genome is actively transcribed, yet we do not know the function of the vast majority of these RNA transcripts. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) represent the largest group of RNA genes transcribed in the cell and currently there is limited experimental data supporting the functions of a very small proportion of these transcripts. lncRNA are expressed in a highly cell type specific manner and our interests involve understanding the role they play in innate immune signaling networks. In this chapter I will outline the approach we took to attempt to uncover the role for lncRNA in innate immune cells. Two of the main techniques required to study lncRNA are RNA-seq and loss of function analysis. This allows us to first identify all lncRNA in a cell type of choice and then try to determine the functional significance of these transcripts. This approach has been successful for us to date in identifying lincRNA-Cox2 as a highly inflammatory inducible lncRNA that is responsible for activation and repression of distinct immune genes.

  2. Adult Drosophila melanogaster evolved for antibacterial defense invest in infection-induced expression of both humoral and cellular immunity genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While the transcription of innate immunity genes in response to bacterial infection has been well-characterised in the Drosophila model, we recently demonstrated the capacity for such transcription to evolve in flies selected for improved antibacterial defense. Here we use this experimental system to examine how insects invest in constitutive versus infection-induced transcription of immunity genes. These two strategies carry with them different consequences with respect to energetic and pleiotropic costs and may be more or less effective in improving defense depending on whether the genes contribute to humoral or cellular aspects of immunity. Findings Contrary to expectation we show that selection preferentially increased the infection-induced expression of both cellular and humoral immunity genes. Given their functional roles, infection induced increases in expression were expected for the humoral genes, while increases in constitutive expression were expected for the cellular genes. We also report a restricted ability to improve transcription of immunity genes that is on the order of 2-3 fold regardless of total transcription level of the gene. Conclusions The evolved increases in infection-induced expression of the cellular genes may result from specific cross talk with humoral pathways or from generalised strategies for enhancing immunity gene transcription. A failure to see improvements in constitutive expression of the cellular genes suggests either that increases might come at too great a cost or that patterns of expression in adults are decoupled from the larval phase where increases would be most effective. The similarity in fold change increase across all immunity genes may suggest a shared mechanism for the evolution of increased transcription in small, discrete units such as duplication of cis-regulatory elements. PMID:21859495

  3. Regulation of immune cell homeostasis and function by coronin 1.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Rajesh; Pieters, Jean

    2015-10-01

    Coronin 1 is the most recent candidate in the list of genes causing severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in humans. A distinctive feature of the SCID induced by coronin 1 deficiency is selective naïve T cell lymphopenia in the presence of a normal thymus as well as normal B cell and natural killer cell numbers (T(-)B(+)NK(+)). Coronin 1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved coronin protein family, members of which are widely expressed across the eukaryotic kingdom. Mammals express seven coronin molecules, numbered from coronin 1 to 7. The different coronin proteins have a distinct but overlapping tissue expression and have been reported to be involved in a wide array of cellular functions including calcium homeostasis, cytoskeletal dynamics, immune and inflammatory responses, neuromuscular transmission as well as cognition and behavior. In this minireview, we describe the role of coronin 1 in the maintenance of immune cell diversity and function.

  4. Migratory common blackbirds have lower innate immune function during autumn migration than resident conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Hegemann, Arne

    2016-03-01

    Animals need a well-functioning immune system to protect themselves against pathogens. The immune system, however, is costly and resource trade-offs with other demands exist. For migratory animals several (not mutually exclusive) hypotheses exist. First, migrants reduce immune function to be able to allocate resources to migration. Second, migrants boost immune function to cope with more and/or novel pathogens encountered during migration. Third, migrants reallocate resources within the immune system. We tested these hypotheses by comparing baseline immune function in resident and migratory common blackbirds (Turdus merula), both caught during the autumn migration season on the island of Helgoland, Germany. Indices of baseline innate immune function (microbial killing capacity and haptoglobin-like activity) were lower in migrants than in residents. There was no difference between the groups in total immunoglobulins, a measure of baseline acquired immune function. Our study on a short-distance avian migrant supports the hypothesis that innate immune function is compromised during migration.

  5. Waning immunity against mumps in vaccinated young adults, France 2013.

    PubMed

    Vygen, Sabine; Fischer, Aurélie; Meurice, Laure; Mounchetrou Njoya, Ibrahim; Gregoris, Marina; Ndiaye, Bakhao; Ghenassia, Adrien; Poujol, Isabelle; Stahl, Jean Paul; Antona, Denise; Le Strat, Yann; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Rolland, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, 15 clusters of mumps were notified in France; 72% (82/114) of the cases had been vaccinated twice with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. To determine whether the risk of mumps increased with time since the last vaccination, we conducted a case-control study among clusters in universities and military barracks. A confirmed case had an inflammation of a salivary gland plus laboratory confirmation in 2013. A probable case presented with inflammation of a salivary gland in 2013 either lasting for > 2 days or with epidemiological link to a confirmed case. Controls had no mumps symptoms and attended the same university course, student party or military barracks. We collected clinical and vaccination data via web questionnaire and medical records. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using logistic regression. 59% (50/85) of cases and 62% (199/321) of controls had been vaccinated twice. The odds of mumps increased for twice-vaccinated individuals by 10% for every year that had passed since the second dose (aOR 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.19; p = 0.02). Mumps immunity waned with increasing time since vaccination. Our findings contributed to the French High Council of Public Health's decision to recommend a third MMR dose during outbreaks for individuals whose second dose dates > 10 years.

  6. Long-term complications of splenectomy in adult immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Lan-Huong; Mahévas, Matthieu; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Limal, Nicolas; Languille, Laetitia; Dumas, Guillaume; Khellaf, Mehdi; Bierling, Philippe; Michel, Marc; Godeau, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The recent large decrease in splenectomy use for chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is partly due to still-unsolved questions about long-term safety. We performed the first single-center exposed/unexposed cohort study evaluating the long-term incidence of splenectomy complications in patients with primary ITP. Overall, 83 patients who underwent splenectomy more than 10 years ago (exposed) were matched with 83 nonsplenectomized patients (unexposed) on the date of ITP diagnosis ±5 years, age and gender. After a median follow-up of 192 months (range 0.5–528), 43 patients (52%) achieved overall response after splenectomy. Splenectomized patients experienced more venous thromboembolism (VTE) than controls (n = 13 vs n = 2, P = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, splenectomy was an independent risk factor of VTE (hazard ratio = 4.006, P = 0.032 [95% confidence interval: 1.13–14.21]). Splenectomized patients presented more severe infections on long-term follow-up: all required hospitalization, and 5/26 (19%) infections led to severe sepsis or septic shock and to death for 3 cases (none in controls). However, the incidence of malignancy was similar in both groups, as was cardiovascular risk, which appeared to be related more to ITP than splenectomy. Finally, splenectomy did not significantly decrease overall survival. Despite the risk of thrombosis and severe sepsis, splenectomy remains an effective and curative treatment for ITP. PMID:27902585

  7. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.

  8. Immune thrombocytopenia in adults: a prospective cohort study of clinical features and predictors of outcome

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Nordon, Clémentine; Michel, Marc; Viallard, Jean-François; Adoue, Daniel; Magy-Bertrand, Nadine; Durand, Jean-Marc; Quittet, Philippe; Fain, Olivier; Bonnotte, Bernard; Morin, Anne-Sophie; Morel, Nathalie; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Khellaf, Mehdi; Perlat, Antoinette; Sacre, Karim; Lefrere, François; Abenhaim, Lucien; Godeau, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    This prospective observational cohort study aimed to explore the clinical features of incident immune thrombocytopenia in adults and predictors of outcome, while determining if a family history of autoimmune disorder is a risk factor for immune thrombocytopenia. All adults, 18 years of age or older, recently diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia were consecutively recruited across 21 hospital centers in France. Data were collected at diagnosis and after 12 months. Predictors of chronicity at 12 months were explored using logistic regression models. The association between family history of autoimmune disorder and the risk of developing immune thrombocytopenia was explored using a conditional logistic regression model after matching each case to 10 controls. One hundred and forty-three patients were included: 63% female, mean age 48 years old (Standard Deviation=19), and 84% presented with bleeding symptoms. Median platelet count was 10×109/L. Initial treatment was required in 82% of patients. After 12 months, only 37% of patients not subject to disease-modifying interventions achieved cure. The sole possible predictor of chronicity at 12 months was a higher platelet count at baseline [Odds Ratio 1.03; 95%CI: 1.00, 1.06]. No association was found between outcome and any of the following features: age, sex, presence of either bleeding symptoms or antinuclear antibodies at diagnosis. Likewise, family history of autoimmune disorder was not associated with incident immune thrombocytopenia. Immune thrombocytopenia in adults has been shown to progress to a chronic form in the majority of patients. A lower platelet count could be indicative of a more favorable outcome. PMID:27229715

  9. Vaccine-enhanced artificial immune system for multimodal function optimization.

    PubMed

    Woldemariam, Kumlachew M; Yen, Gary G

    2010-02-01

    This paper emulates a biological notion in vaccines to promote exploration in the search space for solving multimodal function optimization problems using artificial immune systems (AISs). In this method, we first divide the decision space into equal subspaces. The vaccine is then randomly extracted from each subspace. A few of these vaccines, in the form of weakened antigens, are then injected into the algorithm to enhance the exploration of global and local optima. The goal of this process is to lead the antibodies to unexplored areas. Using this biologically motivated notion, we design the vaccine-enhanced AIS for multimodal function optimization, achieving promising performance.

  10. Immune function biomarker QuantiFERON-monitor is associated with infection risk in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Siddharth; Yu, Lijia; Visvanathan, Kumar; Angus, Peter William; Gow, Paul John; Testro, Adam Gareth

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether a novel immune function biomarker QuantiFERON-Monitor (QFM) can identify cirrhotic patients at greatest risk of infection. METHODS Adult cirrhotic patients on the liver transplant waiting list were recruited for this observational cohort study from a tertiary liver transplant referral unit. The immune function biomarker, QFM was performed using the same method as the widely available Quantiferon-gold assay, and measures output in interferon gamma in IU/mL after dual stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Ninety-one cirrhotic patients were recruited, with 47 (52%) transplanted on the day of their QFM. The remaining 44 (48%) were monitored for infections until transplant, death, or census date of 1st February 2014. RESULTS Cirrhotic patients express a median QFM significantly lower than healthy controls (94.5 IU/mL vs 423 IU/mL), demonstrating that they are severely immunosuppressed. Several factors including model for end stage liver disease, presence of hepatocellular carcinoma, bilirubin, international normalized ratio and haemoglobin were associated with QFM on univariate analysis. Disease aetiology did not appear to impact QFM. On multivariate analysis, only Child-Pugh score and urea were significantly associated with a patient’s immune function as objectively measured by QFM. In the 44 patients who were not transplanted immediately after their blood test and could be monitored for subsequent infection risk, 13 (29.5%) experienced a pre-transplant infection a median 20 d (range 2-182) post-test. QFM < 214 IU/mL was associated with HR = 4.1 (P = 0.01) for infection. A very low QFM < 30 IU/mL was significantly associated (P = 0.003) with death in three patients who died while awaiting transplantation (HR = 56.6). CONCLUSION QFM is lower in cirrhotics, allowing objective determinations of an individual’s unique level of immune dysfunction. Low QFM was associated with increased susceptibility to infection. PMID:28050238

  11. [Immunization strategy of hepatitis B vaccine among adults in China: evidence based-medicine and consideration].

    PubMed

    Xu, A Q; Zhang, L

    2016-06-01

    With the effective control of hepatitis B infection among children, the adults especial the young ones become the main population for new hepatitis B virus infection. Now the adults receive hepatitis B vaccination voluntarily and at their own expense in China and the coverage is low. The high immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine has been proven among healthy adults. Although the safety of hepatitis B vaccination has been documented among high-risk population such as HIV-infected people, injecting drug users and patients with chronic hepatitis disease, their antibody seroconversion rate after hepatitis B vaccination is lower than the healthy adults. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended to population at high risk officially in many countries and some effects have been achieved. It is urgent to improve the strategy of hepatitis B vaccination among adults to fasten the control of hepatitis B in China, along with the researches about the long-term efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine among adults, the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccination among high-risk adults and the economical evaluation about different adult immunization strategy of hepatitis B.

  12. Recapitulating adult human immune traits in laboratory mice by normalizing environment

    PubMed Central

    Beura, Lalit K.; Hamilton, Sara E.; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M.; Odumade, Oludare A.; Casey, Kerry A.; Thompson, Emily A.; Fraser, Kathryn A.; Rosato, Pamela C.; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W. Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C.; Masopust, David

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice because of experimental advantages including inbred homogeneity, tools for genetic manipulation, the ability to perform kinetic tissue analyses starting with the onset of disease, and tractable models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. Despite revealing many fundamental principals of immunology, there is growing concern that mice fail to capture relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside1–8. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic “specific pathogen free” (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that the standard practice of laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes result in better recapitulation of features of adult humans. Laboratory mice lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells, which more closely resembles neonatal than adult humans. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice, pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting a role for environment. Consequences of altering mouse housing profoundly impacted the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune system and resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression patterns that more closely aligned with immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered the mouse’s resistance to infection, and impacted T cell differentiation to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the impact of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modeling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans. PMID

  13. Functional Divergence of Two Secreted Immune Proteases of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hörger, Anja C; Bozkurt, Tolga O; van den Burg, Harrold A; Kaschani, Farnusch; Kaiser, Markus; Belhaj, Khaoula; Smoker, Matthew; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Kamoun, Sophien; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2015-08-31

    Rcr3 and Pip1 are paralogous secreted papain-like proteases of tomato. Both proteases are inhibited by Avr2 from the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum, but only Rcr3 acts as a co-receptor for Avr2 recognition by the tomato Cf-2 immune receptor. Here, we show that Pip1-depleted tomato plants are hyper-susceptible to fungal, bacterial, and oomycete plant pathogens, demonstrating that Pip1 is an important broad-range immune protease. By contrast, in the absence of Cf-2, Rcr3 depletion does not affect fungal and bacterial infection levels but causes increased susceptibility only to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Rcr3 and Pip1 reside on a genetic locus that evolved over 36 million years ago. These proteins differ in surface-exposed residues outside the substrate-binding groove, and Pip1 is 5- to 10-fold more abundant than Rcr3. We propose a model in which Rcr3 and Pip1 diverged functionally upon gene duplication, possibly driven by an arms race with pathogen-derived inhibitors or by coevolution with the Cf-2 immune receptor detecting inhibitors of Rcr3, but not of Pip1.

  14. Effects of thyroid cystectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism on immune function

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiangdang; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of thyroid cystectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism on immune function. Methods: Ninety-two patients with parathyroid cysts complicated with primary hyperparathyroidism were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group (n=46). The treatment group received endoscopic thyroidectomy through the anterior chest wall via the areolar approach, and the control group was treated with conventional open thyroidectomy. Results: The two groups had similar immune function indices as well as thyroid hormone, serum calcium and phosphorus levels before surgery (P>0.05). After surgery, FT3 and FT4 levels significantly increased in both groups, whereas that of TSH significantly decreased (P<0.05). The levels of the two groups differed significantly on the postoperative 5th day (P<0.05). NK%, CD3+%, CD4+% and CD8+%, which significantly fluctuated on the postoperative 1st day in both groups (P<0.05), were basically recovered on the postoperative 5th day in the treatment group that had significantly different outcomes from those of the control group (P<0.05). On the postoperative 1st and 5th days, the treatment group had significantly lower serum calcium level and significantly higher serum phosphorus level than those of the control group (P<0.05). The surgeries were successfully performed for all patients. During three months of follow-up, the treatment group was significantly less prone to complications such as surgical site infection, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, parathyroid crisis and hoarseness than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: For treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism, endoscopic thyroidectomy through the anterior chest wall via the areolar approach decreased the incidence rate of complications, as well as promoted the recovery of serum calcium and phosphorous levels, probably by only mildly affecting immune function and thyroid hormone levels. PMID:27022378

  15. Immunity to Diphtheria and Tetanus in Army Personnel and Adult Civilians in Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyyed Javad; Mohammadi, Babak; Rajabi, Jalil; Mohammadian Roshan, Ghasem

    2017-03-24

    This study aimed to investigate serologic immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in army personnel and a sample population of adult civilians in Mashhad, Iran. Army personnel (n = 180) and civilians (n = 83) who presented at Mashhad army hospital participated in this study. Diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 77% and 94% of army personnel aged 18-34 years had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antitoxin level ≥0.1 IU/mL) and tetanus (antitoxin level >0.1 IU/mL), respectively. For civilians in this age group, the proportions were 76% for both diseases. Antitoxin levels waned with age. Thus, participants older than 50 years had lower immunity; this decrease in immunity was more pronounced for tetanus than for diphtheria in both army personnel and civilians. For both diseases, geometric mean antitoxin titers and the proportion of participants with at least basic protection were higher in subjects with a history of vaccination in the last 10 years (P < 0.001), higher in men than women, and in army personnel than civilians in each age group. Young army personnel and civilians (18-34 years old) had adequate immunity to diphtheria and tetanus. However, the large number of susceptible older adults (>50 years old) calls for improved booster vaccination protocols.

  16. Relationships among plumage coloration, blood selenium concentrations and immune responses of adult and nestling tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Beck, Michelle L; Hopkins, William A; Hawley, Dana M

    2015-11-01

    In a number of taxa, males and females both display ornaments that may be associated with individual quality and could be reliable signals to potential mates or rivals. We examined the iridescent blue/green back and white breast of adult tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to determine whether plumage reflectance is related to adult or offspring immune responses. We simultaneously addressed the influence of blood selenium levels and the interaction between blood selenium and plumage coloration on adult and nestling immunity. Selenium is a well-known antioxidant necessary for mounting a robust immune response but its importance in wild birds remains poorly understood. In females, the brightness of white breast coloration was positively associated with bactericidal capacity, but there was no association with blood selenium. In contrast, male bactericidal capacity was associated with an interactive effect between dorsal plumage coloration and blood selenium concentration. Males with bluer hues and greater blue chroma showed increased bactericidal capacity as blood selenium concentrations increased, while bactericidal capacity declined in greener males at higher blood selenium concentrations. In nestlings, bactericidal capacity was positively associated with nestling blood selenium concentrations and white brightness of both social parents. These results suggest that white plumage reflectance is indicative of quality in tree swallows and that greater attention should be paid to the reflectance of large white plumage patches. Additionally, the role of micronutrients, such as selenium, in mediating relationships between physiology and signals of quality, should be explored further.

  17. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  18. GATA-3 function in innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Tindemans, Irma; Serafini, Nicolas; Di Santo, James P; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2014-08-21

    The zinc-finger transcription factor GATA-3 has received much attention as a master regulator of T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, during which it controls interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 expression. More recently, GATA-3 was shown to contribute to type 2 immunity through regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and function. Furthermore, during thymopoiesis, GATA-3 represses B cell potential in early T cell precursors, activates TCR signaling in pre-T cells, and promotes the CD4(+) T cell lineage after positive selection. GATA-3 also functions outside the thymus in hematopoietic stem cells, regulatory T cells, CD8(+) T cells, thymic natural killer cells, and ILC precursors. Here we discuss the varied functions of GATA-3 in innate and adaptive immune cells, with emphasis on its activity in T cells and ILCs, and examine the mechanistic basis for the dose-dependent, developmental-stage- and cell-lineage-specific activity of this transcription factor.

  19. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2009-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation, however the nature of the phenomenon as it equilibrates over longer flights has not been determined. This dysregulation may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. The clinical risk (if any) for exploration-class space flight is unknown, but may include increased incidence of infection, allergy, hypersensitivity, hematological malignancy or altered wound healing. The objective of this Supplemental Medical Objective (SMO) is to determine the status of the immune system, physiological stress and latent viral reactivation (a clinical outcome that can be measured) during both short and long-duration spaceflight. In addition, this study will develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. Pre-mission, in-flight and post-flight blood and saliva samples will be obtained from participating crewmembers. Assays included peripheral immunophenotype, T cell function, cytokine profiles (RNA, intracellular, secreted), viral-specific immunity, latent viral reactivation (EBV, CMV, VZV), and stress hormone measurements. This study is currently ongoing. To date, 10 short duration and 5 long-duration crewmembers have completed the study. Technically, the study is progressing well. In-flight blood samples are being collected, and returned for analysis, including functional assays that require live cells. For all in-flight samples to date, sample viability has been acceptable. Preliminary data (n = 4/7; long/short duration, respectively) indicate that distribution of most peripheral leukocyte subsets is largely unaltered during flight. Exceptions include elevated T cells, reduced B/NK cells, increased memory T cells and increased central memory CD8+ T cells. General T cell function, early blastogenesis response to mitogenic stimulation, is markedly

  20. Developmental maturation of innate immune cell function correlates with susceptibility to central nervous system autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Hertzenberg, Deetje; Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Kinzel, Silke; Husterer, Veronika; Cravens, Petra D; Kieseier, Bernd C; Hemmer, Bernhard; Brück, Wolfgang; Zamvil, Scott S; Stüve, Olaf; Weber, Martin S

    2013-08-01

    MS is an inflammatory CNS disorder, which typically occurs in early adulthood and rarely in children. Here we tested whether functional maturation of innate immune cells may determine susceptibility to CNS autoimmune disease in EAE. Two-week-old mice were resistant to active EAE, which causes fulminant paralysis in adult mice; this resistance was associated with an impaired development of Th1 and Th17 cells. Resistant, young mice had higher frequencies of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and plasma-cytoid DCs. Furthermore, myeloid APCs and B cells from young mice expressed lower levels of MHC class II and CD40, produced decreased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, and released enhanced levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10. When used as APCs, splenocytes from 2-week-old mice failed to differentiate naive T cells into Th1 and Th17 cells irrespective of the T-cell donor's age, and promoted development of Treg cells and Th2 cells instead. Adoptive transfer of adult APCs restored the ability of 2-week-old mice to generate encephalitogenic T cells and develop EAE. Collectively, these findings indicate that the innate immune compartment functionally matures during development, which may be a prerequisite for development of T-cell-mediated CNS autoimmune disease.

  1. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  2. Pubertal immune challenge blocks the ability of estradiol to enhance performance on cognitive tasks in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Nafissa; Blaustein, Jeffrey D

    2013-07-01

    Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. Previously, we have shown that a single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1.5mg/kg IP), during the pubertal period (around 6weeks old) in mice decreases sexual receptivity in response to estradiol and progesterone in adulthood. These findings suggest that pubertal immune challenge has an enduring effect of decreasing the behavioral responsiveness to gonadal steroid hormones. Since estradiol improves cognitive function in certain tasks in mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal immune challenge on the ability of estradiol to enhance cognitive function. We hypothesized that estradiol would be less effective at enhancing performance on particular cognitive tasks in female mice treated with LPS during puberty. Six-week old (pubertal) and 10-week old (adult) female CD1 mice were injected with either saline or LPS. Five weeks later, they were ovariectomized and implanted subcutaneously with either an estradiol- or oil-filled Silastic(©) capsule followed 1week later with testing for cognitive function. The duration of juvenile investigation during social discrimination and recognition tests was used as a measure of social memory, and the duration of object investigation during object recognition and placement tests was used as a measure of object memory. Chronic estradiol treatment enhanced social and object memory in saline-treated females and in females treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in females treated with LPS at 6weeks old, estradiol failed to improve social and object memories. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to an immune challenge during puberty reduces at least some of the cognitive effects of estradiol. Moreover, these results support the idea that pubertal immune challenge compromises a wide variety of behavioral influences of ovarian hormones.

  3. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function - Short Duration Biological Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence; Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson, Duane; Mehta, Satish; Morukov, Boris; Uchakin, Peter; Nehlsen-Cannarella, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crew Member Immune Function - Short Duration Biological Investigation (Integrated Immune-SDBI) will assess the clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of space flight on the human immune system and will validate a flightcompatible immune monitoring strategy. Immune system changes will be monitored by collecting and analyzing blood, urine and saliva samples from crewmembers before, during and after space flight.

  4. Relationship Functioning Among Adult Children of Alcoholics*

    PubMed Central

    Kearns-Bodkin, Jill N.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current research was to examine the impact of both maternal and paternal alcoholism on the relationship functioning of husbands and wives over the early years of marriage. Method: Couples (N = 634) were assessed at the time of marriage, and again at their first, second, and fourth anniversaries. Husbands and wives completed separate, self-administered questionnaires at home. Results: Results of separate repeated measures analyses of covariance revealed that, for both husbands and wives, the appraisal of their marital relationship was associated with alcoholism in the opposite gender parent. That is, for husbands, alcoholism in the mother was associated with lower marital satisfaction across the 4 years of marriage. For wives, alcoholism in the father was related to lower marital intimacy. Husbands' physical aggression was influenced by mother's and father's alcoholism; high levels of physical aggression were present among men with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Interestingly, wives' experience of husband's aggression was also highest among women with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Wives also reported engaging in high levels of physical aggression when they had an alcoholic mother and a nonalcoholic father, but this effect was restricted to the early part of the marriage. Finally, parental alcoholism was associated with both husbands' and wives' attachment representations. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that children raised in alcoholic families may carry the problematic effects of their early family environment into their adult romantic relationships. PMID:18925353

  5. IgG4 Characteristics and Functions in Cancer Immunity.

    PubMed

    Crescioli, Silvia; Correa, Isabel; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Davies, Anna M; Sutton, Brian J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2016-01-01

    IgG4 is the least abundant subclass of IgG in normal human serum, but elevated IgG4 levels are triggered in response to a chronic antigenic stimulus and inflammation. Since the immune system is exposed to tumor-associated antigens over a relatively long period of time, and tumors notoriously promote inflammation, it is unsurprising that IgG4 has been implicated in certain tumor types. Despite differing from other IgG subclasses by only a few amino acids, IgG4 possesses unique structural characteristics that may be responsible for its poor effector function potency and immunomodulatory properties. We describe the unique attributes of IgG4 that may be responsible for these regulatory functions, particularly in the cancer context. We discuss the inflammatory conditions in tumors that support IgG4, the emerging and proposed mechanisms by which IgG4 may contribute to tumor-associated escape from immune surveillance and implications for cancer immunotherapy.

  6. [Infection of Mice with Normal Immune Function by Taenia asiatica].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-yan; Guo, Guang-wu; Chen, Li-hong; Mo, Xing-ze; Yu, Yue-sheng

    2015-08-01

    The Taenia asiatica eggs pre-incubated with sodium hypochlorite solution for 4 min, 6 min and 8 mins were subcutaneously injected into mice with normal immune function(groups Al-A3 respectively, n=20 in each) and mice with immunosuppression (groups B1-B3, n=20 in each). All groups of mice began to show body discomfort on day 5 after infection and develop lumps on the back about on day 15. In groups Al-A3, animal death occurred during days 7-15, with a same survival rate of 95.0%(19/20) and infection rate of 89.4%(17/19), 73.6%(14/19) and 47.3%(9/19) respectively. In groups B1-B3, animal death occurred during days 7-50, with survival rate of 60%(13/20), 55%(11/20)and 55%(11/20) and infection rate of 76.9% (10/13), 54.5% (6/11) and 45.4% (5/11) respectively. After the scolex of cysticercus was evaginated with 15% pig bile, four suckers, an apparent rostellum and two distinct hook-like puncta structures were seen. These results indicate that mice with normal immune function can be used as a replacement of immunosuppressive mice to establish a T. asiatica oncosphere infection model. In addition, the T. asiatica eggs pre-incubated with sodium hypochlorite solution for 4 min have the strongest infection ability.

  7. The Vitamin D Connection to Pediatric Infections and Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Valencia P; Modlin, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, a resurgence in vitamin D deficiency and nutritional rickets has been reported throughout the world, including the United States. Inadequate serum vitamin D concentrations have also been associated with complications from other health problems, including tuberculosis, cancer (prostate, breast and colon), multiple sclerosis and diabetes. These findings support the concept of vitamin D possessing important pleiotropic actions outside of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. In children, an association between nutritional rickets with respiratory compromise has long been recognized. Recent epidemiological studies clearly demonstrate the link between vitamin D deficiency and the increased incidence of respiratory infections. Further research has also elucidated the contribution of vitamin D in the host defense response to infection. However, the mechanism(s) by which vitamin D levels contribute to pediatric infections and immune function has yet to be determined. This knowledge is particularly relevant and timely, because infants and children appear more susceptible to viral rather than bacterial infections in the face of vitamin D deficiency. The connection between vitamin D, infections and immune function in the pediatric population indicates a possible role for vitamin D supplementation in potential interventions and adjuvant therapies. PMID:19190532

  8. Antibody titers against vaccine and contemporary wild poliovirus type 1 in children immunized with IPV+OPV and young adults immunized with OPV.

    PubMed

    Lukashev, Alexander N; Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Sychev, Daniil A; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I

    2016-02-02

    In 2010, a type 1 poliovirus outbreak in Congo with 445 lethal cases was caused by a virus that was neutralized by sera of German adults vaccinated with inactivated polio vaccine with a reduced efficiency. This seroprevalence study was done in two cohorts immunized with other vaccination schedules. Russian children aged 3-6 years immunized with a combination of inactivated and live polio vaccines were reasonably well protected against any wild type poliovirus 1, including the Congolese isolate. Adults aged 20-29 years immunized only with live vaccine were apparently protected against the vaccine strain (92% seropositive), but only 50% had detectable antibodies against the Congo-2010 isolate. Both waning immunity and serological divergence of the Congolese virus could contribute to this result.

  9. Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Weight Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Immunizations KidsHealth > For Teens > Immunizations Print A A A What's in this article? Why Are Vaccinations Important? Why Do I Need Shots? Which Vaccinations Do ...

  10. Development of immune organs and functioning in humans and test animals: Implications for immune intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Kuper, C Frieke; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Cnossen, Hilde; Houben, Geert; Garthoff, Jossie; Wolterbeek, Andre

    2016-09-01

    A healthy immune status is mostly determined during early life stages and many immune-related diseases may find their origin in utero and the first years of life. Therefore, immune health optimization may be most effective during early life. This review is an inventory of immune organ maturation events in relation to developmental timeframes in minipig, rat, mouse and human. It is concluded that time windows of immune organ development in rodents can be translated to human, but minipig reflects the human timeframes better; however the lack of prenatal maternal-fetal immune interaction in minipig may cause less responsiveness to prenatal intervention. It is too early to conclude which immune parameters are most appropriate, because there are not enough comparative immune parameters. Filling these gaps will increase the predictability of results observed in experimental animals, and guide future intervention studies by assessing relevant parameters in the right corresponding developmental time frames.

  11. Systemic vascular function is associated with muscular power in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power are critical determinants of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measu...

  12. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

  13. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  14. Neutrophil function and cortisol:DHEAS ratio in bereaved older adults.

    PubMed

    Khanfer, Riyad; Lord, Janet M; Phillips, Anna C

    2011-08-01

    Bereavement is a common life event for older adults and is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, though the underlying reasons for this link are poorly understood. Although physical and emotional stressors and ageing are known to suppress immunity, few studies have explored the impact of bereavement upon immunity in the older population. We therefore hypothesised that the emotional stress of bereavement would suppress immune function, specifically neutrophil bactericidal activity, in older adults. A between-subjects design was used to examine the effect of recent bereavement (<2 months) on neutrophil function in elders. Participants were 24 bereaved and 24 age- and sex-matched non-bereaved controls all aged 65+ years. Neutrophil phagocytosis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and stimulated superoxide production were assessed. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) levels were determined in serum to assess potential mechanisms. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by questionnaire. Neutrophil superoxide production was significantly reduced among the bereaved when challenged with E. coli (p=0.05), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (p=0.009). Further, the bereaved group had a significantly higher cortisol:DHEAS ratio compared to controls (p=0.03). There was no difference in neutrophil phagocytosis between the two groups. The psychological questionnaire results showed that the bereaved had significantly greater depressive and anxiety symptoms than the non-bereaved. The emotional stress of bereavement is associated with suppressed neutrophil superoxide production and with a raised cortisol:DHEAS ratio. The stress of bereavement exaggerates the age-related decline in HPA axis and combines with immune ageing to further suppress immune function, which may help to the explain increased risk of infection in bereaved older adults.

  15. Monocyte function in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Defective chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P D; Ohura, K; Masur, H; Lane, H C; Fauci, A S; Wahl, S M

    1984-01-01

    The ineffective immune response in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) contributes to severe and widespread infections and unrestricted growth by certain tumors. To determine whether monocyte dysfunction contributes to this immunosuppressed condition, we investigated monocyte chemotaxis in patients with AIDS. Using three different chemotactic stimuli, N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine, lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor, and C5a des Arg, we studied the chemotactic responses of monocytes from seven homosexual men with AIDS, three homosexuals with lymphadenopathy and an abnormal immunological profile, seven healthy homosexual men, and 23 heterosexual control individuals. Monocytes from each of the AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and/or opportunistic infection exhibited a marked reduction in chemotaxis to all stimuli compared with the healthy control subjects. The reduced chemotactic responses were observed over a wide range of concentrations for each stimulus. Monocytes from AIDS patients who had clinically apparent opportunistic infection(s) exhibited a greater reduction in monocyte migration to all three stimuli than monocytes from the AIDS patient with only Kaposi's sarcoma. Monocytes from each of three homosexuals with lymphadenopathy and an abnormal immunological profile exhibited decreased chemotactic responses that were intermediate between those of the AIDS patients and the healthy heterosexual control subjects. In contrast to these findings, monocytes from each of seven healthy homosexuals exhibited normal chemotactic responses to the same stimuli. In addition, monocytes from AIDS patients exhibited reduced chemotaxis to soluble products of Giardia lamblia, one of several protozoan parasites prevalent in AIDS patients. Thus the immune abnormality in AIDS, previously thought to involve only the T-, B-, and natural killer lymphocytes, extends to the monocyte-macrophage. Defective monocyte migratory function may contribute to

  16. Cryptic impacts of temperature variability on amphibian immune function.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Quintero, Richard P; Murray, Suzan; Kleopfer, John D; Murphy, James B; Evans, Matthew J; Nissen, Bradley D; Gratwicke, Brian

    2013-11-15

    Ectothermic species living in temperate regions can experience rapid and potentially stressful changes in body temperature driven by abrupt weather changes. Yet, among amphibians, the physiological impacts of short-term temperature variation are largely unknown. Using an ex situ population of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, an aquatic North American salamander, we tested the hypothesis that naturally occurring periods of temperature variation negatively impact amphibian health, either through direct effects on immune function or by increasing physiological stress. We exposed captive salamanders to repeated cycles of temperature fluctuations recorded in the population's natal stream and evaluated behavioral and physiological responses, including plasma complement activity (i.e. bacteria killing) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The best-fit model (ΔAICc=0, wi=0.9992) revealed 70% greater P. aeruginosa killing after exposure to variable temperatures and no evidence of thermal acclimation. The same model predicted 50% increased E. coli killing, but had weaker support (ΔAICc=1.8, wi=0.2882). In contrast, plasma defenses were ineffective against A. hydrophila, and other health indicators (leukocyte ratios, growth rates and behavioral patterns) were maintained at baseline values. Our data suggest that amphibians can tolerate, and even benefit from, natural patterns of rapid warming/cooling. Specifically, temperature variation can elicit increased activity of the innate immune system. This immune response may be adaptive in an unpredictable environment, and is undetectable by conventional health indicators (and hence considered cryptic). Our findings highlight the need to consider naturalistic patterns of temperature variation when predicting species' susceptibility to climate change.

  17. Lack of clinical exacerbations in adults with chronic asthma after immunization with killed influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Stenius-Aarniala, B; Huttunen, J K; Pyhälä, R; Haahtela, T; Jokela, P; Jukkara, A; Karakorpi, T; Kataja, M; Kava, T; Kuusisto, P

    1986-06-01

    The effects of immunization with killed influenza virus vaccine were assessed by comparison with placebo in a double-blind study of 318 adult patients with chronic asthma. The patients were randomly allocated to active vaccine and placebo. No difference was observed in peak expiratory flow rate or in clinical symptoms of bronchial obstruction between the groups receiving active vaccine and placebo during the first week after immunization. The data were analyzed separately for age, sex, duration of the disease, hypersensitivity to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), atopic status, patients with a history of attacks of asthma induced by viral infections, patients with a diurnal variation of baseline peak expiratory flow of 20 percent or more, and patients receiving continuous oral steroid medication, but none of these factors seemed to predict any short-term adverse effects of vaccination. Follow-up for eight months after the vaccination revealed no differences in asthmatic symptoms between the patients treated with active vaccine and those receiving placebo. The antiviral antibody response to vaccination was normal. The possible protection provided by the vaccination against exacerbation of asthma induced by influenza could not be evaluated, since the influenza epidemic expected during the season failed to occur in Finland. It is concluded that immunization with killed influenza vaccine is safe and is not associated with any significant side effects in adult patients with chronic asthma.

  18. Podoplanin: emerging functions in development, the immune system, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Astarita, Jillian L; Acton, Sophie E; Turley, Shannon J

    2012-01-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN) is a well-conserved, mucin-type transmembrane protein expressed in multiple tissues during ontogeny and in adult animals, including the brain, heart, kidney, lungs, osteoblasts, and lymphoid organs. Studies of PDPN-deficient mice have demonstrated that this molecule plays a critical role in development of the heart, lungs, and lymphatic system. PDPN is widely used as a marker for lymphatic endothelial cells and fibroblastic reticular cells of lymphoid organs and for lymphatics in the skin and tumor microenvironment. Much of the mechanistic insight into PDPN biology has been gleaned from studies of tumor cells; tumor cells often upregulate PDPN as they undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition and this upregulation is correlated with increased motility and metastasis. The physiological role of PDPN that has been most studied is its ability to aggregate and activate CLEC-2-expressing platelets, as PDPN is the only known endogenous ligand for CLEC-2. However, more recent studies have revealed that PDPN also plays crucial roles in the biology of immune cells, including T cells and dendritic cells. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the diverse roles of PDPN in development, immunology, and cancer.

  19. Local Immune Responses in Children and Adults with Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hana; Jang, Man-Young; Kim, Kyung Rae; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Cho, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common allergic disease but little is known about the difference of local immune responses in children and adults with AR. Objective To compare local immune responses between children and adults with AR and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), and to investigate whether the association of local and systemic immune responses is different between the two age groups. Methods Fifty-one patients with chronic rhinitis were enrolled and grouped into children (N = 27, mean age 7.2 years) and adults (N = 24, mean age 29.9 years). Diagnosis of AR was based on symptoms, skin prick tests and serum specific IgEs. Nasal lavage (NAL) fluids were collected from all subjects and used to measure the levels of total IgE, specific IgEs to house dust mites (Dp and Df), and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A and IFN-γ). Flow cytometry was used to measure inflammatory cell types in NAL fluids. Results AR had significantly increased local levels of total IgE and specific IgEs to Dp and Df compared with NAR in both age groups (P < 0.05). Nasal eosinophils % (P = 0.01) was significantly increased only in children with AR. Local-systemic correlations of total IgE (r = 0.662, P = 0.000) and eosinophil % (r = 0.461, P = 0.015) between the peripheral blood and NAL fluids were found only in children. Moreover, children had correlations between total IgE and eosinophil % in the peripheral blood (r = 0.629, P = 0.001) and in NAL fluids (r = 0.373, P = 0.061). Conclusion Elevated local IgE is a common feature of AR in children and adults. Local measures in NAR showed naïve state of immune response which disagree with the hypothesis of local allergic rhinitis. Children showed intense local inflammation and close local-systemic interactions compared to adults supporting pediatric AR as a distinct feature. PMID:27281182

  20. The functional roles of S1P in immunity.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Yu; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Kawahara, Atsuo

    2012-10-01

    The lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is generated within cells from sphingosine by two sphingosine kinases (SPHK1 and SPHK2). Intracellularly synthesized S1P is released into the extracellular fluid by S1P transporters, including SPNS2. Released S1P binds specifically to the G protein-coupled S1P receptors (S1PR1/S1P(1)-S1PR5/S1P(5)), which activate a diverse range of downstream signalling pathways. Recent studies have proposed that one of the central physiological functions of intercellular S1P signalling is in lymphocyte trafficking in vivo because genetic disruption of SPHK1/2, SPNS2 or S1PR1/S1P(1) in mice induces a lymphopenia phenotype. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of intercellular S1P signalling in the context of immunity.

  1. Steroidogenesis in the skin: implications for local immune functions

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej; Zbytek, Bazej; Nikolakis, Georgios; Manna, Pulak R.; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zmijewski, Michal; Li, Wei; Janjetovic, Zorica; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The skin has developed a hierarchy of systems that encompasses the skin immune and local steroidogenic activities in order to protect the body against the external environment and biological factors and to maintain local homeostasis. Most recently it has been established that skin cells contain the entire biochemical apparatus necessary for production of glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens either from precursors of systemic origin or, alternatively, through the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and its subsequent transformation to biologically active steroids. Examples of these products are corticosterone, cortisol, testosterone, dihydrotesterone and estradiol. Their local production can be regulated by locally produced corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cytokines. Furthermore the production of glucocorticoids is affected by ultraviolet B radiation. The level of production and nature of the final steroid products are dependent on the cell type or cutaneous compartment, e.g., epidermis, dermis, adnexal structures or adipose tissue. Locally produced glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens affect functions of the epidermis and adnexal structures as well as local immune activity. Malfunction of these steroidogenic activities can lead to inflammatory disorders or autoimmune diseases. The cutaneous steroidogenic system can also have systemic effects, which are emphasized by significant skin contribution to circulating androgens and/or estrogens. Furthermore, local activity of CYP11A1 can produce novel 7 -steroids and secosteroids that are biologically active. Therefore, modulation of local steroidogenic activity may serve as a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory disorders, autoimmune processes or other skin disorders. In conclusion, the skin can be defined as an independent steroidogenic organ, whose activity can affect its functions and the development of local or systemic inflammatory or

  2. Steroidogenesis in the skin: implications for local immune functions.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Zbytek, Blazej; Nikolakis, Georgios; Manna, Pulak R; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zmijewski, Michal; Li, Wei; Janjetovic, Zorica; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Zouboulis, Christos C; Tuckey, Robert C

    2013-09-01

    The skin has developed a hierarchy of systems that encompasses the skin immune and local steroidogenic activities in order to protect the body against the external environment and biological factors and to maintain local homeostasis. Most recently it has been established that skin cells contain the entire biochemical apparatus necessary for production of glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens either from precursors of systemic origin or, alternatively, through the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and its subsequent transformation to biologically active steroids. Examples of these products are corticosterone, cortisol, testosterone, dihydrotesterone and estradiol. Their local production can be regulated by locally produced corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cytokines. Furthermore the production of glucocorticoids is affected by ultraviolet B radiation. The level of production and nature of the final steroid products are dependent on the cell type or cutaneous compartment, e.g., epidermis, dermis, adnexal structures or adipose tissue. Locally produced glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens affect functions of the epidermis and adnexal structures as well as local immune activity. Malfunction of these steroidogenic activities can lead to inflammatory disorders or autoimmune diseases. The cutaneous steroidogenic system can also have systemic effects, which are emphasized by significant skin contribution to circulating androgens and/or estrogens. Furthermore, local activity of CYP11A1 can produce novel 7Δ-steroids and secosteroids that are biologically active. Therefore, modulation of local steroidogenic activity may serve as a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory disorders, autoimmune processes or other skin disorders. In conclusion, the skin can be defined as an independent steroidogenic organ, whose activity can affect its functions and the development of local or systemic inflammatory or

  3. Capture-related stressors impair immune system function in sablefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lupes, S.C.; Davis, M.W.; Olla, B.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is a valuable North Pacific Ocean species that, when not targeted in various commercial fisheries, is often a part of discarded bycatch. Predictions of the survival of discarded fish are dependent on understanding how a fish responds to stressful conditions. Our objective was to describe the immunological health of sablefish exposed to capture stressors. In laboratory experiments designed to simulate the capture process, we subjected sablefish to various stressors that might influence survival: towing in a net, hooking, elevated seawater and air temperatures, and air exposure time. After stress was imposed, the in vitro mitogen-stimulated proliferation of sablefish leukocytes was used to evaluate the function of the immune system in an assay we validated for this species. The results demonstrated that regardless of fishing gear type, exposure to elevated seawater temperature, or time in air, the leukocytes from stressed sablefish exhibited significantly diminished proliferative responses to the T-cell mitogen, concanavalin A, or the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide. There was no difference in the immunological responses associated with seawater or air temperature. The duration and severity of the capture stressors applied in our study were harsh enough to induce significantly elevated levels of plasma cortisol and glucose, but there was no difference in the magnitude of levels among stressor treatments. These data suggest that immunological suppression occurs in sablefish subjected to capture-related stressors. The functional impairment of the immune system after capture presents a potential reason why delayed mortality is possible in discarded sablefish. Further studies are needed to determine whether delayed mortality in discarded sablefish can be caused by increased susceptibility to infectious agents resulting from stressor-mediated immunosuppression.

  4. Effects of moderate beer consumption on first-line immunity of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Romeo, J; Wärnberg, J; Díaz, L E; González-Gross, M; Marcos, A

    2007-06-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has shown to induce benefits on host specific (cell-mediated and humoral) immune system, but there is scarce literature regarding first-line immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in non-specific immunity after alcohol abstention and moderate beer consumption in healthy adults. After a 30 day-alcohol abstemious period, 57 healthy volunteers were submitted to a daily moderate consumption of beer (330 mL for women and 660 mL for men, respectively) during the following 30 days. White blood cell counts and phagocytic and oxidative burst activity were evaluated at three points: a) basal, b) abstemious, c) after moderate consumption of beer. Absolute values of leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and basophiles (x10(9)/L) increased significantly in women from point b to point c (6.34 +/- 1.26 vs. 7.27 +/- 1.97, 3.43 +/- 0.88 vs. 4.13 +/- 1.53, 2.14 +/- 0.50 vs. 2.38 +/- 0.63, and 0.05 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.06 +/- 0.03, respectively; p < 0.05) as well as basophils in men (0.05 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.06 +/- 0.03). A significant increase of oxidative burst capacity was also observed after the moderate consumption of beer in both women (33.90 +/- 19.00 vs. 48.86 +/- 21.83) and men (27.39 +/- 18.13 vs. 39.25 +/- 24.53). In healthy adults, after 30 days of moderate beer consumption the parameter describing the non-specific immunity improved when compared to the basal situation. For several of these parameters, the response is more enhanced in women.

  5. The administration of probiotics and synbiotics in immune compromised adults: is it safe?

    PubMed

    Van den Nieuwboer, M; Brummer, R J; Guarner, F; Morelli, L; Cabana, M; Claasen, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to systematically evaluate safety of probiotics and synbiotics in immune compromised adults (≥18 years). Safety was analysed using the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0) classification, thereby providing an update on previous reports using the most recent available clinical data (2008-2013). Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions. Analysis of 57 clinical studies indicates that probiotic and/or synbiotic administration in immune compromised adults is safe with regard to the current evaluated probiotic strains, dosages and duration. Individuals were considered immune compromised if HIV-infected, critically ill, underwent surgery or had an organ- or an autoimmune disease. There were no major safety concerns in the study, as none of the serious adverse events (AE)s were related, or suspected to be related, to the probiotic or synbiotic product and the study products were well tolerated. Overall, AEs occurred less frequent in immune compromised subjects receiving probiotics and/or synbiotics compared to the control group. In addition, the results demonstrated a flaw in precise reporting and classification of AE in most studies. Furthermore, generalisability of conclusions are greatly limited by the inconsistent, imprecise and potentially incomplete reporting as well as the variation in probiotic strains, dosages, administration regimes, study populations and reported outcomes. We argue that standardised reporting on adverse events (CTCAE) in 'food' studies should be obligatory, thereby improving reliability of data and re-enforcing the safety profile of probiotics.

  6. Strategies to enhance immune function for marathon runners : what can be done?

    PubMed

    Akerström, Thorbjörn C A; Pedersen, Bente K

    2007-01-01

    Marathoners are at an increased risk of developing upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) following races and periods of hard training, which are associated with temporary changes in the immune system. The majority of the reported changes are decreases in function or concentration of certain immune cells. During this period of immune suppression, by some referred to as an 'open window' in immune function, it has been hypothesised that viruses and bacteria might gain a foothold, which would increase the risk of infections. In light of this, nutritional interventions that can enhance immune function and reduce the risk of URTIs have been sought. This paper focuses on the effect of glutamine, vitamin C, bovine colostrum and glucose. Although, some of these supplements can affect the physiological and immune changes associated with marathon racing, none of the supplements discussed have consistently been shown to reduce the risk of URTIs and therefore cannot be recommended for use as enhancers of immune function in marathon runners.

  7. Exosome-like vesicles derived by Schistosoma japonicum adult worms mediates M1 type immune- activity of macrophage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifu; Li, Zhitao; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Jinyi; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released into the extracellular space upon fusion of the multi-vesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane, while initial studies described that the role of exosomes was a reticulocyte cargo-disposal mechanism allowing remodeling of the plasma membrane during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes. Recent studies indicate that exosomes are secreted by most cells and pathogens and play an important role in intercellular signaling and exert regulatory function by carrying bioactive molecules. As numerous pathogens, adult worm of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) reside in mesenteric veins of definitive host including man and mammal animals. It was reported that the worms or the eggs also have specialized secretion systems to export effector proteins or other molecules into host target cells. However, the mechanisms involved remained unclear. This study investigated the isolation of the exosome-like vesicles secreted by S. japonicum adult worms and its immune activity on microphage in vitro. In this report, we identified exosome-based secretion as a new mechanism for protein secretion by S. japonicum. Electron microscopy tomography revealed the previously unidentified ultrastructural detail of exosome-like vesicles with high resolution; they were found to be typical spherical shape and to have a diverse population that varies in size of 30-100 nm. Exosome-like vesicles isolated from S. japonicum contained a significantly different protein compared with debris pelleted and the apoptosis body. We also demonstrate that macrophages were preferentially differentiated into the M1 subtype while being treated with S. japonicum exosome-like vesicles. This study reveals there are exosome-like vesicles derived by S. japonicum adult worms, and the exosome-like vesicles can mediate M1-type immune- activity of macrophage.

  8. Effects of Methylphenidate on Memory Functions of Adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-04-18

    Neuropsychological research on adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revealed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. However, only limited evidence exists supporting the effects of pharmacological treatment using methylphenidate (MPH) on memory functions. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the impact of MPH on various memory functions of adults with ADHD. Thirty-one adults with ADHD treated with MPH, 36 adults with ADHD not-treated with MPH, and 36 healthy individuals were assessed on several aspects of memory, including short-term memory, working memory, retrospective memory, prospective memory, and source memory. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied to compare memory functions between groups. Nonmedicated adults with ADHD showed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. Adults with ADHD treated with MPH showed improved memory functions when compared to nonmedicated patients, but were still impaired when compared to healthy controls. The present study emphasized the severity of memory impairments of adults with ADHD. A pharmacological treatment with MPH appeared to improve memory, but does not normalize functioning. Additional treatment intervention (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy) is therefore necessary.

  9. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-02

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  10. Identification and immune functional characterization of pigeon TLR7.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dan; Song, Li; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-04-14

    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is activated by single-stranded RNA and synthetic imidazoquinoline components, and induces interferon production. In this study, we cloned the TLR7 gene from King pigeon (Columba livia). The TLR7 open reading frame is 3144 bp and encodes a 1047-amino acid protein, consisting of a canonical TLR composition with 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Amino acid-inserting modifications were found at position 15 of LRR2, LRR11, LRR13, and LRR14 and position 10 of LRR10. The tissue distribution of pigeon TLR7 suggests that immune-associated tissues, especially the spleen and liver, have high TLR7 expression. HEK293T cells transfected with pigeon TLR7 plasmid responded to the agonist R848, indicating a functional TLR7 homolog. Following R848 stimulation of pigeon peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, CCL5, and IL-10 mRNA, assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, were significantly up-regulated. After Newcastle disease virus vaccine strain LaSota inoculation and agonist R848 injection, the level of TLR7 mRNA in the spleen of pigeons increased significantly in the R848-injected group, but decreased in the LaSota-inoculated group at three day post-infection (d.p.i.). The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly upregulated in both LaSota-inoculated and R848-injected groups. Triggering pigeon TLR7 leads to robust up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting an important role in the innate immune response.

  11. Cortisol-treated zebrafish embryos develop into pro-inflammatory adults with aberrant immune gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartig, Ellen I.; Zhu, Shusen; King, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic early-life stress increases adult susceptibility to numerous health problems linked to chronic inflammation. One way that this may occur is via glucocorticoid-induced developmental programming. To gain insight into such programming we treated zebrafish embryos with cortisol and examined the effects on both larvae and adults. Treated larvae had elevated whole-body cortisol and glucocorticoid signaling, and upregulated genes associated with defense response and immune system processes. In adulthood the treated fish maintained elevated basal cortisol levels in the absence of exogenous cortisol, and constitutively mis-expressed genes involved in defense response and its regulation. Adults derived from cortisol-treated embryos displayed defective tailfin regeneration, heightened basal expression of pro-inflammatory genes, and failure to appropriately regulate those genes following injury or immunological challenge. These results support the hypothesis that chronically elevated glucocorticoid signaling early in life directs development of a pro-inflammatory adult phenotype, at the expense of immunoregulation and somatic regenerative capacity. PMID:27444789

  12. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  13. Rural Youth and Adults' Knowledge of Governmental Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.; And Others

    In l976 Dane County, Wisconsin was the site of a survey to determine the knowledge of rural youth and adults as to how their government functioned. The area was chosen because its residents were thought to be more politically active than individuals in other parts of the state. Personal or telephone interviews were conducted with 112 adults and…

  14. Cognitive Functioning and Work Success in Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leather, Carol; Hogh, Henriette; Seiss, Ellen; Everatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexic adults completed questionnaires designed to investigate relationships between cognitive functioning, especially executive aspects, and work success. The study was designed to determine whether quantitative support could be provided for the model of adult dyslexic success derived from the work of Gerber and his colleagues (Gerber,…

  15. Invader immunology: invasion history alters immune system function in cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Dubey, Sylvain; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Because an individual's investment into the immune system may modify its dispersal rate, immune function may evolve rapidly in an invader. We collected cane toads (Rhinella marina) from sites spanning their 75-year invasion history in Australia, bred them, and raised their progeny in standard conditions. Evolved shifts in immune function should manifest as differences in immune responses among the progeny of parents collected in different locations. Parental location did not affect the offspring's cell-mediated immune response or stress response, but blood from the offspring of invasion-front toads had more neutrophils, and was more effective at phagocytosis and killing bacteria. These latter measures of immune function are negatively correlated with rate of dispersal in free-ranging toads. Our results suggest that the invasion of tropical Australia by cane toads has resulted in rapid genetically based compensatory shifts in the aspects of immune responses that are most compromised by the rigours of long-distance dispersal.

  16. Natural material adsorbed onto a polymer to enhance immune function

    PubMed Central

    Reinaque, Ana Paula Barcelos; França, Eduardo Luzía; Scherer, Edson Fredulin; Côrtes, Mayra Aparecida; Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we produced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microspheres of different sizes and adsorbing a medicinal plant mixture, and verified their effect in vitro on the viability, superoxide production, and bactericidal activity of phagocytes in the blood. Methods The medicinal plant mixture was adsorbed onto PEG microspheres and its effects were evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results Adsorption of the herbal mixture onto the PEG microspheres was achieved and the particles were internalized by phagocytes. PEG microspheres bearing the adsorbed herbal mixture stimulated superoxide release, and activated scavenging and microbicidal activity in phagocytes. No differences in functional activity were observed when the phagocytes were not incubated with PEG microspheres bearing the adsorbed herbal mixture. Conclusion This system may be useful for the delivery of a variety of medicinal plants and can confer additional protection against infection. The data reported here suggest that a polymer adsorbed with a natural product is a treatment alternative for enhancing immune function. PMID:22956861

  17. Immunization of proteins from Toxascaris leonina adult worm inhibits allergic specific Th2 response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Hee; Park, Hye Kyung; Jeong, Hae Jin; Park, Sang Kyun; Lee, Sun Joo; Choi, Sun Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Ock, Mee Sun; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Yu, Hak Sun

    2008-10-01

    Recently, the influence of parasitic infections on the incidence of allergic diseases has become the focus of increased attention. In order to ascertain whether parasite-derived proteins could inhibit the allergic specific Th2 response, we applied excretory-secretory protein (Tl-ES) or total protein (Tl-TP) of the adult worm Toxascaris leonina to asthma model mice prior to or simultaneously with OVA challenge, after which we assessed the OVA-specific Th2 responses. The group subjected to immunization with Tl-ES and Tl-TP (immunized group) evidenced a thinning of the bronchial epithelial and muscle layer, a disruption and shedding of epithelial cells, a reduction in the number of goblet cells, and a reduction in mucus production as compared to the group treated with Tl-ES coupled with OVA challenge (challenge with OVA groups) and the OVA-induced asthma group. The administration of Tl-ES and Tl-TP, regardless of injection time, was shown to inhibit the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the airway, and in particular, macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were significantly reduced as the result of the parasite proteins. However, the total number of eosinophils was slightly reduced as the result of the administration of parasite proteins. Sensitization and OVA challenge was shown to accelerate the secretion of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) within the lung, but in the immunized groups, those levels were lower. The administration of Tl-TP and OVA challenge group also evidenced a significant reduction in IL-4 levels as compared to the OVA-challenged group. The concentrations of Th2 cytokines in the Tl-ES and OVA challenge group were more similar to those observed in the OVA-challenged group. The concentration of IL-10 and TGF-beta in the lung was decreased substantially in the OVA-only challenge group, but the Tl-TP immunized group exhibited significantly induced IL-10 cytokine. OVA-specific IgG2a, IgG1, and IgE levels in the immunized groups were significantly

  18. Distinct immune responses of juvenile and adult oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to viral and bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Green, Timothy J; Vergnes, Agnes; Montagnani, Caroline; de Lorgeril, Julien

    2016-07-21

    Since 2008, massive mortality events of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have been reported worldwide and these disease events are often associated with Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1). Epidemiological field studies have also reported oyster age and other pathogens of the Vibrio genus are contributing factors to this syndrome. We undertook a controlled laboratory experiment to simultaneously investigate survival and immunological response of juvenile and adult C. gigas at different time-points post-infection with OsHV-1, Vibrio tasmaniensis LGP32 and V. aestuarianus. Our data corroborates epidemiological studies that juveniles are more susceptible to OsHV-1, whereas adults are more susceptible to Vibrio. We measured the expression of 102 immune-genes by high-throughput RT-qPCR, which revealed oysters have different transcriptional responses to OsHV-1 and Vibrio. The transcriptional response in the early stages of OsHV-1 infection involved genes related to apoptosis and the interferon-pathway. Transcriptional response to Vibrio infection involved antimicrobial peptides, heat shock proteins and galectins. Interestingly, oysters in the later stages of OsHV-1 infection had a transcriptional response that resembled an antibacterial response, which is suggestive of the oyster's microbiome causing secondary infections (dysbiosis-driven pathology). This study provides molecular evidence that oysters can mount distinct immune response to viral and bacterial pathogens and these responses differ depending on the age of the host.

  19. Life-history strategy determines constraints on immune function.

    PubMed

    Parker, Benjamin J; Barribeau, Seth M; Laughton, Alice M; Griffin, Lynn H; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2017-05-01

    Determining the factors governing investment in immunity is critical to understanding host-pathogen ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Studies often consider disease resistance in the context of life-history theory, with the expectation that investment in immunity will be optimized in anticipation of disease risk. Immunity, however, is constrained by context-dependent fitness costs. How the costs of immunity vary across life-history strategies has yet to be considered. Pea aphids are typically unwinged but produce winged offspring in response to high population densities and deteriorating conditions. This is an example of polyphenism, a strategy used by many organisms to adjust to environmental cues. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the fitness costs of immunity, pathogen resistance and the strength of an immune response across aphid morphs that differ in life-history strategy but are genetically identical. We measured fecundity of winged and unwinged aphids challenged with a heat-inactivated fungal pathogen, and found that immune costs are limited to winged aphids. We hypothesized that these costs reflect stronger investment in immunity in anticipation of higher disease risk, and that winged aphids would be more resistant due to a stronger immune response. However, producing wings is energetically expensive. This guided an alternative hypothesis - that investing resources into wings could lead to a reduced capacity to resist infection. We measured survival and pathogen load after live fungal infection, and we characterized the aphid immune response to fungi by measuring immune cell concentration and gene expression. We found that winged aphids are less resistant and mount a weaker immune response than unwinged aphids, demonstrating that winged aphids pay higher costs for a less effective immune response. Our results show that polyphenism is an understudied factor influencing the expression of immune costs. More generally, our work

  20. Immune function genes, genetics, and the neurobiology of addiction.

    PubMed

    Crews, Fulton T

    2012-01-01

    The neuroimmune system (i.e., the immune system and those components of the nervous system that help regulate immune responses), and in particular the innate immune system, play a role in the development of addictions, including alcoholism, particularly in the context of stressful situations. Certain cells of the neuroimmune system are activated both by stress and by environmental factors such as alcohol, resulting in the induction of genes involved in innate immunity. One of the molecules mediating this gene induction is a regulatory protein called nuclear factor-κB, which activates many innate immune genes. Innate immune gene induction in certain brain regions (e.g., the frontal cortex), in turn, can disrupt decision making, which is a characteristic of addiction to alcohol and other drugs. Likewise, altered neuroimmune signaling processes are linked to alcohol-induced negative affect and depression-like behaviors and also regulate alcohol-drinking behavior. Moreover, the expression of several genes and proteins involved in innate immunity is enhanced in addicted people. Finally, specific variants of multiple innate immune genes are associated with the genetic risk for alcoholism in humans, further strengthening the connection between increased brain innate immune gene expression and alcohol addiction.

  1. Adult neural stem cells: Long-term self-renewal, replenishment by the immune system, or both?

    PubMed

    Beltz, Barbara S; Cockey, Emily L; Li, Jingjing; Platto, Jody F; Ramos, Kristina A; Benton, Jeanne L

    2015-05-01

    The current model of adult neurogenesis in mammals suggests that adult-born neurons are generated by stem cells that undergo long-term self-renewal, and that a lifetime supply of stem cells resides in the brain. In contrast, it has recently been demonstrated that adult-born neurons in crayfish are generated by precursors originating in the immune system. This is particularly interesting because studies done many years ago suggest that a similar mechanism might exist in rodents and humans, with bone marrow providing stem cells that can generate neurons. However, the relevance of these findings for natural mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis in mammals is not clear, because of uncertainties at many levels. We argue here that the recent findings in crayfish send a strong signal to re-examine existing data from rodents and humans, and to design new experiments that will directly test the contributions of the immune system to adult neurogenesis in mammals.

  2. Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings

  3. [Immune status of adult population of the Bryansk region living in territory polluted by radionuclides].

    PubMed

    Oradovskaia, I V; Fadeeva, I D; Ul'ianova, N V; Nikonova, M F; Litvina, M M; Lavdovskaia, M V; Chernetsova, L F; Khoroshilova, N V

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and immunological investigation with immune status evaluation of three groups of adult population of Bryansk Region was performed. The first group included 165 persons living in Vyshkov (settlement of town type in Bryansk Region) contaminated with radionuclides as a result of Chernobyl accident. The second group included 68 persons living in Vyshkov, immunological monitoring of those was performed. The third group consisted of 114 persons living on the "clean" area of Pochep (Bryansk Region). On both areas (contaminated Vyshkov and "clean" Pochep) the large percent of persons (three quarters of all investigated ones) had clinical manifestations of immune deficiency. The immune status of Vyshkov inhabitants was characterized by T-helper/inductor activation. That was expressed in significant increase of CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ in comparison of control group of primary donors and to "clean" Pochep inhabitants and in stable decrease of average values of serum IgG in comparison to control group, IgG and IgM in comparison to Pochep group. Maximum high values of T-helpers under lowest T-suppressor/killer values were observed at clinical symptoms which may be stipulated by radiation factor (loss of hair and teeth, surplus weight, predisposition to bleedings) and in persons working in cattle-breeding.

  4. Civic Engagement for Older Adults With Functional Limitations: Piloting an Intervention for Adult Day Health Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly; Anderson, Keith A.; Spinks, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Past research has demonstrated the importance of civic engagement for older adults, yet previous studies have not focused specifically on the potential benefits of civic engagement for older adults with functional limitations. This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote civic…

  5. Drosophila Dicer-2 has an RNA interference–independent function that modulates Toll immune signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaowei; Wu, Di; Liu, Yongxiang; Xia, Xiaoling; Gong, Wanyun; Qiu, Yang; Yang, Jie; Zheng, Ya; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Yu-Feng; Xiang, Ye; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Dicer-2 is the central player for small interfering RNA biogenesis in the Drosophila RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Intriguingly, we found that Dicer-2 has an unconventional RNAi-independent function that positively modulates Toll immune signaling, which defends against Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and some viruses, in both cells and adult flies. The loss of Dicer-2 expression makes fruit flies more susceptible to fungal infection. We further revealed that Dicer-2 posttranscriptionally modulates Toll signaling because Dicer-2 is required for the proper expression of Toll protein but not for Toll protein stability or Toll mRNA transcription. Moreover, Dicer-2 directly binds to the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of Toll mRNA via its PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain and is required for protein translation mediated by Toll 3′UTR. The loss of Toll 3′UTR binding activity makes Dicer-2 incapable of promoting Toll signaling. These data indicate that the interaction between Dicer-2 and Toll mRNA plays a pivotal role in Toll immune signaling. In addition, we found that Dicer-2 is also required for the Toll signaling induced by two different RNA viruses in Drosophila cells. Consequently, our findings uncover a novel RNAi-independent function of Dicer-2 in the posttranscriptional regulation of Toll protein expression and signaling, indicate an unexpected intersection of the RNAi pathway and the Toll pathway, and provide new insights into Toll immune signaling, Drosophila Dicer-2, and probably Dicer and Dicer-related proteins in other organisms. PMID:26601278

  6. The impact of microbial immune enteral nutrition on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Xin, Fu-Ze; Yang, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Dao-Gui; Mi, Yue-Tang; Yu, Jun-Xiu; Li, Guo-Yong

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of microbial immune enteral nutrition by microecopharmaceutics and deep sea fish oil and glutamine and Peptisorb on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status. From June 2010 to January 2013, 46 acute radiation enteritis patients in Liaocheng People's Hospital were randomized into the microbial immune enteral nutrition group and the control group: 24 patients in treatment group and 22 patients in control group. The immune microbial nutrition was given to the study group, but not to the control group. The concentration of serum albumin and prealbumin and the number of CD3 (+) T cell, CD4 (+) T cell, CD8 (+) T cell, CD4 (+)/CD8 (+) and natural killer cell of the two groups were detected on the 1, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were recorded, and the tolerance of the two groups for enteral nutrition and intestinal symptoms was collected and then comparing the two indicators and get results. The tolerance of microbial immune enteral nutrition group about abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea was better than the control group (P values were 0.018, 0.04 and 0.008 after 7 days; P values were 0.018, 0.015 and 0.002 after 14 days); and the cellular immune parameters were better than the control group((△) P = 0.008,([Symbol: see text]) P = 0.039, (☆) P = 0.032); No difference was found in nutrition indicators. To the patients with acute radiation enteritis, microbial immune enteral nutrition could improve the patient's immune status, and the tolerance of enteral nutrition could be better for the bowel function and the patients' rehabilitation.

  7. The exercise-induced enhancement of influenza immunity is mediated in part by improvements in psychosocial factors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohut, M L; Lee, W; Martin, A; Arnston, B; Russell, D W; Ekkekakis, P; Yoon, K J; Bishop, A; Cunnick, J E

    2005-07-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine whether exercise-associated improvements of the immune response to influenza vaccination were mediated by improvements in psychosocial factors in older adults. At baseline, prior to the exercise intervention, older adult participants were immunized with influenza vaccine. Blood samples collected pre-immunization, 1, 4, and 12 weeks post-immunization were analyzed for anti-influenza antibody, whereas influenza-specific cytokine (IFNgamma) was evaluated at 1 week post-immunization. Depression and sense of coherence were measured pre-immunization. Four weeks post-immunization, participants were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise group (n=14) or a control group (n=14). After a 10-month exercise intervention, the immunization, blood collections, and psychosocial measures were repeated. At the post-intervention evaluation, exercise participants had improved scores on depression and sense of coherence. Also post-intervention, exercise participants had a greater increase in antibody and IFNgamma production. After controlling for the effect of both psychosocial measures, the exercise treatment remained significant with respect to antibody titer suggesting that the increases in antibody were not mediated by improvement in the psychosocial factors. In contrast, the enhancement of IFNgamma appeared to be mediated at least in part by the psychosocial factors. After controlling for psychosocial factors, exercise treatment was no longer significantly related to the change in IFNgamma. Taken together, our findings may suggest that the mechanism(s) of exercise-induced improvement in immunocompetence involve both physiological and psychological pathways.

  8. Migratory common blackbirds have lower innate immune function during autumn migration than resident conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Hegemann, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Animals need a well-functioning immune system to protect themselves against pathogens. The immune system, however, is costly and resource trade-offs with other demands exist. For migratory animals several (not mutually exclusive) hypotheses exist. First, migrants reduce immune function to be able to allocate resources to migration. Second, migrants boost immune function to cope with more and/or novel pathogens encountered during migration. Third, migrants reallocate resources within the immune system. We tested these hypotheses by comparing baseline immune function in resident and migratory common blackbirds (Turdus merula), both caught during the autumn migration season on the island of Helgoland, Germany. Indices of baseline innate immune function (microbial killing capacity and haptoglobin-like activity) were lower in migrants than in residents. There was no difference between the groups in total immunoglobulins, a measure of baseline acquired immune function. Our study on a short-distance avian migrant supports the hypothesis that innate immune function is compromised during migration. PMID:27029839

  9. Immune regulation of epithelial cell function: Implications for GI pathologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammalian immune system is a complex and dynamic network that recognizes, responds, and adapts to numerous foreign and self molecules. CD4+ T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses, and upon stimulation by antigen, naive CD4+ T cells proliferate and differentiate into various T cell subsets...

  10. Regulatory immune cells and functions in autoimmunity and transplantation immunology.

    PubMed

    Papp, Gabor; Boros, Peter; Nakken, Britt; Szodoray, Peter; Zeher, Margit

    2017-03-07

    In physiological circumstances, various tolerogenic mechanisms support the protection of self-structures during immune responses. However, quantitative and/or qualitative changes in regulatory immune cells and mediators can evoke auto-reactive immune responses, and upon susceptible genetic background, along with the presence of other concomitant etiological factors, autoimmune disease may develop. In transplant immunology, tolerogenic mechanisms are also critical, since the balance between of alloantigen-reactive effector cells and the regulatory immune cells will ultimately determine whether a graft is accepted or rejected. Better understanding of the immunological tolerance and the potential modulations of immune regulatory processes are crucial for developing effective therapies in autoimmune diseases as well as in organ transplantation. In this review, we focus on the novel insights regarding the impaired immune regulation and other relevant factors contributing to the development of auto-reactive and graft-reactive immune responses in autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection, respectively. We also address some promising approaches for modification of immune-regulatory processes and tolerogenic mechanisms in autoimmunity and solid organ transplantation, which may be beneficial in future therapeutic strategies.

  11. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... remembers" the germ and can fight it again. Vaccines contain germs that have been killed or weakened. When given to a healthy person, the vaccine triggers the immune system to respond and thus ...

  12. Immunomodulatory properties of carbon nanotubes are able to compensate immune function dysregulation caused by microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Crescio, Claudia; Orecchioni, Marco; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Sgarrella, Francesco; Pippia, Proto; Manetti, Roberto; Bianco, Alberto; Delogu, Lucia Gemma

    2014-08-21

    Spaceflights lead to dysregulation of the immune cell functionality affecting the expression of activation markers and cytokine production. Short oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition have been reported to activate immune cells. In this Communication we have performed surface marker assays and multiplex ELISA on primary monocytes and T cells under microgravity. We have discovered that carbon nanotubes, through their immunostimulatory properties, are able to fight spaceflight immune system dysregulations.

  13. Evaluating the Effects of Stressors on Immune Function during Simulated Dives in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    effects of simulated dive exposures on cellular immune function in beluga whales 2) To evaluate the effects of simulated dive exposures on cellular...immune function following a known stressor event 3) To collect biological samples from wild belugas to compare with aquarium whales and 4) To compare the...exposures will be obtained from beluga whales resident at the Mystic Aquarium. Cells of the immune system will be exposed to increased pressure

  14. Enhancing versus Suppressive Effects of Stress on Immune Function: Implications for Immunoprotection versus Immunopathology

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    It is widely believed that stress suppresses immune function and increases susceptibility to infections and cancer. Paradoxically, stress is also known to exacerbate allergic, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases. These observations suggest that stress may have bidirectional effects on immune function, being immunosuppressive in some instances and immunoenhancing in others. It has recently been shown that in contrast to chronic stress that suppresses or dysregulates immune function, acute stress can be immunoenhancing. Acute stress enhances dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking, maturation, and function and has been shown to augment innate and adaptive immune responses. Acute stress experienced prior to novel antigen exposure enhances innate immunity and memory T-cell formation and results in a significant and long-lasting immunoenhancement. Acute stress experienced during antigen reexposure enhances secondary/adaptive immune responses. Therefore, depending on the conditions of immune activation and the immunizing antigen, acute stress may enhance the acquisition and expression of immunoprotection or immunopathology. In contrast, chronic stress dysregulates innate and adaptive immune responses by changing the type 1-type 2 cytokine balance and suppresses immunity by decreasing leukocyte numbers, trafficking, and function. Chronic stress also increases susceptibility to skin cancer by suppressing type 1 cytokines and protective T cells while increasing suppressor T-cell function. We have suggested that the adaptive purpose of a physiologic stress response may be to promote survival, with stress hormones and neurotransmitters serving as beacons that prepare the immune system for potential challenges (eg, wounding or infection) perceived by the brain (eg, detection of an attacker). However, this system may exacerbate immunopathology if the enhanced immune response is directed against innocuous or self-antigens or dysregulated following

  15. Sequence, structure, function, immunity: structural genomics of costimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Kausik; Lazar-Molnar, Eszter; Yan, Qingrong; Rubinstein, Rotem; Zhan, Chenyang; Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Costimulatory receptors and ligands trigger the signaling pathways that are responsible for modulating the strength, course and duration of an immune response. High-resolution structures have provided invaluable mechanistic insights by defining the chemical and physical features underlying costimulatory receptor/ligand specificity, affinity, oligomeric state, and valency. Furthermore, these structures revealed general architectural features that are important for the integration of these interactions and their associated signaling pathways into overall cellular physiology. Recent technological advances in structural biology promise unprecedented opportunities for furthering our understanding of the structural features and mechanisms that govern costimulation. In this review we highlight unique insights that have been revealed by structures of costimulatory molecules from the immunoglobulin and tumor necrosis factor superfamilies, and describe a vision for future structural and mechanistic analysis of costimulation. This vision includes simple strategies for the selection of candidate molecules for structure determination and highlights the critical role of structure in the design of mutant costimulatory molecules for the generation of in vivo structure-function correlations in a mammalian model system. This integrated ‘atoms-to-animals’ paradigm provides a comprehensive approach for defining atomic and molecular mechanisms. PMID:19426233

  16. PI3K Functions in Cancer Progression, Anticancer Immunity and Immune Evasion by Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dituri, Francesco; Mazzocca, Antonio; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Antonaci, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The immunological surveillance of tumors relies on a specific recognition of cancer cells and their associate antigens by leucocytes of innate and adaptive immune responses. However, a dysregulated cytokine release can lead to, or be associated with, a failure in cell-cell recognition, thus, allowing cancer cells to evade the killing system. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates multiple cellular processes which underlie immune responses against pathogens or malignant cells. Conversely, there is accumulating evidence that the PI3K pathway is involved in the development of several malignant traits of cancer cells as well as their escape from immunity. Herein, we review the counteracting roles of PI3K not only in antitumor immune response but also in the mechanisms that cancer cells use to avoid leukocyte attack. In addition, we discuss, from antitumor immunological point of view, the potential benefits and disadvantages arising from use of anticancer pharmacological agents targeting the PI3K pathway. PMID:22046194

  17. Adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, D B; Bartlett, S P; Whitaker, L A; Paige, K T; Pertschuk, M J; Wadden, T A

    1999-02-01

    This study represents an initial investigation into the adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial disfigurement. A total of 24 men and women born with a craniofacial anomaly completed paper and pencil measures of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, and experiences of discrimination. An age- and gender-matched control group of 24 non-facially disfigured adults also completed the measures. As expected, craniofacially disfigured adults reported greater dissatisfaction with their facial appearance than did the control group. Craniofacially disfigured adults also reported significantly lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life. Dissatisfaction with facial appearance, self-esteem, and quality of life were related to self-ratings of physical attractiveness. More than one-third of craniofacially disfigured adults (38 percent) reported experiences of discrimination in employment or social settings. Among disfigured adults, psychological functioning was not related to number of surgeries, although the degree of residual facial deformity was related to increased dissatisfaction with facial appearance and greater experiences of discrimination. Results suggest that adults who were born with craniofacial disfigurement, as compared with non-facially disfigured adults, experience greater dissatisfaction with facial appearance and lower self-esteem and quality of life; however, these experiences do not seem to be universal.

  18. Inhibitory Receptors of the Immune System: Functions and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Xiang; Liu, Wentao; Demirci, Gulcin; Li, Xian C

    2009-01-01

    The immune system has a remarkable ability to respond to seemingly endless antigens. In essence, a productive immune response takes place along a well defined but treacherous line, that is to effectively eradicate pathogens, and at the same time avoid causing damage to self organs. This type of response is fine-tuned, at least in part, by a complex array of pathways that either promote or inhibit the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. Much effort has been focused on pathways that can support immune activation. In this article, we review specifically pathways that can inhibit immune responses and maintain immune homeostasis, highlighting our recent understanding on the role of inhibitory receptors that selectively engage the self MHC class I molecules and the B7 superfamily members, we also discuss the inhibitory Fc receptors and inhibitory cytokines and how such pathways, either individually or collectively, regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Finally, we summarize new emerging approaches on how such negative pathways can be therapeutically modulated in various disease settings. PMID:20003816

  19. Obligate brood parasites show more functionally effective innate immune responses: An eco-immunological hypothesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Design and functionality of the immune system may play a key role in the success of invasive species. We examined the relative effectiveness of functional innate immune defenses in the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater, Icteridae), an invasive avian species that has shown unusual resistance to i...

  20. The effects of sex hormones on immune function: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W

    2017-02-01

    The effects of sex hormones on immune function have received much attention, especially following the proposal of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis. Many studies, both experimental and correlational, have been conducted to test the relationship between immune function and the sex hormones testosterone in males and oestrogen in females. However, the results are mixed. We conducted four cross-species meta-analyses to investigate the relationship between sex hormones and immune function: (i) the effect of testosterone manipulation on immune function in males, (ii) the correlation between circulating testosterone level and immune function in males, (iii) the effect of oestrogen manipulation on immune function in females, and (iv) the correlation between circulating oestrogen level and immune function in females. The results from the experimental studies showed that testosterone had a medium-sized immunosuppressive effect on immune function. The effect of oestrogen, on the other hand, depended on the immune measure used. Oestrogen suppressed cell-mediated immune function while reducing parasite loads. The overall correlation (meta-analytic relationship) between circulating sex hormone level and immune function was not statistically significant for either testosterone or oestrogen despite the power of meta-analysis. These results suggest that correlational studies have limited value for testing the effects of sex hormones on immune function. We found little evidence of publication bias in the four data sets using indirect tests. There was a weak and positive relationship between year of publication and effect size for experimental studies of testosterone that became non-significant after we controlled for castration and immune measure, suggesting that the temporal trend was due to changes in these moderators over time. Graphical analyses suggest that the temporal trend was due to an increased use of cytokine measures across time. We found substantial heterogeneity

  1. Physical Function Impairment of Older, HIV-Infected Adults Is Associated with Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin Response

    PubMed Central

    Allshouse, Amanda A.; Rapaport, Eric; Palmer, Brent E.; Wilson, Cara C.; Weinberg, Adriana; MaWhinney, Samantha; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with poor outcomes, including physical function impairment, in older HIV-uninfected adults. Whether CMV is associated with physical functional impairment in HIV-infected adults is unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between CMV-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses with functional impairment in well-controlled HIV infection. In a case-control study, low-function cases were matched by age, gender, and time from HIV diagnosis to high-function controls. Quantitative CMV IgG and %CMV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells (interferon-γ expression following CMV pp65 stimulation) were used to estimate physical function. Among 30 low-function cases and 48 high-function matched controls, CMV IgG ranged from <10 to 8,830 EU/ml, including four controls with results <10 EU/ml. Each log10 increase in CMV IgG was associated with 5-fold greater odds of low function (p=0.01); these findings were robust to adjustment for concomitant CD4+ count, tobacco use, and age; to exclusion of subjects with CMV IgG <10 EU/ml; and to adjustment for hepatitis C viremia. %CMV-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were not associated with low function. In bivariable models, the relationship between CMV IgG and physical function was attenuated and was no longer significant when including IL-6, CD4/CD8 ratio, or the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Index score. High levels of CMV-specific IgG were associated with impaired physical function. Attenuation of the strength of this association in bivariable models suggests an indirect relationship mediated by systemic inflammation and immune suppression. PMID:26061347

  2. The effect of aging on cognate function and development of immune memory

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Immunological memory is one of the central features of the immune system and can be described as the ability of the immune system to respond more efficiently to a second encounter with the same pathogen. The immune system is dramatically affected by age-related changes and it is becoming apparent that immune memory exhibits significant defects as a result of aging. Although immune memory generated during youth functions well into old age, that generated later in life functions poorly. Importantly, age-related defects in the cognate helper function of CD4+ T cells can potentially influence the development of both humoral and cell-mediated immune memory. These defects ultimately result in aged individuals who exhibit reduced responses to both infections and vaccinations. PMID:16054352

  3. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 μg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 μg/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 μg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

  4. Effects of early developmental conditions on innate immunity are only evident under favourable adult conditions in zebra finches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coster, Greet; Verhulst, Simon; Koetsier, Egbert; de Neve, Liesbeth; Briga, Michael; Lens, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Long-term effects of unfavourable conditions during development can be expected to depend on the quality of the environment experienced by the same individuals during adulthood. Yet, in the majority of studies, long-term effects of early developmental conditions have been assessed under favourable adult conditions only. The immune system might be particularly vulnerable to early environmental conditions as its development, maintenance and use are thought to be energetically costly. Here, we studied the interactive effects of favourable and unfavourable conditions during nestling and adult stages on innate immunity (lysis and agglutination scores) of captive male and female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata). Nestling environmental conditions were manipulated by a brood size experiment, while a foraging cost treatment was imposed on the same individuals during adulthood. This combined treatment showed that innate immunity of adult zebra finches is affected by their early developmental conditions and varies between both sexes. Lysis scores, but not agglutination scores, were higher in individuals raised in small broods and in males. However, these effects were only present in birds that experienced low foraging costs. This study shows that the quality of the adult environment may shape the long-term consequences of early developmental conditions on innate immunity, as long-term effects of nestling environment were only evident under favourable adult conditions.

  5. Geographical variation in parasitism shapes larval immune function in a phytophagous insect.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Dourneau, Morgane; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Moreau, Jérôme

    2013-12-01

    Two of the central goals of immunoecology are to understand natural variation in the immune system among populations and to identify those selection pressures that shape immune traits. Maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and both food quality and parasitism selection pressure are factors potentially driving immunocompetence. In tritrophic interactions involving phytophagous insects, host plants, and natural enemies, the immunocompetence of phytophagous insects is constrained by selective forces from both the host plants and the natural enemies. Here, we assessed the roles of host plants and natural enemies as selective pressures on immune variation among natural populations of Lobesia botrana. Our results showed marked geographical variation in immune defenses and parasitism among different natural populations. Larval immune functions were dependent of the host plant quality and were positively correlated to parasitism, suggesting that parasitoids select for greater investment into immunity in moth. Furthermore, investment in immune defense was negatively correlated with body size, suggesting that it is metabolically expensive. The findings emphasize the roles of host plants and parasitoids as selective forces shaping host immune functions in natural conditions. We argue that kinds of study are central to understanding natural variations in immune functions, and the selective forces beyond.

  6. Geographical variation in parasitism shapes larval immune function in a phytophagous insect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Dourneau, Morgane; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Moreau, Jérôme

    2013-12-01

    Two of the central goals of immunoecology are to understand natural variation in the immune system among populations and to identify those selection pressures that shape immune traits. Maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and both food quality and parasitism selection pressure are factors potentially driving immunocompetence. In tritrophic interactions involving phytophagous insects, host plants, and natural enemies, the immunocompetence of phytophagous insects is constrained by selective forces from both the host plants and the natural enemies. Here, we assessed the roles of host plants and natural enemies as selective pressures on immune variation among natural populations of Lobesia botrana. Our results showed marked geographical variation in immune defenses and parasitism among different natural populations. Larval immune functions were dependent of the host plant quality and were positively correlated to parasitism, suggesting that parasitoids select for greater investment into immunity in moth. Furthermore, investment in immune defense was negatively correlated with body size, suggesting that it is metabolically expensive. The findings emphasize the roles of host plants and parasitoids as selective forces shaping host immune functions in natural conditions. We argue that kinds of study are central to understanding natural variations in immune functions, and the selective forces beyond.

  7. Complex effects of temperature on mosquito immune function

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, C. C.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Bell, Andrew S.; King, Jonas G.; Hillyer, Julián F.; Read, Andrew F.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, ecological immunology has provided much insight into how environmental factors shape host immunity and host–parasite interactions. Currently, the application of this thinking to the study of mosquito immunology has been limited. Mechanistic investigations are nearly always conducted under one set of conditions, yet vectors and parasites associate in a variable world. We highlight how environmental temperature shapes cellular and humoral immune responses (melanization, phagocytosis and transcription of immune genes) in the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Nitric oxide synthase expression peaked at 30°C, cecropin expression showed no main effect of temperature and humoral melanization, and phagocytosis and defensin expression peaked around 18°C. Further, immune responses did not simply scale with temperature, but showed complex interactions between temperature, time and nature of immune challenge. Thus, immune patterns observed under one set of conditions provide little basis for predicting patterns under even marginally different conditions. These quantitative and qualitative effects of temperature have largely been overlooked in vector biology but have significant implications for extrapolating natural/transgenic resistance mechanisms from laboratory to field and for the efficacy of various vector control tools. PMID:22593107

  8. Exercise and fitness modulate cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Chen, Ai-Guo; Hung, Tsung-Min; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute exercise on cognitive function and the modulatory role of fitness in the relationship between exercise and cognition. Forty-six healthy older adults, categorized into higher or lower fitness groups, completed the Stroop test after both 30 min of aerobic exercise and a reading control with a counterbalanced order. Our findings demonstrated that acute exercise leads to general improvements in 2 types of cognitive functions and to specific improvements in executive function. Additionally, older adults with initially higher fitness levels experienced greater beneficial effects from acute exercise.

  9. Functional Literacy in the Context of Adult Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Josef, Ed.

    In presenting the work of participants before and during the Symposium, the report begins with an introduction giving an overall view of concepts, projects, and problems of functional literacy with reference to other sections of the report. The keynote lecture deals with functional literacy in the context of adult education--results and innovative…

  10. Neuropsychological Predictors of Everyday Functioning in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, C. Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wuang, Y. P.; Lin, Y. H.; Wu, Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Very little is known about the neuropsychological correlates of adaptive functioning in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study examined whether specific cognitive deficits and demographic variables predicted everyday functioning in adults with ID. Method: People with ID (n = 101; ages 19-41 years; mean education = 11…

  11. A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Comp.; And Others

    The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

  12. Executive Functions in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Danielle I.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Schwean, Vicki L.; Montgomery, Janine M.; Thorne, Keoma J.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized, at least in part, by executive function (EF) difficulties associated with the integrity of the frontal lobe. Given the paucity of research regarding EFs in young adults with high functioning ASD (HF-ASD), this research involves an examination of various indices of EF…

  13. Cell-Mediated Immune Function and Cytokine Regulation During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The changes in immune function which occur during space flight potentially expose the crews to an increased risk for development of illness. Decreased cellular immune function has been repeatedly documented after space flight and confirmed during flight by in vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity testing. However, correlation of immune changes with a clinically significant risk factor has not yet been performed. Our hypothesis is that space flight induces a decrease in cell-mediated immune function accompanied by a shift from a type 1 cytokine pattern (favoring cell-mediated immunity) to a type 2 cytokine pattern (favoring humoral immunity). We further hypothesize that reactivation of latent viruses will occur during space flight in association with the decreased cellular immunity. To test these hypotheses, we will determine the effects of space flight on cell-mediated immunity and viral reactivation. We will utilize delayed-type hypersensitivity testing as an in vivo measure of integrated cell-mediated immune function. The production of cytokines and immunoregulatory factors by lymphocytes and monocytes will be measured to determine whether changes in cytokine patterns are associated with the space flight-induced immune dysregulation. Correlation of antigen-specific immune changes with reactivation of latent herpes viruses will be determined by measuring peripheral levels of viral (CMV, VZV, EBV) antigen-specific T cells and comparing to the levels of EBV-infected B-cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. A comparison of cell-mediated immune function, cytokine regulation and viral reactivation will provide new insights into crew member health risks during flight.

  14. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Fiona Z.; Russell, Ailsa J.; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published…

  15. Immune Responses in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Saleem; Surendran, Naveen; Pichichero, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neonates have little immunological memory and a developing immune system, which increases their vulnerability to infectious agents. Recent advances in understanding of neonatal immunity indicate that both innate and adaptive responses are dependent on precursor frequency of lymphocytes, antigenic dose and mode of exposure. Studies in neonatal mouse models and human umbilical cord blood cells demonstrate the capability of neonatal immune cells to produce immune responses similar to adults in some aspects but not others. This review focuses mainly on the developmental and functional mechanisms of the human neonatal immune system. In particular, the mechanism of innate and adaptive immunity and the role of neutrophils, antigen presenting cells, differences in subclasses of T lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Tregs) and B cells are discussed. In addition, we have included the recent developments in neonatal mouse immune system. Understanding neonatal immunity is essential to development of therapeutic vaccines to combat newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:25088080

  16. Immunization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

  17. Characterization of basic immune function parameters in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a common model in environmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Leah M; LeSueur, Meriel C; Yost, Alexandra T; Stephens, Dane A; Oris, James T; Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K

    2017-02-01

    The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is an environmental sentinel species, commonly used in toxicity testing. However, there is a lack of data regarding basic immune function in this species. To improve the usefulness of the fathead minnow as a model for basic immune function and immunotoxicity, this study sought to 1) compare the differential expression of immune function genes in naïve fathead minnows and 2) determine the effects of pathogen exposure on immune gene expression and spleen index. To accomplish this, kidney, spleen and liver tissue were collected three days post injection (dpi) from adult male fathead minnows from each of the following groups: 1) uninjected control 2) sham-injected (Hank's balanced salt solution) and 3) pathogen-injected (Yersinia ruckeri). Spleen tissue was also collected at seven and 14 dpi. Differential tissue expression of immune function genes was evaluated in naïve minnows and expression patterns were similar to those found in other fish species, with liver tissue generally having the highest amount of expression. Following pathogen injection, the expression of complement component 3 (c3) (4.4-fold, kidney; 2.5-fold, liver), interleukin 11 (il11) (4.8-fold, kidney; 15.2-fold, liver) and interleukin 1β (il1β) (8.2-fold, kidney; 17.2-fold, spleen; 2.6-fold, liver) were significantly upregulated. Elastase 2 (elas2) was significantly downregulated (5.8-fold) in liver tissue. A significant increase in spleen index at seven dpi was also observed in pathogen-injected minnows. This study has identified endpoints that are part of the normal response to pathogen in fathead minnows, an essential step toward the development of the fathead minnow as a model for immunotoxicity evaluations.

  18. Executive function in young Colombian adults.

    PubMed

    Pineda, David A; Merchan, Vilma

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this article was to observe the correlation between executive function (EF) variables, and to determine the factor structure of the EF in young university students, as mathematical models for supporting its multidimensional structure. Participants were both males and females, aged 16 to 21 years (N = 100) and with normal Full Scale IQ selected in a randomized and representative approach in private universities of Medellín, Colombia. They were students of verbal, visual-spatial, and mathematical careers. An executive function assessment battery was applied and which included: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, verbal fluency test (FAS) by phonologic and semantic cues, and Stroop's conflict word/color test. The results were as follows: An orthogonal structure of five factors, which explained 74.9% of the variance, was found. Factor 1 was formed by WCST variables (organization and flexibility), and explained 25.8% of the variance. Errors from the Stroop reading and naming were assigned to factor 2, which explained 17.3% of the variance. Factor 3 was the time for executing Stroop's test, and explained 13.1% of the variance. Factor 4 was TMT A and B (10.1%). Factor 5 was verbal fluency (8.5% of the variance). In conclusion, executive function in young university students was conformed by five orthogonal cognitive dimensions.

  19. Lysophosphatidylcholine acts in the constitutive immune defence against American foulbrood in adult honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Hernández-López, Javier; Rechberger, Gerald; Crailsheim, Karl; Schuehly, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) imagines are resistant to the Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), whereas honeybee larvae show susceptibility against this pathogen only during the first 48 h of their life. It is known that midgut homogenate of adult honeybees as well as a homogenate of aged larvae exhibit strong anti-P. larvae activity. A bioactivity-guided LC-HRMS analysis of midgut homogenate resulted in the identification of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LPC) pointing to a yet unknown immune defence in adult honeybees against P. larvae. Antimicrobial activity of LPC was also demonstrated against Melissococcus plutonius, causative agent of European Foulbrood. To demonstrate an AFB-preventive effect of LPC in larvae, artificially reared larvae were supplemented with LPC to evaluate its toxicity and to assess whether, after infection with P. larvae spores, LPC supplementation prevents AFB infection. 10 μg LPC per larva applied for 3 d significantly lowered mortality due to AFB in comparison to controls. A potential delivery route of LPC to the larvae in a colony via nurse bees was assessed through a tracking experiment using fluorescent-labelled LPC. This yet undescribed and non-proteinous defense of honeybees against P. larvae may offer new perspectives for a treatment of AFB without the utilization of classic antibiotics. PMID:27480379

  20. Human Immune Function and Microbial Pathogenesis in Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane J.; Ott, M.

    2006-01-01

    This oral presentation was requested by Conference conveners. The requested subject is microbial risk assessment considering changes in the human immune system during flight and microbial diversity of environmental samples aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The presentation will begin with an introduction discussing the goals and limitations of microbial risk assessment during flight. The main portion of the presentation will include changes in the immune system that have been published, historical data from microbial analyses, and initial modeling of the environmental flora aboard ISS. The presentation will conclude with future goals and techniques to enhance our ability to perform microbial risk assessment on long duration missions.

  1. Immunosuppression in early postnatal days induces persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Yong; Wang, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition with high morbidity, and effective treatments for asthma are limited. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can only induce peripheral immune tolerance and is not sustainable. Exploring new therapeutic strategies is of great clinical importance. Recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) was used as a vector to make cells expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) a soluble CTLA4 immunoglobulin fusion protein. Dendritic cells (DCs) were modified using the rAdVs together with allergens. Then these modified DCs were transplanted to mice before allergen sensitization. The persistence and specificity of immune tolerance were evaluated in mice challenged with asthma allergens at 3 and 7 months. DCs modified by CTLA4Ig showed increased IL-10 secretion, decreased IL-12 secretion, and T cell stimulation in vitro. Mice treated with these DCs in the early neonatal period developed tolerance against the allergens that were used to induce asthma in the adult stage. Asthma symptoms, lung damage, airway reactivity, and inflammatory response all improved. Humoral immunity indices showed that this therapeutic strategy strongly suppressed mice immune responses and was maintained for as long as 7 months. Furthermore, allergen cross-sensitization and challenge experiments demonstrated that this immune tolerance was allergen-specific. Treatment with CTLA4Ig modified DCs in the early neonatal period, inducing persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to develop a vaccine for asthma.

  2. Review: Interactions between temperament, stress, and immune function in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stressors encountered by animals can pose economic problems for the livestock industry due to increased costs to the producer as well as the consumer. Stress can also adversely affect many physiological systems, including the reproductive and immune systems. In recent years, stress has been associat...

  3. [Adverse effects of the herd immunity or when childhood vaccination becomes deleterious for the epidemiology of infectious diseases in adults].

    PubMed

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-03-01

    The irremediable ageing of the world population, the aged-related increasing in the prevalence of infectious diseases the fear of any influenza pandemic rife have recently led the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) et the International Association of Geriatric and Gerontology European Regions (IAGG-ER) of establishing vaccine recommendations dedicated to individuals aged of 60 years or above and promoting a life-course vaccination programme. This approach is mainly motivated by the herd immunity-associated effect on the epidemiology of infectious diseases observed within the adult and old adult population. This review (1) after a presentation of the concept and its demonstrated beneficial effects; (2) will detail that herd immunity acts with adverse effects on the epidemiology of the infectious diseases in the adult and aged individual population; (3) in order to demonstrate that maintaining a vaccine pressure in every age groups is imperative.

  4. Maternal and early life stress effects on immune function: relevance to immunotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, Denise L; Lubahn, Cheri; Lorton, Dianne

    2008-10-01

    Stress is triggered by a variety of unexpected environmental stimuli, such as aggressive behavior, fear, forced physical activity, sudden environmental changes, social isolation or pathological conditions. Stressful experiences during very early life (particularly, maternal stress during fetal ontogeny) can permanently alter the responsiveness of the nervous system, an effect called programming or imprinting. Programming affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, brain neurotransmitter systems, sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the cognitive abilities of the offspring, which can alter neural regulation of immune function. Prenatal or early life stress may contribute to the maladaptive immune responses to stress that occur later in life. This review focuses on the effect of maternal and early life stress on immune function in the offspring across life span. It highlights potential mechanisms by which prenatal stress impacts immune functions over life span. The literature discussed in this review suggests that psychosocial stress during pre- and early postnatal life may increase the vulnerability of infants to the effects of immunotoxicants or immune-mediated diseases, with long-term consequences. Neural-immune interactions may provide an indirect route through which immunotoxicants affect the developing immune system. A developmental approach to understanding how immunotoxicants interact with maternal and early life stress-induced changes in immunity is needed, because as the body changes physiologically across life span so do the effects of stress and immunotoxicants. In early and late life, the immune system is more vulnerable to the effects of stress. Stress can mimic the effects of aging and exacerbate age-related changes in immune function. This is important because immune dysregulation in the elderly is more frequently and seriously associated with clinical impairment and death. Aging, exposure to teratogens, and psychological stress

  5. Protective immunity to Schistosoma haematobium infection is primarily an anti-fecundity response stimulated by the death of adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kate M.; Mutapi, Francisca; Savill, Nicholas J.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Protective immunity against human schistosome infection develops slowly, for reasons that are not yet fully understood. For many decades, researchers have attempted to infer properties of the immune response from epidemiological studies, with mathematical models frequently being used to bridge the gap between immunological theory and population-level data on schistosome infection and immune responses. Here, building upon earlier model findings, stochastic individual-based models were used to identify model structures consistent with observed field patterns of Schistosoma haematobium infection and antibody responses, including their distributions in cross-sectional surveys, and the observed treatment-induced antibody switch. We found that the observed patterns of infection and antibody were most consistent with models in which a long-lived protective antibody response is stimulated by the death of adult S. haematobium worms and reduces worm fecundity. These findings are discussed with regard to current understanding of human immune responses to schistosome infection. PMID:22847410

  6. Efficacy of screening immune system function in at-risk newborns.

    PubMed

    Pavlovski, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the introduction of a screening test to highlight impaired immune system status for newborn infants and its efficacy as a preventative clinical measure. Moreover, it is suggested that screening of the infantile immune system has the potential to highlight susceptibility to a range of infant and childhood diseases, bestowing an opportunity to introduce early intervention to reduce the incidence of these diseases. Development of the neonatal immune system is an important health issue, implicated in many childhood problems such as allergies, infection, and autoimmunity. The neonate has a limited immune system and ability to combat bacteria. Depleted levels of the tripeptide reduced glutathione (GSH) have been linked to numerous conditions and its intracellular level is acknowledged as an indicator of immune system function. Introduction of an immune system screening programme for infants is formally reviewed and assessed. Several benefits are reported in the treatment of impaired immune systems, a trial screening programme is proposed for at-risk infants to gather further evidence as to its efficacy. Infants at risk of impaired immune system function include cystic fibrosis, premature infants, and low birth weight infants. The interventions include breastfeeding, milk banks, and appropriate formula to support the immune system.

  7. Prenatal immune activation leads to multiple changes in basal neurotransmitter levels in the adult brain: implications for brain disorders of neurodevelopmental origin such as schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christine; Djodari-Irani, Anais; Sohr, Reinhard; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Feldon, Joram; Juckel, Georg; Meyer, Urs

    2009-05-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy enhances the offspring's risk for severe neuropsychiatric disorders in later life, including schizophrenia. Recent attempts to model this association in animals provided further experimental evidence for a causal relationship between in-utero immune challenge and the postnatal emergence of a wide spectrum of behavioural, pharmacological and neuroanatomical dysfunctions implicated in schizophrenia. However, it still remains unknown whether the prenatal infection-induced changes in brain and behavioural functions may be associated with multiple changes at the neurochemical level. Here, we tested this hypothesis in a recently established mouse model of viral-like infection. Pregnant dams on gestation day 9 were exposed to viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyI:C, 5 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle treatment, and basal neurotransmitter levels were then compared in the adult brains of animals born to PolyI:C- or vehicle-treated mothers by high-performance liquid chromatography on post-mortem tissue. We found that prenatal immune activation significantly increased the levels of dopamine and its major metabolites in the lateral globus pallidus and prefrontal cortex, whilst at the same time it decreased serotonin and its metabolite in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and lateral globus pallidus. In addition, a specific reduction of the inhibitory amino acid taurine in the hippocampus was noted in prenatally PolyI:C-exposed offspring relative to controls, whereas central glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was largely unaffected by prenatal immune activation. Our results thus confirm that maternal immunological stimulation during early/middle pregnancy is sufficient to induce long-term changes in multiple neurotransmitter levels in the brains of adult offspring. This further supports the possibility that infection-mediated interference with early fetal brain development may predispose the developing organism

  8. Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In…

  9. Adult Age Differences in Functional Connectivity during Executive Control

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Costello, Matthew C.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Davis, Simon W.; Shepler, Anne M.; Spaniol, Julia; Bucur, Barbara; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Task switching requires executive control processes that undergo age-related decline. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified age-related differences in brain activation associated with global switching effects (dual-task blocks vs. single-task blocks), but age-related differences in activation during local switching effects (switch trials vs. repeat trials, within blocks) have not been investigated. This experiment used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to examine adult age differences in task switching across adjacent trials (i.e., local task switching). During fMRI scanning, participants performed a cued, word categorization task. From interspersed cue-only trials, switch-related processing associated with the cue was estimated separately from the target. Activation associated with task switching, within a distributed frontoparietal network, differed for cue- and target-related processing. The magnitude of event-related activation for task switching was similar for younger adults (n = 20; 18-27 years) and older adults (n = 20; 60-85 years), although activation sustained throughout the on-tasks periods exhibited some age-related decline. Critically, the functional connectivity of switch-related regions, during cue processing, was higher for younger adults than for older adults, whereas functional connectivity during target processing was comparable across the age groups. Further, individual differences in cue-related functional connectivity shared a substantial portion of the age-related variability in the efficiency of target categorization response (drift rate). This age-related difference in functional connectivity, however, was independent of white matter integrity within task-relevant regions. These findings highlight the functional connectivity of frontoparietal activation as a potential source of age-related decline in executive control. PMID:20434565

  10. Surface-micromachined microfiltration membranes for efficient isolation and functional immunophenotyping of subpopulations of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqiang; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Oh, Boram; Lam, Raymond H W; Fan, Rong; Cornell, Timothy T; Shanley, Thomas P; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2013-07-01

    An accurate measurement of the immune status in patients with immune system disorders is critical in evaluating the stage of diseases and tailoring drug treatments. The functional cellular immunity test is a promising method to establish the diagnosis of immune dysfunctions. The conventional functional cellular immunity test involves measurements of the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines when stimulated ex vivo. However, this "bulk" assay measures the overall reactivity of a population of lymphocytes and monocytes, making it difficult to pinpoint the phenotype or real identity of the reactive immune cells involved. In this research, we develop a large surface micromachined poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfiltration membrane (PMM) with high porosity, which is integrated in a microfluidic microfiltration platform. Using the PMM with functionalized microbeads conjugated with antibodies against specific cell surface proteins, we demonstrated rapid, efficient and high-throughput on-chip isolation, enrichment, and stimulation of subpopulations of immune cells from blood specimens. Furthermore, the PMM-integrated microfiltration platform, coupled with a no-wash homogeneous chemiluminescence assay ("AlphaLISA"), enables us to demonstrate rapid and sensitive on-chip immunophenotyping assays for subpopulations of immune cells isolated directly from minute quantities of blood samples.

  11. [Psychological stress, immune function and disease development. The psychoneuroimmunologic perspective].

    PubMed

    Schulz, K-H; Gold, S

    2006-08-01

    Interdisciplinary psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) research increasingly demonstrates clinically relevant interrelations between psychological stressors and the onset or progression of chronic diseases. Disturbances of the bi-directional interaction between the nervous system, the immune system and the endocrine system have been hypothesized to be implicated in several diseases. Here, we review evidence from psychoneuroimmunology within the theoretical framework of allostatic load to conceptualize some of these associations. Interdisciplinary PNI research investigating the importance of psychological stress for the higher incidence of infections, decreased responses to vaccinations and delayed wound healing is reviewed. Furthermore, the literature supporting similar associations with regard to progression of oncological diseases and autoimmune disorders is reviewed with a focus on breast cancer and multiple sclerosis. The accumulating evidence regarding the importance of neuroendocrine-immune interaction in these diseases may thus lead to novel insights into pathogenetic mechanisms and could contribute to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  12. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Gary W.; Swain, James E.; King, Anthony P.; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S. Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K. Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. We investigated amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (M = 23.7 years, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (ages 9 and 13). In addition, we tested whether expected, cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socio-emotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes, respectively were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the respective amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years), however, was unrelated to subsequent, adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure. PMID:26469872

  13. Visual Function and Visual Acuity in an Urban Adult Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, J.; Tielsch, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 6,850 adults age 40 or over concerning the effects of poor vision found that difficulties with reading or other near-vision activities were the most common complaint. One-fourth reported limitations in activities because of poor vision. Factors associated with loss of visual function were general health status, educational level, and…

  14. A Selected Bibliography of Functional Literacy Materials for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Joann La Perla; Wallace, Virginia A.

    This document is a selected, annotated bibliography of materials published in the area of coping skills for adults with functional reading skills. Publications are listed alphabetically by title under the following general topics: general coping skills; newspapers; occupational information; consumer economics; pregnancy and parenting; housing;…

  15. Immune Functions in Mice Lacking Clnk, an SLP-76-Related Adaptor Expressed in a Subset of Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Utting, Oliver; Sedgmen, Bradley J.; Watts, Tania H.; Shi, Xiaoshu; Rottapel, Robert; Iulianella, Angelo; Lohnes, David; Veillette, André

    2004-01-01

    The SLP-76 family of immune cell-specific adaptors is composed of three distinct members named SLP-76, Blnk, and Clnk. They have been implicated in the signaling pathways coupled to immunoreceptors such as the antigen receptors and Fc receptors. Previous studies using gene-targeted mice and deficient cell lines showed that SLP-76 plays a central role in T-cell development and activation. Moreover, it is essential for normal mast cell and platelet activation. In contrast, Blnk is necessary for B-cell development and activation. While the precise function of Clnk is not known, it was reported that Clnk is selectively expressed in mast cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and previously activated T-cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of Clnk was shown to rescue T-cell receptor-mediated signal transduction in an SLP-76-deficient T-cell line, suggesting that, like its relatives, Clnk is involved in the positive regulation of immunoreceptor signaling. Stimulatory effects of Clnk on immunoreceptor signaling were also reported to occur in transfected B-cell and basophil leukemia cell lines. Herein, we attempted to address the physiological role of Clnk in immune cells by the generation of Clnk-deficient mice. The results of our studies demonstrated that Clnk is dispensable for normal differentiation and function of T cells, mast cells, and NK cells. Hence, unlike its relatives, Clnk is not essential for normal immune functions. PMID:15199160

  16. Modulating the function of the immune system by thyroid hormones and thyrotropin.

    PubMed

    Jara, Evelyn L; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Llanos, Carolina; Fardella, Carlos; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia A

    2017-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a close bidirectional communication and regulation between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Thyroid hormones (THs) can exert responses in various immune cells, e.g., monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes, affecting several inflammation-related processes (such as, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species generation, and cytokines production). The interactions between the endocrine and immune systems have been shown to contribute to pathophysiological conditions, including sepsis, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and viral infections. Under these conditions, TH therapy could contribute to restoring normal physiological functions. Here we discuss the effects of THs and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on the immune system and the contribution to inflammation and pathogen clearance, as well as the consequences of thyroid pathologies over the function of the immune system.

  17. Cellular sources and immune functions of interleukin-9.

    PubMed

    Noelle, Randolph J; Nowak, Elizabeth C

    2010-10-01

    Interleukin-9 (IL-9) has attracted renewed interest owing to the identification of its expression by multiple T helper (T(H)) cell subsets, including T(H)2 cells, T(H)9 cells, T(H)17 cells and regulatory T (T(Reg)) cells. Here, we provide a broad overview of the conditions that are required for cells to produce IL-9 and describe the cellular targets and nature of the immune responses that are induced by IL-9.

  18. Pathogen recognition or homeostasis? APC receptor functions in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Siamon

    2004-06-01

    Myeloid cells (macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells) express a repertoire of plasma membrane receptors able to recognize all classes of macromolecules. The concept of pattern recognition has emphasized microbial ligands and host defence. However, these receptors play a broader role in tissue homeostasis within multicellular hosts, clearing the extracellular environment of potential undesirable ligands arising endogenously as well as from without. This article will evaluate one of the paradigms that underlie innate immunity.

  19. FcRn: The architect behind the immune and non-immune functions of IgG and albumin

    PubMed Central

    Pyzik, Michal; Rath, Timo; Lencer, Wayne I.; Baker, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) belongs to the extensive and functionally divergent family of MHC molecules. Contrary to classical MHC family members, FcRn possesses little diversity and is unable to present antigens. Instead, through its capacity to bind IgG and albumin with high affinity at low pH, it regulates the serum half-lives of both of these proteins. In addition, FcRn plays important role in immunity at mucosal and systemic sites through both its ability to affect the lifespan of IgG as well as its participation in innate and adaptive immune responses. Even though the details of its biology are still emerging, the property of FcRn to rescue albumin and IgG from early degradation represents an attractive approach to alter the plasma half-life of pharmaceuticals. Here, we will review some of the most novel aspects of FcRn biology, both immune as well as non-immune, and provide some examples of FcRn-based therapies. PMID:25934922

  20. Regenerative function of immune system: Modulation of muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Saini, Jasdeep; McPhee, Jamie S; Al-Dabbagh, Sarah; Stewart, Claire E; Al-Shanti, Nasser

    2016-05-01

    Ageing is characterised by progressive deterioration of physiological systems and the loss of skeletal muscle mass is one of the most recognisable, leading to muscle weakness and mobility impairments. This review highlights interactions between the immune system and skeletal muscle stem cells (widely termed satellite cells or myoblasts) to influence satellite cell behaviour during muscle regeneration after injury, and outlines deficits associated with ageing. Resident neutrophils and macrophages in skeletal muscle become activated when muscle fibres are damaged via stimuli (e.g. contusions, strains, avulsions, hyperextensions, ruptures) and release high concentrations of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors into the microenvironment. These localised responses serve to attract additional immune cells which can reach in excess of 1×10(5) immune cell/mm(3) of skeletal muscle in order to orchestrate the repair process. T-cells have a delayed response, reaching peak activation roughly 4 days after the initial damage. The cytokines and growth factors released by activated T-cells play a key role in muscle satellite cell proliferation and migration, although the precise mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. T-cells in older people display limited ability to activate satellite cell proliferation and migration which is likely to contribute to insufficient muscle repair and, consequently, muscle wasting and weakness. If the factors released by T-cells to activate satellite cells can be identified, it may be possible to develop therapeutic agents to enhance muscle regeneration and reduce the impact of muscle wasting during ageing and disease.

  1. Immune Function Changes during a Spaceflight-Analog Undersea Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Quiniarte, Heather; Yetman, Deborah; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2008-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation. This may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. It is attractive to utilize ground-based spaceflight analogs as appropriate to investigate this phenomenon. For spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID), the authors believe the most appropriate analogs might be NEEMO (short duration, Shuttle analog), Antarctic winter-over (long-duration, ISS analog) and the Haughton Mars Project in the Canadian Arctic (intermediate-duration). Each of these analogs replicate isolation, mission-associated stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, and other aspects of flight thought to contribute to SAID. To validate NEEMO as a flight analog with respect to SAID, a pilot study was conducted during the NEEMO-12 and 13 missions during 2007. Assays were performed that assessed immune status, physiological stress and latent viral reactivation. Blood and saliva samples were collected at pre-, mid-, and post-mission timepoints.

  2. Functional properties of flagellin as a stimulator of innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan; Swartz, James R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of a well-defined flagellin-based nanoparticle stimulator and also provide a new mechanism of action model explaining how flagellin-triggered innate immunity has evolved to favor localized rather than potentially debilitating systemic immune stimulation. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) was used to facilitate mutational analysis and precisely orientated display of flagellin on Hepatitis B core (HBc) protein virus-like particles (VLPs). The need for product stability and an understanding of mechanism of action motivated investigations indicating that the D0 domain of flagellin is sensitive to amino acid sequence independent hydrolysis – apparently due to the need for structural flexibility during natural flagellin polymerization. When D0-stabilized flagellin was attached to HBc VLPs with the D0 domain facing outward, flagellin’s tendency to polymerize caused the VLPs to precipitate. However, attaching the D0 domain to the VLP surface produced a stable nanoparticle adjuvant. Surprisingly, attaching only 2 flagellins per VLP provided the same 1 pM potency as did VLPs with about 33 attached flagellins suggesting that the TLR5 receptor is highly effective in delivering its intracellular signal. These observations suggest that flagellin’s protease sensitivity, tendency to aggregate, and very high affinity for TLR5 receptors limit its systemic distribution to favor localized immune stimulation. PMID:26755208

  3. Active Hematopoietic Hubs in Drosophila Adults Generate Hemocytes and Contribute to Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Saikat; Singh, Arashdeep; Mandal, Sudip; Mandal, Lolitika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Blood cell development in Drosophila shares significant similarities with vertebrate. The conservation ranges from biphasic mode of hematopoiesis to signaling molecules crucial for progenitor cell formation, maintenance, and differentiation. Primitive hematopoiesis in Drosophila ensues in embryonic head mesoderm, whereas definitive hematopoiesis happens in larval hematopoietic organ, the lymph gland. This organ, with the onset of pupation, ruptures to release hemocytes into circulation. It is believed that the adult lacks a hematopoietic organ and survives on the contribution of both embryonic and larval hematopoiesis. However, our studies revealed a surge of blood cell development in the dorsal abdominal hemocyte clusters of adult fly. These active hematopoietic hubs are capable of blood cell specification and can respond to bacterial challenges. The presence of progenitors and differentiated hemocytes embedded in a functional network of Laminin A and Pericardin within this hematopoietic hub projects it as a simple version of the vertebrate bone marrow. PMID:25959225

  4. Figuring Out Function: Children's and Adults' Use of Ownership Information in Judgments of Artifact Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Konika; Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Fernando, Madhawee; Keil, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Across 3 experiments, we found evidence that information about who owns an artifact influenced 5- to 10-year-old children's and adults' judgments about that artifact's primary function. Children's and adults' use of ownership information was underpinned by their inference that owners are typically familiar with owned artifacts and are therefore…

  5. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Van Spyk, Elyse Noelani; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-01-01

    Historically work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as liver, fat and muscle. In recent years, skin is emerging as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging and carcinogenesis. Morphologically skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration -- the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell-type specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of the skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar UV radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. The skin also provides opportunities to interrogate clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model for investigating the

  6. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Plikus, Maksim V; Van Spyk, Elyse N; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-06-01

    Historically, work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as the liver, fat, and muscle. In recent years, skin has emerged as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis. Morphologically, skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable, and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration: the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell type-specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it also represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. Skin also provides opportunities to interrogate the clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model

  7. Impact of Dietary Protein Concentration and Quality on Immune Function of Cats

    PubMed Central

    Paßlack, Nadine; Kohn, Barbara; Doherr, Marcus G.; Zentek, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Protein levels and quality in cat food can vary significantly and might affect immune function in various ways. In the present study, 3 diets with a low protein quality (LQ) and 3 diets with a high protein quality (HQ) were offered to 10 healthy adult cats for 6 weeks each, using a randomized cross-over design. The LQ and HQ diets differed in the collagen content and had low (36.7% and 36.2%), medium (45.0% and 43.3%) and high (56.1% and 54.9%) protein levels. At the end of each feeding period, blood was collected for phenotyping of leukocyte subsets, lymphocyte proliferation assay and cytokine measurements, phagocytosis assay and differential blood count. The results demonstrated no group differences for numbers of CD4+CD8-, CD4+CD8+, CD4-CD8+, MHCII+, CD21+, SWC3+ and CD14+ cells in the blood of the cats. Proliferative activity of lymphocytes when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A and Phytohemagglutinin, M form did not differ depending on the dietary protein concentration and quality. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the supernatant of the proliferation assay were also not affected by the dietary treatment. Blood monocyte phagocytic activity was higher (P = 0.048) and cell numbers of eosinophilic granulocytes in the blood were lower (P = 0.047) when cats were fed the low protein diets. In conclusion, only a few differences in feline immune cell populations and activity depending on dietary protein supply could be detected. However, the observed increase of eosinophilic granulocytes by a higher protein intake indicates an activation of immunological mechanisms and requires further investigation. PMID:28072882

  8. Emerging microfluidic tools for functional cellular immunophenotyping: a new potential paradigm for immune status characterization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqiang; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Li, Xiang; Yu, Zeta Tak For; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and quantitative characterization of immune status of patients is of utmost importance for disease diagnosis and prognosis, evaluating efficacy of immunotherapeutics and tailoring drug treatments. Immune status of patients is often dynamic and patient-specific, and such complex heterogeneity has made accurate, real-time measurements of patient immune status challenging in the clinical setting. Recent advances in microfluidics have demonstrated promising applications of the technology for immune monitoring with minimum sample requirements and rapid functional immunophenotyping capability. This review will highlight recent developments of microfluidic platforms that can perform rapid and accurate cellular functional assays on patient immune cells. We will also discuss the future potential of integrated microfluidics to perform rapid, accurate, and sensitive cellular functional assays at a single-cell resolution on different types or subpopulations of immune cells, to provide an unprecedented level of information depth on the distribution of immune cell functionalities. We envision that such microfluidic immunophenotyping tools will allow for comprehensive and systems-level immunomonitoring, unlocking the potential to transform experimental clinical immunology into an information-rich science.

  9. Immunomodulatory properties of carbon nanotubes are able to compensate immune function dysregulation caused by microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescio, Claudia; Orecchioni, Marco; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Sgarrella, Francesco; Pippia, Proto; Manetti, Roberto; Bianco, Alberto; Delogu, Lucia Gemma

    2014-07-01

    Spaceflights lead to dysregulation of the immune cell functionality affecting the expression of activation markers and cytokine production. Short oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition have been reported to activate immune cells. In this Communication we have performed surface marker assays and multiplex ELISA on primary monocytes and T cells under microgravity. We have discovered that carbon nanotubes, through their immunostimulatory properties, are able to fight spaceflight immune system dysregulations.Spaceflights lead to dysregulation of the immune cell functionality affecting the expression of activation markers and cytokine production. Short oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition have been reported to activate immune cells. In this Communication we have performed surface marker assays and multiplex ELISA on primary monocytes and T cells under microgravity. We have discovered that carbon nanotubes, through their immunostimulatory properties, are able to fight spaceflight immune system dysregulations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, structures of f-MWCNTs and uptake by human primary immune cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02711f

  10. Immune cell location and function during post-natal mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Reed, Johanna R; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L

    2010-09-01

    Post-natal mammary gland development requires complex interactions between the epithelial cells and various cell types within the stroma. Recent studies have illustrated the importance of immune cells and their mediators during the various stages of mammary gland development. However, the mechanisms by which these immune cells functionally contribute to mammary gland development are only beginning to be understood. This review provides an overview of the localization of immune cells within the mammary gland during the various stages of post-natal mammary gland development. Furthermore, recent studies are summarized that illustrate the mechanisms by which these cells are recruited to the mammary gland and their functional roles in mammary gland development.

  11. High-dose dexamethasone corrects impaired myeloid-derived suppressor cell function via Ets1 in immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yu; Feng, Qi; Xu, Miao; Li, Guo-Sheng; Liu, Xue-Na; Sheng, Zi; Zhou, Hai; Ma, Ji; Wei, Yu; Sun, Yuan-Xin; Yu, Ying-Yi; Qiu, Ji-Hua; Shao, Lin-Lin; Liu, Xin-Guang; Hou, Ming; Peng, Jun

    2016-03-24

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogeneous immature cells and natural inhibitors of adaptive immunity. In this study, the MDSC population was evaluated in adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), where cell-mediated immune mechanisms are involved in platelet destruction. Our data demonstrated that both the numbers and suppressive functions of MDSCs were impaired in the peripheral blood and spleens of patients with ITP compared with healthy control patients. High-dose dexamethasone (HD-DXM) treatment rescued MDSC numbers in patients with ITP. And DXM modulation promoted the suppressive function of MDSCs induced in vitro. Moreover, the expression of interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β was significantly upregulated in DXM-modulated MDSCs compared with the unmodulated cultures. DXM-modulated MDSCs inhibited autologous CD4(+)T-cell proliferation and significantly attenuated cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated platelet lysis, further indicating enhanced control over T-cell responses. Elevated expression of the transcription factor Ets1 was identified in DXM-modulated MDSCs. Transfection of Ets-1 small interfering RNA efficiently blocked regulatory effects of MDSCs, which almost offset the augmentation of MDSC function by DXM. Meanwhile, splenocytes from CD61 knockout mice immunized with CD61(+)platelets were transferred into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse recipients (C57/B6 background) to induce a murine model of severe ITP. We passively transferred the DXM-modulated MDSCs induced from bone marrow of wild-type C57/B6 mice into the SCID mouse recipients, which significantly increased platelet counts in vivo compared with those receiving splenocyte engraftment alone. These findings suggested that impaired MDSCs are involved in the pathogenesis of ITP, and that HD-DXM corrected MDSC functions via a mechanism underlying glucocorticoid action and Ets1.

  12. Modulation of body composition and immune cell functions by conjugated linoleic acid in humans and animal models: benefits vs. risks.

    PubMed

    Kelley, D S; Erickson, K L

    2003-04-01

    We have reviewed the published literature regarding the effects of CLA on body composition and immune cell functions in humans and in animal models. Results from studies in mice, hamsters, rats, and pigs generally support the notion that CLA reduced depot fat in the normal or lean strains. However, in obese rats, it increased body fat or decreased it less than in the corresponding lean controls. These studies also indicate that t10,c12-CLA was the isomer that reduced adipose fat; however, it also increased the fat content of several other tissues and increased circulating insulin and the saturated FA content of adipose tissue and muscle. Four of the eight published human studies found small but significant reductions in body fat with CLA supplementation; however, the reductions were smaller than the prediction errors for the methods used. The other four human studies found no change in body fat with CLA supplementation. These studies also report that CLA supplementation increased the risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease including increased blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, VLDL, C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, and decreased HDL. Most studies regarding the effects of CLA on immune cell functions have been conducted with a mixture of isomers, and the results have been variable. One study conducted in mice with the purified c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA isomers indicated that the two isomers have similar effects on immune cell functions. Some of the reasons for the discrepancies between the effects of CLA in published reports are discussed. Although significant benefit to humans from CLA supplementation is questionable, it may create several health risks in both humans and animals. On the basis of the published data, CLA supplementation of adult human diets to improve body composition or enhance immune functions cannot be recommended at this time.

  13. Immune function and nutrition. The clinical role of the intravenous nurse.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, S

    1991-01-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition is considered to be one of the most frequent causes of immunosuppression in the world today. Malnutrition can affect the functioning of T cells, B cells, and macrophages, the principle players involved in cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Immune function is measured by the total lymphocyte count and delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction. Nutritional markers include serum albumin and transferrin levels. Immune function is affected by protein (especially arginine intake); the balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake; and adequate amounts of vitamins A, E, and C, and the minerals zinc and iron. A deficiency of these nutrients puts the patient at increased risk of infection. Non-nutritional factors can influence immune functioning as well. The intravenous nurse must review the patients history, physical examination, and laboratory values to achieve a global view of the patient's immune function and nutrition status in order to be able to develop an appropriate care plan based on this nursing diagnosis: potential for infection secondary to alteration in immune function.

  14. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Sominsky, Luba; Fuller, Erin A; Bondarenko, Evgeny; Ong, Lin Kooi; Averell, Lee; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Dunkley, Peter R; Dickson, Phillip W; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs) 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli). Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of physiological processes.

  15. The homeostatic role of neuropeptide Y in immune function and its impact on mood and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Farzi, A; Reichmann, F; Holzer, P

    2015-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), one of the most abundant peptides in the nervous system, exerts its effects via five receptor types, termed Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5 and Y6. NPY's pleiotropic functions comprise the regulation of brain activity, mood, stress coping, ingestion, digestion, metabolism, vascular and immune function. Nerve-derived NPY directly affects immune cells while NPY also acts as a paracrine and autocrine immune mediator, because immune cells themselves are capable of producing and releasing NPY. NPY is able to induce immune activation or suppression, depending on a myriad of factors such as the Y receptors activated and cell types involved. There is an intricate relationship between psychological stress, mood disorders and the immune system. While stress represents a risk factor for the development of mood disorders, it exhibits diverse actions on the immune system as well. Conversely, inflammation is regarded as an internal stressor and is increasingly recognized to contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and metabolic disorders. Intriguingly, the cerebral NPY system has been found to protect against distinct disturbances in response to immune challenge, attenuating the sickness response and preventing the development of depression. Thus, NPY plays an important homeostatic role in balancing disturbances of physiological systems caused by peripheral immune challenge. This implication is particularly evident in the brain in which NPY counteracts the negative impact of immune challenge on mood, emotional processing and stress resilience. NPY thus acts as a unique signalling molecule in the interaction of the immune system with the brain in health and disease.

  16. The homeostatic role of neuropeptide Y in immune function and its impact on mood and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Farzi, Aitak; Reichmann, Florian; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), one of the most abundant peptides in the nervous system, exerts its effects via 5 receptor types, termed Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5 and y6. NPY’s pleiotropic functions comprise the regulation of brain activity, mood, stress coping, ingestion, digestion, metabolism, vascular and immune function. Nerve-derived NPY directly affects immune cells while NPY also acts as a paracrine and autocrine immune mediator, since immune cells themselves are capable of producing and releasing NPY. NPY is able to induce immune activation or suppression, depending on a myriad of factors such as the Y receptors activated and cell types involved. There is an intricate relationship between psychological stress, mood disorders and the immune system. While stress represents a risk factor for the development of mood disorders, it exhibits diverse actions on the immune system as well. Conversely, inflammation is regarded as an internal stressor and is increasingly recognized to contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and metabolic disorders. Intriguingly, the cerebral NPY system has been found to protect against distinct disturbances in response to immune challenge, attenuating the sickness response and preventing the development of depression. Thus, NPY plays an important homeostatic role in balancing disturbances of physiological systems caused by peripheral immune challenge. This implication is particularly evident in the brain in which NPY counteracts the negative impact of immune challenge on mood, emotional processing and stress resilience. NPY thus acts as a unique signalling molecule in the interaction of the immune system with the brain in health and disease. PMID:25545642

  17. Glutathione and lymphocyte activation: a function of ageing and auto-immune disease.

    PubMed

    Fidelus, R K; Tsan, M F

    1987-08-01

    A decline in tissue and serum of glutathione (GSH) content and GSH-metabolizing enzymes with age has been implicated in the increasing susceptibility to carcinogens, disease and drugs which occurs with advanced age. Immunological senescence has been directly associated with increased incidence of cancer and infection with age. The auto-immune diseases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) demonstrate depressed T-cell function together with B-cell hyperactivity. In addition, RA and SLE are chronic inflammatory conditions which have been associated with low serum and erythrocyte GSH concentrations when compared to normal. We hypothesized that augmentation of intracellular GSH concentrations in lymphocytes may enhance immune function in depressed immune states. Our data, using murine animal models for ageing (C57BL/6J) and the RA/SLE-like auto-immune diseases of the MRL/lpr mouse, indicate that intracellular glutathione of splenic lymphocytes does not decline with age or with a chronic inflammatory auto-immune disease. In contrast, immune responsiveness in splenic lymphocytes does decline. We can, however, augment both intracellular GSH concentrations and the immune response of splenic lymphocytes from animals of all ages as well as in those animals with the SLE-like auto-immune disease.

  18. Differential cytokine and antibody responses to adult and larval stages of Onchocerca volvulus consistent with the development of concomitant immunity.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Angus J; Turaga, Prasad S D; Harmon-Brown, Carolyn; Tierney, Tracy J; Bennett, Kristine E; McCarthy, Maggie C; Simonek, Scott C; Enyong, Peter A; Moukatte, Daniel W; Lustigman, Sara

    2002-06-01

    The possibility of concomitant immunity and its potential mechanisms in Onchocerca volvulus infection were examined by analyzing cytokine and antibody responses to infective larval (third-stage larvae [L3] and molting L3 [mL3]), adult female worm (F-OvAg), and skin microfilaria (Smf) antigens in infected individuals in a region of hyperendemicity in Cameroon as a function of age. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell interleukin 5 (IL-5) responses to F-OvAg and Smf declined significantly with age (equivalent to years of exposure to O. volvulus). In contrast, IL-5 secretion in response to L3 and mL3 remained elevated with increasing age. Gamma interferon responses to L3, mL3, and F-OvAg were low or suppressed and unrelated to age, except for responses to Smf in older subjects. IL-10 levels were uniformly elevated, regardless of age, in response to L3, mL3, and F-OvAg but not to Smf, for which levels declined with age. A total of 49 to 60% of subjects had granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor responses to all O. volvulus antigens unrelated to age. Analysis of levels of stage-specific immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) and IgE revealed a striking, age-dependent dissociation between antibody responses to larval antigens (L3 and a recombinant L3-specific protein, O. volvulus ALT-1) which were significantly increased or maintained with age and antibody responses to F-OvAg, which decreased. Levels of IgG1 to L3 and F-OvAg were elevated regardless of age, and levels of IgG4 increased significantly with age, although not to O. volvulus ALT-1, which may have unique L3-specific epitopes. Immunofluorescence staining of whole larvae showed that total anti-L3 immunoglobulin levels also increased with the age of the serum donor. The separate and distinct cytokine and antibody responses to adult and infective larval stages of O. volvulus which are age related are consistent with the acquisition of concomitant immunity in infected individuals.

  19. Eltrombopag and high-dose dexamethasone as frontline treatment of newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia in adults.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Almaguer, David; Herrera-Rojas, Miguel A; Jaime-Pérez, José C; Gómez-De León, Andrés; Cantú-Rodríguez, Olga G; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, César H; Tarín-Arzaga, Luz; Hernández-Reyes, Jesús; Ruiz-Arguelles, Guillermo J

    2014-06-19

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) results from platelet destruction and production suppression. Eltrombopag belongs to a new class of thrombopoietin-mimetic drugs that raise platelet counts in ITP patients. We performed a single-arm study to assess the response to a single course of dexamethasone (40 mg by mouth, days 1-4) in combination with eltrombopag (50 mg, days 5-32) in 12 adults with newly diagnosed ITP in an outpatient setting. Median follow-up was 12.5 months. After therapy (day 33), 100% of patients achieved at least ≥30 × 10(9)/L platelets. Four patients relapsed. Complete response at 6 months (platelets ≥100 × 10(9)/L) was achieved in 50% of patients and response at 6 months (platelets ≥30 <100 × 10(9)/L) was achieved in another 25%; relapse-free survival was 66.7% at 12 months (median response duration of 8.3 months). In conclusion, eltrombopag/dexamethasone is a feasible frontline therapy for ITP. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01652599.

  20. An animal model of adult T-cell leukemia: humanized mice with HTLV-1-specific immunity.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Kenta; Xun, Runze; Tei, Mami; Ueno, Takaharu; Tanaka, Masakazu; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-16

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is causally associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive T-cell malignancy with a poor prognosis. To elucidate ATL pathogenesis in vivo, a variety of animal models have been established; however, the mechanisms driving this disorder remain poorly understood due to deficiencies in each of these animal models. Here, we report a novel HTLV-1-infected humanized mouse model generated by intra-bone marrow injection of human CD133(+) stem cells into NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγc null (NOG) mice (IBMI-huNOG mice). Upon infection, the number of CD4(+) human T cells in the periphery increased rapidly, and atypical lymphocytes with lobulated nuclei resembling ATL-specific flower cells were observed 4 to 5 months after infection. Proliferation was seen in both CD25(-) and CD25(+) CD4 T cells with identical proviral integration sites; however, a limited number of CD25(+)-infected T-cell clones eventually dominated, indicating an association between clonal selection of infected T cells and expression of CD25. Additionally, HTLV-1-specific adaptive immune responses were induced in infected mice and might be involved in the control of HTLV-1-infected cells. Thus, the HTLV-1-infected IBMI-huNOG mouse model successfully recapitulated the development of ATL and may serve as an important tool for investigating in vivo mechanisms of ATL leukemogenesis and evaluating anti-ATL drug and vaccine candidates.

  1. [Primary immune thrombocytopenia in adults in Mexico: national characteristics and the relation to international literature].

    PubMed

    Meillón-García, Luis Antonio; García-Chávez, Jaime; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Gutiérrez-Espíndola, Guillermo R; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the clinical approach of a sample of Mexican hematologists for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults in Mexico, we applied an electronic survey via the internet to identify common practices for the diagnosis and treatment of ITP and draw a comparison between the information from these hematologists with international guidelines or the international literature. The results were analyzed using measures of central tendency. The sample was 21 medical hematologists, predominantly from Mexico City (average age: 51.4 years). A total of 66.7% of the surveyed physicians use international guidelines to make therapeutic decisions, and 43% defined ITP including the numerical concept (< 100 x 10(9)/l). We found some differences between requested clinical exams and tests indicated by the guidelines. In first-line treatment (except emergency), 91% of the participants start with prednisone and 24% use dexamethasone. Danazol is used in persistent ITP by most (41%) of the specialists. In second-line treatment, 67% would indicate splenectomy. Some differences were found between clinical practice of the hematologists in Mexico versus guidelines recommendations.

  2. The Functional Impact of the Intestinal Microbiome on Mucosal Immunity and Systemic Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Longman, Randy S.; Littman, Dan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review will highlight recent advances functionally linking the gut microbiome with mucosal and systemic immune cell activation potentially underlying autoimmunity. Recent Findings Dynamic interactions between the gut microbiome and environmental cues (including diet and medicines) shape the effector potential of the microbial organ. Key bacteria and viruses have emerged, that, in defined microenvironments, play a critical role in regulating effector lymphocyte functions. The coordinated interactions between these different microbial kingdoms—including bacteria, helminths, and viruses (termed transkingdom interactions)—play a critical role in shaping immunity. Emerging strategies to identify immunologically-relevant microbes with the potential to regulate immune cell functions both at mucosal sites and systemically will likely define key diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Summary The microbiome constitutes a critical microbial organ with coordinated interactions that shape host immunity. PMID:26002030

  3. Adult Children's Education and Parents' Functional Limitations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Sheehan, Connor M; Hayward, Mark D

    2016-04-01

    This article asks how adult children's education influences older parents' physical health in Mexico, a context where older adults often lack access to institutional resources and rely on kin, primarily children, as a main source of support. Using logistic and negative binomial regression models and data from the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (N = 9,661), we find that parents whose children all completed high school are less likely to report any functional limitations as well as fewer limitations compared to parents with no children who completed high school. This association remains significant even after accounting for parent and offspring-level characteristics, including parents' income that accounts for children's financial transfers to parents. Future research should aim to understand the mechanisms that explain the association between adult children's education and changes to parents' health over time.

  4. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis: From Genes to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, James B.; Li, Yan; Lee, Star W.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. This review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. The increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders. PMID:25287858

  5. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    DOE PAGES

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; ...

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages ofmore » maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.« less

  6. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-10-13

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations.

  7. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.

  8. Reproductive state, but not testosterone, reduces immune function in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Greenman, Chris G; Martin, Lynn B; Hau, Michaela

    2005-01-01

    The immune system requires energetic and nutritional resources to optimally defend organisms against pathogens and parasites. Because resources are typically limited, immune function may require a trade-off with other physiologically demanding activities. Here, we examined whether photoperiodically induced seasonal states (breeding, molting, or nonbreeding) affected the cutaneous immune response of captive male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). To assess immune function in these birds, we injected the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) into the patagium and measured the resulting wing web swelling. Molting and nonbreeding birds had similar immune responses to PHA injection. However, males in a breeding state showed lower immune responses than both molting and nonbreeding birds even though they did not actually breed. We tested whether this decrease in the PHA swelling response in birds in a breeding state was due to elevated plasma concentrations of testosterone (T) by administering T to birds in a nonbreeding state. Contrary to some evidence in the literature, T did not suppress the response to PHA in house sparrows. Our data show that passerine birds show seasonal modulation in immune function, even in benign environmental conditions. However, even though T is often cited as a strong immunosuppressant, it is not fully responsible for this seasonal modulation.

  9. Associations between innate immune function and ectoparasites in wild rodent hosts.

    PubMed

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Hawlena, Hadas; Durden, Lance A; Hastriter, Michael W; Demas, Gregory E; Clay, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Immune function is an important component of host fitness, and high investment in immunity should occur when the benefits outweigh the costs, such as when risk of parasitism is high. We sampled two rodent hosts, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), and their tick, flea, and mite ectoparasites. A bacterial killing assay was used to measure the host's innate immune function. We hypothesized that classes of hosts (species, sexes, or age classes) with overall higher tick burdens would have a higher innate immune function as an evolutionary response to historically greater exposure. We hypothesized a weaker relationship between the fleas and mites and immune function because of high host specificity in fleas and the absence of known vector function in North American mites. Ectoparasites were significantly overdispersed on hosts. In accordance with our hypothesis, Peromyscus that had higher tick burdens also exhibited significantly higher bacterial killing ability compared to Microtus. There was no significant difference in total flea burden between rodent species and no relationship with bacterial killing ability. Microtus had higher burdens of mites in each order than Peromyscus, and female rodents had higher mite burdens than males. The benefits of maintaining high levels of innate immune factors appear to be greater than the energetic costs for Peromyscus compared to Microtus.

  10. Highly deoxynivalenol contaminated oats and immune function in horses.

    PubMed

    Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Hellweg, Petra; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Saalmüller, Armin; Strasser, Alois; Tichy, Alexander; Zenteke, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of deoxynivalenol (DON) on cellular and humoral immune parameters in horses. A feeding trial using naturally contaminated oats with high (20.2 mg/kg) and low (0.49 mg/kg) levels of DON was conducted. Two groups of five mares were fed 2 kg oats daily with high or low DON levels for two weeks, using a crossover design with a three-week wash-out period. No adverse effects on general health were observed. Only minor diet-related changes in differential blood counts and serum biochemistry were noted. Serum haptoglobin concentration was significantly elevated after feeding DON (p = 0.04). Lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ CD8+, CD2+, CD21+, MHCII+) and lymphocyte proliferation data (concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen) were not different between feeding-groups. It can be concluded that daily DON intakes as high as 6.9 to 9.5 mg/100 kg BW appear to have no major impact on the measured immune response of horses, indicating that this species has a high tolerance for DON.

  11. Diphtheria outbreak in Thailand, 2012; seroprevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults and its implications for immunization programs.

    PubMed

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Tharmaphornpilas, Piyanit; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-09-01

    An age distribution shift in diphtheria cases during a 2012 outbreak in northeastern of Thailand suggests adults are increasingly at risk for infection in Thailand. Data regarding immunity against diphtheria among the adult Thai population is limited. We review a 2012 diphtheria outbreak in Thailand and conducted a nationwide seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults in order to inform immunization programs. A total of 41 confirmed cases, 6 probable cases and 101 carriers of diphtheria were reported from northeastern and upper southern Thailand. The diphtheria outbreak in northeastern Thailand occurred among adults aged > or =15 years; sporadic cases occurred among children from upper southern Thailand. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 890 Thai adults from 4 age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years) in 7 different geographical areas of Thailand (Chiang Mai, Ratchaburi, Chon Buri, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phitsanulok, Khon Kaen and Songkhla). Diptheria toxin antibody levels were measured with a commercially available ELISA test. The seroprotection rate ranged from 83% to 99%, with the highest in eastern Thailand (Chon Buri, 99%) and the lowest in northern Thailand (Chiang Mai, 83%). Diphtheria antibodies declined with increasing age. We recommend one doseof diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (dT) vaccine once after 20 years of age in order to boost the antibody and revaccinations every 10 years to prevent future outbreaks.

  12. Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, R I; Kurosaki, T T; Harrah, C H; Chance, J M; Filos, S

    1982-05-01

    Two measures of social function designed for community studies of normal aging and mild senile dementia were evaluated in 195 older adults who underwent neurological, cognitive, and affective assessment. An examining and a reviewing neurologist and a neurologically trained nurse independently rated each on a Scale of Functional Capacity. Interrater reliability was high (examining vs. reviewing neurologist, r = .97; examining neurologist vs. nurse, tau b = .802; p less than .001 for both comparisons). Estimates correlated well with an established measure of social function and with results of cognitive tests. Alternate informants evaluated participants on the Functional Activities Questionnaire and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale. The Functional Activities Questionnaire was superior to the Instrumental Activities of Daily scores. Used alone as a diagnostic tool, the Functional Activities Questionnaire was more sensitive than distinguishing between normal and demented individuals.

  13. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) abandon hemocytic, but not phenoloxidase-based immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemocytes and the (prophenol-) phenoloxidase system constitute the immediate innate immune system in insects. These components of overall insect innate immunity are present at any post-embryonic life stage without previous infection. Differences between individuals and species in these immune param...

  14. Gene by Neuroticism Interaction and Cognitive Function among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Robbins, John A.; Porsteinsson, Anton; Mapstone, Mark; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Both ApoE (apolipoprotein E) ε-4 allele(s) and elevated trait neuroticism, the tendency to experience distress, are associated with cognitive function among older adults. We predicted that neuroticism moderates the association between ApoE and cognitive function and also explored whether other personality dimensions (openness to experience, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness) affect the association between ApoE status and cognitive function. Method Five-hundred and ninety-seven older adults (mean age of 78) enrolled in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality. Cognitive function was assessed via the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog), and a blood sample for ApoE genotyping was drawn. Results As hypothesized, regression analysis indicated that neuroticism moderated the relationship between the presence of ApoE ε-4 and cognitive function. Individuals with high neuroticism scores had significantly lower ADAS-cog scores compared with individual with low neuroticism scores, but this was true only among carriers of ApoE ε-4 (interaction effect β = .124, p = .028). There was scant evidence that other personality dimensions moderate the association between ApoE ε-4 and cognitive function. Conclusions Cognitive function may be affected by ApoE and neuroticism acting in tandem. Research on the underlying physiological mechanisms by which neuroticism amplifies the effect of ApoE ε-4 is warranted. The study of genotype by phenotype interactions provides an important and useful direction for the study of cognitive function among older adults and for the development of novel prevention programs. PMID:23042108

  15. Innate Immune Function of TH2 Cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liying; Huang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xi; Hu-Li, Jane; Urban, Joseph F.; Paul, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 helper T (TH) cells produce interleukin 13 (IL-13) when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response is dependent on IL-33 but not T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant innate producers of IL-13 in naïve animals, we show here that in helminth-infected mice, TH2 cell numbers increased and became major mediators of innate type II responses. TH2 cells made important contributions to HDM-induced antigen–non-specific eosinophilic inflammation and protected mice recovering from Ascaris suum infection against subsequent infection with the phylogenetically distant nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of effector TH2 cells during TCR-independent innate-like immune responses. PMID:26322482

  16. Influence of Photoperiod on Hormones, Behavior, and Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Walton, James C.; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2011-01-01

    Photoperiodism is the ability of plants and animals to measure environmental day length to ascertain time of year. Central to the evolution of photoperiodism in animals is the adaptive distribution of energetically challenging activities across the year to optimize reproductive fitness while balancing the energetic tradeoffs necessary for seasonally- appropriate survival strategies. The ability to accurately predict future events requires endogenous mechanisms to permit physiological anticipation of annual conditions. Day length provides a virtually noise free environmental signal to monitor and accurately predict time of the year. In mammals, melatonin provides the hormonal signal transducing day length. Duration of pineal melatonin is inversely related to day length and its secretion drives enduring changes in many physiological systems, including the HPA, HPG, and brain-gut axes, the autonomic nervous system, and the immune system. Thus, melatonin is the fulcrum mediating redistribution of energetic investment among physiological processes to maximize fitness and survival. PMID:21156187

  17. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Differentially Expressed Transcripts of Immune-Related Genes in Spleen of Gosling and Adult Goose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Liu, Fei; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-09-22

    The goose (Anser cygnoides), having high nutritional value, high-quality feathers and high economic benefit, is an economically important poultry species. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the higher susceptibility to pathogens in goslings than in adult geese remains poorly understood. In this study, the histological sections of spleen tissue from a two-week-old gosling and an adult goose, respectively, were subjected to comparative analysis. The spleen of gosling was mainly composed of mesenchyma, accompanied by scattered lymphocytes, whereas the spleen parenchyma was well developed in the adult goose. To investigate goose immune-related genes, we performed deep transcriptome and gene expression analyses of the spleen samples using paired-end sequencing technology (Illumina). In total, 50,390 unigenes were assembled using Trinity software and TGICL software. Moreover, these assembled unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions and gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed. Through Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis, we investigated 558 important immune-relevant unigenes and 23 predicted cytokines. In addition, 22 immune-related genes with differential expression between gosling and adult goose were identified, among which the three genes showing largest differences in expression were immunoglobulin alpha heavy chain (IgH), mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 isoform X1 (MASP1) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). Finally, of these 22 differentially expressed immune-related genes, seven genes, including tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B (TNFRSF13B), C-C motif chemokine 4-like (CCL4), CXCR4, interleukin 2 receptor alpha (IL2RA), MHC class I heavy chain (MHCIα), transporter of antigen processing 2 (TAP2) IgH, were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression levels of all the candidate unigenes were up-regulated in adult geese other than that of TNFRSF13B. The comparative

  18. Population-Specific Covariation between Immune Function and Color of Nesting Male Threespine Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Daniel I.; Shim, Kum Chuan; Schmerer, Matthew; Brock, Chad D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple biological processes can generate sexual selection on male visual signals such as color. For example, females may prefer colorful males because those males are more readily detected (perceptual bias), or because male color conveys information about male quality and associated direct or indirect benefits to females. For example, male threespine stickleback often exhibit red throat coloration, which females prefer both because red is more visible in certain environments, and red color is correlated with male immune function and parasite load. However, not all light environments favor red nuptial coloration: more tannin-stained water tends to favor the evolution of a melanic male phenotype. Do such population differences in stickleback male color, driven by divergent light environments, lead to changes in the relationship between color and immunity? Here, we show that, within stickleback populations, multiple components of male color (brightness and hue of four body parts) are correlated with multiple immune variables (ROS production, phagocytosis rates, and lymphocyte:leukocyte ratios). Some of these color-immune associations persist across stickleback populations with very different male color patterns, whereas other color-immune associations are population-specific. Overall, lakes with red males exhibit stronger color-immune covariance while melanic male populations exhibit weak if any color-immune associations. Our finding that color-immunity relationships are labile implies that any evolution of male color traits (e.g., due to female perceptual bias in a given light environment), can alter the utility of color as an indicator of male quality. PMID:26039044

  19. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Edna M; Valente, Joaquim G; Grattan, Lynn; Schmidt, Sérgio Luís; Platt, Illeane; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2003-01-01

    -dependent effect. Conclusions This study suggests that adults exposed to MeHg may be at risk for deficits in neurocognitive function. The functions disrupted in adults, namely attention, fine-motor function and verbal memory, are similar to some of those previously reported in children with prenatal exposures. PMID:12844364

  20. Exercise and gut immune function: evidence of alterations in colon immune cell homeostasis and microbiome characteristics with exercise training.

    PubMed

    Cook, Marc D; Allen, Jacob M; Pence, Brandt D; Wallig, Matthew A; Gaskins, H Rex; White, Bryan A; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    There is robust evidence that habitual physical activity is anti-inflammatory and protective against developing chronic inflammatory disease. Much less is known about the effects of habitual moderate exercise in the gut, the compartment that has the greatest immunological responsibility and interactions with the intestinal microbiota. The link between the two has become evident, as recent studies have linked intestinal dysbiosis, or the disproportionate balance of beneficial to pathogenic microbes, with increased inflammatory disease susceptibility. Limited animal and human research findings imply that exercise may have a beneficial role in preventing and ameliorating such diseases by having an effect on gut immune function and, recently, microbiome characteristics. Emerging data from our laboratory show that different forms of exercise training differentially impact the severity of intestinal inflammation during an inflammatory insult (for example, ulcerative colitis) and may be jointly related to gut immune cell homeostasis and microbiota-immune interactions. The evidence we review and present will provide data in support of rigorous investigations concerning the effects of habitual exercise on gut health and disease.

  1. Incubation period and immune function: a comparative field study among coexisting birds.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maria G; Martin, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species.

  2. Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  3. Envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: profound influences on immune functions.

    PubMed Central

    Chirmule, N; Pahwa, S

    1996-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to progressive destruction of the CD4+ T-cell subset, resulting in immune deficiency and AIDS. The specific binding of the viral external envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, gp120, to the CD4 molecules initiates viral entry. In the past few years, several studies have indicated that the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with cells and molecules of the immune system leads to pleiotropic biological effects on immune functions, which include effects on differentiation of CD34+ lymphoid progenitor cells and thymocytes, aberrant activation and cytokine secretion patterns of mature T cells, induction of apoptosis, B-cell hyperactivity, inhibition of T-cell dependent B-cell differentiation, modulation of macrophage functions, interactions with components of complement, and effects on neuronal cells. The amino acid sequence homologies of the envelope glycoproteins with several cellular proteins have suggested that molecular mimicry may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. This review summarizes work done by several investigators demonstrating the profound biological effects of envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 on immune system cells. Extensive studies have also been done on interactions of the viral envelope proteins with components of the immune system which may be important for eliciting a "protective immune response." Understanding the influences of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins on the immune system may provide valuable insights into HIV-1 disease pathogenesis and carries implications for the trials of HIV-1 envelope protein vaccines and immunotherapeutics. PMID:8801439

  4. The effect of the immune system on ovarian function and features of ovarian germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Haifeng; Li, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Tuochen; Liang, Xia; Li, Jia; Huang, Jian; Pan, Zezheng; Zheng, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role in maintaining organism homeostasis, the immune system also plays a crucial role in the modulation of ovarian function, as it regulates ovarian development, follicular maturation, ovulation and the formation of the corpus luteum. Ovarian germline stem cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the ovarian cortex that can differentiate into ovarian germ cells and primary granulosa cells. Recent work has demonstrated that the proliferation and differentiation of ovarian germline stem cells is regulated in part by immune cells and their secreted factors. This paper reviews the role of the immune system in the regulation of ovarian function, the relationship between immune components and ovarian germline stem cells and current research efforts in this field.

  5. A Comparative Clinicopathologic Study of Collagenous Gastritis in Children and Adults: The Same Disorder With Associated Immune-mediated Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changqing; Park, Jason Y; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Arnold, Christina A; McDonald, Oliver G; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Salaria, Safia N; Limketkai, Berkeley N; McGrath, Kevin M; Musahl, Tina; Singhi, Aatur D

    2015-06-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition characterized by surface epithelial damage, subepithelial collagen deposition, and a lamina propria inflammatory infiltrate. Previous studies have proposed 2 clinicopathologic subtypes: (1) children (18 y of age or younger) presenting with severe anemia, nodular gastric mucosa, and isolated gastric disease; and (2) adults with chronic watery diarrhea that is associated with diffuse collagenous involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. However, notable exceptions exist. In fact, broad variability in clinical presentation, etiology, treatment and disease course has been reported. To better define the clinicopathologic features of collagenous gastritis, we have collected 10 pediatric and 21 adult cases and describe their clinical, endoscopic, pathologic, and follow-up findings. Both children and adults presented with similar clinical symptoms such as anemia (50%, 35%, respectively), epigastric/abdominal pain (50%, 45%), and diarrhea (40%, 55%). Concomitant immune disorders were identified in 2 (20%) children and 3 (14%) adults. Further, 7 of 17 (41%) adults were taking medications associated with other immune-related gastrointestinal diseases including olmesartan and antidepressants. Histologically, there were no differences between children and adults with collagenous gastritis in the location of gastric involvement, mean collagenous layer thickness, and prominence of eosinophils (P>0.05). Extragastric collagenous involvement was also seen with comparable frequencies in each cohort (44%, 59%). Follow-up information was available for 22 of 31 (71%) patients and ranged from 2 to 122 months (mean, 33.6 mo). Despite medical management in most cases, persistence of symptoms or collagenous gastritis on subsequent biopsies was seen in 100% of children and 82% of adults. Of note, treatment for 1 adult patient involved cessation of olmesartan resulting in resolution of both symptoms and subepithelial collagen deposition on subsequent

  6. Masticatory ability and functional tooth units in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ueno, M; Yanagisawa, T; Shinada, K; Ohara, S; Kawaguchi, Y

    2008-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the relationship between the number of natural teeth and the number of functional tooth units in Japanese adults, (ii) to evaluate how functional tooth units relate to subjective masticatory ability and (iii) to determine the minimum number of natural teeth and functional tooth units needed to maintain adequate self-assessed chewing function. A self-administered questionnaire was given and dental examination was conducted for 2164 residents aged 40 to 75 years. Counts were made on the number of functional tooth units of natural teeth (n-functional tooth units), the sum of natural teeth and artificial teeth on implant-supported and fixed prostheses (nif-functional tooth units) and the sum of natural teeth and artificial teeth on implant-supported, fixed and removable prostheses (total-functional tooth units). The average number of natural teeth, n-functional tooth units and nif-functional tooth units decreased with age, but these were often replaced by functional tooth units from artificial teeth on removable prostheses. Total-functional tooth units in 50-59 year old people were slightly lower compared with those in other age groups. Subjects who reported that they could chew every food item on an average had 23.4 total natural teeth, 12.6 posterior natural teeth, 7.6 n-functional tooth units, 8.6 nif-functional tooth units and 10.4 total-functional tooth units, and subjects without chewing difficulties had fewer functional tooth units from removable prostheses. Maintaining 20 and more natural teeth and at least eight nif-functional tooth units is important in reducing the likelihood of self-assessed chewing difficulties.

  7. Differences in the peripheral immune response between lambs and adult ewes experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Laetitia; Juste, Ramón A; Muñoz, María; Morales, Silvia; Benavides, Julio; Ferreras, M Carmen; Marín, J Francisco García; Pérez, Valentín

    2012-01-15

    The peripheral immune response, and its relationship with the outcome of the infection according to the age of the animal, has been investigated in young lambs and adult ewes experimentally infected with two different doses of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). Sixteen 1.5-month-old lambs out of 24 and 23 adult ewes out of 30 were orally challenged with an ovine Map field isolate. Animals were divided into two groups: HD, infected with a higher dose of Map and LD, with a lower dose. The remaining animals were used as uninfected control groups. Animals were euthanized at 110-120 and 210-220 days post-infection (dpi). Along the experiment, the humoral response and the specific and non-specific IFN-γ production were assessed. An intradermal skin test (IDT), using avian PPD, was also performed at 90 and 195 dpi. Samples of intestine and related lymphoid tissue were taken for histological, bacteriological and PCR studies. The Ab and IFN-γ production as well as the IDT response appeared earlier and with more intensity in the adult ewes compared to the lambs. The basal non-specific IFN-γ levels increased only in the adult ewes from the HD group. Animals from the LD and HD groups were positive to PCR; however, lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were exclusively observed in the HD group, both in lambs and in adult sheep, but they only progressed to more advanced stages in the former. These results suggest that the peripheral immune response induced by Map infection in the adult ewes is more efficient to control the progression of the infection than in lambs. This could likely be due to the existence of previous contacts with Map or other mycobacteria in the adult sheep compared to the young lambs.

  8. The keratin-related Ouroboros proteins function as immune antigens mediating tail regression in Xenopus metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Mukaigasa, Katsuki; Hanasaki, Akira; Maéno, Mitsugu; Fujii, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Shin-ichiro; Itoh, Mari; Kobayashi, Makoto; Tochinai, Shin; Hatta, Masayuki; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Taira, Masanori; Onoé, Kazunori; Izutsu, Yumi

    2009-10-27

    Tail resorption during amphibian metamorphosis has been thought to be controlled mainly by a cell-autonomous mechanism of programmed cell death triggered by thyroid hormone. However, we have proposed a role for the immune response in metamorphosis, based on the finding that syngeneic grafts of tadpole tail skin into adult Xenopus animals are rejected by T cells. To test this, we identified two tail antigen genes called ouro1 and ouro2 that encode keratin-related proteins. Recombinant Ouro1 and Ouro2 proteins generated proliferative responses in vitro in T cells isolated from naive adult Xenopus animals. These genes were expressed specifically in the tail skin at the climax of metamorphosis. Overexpression of ouro1 and ouro2 induced T-cell accumulation and precocious tail degeneration after full differentiation of adult-type T cells when overexpressed in the tail region. When the expression of ouro1 and ouro2 were knocked down, tail skin tissue remained even after metamorphosis was complete. Our findings indicate that Ouro proteins participate in the process of tail regression as immune antigens and highlight the possibility that the acquired immune system contributes not only to self-defense but also to remodeling processes in vertebrate morphogenesis.

  9. Contributions of conventional and heavy-chain IgG to immunity in fetal, neonatal, and adult alpacas.

    PubMed

    Daley-Bauer, L P; Purdy, S R; Smith, M C; Gagliardo, L F; Davis, W C; Appleton, J A

    2010-12-01

    In addition to conventional immunoglobulins, camelids produce antibodies that do not incorporate light chains into their structures. These so-called heavy-chain (HC) antibodies have incited great interest in the biomedical community, as they have considerable potential for biotechnological and therapeutic application. Recently, we have begun to elucidate the immunological functions of HC antibodies, yet little is known about their significance in maternal immunity or about the B lymphocytes that produce them. This study describes the application of isotype-specific reagents toward physiological assessments of camelid IgGs and the B cells that produce them. We document the specificities of monoclonal antibodies that distinguish two conventional IgG1 isotypes and two HC IgG3 variants produced by alpacas. Next, we report that the relative concentrations of five isotypes are similar in serum, milk, and colostrum; however, following passive transfer, the concentrations of HC IgG2 and IgG3 declined more rapidly than the concentration of conventional IgG1 in the sera of neonates. Finally, we assessed the distribution of B cells of distinct isotypes within lymphoid tissues during fetal and adult life. We detected IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 in lymphocytes located in lymph node follicles, suggesting that HC B cells affinity mature and/or class switch. One IgG3 isotype was present in B cells located in ileal Peyer's patches, and one conventional IgG1 isotype was detected in splenic marginal zone B cells. Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge pertaining to HC antibodies and are compatible with functional specialization among conventional and HC IgGs in the alpaca.

  10. Cytokine Production Assays Reveal Discriminatory Immune Defects in Adults with Recurrent Infections and Noninfectious Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Simon, Anna; van Crevel, Reinout; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Gyssens, Inge C.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; van Deuren, Marcel; Netea, Mihai G.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokine production assays have been primarily used in research settings studying novel immunodeficiencies. We sought to determine the diagnostic value of cytokine production assays in patients with recurrent and/or severe infectious diseases (IDs) without known immunodeficiencies and unclassified noninfectious inflammatory disorders (NIIDs). We retrospectively examined cytokine production in whole-blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from 157 adult patients. A cytokine production rate of <5% of that of healthy controls was considered defective. While monocyte-derived cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], and IL-6) production was rarely affected, 30% of all included patients had deficient production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IL-17A, or IL-22. Twenty-five percent of the NIID patients displayed defective IFN-γ production, whereas IL-17A production was generally unaffected. In the group of ID patients, defective IFN-γ production was found in 19% and 14% of the patients with viral and bacterial infections, respectively, and in 38%, 24%, and 50% of patients with mycobacterial, mucocutaneous, and invasive fungal infections, respectively. Defective IL-17A and IL-22 production was mainly confined to ID patients with mucocutaneous fungal infections. In conclusion, cytokine production assays frequently detect defective Th1 responses in patients with mycobacterial or fungal infections, in contrast to patients with respiratory tract infections or isolated bacterial infections. Defective IL-17A and IL-22 production was primarily found in patients with fungal infections, while monocyte-derived cytokine production was unaffected. Thus, lymphocyte-derived cytokine production assays are helpful in the diagnostic workup of patients with recurrent infections and suspected immunodeficiencies and have the potential to reveal immune defects that might guide adjunctive immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:24872512

  11. Short Term, Low Dose Simvastatin Pretreatment Alters Memory Immune Function Following Secondary Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Smelser, Lisa K; Walker, Callum; Burns, Erin M; Curry, Michael; Black, Nathanael; Metzler, Jennifer A; McDowell, Susan A; Bruns, Heather A

    Statins are potent modulators of immune responses, resulting in their ability to enhance host survival from primary bacterial infections. Alterations in primary immune responses that may be beneficial for survival following infection may also result in alterations in the generation of the immunologic memory response and subsequently affect immune responses mounted during secondary bacterial infection. In this study, we report that levels of total serum IgG2c, following primary infection, were decreased in simvastatin pretreated mice, and investigate the effect of simvastatin treatment, prior to primary infection, on immune responses activated during secondary S. aureus infection. A secondary infection model was implemented whereby simvastatin pretreated and control mice were reinfected with S. aureus 14 days after primary infection, with no additional simvastatin treatment, and assessed for survival and alterations in immune function. While survivability to secondary S. aureus infection was not different between simvastatin pretreated and control mice, memory B and T lymphocyte functions were altered. Memory B cells, isolated 14 days after secondary infection, from simvastatin pretreated mice and stimulated ex vivo produced increased levels of IgG1 compared to memory B cells isolated from control mice, while levels of IgM and IgG2c remained similar. Furthermore, memory B and T lymphocytes from simvastatin pretreated mice exhibited a decreased proliferative response when stimulated ex vivo compared to memory cells isolated from control mice. These findings demonstrate the ability of a short term, low dose simvastatin treatment to modulate memory immune function.

  12. Immune response to functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Simon; Gössl, Dorothée; Schmidt, Alexandra; Niedermayer, Stefan; Argyo, Christian; Endres, Stefan; Bein, Thomas; Bourquin, Carole

    2016-01-14

    Multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) have attracted substantial attention with regard to their high potential for targeted drug delivery. For future clinical applications it is crucial to address safety concerns and understand the potential immunotoxicity of these nanoparticles. In this study, we assess the biocompatibility and functionality of multifunctional MSN in freshly isolated, primary murine immune cells. We show that the functionalized silica nanoparticles are rapidly and efficiently taken up into the endosomal compartment by specialized antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells. The silica nanoparticles showed a favorable toxicity profile and did not affect the viability of primary immune cells from the spleen in relevant concentrations. Cargo-free MSN induced only very low immune responses in primary cells as determined by surface expression of activation markers and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6, -12 and -1β. In contrast, when surface-functionalized MSN with a pH-responsive polymer capping were loaded with an immune-activating drug, the synthetic Toll-like receptor 7 agonist R848, a strong immune response was provoked. We thus demonstrate that MSN represent an efficient drug delivery vehicle to primary immune cells that is both non-toxic and non-inflammagenic, which is a prerequisite for the use of these particles in biomedical applications.

  13. Obligate brood parasites show more functionally effective innate immune responses: an eco-immunological hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Immune adaptations of obligate brood parasites attracted interest when three New World cowbird species (Passeriformes, Icteridae, genus Molothrus) proved unusually resistant to West Nile virus. We have used cowbirds as models to investigate the eco-immunological hypothesis that species in parasite-rich environments characteristically have enhanced immunity as a life history adaptation. As part of an ongoing program to understand the cowbird immune system, in this study we measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental responses of the innate immune system. Innate immunity provides non-specific, fast-acting defenses against a variety of invading pathogens, and we hypothesized that innate immunity experiences particularly strong selection in cowbirds, because their life history strategy exposes them to diverse novel and unpredictable parasites. We compared the relative effectiveness of degranulation and oxidative burst responses in two cowbird species and one related, non-parasitic species. Both innate immune defenses were significantly more functionally efficient in the two parasitic cowbird species than in the non-parasitic red-winged blackbird (Icteridae, Agelaius phoeniceus). Additionally, both immune defenses were more functionally efficient in the brown-headed cowbird (M. ater), an extreme host-generalist brood parasite, than in the bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus), a moderate host-specialist with lower exposure to other species and their parasites. Thus the relative effectiveness of these two innate immune responses corresponds to the diversity of parasites in the niche of each species and to their relative resistance to WNV. This study is the first use of these two specialized assays in a comparative immunology study of wild avian species.

  14. Genetic and phenotypically flexible components of seasonal variation in immune function.

    PubMed

    Versteegh, M A; Helm, B; Kleynhans, E J; Gwinner, E; Tieleman, B I

    2014-05-01

    Animals cope with seasonal variation in environmental factors by adjustments of physiology and life history. When seasonal variation is partly predictable, such adjustments can be based on a genetic component or be phenotypically flexible. Animals have to allocate limited resources over different demands, including immune function. Accordingly, immune traits could change seasonally, and such changes could have a genetic component that differs between environments. We tested this hypothesis in genotypically distinct groups of a widespread songbird, the stonechat (Saxicola torquata). We compared variation in immunity during 1 year in long-distance migrants, short-distance migrants, tropical residents and hybrids in a common garden environment. Additionally, we investigated phenotypically flexible responses to temperature by applying different temperature regimes to one group. We assessed constitutive immunity by measuring hemagglutination, hemolysis, haptoglobin and bactericidal ability against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Genotypic groups differed in patterns of variation of all measured immune indices except haptoglobin. Hybrids differed from, but were rarely intermediate to, parental subspecies. Temperature treatment only influenced patterns of hemolysis and bactericidal ability against E. coli. We conclude that seasonal variation in constitutive immunity has a genetic component, that heredity does not follow simple Mendelian rules, and that some immune measures are relatively rigid while others are more flexible. Furthermore, our results support the idea that seasonal variability in constitutive immunity is associated with variability in environment and annual-cycle demands. This study stresses the importance of considering seasonal variation in immune function in relation to the ecology and life history of the organism of interest.

  15. Effects of space flight and IGF-1 on immune function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would ameliorate space flight-induced effects on the immune system. Twelve male, Sprague-Dawley rats, surgically implanted with mini osmotic pumps, were subjected to space flight for 10 days on STS-77. Six rats received 10 mg/kg/day of IGF-1 and 6 rats received saline. Flight animals had a lymphocytopenia and granulocytosis which were reversed by IGF-1. Flight animals had significantly higher corticosterone levels than ground controls but IGF-1 did not impact this stress hormone. Therefore, the reversed granulocytosis did not correlate with serum corticosterone. Space flight and IGF-1 also combined to induce a monocytopenia that was not evident in ground control animals treated with IGF-1 or in animals subjected to space flight but given physiological saline. There was a significant increase in spleen weights in vivarium animals treated with IGF-1, however, this change did not occur in flight animals. We observed reduced agonist-induced lymph node cell proliferation by cells from flight animals compared to ground controls. The reduced proliferation was not augmented by IGF-1 treatment. There was enhanced secretion of TNF, IL-6 and NO by flight-animal peritoneal macrophages compared to vivarium controls, however, O2- secretion was not affected. These data suggest that IGF-1 can ameliorate some of the effects of space flight but that space flight can also impact the normal response to IGF-1.

  16. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults

  17. Functions of autobiographical memory in Taiwanese and American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsiao-Wen; Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole; Cheng, Ching-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses cultural and person-level factors contributing to emerging adult's use of memory to serve adaptive functions. The focus is on three functions: self-continuity, social-bonding and directing-behaviour. Taiwanese (N = 85, 52 women) and American (N = 95, 51 women) emerging adults completed the Thinking about Life Experiences scale, and measures of trait personality, self-concept clarity and future time perspective. Findings show that individuals from both cultures use memory to serve these three functions, but Taiwanese individuals use memory more frequently than Americans to maintain self-continuity. Culture also interacted with person-level factors: in Taiwan, but not America, memory is more frequently used to create self-continuity in individuals high in conscientiousness. Across cultures, having lower self-concept clarity was related to greater use of memory to create self-continuity. Findings are discussed in terms of how memory serves functions in context and specific aspects of the Taiwanese and American cultural context that may predict the functional use of memory in emerging adulthood.

  18. Functional significance of mononuclear phagocyte populations generated through adult hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutknecht, Michael F.; Bouton, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a complete repertoire of functional macrophages in peripheral tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many resident tissue macrophages are seeded during embryonic development and persist through adulthood as a consequence of localized proliferation. Mononuclear phagocytes are also produced during adult hematopoiesis; these cells are then recruited to sites throughout the body, where they function in tissue repair and remodeling, resolution of inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, and disease progression. The focus of this review is on mononuclear phagocytes that comprise the nonresident monocyte/macrophage populations in the body. Key features of monocyte differentiation are presented, focusing primarily on the developmental hierarchy that is established through this process, the markers used to identify discrete cell populations, and novel, functional attributes of these cells. These features are then explored in the context of the tumor microenvironment, where mononuclear phagocytes exhibit extensive plasticity in phenotype and function. PMID:25225678

  19. Adolescent intermittent ethanol reduces serotonin expression in the adult raphe nucleus and upregulates innate immune expression that is prevented by exercise.

    PubMed

    Vetreno, Ryan P; Patel, Yesha; Patel, Urvi; Walter, T Jordan; Crews, Fulton T

    2017-02-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nucleus regulate sleep, mood, endocrine function, and other processes that mature during adolescence. Alcohol abuse and binge drinking are common during human adolescence. We tested the novel hypothesis that adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure would alter the serotonergic system that would persist into adulthood. Using a Wistar rat model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we found a loss of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonin (5-HT)-immunoreactive (+IR) neurons that persisted from late adolescence (P56) into adulthood (P220). Hypothalamic and amygdalar DRN serotonergic projections were reduced following AIE. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2, the rate-limiting 5-HT synthesizing enzyme, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2, which packages 5-HT into synaptic vesicles, were also reduced in the young adult midbrain following AIE treatment. Adolescent intermittent ethanol treatment increased expression of phosphorylated (activated) NF-κB p65 as well as markers of microglial activation (i.e., Iba-1 and CD11b) in the adult DRN. Administration of lipopolysaccharide to mimic AIE-induced innate immune activation reduced 5-HT+IR and increased phosphorylated NF-κB p65+IR similar to AIE treatment. Voluntary exercise during adolescence through young adulthood blunted microglial marker and phosphorylated NF-κB p65+IR, and prevented the AIE-induced loss of 5-HT+IR neurons in the DRN. Together, these novel data reveal that AIE reduces 5-HT+IR neurons in the adult DRN, possibly through an innate immune mechanism, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity. Further, exercise prevents the deleterious effects of AIE on the serotonergic system.

  20. Predictors of Upper-Extremity Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hermanussen, Hugo H.; Menendez, Mariano E.; Chen, Neal C.; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of habitual participation in physical exercise and diet on upper-extremity physical function in older adults. To assess the relationship of general physical exercise and diet to upper-extremity physical function and pain intensity in older adults. Methods: A cohort of 111 patients 50 or older completed a sociodemographic survey, the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA), an 11-point ordinal pain intensity scale, a Mediterranean diet questionnaire, and three Patient- Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) based questionnaires: Pain Interference to measure inability to engage in activities due to pain, Upper-Extremity Physical Function, and Depression. Multivariable linear regression modeling was used to characterize the association of physical activity, diet, depression, and pain interference to pain intensity and upper-extremity function. Results: Higher general physical activity was associated with higher PROMIS Upper-Extremity Physical Function and lower pain intensity in bivariate analyses. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet did not correlate with PROMIS Upper-Extremity Physical Function or pain intensity in bivariate analysis. In multivariable analyses factors associated with higher PROMIS Upper-Extremity Physical Function were male sex, non-traumatic diagnosis and PROMIS Pain Interference, with the latter accounting for most of the observed variability (37%). Factors associated with greater pain intensity in multivariable analyses included fewer years of education and higher PROMIS Pain Interference. Conclusions: General physical activity and diet do not seem to be as strongly or directly associated with upper-extremity physical function as pain interference. PMID:27847850

  1. The effects of stress hormones on immune function may be vital for the adaptive reconfiguration of the immune system during fight-or-flight behavior.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-09-01

    Intense, short-term stress (i.e., robust activation of the fight-or-flight response) typically produces a transient decline in resistance to disease in animals across phyla. Chemical mediators of the stress response (e.g., stress hormones) help induce this decline, suggesting that this transient immunosuppression is an evolved response. However, determining the function of stress hormones on immune function is difficult because of their complexity. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that stress hormones help maintain maximal resistance to disease during the physiological changes needed to optimize the body for intense physical activity. Work on insects demonstrates that stress hormones both shunt resources away from the immune system during fight-or-flight responses as well as reconfigure the immune system. Reconfiguring the immune system minimizes the impact of the loss of these resources and reduces the increased costs of some immune functions due to the physiological changes demanded by the fight-or-flight response. For example, during the stress response of the cricket Gryllus texensis, some molecular resources are shunted away from the immune system and toward lipid transport, resulting in a reduction in resistance to disease. However, insects' immune cells (hemocytes) have receptors for octopamine (the insect stress neurohormone). Octopamine increases many hemocyte functions, such as phagocytosis, and these changes would tend to mitigate the decline in immunity due to the loss of molecular resources. Moreover, because the stress response generates oxidative stress, some immune responses are probably more costly when activated during a stress response (e.g., those that produce reactive molecules). Some of these immune responses are depressed during stress in crickets, while others, whose costs are probably not increased during a stress response, are enhanced. Some effects of stress hormones on immune systems may be better understood as examples of reconfiguration

  2. Effects of selenium source on measures of selenium status and immune function in horses.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Julia B; Wichtel, Jeffrey J; Wichtel, Maureen G; McNiven, Mary A; McClure, J T; Markham, Fred; Horohov, David W

    2012-10-01

    The effects of selenium (Se) supplementation and source on equine immune function have not been extensively studied. This study examined the effects of oral Se supplementation and Se source on aspects of innate and adaptive immunity in horses. Fifteen horses were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (5 horses/group): control, inorganic Se (sodium selenite), organic Se (Se yeast). Immune function tests performed included: lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogen concanavalin A, neutrophil phagocytosis, antibody production after rabies vaccination, relative cytokine gene expression in stimulated lymphocytes [interferon gamma (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-5, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)], and neutrophils (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, TNFα). Plasma, red blood cell Se, and blood glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Plasma and red blood cell Se were highest in horses in the organic Se group, compared with that of inorganic Se or control groups. Organic Se supplementation increased the relative lymphocyte expression of IL-5, compared with inorganic Se or no Se. Selenium supplementation increased relative neutrophil expression of IL-1 and IL-8. Other measures of immune function were unaffected. Dietary Se content and source appear to influence immune function in horses, including alterations in lymphocyte expression of IL-5, and neutrophil expression of IL-1 and IL-8.

  3. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Urbani, Francesca; Proietti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry- (FCM-) based assays combining different phenotypic and functional markers have been developed in the past decade for informative and longitudinal analysis of polyfunctional T-cells. These technologies were designed to address the complexity and functional heterogeneity of cancer biology and cellular immunity and to define biomarkers predicting clinical response to anticancer treatment. So far, there is still a lack of standardization of some of these immunological tests. The aim of this review is to overview the latest technologies for immune monitoring and to highlight critical steps involved in some of the FCM-based cellular immune assays. In particular, our laboratory is focused on melanoma vaccine research and thus our main goal was the validation of a functional multiparameter test (FMT) combining different functional and lineage markers to be applied in clinical trials involving patients with melanoma. PMID:24195078

  4. Mechanisms for how Inhaled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Suppress Systemic Immune Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, L. A.; Lauer, F. T.; Burchiel, S. W.; McDonald, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    The potential health effects of inhaling carbon nanotubes are important because of possible exposures in an occupational setting. Previously, we showed that mice inhaling multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) showed suppressed systemic immune function. Here we show the mechanisms for this immune suppression. Mice were exposed to 0, 0.3, or 1 mg/m3 MWCNT for 6h/day for 14 consecutive days in whole-body inhalation chambers. Those exposed to 1 mg/m3 showed compromised systemic immune function. Spleen cells from exposed animals increased gene expression of prostaglandin synthase enzymes and were rescued from immunosuppression when treated with ibuprofen. Cyclooxygenase-2 knockout mice were resistant to MWCNT-induced suppression. Proteins isolated from the lungs of exposed mice contained transforming growth factor-beta, which suppressed immune function of wild-type splenocytes but not those from knockout mice in vitro. This suggests that signals from the lung can activate signals in the spleen to suppress the immune function of exposed mice. PMID:19581899

  5. Correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nor Najwatul Akmal Ab; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Lee, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function. Research information regarding the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and a comprehensive examination of respiratory function parameters in older adults is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults. Thoracolumbar curvatures (thoracic and lumbar) were measured using a motion tracker. Respiratory function parameters such as lung function, respiratory rate, respiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle thickness (diaphragm and intercostal) were measured using a spirometer, triaxial accelerometer, respiratory pressure meter and ultrasound imaging, respectively. Sixty-eight community-dwelling older males and females from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with mean (standard deviation) age of 66.63 (5.16) years participated in this cross-sectional study. The results showed that mean (standard deviation) thoracic curvature angle and lumbar curvature angles were -46.30° (14.66°) and 14.10° (10.58°), respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between thoracic curvature angle and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: r=-0.23, P<0.05; forced vital capacity: r=-0.32, P<0.05), quiet expiration intercostal thickness (r=-0.22, P<0.05) and deep expiration diaphragm muscle thickness (r=-0.21, P<0.05). The lumbar curvature angle had a significant negative correlation with respiratory muscle strength (r=-0.29, P<0.05) and diaphragm muscle thickness at deep inspiration (r=-0.22, P<0.05). However, respiratory rate was correlated neither with thoracic nor with lumbar curvatures. The findings of this study suggest that increase in both thoracic and lumbar curvatures is correlated with decrease in respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle thickness and some parameters of lung function. Clinically, both thoracic and lumbar curvatures

  6. Correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nor Najwatul Akmal Ab; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Lee, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function. Research information regarding the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and a comprehensive examination of respiratory function parameters in older adults is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults. Thoracolumbar curvatures (thoracic and lumbar) were measured using a motion tracker. Respiratory function parameters such as lung function, respiratory rate, respiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle thickness (diaphragm and intercostal) were measured using a spirometer, triaxial accelerometer, respiratory pressure meter and ultrasound imaging, respectively. Sixty-eight community-dwelling older males and females from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with mean (standard deviation) age of 66.63 (5.16) years participated in this cross-sectional study. The results showed that mean (standard deviation) thoracic curvature angle and lumbar curvature angles were −46.30° (14.66°) and 14.10° (10.58°), respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between thoracic curvature angle and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: r=−0.23, P<0.05; forced vital capacity: r=−0.32, P<0.05), quiet expiration intercostal thickness (r=−0.22, P<0.05) and deep expiration diaphragm muscle thickness (r=−0.21, P<0.05). The lumbar curvature angle had a significant negative correlation with respiratory muscle strength (r=−0.29, P<0.05) and diaphragm muscle thickness at deep inspiration (r=−0.22, P<0.05). However, respiratory rate was correlated neither with thoracic nor with lumbar curvatures. The findings of this study suggest that increase in both thoracic and lumbar curvatures is correlated with decrease in respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle thickness and some parameters of lung function. Clinically, both thoracic and lumbar

  7. Cotesia vestalis teratocytes express a diversity of genes and exhibit novel immune functions in parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Gu, Qi-juan; Pan, Jing; Wang, Ze-hua; Yin, Chuan-lin; Li, Fei; Song, Qi-sheng; Strand, Michael R.; Chen, Xue-xin; Shi, Min

    2016-01-01

    Some endoparasitoid wasps lay eggs that produce cells called teratocytes. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the transcriptome of teratocytes from the solitary endoparasitoid Cotesia vestalis (Braconidae), which parasitizes larval stage Plutella xylostella (Plutellidae). Results identified many teratocyte transcripts with potential functions in affecting host immune defenses, growth or metabolism. Characterization of teratocyte-secreted venom-like protein 8 (TSVP-8) indicated it inhibits melanization of host hemolymph in vitro, while two predicted anti-microbial peptides (CvT-def 1 and 3) inhibited the growth of bacteria. Results also showed the parasitized hosts lacking teratocytes experienced higher mortality after immune challenge by pathogens than hosts with teratocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that C. vestalis teratocytes secrete products that alter host immune functions while also producing anti-microbial peptides with functions that help protect the host from infection by other organisms. PMID:27254821

  8. Subversion of plant cellular functions by bacterial type-III effectors: beyond suppression of immunity.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P

    2016-04-01

    Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type-III secretion system to inject type-III effector (T3E) proteins directly inside plant cells. These T3Es manipulate host cellular processes in order to create a permissive niche for bacterial proliferation, allowing development of the disease. An important role of T3Es in plant pathogenic bacteria is the suppression of plant immune responses. However, in recent years, research has uncovered T3E functions different from direct immune suppression, including the modulation of plant hormone signaling, metabolism or organelle function. This insight article discusses T3E functions other than suppression of immunity, which may contribute to the modulation of plant cells in order to promote bacterial survival, nutrient release, and bacterial replication and dissemination.

  9. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios. PMID:26028216

  10. Effect of fermented soybean products intake on the overall immune safety and function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hee; Paek, Se Hee; Shin, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Yeon; Moon, Byoung Seok; Park, Jung Eun; Lim, Gyeong Dong; Kim, Chang Yul

    2017-01-01

    Various functional activities have been reported for the fermented soybean products doenjang (DJ) and cheonggukjang (CGJ), although no systemic investigations of their immune functions have been conducted to date. We examined the effects of an experimental diet of DJ, CGJ, or a mixture of unfermented raw material for 4 weeks on overall immunity and immune safety in mice. No significant alterations were observed in peripheral or splenic immune cells among groups. Enhanced splenic natural killer cell activity was observed in the DJ and CGJ groups compared with the plain diet group. T helper type-1 (Th1)-mediated immune responses were enhanced in the DJ and CGJ groups with an upregulated production ratio of IFN-γ vs. IL-4 and IgG2a vs. IgG1 in stimulated splenic T and B cells, respectively. Resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection was observed in the DJ and CGJ groups. Overall, the results of this study suggest that DJ and CGJ intake consolidates humoral and cellular immunity to Th1 responses. PMID:27030201

  11. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-06-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios.

  12. Engineering self-assembled materials to study and direct immune function.

    PubMed

    Tostanoski, Lisa H; Jewell, Christopher M

    2017-04-06

    The immune system is an awe-inspiring control structure that maintains a delicate and constantly changing balance between pro-immune functions that fight infection and cancer, regulatory or suppressive functions involved in immune tolerance, and homeostatic resting states. These activities are determined by integrating signals in space and time; thus, improving control over the densities, combinations, and durations with which immune signals are delivered is a central goal to better combat infectious disease, cancer, and autoimmunity. Self-assembly presents a unique opportunity to synthesize materials with well-defined compositions and controlled physical arrangement of molecular building blocks. This review highlights strategies exploiting these capabilities to improve the understanding of how precisely-displayed cues interact with immune cells and tissues. We present work centered on fundamental properties that regulate the nature and magnitude of immune response, highlight pre-clinical and clinical applications of self-assembled technologies in vaccines, cancer, and autoimmunity, and describe some of the key manufacturing and regulatory hurdles facing these areas.

  13. Changed crossmodal functional connectivity in older adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Thiel, Christiane M

    2017-01-01

    Previous work compellingly demonstrates a crossmodal plastic reorganization of auditory cortex in deaf individuals, leading to increased neural responses to non-auditory sensory input. Recent data indicate that crossmodal adaptive plasticity is not restricted to severe hearing impairments, but may also occur as a result of high-frequency hearing loss in older adults and affect audiovisual processing in these subjects. We here used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the effect of hearing loss in older adults on auditory cortex response patterns as well as on functional connectivity between auditory and visual cortex during audiovisual processing. Older participants with a varying degree of high frequency hearing loss performed an auditory stimulus categorization task, in which they had to categorize frequency-modulated (FM) tones presented alone or in the context of matching or non-matching visual motion. A motion only condition served as control for a visual take-over of auditory cortex. While the individual hearing status did not affect auditory cortex responses to auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli, we observed a significant hearing loss-related increase in functional connectivity between auditory cortex and the right motion-sensitive visual area MT+ when processing matching audiovisual input. Hearing loss also modulated resting state connectivity between right area MT+ and parts of the left auditory cortex, suggesting the existence of permanent, task-independent changes in coupling between visual and auditory sensory areas with an increasing degree of hearing loss. Our data thus indicate that hearing loss impacts on functional connectivity between sensory cortices in older adults.

  14. Strategies to improve the functions and redox state of the immune system in aged subjects.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, Monica; Cruces, Julia; Hernandez, Oskarina; Ortega, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The aging process is accompanied by an impairment of the physiological systems including the immune system. This system is an excellent indicator of health. We have also observed that several functions of the immune cells are good markers of biological age and predictors of longevity. In agreement with the oxidation-inflammation theory that we have proposed, the chronic oxidative stress that appears with age affects all cells and especially those of the regulatory systems, such as the nervous, endocrine and immune systems and the communication between them. This fact prevents an adequate homeostasis and, therefore, the preservation of health. We have also proposed an involvement of the immune system in the aging process of the organism, concretely in the rate of aging, since there is a relation between the redox state and functional capacity of the immune cells and the longevity of individuals. A confirmation of the central role of the immune system in oxi-inflamm-aging is that several lifestyle strategies such as the administration of adequate amounts of antioxidants in the diet, physical exercise, physical and mental activity through environmental enrichment and hormetic interventions improve functions of immune cells, decreasing their oxidative stress, and consequently increasing the longevity of individuals. Recent results in mice of investigations on the effects of a new environmental enrichment (bathing in waters) as well as a hormetic intervention with slight infections (caused by injection of E.coli lipopolysaccharide, LPS), on several functions and redox parameters are shown. The advantages and possible problems of the use of those interventions to achieve a healthy aging and longevity are discussed.

  15. The interaction between gut microbiota and age-related changes in immune function and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota and gut immune systems interact each other, maintaining a condition of homeostasis in the context of the intestinal habitat. However, both systems undergo modifications in elderly, thus accounting for a low grade inflammatory status which, in turn, may evolve toward more severe pathological conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon rectal cancer. In addition, in western societies dietary habits may negatively influence the microbiota composition, also altering gut immune response which is per se impaired in elderly. In order to prevent the outcome of aged-related disease, supplementation of nutraceuticals able to correct abnormalities of both immune system and microbiota has become more frequent than in the past. In this respect, a better identification of components of the aged microbiota as well as a deeper analysis of gut mucosal immunity function should be pursued. PMID:23915308

  16. Cells of the immune system orchestrate changes in bone cell function.

    PubMed

    Wythe, Sarah E; Nicolaidou, Vicky; Horwood, Nicole J

    2014-01-01

    There is a complex interplay between the cells of the immune system and bone. Immune cells, such as T and NK cells, are able to enhance osteoclast formation via the production of RANKL. Yet there is increasing evidence to show that during the resolution of inflammation or as a consequence of increased osteoclastogenesis there is an anabolic response via the formation of more osteoblasts. Furthermore, osteoblasts themselves are involved in the control of immune cell function, thus promoting the resolution of inflammation. Hence, the concept of "coupling"-how bone formation is linked to resorption-needs to be more inclusive rather than restricting our focus to osteoblast-osteoclast interactions as in a whole organism these cells are never in isolation. This review will investigate the role of immune cells in normal bone homeostasis and in inflammatory diseases where the balance between resorption and formation is lost.

  17. Characterization and functional classification of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser

    2014-11-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) is the most important commercially exploited marine species in Canada. Very little is known about the H. americanus molecular humoral immune response or how to determine if a seemingly healthy lobster is infected with a pathogen. The goal of this work is to characterize several important H. americanus immune genes as well as highlight and classify hundreds of others into functional immune groups. The protein sequence of H. americanus acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA) was found to be similar to that of vertebrate SAA, and is likely a good clinical marker for immune activation in lobsters and some crustaceans. Additionally, only one gene, Trypsin 1b, was found to be differentially regulated during bacterial, microparasitic and viral challenges in lobster and is likely critical for the activation of the H. americanus immune response. Bioinformatic analysis was used to functionally annotate, 263 H. americanus immune genes and identify the few shared patterns of differential gene expression in lobsters in response to bacterial, parasitic and viral challenge. Many of the described immune genes are biomarker candidates which could be used as clinical indicators for lobster health and disease. Biomarkers can facilitate early detection of pathogens, or anthropomorphic stressors, so that mitigation strategies can be developed in order to prevent the devastating economic losses that have occurred in Southern New England, USA. This work is contributes to further our understanding of how the lobster immune system works and how it can be used to maintain the health and sustainability of the overall American lobster fishery.

  18. IL-17 family member cytokines: regulation, and function in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Joseph M.; Angkasekwinai, Pornpimon; Dong, Chen

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the IL-17 family member cytokines have become prominent subjects of investigation. IL-17 (IL-17A) is the best-described member of this family where its production has been mainly attributed to a specialized T helper subset of the adaptive immune response termed Th17. However, recent research on this and other Th17 cytokines has revealed new sources and functions of IL-17 family members in the innate immune response. This review will highlight recent advances in the field of IL-17 family member cytokines and will predominately focus on the innate regulation and function of IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-25. PMID:21074482

  19. Fueling Immunity: Insights into Metabolism and Lymphocyte Function

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Erika L.; Poffenberger, Maya C.; Chang, Chih-Hao; Jones, Russell G.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes face major metabolic challenges upon activation. They must meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of increased cell proliferation and also adapt to changing environmental conditions, in which nutrients and oxygen may be limiting. An emerging theme in immunology is that metabolic reprogramming and lymphocyte activation are intricately linked. However, why T cells adopt specific metabolic programs and the impact that these programs have on T cell function and, ultimately, immunological outcome remain unclear. Research on tumor cell metabolism has provided valuable insight into metabolic pathways important for cell proliferation and the influence of metabolites themselves on signal transduction and epigenetic programming. In this Review, we highlight emerging concepts regarding metabolic reprogramming in proliferating cells and discuss their potential impact on T cell fate and function. PMID:24115444

  20. Passive immunization with LINGO-1 polyclonal antiserum afforded neuroprotection and promoted functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Xu, Ru-xiang; Jiang, Xiao-dan; Lu, Xin; Ke, Yi-quan; Cai, Ying-qian; Du, Mou-xuan; Hu, Changchen; Zou, Yu-xi; Qin, Ling-sha; Zeng, Yan-jun

    2010-01-01

    LINGO-1 (leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain-containing, Nogo receptor-interacting protein) is an important component of the NgR receptor complex involved in RhoA activation and axon regeneration. The authors report on passive immunization with LINGO-1 polyclonal antiserum, a therapeutic approach to overcome NgR-mediated growth inhibition after spinal cord injury (SCI). The intrathecally administered high-titer rabbit-derived antiserum can be detected around the injury site within a wide time window; it blocks LINGO-1 in vivo with high molecular specificity. In this animal model, passive immunization with LINGO-1 antiserum significantly decreased RhoA activation and increased neuronal survival. Adult rats immunized in this manner show recovery of certain hindlimb motor functions after dorsal hemisection of the spinal cord. Thus, passive immunotherapy with LINGO-1 polyclonal antiserum may represent a promising repair strategy following acute SCI.

  1. SOCS1 Mimetics and Antagonists: A Complementary Approach to Positive and Negative Regulation of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Chulbul M. I.; Larkin, Joseph; Johnson, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are inducible intracellular proteins that play essential regulatory roles in both immune and non-immune function. Of the eight known members, SOCS1 and SOCS3 in conjunction with regulatory T cells play key roles in regulation of the immune system. Molecular tools such as gene transfections and siRNA have played a major role in our functional understanding of the SOCS proteins where a key functional domain of 12-amino acid residues called the kinase inhibitory region (KIR) has been identified on SOCS1 and SOCS3. KIR plays a key role in inhibition of the JAK2 tyrosine kinase, which in turn plays a key role in cytokine signaling. A peptide corresponding to KIR (SOCS1-KIR) bound to the activation loop of JAK2 and inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1α transcription factor by JAK2. Cell internalized SOCS1-KIR is a potent therapeutic in the experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis and showed promise in a psoriasis model and a model of diabetes-associated cardiovascular disease. By contrast, a peptide, pJAK2(1001–1013), that corresponds to the activation loop of JAK2 is a SOCS1 antagonist. The antagonist enhanced innate and adaptive immune response against a broad range of viruses including herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, and an EMC picornavirus. SOCS mimetics and antagonists are thus potential therapeutics for negative and positive regulation of the immune system. PMID:25954276

  2. Immunomodulatory Function of the Tumor Suppressor p53 in Host Immune Response and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Guo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Most of the mutations are missense leading to loss of p53 function in inducing apoptosis and senescence. In addition to these autonomous effects of p53 inactivation/dysfunction on tumorigenesis, compelling evidence suggests that p53 mutation/inactivation also leads to gain-of-function or activation of non-autonomous pathways, which either directly or indirectly promote tumorigenesis. Experimental and clinical results suggest that p53 dysfunction fuels pro-tumor inflammation and serves as an immunological gain-of-function driver of tumorigenesis via skewing immune landscape of the tumor microenvironment (TME). It is now increasingly appreciated that p53 dysfunction in various cellular compartments of the TME leads to immunosuppression and immune evasion. Although our understanding of the cellular and molecular processes that link p53 activity to host immune regulation is still incomplete, it is clear that activating/reactivating the p53 pathway in the TME also represents a compelling immunological strategy to reverse immunosuppression and enhance antitumor immunity. Here, we review our current understanding of the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms by which p53 participates in immune regulation and discuss how targeting the p53 pathway can be exploited to alter the immunological landscape of tumors for maximizing therapeutic outcome. PMID:27869779

  3. Visual function affects prosocial behaviors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Teoli, Dac A; Smith, Merideth D; Leys, Monique J; Jain, Priyanka; Odom, J Vernon

    2016-02-01

    Eye-related pathological conditions such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration commonly lead to decreased peripheral/central field, decreased visual acuity, and increased functional disability. We sought to answer if relationships exist between measures of visual function and reported prosocial behaviors in an older adult population with eye-related diagnoses. The sample consisted of adults, aged ≥ 60 years old, at an academic hospital's eye institute. Vision ranged from normal to severe impairment. Medical charts determined the visual acuities, ocular disease, duration of disease (DD), and visual fields (VF). Measures of giving help were via validated questionnaires on giving formal support (GFS) and giving informal support; measures of help received were perceived support (PS) and informal support received (ISR). ISR had subscales: tangible support (ISR-T), emotional support (ISR-E), and composite (ISR-C). Visual acuities of the better and worse seeing eyes were converted to LogMAR values. VF information converted to a 4-point rating scale of binocular field loss severity. DD was in years. Among 96 participants (mean age 73.28; range 60-94), stepwise regression indicated a relationship of visual variables to GFS (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.1679 with acuity-better eye, VF rating, and DD), PS (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.2254 with acuity-better eye), ISR-C (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.041 with acuity-better eye), and ISR-T (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.1421 with acuity-better eye). The findings suggest eye-related conditions can impact levels and perceptions of support exchanges. Our data reinforces the importance of visual function as an influence on prosocial behavior in older adults.

  4. Effect of hypobaric hypoxia on immune function in albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SaiRam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Dipti, P.; Pauline, T.; Kain, A. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Bansal, Anju; Patra, B. D.; Ilavazhagan, G.; Devendra, K.; Selvamurthy, W.

    The effect of exposure to hypoxia on macrophage activity, lymphocyte function and oxidative stress was investigated. Hypoxia enhanced peritoneal macrophage activity as revealed by enhanced phagocytosis and free radical production. There was no significant change in antibody titres to sheep red blood cells in either serum or spleen during hypoxia. However, there was a considerable reduction in the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to sheep red blood cells, indicating the impairment of T-cell activity. Hypoxia decreased the blood glutathione (reduced) level and increased plasma malondialdehyde by a factor of about 2. It is therefore speculated that hypoxia imposes an oxidative stress leading to decreased T-cell acivity.

  5. Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Eric S; Lieberman, Harris R; Walsh, Talia M; Zuber, Sylwia M; Harhart, Jaclyn M; Matthews, Tracy C

    2008-09-03

    Creatine supplementation has been reported to improve certain aspects of cognitive and psychomotor function in older individuals and in young subjects following 24 and 36 h of sleep deprivation. However, the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive processing and psychomotor performance in non-sleep deprived young adults have not been assessed with a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive processing and psychomotor performance in young adults. Twenty-two subjects (21+/-2 yr) ingested creatine (0.03 g/kg/day) or placebo for 6 weeks in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion. Subjects completed a battery of neurocognitive tests pre- and post-supplementation, including: simple reaction time (RT), code substitution (CS), code substitution delayed (CSD), logical reasoning symbolic (LRS), mathematical processing (MP), running memory (RM), and Sternberg memory recall (MR). There were no significant effects of group, no significant effects of time, and no significant group by time interactions for RT, CS, CSD, LRS, MP, RM, and MR (all p>0.05), indicating that there were no differences between creatine and placebo supplemented groups at any time. These results suggest that six weeks of creatine supplementation (0.03/g/kg/day) does not improve cognitive processing in non-sleep deprived young adults. Potentially, creatine supplementation only improves cognitive processing and psychomotor performance in individuals who have impaired cognitive processing abilities.

  6. Functional involvement of cerebral cortex in adult sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, A; Della Marca, G; Tonali, P A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Rubino, M; Di Lazzaro, V

    2007-08-01

    The pathophysiology of adult sleepwalking is still poorly understood. However, it is widely accepted that sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal. Arousal circuits widely project to the cortex, including motor cortex. We hypothesized that functional abnormality of these circuits could lead to changes in cortical excitability in sleepwalkers, even during wakefulness. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the excitability of the human motor cortex during wakefulness in a group of adult sleepwalkers. When compared with the healthy control group, short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), cortical silent period (CSP) duration, and short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) were reduced in adult sleepwalkers during wakefulness. Mean CSP duration was shorter in patients than in controls (80.9 +/- 41 ms vs. 139.4 +/- 37 ms; p = 0.0040). Mean SICI was significantly reduced in patients than in controls (73.5 +/- 38.4% vs. 36.7 +/- 13.1%; p = 0.0061). Mean SAI was also significantly reduced in patients than in controls (65.8 +/- 14.2% vs. 42.8 +/- 16.9%; p = 0.0053). This neurophysiological study suggests that there are alterations in sleepwalkers consistent with an impaired efficiency of inhibitory circuits during wakefulness. This inhibitory impairment could represent the neurophysiological correlate of brain "abnormalities" of sleepwalkers like "immaturity" of some neural circuits, synapses, or receptors.

  7. Covert spatial attention is functionally intact in amblyopic human adults

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Mariel; Cymerman, Rachel; Smith, R. Theodore; Kiorpes, Lynne; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention—the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements—to the same degree as neurotypical observers. We manipulated both involuntary (Experiment 1) and voluntary (Experiment 2) attention during an orientation discrimination task for which the effects of covert spatial attention have been well established in neurotypical and special populations. In both experiments, attention significantly improved accuracy and decreased reaction times to a similar extent (a) between the eyes of the amblyopic adults and (b) between the amblyopes and their age- and gender-matched controls. Moreover, deployment of voluntary attention away from the target location significantly impaired task performance (Experiment 2). The magnitudes of the involuntary and voluntary attention benefits did not correlate with amblyopic depth or severity. Both groups of observers showed canonical performance fields (better performance along the horizontal than vertical meridian and at the lower than upper vertical meridian) and similar effects of attention across locations. Despite their characteristic low-level vision impairments, covert spatial attention remains functionally intact in human amblyopic adults. PMID:28033433

  8. Immune inhibitory molecules LAG-3 and PD-1 synergistically regulate T-cell function to promote tumoral immune escape.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seng-Ryong; Turnis, Meghan E; Goldberg, Monica V; Bankoti, Jaishree; Selby, Mark; Nirschl, Christopher J; Bettini, Matthew L; Gravano, David M; Vogel, Peter; Liu, Chih Long; Tangsombatvisit, Stephanie; Grosso, Joseph F; Netto, George; Smeltzer, Matthew P; Chaux, Alcides; Utz, Paul J; Workman, Creg J; Pardoll, Drew M; Korman, Alan J; Drake, Charles G; Vignali, Dario A A

    2012-02-15

    Inhibitory receptors on immune cells are pivotal regulators of immune escape in cancer. Among these inhibitory receptors, CTLA-4 (targeted clinically by ipilimumab) serves as a dominant off-switch while other receptors such as PD-1 and LAG-3 seem to serve more subtle rheostat functions. However, the extent of synergy and cooperative interactions between inhibitory pathways in cancer remain largely unexplored. Here, we reveal extensive coexpression of PD-1 and LAG-3 on tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in three distinct transplantable tumors. Dual anti-LAG-3/anti-PD-1 antibody treatment cured most mice of established tumors that were largely resistant to single antibody treatment. Despite minimal immunopathologic sequelae in PD-1 and LAG-3 single knockout mice, dual knockout mice abrogated self-tolerance with resultant autoimmune infiltrates in multiple organs, leading to eventual lethality. However, Lag3(-/-)Pdcd1(-/-) mice showed markedly increased survival from and clearance of multiple transplantable tumors. Together, these results define a strong synergy between the PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory pathways in tolerance to both self and tumor antigens. In addition, they argue strongly that dual blockade of these molecules represents a promising combinatorial strategy for cancer.

  9. Executive functions and adaptive functioning in young adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stavro, Gillian M; Ettenhofer, Mark L; Nigg, Joel T

    2007-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairments in occupational, social, and educational functioning in adults. This study examined relations of adaptive impairment to ADHD symptom domains (inattentive-disorganized and hyperactive-impulsive) and to deficits in executive functioning (EF) in 195 well-characterized adults (105 ADHD, 90 non-ADHD, between ages 18 and 37). Participants completed a battery of EF measures as well as assessments of adaptive functioning. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to validate latent factors for adaptive functioning and EF. In a measurement model, weaker EF was associated with poorer adaptive functioning (r = -.30). When multi-informant composite variables for current inattentive-disorganized and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were included in the structural model, EF no longer predicted adaptive functioning. While both symptom composites were similarly related to EF (inattentive-disorganized r = .36; hyperactive-impulsive r = .29), inattentive-disorganized symptoms accounted for more variance in adaptive functioning (67.2% vs. 3.6%). Furthermore, for retrospectively reported childhood symptoms of ADHD, only the inattentive-disorganized symptom domain was related to EF or adaptive impairment. These results suggest that, in adults with ADHD, inattentive-disorganized symptoms may be the primary contributor to key aspects of poorer adaptive function and may be the behavioral path through which EF deficits lead to adaptive impairment.

  10. Delivery of cytokines by recombinant virus in early life alters the immune response to adult lung infection.

    PubMed

    Harker, James A; Lee, Debbie C P; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Wang, Belinda; Bukreyev, Alexander; Collins, Peter L; Tregoning, John S; Openshaw, Peter J M

    2010-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of bronchiolitis, the major cause of hospitalization of infants. An ideal RSV vaccine would be effective for neonates, but the immune responses of infants differ markedly from those of adults, often showing a bias toward T-helper 2 (Th2) responses and reduced gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production. We previously developed recombinant RSV vectors expressing IFN-gamma and interleukin-4 (IL-4) that allow us to explore the role of these key Th1 and Th2 cytokines during infection. The aim of the current study was to explore whether an immunomodulation of infant responses could enhance protection. The expression of IFN-gamma by a recombinant RSV vector (RSV/IFN-gamma) attenuated primary viral replication in newborn mice without affecting the development of specific antibody or T-cell responses. Upon challenge, RSV/IFN-gamma mice were protected from the exacerbated disease observed for mice primed with wild-type RSV; however, antiviral immunity was not enhanced. Conversely, the expression of IL-4 by recombinant RSV did not affect virus replication in neonates but greatly enhanced Th2 immune responses upon challenge without affecting weight loss. These studies demonstrate that it is possible to manipulate infant immune responses by using cytokine-expressing recombinant viruses and that neonatal deficiency in IFN-gamma responses may lead to enhanced disease during secondary infection.

  11. Effects of feed restriction and realimentation on digestive and immune function in the Leghorn chick.

    PubMed

    Fassbinder-Orth, C A; Karasov, W H

    2006-08-01

    How regulatory changes of digestive and immune functions of the gut influence each other has not been sufficiently studied. We tested for simultaneous changes in the digestive physiology and mucosal immune function of the guts of White Leghorn cockerel chicks undergoing food restriction and realimentation. Chicks were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: control = fed ad libitum 7 to 17 d of age; restricted = feed restricted d 12 to 17 (at 2 restriction levels: 54 and 34% ad libitum); refed = feed restricted d 7 to 13 and then fed ad libitum d 14 to 17. Refed chicks exhibited 1 d of hyperphagy and an increase in apparent digestive efficiency following restriction (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Total small intestine mass and duodenal maltase activity differed among the groups in the order refed > control > restricted, as expected (ANOVA, P < 0.05 for both measures). In contrast, there were no significant treatment effects on our measures of gut immune structure and function, including bursa mass, spleen mass, and total IgA content of intestinal flush samples measured with standard ELISA techniques. The results of this study indicated that, during feed restriction and realimentation, some features of gut immune function are maintained unchanged in the face of regulatory changes that influence digestive functions.

  12. Advances in the quantification of mitochondrial function in primary human immune cells through extracellular flux analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Blanche C.; Habib, Chloe; Ritou, Eleni; Grammatopoulos, Tom N.; Steenkamp, Devin; Dooms, Hans; Apovian, Caroline M.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies show that mitochondrial energy generation determines the effectiveness of immune responses. Furthermore, changes in mitochondrial function may regulate lymphocyte function in inflammatory diseases like type 2 diabetes. Analysis of lymphocyte mitochondrial function has been facilitated by introduction of 96-well format extracellular flux (XF96) analyzers, but the technology remains imperfect for analysis of human lymphocytes. Limitations in XF technology include the lack of practical protocols for analysis of archived human cells, and inadequate data analysis tools that require manual quality checks. Current analysis tools for XF outcomes are also unable to automatically assess data quality and delete untenable data from the relatively high number of biological replicates needed to power complex human cell studies. The objectives of work presented herein are to test the impact of common cellular manipulations on XF outcomes, and to develop and validate a new automated tool that objectively analyzes a virtually unlimited number of samples to quantitate mitochondrial function in immune cells. We present significant improvements on previous XF analyses of primary human cells that will be absolutely essential to test the prediction that changes in immune cell mitochondrial function and fuel sources support immune dysfunction in chronic inflammatory diseases like type 2 diabetes. PMID:28178278

  13. Advances in the quantification of mitochondrial function in primary human immune cells through extracellular flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Dequina; Proctor, Elizabeth A; Raval, Forum M; Ip, Blanche C; Habib, Chloe; Ritou, Eleni; Grammatopoulos, Tom N; Steenkamp, Devin; Dooms, Hans; Apovian, Caroline M; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies show that mitochondrial energy generation determines the effectiveness of immune responses. Furthermore, changes in mitochondrial function may regulate lymphocyte function in inflammatory diseases like type 2 diabetes. Analysis of lymphocyte mitochondrial function has been facilitated by introduction of 96-well format extracellular flux (XF96) analyzers, but the technology remains imperfect for analysis of human lymphocytes. Limitations in XF technology include the lack of practical protocols for analysis of archived human cells, and inadequate data analysis tools that require manual quality checks. Current analysis tools for XF outcomes are also unable to automatically assess data quality and delete untenable data from the relatively high number of biological replicates needed to power complex human cell studies. The objectives of work presented herein are to test the impact of common cellular manipulations on XF outcomes, and to develop and validate a new automated tool that objectively analyzes a virtually unlimited number of samples to quantitate mitochondrial function in immune cells. We present significant improvements on previous XF analyses of primary human cells that will be absolutely essential to test the prediction that changes in immune cell mitochondrial function and fuel sources support immune dysfunction in chronic inflammatory diseases like type 2 diabetes.

  14. SUPPRESSION OF IMMUNE FUNCTION AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTIONS IN HUMANS: ASSOCIATION OF IMMUNE FUNCTION WITH CLINICAL DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    A number of regulatory agencies in western Europe, Japan and the US now include guidelines for evaluating the potential immunotoxicity of chemicals, including drugs, as part of routine toxicity testing. Most testing guidelines recommend observational or functional as...

  15. The immune system which adversely alter thyroid functions: a review on the concept of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2010-08-15

    The immune system protect individual from many pathogens exists within our environment and in human body, by destroying them through molecular and cellular mechanism of B and T cells of immune system. Autoimmunity is an adverse relation of immune system against non- foreign substances leaving behind either alters the normal function or destroying the tissue involved. Autoimmunity occur in genetically predispose persons with familial connections. The autoimmunity to the thyroid gland mainly consists of Hashimato thyroiditis and Grave's disease, the two end of spectrum in thyroid function of hypo and hyperactivity, respectively. The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, thyroglobuline, enzymes of thyroid hormones synthesis are targeted by autoantibodies and cell- mediated reactions. The aim of this review is to explore the studies reported on the autoimmunity to the thyroid gland.

  16. Cowpox virus inhibits human dendritic cell immune function by nonlethal, nonproductive infection

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Spencer J.; Rushton, John; Dekonenko, Alexander; Chand, Hitendra S.; Olson, Gwyneth K.; Hutt, Julie A.; Pickup, David; Lyons, C. Rick; Lipscomb, Mary F.

    2011-04-10

    Orthopoxviruses encode multiple proteins that modulate host immune responses. We determined whether cowpox virus (CPXV), a representative orthopoxvirus, modulated innate and acquired immune functions of human primary myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs and monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs). A CPXV infection of DCs at a multiplicity of infection of 10 was nonproductive, altered cellular morphology, and failed to reduce cell viability. A CPXV infection of DCs did not stimulate cytokine or chemokine secretion directly, but suppressed toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist-induced cytokine secretion and a DC-stimulated mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). LPS-stimulated NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and host cytokine gene transcription were suppressed in CPXV-infected MDDCs. Early viral immunomodulatory genes were upregulated in MDDCs, consistent with early DC immunosuppression via synthesis of intracellular viral proteins. We conclude that a nonproductive CPXV infection suppressed DC immune function by synthesizing early intracellular viral proteins that suppressed DC signaling pathways.

  17. Toll-like receptor signaling is functional in immune cells of the endangered Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Amanda L; Latham, Roger; Brettingham-Moore, Kate H; Tovar, Cesar; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2015-11-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a fatally transmissible cancer that threatens the Tasmanian devil population. As Tasmanian devils do not produce an immune response against DFTD cells, an effective vaccine will require a strong adjuvant. Activation of innate immune system cells through toll-like receptors (TLRs) could provide this stimulation. It is unknown whether marsupials, including Tasmanian devils, express functional TLRs. We isolated RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and, with PCR, detected transcripts for TLRs 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 13. Stimulation of the mononuclear cells with agonists to these TLRs increased the expression of downstream TLR signaling products (IL1α, IL6, IL12A and IFNβ). Our data provide the first evidence that TLR signaling is functional in the mononuclear cells of the Tasmanian devil. Future DFTD vaccination trials will incorporate TLR agonists to enhance the immune response against DFTD.

  18. Gestational immune activation and Tsc2 haploinsufficiency cooperate to disrupt fetal survival and may perturb social behavior in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ehninger, D; Sano, Y; de Vries, P J; Dies, K; Franz, D; Geschwind, D H; Kaur, M; Lee, Y-S; Li, W; Lowe, J K; Nakagawa, J A; Sahin, M; Smith, K; Whittemore, V; Silva, A J

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 40-50% of individuals affected by tuberous sclerosis (TSC) develop autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). One possible explanation for this partial penetrance is an interaction between TSC gene mutations and other risk factors such as gestational immune activation. In this study, we report the interactive effects of these two ASD risk factors in a mouse model of TSC. Combined, but not single, exposure had adverse effects on intrauterine survival. Additionally, provisional results suggest that these factors synergize to disrupt social approach behavior in adult mice. Moreover, studies in human populations are consistent with an interaction between high seasonal flu activity in late gestation and TSC mutations in ASD. Taken together, our studies raise the possibility of a gene × environment interaction between heterozygous TSC gene mutations and gestational immune activation in the pathogenesis of TSC-related ASD.

  19. Insights into immune system development and function from mouse T-cell repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Sethna, Zachary; Elhanati, Yuval; Dudgeon, Chrissy S.; Callan, Curtis G.; Levine, Arnold J.; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of the adaptive immune system to respond to arbitrary pathogens stems from the broad diversity of immune cell surface receptors. This diversity originates in a stochastic DNA editing process (VDJ recombination) that acts on the surface receptor gene each time a new immune cell is created from a stem cell. By analyzing T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence repertoires taken from the blood and thymus of mice of different ages, we quantify the changes in the VDJ recombination process that occur from embryo to young adult. We find a rapid increase with age in the number of random insertions and a dramatic increase in diversity. Because the blood accumulates thymic output over time, blood repertoires are mixtures of different statistical recombination processes, and we unravel the mixture statistics to obtain a picture of the time evolution of the early immune system. Sequence repertoire analysis also allows us to detect the statistical impact of selection on the output of the VDJ recombination process. The effects we find are nearly identical between thymus and blood, suggesting that our analysis mainly detects selection for proper folding of the TCR receptor protein. We further find that selection is weaker in laboratory mice than in humans and it does not affect the diversity of the repertoire. PMID:28196891

  20. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  1. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Patrícia d‘Emery Alves; de Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; do Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; de Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants. PMID:26872339

  2. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Patrícia d'Emery Alves; Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros de; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia do; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira de

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants.

  3. Roles for oestrogen receptor β in adult brain function.

    PubMed

    Handa, R J; Ogawa, S; Wang, J M; Herbison, A E

    2012-01-01

    Oestradiol exerts a profound influence upon multiple brain circuits. For the most part, these effects are mediated by oestrogen receptor (ER)α. We review here the roles of ERβ, the other ER isoform, in mediating rodent oestradiol-regulated anxiety, aggressive and sexual behaviours, the control of gonadotrophin secretion, and adult neurogenesis. Evidence exists for: (i) ERβ located in the paraventricular nucleus underpinning the suppressive influence of oestradiol on the stress axis and anxiety-like behaviour; (ii) ERβ expressed in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones contributing to oestrogen negative-feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion; (iii) ERβ controlling the offset of lordosis behaviour; (iv) ERβ suppressing aggressive behaviour in males; (v) ERβ modulating responses to social stimuli; and (vi) ERβ in controlling adult neurogenesis. This review highlights two major themes; first, ERβ and ERα are usually tightly inter-related in the oestradiol-dependent control of a particular brain function. For example, even though oestradiol feedback to control reproduction occurs principally through ERα-dependent mechanisms, modulatory roles for ERβ also exist. Second, the roles of ERα and ERβ within a particular neural network may be synergistic or antagonistic. Examples of the latter include the role of ERα to enhance, and ERβ to suppress, anxiety-like and aggressive behaviours. Splice variants such as ERβ2, acting as dominant negative receptors, are of further particular interest because their expression levels may reflect preceeding oestradiol exposure of relevance to oestradiol replacement therapy. Together, this review highlights the predominant modulatory, but nonetheless important, roles of ERβ in mediating the many effects of oestradiol upon adult brain function.

  4. The Pathogenesis of ACLF: The Inflammatory Response and Immune Function.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Although systemic inflammation is a hallmark of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), its role in the development of this syndrome is poorly understood. Here the author first summarizes the general principles of the inflammatory response. Inflammation can be triggered by exogenous or endogenous inducers. Important exogenous inducers include bacterial products such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and virulence factors. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns elicit inflammation through structural feature recognition (using innate pattern-recognition receptors [PRRs]), whereas virulence factors generally trigger inflammation via functional feature recognition. Endogenous inducers are called danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and include molecules released by necrotic cells and products of extracellular matrix breakdown. Danger-associated molecular patterns use different PRRs. The purpose of the inflammatory response may differ according to the type of stimulus: The aim of infection-induced inflammation is to decrease pathogen burden, whereas the DAMP-induced inflammation aims to promote tissue repair. An excessive inflammatory response can induce collateral tissue damage (a process called immunopathology). However immunopathology may not be the only mechanism of tissue damage; for example, organ failure can develop because of failed disease tolerance. In this review, the author also discusses how general principles of the inflammatory response can help us to understand the development of ACLF in different contexts: bacterial infection, severe alcoholic hepatitis, and cases in which there is no identifiable trigger.

  5. [Collective poliomyelitis immunity in the adult population and its impact on eradication of this infection].

    PubMed

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P; Lavrova, I K; Efimova, V F

    2007-01-01

    Collective poliomyelitis immunity was studied in 6339 donors from 19 towns and cities of Russia. Its stress substantially varied in different towns and cities. Studies of strain-specific antibodies to vaccine and wild viruses of poliomyelitis in donors from 4 towns established that the immune persons were more in the town where wild polioviruses had previously circulated than in those where the circulation of wild polioviruses had been limited and immunity resulted from vaccination. Circulation of vaccine viruses and reversion of their neurovirulent properties should be expected in the town where there are low collective poliomyelitis immunity rates. It is concluded that it is impossible to eradicate poliomyelitis as infection today; it is possible only to eliminate the disease if further vaccination of children is performed with live poliomyelitis vaccine.

  6. Evaluation of immune functions in captive immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Estelle; Levin, Milton; Gebhard, Erika; Higgins, Benjamin M; DeGuise, Sylvain; Godard-Codding, Céline A J

    2013-11-15

    Sea turtles face numerous environmental challenges, such as exposure to chemical pollution and biotoxins, which may contribute to immune system impairment, resulting in increased disease susceptibility. Therefore, a more thorough assessment of the host's immune response and its susceptibility is needed for these threatened and endangered animals. In this study, the innate and acquired immune functions of sixty-five clinically healthy, immature, captive loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) were assayed using non-lethal blood sample collection. Functional immune assays were developed and/or optimized for this species, including mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and phagocytes were isolated by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque and discontinuous Percoll gradients, respectively. The T lymphocyte mitogens ConA significantly induced lymphocyte proliferation at 1 and 2 μg/mL while PHA significantly induced lymphocyte proliferation at 5 and 10 μg/mL. The B lymphocyte mitogen LPS significantly induced proliferation at 1 μg/mL. Monocytes demonstrated higher phagocytic activity than eosinophils. In addition, monocytes exhibited respiratory burst. Natural killer cell activity was higher against YAC-1 than K-562 target cells. These optimized assays may help to evaluate the integrity of loggerhead sea turtle's immune system upon exposure to environmental contaminants, as well as part of a comprehensive health assessment and monitoring program.

  7. Immune Response and Function: Exercise Conditioning Versus Bed-Rest and Spaceflight Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Lawless, D.

    1994-01-01

    Immune responses measured at rest immediately or some hours after exercise training (some with and some without increase in maximal oxygen uptake) gave variable and sometimes conflicting results; therefore, no general conclusions can be drawn. On the other hand, most immune responses were either unchanged (immunoglobulin, T cells, CD4+, and natural killer activity) or decreased (blood properdin, neutrophil phagocytic activity, salivary lysozymes, brain immunoglobulin A and G, and liver B lymphocytes and phytohemagglutinin activity) during prolonged bed rest. Some data suggested that exercise training during bed rest may partially ameliorate the decreased functioning of the immune system. Exercise and change in body position, especially during prolonged bed rest with plasma fluid shifts and diuresis, may induce a change in plasma protein concentration and content, which can influence drug metabolism as well as immune function. Leukocytosis, accompanied by lymphopenia and a depressed lymphocyte response, occurs in astronauts on return to Earth from spaceflight; recovery may depend on time of exposure to microgravity. It is clear that the effect of drugs and exercise used as countermeasures for microgravity deconditioning should be evaluated for their effect on an astronaut's immune system to assure optimal health and performance on long-duration space missions.

  8. Inflammation regulates functional integration of neurons born in adult brain.

    PubMed

    Jakubs, Katherine; Bonde, Sara; Iosif, Robert E; Ekdahl, Christine T; Kokaia, Zaal; Kokaia, Merab; Lindvall, Olle

    2008-11-19

    Inflammation influences several steps of adult neurogenesis, but whether it regulates the functional integration of the new neurons is unknown. Here, we explored, using confocal microscopy and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, whether a chronic inflammatory environment affects the morphological and electrophysiological properties of new dentate gyrus granule cells, labeled with a retroviral vector encoding green fluorescent protein. Rats were exposed to intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide, which gave rise to long-lasting microglia activation. Inflammation caused no changes in intrinsic membrane properties, location, dendritic arborization, or spine density and morphology of the new cells. Excitatory synaptic drive increased to the same extent in new and mature cells in the inflammatory environment, suggesting increased network activity in hippocampal neural circuitries of lipopolysaccharide-treated animals. In contrast, inhibitory synaptic drive was more enhanced by inflammation in the new cells. Also, larger clusters of the postsynaptic GABA(A) receptor scaffolding protein gephyrin were found on dendrites of new cells born in the inflammatory environment. We demonstrate for the first time that inflammation influences the functional integration of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Our data indicate a high degree of synaptic plasticity of the new neurons in the inflammatory environment, which enables them to respond to the increase in excitatory input with a compensatory upregulation of activity and efficacy at their afferent inhibitory synapses.

  9. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL ATRAZINE EXPOSURE SUPPRESSES IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Atrazine Exposure Suppresses Immune Function in Male, but not Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Andrew A. Rooney,*,1 Raymond A. Matulka,? and Robert Luebke?

    *College of Veterinary Medicine, Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, NCSU, Raleigh, North...

  11. Anthrax Lethal Toxin Impairs Innate Immune Functions of Alveolar Macrophages and Facilitates Bacillus anthracis Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-14

    germinate into vegetative bacteria (10, 23), which are capable of secreting anthrax lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin . In the lymph nodes, bacteria ...inability of AM to completely eradicate bacteria suggests that intracellularly secreted lethal FIG. 5. Lethal toxin impairs bactericidal activity but...Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Anthrax Lethal Toxin Impairs Innate Immune Functions of Alveolar Macrophages and Facilitates Bacillus anthracis

  12. IL-13 receptor alpha-2 regulates the immune and functional response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-13 has a prominent role in host defense against the gastrointestinal nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis; however, the role of IL-13 alpha2 in the immune and functional response to enteric infection is not known. In the current study, we investigated changes in smooth muscle and epithelial ce...

  13. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS. R A Matulka1, AA Rooney3, W Williams2, CB Copeland2, and R J Smialowicz2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2US EPA, ITB, ETD, NHEERL, RT...

  14. Research on effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to human body organs and immune function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong

    2014-07-01

    Ginkgo aglucone flavone is a kind of effective natural antioxidant. Lots of researches show that ginkgo aglucone flavone has various biological activities and it is of great importance to antioxidant, anti-aging, free radial scavenging and immunoregulation. However, researches on effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to immune function are rare so far. Thus, it is important to go into the effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to immune function. We can find out more effective measurement that resist immunosuppression through research and provide referable science activity form and suggestion of sports nutrition supplements. It can guide people to improve habitus through supports and establish important basis for new area development of folium ginkgo extract. This paper aims to discuss the effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to human body organs and immune function. Patients with ginkgo aglucone flavone indications are selected for experiment. Their peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and content of serum immunoglobin is detected before and two weeks after drug use. The result shows that specific ratio of T lymphocyte subsets CD3 and CD4 and the content of serum IgG significantly increase after pharmacy of patients. It can be concluded that ginkgo aglucone flavone have acceleration on immune system function.

  15. Acute brief heat stress in late gestation alters neonatal calf innate immune functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress (HS), as one of the environmental stressors affecting the dairy industry, compromises the cow's milk production, immune function, and reproductive system. However, few studies have looked at how prenatal HS affects the offspring. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ...

  16. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    He, Ruifeng; Nelson, William; Yin, Guohua; Cicero, Joseph M.; Willer, Mark; Kim, Ryan; Kramer, Robin; May, Greg A.; Crow, John A.; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.; Brown, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB). The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt), classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW) (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/). Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas transmission. PMID

  17. Sexual Functioning in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Leonard, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693

  18. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their “spacecraft” after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  19. Immune response to functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidegger, Simon; Gößl, Dorothée; Schmidt, Alexandra; Niedermayer, Stefan; Argyo, Christian; Endres, Stefan; Bein, Thomas; Bourquin, Carole

    2015-12-01

    Multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) have attracted substantial attention with regard to their high potential for targeted drug delivery. For future clinical applications it is crucial to address safety concerns and understand the potential immunotoxicity of these nanoparticles. In this study, we assess the biocompatibility and functionality of multifunctional MSN in freshly isolated, primary murine immune cells. We show that the functionalized silica nanoparticles are rapidly and efficiently taken up into the endosomal compartment by specialized antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells. The silica nanoparticles showed a favorable toxicity profile and did not affect the viability of primary immune cells from the spleen in relevant concentrations. Cargo-free MSN induced only very low immune responses in primary cells as determined by surface expression of activation markers and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6, -12 and -1β. In contrast, when surface-functionalized MSN with a pH-responsive polymer capping were loaded with an immune-activating drug, the synthetic Toll-like receptor 7 agonist R848, a strong immune response was provoked. We thus demonstrate that MSN represent an efficient drug delivery vehicle to primary immune cells that is both non-toxic and non-inflammagenic, which is a prerequisite for the use of these particles in biomedical applications.Multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) have attracted substantial attention with regard to their high potential for targeted drug delivery. For future clinical applications it is crucial to address safety concerns and understand the potential immunotoxicity of these nanoparticles. In this study, we assess the biocompatibility and functionality of multifunctional MSN in freshly isolated, primary murine immune cells. We show that the functionalized silica nanoparticles are rapidly and efficiently taken up into the endosomal compartment by specialized

  20. Executive functioning and adaptive coping in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villegas, Ana Lilia; Salvador Cruz, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged individuals encounter multiple environmental demands to which they must develop efficient solutions, thus making the study of executive functions and coping strategies within this age group important. This study evaluated the relationship between the planning and flexible organization of executive function with adaptive coping strategies (ACS) in adults aged 43 to 52 years old. The study included 104 participants, including 52 men and 52 women, with no history of neurological or psychiatric illnesses, diabetes, or hypertension. The participants engaged in the Tower of London(DX) (TOL(DX)) test, the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), and the Coping Strategies Inventory. A relationship was observed between the percentage of errors and conceptual-level responses (WCST) and the Problem Solving ACS. In a separate analysis performed on the men, a negative relationship was discovered between the WCST and the Emotional Expression ACS. In the female group, the dimensions of the WCST and the TOL(DX) were associated with the ACS Emotional Expression and Problem-Solving subscales and the maladaptive coping strategy Social Withdrawal subscale. The relationship between executive functioning and the ACS is multidimensional, complex, and different between men and women. This study adds a neuropsychological characterization of the relationship between executive functions and ACS with ecological validity. The study confirms a relationship between the flexible organization of executive function and the Problem-Solving ACS.

  1. Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Morton, Deborah

    2002-11-01

    This study examined the association of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake with cognitive function in a community-based sample of older adults in 1988-1992. Participants were 890 women with a mean age of 72.6 years and 638 men with a mean age of 73.3 years from the Rancho Bernardo Study. Cognitive function was assessed by 12 standardized tests, and lifetime consumption and current coffee consumption were obtained by questionnaire. After adjustment for confounders, higher lifetime coffee consumption in women was associated with better (p < or = 0.05) performance on six of 12 tests, with a trend (p < or = 0.10) on two other cognitive function tests; current caffeinated coffee intake was associated with better performance on two tests (p < 0.05), with a trend (p < 0.10) on one other test. Among women aged 80 or more years, lifetime coffee intake was nonsignificantly associated with better performance on 11 of the 12 tests. No relation was found between coffee intake and cognitive function among men or between decaffeinated coffee intake and cognitive function in either sex. Lifetime and current exposure to caffeine may be associated with better cognitive performance among women, especially among those aged 80 or more years.

  2. Vitamin D improves immune function in immunosuppressant mice induced by glucocorticoid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongye; Wang, Ying; Xu, Bingxin; Liu, Junli; Ren, Ye; Dai, Zhuojie; Cui, Di; Su, Xiaoming; Si, Shaoyan; Song, Shu Jun

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin with multiple functions. Vitamin D receptor has been shown to be expressed in several types of immune cells suggesting vitamin D may have immune regulatory roles. Vitamin D insufficiency has been suggested to increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. However, little is known regarding its immunomodulatory effects in the condition of immune suppression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory effects of vitamin D on immune function in immunosuppressant mice. An immunosuppressant mouse model was induced by intraperitoneal injection with glucocorticiod for 3 days. Immunosuppressant mice were intragastrically administered with 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3; 0,4, 6 or 10 IU/g body weight] for 7 days. On day 8, the mice were decapitated. The body weight and the weights of thymus and spleen were measured. Thymus and spleen indexes were calculated. The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of spleen T lymphocytes was detected. Compared with the mice in the control group, the body weight, thymus and spleen indexes, the ratios of CD4+/CD8+ in peripheral blood and IL-2 production and proliferation of spleen T lymphocytes were decreased in immunosuppressant mice induced by glucocorticiod. However, in vitamin D-treated mice, the thymus indexes, the ratios of CD4+/CD8+, secretion of IL-2 and the proliferation index of spleen T lymphocytes were significantly increased (P<0.05). Among the three doses of 1,25(OH)2D3, 6 IU/g was most effective in improving the immune function. These results indicate that vitamin D supplementation can improve immune recovery in immunosuppressant mice by stimulating T-cell proliferation and elevating IL-2 production. PMID:28123720

  3. Hygiene and other early childhood influences on the subsequent function of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W; Lowry, Christopher A; Raison, Charles L

    2015-08-18

    The immune system influences brain development and function. Hygiene and other early childhood influences impact the subsequent function of the immune system during adulthood, with consequences for vulnerability to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Inflammatory events during pregnancy can act directly to cause developmental problems in the central nervous system (CNS) that have been implicated in schizophrenia and autism. The immune system also acts indirectly by "farming" the intestinal microbiota, which then influences brain development and function via the multiple pathways that constitute the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota also regulates the immune system. Regulation of the immune system is crucial because inflammatory states in pregnancy need to be limited, and throughout life inflammation needs to be terminated completely when not required; for example, persistently raised levels of background inflammation during adulthood (in the presence or absence of a clinically apparent inflammatory stimulus) correlate with an increased risk of depression. A number of factors in the perinatal period, notably immigration from rural low-income to rich developed settings, caesarean delivery, breastfeeding and antibiotic abuse have profound effects on the microbiota and on immunoregulation during early life that persist into adulthood. Many aspects of the modern western environment deprive the infant of the immunoregulatory organisms with which humans co-evolved, while encouraging exposure to non-immunoregulatory organisms, associated with more recently evolved "crowd" infections. Finally, there are complex interactions between perinatal psychosocial stressors, the microbiota, and the immune system that have significant additional effects on both physical and psychiatric wellbeing in subsequent adulthood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease.

  4. Alkaloids and athlete immune function: caffeine, theophylline, gingerol, ephedrine, and their congeners.

    PubMed

    Senchina, David S; Hallam, Justus E; Kohut, Marian L; Nguyen, Norah A; Perera, M Ann d N

    2014-01-01

    Plant alkaloids are found in foods, beverages, and supplements consumed by athletes for daily nutrition, performance enhancement, and immune function improvement. This paper examined possible immunomodulatory roles of alkaloids in exercise contexts, with a focus on human studies. Four representative groups were scrutinized: (a) caffeine (guaranine, mateine); (b) theophylline and its isomers, theobromine and paraxanthine; (c) ginger alkaloids including gingerols and shogaol; and (d) ephedra alkaloids such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Emerging or prospective alkaloid sources (Goji berry, Noni berry, and bloodroot) were also considered. Human in vitro and in vivo studies on alkaloids and immune function were often conflicting. Caffeine may be immunomodulatory in vivo depending on subject characteristics, exercise characteristics, and immune parameters measured. Caffeine may exhibit antioxidant capacities. Ginger may exert in vivo anti-inflammatory effects in certain populations, but it is unclear whether these effects are due to alkaloids or other biochemicals. Evidence for an immunomodulatory role of alkaloids in energy drinks, cocoa, or ephedra products in vivo is weak to nonexistent. For alkaloid sources derived from plants, variability in the reviewed studies may be due to the presence of unrecognized alkaloids or non-alkaloid compounds (which may themselves be immunomodulatory), and pre-experimental factors such as agricultural or manufacturing differences. Athletes should not look to alkaloids or alkaloid-rich sources as a means of improving immune function given their inconsistent activities, safety concerns, and lack of commercial regulation.

  5. Immunity status of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis patients with structural lung diseases in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuo; Jiang, Rong; Lu, Hai-Wen; Mao, Bei; Li, Man-Hui; Li, Cheng-Wei; Gu, Shu-Yi; Bai, Jiu-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Background Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a fungal infection frequently observed in patients with immune dysfunction, such as those suffering from structural lung diseases. Nevertheless, studies assessing IPA combined with other common respiratory diseases remain scarce, particularly those regarding the immune status of its patients. Different structural lung diseases are known to differently affect patient immune status; however, the mechanisms by which this is conferred have yet to be determined. Thus, our study aims to compare the immune status of IPA patients with the structural lung diseases chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), interstitial lung disease (ILD) and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). Methods This study was performed retrospectively with data collected over the years 2004 to 2013 at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, and included 77 patients whose lower respiratory tract (LRT) samples tested positive for. Our analysis considered blood examinations of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, IgG, IgA and IgM levels. Results CD4+/CD8+ double positive cells, representing cell-mediated immunity, were less abundant in IPA patients with COPD than those with ILD and NCFB (0.81±0.09 vs. 1.39±0.25 and 0.81±0.09 vs. 1.57±0.06, respectively, P<0.001). In agreement with this result, corticosteroid and broad-spectrum antibiotic use were most common in individuals with COPD (57%). IgA levels, which indicate humoral immunity, were lower in IPA patients with NCFB than those with COPD or ILD (0.95±0.28 vs. 1.64±0.40 g/L and 0.95±0.28 vs. 3.16±0.83 g/L, respectively, P<0.001). Conclusions Immunity status differs between IPA patients with different structural lung diseases. Among IPA patients with COPD, ILD and NCFB, those with COPD have the lowest cell-mediated immunity, while those with NCFB have the lowest humoral immunity. PMID:28275471

  6. Immunization of dogs with recombinant GnRH-1 suppresses the development of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Xijie; Jiang, Shudong; Li, Fubao; Zhang, Yunhai; Zhang, Xiaorong; Li, Yunsheng; Zhou, Jie; Fang, Fugui

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of active immunization using recombinant GnRH-I protein on reproductive function in dogs. Six male and six female dogs were randomly assigned to either a control group or an immunization group (n = 3 males or 3 females/group). Dogs (aged 16 weeks) were immunized against GnRH-I with a maltose-binding protein-gonadotropin-releasing hormone I hexamer generated by recombinant DNA technology. Blood samples were taken at 4-week intervals after immunization. The serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol and anti-GnRH-I antibodies were determined by RIA and ELISA, respectively. The results showed that active immunization with recombinant GnRH-I increased the serum levels of anti-GnRH antibodies (P < 0.05) and reduced the serum concentrations of testosterone (P < 0.05) and estradiol (P < 0.05) as compared with the controls. At 28 weeks of age, testes and ovaries were taken surgically for morphologic evaluation. Histologic studies performed on testicular and ovarian tissues revealed clear signs of atrophy in the recombinant GnRH-I-immunized dogs and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the weights and sizes of paired testes and ovaries in the treated dogs. Microscopically, spermatogonia were visible, but no spermatids and spermatozoa were detected in the seminiferous tubules. Neither early antral nor antral follicles were found in the immunized group. These results demonstrate that recombinant GnRH-I is an effective immunogen in dogs.

  7. PTEN functions as a melanoma tumor suppressor by promoting host immune response.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y; Richards, J-Ae; Gupta, R; Aung, P P; Emley, A; Kluger, Y; Dogra, S K; Mahalingam, M; Wajapeyee, N

    2014-09-18

    Cancer cells acquire several traits that allow for their survival and progression, including the ability to evade the host immune response. However, the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade host immune responses remain largely elusive. Here we study the phenomena of immune evasion in malignant melanoma cells. We find that the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an important regulator of the host immune response against melanoma cells. Mechanistically, PTEN represses the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines by blocking the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. In melanoma cells lacking PTEN, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activates the transcription of immunosuppressive cytokines in a PI3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, conditioned media from PTEN-deficient, patient-derived short-term melanoma cultures and established melanoma cell lines blocked the production of the interleukin-12 (IL-12) in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Inhibition of IL-12 production was rescued by restoring PTEN or using neutralizing antibodies against the immunosuppressive cytokines. Furthermore, we report that PTEN, as an alternative mechanism to promote the host immune response against cancer cells, represses the expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand, a known repressor of the host immune response. Finally, to establish the clinical significance of our results, we analyzed malignant melanoma patient samples with or without brisk host responses. These analyses confirmed that PTEN loss is associated with a higher percentage of malignant melanoma samples with non-brisk host responses compared with samples with brisk host responses. Collectively, these results establish that PTEN functions as a melanoma tumor suppressor in part by regulating the host immune response against melanoma cells and highlight the importance of assessing PTEN status before recruiting melanoma patients for immunotherapies.

  8. Exosomes: From Functions in Host-Pathogen Interactions and Immunity to Diagnostic and Therapeutic Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Jessica; Barnich, Nicolas; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

    2016-01-01

    Since their first description in the 1980s, exosomes, small endosomal-derived extracellular vesicles, have been involved in innate and adaptive immunity through modulating immune responses and mediating antigen presentation. Increasing evidence has reported the role of exosomes in host-pathogen interactions and particularly in the activation of antimicrobial immune responses. The growing interest concerning exosomes in infectious diseases, their accessibility in various body fluids, and their capacity to convey a rich content (e.g., proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) to distant recipient cells led the scientific community to consider the use of exosomes as potential new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In this review, we summarize current understandings of exosome biogenesis and their composition and highlight the function of exosomes as immunomodulators in pathological states such as in infectious disorders. The potential of using exosomes as diagnostic and therapeutic tools is also discussed.

  9. Harnessing the natural Drosophila-parasitoid model for integrating insect immunity with functional venomics

    PubMed Central

    Heavner, Mary E.; Hudgins, Adam D.; Rajwani, Roma; Morales, Jorge; Govind, Shubha

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila species lack most hallmarks of adaptive immunity yet are highly successful against an array of natural microbial pathogens and metazoan enemies. When attacked by figitid parasitoid wasps, fruit flies deploy robust, multi-faceted innate immune responses and overcome many attackers. In turn, parasitoids have evolved immunosuppressive strategies to match, and more frequently to overcome, their hosts. We present methods to examine the evolutionary dynamics underlying anti-parasitoid host defense by teasing apart the specialized immune-modulating venoms of figitid parasitoids and, in turn, possibly delineating the roles of individual venom molecules. This combination of genetic, phylogenomic, and "functional venomics" methods in the Drosophila-parasitoid model should allow entomologists and immunologists to tackle important outstanding questions with implications across disciplines and to pioneer translational applications in agriculture and medicine. PMID:25642411

  10. PCSK9 at the crossroad of cholesterol metabolism and immune function during infections.

    PubMed

    Paciullo, Francesco; Fallarino, Francesca; Bianconi, Vanessa; Mannarino, Massimo R; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Pirro, Matteo

    2017-01-07

    Sepsis, a complex and dynamic syndrome resulting from microbial invasion and immune system dysregulation, is associated with an increased mortality, reaching up to 35% worldwide. Cholesterol metabolism is often disturbed during sepsis, with low plasma cholesterol levels being associated with poor prognosis. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), thus regulating intracellular and plasma cholesterol levels. PCSK9 is often upregulated during sepsis and might have a detrimental effect on immune host response and survival. Accordingly, PCSK9 reduces lipopolysaccharide uptake and clearance by human hepatocytes. Moreover, PCSK9 upregulation exacerbates organ dysfunction and tissue inflammation during sepsis, whereas a protective effect of PCSK9 deficiency has been documented in septic patients. Although a possible detrimental impact of PCSK9 on survival has been described, some beneficial effects of PCSK9 on immune response may be hypothesized. First, PCSK9 is associated with increased plasma cholesterol levels, which might be protective during sepsis. Second, PCSK9, by stimulating LDLR degradation and inhibiting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), might promote preferential cholesterol accumulation in macrophages and other immune cells; these events might improve lipid raft composition and augment toll-like receptor function thus supporting inflammatory response. Hence, a more clear definition of the role of PCSK9 in septic states might provide additional insight in the understanding of the sepsis-associated immune dysregulation and enhance therapeutic outcomes.

  11. Role of the mu opioid receptor in opioid modulation of immune function

    PubMed Central

    Ninković, Jana; Roy, Sabita

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Endogenous opioids are synthesized in vivo in order to modulate pain mechanisms and inflammatory pathways. Endogenous and exogenous opioids mediate analgesia in response to painful stimuli by binding to opioid receptors on neuronal cells. However, wide distribution of opioid receptors on tissues and organ systems outside the CNS, such as the cells of the immune system, indicate that opioids are capable of exerting additional effects in the periphery, such as immunomodulation. The increased prevalence of infections in opioid abusers based epidemiological studies further highlights the immunosuppressive effects of opioids. In spite of their many debilitating side effects, prescription opioids remain a gold standard for treatment of chronic pain. Therefore, given the prevalence of opioid use and abuse, opioid mediated immune suppression presents a serious concern in our society today. It is imperative to understand the mechanisms by which exogenous opioids modulate immune processes. In this review we will discuss the role of opioid receptors and their ligands in mediating immune suppressive functions. We will summarize recent studies on direct and indirect opioid modulation of the cells of the immune system as well as the role of opioids in exacerbation of certain disease states. PMID:22170499

  12. MicroRNAs (MiRs) Precisely Regulate Immune System Development and Function in Immunosenescence Process.

    PubMed

    Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Human aging is a complex process with pivotal changes in gene expression of biological pathways. Immune system dysfunction has been recognized as one of the most important abnormalities induced by senescent names immunosenescence. Emerging evidences suggest miR role in immunosenescence. We aimed to systemically review all relevant reports to clearly state miR effects on immunosenescence process. Sensitive electronic searches carried out. Quality assessment has been performed. Since majority of the included studies were laboratory works, and therefore heterogen, we discussed miR effects on immunological aging process nonstatically. Forty-six articles were found in the initial search. After exclusion of 34 articles, 12 studies enrolled to the final stage. We found that miRs have crucial roles in exact function of immune system. MiRs are involved in the regulation of the aging process in the immune system components and target certain genes, promoting or inhibiting immune system reaction to invasion. Also, miRs control life span of the immune system members by regulation of the genes involved in the apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that immunosenescence is controllable by proper manipulation of the various miRs expression. DNA methylation and histone acetylation have been discovered as novel strategies, altering NF-κB binding ability to the miR promoter sites. Effect of miRs on impairment of immune system function due to the aging is emerging. Although it has been accepted that miRs have determinant roles in the regulation of the immunosenescence; however, most of the reports are concluded from animal/laboratory works, suggesting the necessity of more investigations in human.

  13. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  14. Functional diversity of excitatory commissural interneurons in adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Björnfors, E Rebecka; El Manira, Abdeljabbar

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility in the bilateral coordination of muscle contraction underpins variable locomotor movements or gaits. While the locomotor rhythm is generated by ipsilateral excitatory interneurons, less is known about the commissural excitatory interneurons. Here we examined how the activity of the V0v interneurons – an important commissural neuronal class – varies with the locomotor speed in adult zebrafish. Although V0v interneurons are molecularly homogenous, their activity pattern during locomotion is not uniform. They consist of two distinct types dependent on whether they display rhythmicity or not during locomotion. The rhythmic V0v interneurons were further subdivided into three sub-classes engaged sequentially, first at slow then intermediate and finally fast locomotor speeds. Their order of recruitment is defined by scaling their synaptic current with their input resistance. Thus we uncover, in an adult vertebrate, a novel organizational principle for a key class of commissural interneurons and their recruitment pattern as a function of locomotor speed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18579.001 PMID:27559611

  15. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function.

    PubMed

    Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking.

  16. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Andrew M.; Forster, Gina L.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.; Watt, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [3H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [3H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult DA system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. PMID:21741457

  17. Xenobiotic Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Intestinal Barrier Function and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ranhotra, Harmit S.; Flannigan, Kyle L.; Brave, Martina; Mukherjee, Subhajit; Lukin, Dana J.; Hirota, Simon A.; Mani, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis for the regulation of the intestinal barrier is a very fertile research area. A growing body of knowledge supports the targeting of various components of intestinal barrier function as means to treat a variety of diseases, including the inflammatory bowel diseases. Herein, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of key xenobiotic receptor regulators of barrier function, highlighting recent advances, such that the field and its future are succinctly reviewed. We posit that these receptors confer an additional dimension of host-microbe interaction in the gut, by sensing and responding to metabolites released from the symbiotic microbiota, in innate immunity and also in host drug metabolism. The scientific evidence for involvement of the receptors and its molecular basis for the control of barrier function and innate immunity regulation would serve as a rationale towards development of non-toxic probes and ligands as drugs. PMID:27942535

  18. Altered lymphocyte proliferation and innate immune function in scrapie 139A- and ME7-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, In Soo; Spinner, Daryl S; Kascsak, Richard J; Meeker, H Cliff; Kim, Bo Sook; Park, Seung Yong; Schuller-Levis, Georgia; Park, Eunkyue

    2013-06-01

    Lymphoid organs play an important role in prion disease development and progression. While the role of lymphoid organs and changes in immune-related genes have been extensively investigated in scrapie-infected animals, innate immunity has not. Previous studies examined lymphocyte function in scrapie-infected C3H/HeJ mice, which exhibit defects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response now known to result from a mutation in Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. We examined immune function in scrapie-infected CD1 mice, which are LPS responders. Lymphocyte proliferation from CD1 mice infected with either 139A or ME7 scrapie was measured in response to concanavalin (Con) A or LPS at 1 and 3 months after infection. Following LPS exposure, mice infected 3 months with ME7, but not 139A, demonstrated significantly decreased lymphocyte proliferation compared to controls. After Con A exposure, lymphocyte proliferation in scrapie-infected mice did not differ from controls. Gender-specific comparison of lymphocyte proliferation showed significant decreases in mitogenic responses in females infected 3 months with either 139A or ME7, compared to controls. Males infected for 3 months with ME7, but not 139A, showed significantly decreased proliferation after lymphocyte exposure to LPS, but not Con A. Neither gender showed changes in lymphocyte proliferation after 1 month of scrapie infection. Innate immune activation of peritoneal macrophages was determined via production of nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and TNF-α after exposure to TLR ligands. TNF-α and IL-6 production were reduced in macrophages from females infected with either scrapie strain for 3 months, while NO production after TLR agonist plus IFN-γ exposure was decreased in both females and males infected for 3 months with 139A, compared to ME7. These data demonstrated altered innate immunity, suggesting hormonal and/or other gender-specific regulation may contribute to gender differences in some immune functions. Our data demonstrate

  19. Assessing residual vestibular function in adults with congenital hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2016-12-01

    This study adopted an inner ear test battery in adults with congenital hearing loss to assess residual vestibular function. Thirty patients with non-inherited non-syndromatic congenital hearing loss were assigned to two groups based on their pure tone average (PTA). Subjects in Group A (n = 10) had PTA >90 dB, and those with PTA ≤90 dB were assigned to Group B (n = 20). All patients underwent audiometry, and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), cervical VEMP (cVEMP) and caloric tests. Percentages of abnormal PTA, and cVEMP, oVEMP, and caloric test results showed a significantly sequential decline in inner ear deficits from the cochlea to the saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals. Group A had significantly higher percentages of absent oVEMP and caloric areflexia than Group B. Via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff value of PTA was 65 dB for discriminating between present and absent oVEMP/caloric responses, with a sensitivity of 71 % and a specificity of 88 %. In conclusion, congenitally deaf patients with PTA ≥65 dB may retain less vestibular function than those with PTA <65 dB, as evidenced by higher percentages of absent oVEMP and caloric areflexia. Hence, comprehensive assessment of the residual vestibular function in congenitally deaf patients may help predict the occurrence of vertigo in the future.

  20. The function of BDNF in the adult auditory system.

    PubMed

    Singer, Wibke; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Knipper, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The inner ear of vertebrates is specialized to perceive sound, gravity and movements. Each of the specialized sensory organs within the cochlea (sound) and vestibular system (gravity, head movements) transmits information to specific areas of the brain. During development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) orchestrates the survival and outgrowth of afferent fibers connecting the vestibular organ and those regions in the cochlea that map information for low frequency sound to central auditory nuclei and higher-auditory centers. The role of BDNF in the mature inner ear is less understood. This is mainly due to the fact that constitutive BDNF mutant mice are postnatally lethal. Only in the last few years has the improved technology of performing conditional cell specific deletion of BDNF in vivo allowed the study of the function of BDNF in the mature developed organ. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the expression pattern and function of BDNF in the peripheral and central auditory system from just prior to the first auditory experience onwards. A special focus will be put on the differential mechanisms in which BDNF drives refinement of auditory circuitries during the onset of sensory experience and in the adult brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'.

  1. Effect of Smoking on Cognitive Functioning in Young Saudi Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Shahid; Alghamdi, Faisal; Alhussien, Ahmed; Alohali, Meshal; Alatawi, Abdullah; Almusned, Tariq; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is the predominant form of tobacco consumption and is growing worldwide, particularly in the younger generation in the Middle-East. We aimed to determine the effects of tobacco smoking on cognitive functions among young Saudi adults. Material/Methods We recruited a group of cigarette smokers (N=22) and a group of controls (non-smokers) (N=30) from apparently healthy male volunteers aged 18–29 years. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB). The cognitive functions outcome variables were the response time (attention-switching task [AST]), and the percentage of correct response (pattern recognition memory [PRM] task). Clinical, demographic, blood markers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E) were assessed between groups. Results The 2 groups were matched for age and educational status. In comparison to the control group, smokers showed significant cognitive impairments in AST-Latency (p=0.001), AST-Congruent (p=0.001), and AST-Incongruent condition (p=0.001). There was not significant difference in BDNF APOE serum level between the 2 groups. Conclusions These results indicate that attention and alertness were significantly impaired in smokers compared to non-smokers. PMID:28223681

  2. Immune physiology and oogenesis in fetal and adult humans, ovarian infertility, and totipotency of adult ovarian stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Virant-Klun, Irma; Gupta, Satish K; Dominguez, Roberto; Svetlikova, Marta; Xu, Fei

    2009-03-01

    It is still widely believed that while oocytes in invertebrates and lower vertebrates are periodically renewed throughout life, oocytes in humans and higher vertebrates are formed only during the fetal/perinatal period. However, this dogma is questioned, and clashes with Darwinian evolutionary theory. Studies of oogenesis and follicular renewal from ovarian stem cells (OSCs) in adult human ovaries, and of the role of third-party bone marrow-derived cells (monocyte-derived tissue macrophages and T lymphocytes) could help provide a better understanding of the causes of ovarian infertility, its prevention, and potential treatment. We have reported differentiation of distinct cell types from OSC and the production of new eggs in cultures derived from premenopausal and postmenopausal human ovaries. OSCs are also capable of producing neural/neuronal cells in vitro after sequential stimulation with sex steroid combinations. Hence, OSC represent a unique type of totipotent adult stem cells, which could be utilized for autologous treatment of premature ovarian failure and also for autologous stem cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases without use of allogeneic embryonic stem cells or somatic cell nuclear transfer. The in vivo application of sex steroid combinations may augment the proliferation of existing neural stem cells and their differentiation into mature neuronal cells (systemic regenerative therapy). Such treatment may also stimulate the transdifferentiation of autologous neural stem cell precursors into neural stem cells useful for topical or systemic regenerative treatment.

  3. Targeting type I interferon-mediated activation restores immune function in chronic HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Anjie; Rezek, Valerie; Youn, Cindy; Lam, Brianna; Chang, Nelson; Rick, Jonathan; Carrillo, Mayra; Martin, Heather; Kasparian, Saro; Syed, Philip; Rice, Nicholas; Brooks, David G; Kitchen, Scott G

    2017-01-03

    Chronic immune activation, immunosuppression, and T cell exhaustion are hallmarks of HIV infection, yet the mechanisms driving these processes are unclear. Chronic activation can be a driving force in immune exhaustion, and type I interferons (IFN-I) are emerging as critical components underlying ongoing activation in HIV infection. Here, we have tested the effect of blocking IFN-I signaling on T cell responses and virus replication in a murine model of chronic HIV infection. Using HIV-infected humanized mice, we demonstrated that in vivo blockade of IFN-I signaling during chronic HIV infection diminished HIV-driven immune activation, decreased T cell exhaustion marker expression, restored HIV-specific CD8 T cell function, and led to decreased viral replication. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in combination with IFN-I blockade accelerated viral suppression, further decreased viral loads, and reduced the persistently infected HIV reservoir compared with ART treatment alone. Our data suggest that blocking IFN-I signaling in conjunction with ART treatment can restore immune function and may reduce viral reservoirs during chronic HIV infection, providing validation for IFN-I blockade as a potential therapy for HIV infection.

  4. The effects of electroshock on immune function and disease progression in juvenile spring chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Although much is known about the effects of electroshock on fish physiology, consequences to the immune system and disease progression have not received attention. Our objectives were to determine the effects of electroshock on selected immune function in juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, the mechanism of any observed alteration, and the effects of electroshock on disease progression. We found that the ability of anterior kidney leukocytes to generate antibody-producing cells (APC) was suppressed 3 h after a pulsed-DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8 ms pulse width) but recovered within 24 h. This response was similar in timing and magnitude to that of fish subjected to an acute handling stress. The mechanism of suppression is hypothesized to be via an elevation of plasma cortisol concentrations in response to stress. Other monitored immune functions, skin mucous lysozyme levels, and respiratory burst activity were not affected by exposure to electroshock. The progression of a Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS) infection may have been altered after exposure to an electroshock. The electroshock did not affect infection severity or the number of mortalities, but may have accelerated the time to death. The limited duration of APC suppression and lack of effects on lysozyme and respiratory burst, as well as infection severity and mortality levels in RS-infected fish, led us to conclude that electrofishing under the conditions we tested is a safe procedure in regards to immunity and disease.

  5. Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M

    2010-01-01

    Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development.

  6. Structural but not functional conservation of an immune molecule: a tachylectin-like gene in Hydractinia.

    PubMed

    Mali, Brahim; Soza-Ried, Jorge; Frohme, Marcus; Frank, Uri

    2006-01-01

    Tachylectin-related proteins are a recently characterized group of pattern recognition molecules, functioning in the innate immunity of various animals, from the ancient sponges to vertebrates. Tachylectins are characterized by six internal tandem repeats forming beta-propeller domains. We have identified and characterized a tachylectin-related gene in the colonial marine hydroid, Hydractinia echinata. The predicted gene product, termed CTRN, contained an N-terminal signal peptide and had a well-conserved tachylectin-like structure. RT-PCR analyses revealed only post-metamorphic expression while no mRNA was detected during embryonic development or in planula larvae. Exposure of colonies to LPS under conditions known to activate an immune response in Hydractinia did not result in upregulation of the gene. In situ hybridization analysis of metamorphosed animals detected CTRN transcripts only in a small subpopulation of neurons and their precursor cells, localized in a ring-like structure around the mouth of polyps. The same ring-like structure of CTRN expressing neurons was also observed in young polyp buds, predicting the position of the future mouth. This type of expression pattern can hardly be attributed to an immune-relevant gene. Thus, despite high structural similarity to tachylectins, this cnidarian member of this group seems to be an exception to all other tachylectins identified so far as it seems to have no function in cnidarian innate immunity.

  7. Immune function and survival in a long-lived mouse strain subjected to undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Gerbase-DeLima, M; Liu, R K; Cheney, K E; Mickey, R; Walford, R L

    1975-01-01

    Functional immune changes were monitored in populations of the long-lived C57BL/6J strain of mice which were subjected to dietary restriction from time of weaning or subjected to such restriction both before and after weaning, along with the appropriate control populations. Responses to T and B cell mitogens (PHA, Con-A, pokeweed, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and PPD), to injected sheep red blood cells, and measurement of skin allograft rejection rates were followed. Early in life, restricted mice appear immunosuppressed, as judged by all these parameters. Skin allograft rejection remained suppressed until relatively late in life. Other responses tended to reverse from the earlier pattern; by mid-life restricted mice responded better than controls. Dietary restriction profoundly affects the immune system. Mice on such regimes display anatomic and certain immune functional changes which suggest that the immune system may mature less rapidly and stay "younger" longer than in the controls. Furthermore, dietary restriction results in prolongation of life span.

  8. Vaccinations in adults with chronic inflammatory joint disease: Immunization schedule and recommendations for patients taking synthetic or biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jacques; Czitrom, Séverine Guillaume; Mallick, Auriane; Sellam, Jérémie; Sibilia, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The risk of infection associated with autoimmune diseases is further increased by the use of biotherapies. Recommendations to minimize this risk include administering the full complement of vaccines on the standard immunization schedule, as well as the pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. Adults with chronic inflammatory joint disease (IJD) may receive a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, as well as a live attenuated vaccine against recurrent herpes zoster, recently licensed by European regulatory authorities. Live attenuated vaccines can be given only after an interval without immunosuppressant and/or glucocorticoid therapy. The effectiveness of vaccines, as assessed based on titers of protective antibodies, varies across vaccine types and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Thus, methotrexate and rituximab are usually associated with decreased vaccine responses. The risks associated with vaccines are often considerably exaggerated by the media, which serve lobbies opposed to immunizations and make some patients reluctant to accept immunizations. Increasing immunization coverage may diminish the risk of treatment-related infections. A physician visit dedicated specifically to detecting comorbidities in patients with chronic IJD may result in improved immunization coverage. In this review, we discuss immunizations for adults with chronic IJD based on the treatments used, as well as immunization coverage. Many questions remain unanswered and warrant investigation by studies coordinated by the French networks IREIVAC (Innovative clinical research network in vaccinology) and IMIDIATE (Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Disease Alliance for Translational and Clinical Research).

  9. Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian; Pierson, Duane L.; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity (AG) as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system, and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of Epstein barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Varicella zoster virus (VZV) was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 106 PBMCs. Overall, these data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

  10. Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish; Crusian, Brian; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 deg. head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of EBV and CMV was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in plasma cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 10(exp 6) PBMCs. These data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

  11. Heat and immunity: an experimental heat wave alters immune functions in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Janine; Janssen, Hannah; Kuske, Andra; Kurtz, Joachim; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-07-01

    Global climate change is predicted to lead to increased temperatures and more extreme climatic events. This may influence host-parasite interactions, immunity and therefore the impact of infectious diseases on ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of rising temperatures on immune defence, in particular in ectothermic animals, where the immune system is directly exposed to external temperature change. Fish are ideal models for studying the effect of temperature on immunity, because they are poikilothermic, but possess a complete vertebrate immune system with both innate and adaptive immunity. We used three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus) originating from a stream and a pond, whereby the latter supposedly were adapted to higher temperature variation. We studied the effect of increasing and decreasing temperatures and a simulated heat wave with subsequent recovery on body condition and immune parameters. We hypothesized that the immune system might be less active at low temperatures, but will be even more suppressed at temperatures towards the upper tolerable temperature range. Contrary to our expectation, we found innate and adaptive immune activity to be highest at a temperature as low as 13 °C. Exposure to a simulated heat wave induced long-lasting immune disorders, in particular in a stickleback population that might be less adapted to temperature variation in its natural environment. The results show that the activity of the immune system of an ectothermic animal species is temperature dependent and suggest that heat waves associated with global warming may immunocompromise host species, thereby potentially facilitating the spread of infectious diseases.

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20th, 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients’ age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. RESULTS: We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant

  13. Age-related changes in natural killer cell repertoires: impact on NK cell function and immune surveillance.

    PubMed

    Manser, Angela R; Uhrberg, Markus

    2016-04-01

    A key feature of human natural killer (NK) cells, which enables efficient recognition of infected and malignant target cells, is the expression of HLA class I-specific receptors of the KIR and NKG2 gene families. Cell-to-cell variability in receptor expression leads to the formation of complex NK cell repertoires. As outlined here, NK cells go through major changes from newborns to adults characterized by downregulation of the inhibitory NKG2A receptor and concomitant upregulation of KIR family members. This process is completed in young adults, and in the majority of individuals, KIR/NKG2A repertoires remain remarkably stable until old age. Nonetheless, age-related factors have the potential to majorly influence the complexity of NK cell repertoires: Firstly infection with HCMV is associated with major clonal expansions of terminally differentiated NKG2C- and KIR-expressing NK cells in certain individuals. Secondly, ineffective hematopoiesis can lead to immature and less diversified NK cell repertoires as observed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a malignant disease of the elderly. Thus, whereas in the majority of elderly the NK cell compartment appears to be highly stable in terms of function and phenotype, in a minority of subjects a breakdown of NK cell repertoire diversity is observed that might influence immune surveillance and healthy aging.

  14. Contaminant-associated alteration of immune function in black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), a North Pacific predator.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Myra E; Grasman, Keith A; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie R; Keitt, Bradford S; Jarman, Walter M; Smith, Donald R

    2007-09-01

    Environmental pollution is ubiquitous and can pose a significant threat to wild populations through declines in fitness and population numbers. To elucidate the impact of marine pollution on a pelagic species, we assessed whether toxic contaminants accumulated in black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), a wide-ranging North Pacific predator, are correlated with altered physiological function. Blood samples from adult black-footed albatrosses on Midway Atoll, part of the Hawaiian (USA) archipelago, were analyzed for organochlorines (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and chlorinated pesticides), trace metals (silver, cadmium, tin, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, and total mercury), and a sensitive physiological marker, peripheral white blood cell immune function (mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis). We found a positive significant relationship between organochlorines, which were highly correlated within individual birds (p < 0.001, r > 0.80, Spearman correlation for all comparisons; PCBs, 160 +/- 60 ng/ml plasma [mean +/- standard deviation]; DDTs, 140 +/- 180 ng/ml plasma; chlordanes, 7.0 +/- 3.6 ng/ml plasma; hexachlorobenzene, 2.4 +/- 1.5 ng/ml plasma; n = 15) and increased lymphocyte proliferation (p = 0.020) as well as percentage lymphocytes (p = 0.033). Mercury was elevated in black-footed albatrosses (4,500 +/- 870 ng/ml whole blood, n = 15), and high mercury levels appeared to be associated (p = 0.017) with impaired macrophage phagocytosis. The associations we documented between multiple contaminant concentrations and immune function in endangered black-footed albatrosses provide some of the first evidence that albatrosses in the North Pacific may be affected by environmental contamination. Our results raise concern regarding detrimental health effects in pelagic predators exposed to persistent marine pollutants.

  15. New York State Adult Functional Literacy Models. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Barbara R.

    This report discusses a nationwide study of Adult Performance Level (APL) which involved sixteen projects in seven states and was conducted to (1) examine the University of Texas at Austin's APL study and describe the results and recommendations in terms of the adult needs in New York State; (2) examine several New York State Adult Basic Education…

  16. [Relations between red cell structure, function and immune homeostasis in prostatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Shatokhin, M N; Teodorovich, O V; Konoplia, A I; Dolgareva, S A; Gavriliuk, V P; Krasnov, L V; Mavrin, M Iu

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic prostatitis alone and in combination with prostatic adenoma have changes in the activity of the complement system, neutrophil function and content of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Abnormal representation of the proteins of the red cell membrane in patients with prostatic diseases affects structural and functional activity of erythrocytes in these patients. Dynamic changes in immune status of patients with chronic prostatitis and prostatic adenoma correlate with changes in functional red cell activity. This fact helps better understanding of pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis and prostatic adenoma.

  17. Associations between immune function and air pollution among postmenopausal women living in the Puget Sound airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Lori A.

    Air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes, and changes in the immune system may be intermediate steps between exposure and a clinically relevant adverse health outcome. We analyzed the associations between three different types of measures of air pollution exposure and five biomarkers of immune function among 115 overweight and obese postmenopausal women whose immunity was assessed as part of a year-long moderate exercise intervention trial. For air pollution metrics, we assessed: (1) residential proximity to major roads (freeways, major arterials and truck routes), (2) fine particulate matter(PM2.5) at the nearest monitor to the residence averaged over three time windows (3-days, 30-days and 60-days), and (3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) modeled based on land use characteristics. Our immune biomarkers included three measures of inflammation---C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6---and two measures of cellular immunity---natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T lymphocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that living near a major road, increased exposure to PM2.5 and increased exposure to NO2 would each be independently associated with increased inflammation and decreased immune function. We observed a 21% lower average natural killer cell cytotoxicity among women living within 150 meters of a major arterial road compared to other women. For PM2.5 , we observed changes in 3 of 4 indicators of lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by anti-CD3---an antibody to the T cell receptor associated with increases in 3-day averaged PM2.5. For 30-day averaged PM 2.5 and 60-day averaged PM2.5 we did not observe any statistically significant associations. We observed an increase in lymphocyte proliferation index stimulated by the plant protein phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at 1 of 2 PHA concentrations in association with modeled NO2. For the three inflammatory markers, we observed no notable associations with any of our measures of air pollution. If confirmed, our

  18. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  19. The innate immune function of airway epithelial cells in inflammatory lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Pieter S.; McCray, Paul B.; Bals, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The airway epithelium is now considered central to the orchestration of pulmonary inflammatory and immune responses, and is also key to tissue remodelling. It acts as a first barrier in the defence against a wide range of inhaled challenges, and is critically involved in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses to these challenges. Recent progress in our understanding of the developmental regulation of this tissue, the differentiation pathways, recognition of pathogens and antimicrobial responses is now exploited to help understand how epithelial cell function and dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory lung diseases. In the review, advances in our knowledge of the biology of airway epithelium, as well as its role and (dys)function in asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis, are discussed. PMID:25700381

  20. Phonological and orthographic spelling in high-functioning adult dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K; Kirby, John R

    2009-05-01

    Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote derived real and pseudo words, whose spelling relationship to their base forms was categorized as phonologically simple (apt-aptly), orthographically simple (deceit-deceitful), phonologically complex (ash-ashen), or orthographically complex (plenty-plentiful). Dyslexic participants spelled all word and pseudoword categories more poorly than controls. Both groups spelled simple phonological words best. Dyslexics were particularly poor at spelling simple orthographic words, whose letter patterns and rules must likely be memorized. In contrast, dyslexics wrote more plausible spellings of orthographic than phonological pseudowords, but this might be an artefact of their more variable spelling attempts. These results suggest that high-functioning dyslexics make some use of phonological skills to spell familiar words, but they have difficulty in memorizing orthographic patterns, which makes it difficult to spell unfamiliar words consistently in the absence of sufficient phonological cues or orthographic rules.

  1. The impact of ageing on natural killer cell function and potential consequences for health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hazeldine, Jon; Lord, Janet M

    2013-09-01

    Forming the first line of defence against virally infected and malignant cells, natural killer (NK) cells are critical effector cells of the innate immune system. With age, significant impairments have been reported in the two main mechanisms by which NK cells confer host protection: direct cytotoxicity and the secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines and chemokines. In elderly subjects, decreased NK cell activity has been shown to be associated with an increased incidence and severity of viral infection, highlighting the clinical implications that age-associated changes in NK cell biology have on the health of older adults. However, is an increased susceptibility to viral infection the only consequence of these age-related changes in NK cell function? Recently, evidence has emerged that has shown that in addition to eliminating transformed cells, NK cells are involved in many other biological processes such as immune regulation, anti-microbial immune responses and the recognition and elimination of senescent cells, novel functions that involve NK-mediated cytotoxicity and/or cytokine production. Thus, the decrease in NK cell function that accompanies physiological ageing is likely to have wider implications for the health of older adults than originally thought. Here, we give a detailed description of the changes in NK cell biology that accompany human ageing and propose that certain features of the ageing process such as: (i) the increased reactivation rates of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, (ii) the slower resolution of inflammatory responses and (iii) the increased incidence of bacterial and fungal infection are attributable in part to an age-associated decline in NK cell function.

  2. Predicting Cognitive Function from Clinical Measures of Physical Function and Health Status in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Kording, Konrad; Salowitz, Nicole; Davis, Jennifer C.; Hsu, Liang; Chan, Alison; Sharma, Devika; Blohm, Gunnar; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia—including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline—is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies. Methods We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1–L2 regularized regression model (elastic net) to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1) based on baseline cognitive function, 2) based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3) a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation. Results Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33) and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98). Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year. Discussion We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a

  3. Sexual selection by female immunity against paternal antigens can fix loss of function alleles.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Darius; Springer, Stevan A; Ma, Fang; Cohen, Miriam; Secrest, Patrick; Taylor, Rachel E; Varki, Ajit; Gagneux, Pascal

    2011-10-25

    Humans lack the common mammalian cell surface molecule N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) due to a CMAH gene inactivation, which occurred approximately three million years ago. Modern humans produce antibodies specific for Neu5Gc. We hypothesized that anti-Neu5Gc antibodies could enter the female reproductive tract and target Neu5Gc-positive sperm or fetal tissues, reducing reproductive compatibility. Indeed, female mice with a human-like Cmah(-/-) mutation and immunized to express anti-Neu5Gc antibodies show lower fertility with Neu5Gc-positive males, due to prezygotic incompatibilities. Human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies are also capable of targeting paternally derived antigens and mediate cytotoxicity against Neu5Gc-bearing chimpanzee sperm in vitro. Models of populations polymorphic for such antigens show that reproductive incompatibility by female immunity can drive loss-of-function alleles to fixation from moderate initial frequencies. Initially, the loss of a cell-surface antigen can occur due to drift in isolated populations or when natural selection favors the loss of a receptor exploited by pathogens, subsequently the same loss-of-function allele can come under sexual selection because it avoids being targeted by the female immune system. Thus, we provide evidence of a link between sexual selection and immune function: Antigenicity in females can select against foreign paternal antigens on sperm and rapidly fix loss-of-function alleles. Similar circumstances existed when the CMAH null allele was polymorphic in ancestral hominins, just before the divergence of Homo from australopithecines.

  4. Effects of immunomodulators on functional activity of innate immunity cells infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Plekhova, N G; Kondrashova, N M; Somova, L M; Drobot, E I; Lyapun, I N

    2015-02-01

    Low activity of bactericidal enzymes was found in innate immunity cells infected with S. pneumonia. The death of these cells was fastened under these conditions. On the contrary, treatment with antibiotic maxifloxacin was followed by an increase in activity of bactericidal enzymes in phagocytes and induced their death via necrosis. Analysis of the therapeutic properties of immunomodulators tinrostim and licopid in combination with maxifloxacin showed that these combinations correct functional activity of cells infected with S. pneumonia.

  5. Variation with land use of immune function and prevalence of avian pox in Galapagos finches.

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, Maxine; Lee, Kelly A; Klasing, Kirk C; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Introduced disease has been implicated in recent wildlife extinctions and population declines worldwide. Both anthropogenic-induced change and natural environmental features can affect pathogen spread. Furthermore, environmental disturbance can result in changes in stress physiology, nutrition, and social structure, which in turn can suppress immune system function. However, it remains unknown whether landscape variation results in heterogeneity in host resistance to pathogens. Avian pox virus, a pathogen implicated in avian declines and extinctions in Hawaii, was introduced to the Galapagos in the 1890 s, and prevalence (total number of current infections) has increased recently in finches. We tested whether prevalence and recovery trends in 7 species of Galapagos finches varied by elevation or human land use. To do so, we used infection data obtained from 545 wild-caught birds. In addition, we determined whether annual changes in 4 aspects of innate immune function (complement protein activity, natural antibody activity, concentration of PIT54 protein, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio) varied by elevation or land use. Prevalence and recovery rates did not vary by elevation from 2008 to 2009. Avian pox prevalence and proportion of recovered individuals in undeveloped and urban areas did not change from 2008 to 2009. In agricultural areas, avian pox prevalence increased 8-fold (from 2% to 17% of 234 individuals sampled) and proportion of recovered individuals increased (11% to 19%) from 2008 to 2009. These results suggest high disease-related mortality. Variation in immune function across human land-use types correlated with variation in both increased prevalence and susceptibility, which indicates changes in innate immune function may underlie changes in disease susceptibility. Our results suggest anthropogenic disturbance, in particular agricultural practices, may underlie immunological changes in host species that themselves contribute to pathogen emergence.

  6. Maternal immune activation alters glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in the brains of adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Cassella, Sarah N.; Hemmerle, Ann M.; Lundgren, Kerstin H.; Kyser, Tara L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Bronson, Stefanie L.; Richtand, Neil M.; Seroogy, Kim B.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the maternal innate immune system, termed “maternal immune activation” (MIA), represents a common environmental risk factor for schizophrenia. Whereas evidence suggests dysregulation of GABA systems may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a role for MIA in alteration of GABAergic systems is less clear. Here, pregnant rats received either the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid or vehicle injection on gestational day 14. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) mRNA expression was examined in male offspring at postnatal day (P)14, P30 and P60. At P60, GAD67 mRNA was elevated in hippocampus and thalamus and decreased in prefrontal cortex of MIA offspring. MIA-induced alterations in GAD expression could contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:26830319

  7. Innate Immunity in the Adult Mammalian Heart: For Whom the Cell Tolls

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Douglas L.; Topkara, Veli K.; Evans, Sarah; Barger, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the heart possesses an intrinsic system that is intended to delimit tissue injury, as well as orchestrate homoeostatic responses within the heart. The extant literature suggests that this intrinsic stress response is mediated, at least in part, by a family of pattern recognition receptors that belong to the innate immune system, including CD14, the soluble pattern recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharide, and Toll like receptors-2, 3, 4, and 6. Although this intrinsic stress response system provides a short-term adaptive response to tissue injury, the beneficial effects of this phylogenetically ancient system may be lost if myocardial expression of these molecules either becomes sustained and/or excessive, in which case the salutary effects of activation of these pathways may be contravened by the known deleterious effects of inflammatory signaling. Herein we present new information with regard to activation of innate immune gene expression in the failing human heart. Taken together, these new observations provide provisional evidence that the innate immune system is activated in human heart failure, raising the interesting possibility that this pathway may represent a target for the development of novel heart failure therapeutics. PMID:20697548

  8. Functionality and opposite roles of two interleukin 4 haplotypes in immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Anovazzi, G; Medeiros, M C; Pigossi, S C; Finoti, L S; Souza Moreira, T M; Mayer, M P A; Zanelli, C F; Valentini, S R; Rossa-Junior, C; Scarel-Caminaga, R M

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines expression can be influenced by polymorphisms in their respective coding genes. We associated the CTI/TTD haplotype (Hap-1) and TCI/CCI haplotype (Hap-2) in the IL4 gene formed by the −590, +33 and variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms with the severity of chronic periodontitis in humans. The functionality of these IL4 haplotypes in the response of immune cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) with Ionomycin and IL-1β (as inflammatory stimuli) was evaluated. Gene expression (quantitative real-time PCR), profile of secreted cytokines (multiplex) and phenotypic polarization of T cells (flow cytometry) were the outcomes assessed. Green fluorescent protein reporter plasmid constructs containing specific IL4 haplotype were transiently transfected into JM cells to assess the influence of the individual haplotypes on promoter activity. In response to inflammatory stimuli the immune cells from Hap-1 haplotype had increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL4; conversely, the Hap-2 haplotype showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The haplotype CTI proved to be the most important for the regulation of IL4 promoter, regardless of the nature of the inflammatory stimulation; whereas the polymorphism in the promoter region had the least functional effect. In conclusion, IL4 haplotypes studied are functional and trigger opposite immune responses: anti-inflammatory (Hap-1) and pro-inflammatory (Hap-2). In addition, we identified the CTI haplotype as the main responsible for the regulation of IL4 transcriptional activity. PMID:28053321

  9. Impact of breast cancer recurrence and cancer-specific stress on spouse health and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Sharla Wells-Di; Carpenter, Kristen M; Dorfman, Caroline S; Yang, Hae-Chung; Simonelli, Laura E; Carson, William E

    2012-02-01

    Spouses of cancer patients are at-risk for poor psychological and physical health as they cope with the complex nature of the disease and fears of losing their partner. Moreover, spouses often serve as patients' primary informal caregivers, a group that evidences poor outcomes across a variety of domains. The present study examines the relative contributions of cancer recurrence - a cancer-specific stressful event - and the subjective experience of cancer-specific stress (IES) in a sample of male spouses of breast cancer survivors. We hypothesized that stress would contribute to poorer physical health and compromised immune function. Spouses (recurrence; n=16) of patients who were coping with their first recurrence were matched to spouses of patients with no evidence of disease (disease-free; n=16). Self-reported physical health (physical symptoms and fatigue) and immune function [T-cell blastogenic response to the mitogens Concanavalin A (ConA) and phytohemagglutanin (PHA) and T3 monoclonal antibody (T3 Mab)] were included as outcomes. Results indicated that patient recurrence status was not a significant unique predictor of physical health or immune function; rather, among all spouses, cancer-specific stress symptoms were associated with increased physical symptoms and altered T-cell blastogenesis. These data suggest that the health implications of caregiving for spouses of cancer survivors is more strongly linked to their subjective experience of cancer as stressful, rather than simply the patients' disease status.

  10. Widespread Decreased Expression of Immune Function Genes in Human Peripheral Blood Following Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sunirmal; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Amundson, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a large-scale reduced expression of genes in pathways related to cell-type specific immunity functions that emerges from microarray analysis 48 h after ex vivo γ-ray irradiation (0, 0.5, 2, 5, 8 Gy) of human peripheral blood from five donors. This response is similar to that seen in patients at 24 h after the start of total-body irradiation and strengthens the rationale for the ex vivo model as an adjunct to human in vivo studies. The most marked response was in genes associated with natural killer (NK) cell immune functions, reflecting a relative loss of NK cells from the population. T- and B-cell mediated immunity genes were also significantly represented in the radiation response. Combined with our previous studies, a single gene expression signature was able to predict radiation dose range with 97% accuracy at times from 6–48 h after exposure. Gene expression signatures that may report on the loss or functional deactivation of blood cell subpopulations after radiation exposure may be particularly useful both for triage biodosimetry and for monitoring the effect of radiation mitigating treatments. PMID:24168352

  11. Identifying functional defects in patients with immune dysregulation due to LRBA and CTLA-4 mutations.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tie Zheng; Verma, Nisha; Wanders, Jennifer; Kennedy, Alan; Soskic, Blagoje; Janman, Daniel; Halliday, Neil; Rowshanravan, Behzad; Worth, Austen; Qasim, Waseem; Baxendale, Helen; Stauss, Hans; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Neth, Olaf; Olbrich, Peter; Hambleton, Sophie; Arkwright, Peter D; Burns, Siobhan O; Walker, Lucy S K; Sansom, David M

    2017-03-16

    Heterozygous CTLA-4 deficiency has been reported as a monogenic cause of common variable immune deficiency with features of immune dysregulation. Direct mutation in CTLA-4 leads to defective regulatory T-cell (Treg) function associated with impaired ability to control levels of the CTLA-4 ligands, CD80 and CD86. However, additional mutations affecting the CTLA-4 pathway, such as those recently reported for LRBA, indirectly affect CTLA-4 expression, resulting in clinically similar disorders. Robust phenotyping approaches sensitive to defects in the CTLA-4 pathway are therefore required to inform understanding of such immune dysregulation syndromes. Here, we describe assays capable of distinguishing a variety of defects in the CTLA-4 pathway. Assessing total CTLA-4 expression levels was found to be optimal when restricting analysis to the CD45RA(-)Foxp3(+) fraction. CTLA-4 induction following stimulation, and the use of lysosomal-blocking compounds, distinguished CTLA-4 from LRBA mutations. Short-term T-cell stimulation improved the capacity for discriminating the Foxp3(+) Treg compartment, clearly revealing Treg expansions in these disorders. Finally, we developed a functionally orientated assay to measure ligand uptake by CTLA-4, which is sensitive to ligand-binding or -trafficking mutations, that would otherwise be difficult to detect and that is appropriate for testing novel mutations in CTLA-4 pathway genes. These approaches are likely to be of value in interpreting the functional significance of mutations in the CTLA-4 pathway identified by gene-sequencing approaches.

  12. Effects of Microbial Aerosol in Poultry House on Meat Ducks' Immune Function.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanliu; Wang, Yao; Wang, Shouguo; Duan, Changmin; Wei, Liangmeng; Gao, Jing; Chai, Tongjie; Cai, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of microbial aerosols on immune function of ducks and shed light on the establishment of microbial aerosol concentration standards for poultry. A total of 1800 1-d-old cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E) with 360 ducks in each. To obtain objective data, each group had three replications. Concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi, endotoxin in different groups were created by controlling ventilation and bedding cleaning frequency. Group A was the control group and hygienic conditions deteriorated progressively from group B to E. A 6-stage Andersen impactor was used to detect the aerosol concentration of aerobes, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and AGI-30 microbial air sampler detect the endotoxin, and Composite Gas Detector detect the noxious gas. In order to assess the immune function of meat ducks, immune indicators including H5 AIV antibody titer, IgG, IL-2, T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme and immune organ indexes were evaluated. Correlation coefficients were also calculated to evaluate the relationships among airborne bacteria, fungi, endotoxin, and immune indicators. The results showed that the concentration of airborne aerobe, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, endotoxin have a strong correlation to H5 AIV antibody titer, IgG, IL-2, T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme, and immune organ indexes, respectively. In addition, when the concentration of microbial aerosol reach the level of group D, serum IgG (6-8 weeks), lysozyme (4 week) were significantly higher than in group A (P < 0.05); serum IL-2 (7 and 8 weeks), T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme (7 and 8 weeks), spleen index (6 and 8 weeks), and bursa index (8 week) were significantly lower than in group A (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The results indicated that a high level of microbial aerosol adversely affected the immune level of meat ducks. The microbial aerosol values in group D provide a basis for

  13. Effects of Microbial Aerosol in Poultry House on Meat Ducks' Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guanliu; Wang, Yao; Wang, Shouguo; Duan, Changmin; Wei, Liangmeng; Gao, Jing; Chai, Tongjie; Cai, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of microbial aerosols on immune function of ducks and shed light on the establishment of microbial aerosol concentration standards for poultry. A total of 1800 1-d-old cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E) with 360 ducks in each. To obtain objective data, each group had three replications. Concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi, endotoxin in different groups were created by controlling ventilation and bedding cleaning frequency. Group A was the control group and hygienic conditions deteriorated progressively from group B to E. A 6-stage Andersen impactor was used to detect the aerosol concentration of aerobes, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and AGI-30 microbial air sampler detect the endotoxin, and Composite Gas Detector detect the noxious gas. In order to assess the immune function of meat ducks, immune indicators including H5 AIV antibody titer, IgG, IL-2, T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme and immune organ indexes were evaluated. Correlation coefficients were also calculated to evaluate the relationships among airborne bacteria, fungi, endotoxin, and immune indicators. The results showed that the concentration of airborne aerobe, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, endotoxin have a strong correlation to H5 AIV antibody titer, IgG, IL-2, T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme, and immune organ indexes, respectively. In addition, when the concentration of microbial aerosol reach the level of group D, serum IgG (6–8 weeks), lysozyme (4 week) were significantly higher than in group A (P < 0.05); serum IL-2 (7 and 8 weeks), T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme (7 and 8 weeks), spleen index (6 and 8 weeks), and bursa index (8 week) were significantly lower than in group A (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The results indicated that a high level of microbial aerosol adversely affected the immune level of meat ducks. The microbial aerosol values in group D provide a basis for

  14. Effects of rearing temperature on immune functions in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alcorn, S.W.; Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the defences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) raised in captivity are affected by the rearing temperature or their life-cycle stage, various indices of the humoral and cellular immune functions were measured in fish reared at either 8 or 12??C for their entire life-cycle. Measures of humoral immunity included the commonly used haematological parameters, as well as measurements of complement, and lysozyme activity. Cellular assays quantified the ability of macrophages from the anterior kidney to phagocytise Staphylococcus aureus cells, or the activities of certain bactericidal systems of those cells. The T-dependent antibody response to a recombinant 57 kDa protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum was used to quantify the specific immune response. Fish were sampled during the spring and fall of their second, third and fourth years, corresponding to a period that began just before smolting and ended at sexual maturation. Fish reared at 8??C tended to have a greater percentage of phagocytic kidney macrophages during the first 2 years of sampling than the fish reared at 12??C. During the last half of the study the complement activity of the fish reared at 8??C was greater than that of the 12??C fish. Conversely, a greater proportion of the blood leucocytes were lymphocytes in fish reared at 12??C compared to the fish reared at 8??C. Fish reared at 12??C also produced a greater antibody response than those reared at 8??C. Results suggested that the immune apparatus of sockeye salmon reared at 8??C relied more heavily on the non-specific immune response, while the specific immune response was used to a greater extent when the fish were reared at 12??C. Although a seasonal effect was not detected in any of the indices measured, varying effects were observed in some measurements during sexual maturation of fish in both temperature groups. At that time there were dramatic decreases in complement activity and lymphocyte numbers. This study was unique in

  15. Effects of rearing temperature on immune functions in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Stewart W; Murra, Anthony L; Pascho, Ronald J

    2002-04-01

    To determine if the defences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) raised in captivity are affected by the rearing temperature or their life-cycle stage, various indices of the humoral and cellular immune functions were measured in fish reared at either 8 or 12 degrees C for their entire life-cycle. Measures of humoral immunity included the commonly used haematological parameters, as well as measurements of complement, and lysozyme activity. Cellular assays quantified the ability of macrophages from the anterior kidney to phagocytise Staphylococcus aureus cells, or the activities of certain bactericidal systems of those cells. The T-dependent antibody response to a recombinant 57 kDa protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum was used to quantify the specific immune response. Fish were sampled during the spring and fall of their second, third and fourth years, corresponding to a period that began just before smolting and ended at sexual maturation. Fish reared at 8 degrees C tended to have a greater percentage of phagocytic kidney macrophages during the first 2 years of sampling than the fish reared at 12 degrees C. During the last half of the study the complement activity of the fish reared at 8 degrees C was greater than that of the 12 degrees C fish. Conversely, a greater proportion of the blood leucocytes were lymphocytes in fish reared at 12 degrees C compared to the fish reared at 8 degrees C. Fish reared at 12 degrees C also produced a greater antibody response than those reared at 8 degrees C. Results suggested that the immune apparatus of sockeye salmon reared at 8 degrees C relied more heavily on the non-specific immune response, while the specific immune response was used to a greater extent when the fish were reared at 12 degrees C. Although a seasonal effect was not detected in any of the indices measured, varying effects were observed in some measurements during sexual maturation of fish in both temperature groups. At that time there were dramatic

  16. Understanding how commensal obligate anaerobic bacteria regulate immune functions in the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Roy, Nicole C

    2014-12-24

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases.

  17. Marine Toxin Okadaic Acid Affects the Immune Function of Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians).

    PubMed

    Chi, Cheng; Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Kim, Sang Guen; Park, Se Chang

    2016-08-24

    Okadaic acid (OA) is produced by dinoflagellates during harmful algal blooms and is a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin. This toxin is particularly problematic for bivalves that are cultured for human consumption. This study aimed to reveal the effects of exposure to OA on the immune responses of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. Various immunological parameters were assessed (total hemocyte counts (THC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and nitric oxide (NO) in the hemolymph of scallops at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-exposure (hpe) to different concentrations of OA (50, 100, and 500 nM). Moreover, the expression of immune-system-related genes (CLT-6, FREP, HSP90, MT, and Cu/ZnSOD) was also measured. Results showed that ROS, MDA, and NO levels and LDH activity were enhanced after exposure to different concentrations of OA; however, both THC and GSH decreased between 24-48 hpe. The expression of immune-system-related genes was also assessed at different time points during the exposure period. Overall, our results suggest that exposure to OA had negative effects on immune system function, increased oxygenic stress, and disrupted metabolism of bay scallops.

  18. The Role of TAM Family Receptors in Immune Cell Function: Implications for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, Magdalena; Penninger, Josef M.

    2016-01-01

    The TAM receptor protein tyrosine kinases—Tyro3, Axl, and Mer—are essential regulators of immune homeostasis. Guided by their cognate ligands Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1), these receptors ensure the resolution of inflammation by dampening the activation of innate cells as well as by restoring tissue function through promotion of tissue repair and clearance of apoptotic cells. Their central role as negative immune regulators is highlighted by the fact that deregulation of TAM signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Importantly, TAM receptors have also been associated with cancer development and progression. In a cancer setting, TAM receptors have a dual regulatory role, controlling the initiation and progression of tumor development and, at the same time, the associated anti-tumor responses of diverse immune cells. Thus, modulation of TAM receptors has emerged as a potential novel strategy for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how TAM receptors control immunity, with a particular focus on the regulation of anti-tumor responses and its implications for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27775650

  19. Understanding How Commensal Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Regulate Immune Functions in the Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  20. Functionalization impacts the effects of carbon nanotubes on the immune system of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Klaper, Rebecca; Arndt, Devrah; Setyowati, Kristin; Chen, Jian; Goetz, Frederick

    2010-10-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for manufactured nanomaterials to reach the aquatic environment. There is a need to determine if these materials will have an impact on aquatic species and at what level of exposure. In addition there is a need to develop models to test the potential effects of the multitude of particle types in production on aquatic vertebrates. The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of manufactured nanomaterials on the immune system of an aquatic vertebrate model, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We investigated how structure and type of functionalization of manufactured nanomaterials could affect immunotoxicity. To assess immunotoxicity, we used a well-studied trout macrophage primary cell culture system in conjunction with the expression of IL-1β and IFNα for proinflammatory and antiviral gene expression. There was a significant difference among the different carbon nanotube-based nanomaterials in their level of stimulation of IL-1β in macrophage cells and the dose at which they became stimulatory. At concentrations that were sublethal to cells, almost all nanomaterials were stimulatory at some concentration. Single-walled nanotubes and multi-walled nanotubes that were differentially functionalized to be water-soluble, varied in their effects; specifically the concentrations at which they were stimulatory and they were more stimulatory to IL-1β expression compared with unfunctionalized nanotubes. Each functionalized nanotube type caused a dose-dependent response with the lowest exposures (0.05-1.0 μg/ml) having no stimulatory response and at the highest concentrations (5 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml) stimulating a response similar to the positive LPS positive control. Anionic functionalized multi-walled nanotubes and zwitterionic single-walled nanotubes were stimulatory at the lowest dose (0.5 μg/ml). Sodium deoxycholate, often used to suspend nanomaterials, was also tested and was as stimulatory to the

  1. The Marital and Family Functioning of Adults with ADHD and Their Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, L.; Minde, K.; Hechtman, L.; Ochs, E.; Krane, E.; Bouffard, R.; Greenfield, B.; Looper, K.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the family relationships of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the marital adjustment and family functioning of 33 married adults with ADHD and their spouses was compared to 26 non-ADHD control participants and their spouses. Results revealed that married adults with ADHD reported poorer…

  2. Stalking, and Social and Romantic Functioning among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana

    2007-01-01

    We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p less than 0.01) and romantic…

  3. Pneumococcal pneumonia prevention among adults: is the herd effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in children as good a way as the active immunization of the elderly?

    PubMed

    Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The indirect protection of adults as a result of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants has been discussed from different epidemiological points of view. In some countries, including Italy, even after pediatric vaccination, vaccine serotypes are still responsible for most pneumonia and invasive diseases in the elderly. Although the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA) produced encouraging results, it has not showed the efficacy of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia regardless of the number of episodes and serotype. Addressing these points by monitoring the direct impact of adult vaccination in real life distinguished from the effects of herd immunity will assist public health decision-making on the most effective adult pneumococcal vaccination strategies.

  4. Cardiovascular risks and brain function: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-Fang; Eldreth, Dana; Erickson, Kirk I; Varma, Vijay; Harris, Gregory; Fried, Linda P; Rebok, George W; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Carlson, Michelle C

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are associated with cognitive impairment and risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms linking them are not clear. This study aims to investigate the association between aggregate CV risk, assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile, and functional brain activation in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty participants (mean age: 64.6 years) from the Brain Health Study, a nested study of the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging using the Flanker task. We found that participants with higher CV risk had greater task-related activation in the left inferior parietal region, and this increased activation was associated with poorer task performance. Our results provide insights into the neural systems underlying the relationship between CV risk and executive function. Increased activation of the inferior parietal region may offer a pathway through which CV risk increases risk for cognitive impairment.

  5. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for physical performance, energy, immune function, and general health among older women and men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tait, Elizabeth M; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Nies, Mary A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2012-01-01

    We examined use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for health and well-being by older women and men. Data were from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, representing 89.5 million Americans ages 50+. Multivariate logistic regression accounted for the survey design. For general health, 52 million people used CAM. The numbers for immune function, physical performance, and energy were 21.6, 15.9, and 10.1 million respectively. In adjusted results, women were much more likely than men to use CAM for all four reasons, especially energy. Older adults, particularly women, could benefit from research on CAM benefits and risks.

  6. Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and for Evaluating Functional Limitations in Immune System Disorders. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-12-02

    We are revising the criteria in the Listing of Impairments (listings) that we use to evaluate claims involving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act). We also are revising the introductory text of the listings that we use to evaluate functional limitations resulting from immune system disorders. The revisions reflect our program experience, advances in medical knowledge, our adjudicative experience, recommendations from a commissioned report, and comments from medical experts and the public.

  7. Different impairment of immune and inflammation functions in short and long-term after ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Xing; Qi, Fei; Liu, Jia-Qian; Li, Gong-Hua; Dai, Shao-Xing; Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Fei; Liu, Dahai; Zheng, Song Guo

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic stroke therapy and prognosis outcomes largely depend on the time periods after symptom onset. This study aims to explore the difference of global gene expression profiles and impairment of biological functions between short-term and long-term after stroke onset. We compared three short-term (3 h, 5 h and 24 h) and a long-term (6-month) gene expression levels by a multi-platform microarray data integration method. RankProd was used to calculate the differentially expressed genes between stroke patients and controls. DAVID Bioinformatics Resources was utilized to determine affected biological functions. Consensus cluster and hierarchical cluster methods were employed to compare the gene expression patterns of the commonly biological functions among these four time course groups. The results showed that severe impairment of inflammation and immune related functions in 5 h and 24 h after symptom onset. However, these functions were less affected in the 3 h and the 6-month groups. In addition, several key genes (CCL20, THBS1, EREG, and IL6 et al.) were dramatically down-regulated in 5 h and 24 h groups, whereas these genes showed no change or even a slight contrary expression in 3 h or 6-month groups. This study has identified the large differences of altered immune and inflammation functions based on gene levels between short and long-term after stroke onset. The findings provide valuable insight into the clinical practice and prognosis evaluation of ischemic stroke. PMID:28337302

  8. Impact of iron deficiency anemia on the function of the immune system in children

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Tamer Hasan; Badr, Mohamed Ahmed; Karam, Nehad Ahmed; Zkaria, Marwa; El Saadany, Hosam Fathy; Abdel Rahman, Doaa Mohamed; Shahbah, Doaa Abdallah; Al Morshedy, Salah Mohamed; Fathy, Manar; Esh, Asmaa Mohamed Hosni; Selim, Amal Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The importance of iron deficiency as a public health problem is based ultimately on the seriousness of its consequences on health. The most extensively investigated consequences of iron deficiency involve work performance and immune function. The significance of the effects on work performance is generally accepted. In contrast, data on the influence of iron deficiency on immune function are often perceived as being confusing and contradictory. We aimed to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency anemia on humoral, cellular, nonspecific immunity, and also the effect on the cytokines that are the key factors of many immunologic steps. Forty children with iron deficiency anemia and 20 age and sex-matched healthy children were included. All children were subjected to full medical history, thorough clinical examination, complete blood count, iron indices (serum iron, serum total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and transferrin saturation), immunoglobulin assay (IgA, IgG, and IgM), interleukin (IL)-6 serum level, study of T-lymphocyte subsets, and evaluation of phagocytic function of macrophages and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils. Patients had significantly lower IgG levels, IL-6, phagocytic activity, and oxidative burst of neutrophils than controls, although there was no significant difference between patients and controls with regard to other immunoglobulins and CD4/CD8 ratio. There was significantly positive correlation between serum iron and IL-6 serum level. We concluded that humoral, nonspecific immunity (phagocytic activity and oxidative burst), and the IL-6 are influenced in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Study of these abnormalities after correction of iron deficiency is strongly needed. PMID:27893677

  9. Functional characterization of chitinase-3 reveals involvement of chitinases in early embryo immunity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zinan; Sun, Chen; Liu, Shousheng; Wang, Hongmiao; Zhang, Shicui

    2014-10-01

    The function and mechanism of chitinases in early embryonic development remain largely unknown. We show here that recombinant chitinase-3 (rChi3) is able to hydrolyze the artificial chitin substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N',N″-triacetylchitotrioside, and to bind to and inhibit the growth of the fungus Candida albicans, implicating that Chi3 plays a dual function in innate immunity and chitin-bearing food digestion in zebrafish. This is further corroborated by the expression profile of Chi3 in the liver and gut, which are both immune- and digestion-relevant organs. Compared with rChi3, rChi3-CD lacking CBD still retains partial capacity to bind to C. albicans, but its enzymatic and antifungal activities are significantly reduced. By contrast, rChi3-E140N with the putative catalytic residue E140 mutated shows little affinity to chitin, and its enzymatic and antifungal activities are nearly completely lost. These suggest that both enzymatic and antifungal activities of Chi3 are dependent on the presence of CBD and E140. We also clearly demonstrate that in zebrafish, both the embryo extract and the developing embryo display antifungal activity against C. albicans, and all the findings point to chitinase-3 (Chi3) being a newly-identified factor involved in the antifungal activity. Taken together, a dual function in both innate immunity and food digestion in embryo is proposed for zebrafish Chi3. It also provides a new angle to understand the immune role of chitinases in early embryonic development of animals.

  10. The Role of Sphingosine-1-phosphate Transporter Spns2 in Immune System Function

    PubMed Central

    Nijnik, Anastasia; Clare, Simon; Hale, Christine; Chen, Jing; Raisen, Claire; Mottram, Lynda; Lucas, Mark; Estabel, Jeanne; Ryder, Edward; Adissu, Hibret; Adams, Niels C.; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; White, Jacqueline K.; Steel, Karen P.; Dougan, Gordon; Hancock, Robert E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is lipid messenger involved in the regulation of embryonic development, immune system functions, and many other physiological processes. However the mechanisms of S1P transport across cellular membranes remain poorly understood with several ATP-binding cassette family members and the spinster 2 (Spns2) member of the major facilitator superfamily known to mediate S1P transport in cell culture. Spns2 was also shown to control S1P activities in zebrafish in vivo and to play a critical role in zebrafish cardiovascular development. However the in vivo roles of Spns2 in mammals and its involvement in the different S1P-dependent physiological processes have not been investigated. Here we characterized Spns2-null mouse line carrying the Spns2tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi allele (Spns2tm1a). The Spns2tm1a/tm1a animals were viable, indicating a divergence in Spns2 function from its zebrafish orthologue. However the immunological phenotype of the Spns2tm1a/tm1a mice closely mimicked the phenotypes of partial S1P deficiency and impaired S1P-dependent lymphocyte trafficking, with a depletion of lymphocytes in circulation, an increase in mature single-positive T cells in the thymus, and a selective reduction in mature B cells in the spleen and bone marrow. Spns2 activity in the non-hematopoietic cells was critical for normal lymphocyte development and localization. Overall Spns2tm1a/tm1a resulted in impaired humoral immune responses to immunization. This work thus demonstrated a physiological role for Spns2 in mammalian immune system functions but not in cardiovascular development. Other components of the S1P signaling network are investigated as drug targets for immunosuppressive therapy, but the selective action of Spns2 may present an advantage in this regard. PMID:22664872

  11. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  12. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability.

  13. Effects of nickel chloride on the erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broilers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Tang, Kun; Yin, Shuang

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immune adherence function of erythrocytes and erythrocyte induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) in broilers fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Blood samples were collected from five broilers in each group at 14, 28, and 42 days of age. Changes of erythrocyte parameters showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) contents, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 600 and 900 mg/kg groups at 28 and 42 days of age than those in the control group, and the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) activities were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the NiCl2-treated groups. The results of erythrocyte immune adherence function indicated that erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR) was significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 600 and 900 mg/kg groups and in the 300 mg/kg group at 42 days of age, whereas the erythrocyte immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) was markedly increased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg groups at 28 and 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused anemia and impaired the erythrocytic integrity, erythrocytic ability to transport oxygen, and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broilers. Impairment of the erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function was one of main effect mechanisms of NiCl2 on the blood function.

  14. Climate change, nutrition and immunity: Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the immune function of an insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Gherlenda, Andrew N; Haigh, Anthony M; Moore, Ben D; Johnson, Scott N; Riegler, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Balanced nutrition is fundamental to health and immunity. For herbivorous insects, nutrient-compositional shifts in host plants due to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperature may compromise this balance. Therefore, understanding their immune responses to such shifts is vital if we are to predict the outcomes of climate change for plant-herbivore-parasitoid and pathogen interactions. We tested the immune response of Paropsis atomaria Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding on Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings exposed to elevated CO2 (640 μmol mol(-1); CE) and temperature (ambient plus 4 °C; TE). Larvae were immune-challenged with a nylon monofilament in order to simulate parasitoid or pathogen attack without other effects of actual parasitism or pathology. The cellular (in vivo melanisation) and humoral (in vitro phenoloxidase PO activity) immune responses were assessed, and linked to changes in leaf chemistry. CE reduced foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations and increased C:N ratios and concentrations of total phenolics. The humoral response was reduced at CE. PO activity and haemolymph protein concentrations decreased at CE, while haemolymph protein concentrations were positively correlated with foliar N concentrations. However, the cellular response increased at CE and this was not correlated with any foliar traits. Immune parameters were not impacted by TE. Our study revealed that opposite cellular and humoral immune responses occurred as a result of plant-mediated effects at CE. In contrast, elevated temperatures within the tested range had minimal impact on immune responses. These complex interactions may alter the outcomes of parasitoid and pathogen attack in future climates.

  15. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  16. Retinoic Acid-Related Orphan Receptors (RORs): Regulatory Functions in Immunity, Development, Circadian Rhythm, and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Donald N.; Kang, Hong Soon; Jetten, Anton M.

    2015-01-01

    In this overview, we provide an update on recent progress made in understanding the mechanisms of action, physiological functions, and roles in disease of retinoic acid related orphan receptors (RORs). We are particularly focusing on their roles in the regulation of adaptive and innate immunity, brain function, retinal development, cancer, glucose and lipid metabolism, circadian rhythm, metabolic and inflammatory diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. We also summarize the current status of ROR agonists and inverse agonists, including their regulation of ROR activity and their therapeutic potential for management of various diseases in which RORs have been implicated. PMID:26878025

  17. Impaired serotype-specific immune function following pneumococcal vaccination in infants with prior carriage.

    PubMed

    Licciardi, Paul V; Russell, Fiona M; Balloch, Anne; Burton, Robert L; Nahm, Moon H; Gilbert, Gwendolyn; Tang, Mimi L K; Mulholland, Edward K

    2014-04-25

    The impact of prior nasopharyngeal carriage on serotype-specific IgG responses following immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has recently been described. This report extends these findings to describe the attenuation of functional immune responses following 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPS). We report the attenuation of immune responses following booster with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPS) in infants with prior nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Fijian infants who were part of a phase II randomized, controlled trial of reduced dose PCV7 schedules were the basis of this study. Pneumococcal carriage was determined at 6, 9 and 12 months of age, prior to PPS immunization. Serum samples collected at 18 weeks (post-PCV7), 12 months (pre-PPS), 12.5 months and 17 months (post-PPS) of age were assessed for serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytic responses. The most frequently carried serotypes were 6B (N=11), 19F (N=14) and 23F (N=23). Significantly lower serotype-specific IgG for 19F, 23F but not 6B post-PPS were detected in infants with homologous serotype carriage prior to PPS compared with non-carriers (N=230). However, OPA levels for 6B and 23F were lower in infants that carried these serotypes. Pneumococcal carriage with 19F or 23F at any time prior to PPS immunization in infants at 12 months of age who were previously primed with PCV resulted in serotype-specific hyporesponsiveness that persisted until 17 months of age. These results may have implications for the timing of infant vaccine schedules, particularly in high disease burden settings.

  18. An Evolution-Based Screen for Genetic Differentiation between Anopheles Sister Taxa Enriches for Detection of Functional Immune Factors

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Eizo; Williams, Marni; Eiglmeier, Karin; Pain, Adrien; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Gneme, Awa; Brito-Fravallo, Emma; Holm, Inge; Lavazec, Catherine; Sagnon, N’Fale; Baxter, Richard H.; Riehle, Michelle M.; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide variation patterns across species are shaped by the processes of natural selection, including exposure to environmental pathogens. We examined patterns of genetic variation in two sister species, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii, both efficient natural vectors of human malaria in West Africa. We used the differentiation signature displayed by a known coordinate selective sweep of immune genes APL1 and TEP1 in A. coluzzii to design a population genetic screen trained on the sweep, classified a panel of 26 potential immune genes for concordance