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Sample records for adult intelligence scale-fourth

  1. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Kreiner, David S; Tree, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD = 9.94) and 14.33 years (SD = 2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke, 1983 ) score was 3.73 (SD = 1.41) with a range from 2.0 to 6.5. A control group of healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics also completed the WAIS-IV and were provided by the test publisher. Compared to controls, patients with MS earned significantly lower subtest and composite scores. The patients' mean scores were consistently in the low-average to average range, and the patterns of performance across groups did not differ significantly, although there was a trend towards higher scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and lower scores on the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Approximately 78% of patients had actual Full Scale IQs that were significantly lower than preillness, demographically based IQ estimates.

  2. Exploration of malingering indices in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Digit Span subtest.

    PubMed

    Reese, Caitlin S; Suhr, Julie A; Riddle, Tara L

    2012-03-01

    Prior research shows that Digit Span is a useful embedded measure of malingering. However, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (Wechsler, 2008) altered Digit Span in meaningful ways, necessitating another look at Digit Span as an embedded measure of malingering. Using a simulated malingerer design, we examined the predictive accuracy of existing Digit Span validity indices and explored whether patterns of performance utilizing the new version would provide additional evidence for malingering. Undergraduates with a history of mild head injury performed with best effort or simulated impaired cognition and were also compared with a large sample of non-head-injured controls. Previously established cutoffs for the age-corrected scaled score and Reliable Digit Span (RDS) performed similarly in the present samples. Patterns of RDS length using all three subscales of the new scale were different in malingerers when compared with both head-injured and non-head-injured controls. Two potential alternative RDS scores were introduced, which showed better sensitivity than the traditional RDS, while retaining specificity to malingering.

  3. Implications for Educational Classification and Psychological Diagnoses Using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition with Canadian versus American Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Holmes, Alana; Silvestri, Robert; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2015-01-01

    Building on a recent work of Harrison, Armstrong, Harrison, Iverson and Lange which suggested that Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) scores might systematically overestimate the severity of intellectual impairments if Canadian norms are used, the present study examined differences between Canadian and American derived…

  4. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  5. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and…

  6. Introduction to the Structure and Application of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glutting, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    Introduces Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (SB4) as an attempt to revitalize Stanford-Binet by maintaining links with previous editions while simultaneously incorporating more recent developments found in other popular tests of intelligence. Discusses the SB4's theoretical foundation, materials and administration, scaling,…

  7. Factor Structure of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Fourth Ed.) for Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administration of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (fourth edition) to 60 elementary school students (in grades four, five, and six) resulted in means consistent with their gifted status. Factor analyses, including LISREL confirmatory analysis, offered only partial support to the Binet model. (TJH)

  8. Mean-Score Differences between the WISC-R and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewett, Peter N.; Matavich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of mean score differences between the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Fourth Edition) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) (WISC-R) for 126 children with academic difficulties found the Stanford-Binet composite score was significantly higher than the WISC-R score at the lower end of the ability continuum but…

  9. Intelligence and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    "Understanding Adult Intelligence" (Robert Sternberg) focuses on the nature of intelligence. It explains Sternberg's triarchic theory, in which he posits three main aspects of intelligence: its relation to the internal or mental world of the learner, its relation to experience, and its relation to the surrounding world. "Strategies and Learning"…

  10. Adult Multiple Intelligences and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Meg Ryback

    In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…

  11. Advanced Clinical Interpretation of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV: Prevalence of Low Scores Varies by Level of Intelligence and Years of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Brian L.; Holdnack, James A.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians can use the base rates of low scores in healthy people to reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing cognitive impairment. In the present study, base rates were developed for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using 900 healthy adults and validated on 28 patients…

  12. Dyadic Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Denney, David A; Ringe, Wendy K; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-08-01

    Full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) administration can be time-consuming and may not be necessary when intelligence quotient estimates will suffice. Estimated Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI) scores were derived from nine dyadic short forms using individual regression equations based on data from a clinical sample (n = 113) that was then cross validated in a separate clinical sample (n = 50). Derived scores accounted for 70%-83% of the variance in FSIQ and 77%-88% of the variance in GAI. Predicted FSIQs were strongly associated with actual FSIQ (rs = .73-.88), as were predicted and actual GAIs (rs = .80-.93). Each of the nine dyadic short forms of the WAIS-IV was a good predictor of FSIQ and GAI in the validation sample. These data support the validity of WAIS-IV short forms when time is limited or lengthier batteries cannot be tolerated by patients.

  13. Performance on selected visual and auditory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition during laboratory-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Etherton, Joseph L; Tapscott, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Although chronic pain patients commonly report problems with concentration and memory, recent research indicates that induced pain alone causes little or no impairment on several Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests, suggesting that cognitive complaints in chronic pain may be attributable to factors other than pain. The current studies examined potential effects of induced pain on Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) visual working memory index (VWM) subtests (Experiment 1, n = 32) and on the immediate portions of WMS-IV auditory memory (IAM) subtests (Experiment 2, n = 55). In both studies, participants were administered one of two subtests (Symbol Span or Spatial Addition for Experiment 1; Logical Memory or Verbal Paired Associates for Experiment 2) normally and were then administered the alternate subtest while experiencing either cold pressor pain induction or a nonpainful control condition. Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers did not impair performance on either VWM or IAM performance, suggesting that pain alone does not account for complaints or deficits in these domains in chronic pain patients. Nonpainful variables such as sleep deprivation or emotional disturbance may be responsible for reported cognitive complaints in chronic pain patients. PMID:25655774

  14. Talker intelligibility: Child and adult listener performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Duncan; Hazan, Valerie

    2002-05-01

    In a study of talker intelligibility, 45 voices (adults, 11-12 year old children) were presented to 135 listeners (adults, 11-12, and 7-8 year olds). Word materials were presented in a ``single-word'' condition, and in a ``triplet'' condition, where a ``normalizing'' precursor sentence preceded three keywords. In both conditions, voices were randomized, with no consecutive presentations from the same speaker. The specially designed word-set consisted of 124 words chosen to maximize consonant confusions. Adult female speakers were significantly more intelligible than other groups, as predicted by previous research, but the difference was small. The error rates for 7-8 year olds were slightly but significantly higher than those for the older children and adults. The effect of presentation condition, however, was not significant for any listener group. Across all listener groups, rankings of speakers by error rates were strikingly consistent, with a distinct cluster of eight low-intelligibility speakers common to all listener groups. This suggests that speaker intelligibility is little influenced by listener-related factors. In terms of their perception of speaker characteristics, children aged seven and above are showing similar patterns of behavior to adults, even though the younger children showed marginally higher error rates. [Work funded by the Wellcome Trust.

  15. Childhood socioeconomic status amplifies genetic effects on adult intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Timothy C; Lewis, Gary J; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Studies of intelligence in children reveal significantly higher heritability among groups with high socioeconomic status (SES) than among groups with low SES. These interaction effects, however, have not been examined in adults, when between-families environmental effects are reduced. Using 1,702 adult twins (aged 24-84) for whom intelligence assessment data were available, we tested for interactions between childhood SES and genetic effects, between-families environmental effects, and unique environmental effects. Higher SES was associated with higher mean intelligence scores. Moreover, the magnitude of genetic influences on intelligence was proportional to SES. By contrast, environmental influences were constant. These results suggest that rather than setting lower and upper bounds on intelligence, genes multiply environmental inputs that support intellectual growth. This mechanism implies that increasing SES may raise average intelligence but also magnifies individual differences in intelligence.

  16. MRI correlates of general intelligence in neurotypical adults.

    PubMed

    Malpas, Charles B; Genc, Sila; Saling, Michael M; Velakoulis, Dennis; Desmond, Patricia M; O'Brien, Terence J

    2016-02-01

    There is growing interest in the neurobiological substrate of general intelligence. Psychometric estimates of general intelligence are reduced in a range of neurological disorders, leading to practical application as sensitive, but non-specific, markers of cerebral disorder. This study examined estimates of general intelligence in neurotypical adults using diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional connectivity analysis. General intelligence was related to white matter organisation across multiple brain regions, confirming previous work in older healthy adults. We also found that variation in general intelligence was related to a large functional sub-network involving all cortical lobes of the brain. These findings confirm that individual variance in general intelligence is related to diffusely represented brain networks.

  17. The locus of adult intelligence: knowledge, abilities, and nonability traits.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, P L; Rolfhus, E L

    1999-06-01

    Some intelligence theorists (e.g., R. B. Cattell, 1943; D. O. Hebb, 1942) have suggested that knowledge is one aspect of human intelligence that is well preserved or increases during adult development. Very little is known about knowledge structures across different domains or about how individual differences in knowledge relate to other traits. Twenty academic and technology-oriented tests were administered to 135 middle-aged adults. In comparison with younger college students, the middle-aged adults knew more about nearly all of the various knowledge domains. Knowledge was partly predicted by general intelligence, by crystallized abilities, and by personality, interest, and self-concept. Implications of this work are discussed in the context of a developmental theory that focuses on the acquisition and maintenance of intelligence-as-knowledge, as well as the role of knowledge for predicting the vocational and avocational task performance of adults.

  18. The locus of adult intelligence: knowledge, abilities, and nonability traits.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, P L; Rolfhus, E L

    1999-06-01

    Some intelligence theorists (e.g., R. B. Cattell, 1943; D. O. Hebb, 1942) have suggested that knowledge is one aspect of human intelligence that is well preserved or increases during adult development. Very little is known about knowledge structures across different domains or about how individual differences in knowledge relate to other traits. Twenty academic and technology-oriented tests were administered to 135 middle-aged adults. In comparison with younger college students, the middle-aged adults knew more about nearly all of the various knowledge domains. Knowledge was partly predicted by general intelligence, by crystallized abilities, and by personality, interest, and self-concept. Implications of this work are discussed in the context of a developmental theory that focuses on the acquisition and maintenance of intelligence-as-knowledge, as well as the role of knowledge for predicting the vocational and avocational task performance of adults. PMID:10403718

  19. Adult Multiple Intelligences. NCSALL Study Circle Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrella, A.; Hofer, J.; Bubp, S.; Finn-Miller, S.; Graves, N.; Meador, P.

    2004-01-01

    This Study Circle guide was created by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) as part of the Practitioner Dissemination and Research Network (PDRN). The guide is part of NCSALL's effort to help connect research and practice in the field of adult basic education and adult literacy. The purpose of the study circle…

  20. Phonetic Intelligibility Testing in Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bunton, Kate; Leddy, Mark; Miller, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to document speech intelligibility deficits for a group of five adult males with Down syndrome, and use listener based error profiles to identify phonetic dimensions underlying reduced intelligibility. Phonetic error profiles were constructed for each speaker using the Kent, Weismer, Kent, and Rosenbek (1989) word intelligibility test. The test was designed to allow for identification of reasons for the intelligibility deficit, quantitative analyses at varied levels, and sensitivity to potential speech deficits across populations. Listener generated profiles were calculated based on a multiple-choice task and a transcription task. The most disrupted phonetic features, across listening task, involved simplification of clusters in both the word initial and word final position, and contrasts involving tongue-posture, control, and timing (e.g., high-low vowel, front-back vowel, and place of articulation for stops and fricatives). Differences between speakers in the ranking of these phonetic features was found, however, the mean error proportion for the six most severely affected features correlated highly with the overall intelligibility score (0.88 based on multiple-choice task, .94 for the transcription task). The phonetic feature analyses are an index that may help clarify the suspected motor speech basis for the speech intelligibility deficits seen in adults with Down syndrome and may lead to improved speech management in these individuals. PMID:17692179

  1. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence.

  2. Adult Learning, Critical Intelligence and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern Condition"…

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Dutch Version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL).

    PubMed

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Kerkmeer, Margreet C; Kessels, Roy P C; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2015-05-01

    The latent factor structure of the Dutch version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) was examined with a series of confirmatory factor analyses. As part of the Dutch standardization, 1,188 healthy participants completed the WMS-IV-NL. Four models were tested for the Adult Battery (16-69 years; N = 699), and two models were tested for the Older Adult Battery (65-90 years; N = 489). Results corroborated the presence of three WMS-IV-NL factors in the Adult Battery consisting of Auditory Memory, Visual Memory, and Visual Working Memory. A two-factor model (consisting of Auditory Memory and Visual Memory) provided the best fit for the data of the Older Adult Battery. These findings provide evidence for the structural validity of the WMS-IV-NL, and further support the psychometric integrity of the WMS-IV.

  4. Evaluation of adult aphasics with the Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test.

    PubMed

    Jerger, S; Oliver, T A; Martin, R C

    1990-04-01

    Results of conventional adult speech audiometry may be compromised by the presence of speech/language disorders, such as aphasia. The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy of the speech intelligibility materials and techniques developed for young children in evaluating central auditory function in aphasic adults. Eight adult aphasics were evaluated with the Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (PSI) test, a picture-pointing approach that was carefully developed to be relatively insensitive to linguistic-cognitive skills and relatively sensitive to auditory-perceptual function. Results on message-to-competition ratio (MCR) functions or performance-intensity (PI) functions were abnormal in all subjects. Most subjects served as their own controls, showing normal performance on one ear coupled with abnormal performance on the other ear. The patterns of abnormalities were consistent with the patterns seen (1) on conventional speech audiometry in brain-lesioned adults without aphasia and (2) on the PSI test in brain-lesioned children without aphasia. An exception to this general observation was an atypical pattern of abnormality on PI-function testing in the subgroup of nonfluent aphasics. The nonfluent subjects showed substantially poorer word-max scores than sentence-max scores, a pattern seen previously in only one other patient group, namely young children with recurrent otitis media. The unusually depressed word-max abnormality was not meaningfully related to clinical diagnostic data regarding the degree of hearing loss and the location and severity of the lesions or to experimental data regarding the integrity of phonologic processing abilities. The observations of ear-specific and condition-specific abnormalities suggest that the linguistically- and cognitively-simplified PSI test may be useful in the evaluation of auditory-specific deficits in the aphasic adult. PMID:2132591

  5. Using the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition to Characterize Language in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volden, Joanne; Smith, Isabel M.; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) was used to examine syntactic and semantic language skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to determine its suitability for use with this population. We expected that PLS-4 performance would be better in more intellectually…

  6. Advanced clinical interpretation of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV: prevalence of low scores varies by level of intelligence and years of education.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Holdnack, James A; Iverson, Grant L

    2011-06-01

    Clinicians can use the base rates of low scores in healthy people to reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing cognitive impairment. In the present study, base rates were developed for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using 900 healthy adults and validated on 28 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Results indicated that healthy people obtain some low scores on the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV, with prevalence rates increasing with fewer years of education and lower predicted intelligence. When applying the base rates information to the clinical sample, the TBI patients were 13 times more likely to be identified as having a low cognitive profile compared with the controls. Using the base rates information is a psychometrically advanced method for establishing criteria to determine low cognitive abilities on the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

  7. Acoustic-phonetic correlates of talker intelligibility for adults and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazan, Valerie; Markham, Duncan

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated acoustic-phonetic correlates of intelligibility for adult and child talkers, and whether the relative intelligibility of different talkers was dependent on listener characteristics. In experiment 1, word intelligibility was measured for 45 talkers (18 women, 15 men, 6 boys, 6 girls) from a homogeneous accent group. The material consisted of 124 words familiar to 7-year-olds that adequately covered all frequent consonant confusions; stimuli were presented to 135 adult and child listeners in low-level background noise. Seven-to-eight-year-old listeners made significantly more errors than 12-year-olds or adults, but the relative intelligibility of individual talkers was highly consistent across groups. In experiment 2, listener ratings on a number of voice dimensions were obtained for the adults talkers identified in experiment 1 as having the highest and lowest intelligibility. Intelligibility was significantly correlated with subjective dimensions reflecting articulation, voice dynamics, and general quality. Finally, in experiment 3, measures of fundamental frequency, long-term average spectrum, word duration, consonant-vowel intensity ratio, and vowel space size were obtained for all talkers. Overall, word intelligibility was significantly correlated with the total energy in the 1- to 3-kHz region and word duration; these measures predicted 61% of the variability in intelligibility. The fact that the relative intelligibility of individual talkers was remarkably consistent across listener age groups suggests that the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of a talker's utterance are the primary factor in determining talker intelligibility. Although some acoustic-phonetic correlates of intelligibility were identified, variability in the profiles of the ``best'' talkers suggests that high intelligibility can be achieved through a combination of different acoustic-phonetic characteristics. .

  8. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia

  9. A Review of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test: An Advancement in Cognitive Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Flanagan, Rosemary

    1994-01-01

    Reviews Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), a new assessment of cognitive function for technical qualities such as reliability, validity, and standardization characters. Concludes that KAIT represents advancements in cognitive assessment but cannot be regarded as superior to existing intelligence measures until data is available…

  10. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  11. Intelligence and Psychopathy Do Not Influence Malingering.

    PubMed

    Demakis, George; Rimland, Casey; Reeve, Charlie; Ward, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of psychopathy and intelligence on malingering in a simulated malingering design. We hypothesized that participants high in both traits would be more adept at evading detection on performance validity tests (PVTs). College students (N = 92) were first administered the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading, a reading measure that estimates intelligence, and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form under standard conditions. They were then asked to imagine as if they had suffered a concussion a year ago and were instructed to fake or exaggerate symptoms in a believable fashion to improve their settlement as part of a lawsuit. Participants were subsequently administered a brief neuropsychological battery that included the Word Memory Test, Rey 15-Item Test with Recognition, Finger-Tapping Test, and Digit Span from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition. Moderated multiple regressions with hierarchical entry were conducted. Intelligence, psychopathy, and the interaction of intelligence and psychopathy were not related to performance on any of the PVTs. In other words, participants who scored higher on intelligence and psychopathy did not perform differently on these measures compared with other participants. Though a null finding, implications of this study are discussed in terms of the broader research and clinical literature on malingering.

  12. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  13. Emotional intelligence as a basis for self-esteem in young adults.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Hue, Ming-Tak

    2015-01-01

    As self-esteem is likely to build on favorable social experiences, such as those derived from achievement (i.e., GPA) and social competence, emotional intelligence is likely to be pivotal in fostering social experiences conducive to self-esteem. Accordingly, emotional intelligence is likely to underlie social competence and mediate the contribution of achievement to self-esteem. This uncharted role is the focus of this study, which surveyed 405 undergraduates in Hong Kong, China. Results demonstrated the pivotal role of emotional intelligence. Essentially, emotional intelligence appeared to be a strong determinant of self-esteem and explain away the positive effect of social competence on self-esteem. The results imply the value of raising emotional intelligence in order to consolidate the basis for the young adult's self-esteem.

  14. Being Playful and Smart? The Relations of Adult Playfulness with Psychometric and Self-Estimated Intelligence and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proyer, Rene T.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the relation between subjectively assessed adult playfulness and psychometric and self-estimated intelligence in a sample of 254 students. As expected, playfulness existed widely independently from psychometric intelligence. Correlations pointed in the direction of higher expressive playfulness and numeric intelligence and lower…

  15. Circadian typology and emotional intelligence in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Juan Manuel; Navarro, José Francisco; Adan, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Several aspects related to health, such as satisfaction with life, perceived well-being, and psychopathological symptomatology have been associated with circadian typology and with emotional intelligence. Nevertheless, the relationships between circadian typology and emotional intelligence have not been explored yet. The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationships between circadian typology and emotional intelligence, taking into account the possible interactions between sex and physical exercise, and controlling for age. A sample of 1011 participants (649 women), aged between 18 and 50 yrs (26.92 ± 6.53) completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (rMEQ) and the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24). The TMMS-24 considers three dimensions of emotional intelligence: emotional attention, emotional clarity, and emotional repair. Women showed higher values for emotional attention, whereas men showed higher values for emotional repair (p < 0.035, in both cases). Subjects who do physical exercise weekly showed higher values for emotional repair (p = 0.001) regardless of circadian typology or sex. Circadian typology presents differences in all scores of emotional intelligence dimensions. Morning-type had lower emotional attention than evening- and neither-type; neither-type had lower emotional repair than morning-type, and lower emotional clarity than both evening- and morning-type (p < 0.046, in all cases). Moreover, circadian typology modulated the sex differences in emotional attention, and only morning-type men showed a low emotional attention score. From the results of emotional intelligence we can conclude that morning typology may be a protective factor in terms of general health, whereas we should be aware that the neither-type may present a possible vulnerability to develop psychological problems.

  16. The adult literacy evaluator: An intelligent computer-aided training system for diagnosing adult illiterates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using ICAT system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) To develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and developmental phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. Examples of literacy events and situations being considered included interactions with environmental print (e.g., billboards, street signs, commercial marquees, storefront logos, etc.), functional literacy materials (e.g., newspapers, magazines, telephone books, bills, receipts, etc.) and employment related communication (i.e., job descriptions, application forms, technical manuals, memorandums, newsletters, etc.). Each of these situations and materials is being analyzed for its literacy requirements in terms of written display (i.e., knowledge of printed forms and conventions), meaning demands (i

  17. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  18. Psychiatric Morbidity and Social Functioning among Adults with Borderline Intelligence Living in Private Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Strydom, A.; Hall, I.; Ali, A.; Lawrence-Smith, G.; Meltzer, H.; Head, J; Bebbington, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-eighth of the population will have DSM-IV borderline intelligence. Various mental disorders and social disability are associated with it. Method: The paper uses data (secondary analysis) from a UK-wide cross-sectional survey of 8450 adults living in private households. Data were collected on psychiatric disorders,…

  19. Validity of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale as a Measure of Adult Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prifitera, Aurelio; Ryan, Joseph J.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the validity of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale (IPS) as a substitute for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). IPS scores were correlated with the three WAIS IQs, and regression equations were computed to obtain estimated Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, and Full Scale IQ. (Author)

  20. Validity of Verbal IQ as a Short Form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Robert W.; Wildman, Robert W., II

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the Verbal IQ as a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was investigated using the criteria proposed by Resnick and Entin. The WAIS was administered to 100 psychiatric patients. There was no significant difference between the means of the Verbal and Full Scale IQs. (Author)

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Collaborative Learning in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    The changing social and economic reality of our world continues to shape how learning is conducted and acquired in the adult classroom and beyond. Given the pivotal importance for an adult to develop a variety of cognitive and emotional skills and given the need to work in collaboration with others, within educational environments and the…

  2. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  3. Clinical validation of three short forms of the Dutch Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) in a mixed clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Van Der Veld, William M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Kessels, Roy P C

    2016-06-01

    The reliability and validity of three short forms of the Dutch version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) were evaluated in a mixed clinical sample of 235 patients. The short forms were based on the WMS-IV Flexible Approach, that is, a 3-subtest combination (Older Adult Battery for Adults) and two 2-subtest combinations (Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction and Logical Memory and Designs), which can be used to estimate the Immediate, Delayed, Auditory and Visual Memory Indices. All short forms showed good reliability coefficients. As expected, for adults (16-69 years old) the 3-subtest short form was consistently more accurate (predictive accuracy ranged from 73% to 100%) than both 2-subtest short forms (range = 61%-80%). Furthermore, for older adults (65-90 years old), the predictive accuracy of the 2-subtest short form ranged from 75% to 100%. These results suggest that caution is warranted when using the WMS-IV-NL Flexible Approach short forms to estimate all four indices.

  4. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a…

  5. Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  6. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  7. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  8. Intraindividual neuropsychological test variability in healthy individuals with high average intelligence and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Heyanka, Daniel J; Holster, Jessica L; Golden, Charles J

    2013-08-01

    Knowledge of patterns of neuropsychological performance among normal, healthy individuals is integral to the practice of clinical neuropsychology, because clinicians may not always account for intraindividual variability (IIV) before coming to diagnostic conclusions. The IIV was assessed among a sample of 46 healthy individuals with high average intelligence and educational attainment, utilizing a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition (WMS-IV). The data indicated substantial variability in neurocognitive abilities. All participants were found to demonstrate scores considered impaired by at least 2 standard deviations (SDs). Despite adjusting for outliers, no participant produced a "normal" testing profile with an intraindividual maximum discrepancy (MD) of less than 1 SD in either direction. When WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was considered, participants generally demonstrated cognitive test scores ranging from 2 SDs less than to 1.5 SDs greater than their FSIQ. Furthermore, after demographic corrections, the majority (59%) of participants demonstrated at least 1 impaired cognitive test score, as defined by being 1 to 1.5 SDs below the mean. Overall, results substantiate the need for clinicians to consider FSIQ and educational attainment in interpretation of neuropsychological testing results, given the relevant commonality of "abnormal" test scores within this population. This may ultimately reduce the likelihood of making false-positive conclusions of impairment when educational attainment and intelligence are high, thus improving diagnostic accuracy.

  9. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults With Parkinson's Disease, Adults With Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014). Method Speakers read Harvard sentences in habitual, clear, loud, and slow conditions. Sentence stimuli were equated for peak intensity and mixed with multitalker babble. A total of 50 listeners orthographically transcribed sentences. Procedures were identical to those for a VAS reported in Tjaden, Sussman, and Wilding (2014). Results The percent correct scores from transcription were significantly higher in magnitude than the VAS scores. Multivariate linear modeling indicated that the pattern of findings for transcription and VAS was virtually the same with respect to differences among groups and speaking conditions. Correlation analyses further indicated a moderately strong, positive relationship between the two metrics. The majority of these correlations were significant. Last, intrajudge and interjudge listener reliability metrics for the two intelligibility tasks were comparable. Conclusion Results suggest that there may be instances when the less time-consuming VAS task may be a viable substitute for an orthographic transcription task when documenting intelligibility in mild dysarthria. PMID:26556727

  10. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570984

  11. The effects of shared environment on adult intelligence: a critical review of adoption, twin, and MZA studies.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jack S

    2012-09-01

    There has been a vigorous debate for decades concerning the heritability of intelligence. In recent years, the debate has been focused on whether the components of IQ variability change with age and on separating environmental effects into shared and unshared components. Citing evidence from adoption studies, studies comparing identical and fraternal twins, and studies of identical twins raised apart, some prominent psychologists have concluded that the shared environment has a significant effect on the intelligence of children but little or no effect on the intelligence of adults. In this article, the evidence from such studies is reviewed. The article reaches the conclusion that while there is some evidence from adoption studies supporting the claim that shared environment has little or no effect on adult intelligence, that evidence is inconclusive and is inconsistent with evidence from twin studies and from studies of identical twins reared apart.

  12. The effects of shared environment on adult intelligence: a critical review of adoption, twin, and MZA studies.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jack S

    2012-09-01

    There has been a vigorous debate for decades concerning the heritability of intelligence. In recent years, the debate has been focused on whether the components of IQ variability change with age and on separating environmental effects into shared and unshared components. Citing evidence from adoption studies, studies comparing identical and fraternal twins, and studies of identical twins raised apart, some prominent psychologists have concluded that the shared environment has a significant effect on the intelligence of children but little or no effect on the intelligence of adults. In this article, the evidence from such studies is reviewed. The article reaches the conclusion that while there is some evidence from adoption studies supporting the claim that shared environment has little or no effect on adult intelligence, that evidence is inconclusive and is inconsistent with evidence from twin studies and from studies of identical twins reared apart. PMID:22746221

  13. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors. PMID:22570777

  14. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  15. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain Injury: Classification Accuracy in Known Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c)…

  16. The Relationship between Intelligence and Multiple Domains of Religious Belief: Evidence from a Large Adult US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gary J.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of religiosity have been linked to lower levels of intelligence in a number of recent studies. These results have generated both controversy and theoretical interest. Here in a large sample of US adults we address several issues that restricted the generalizability of these previous results. We measured six dimensions of religiosity…

  17. Effects of Geographic Region upon Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Results: A Hawaii-Mainland United States Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsushima, William T.; Bratton, Joseph C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated geographic differences in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) results by comparing 60 Hawaiian and 60 mainland United States psychiatric outpatients. The influence of pidgin English led to expectations that Hawaiian subjects would have significantly lower WAIS Verbal scores than mainland subjects. Data verified these…

  18. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  19. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  20. Concurrent Validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition Index Score Short Forms in the Canadian Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Rael T.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the concurrent validity of estimated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition (WAIS-III) index scores using various one- and two-subtest combinations. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample. Using all possible one- and two-subtest combinations, an estimated Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), an…

  1. Multiple Intelligences Resources For The Adult Basic Education Practitioner: An Annotated Bibliography. NCSALL Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viens, Julie; Kallenbach, Silja

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Howard Gardner's introduction of multiple intelligences theory (MI theory) in 1983 generated considerable interest in the educational community. Multiple intelligences was a provocative new theory, claiming at least seven relatively independent intelligences. MI theory presented a conception of intelligence that was in marked contrast to the…

  2. Emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in institutionalised Spanish older adults.

    PubMed

    Luque-Reca, Octavio; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of Spanish older adults who are institutionalised in long-term care (LTC) facilities. One hundred fifteen institutionalised individuals (47.82% women; 88.3 ± 7.9 years) from southern Spain completed a set of questionnaires that included measures of EI, health and personality. Data were analysed via hierarchical regression. After controlling for personality and sociodemographic variables, the EI dimensions, emotional comprehension and emotional facilitation, accounted for part of the variance in several HRQoL facets. These dimensions could have an important role in the HRQoL of residents in LTC. Moreover, the use of a performance measure addresses the limitations of previous studies that have relied on self-report measures. These aspects underscore the importance of the results of this study.

  3. The effect of reduced vowel working space on speech intelligibility in Mandarin-speaking young adults with cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huei-Mei; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reduced vowel working space on dysarthric talkers' speech intelligibility using both acoustic and perceptual approaches. In experiment 1, the acoustic-perceptual relationship between vowel working space area and speech intelligibility was examined in Mandarin-speaking young adults with cerebral palsy. Subjects read aloud 18 bisyllabic words containing the vowels /eye/, /aye/, and /you/ using their normal speaking rate. Each talker's words were identified by three normal listeners. The percentage of correct vowel and word identification were calculated as vowel intelligibility and word intelligibility, respectively. Results revealed that talkers with cerebral palsy exhibited smaller vowel working space areas compared to ten age-matched controls. The vowel working space area was significantly correlated with vowel intelligibility (r=0.632, p<0.005) and with word intelligibility (r=0.684, p<0.005). Experiment 2 examined whether tokens of expanded vowel working spaces were perceived as better vowel exemplars and represented with greater perceptual spaces than tokens of reduced vowel working spaces. The results of the perceptual experiment support this prediction. The distorted vowels of talkers with cerebral palsy compose a smaller acoustic space that results in shrunken intervowel perceptual distances for listeners. .

  4. Engaging older adults with dementia in creative occupations using artificially intelligent assistive technology.

    PubMed

    Leuty, Valerie; Boger, Jennifer; Young, Laurel; Hoey, Jesse; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in creative occupations has been shown to promote well-being for older adults with dementia. Providing access to such occupations is often difficult, as successful participation requires face-time with a person who is knowledgeable in facilitating engagement as well as access to any required resources, such as an arts studio. In response, a computer-based device, the Engaging Platform for Art Development (ePAD), was created to with the aim of enabling more independent access to art creation, ePAD is a an artificially intelligent touch-screen device that estimates a client's level of engagement and provides prompts to encourage engagement if the client becomes disengaged. ePAD is customizable such that an art therapist can choose themes and tools that they feel reflect their client's needs and preferences. This article presents a mixed-methods study that evaluated ePAD's usability by six older adult (with mild-to-moderate dementia) and art therapist dyads. Usability measures suggest that all participants found ePAD engaging but did not find prompts effective. Future development of ePAD includes improving the prompts, implementing the recommendations made by participants in this research, and long-term testing in more naturalistic art therapy contexts.

  5. Concurrent Validity Study of the Slosson Intelligence Test-Revised in Mental Retardation Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunen, Seth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Concurrent validity testing of the Slosson Intelligence Test-Revised with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Fourth Edition), involving 191 individuals (ages 5-69 and IQs of 36 to 110), found a high correlation between the two scales. However, the Slosson unsatisfactorily matched the Stanford-Binet's assignment of individuals to IQ categories.…

  6. Confirmation of Correlation between Brain Nerve Conduction Velocity and Intelligence Level in Normal Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. Edward; Vernon, Philip A.; Johnson, Andrew M.

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, Reed and Jensen ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 259-272] reported a positive correlation (0.26; "p"= 0.002; 0.37 after correcting for restricted intelligence range) between a brain nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and intelligence level in 147 normal male students. In the first follow-up of their study, we report on a study using similar NCV…

  7. A Comparison of Low IQ Scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphress, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index…

  8. Evaluation of an intelligent wheelchair system for older adults with cognitive impairments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older adults are the most prevalent wheelchair users in Canada. Yet, cognitive impairments may prevent an older adult from being allowed to use a powered wheelchair due to safety and usability concerns. To address this issue, an add-on Intelligent Wheelchair System (IWS) was developed to help older adults with cognitive impairments drive a powered wheelchair safely and effectively. When attached to a powered wheelchair, the IWS adds a vision-based anti-collision feature that prevents the wheelchair from hitting obstacles and a navigation assistance feature that plays audio prompts to help users manoeuvre around obstacles. Methods A two stage evaluation was conducted to test the efficacy of the IWS. Stage One: Environment of Use – the IWS’s anti-collision and navigation features were evaluated against objects found in a long-term care facility. Six different collision scenarios (wall, walker, cane, no object, moving and stationary person) and three different navigation scenarios (object on left, object on right, and no object) were performed. Signal detection theory was used to categorize the response of the system in each scenario. Stage Two: User Trials – single-subject research design was used to evaluate the impact of the IWS on older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants were asked to drive a powered wheelchair through a structured obstacle course in two phases: 1) with the IWS and 2) without the IWS. Measurements of safety and usability were taken and compared between the two phases. Visual analysis and phase averages were used to analyze the single-subject data. Results Stage One: The IWS performed correctly for all environmental anti-collision and navigation scenarios. Stage Two: Two participants completed the trials. The IWS was able to limit the number of collisions that occurred with a powered wheelchair and lower the perceived workload for driving a powered wheelchair. However, the objective performance (time to complete course

  9. Parental and Spousal Self-Efficacy of Young Adults Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Relationship to Speech Intelligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Bensaid, Limor; Michael, Rinat; Most, Tova; Gali-Cinamon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the parental and spousal self-efficacy (SE) of adults who are deaf and who are hard of hearing (d/hh) in relation to their speech intelligibility. Forty individuals with hearing loss completed self-report measures: Spousal SE in a relationship with a spouse who was hearing/deaf, parental SE to a child who was hearing/deaf, and…

  10. Intelligent Intelligence Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, Bonnie; Pedrini, D. T.

    Intelligence tests should be used to help persons; they should not be used to penalize persons. Furthermore, our focus should be on treatment; it should not be on labeling. IQ testers often stigmatize young children and poor persons (children, adolescents, adults). Large groups of Black Americans, Spanish Americans, and Indian Americans are…

  11. An Intelligent Computer-aided Training System (CAT) for Diagnosing Adult Illiterates: Integrating NASA Technology into Workplace Literacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the-art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) to develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and development phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. From these descriptions, scripts are being generated which define the interaction between the student, an on-screen guide and the simulated literacy environment.

  12. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chooi, Weng-Tink; Thompson, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Jaeggi and her colleagues claimed that they were able to improve fluid intelligence by training working memory. Subjects who trained their working memory on a dual n-back task for a period of time showed significant improvements in working memory span tasks and fluid intelligence tests such as the Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Bochumer…

  13. Social perception and WAIS-IV Performance in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and the Social Perception subtest from the Advanced Clinical Solutions. Deficits in social perception, verbal comprehension, and processing speed were found in the Autism sample. Additionally, they exhibited inconsistent performance on auditory working memory and perceptual reasoning tasks. The Asperger's syndrome group had better overall cognitive skills than the Autism group, but compared with controls, they had weaknesses in processing speed, social perception, and components of auditory working memory. Both groups had relatively low scores on the WAIS-IV Comprehension subtest compared with the other verbal comprehension subtests. Clinical application and utility of the WAIS-IV and Social Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders are discussed.

  14. Conduction Velocity in a Brain Nerve Pathway of Normal Adults Correlates with Intelligence Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. Edward; Jensen, Arthur R.

    1992-01-01

    A correlation between intelligence level (IQ) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was demonstrated for 147 undergraduate students in the eastern San Francisco (California) Bay area. Recent studies of retarded subjects support the findings, explainable by positive correlations among NCV, speed of information processing, and IQ. (Author/SLD)

  15. Associations between cortical thickness and general intelligence in children, adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle; Collins, Paul F.; Porter, James N.; Muetzel, Ryan; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Kumar, Vipin; Steinbach, Michael; Lim, Kelvin O.; Luciana, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging research indicates that human intellectual ability is related to brain structure including the thickness of the cerebral cortex. Most studies indicate that general intelligence is positively associated with cortical thickness in areas of association cortex distributed throughout both brain hemispheres. In this study, we performed a cortical thickness mapping analysis on data from 182 healthy typically developing males and females ages 9 to 24 years to identify correlates of general intelligence (g) scores. To determine if these correlates also mediate associations of specific cognitive abilities with cortical thickness, we regressed specific cognitive test scores on g scores and analyzed the residuals with respect to cortical thickness. The effect of age on the association between cortical thickness and intelligence was examined. We found a widely distributed pattern of positive associations between cortical thickness and g scores, as derived from the first unrotated principal factor of a factor analysis of Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) subtest scores. After WASI specific cognitive subtest scores were regressed on g factor scores, the residual score variances did not correlate significantly with cortical thickness in the full sample with age covaried. When participants were grouped at the age median, significant positive associations of cortical thickness were obtained in the older group for g-residualized scores on Block Design (a measure of visual-motor integrative processing) while significant negative associations of cortical thickness were observed in the younger group for g-residualized Vocabulary scores. These results regarding correlates of general intelligence are concordant with the existing literature, while the findings from younger versus older subgroups have implications for future research on brain structural correlates of specific cognitive abilities, as well as the cognitive domain specificity of behavioral

  16. Effects of psychotropic drugs on intelligence test performance of institutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Breuning, S E; Davidson, N A

    1981-05-01

    Twenty-four institutionalized mentally retarded persons received intelligence tests under both standard and reinforcement conditions while on and off psychotropic medication. Medications included chlorpromazine (Thorazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), haloperidol (Haldol), mesoridazine (Serentil), and lithium carbonate (Lithane). Results showed that when on medication there were no differences between IQs obtained under standard and reinforcement conditions. When off medication there were significant increases in scores obtained under both standard and reinforcement conditions. The increase in scores under the reinforcement condition was 23 points greater than the increase obtained under the standard condition (increases of 30.2 and 6.9 points, respectively). Results were discussed in terms of the sensitivity--insensitivity of intelligence test scores to medication effects, medications impairing responding to external reinforcement contingencies, and legal implications.

  17. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition profiles and their relationship to self-reported outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Harman-Smith, Yasmin E; Mathias, Jane L; Bowden, Stephen C; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Bigler, Erin D

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often unrelated to self-reported problems after TBI. The current study cluster-analyzed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) subtest scores from mild, moderate, and severe TBI (n=220) and orthopedic injury control (n=95) groups, to determine whether specific cognitive profiles are related to people's perceived outcomes after TBI. A two-stage cluster analysis produced 4- and 6-cluster solutions, with the 6-cluster solution better capturing subtle variations in cognitive functioning. The 6 clusters differed in the levels and profiles of cognitive performance, self-reported recovery, and education and injury severity. The findings suggest that subtle cognitive impairments after TBI should be interpreted in conjunction with patient's self-reported problems.

  18. Vitamin/Mineral Supplements and Intelligence of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    1983-01-01

    Vitamin/mineral supplements were administered to 19 institutionalized mentally retarded adults in a double-blind study over a seven-month period. No changes were observed in IQ nor in adaptive behavior. This was a replication with adults of a previous study of children that had obtained positive results. (Author/CL)

  19. The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Program Completion among Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiste, Mildred M.

    2014-01-01

    Program completion among adult learners attending adult basic education programs has been found to be an area of struggle. Cognitive ability has always been the primary factor for determining an individual's ability. However, non-cognitive ability has been proposed as a significant factor in academic success. Many attrition models have been…

  20. Calendrical Calculation and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Neil; Cowan, Richard; Samella, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    Studied the ability to name the days of the week for dates in the past and future (calendrical calculation) of 10 calendrical savants with Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale scores from 50 to 97. Results suggest that although low intelligence does not prevent the development of this skill, the talent depends on general intelligence. (SLD)

  1. The Utility of Seven-Subtest Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2004-01-01

    Along with ongoing research on the WAIS-R, short forms of the WAIS-III have attracted much attention. However, few studies of WAIS-III short forms are based on normal samples or on the validation of estimated indexes. This study examined the utility of two seven-subtest short forms in 81 healthy young adults in Taiwan with the administration of…

  2. Comparison of Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) and Third Edition (WMS-III) dimensional structures: improved ability to evaluate auditory and visual constructs.

    PubMed

    Hoelzle, James B; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Smith, Clifford A

    2011-03-01

    Dimensional structures underlying the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III) were compared to determine whether the revised measure has a more coherent and clinically relevant factor structure. Principal component analyses were conducted in normative samples reported in the respective technical manuals. Empirically supported procedures guided retention of dimensions. An invariant two-dimensional WMS-IV structure reflecting constructs of auditory learning/memory and visual attention/memory (C1 = .97; C2 = .96) is more theoretically coherent than the replicable, heterogeneous WMS-III dimension (C1 = .97). This research suggests that the WMS-IV may have greater utility in identifying lateralized memory dysfunction.

  3. Can Children Substitute for Adult Listeners in Judging the Intelligibility of the Speech of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing?

    PubMed Central

    Kloiber, Diana True

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assessments of the intelligibility of speech produced by children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) provide unique insights into functional speaking ability, readiness for mainstream classroom placements, and intervention effectiveness. The development of sentence lists for a wide age range of children and the advent of handheld digital recording devices have overcome two barriers to routine use of this tool. Yet, difficulties in recruiting adequate numbers of adults to judge speech samples continue to make routine assessment impractical. In response to this barrier, it has been proposed that children who are 9 years or older might be adequate substitutes for adult listener-judges (Ertmer, 2011). Method To examine this possibility, 22 children from the 3rd, 4th, and 5th grades identified words from speech samples previously judged by adults. Results Children in the 3rd and 4th grades identified fewer words than adults, whereas scores for 5th graders were not significantly different from those of the adults. All grade levels showed increasing scores across low, mid, and high levels of intelligibility. Conclusions Children who are functioning at a 5th grade level or higher can act as listener-judges in speech intelligibility assessments. Suggestions for implementing assessments and scoring child-listeners' written responses are discussed. PMID:25381439

  4. Clinical utility of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in predicting laterality of temporal lobe epilepsy among surgical candidates.

    PubMed

    Soble, Jason R; Eichstaedt, Katie E; Waseem, Hena; Mattingly, Michelle L; Benbadis, Selim R; Bozorg, Ali M; Vale, Fernando L; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in identifying functional cognitive deficits associated with seizure laterality in localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) relative to a previously established measure, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Emerging WMS-IV studies have highlighted psychometric improvements that may enhance its ability to identify lateralized memory deficits. Data from 57 patients with video-EEG-confirmed unilateral TLE who were administered the WMS-IV and RAVLT as part of a comprehensive presurgical neuropsychological evaluation for temporal resection were retrospectively reviewed. We examined the predictive accuracy of the WMS-IV not only in terms of verbal versus visual composite scores but also using individual subtests. A series of hierarchal logistic regression models were developed, including the RAVLT, WMS-IV delayed subtests (Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates, Designs, Visual Reproduction), and a WMS-IV verbal-visual memory difference score. Analyses showed that the RAVLT significantly predicted laterality with overall classification rates of 69.6% to 70.2%, whereas neither the individual WMS-IV subtests nor the verbal-visual memory difference score accounted for additional significant variance. Similar to previous versions of the WMS, findings cast doubt as to whether the WMS-IV offers significant incremental validity in discriminating seizure laterality in TLE beyond what can be obtained from the RAVLT.

  5. Memory functioning in individuals with traumatic brain injury: an examination of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV).

    PubMed

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Grech, Julie; Tulsky, David S

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the construct validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hundred individuals with TBI (n = 35 complicated mild/moderate TBI; n = 65 severe TBI) and 100 matched controls from the WMS-IV normative dataset completed the WMS-IV. Multivariate analyses indicated that severe TBI participants had poorer performance than matched controls on all index scores and subtests. Individuals with complicated mild/moderate TBI performed more poorly than controls on all index scores, as well as on tests of visual memory (Designs I and II; Visual Reproduction I and II) and visual working memory (Spatial Addition; Symbol Span), but not on auditory verbal memory tests (Logical Memory I and II; Verbal Paired Associates I and II). After controlling for time since injury, severe TBI participants had significantly lower scores than the complicated mild/moderate TBI on 4 of the 5 WMS-IV index scores (Auditory Memory, Visual Memory, Immediate Memory, Delayed Memory) and 4 of the 10 WMS-IV subtests (Designs I and II, Verbal Pairs II, Logical Memory II). Effect sizes for index and subtest scores were generally moderate for the complicated mild/moderate group and moderate-to-large for the severe TBI group. Findings provide support for the construct validity of the WMS-IV in individuals with TBI.

  6. Small for gestational age and poor fluid intelligence in childhood predict externalizing behaviors among young adults born at extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-02-01

    Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) are at increased risk for developing later psychopathology, the mechanisms contributing to this association are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined a putative cognitive link to psychopathology in a cohort of ELBW survivors. These individuals were followed up prospectively at age 8 and again at ages 22-26. At 8 years, participants completed measures of fluid and general intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age) showed the highest level of externalizing behaviors. These findings provide support for a cumulative risk model and suggest that fluid intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.

  7. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Frontal Cortex Decreases Performance on the WAIS-IV Intelligence Test

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Kristin K.; Mellin, Juliann M.; Lustenberger, Caroline M.; Boyle, Michael R.; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V.; Frohlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA at each anode for 20 minutes) or active sham tDCS (2mA for 40 seconds), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA for 20 minutes). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. PMID:25934490

  8. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  9. Digit Span is (mostly) related linearly to general intelligence: Every extra bit of span counts.

    PubMed

    Gignac, Gilles E; Weiss, Lawrence G

    2015-12-01

    Historically, Digit Span has been regarded as a relatively poor indicator of general intellectual functioning (g). In fact, Wechsler (1958) contended that beyond an average level of Digit Span performance, there was little benefit to possessing a greater memory span. Although Wechsler's position does not appear to have ever been tested empirically, it does appear to have become clinical lore. Consequently, the purpose of this investigation was to test Wechsler's contention on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition normative sample (N = 1,800; ages: 16 - 69). Based on linear and nonlinear contrast analyses of means, as well as linear and nonlinear bifactor model analyses, all 3 Digit Span indicators (LDSF, LDSB, and LDSS) were found to exhibit primarily linear associations with FSIQ/g. Thus, the commonly held position that Digit Span performance beyond an average level is not indicative of greater intellectual functioning was not supported. The results are discussed in light of the increasing evidence across multiple domains that memory span plays an important role in intellectual functioning.

  10. Education-Stratified Base-Rate Information on Discrepancy Scores Within and Between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Galit A.; Chelune, Gordon J.

    2004-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997a) and the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (WMS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997b) are 2 of the most frequently used measures in psychology and neuropsychology. To facilitate the diagnostic use of these measures in the clinical decision-making process, this article…

  11. Latent Mean and Covariance Differences with Measurement Equivalence in College Students with Developmental Difficulties versus the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III/Wechsler Memory Scale-III Normative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Gregg, Noel; Bandalos, Deborah; Davis, Mark; Coleman, Chris; Holdnack, James A.; Weiss, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    Intelligence tests are usually part of the assessment battery for the diagnosis of adults with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Professionals must ensure that inferences drawn from such test scores are equivalent across populations with and without disabilities. Examination of measurement equivalence…

  12. No significant brain volume decreases or increases in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and above average intelligence: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Andreas; Maier, Simon; Ulbrich, Melanie; Biscaldi, Monica; Ebert, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2014-08-30

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly being recognized as an important issue in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy. High intelligence indicates overall good brain functioning and might thus present a particularly good opportunity to study possible cerebral correlates of core autistic features in terms of impaired social cognition, communication skills, the need for routines, and circumscribed interests. Anatomical MRI data sets for 30 highly intelligent patients with high-functioning autism and 30 pairwise-matched control subjects were acquired and analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. The gray matter volume of the pairwise-matched patients and the controls did not differ significantly. When correcting for total brain volume influences, the patients with ASD exhibited smaller left superior frontal volumes on a trend level. Heterogeneous volumetric findings in earlier studies might partly be explained by study samples biased by a high inclusion rate of secondary forms of ASD, which often go along with neuronal abnormalities. Including only patients with high IQ scores might have decreased the influence of secondary forms of ASD and might explain the absence of significant volumetric differences between the patients and the controls in this study. PMID:24953998

  13. Transition to Adulthood: Validation of the Rotterdam Transition Profile for Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy and Normal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkervoort, Mireille; Wiegerink, Diana J. H. G.; van Meeteren, Jetty; Stam, Henk J.; Roebroeck, Marij E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Rotterdam Transition Profile (RTP) to describe the transition process from childhood to adulthood in young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were recruited from rehabilitation centres and hospital departments of rehabilitation. In total, 81 young adults (47 males, 34 females)…

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of frontal cortex decreases performance on the WAIS-IV intelligence test.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Kristin K; Mellin, Juliann M; Lustenberger, Caroline M; Boyle, Michael R; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants were included in the final analysis. These participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA at each anode for 20 min) or active sham tDCS (2 mA for 40 s), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA for 20 min). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of frontal cortex decreases performance on the WAIS-IV intelligence test.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Kristin K; Mellin, Juliann M; Lustenberger, Caroline M; Boyle, Michael R; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants were included in the final analysis. These participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA at each anode for 20 min) or active sham tDCS (2 mA for 40 s), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA for 20 min). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. PMID:25934490

  16. Social Intelligence and Decoding of Nonverbal Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Michael L.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between non-verbal decoding ability and social intelligence, defined as the ability to decode social information accurately, was studied using 40 adults. Results are discussed in the framework of R. J. Sternberg's triarchic theory of human intelligence. Decoding skills appeared to be an important part of social intelligence. (SLD)

  17. Acceptability of an intelligent wireless sensor system for the rapid detection of health issues: findings among home-dwelling older adults and their informal caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Christine; Kampel, Thomas; Verloo, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging at home rather than in an institution is now considered the gold standard. Public health figures document an important demographic transition to an increasingly elderly society. At the same time, this is accompanied by the emergence of significant numbers of innovative technologies to help and support home-dwelling older adults in declining health who wish to remain at home. Study aim To explore the acceptability of intelligent wireless sensor system (IWSS) among home-dwelling older adults in rapidly detecting their health issues. Methods Data were sourced from a pilot 3-month randomized clinical trial that involved 34 older patients in the experimental group (EG) using an IWSS to rapidly detect falls and other health issues at home. The effectiveness of the IWSS was assessed by comparing it to participants’ functional and cognitive status, as measured both before and after the trial. The Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care, Confusion Assessment Method, Cognitive Performance Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Informed Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly were used for the assessments. Acceptability of the IWSS was explored at the end of the study. Results Both older adults and their informal caregivers considered the performance and usefulness of the IWSS intervention to be low to moderate. A majority of the participants were unsatisfied with its ease of use and found multiple obstacles in using and having an intention to use the IWSS. However, their informal caregivers were more satisfied with the program and gave higher scores for usefulness, ease of use, and intention to use IWSS technology. Conclusion The IWSS displayed low-to-moderate acceptability among the older participants and their informal caregivers. We recommend improving and clarifying several components in the IWSS for the development of a design that is user-centered. PMID:27660417

  18. Acceptability of an intelligent wireless sensor system for the rapid detection of health issues: findings among home-dwelling older adults and their informal caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Christine; Kampel, Thomas; Verloo, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging at home rather than in an institution is now considered the gold standard. Public health figures document an important demographic transition to an increasingly elderly society. At the same time, this is accompanied by the emergence of significant numbers of innovative technologies to help and support home-dwelling older adults in declining health who wish to remain at home. Study aim To explore the acceptability of intelligent wireless sensor system (IWSS) among home-dwelling older adults in rapidly detecting their health issues. Methods Data were sourced from a pilot 3-month randomized clinical trial that involved 34 older patients in the experimental group (EG) using an IWSS to rapidly detect falls and other health issues at home. The effectiveness of the IWSS was assessed by comparing it to participants’ functional and cognitive status, as measured both before and after the trial. The Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care, Confusion Assessment Method, Cognitive Performance Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Informed Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly were used for the assessments. Acceptability of the IWSS was explored at the end of the study. Results Both older adults and their informal caregivers considered the performance and usefulness of the IWSS intervention to be low to moderate. A majority of the participants were unsatisfied with its ease of use and found multiple obstacles in using and having an intention to use the IWSS. However, their informal caregivers were more satisfied with the program and gave higher scores for usefulness, ease of use, and intention to use IWSS technology. Conclusion The IWSS displayed low-to-moderate acceptability among the older participants and their informal caregivers. We recommend improving and clarifying several components in the IWSS for the development of a design that is user-centered.

  19. A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III).

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Kate; Alloway, Tracy; Copello, Evan; Milligan, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students. Their performance on the WAIS-III was compared to that of a predominantly white, British, monolingual, higher socio-economic group. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WAIS-III lacks measurement invariance between the two groups, suggesting that it may be tapping different constructs in each group. The UK group significantly outperformed the SA group on the knowledge-based verbal, and some non-verbal subtests, while the SA group performed significantly better on measures of Processing Speed (PS). The groups did not differ significantly on the Matrix Reasoning subtest and on those working memory subtests with minimal reliance on language, which appear to be the least culturally biased. Group differences were investigated further in a set of principal components analyses, which revealed that the WAIS-III scores loaded differently for the UK and SA groups. While the SA group appeared to treat the PS subtests differently to those measuring perceptual organization and non-verbal reasoning, the UK group seemed to approach all of these subtests similarly. These results have important implications for the cognitive assessment of individuals from culturally, linguistically, and socio-economically diverse circumstances.

  20. A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III)

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Kate; Alloway, Tracy; Copello, Evan; Milligan, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students. Their performance on the WAIS-III was compared to that of a predominantly white, British, monolingual, higher socio-economic group. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WAIS-III lacks measurement invariance between the two groups, suggesting that it may be tapping different constructs in each group. The UK group significantly outperformed the SA group on the knowledge-based verbal, and some non-verbal subtests, while the SA group performed significantly better on measures of Processing Speed (PS). The groups did not differ significantly on the Matrix Reasoning subtest and on those working memory subtests with minimal reliance on language, which appear to be the least culturally biased. Group differences were investigated further in a set of principal components analyses, which revealed that the WAIS-III scores loaded differently for the UK and SA groups. While the SA group appeared to treat the PS subtests differently to those measuring perceptual organization and non-verbal reasoning, the UK group seemed to approach all of these subtests similarly. These results have important implications for the cognitive assessment of individuals from culturally, linguistically, and socio-economically diverse circumstances. PMID:25821443

  1. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Two Measures of Speed of Information Processing and Their Relation to Psychometric Intelligence: Evidence from the German Observational Study of Adult Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Alioscha C.; Spinath, Frank M.; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Borkenau, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Administered 2 elementary cognitive task (ECT) tests and 2 psychometric intelligence tests to 169 monozygotic and 131 dizygotic pairs of twins in Germany. Reaction times correlated negatively with psychometric intelligence, and habitability estimates were substantial for both psychometric intelligence and reaction times on the ECTs. Multivariate…

  2. Effects of Within-Talker Variability on Speech Intelligibility in Mandarin-Speaking Adult and Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qiaotong; Galvin, John J.; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Yongxin

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) speech performance is typically evaluated using well-enunciated speech produced at a normal rate by a single talker. CI users often have greater difficulty with variations in speech production encountered in everyday listening. Within a single talker, speaking rate, amplitude, duration, and voice pitch information may be quite variable, depending on the production context. The coarse spectral resolution afforded by the CI limits perception of voice pitch, which is an important cue for speech prosody and for tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. In this study, sentence recognition from the Mandarin speech perception database was measured in adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI listeners for a variety of speaking styles: voiced speech produced at slow, normal, and fast speaking rates; whispered speech; voiced emotional speech; and voiced shouted speech. Recognition of Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test sentences was also measured. Results showed that performance was significantly poorer with whispered speech relative to the other speaking styles and that performance was significantly better with slow speech than with fast or emotional speech. Results also showed that adult and pediatric performance was significantly poorer with Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test than with Mandarin speech perception sentences at the normal rate. The results suggest that adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI patients are highly susceptible to whispered speech, due to the lack of lexically important voice pitch cues and perhaps other qualities associated with whispered speech. The results also suggest that test materials may contribute to differences in performance observed between adult and pediatric CI users. PMID:27363714

  3. Effects of Within-Talker Variability on Speech Intelligibility in Mandarin-Speaking Adult and Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiaotong; Galvin, John J; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Yongxin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) speech performance is typically evaluated using well-enunciated speech produced at a normal rate by a single talker. CI users often have greater difficulty with variations in speech production encountered in everyday listening. Within a single talker, speaking rate, amplitude, duration, and voice pitch information may be quite variable, depending on the production context. The coarse spectral resolution afforded by the CI limits perception of voice pitch, which is an important cue for speech prosody and for tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. In this study, sentence recognition from the Mandarin speech perception database was measured in adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI listeners for a variety of speaking styles: voiced speech produced at slow, normal, and fast speaking rates; whispered speech; voiced emotional speech; and voiced shouted speech. Recognition of Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test sentences was also measured. Results showed that performance was significantly poorer with whispered speech relative to the other speaking styles and that performance was significantly better with slow speech than with fast or emotional speech. Results also showed that adult and pediatric performance was significantly poorer with Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test than with Mandarin speech perception sentences at the normal rate. The results suggest that adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI patients are highly susceptible to whispered speech, due to the lack of lexically important voice pitch cues and perhaps other qualities associated with whispered speech. The results also suggest that test materials may contribute to differences in performance observed between adult and pediatric CI users. PMID:27363714

  4. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  5. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  6. Organisational Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolles, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to explore the notion of organisational intelligence as a simple extension of the notion of the idea of collective intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses organisational intelligence using previous research, which includes the Purpose, Properties and Practice model of Dealtry, and the Viable Systems model. Findings: The…

  7. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also briefly…

  8. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  9. GABA predicts visual intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cook, Emily; Hammett, Stephen T; Larsson, Jonas

    2016-10-01

    Early psychological researchers proposed a link between intelligence and low-level perceptual performance. It was recently suggested that this link is driven by individual variations in the ability to suppress irrelevant information, evidenced by the observation of strong correlations between perceptual surround suppression and cognitive performance. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a link remain unclear. A candidate mechanism is neural inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but direct experimental support for GABA-mediated inhibition underlying suppression is inconsistent. Here we report evidence consistent with a global suppressive mechanism involving GABA underlying the link between sensory performance and intelligence. We measured visual cortical GABA concentration, visuo-spatial intelligence and visual surround suppression in a group of healthy adults. Levels of GABA were strongly predictive of both intelligence and surround suppression, with higher levels of intelligence associated with higher levels of GABA and stronger surround suppression. These results indicate that GABA-mediated neural inhibition may be a key factor determining cognitive performance and suggests a physiological mechanism linking surround suppression and intelligence. PMID:27495012

  10. The next generation of burns treatment: intelligent films and matrix, controlled enzymatic debridement, and adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Drago, H; Marín, G H; Sturla, F; Roque, G; Mártire, K; Díaz Aquino, V; Lamonega, R; Gardiner, C; Ichim, T; Riordan, N; Raimondi, J C; Bossi, S; Samadikuchaksaraei, A; van Leeuwen, M; Tau, J M; Núñez, L; Larsen, G; Spretz, R; Mansilla, E

    2010-01-01

    We describe a novel technology based on nanoengineered multifunctional acellular biologic scaffolds combined with wound dressings and films of the same kind. This method allows selective delivery and release of shielded biomaterials and bioactive substances to a desired wound or damaged tissue while stimulating the selective anchoring and adhesion of endogenous circulating repairing cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, to obtain a faster and more physiologic healing process. We also present a new controlled enzymatic debridement process for more effective burned tissue scarolysis. In light of our preliminary in vitro and in vivo data, we are convinced that these approaches can include the use of other kinds of adult stem cells, such as endometrial regenerative cells, to improve the vascularization of the constructs, with great potential in the entire tissue and organ regeneration field but especially for the treatment of severely burned patients, changing the way these lesions may be treated in the future.

  11. Marital Status and Reproduction: Associations with Childhood Intelligence and Adult Social Class in the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood intelligence (age 11) and occupational social status at midlife (age 46 to 51) was associated with marital status and reproduction in a sample from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s cohort study (N = 9614). Male and female divorcees had lower childhood intelligence test scores than their married counterparts, but no meaningful…

  12. Reading Ability as an Estimator of Premorbid Intelligence: Does It Remain Stable Among Ethnically Diverse HIV+ Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. Pat; Fellows, Robert P.; Rivera-Mindt, Monica; Morgello, Susan; Byrd, Desiree A.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd edition, Reading-Recognition subtest (WRAT-3 RR) is an established measure of premorbid ability. Furthermore, its long-term reliability is not well documented, particularly in diverse populations with CNS-relevant disease. Objective: We examined test-retest reliability of the WRAT-3 RR over time in an HIV+ sample of predominantly racial/ethnic minority adults. Method: Participants (N = 88) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, including the WRAT-3 RR, on at least two separate study visits. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed using scores from baseline and follow-up assessments to determine the test-retest reliability of the WRAT-3 RR across racial/ethnic groups and changes in medical (immunological) and clinical (neurocognitive) factors. Additionally, Fisher’s Z tests were used to determine the significance of the differences between ICCs. Results: The average test-retest interval was 58.7 months (SD=36.4). The overall WRAT-3 RR test-retest reliability was high (r = .97, p < .001), and remained robust across all demographic, medical, and clinical variables (all r’s > .92). Intraclass correlation coefficients did not differ significantly between the subgroups tested (all Fisher’s Z p’s > .05). Conclusions: Overall, this study supports the appropriateness of word-reading tests, such as the WRAT-3 RR, for use as stable premorbid IQ estimates among ethnically diverse groups. Moreover, this study supports the reliability of this measure in the context of change in health and neurocognitive status, and in lengthy inter-test intervals. These findings offer strong rationale for reading as a “hold” test, even in the presence of a chronic, variable disease such as HIV. PMID:26689235

  13. Shipley Institute for Living Scale and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test as Screening Instruments for Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Timothy L.; Pantle, Mark L.

    1998-01-01

    The comparability of two adult intelligence tests, the Shipley Institute for Living Scale (SILS) (W. Shipley, 1940) and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (A. Kaufman and N. Kaufman, 1990) were studied with 30 college students and 50 adults from forensic settings. Findings show that better-educated and more-relaxed clients may prefer the SILS.…

  14. Plant intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  16. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  17. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas Functional Living Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The…

  18. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

  19. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  20. Extraordinary intelligence and the care of infants.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Kidd, Celeste

    2016-06-21

    We present evidence that pressures for early childcare may have been one of the driving factors of human evolution. We show through an evolutionary model that runaway selection for high intelligence may occur when (i) altricial neonates require intelligent parents, (ii) intelligent parents must have large brains, and (iii) large brains necessitate having even more altricial offspring. We test a prediction of this account by showing across primate genera that the helplessness of infants is a particularly strong predictor of the adults' intelligence. We discuss related implications, including this account's ability to explain why human-level intelligence evolved specifically in mammals. This theory complements prior hypotheses that link human intelligence to social reasoning and reproductive pressures and explains how human intelligence may have become so distinctive compared with our closest evolutionary relatives. PMID:27217560

  1. Endophenotypes for Intelligence in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify promising endophenotypes for intelligence in children and adolescents for future genetic studies in cognitive development. Based on the available set of endophenotypes for intelligence in adults, cognitive tasks were chosen covering the domains of working memory, processing speed, and selective attention. This…

  2. Measuring Components of Intelligence: Mission Impossible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The two studies conducted by Weiss, Keith, Zhu, and Chen in 2013 on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), respectively, provide strong evidence for the validity of a four-factor solution corresponding to the current hierarchical model of both scales. These analyses support the…

  3. Statistical Weaknesses of a Unitary Construct of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, John L.

    A brief discussion of theories of general intelligence precedes a report of relevant empirical data. Results from the factor analysis of more than 20 sets of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) data indicate that the WAIS clearly is not a one-factor scale. It does not measure a single, general intelligence. Roughly 17 percent of the reliable…

  4. Parenting Styles and Children's Emotional Intelligence: What Do We Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The theory of emotional intelligence has elicited great interest both in the academic and the nonacademic world. Therapists, educators, and parents want to know what they can do to help children develop their emotional intelligence. However, most of the research in this field has investigated adults' emotional intelligence. This study reviews the…

  5. Distributed Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLagan, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed intelligence occurs when people in an organization take responsibility for creating innovations, solving problems, and making decisions. Organizations that have it excel in their markets and the global environment. (Author/JOW)

  6. Can Children Substitute for Adult Listeners in Judging the Intelligibility of the Speech of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloiber, Diana True; Ertmer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Assessments of the intelligibility of speech produced by children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) provide unique insights into functional speaking ability, readiness for mainstream classroom placements, and intervention effectiveness. The development of sentence lists for a wide age range of children and the advent of handheld…

  7. Contextual Analysis of Fluid Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2008-01-01

    The nature of fluid intelligence was investigated by identifying variables that were, and were not, significantly related to this construct. Relevant information was obtained from three sources: re-analyses of data from previous studies, a study in which 791 adults performed storage-plus-processing working memory tasks, and a study in which 236…

  8. Intelligence: Theories and Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    This paper reviews what is known about intelligence and the use of intelligence tests. Environmental and hereditary factors that affect performance on intelligence tests are reviewed, along with various theories that have been proposed about the basis of intelligence. Intelligence tests do not test intelligence per se but make inferences about a…

  9. Intelligent Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2001-01-01

    The topic of "intelligent buildings" (IBs) emerged in the early 1980s. Since, the term has been used to represent a variety of related, yet differing topics, each with a slightly different focus and purpose. Wiring and networking-infrastructure companies emphasize the cabling requirements for communication in intelligent buildings and the need to accommodate future needs for higher-speed broadband. Lucent (Lucent 2000) for example, defines an IB as "...one with a completely integrated wiring architecture. A single cabling system that handles all information traffic - voice, data, video, even the big building management systems."

  10. Artificial Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Y.; Tsujii, Jun-ichi

    1985-01-01

    Based on the Japanese 5th Generation Computer Program, this volume provides coverage of the fundamental concepts and various techniques in the different applications of Artificial Intelligence. Also presented are the methods which can be used to put these concepts and techniques into practice. Explanations are presented of all the basic topics in the field, including the representation of problems; searching techniques; the control of problem solving; programming languages for Al, such as LISP, PLANNER, CONNIVER, and PROLOG; the representation and utilization of knowledge; and the approach to human intelligence.

  11. Intelligent Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Marshall Space Flight Center, Ultrafast, Inc. developed the world's first, high-temperature resistant, "intelligent" fastener. NASA needed a critical-fastening appraisal and validation of spacecraft segments that are coupled together in space. The intelligent-bolt technology deletes the self-defeating procedure of having to untighten the fastener, and thus upset the joint, during inspection and maintenance. The Ultrafast solution yielded an innovation that is likely to revolutionize manufacturing assembly, particularly the automobile industry. Other areas of application range from aircraft, computers and fork-lifts to offshore platforms, buildings, and bridges.

  12. Brain anatomical network and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yong; Li, Jun; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2009-05-01

    Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence. PMID:19492086

  13. Plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  14. Civic Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, David

    1985-01-01

    Social studies must educate students to be socially responsible, civically competent persons. In addition to encouraging civic literacy, civic values, and civic skill, teachers need to help students develop civic-mindedness. The objective of the NCSS' National Issues Forum in the Classroom Project is to develop students' civic intelligence. (RM)

  15. Intelligence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To make an academic study of matters inherently secret and potentially explosive seems a tall task. But a growing number of scholars are drawn to understanding spycraft. The interdisciplinary field of intelligence studies is mushrooming, as scholars trained in history, international studies, and political science examine such subjects as the…

  16. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  17. Team B Intelligence Coups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and undercut…

  18. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  19. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450

  20. Intelligent Tutor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.

  1. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  2. An Intelligent Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Albert

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a research project that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help teach programing. Describes principles and implementation of the LISP Intelligent Tutoring System (LISPITS). Explains how the artificial intelligence technique was developed and possible future research. (MVL)

  3. Intelligent Design and Intelligent Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerman, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Good Evening, my name is Greg Jerman and for nearly a quarter century I have been performing failure analysis on NASA's aerospace hardware. During that time I had the distinct privilege of keeping the Space Shuttle flying for two thirds of its history. I have analyzed a wide variety of failed hardware from simple electrical cables to cryogenic fuel tanks to high temperature turbine blades. During this time I have found that for all the time we spend intelligently designing things, we need to be equally intelligent about understanding why things fail. The NASA Flight Director for Apollo 13, Gene Kranz, is best known for the expression "Failure is not an option." However, NASA history is filled with failures both large and small, so it might be more accurate to say failure is inevitable. It is how we react and learn from our failures that makes the difference.

  4. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  5. Pathogen intelligence.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  6. Pathogen intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  7. Exploring Emotional Intelligence Correlates in Selected Populations of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, D.; Torrie, J.; Prindle, L.

    This study examined the role played by emotional intelligence on occupational success, seeking to correlate college grades with measures of emotional intelligence. The study, conducted at a Canadian community college, involved two student populations: an adult education group and a group of automotive service technicians in a pre-employment…

  8. Beyond "g": Putting Multiple Intelligences Theory to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Beth A.; Ashton, Michael C.; Vernon, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated Gardner's "Theory of Multiple Intelligences" in a sample of 200 adults. For each of the hypothesized eight "intelligence" domains--Linguistic, Logical/Mathematical, Spatial, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Musical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Naturalistic--we selected two tests based on Gardner's description of its content. Factor analysis…

  9. Exploring Multiple Intelligences Theory at a Community College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkemeier, Ginny Y. Hew

    Discusses multiple intelligence (a pluralized approach to understanding the intellect) teaching and learning of science at the higher education level, specifically within community colleges. The purpose of this study was four-fold. The first purpose was to investigate adult learning through Multiple Intelligence Theory (MI) at the community…

  10. Effects of Sex and Lesion Locus on Measures of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Timothy B.; Walker, Marie L.

    1988-01-01

    Obtained Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) data from 64 patients with cortical neoplasms confined to one brain quadrant. Indicated significant effect for lesion laterality for verbal IQ scores and verbal IQ-performance IQ difference scores. Found no significant main effect for gender or lesion site (anterior-posterior)…

  11. A Unitary Executive Function Predicts Intelligence in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brydges, Christopher R.; Reid, Corinne L.; Fox, Allison M.; Anderson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) and intelligence are of critical importance to success in many everyday tasks. Working memory, or updating, which is one latent variable identified in confirmatory factor analytic models of executive functions, predicts intelligence (both fluid and crystallised) in adults, but inhibition and shifting do not (Friedman et…

  12. Dorsolateral prefrontal contributions to human intelligence.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-06-01

    Although cognitive neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in executive control functions for human intelligence, the necessity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) for key competencies of general intelligence and executive function remains to be well established. Here we studied human brain lesion patients with dlPFC lesions to investigate whether this region is computationally necessary for performance on neuropsychological tests of general intelligence and executive function, administering the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and subtests of the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) to three groups: dlPFC lesions (n=19), non-dlPFC lesions (n=152), and no brain lesions (n=55). The results indicate that: (1) patients with focal dlPFC damage exhibit lower scores, at the latent variable level, than controls in general intelligence (g) and executive function; (2) dlPFC patients demonstrate lower scores than controls in several executive measures; and (3) these latter differences are no longer significant when the pervasive influence of the general factor of intelligence (g) is statistically removed. The observed findings support a central role for the dlPFC in global aspects of general intelligence and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the WAIS and D-KEFS to the study of high-level cognition in health and disease.

  13. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  14. Intelligent Extruder

    SciTech Connect

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  15. Intelligence: Genetic and Environmental Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancro, Robert, Ed.

    This book on the genetic and environmental influences on intelligence is comprised of the following papers: "The Structure of Intelligence in Relation to the Nature-Nurture Controversy," R. B. Cattell; "Theory of Intelligence," L. G. Humphreys; "Using Measured Intelligence Intelligently," P. R. Merrifield; "Intelligence: Definition, Theory, and…

  16. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  17. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

  18. Openness, Intelligence, and Self-Report Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gignac, Gilles E.; Stough, Con; Loukomitis, Sue

    2004-01-01

    Past studies that have examined the relationship between Openness and crystallized ability have failed to account statistically for the fact that subtests commonly regarded as measures of crystallized intelligence (e.g., Vocabulary) are contaminated substantially by general intelligence. A method using residuals derived from a regression is…

  19. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  20. Diversity in Our Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Jesus I.

    2002-01-01

    Babies and young children learn through extensive experimenting and by being encouraged, unknowingly, by parents to use their multiple intelligences. Later, children are forced to conform to the narrow intelligence valued by the formal education system; those who can not adapt drop out. By using multiple intelligences, we access a greater portion…

  1. Distributed neural system for emotional intelligence revealed by lesion mapping.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has made considerable progress in understanding the neural architecture of human intelligence, identifying a broadly distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the contributions of this network to social and emotional aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here we investigated the neural basis of emotional intelligence in 152 patients with focal brain injuries using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain measures of emotional intelligence, general intelligence and personality from the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for measures of general intelligence and personality reliably predicted latent scores for emotional intelligence. Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. The results support an integrative framework for understanding the architecture of executive, social and emotional processes and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the MSCEIT to the study of emotional intelligence in health and disease.

  2. A Four- and Five-Factor Structural Model for Wechsler Tests: Does It Really Matter Clinically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to focus on the clinical utility of the four- and five-factor structural models for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). It provides a discussion of important considerations when evaluating the clinical utility of the…

  3. Counseling College-Bound Students: Can ACT Scores Be Predicted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Howard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between American College Testing Program (ACT) academic test and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and 1986 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (Binet IV). Thirty college students for whom ACT scores were available took other tests. Concluded…

  4. Speech Intelligibility and Prosody Production in Children with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Steven B.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Phan, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between speech intelligibility and prosody production in children who use cochlear implants. Methods The Beginner's Intelligibility Test (BIT) and Prosodic Utterance Production (PUP) task were administered to 15 children who use cochlear implants and 10 children with normal hearing. Adult listeners with normal hearing judged the intelligibility of the words in the BIT sentences, identified the PUP sentences as one of four grammatical or emotional moods (i.e., declarative, interrogative, happy, or sad), and rated the PUP sentences according to how well they thought the child conveyed the designated mood. Results Percent correct scores were higher for intelligibility than for prosody and higher for children with normal hearing than for children with cochlear implants. Declarative sentences were most readily identified and received the highest ratings by adult listeners; interrogative sentences were least readily identified and received the lowest ratings. Correlations between intelligibility and all mood identification and rating scores except declarative were not significant. Discussion The findings suggest that the development of speech intelligibility progresses ahead of prosody in both children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing; however, children with normal hearing still perform better than children with cochlear implants on measures of intelligibility and prosody even after accounting for hearing age. Problems with interrogative intonation may be related to more general restrictions on rising intonation, and the correlation results indicate that intelligibility and sentence intonation may be relatively dissociated at these ages. PMID:22717120

  5. Respiratory Dynamics and Speech Intelligibility in Speakers with Generalized Dystonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBlance, Gary R.; Rutherford, David R.

    1991-01-01

    This study compared respiratory function during quiet breathing and monologue, in six adult dystonic subjects and a control group of four neurologically intact adults. Dystonic subjects showed a faster breathing rate, less rhythmic breathing pattern, decreased lung volume, and apnea-like periods. Decreased speech intelligibility was related to…

  6. Relationship Between Intelligence and Self-Perceived Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of self-perceived intelligence to measured intelligence across age and instrumentation, two intelligence tests and two self-concept tests were administered to postgraduate students and to high school students. Intelligence and self-perceived intelligence were found to be independent of each other. (Author/CM)

  7. Failure of working memory training to enhance cognition or intelligence.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Todd W; Waskom, Michael L; Garel, Keri-Lee A; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Reynolds, Gretchen O; Winter, Rebecca; Chang, Patricia; Pollard, Kiersten; Lala, Nupur; Alvarez, George A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities.

  8. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  9. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  10. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.

  11. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  12. Fractionating human intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Adam; Highfield, Roger R; Parkin, Beth L; Owen, Adrian M

    2012-12-20

    What makes one person more intellectually able than another? Can the entire distribution of human intelligence be accounted for by just one general factor? Is intelligence supported by a single neural system? Here, we provide a perspective on human intelligence that takes into account how general abilities or "factors" reflect the functional organization of the brain. By comparing factor models of individual differences in performance with factor models of brain functional organization, we demonstrate that different components of intelligence have their analogs in distinct brain networks. Using simulations based on neuroimaging data, we show that the higher-order factor "g" is accounted for by cognitive tasks corecruiting multiple networks. Finally, we confirm the independence of these components of intelligence by dissociating them using questionnaire variables. We propose that intelligence is an emergent property of anatomically distinct cognitive systems, each of which has its own capacity.

  13. The search for intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, E. J.

    1980-12-01

    Implications of current understandings of the nature of human intelligence for the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence are discussed. The perceptual theory of intelligence as the manipulation of perceptual images rather than language is introduced, and conditions leading to the ascendancy of man over other hominids with similar conceptual abilities are discussed, including the liberation of the hands from a locomotive function and the evolution of neoteny. It is argued that the specificity of the environmental, behavioral and physiological conditions which lead to the emergence of technologically oriented, and communicative intelligent creatures suggests that any SETI would most likely be fruitless.

  14. Intelligence and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Demographers debate why people have children in advanced industrial societies where children are net economic costs. From an evolutionary perspective, however, the important question is why some individuals choose not to have children. Recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to prefer to remain childless than less intelligent individuals. Analyses of the National Child Development Study show that more intelligent men and women express preference to remain childless early in their reproductive careers, but only more intelligent women (not more intelligent men) are more likely to remain childless by the end of their reproductive careers. Controlling for education and earnings does not at all attenuate the association between childhood general intelligence and lifetime childlessness among women. One-standard-deviation increase in childhood general intelligence (15 IQ points) decreases women's odds of parenthood by 21-25%. Because women have a greater impact on the average intelligence of future generations, the dysgenic fertility among women is predicted to lead to a decline in the average intelligence of the population in advanced industrial nations. PMID:25131282

  15. Intelligence and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Demographers debate why people have children in advanced industrial societies where children are net economic costs. From an evolutionary perspective, however, the important question is why some individuals choose not to have children. Recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to prefer to remain childless than less intelligent individuals. Analyses of the National Child Development Study show that more intelligent men and women express preference to remain childless early in their reproductive careers, but only more intelligent women (not more intelligent men) are more likely to remain childless by the end of their reproductive careers. Controlling for education and earnings does not at all attenuate the association between childhood general intelligence and lifetime childlessness among women. One-standard-deviation increase in childhood general intelligence (15 IQ points) decreases women's odds of parenthood by 21-25%. Because women have a greater impact on the average intelligence of future generations, the dysgenic fertility among women is predicted to lead to a decline in the average intelligence of the population in advanced industrial nations.

  16. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  17. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board...

  18. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  19. Dissociable brain biomarkers of fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Paul, Erick J; Larsen, Ryan J; Nikolaidis, Aki; Ward, Nathan; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F; Barbey, Aron K

    2016-08-15

    Cognitive neuroscience has long sought to understand the biological foundations of human intelligence. Decades of research have revealed that general intelligence is correlated with two brain-based biomarkers: the concentration of the brain biochemical N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and total brain volume measured using structural MR imaging (MRI). However, the relative contribution of these biomarkers in predicting performance on core facets of human intelligence remains to be well characterized. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the role of NAA and brain volume in predicting fluid intelligence (Gf). Three canonical tests of Gf (BOMAT, Number Series, and Letter Sets) and three working memory tasks (Reading, Rotation, and Symmetry span tasks) were administered to a large sample of healthy adults (n=211). We conducted exploratory factor analysis to investigate the factor structure underlying Gf independent from working memory and observed two Gf components (verbal/spatial and quantitative reasoning) and one working memory component. Our findings revealed a dissociation between two brain biomarkers of Gf (controlling for age and sex): NAA concentration correlated with verbal/spatial reasoning, whereas brain volume correlated with quantitative reasoning and working memory. A follow-up analysis revealed that this pattern of findings is observed for males and females when analyzed separately. Our results provide novel evidence that distinct brain biomarkers are associated with specific facets of human intelligence, demonstrating that NAA and brain volume are independent predictors of verbal/spatial and quantitative facets of Gf. PMID:27184204

  20. Test Review: Review of Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition: Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). "Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition". Bloomington, MN: Pearson, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Sherry K.; Jaspers, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004b), which is designed to provide a brief, individualized format for measuring verbal and nonverbal intelligence in children and adults from the ages of 4 years, 0 months through 90 years, 11 months. The test consists of only three…

  1. Family size and intelligence revisited: the role of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Morand, D A

    1999-04-01

    Studies examining the link between family size and intelligence have consistently found a negative relationship. Children born into larger families tend to score lower on intelligence tests than children raised in smaller families. One recurrent but unexplained finding is that the relation between intelligence and number of siblings is consistently significant for verbal intelligence but inconsistent for nonverbal intelligence. Here, we conceptualize emotional intelligence as one facet of nonverbal intelligence. The research develops a measure of emotional intelligence and uses it to test the hypothesis that emotional intelligence is positively correlated with family size. The results, based upon a sample of graduate students, support the hypothesized relationship. Implications for the study of family size and intelligence, for refining the conceptualizations and measures of nonverbal intelligence, and for leadership theory, are discussed. PMID:10335078

  2. Artificial intelligence and intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livergood, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    As a species we have evolved by increasing our mental and physical powers through the deliberate development and use of instruments that amplify our inherent capabilities. Whereas hereditarily given instincts predetermine the actions of lower animal forms, human existence begins with freedom. As humans we can choose what actions we will perform. We have invented a technology called education to prepare ourselves for life. At present, our educational structures and procedures are failing to prepare us efficiently for the demands of modern life. One of the most important new technologies, in relation to human development, is the digital computer. This dissertation proposes that artificial intelligence maintain a highly critical technological awareness. Artificial intelligence, because of its origin as a politically sponsored field of investigation, must strive for constant awareness of its place within the larger political-economic world and its possible misuse by factions intent on manipulation and control. Computerized models of the human mind could be used in developing progressively more sophisticated brainwashing systems. Intelligent tutoring systems comprise an important new technology within the field of artificial intelligence. This dissertation explores specification and design procedures, functions and issues in developing intelligent tutoring systems.

  3. Intelligent user interface for intelligent multimedia repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Phill-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Sim, B. S.; Zhoo, Z. C.; Park, D.-I.

    1997-10-01

    Recently, much effort has been made for efficiency of user interface since the assumption of expertise or well-trained users is nor more valid these days. Today's users of computer systems are expanded to ordinary people. Furthermore, too much network accessible information resources in the form of various media increases rapidly everyday. The primary goal of the intelligent multimedia repository (IMR) is to assist users in accessing multimedia information efficiently. Primary users of the IMR are assumed to be novice users even though the system can be used for users at different levels of expertise. Users are not well-trained people in using computer system. Thus, the semantic gap between users and the system must be mainly reduced form the system site. The technology of intelligent user interface is adopted to minimize the semantic gap. For the intelligent user interface of been designed and developed. Machine learning technologies have been employed to provide user adaptation/intelligent capability to the system. The IUI of the IMR consist user interface manager (UIM), and user model (UM). The UIM performs the function of managing intelligent user interface. The UM stores the behavioral knowledge of the user. The UM stores the history of query and response interactions to absorb communication errors due to semantic gaps between the user and the IMR. The UM is implemented by decision tree based case- based reasoning and back propagation neural networks. Experimental result show the IUI can improve the performance of the IMR.

  4. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Discusses intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), one application of artificial intelligence to computers used in education. Basic designs of ITSs are described; examples are given including PROUST, GREATERP, and the use of simulation with ITSs; protocol analysis is discussed; and 38 prototype ITSs are listed. (LRW)

  5. Intelligence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how intelligence is used to acquire education to make positives changes for oneself and for others. For change to occur, intelligence is required to understand which changes need to be made and how to make them. A literature review was conducted through the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)…

  6. The Concept of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of the ordinary concept of intelligence are few and far between in philosophical literature. Such analyses as there have been in recent years are heavily influenced by Ryle's suggestion that to act intelligently is to act "well" or "competently" in a particular domain. Here I show that there are serious problems with Ryle's account and…

  7. The Physics of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escultura, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the physics of intelligence and provides an overview of what happens in the brain when a person is engaged in mental activity that we classify under thought or intelligence. It traces the formation of a concept starting with reception of visible or detectable signals from the real world by and external to the sense organs,…

  8. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  9. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  10. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  11. Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John R.; Boyle, C. Franklin; Reiser, Brian J.

    1985-04-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP.

  12. Artificial intelligence: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

  13. The Concept of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neisser, Ulric

    1979-01-01

    Because no single characteristic defines intelligence, there can be no adequate process-based definition of intelligence. In principle, a combination of many empirically derived measures into a single index, as in a Binet test, would be appropriate. In practice, many of the relevant characteristics are simply impossible to measure. (Author/RD)

  14. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve

    This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…

  15. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  16. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  17. Ironising with Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlandson, Peter; Beach, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a project that seeks in part to explore how students understand and use the concept of intelligence. It is based on an ethnographically contextualized study of linguistic events and was conducted in an inner-city upper secondary school in Sweden. The article shows that the concept of intelligence is not spontaneously used…

  18. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  19. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)

  20. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  1. Intelligence and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The origin of preferences and values is an unresolved theoretical problem in behavioural sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals are more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel preferences and values than less intelligent individuals, but general intelligence has no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar preferences and values. Ethnographies of traditional societies suggest that exclusively homosexual behaviour was probably rare in the ancestral environment, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent individuals are more likely to identify themselves as homosexual and engage in homosexual behaviour. Analyses of three large, nationally representative samples (two of which are prospectively longitudinal) from two different nations confirm the prediction.

  2. Estimating self, parental, and partner multiple intelligences: a replication in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Kannan, Kumaraswami

    2006-12-01

    Participants were 230 adult Malaysians who estimated their own, their parents', and their partners' overall IQs and 10 multiple intelligences. In accordance with both the previous literature and the authors' hypotheses, men rated themselves higher than did women on overall, verbal, logical-mathematical, and spatial intelligences. There were fewer gender differences in ratings of parents and in those of partners. Participants believed that they were more intelligent than both parents (but not their partners) and that their fathers were more intelligent than their mothers. Regressions indicated that participants believed that verbal intelligence and--to a lesser extent--logical-mathematical intelligence were the main predictors of overall intelligence. The authors discussed results in terms of the extant cross-cultural literature in the field.

  3. Estimating self, parental, and partner multiple intelligences: a replication in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Kannan, Kumaraswami

    2006-12-01

    Participants were 230 adult Malaysians who estimated their own, their parents', and their partners' overall IQs and 10 multiple intelligences. In accordance with both the previous literature and the authors' hypotheses, men rated themselves higher than did women on overall, verbal, logical-mathematical, and spatial intelligences. There were fewer gender differences in ratings of parents and in those of partners. Participants believed that they were more intelligent than both parents (but not their partners) and that their fathers were more intelligent than their mothers. Regressions indicated that participants believed that verbal intelligence and--to a lesser extent--logical-mathematical intelligence were the main predictors of overall intelligence. The authors discussed results in terms of the extant cross-cultural literature in the field. PMID:17172142

  4. Universities and the Intelligence Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Morton S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Statements before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence with regard to the National Intelligence Reorganization and Reform Act and the relations of the intelligence agencies to the academic community are reported. Issues include covert recruitment and operational use of academics by the Central Intelligence Agency. (JMD)

  5. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  6. Conceptions of Intelligence and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bireley, Marlene

    This paper presents a review of the major ideas on the nature of intelligence and giftedness. Especially noted are theories of Howard Gardner, Robert Sternberg, and J.P. Das. Gardner expanded traditional notions of intelligence to include such talents as spatial ability, musical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, and interpersonal and…

  7. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  8. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  9. Intelligence supportability in future systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Brian; Watson, Mariah; Vayette, Corey; Fiduk, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Advanced weaponry is providing an exponential increase in intelligence data collection capabilities and the Intelligence Community (IC) is not properly positioned for the influx of intelligence supportabilitiy requirements the defense acquisition community is developing for it. The Air Force Material Command (AFMC) has initiated the Intelligence Supportability Analysis (ISA) process to allow the IC to triage programs for intelligence sensitivities as well as begin preparations within the IC for the transition of future programs to operational status. The ISA process is accomplished through system decomposition, allowing analysts to identify intelligence requirements and deficiencies. Early collaboration and engagement by program managers and intelligence analysts is crucial to the success of intelligence sensitive programs through the utilization of a repeatable analytical framework for evaluating and making cognizant trade-offs between cost, schedule and performance. Addressing intelligence supportability early in the acquisition process will also influence system design and provide the necessary lead time for intelligence community to react and resource new requirements.

  10. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  11. Toward intelligent flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Flight control systems can benefit by being designed to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories: declarative, procedural, and reflexive. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are more-or-less spontaneous and are similar to inner-loop control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems will contain a hierarchy of expert systems, procedural algorithms, and computational neural networks, each expanding on prior functions to improve mission capability to increase the reliability and safety of flight and to ease pilot workload.

  12. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents: A 1-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…

  13. Is "g" an Entity? A Japanese Twin Study Using Syllogisms and Intelligence Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikishima, Chizuru; Hiraishi, Kai; Yamagata, Shinji; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Takemura, Ryo; Ozaki, Koken; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Toda, Tatsushi; Ando, Juko

    2009-01-01

    Using a behavioral genetic approach, we examined the validity of the hypothesis concerning the singularity of human general intelligence, the "g" theory, by analyzing data from two tests: the first consisted of 100 syllogism problems and the second a full-scale intelligence test. The participants were 448 Japanese young adult twins (167 pairs of…

  14. A Comparison of Adolescent Intelligence as Measured by the WAIS and the WISC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, John E.; Kicklighter, Richard

    This study was designed to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQ scores (Full Scale, Verbal, and Performance) of 120 16-year-olds, controlling for both practice or order effects and for intellectual level. Each test was administered to each subject, with an average interest…

  15. The Relationship between Social Competence and Intelligence in Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roszkowski, Michael J.; Isett, Robert D.

    1982-01-01

    The social quotient from Vineland Social Maturity Scale was found to be moderately associated with IQ as measured by the Stanford Binet, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Slosson Intelligence Test, and the Leiter International Test for institutionalized mentally retarded persons. (CL)

  16. Making Creative Metaphors: The Importance of Fluid Intelligence for Creative Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvia, Paul J.; Beaty, Roger E.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence and creativity remains controversial. The present research explored this issue by studying the role of fluid intelligence (Gf) in the generation of creative metaphors. Participants (n = 132 young adults) completed six nonverbal tests of Gf (primarily tests of inductive reasoning) and were then asked to create…

  17. Peripheral Nerve Conduction Velocity, Reaction Time, and Intelligence: An Attempt to Replicate Vernon and Mori.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, John C.; Vernon, Philip A.

    1994-01-01

    In a study involving 38 adult females, nerve conduction velocity (NCV) did not correlate with intelligence or reaction time. A reanalysis of the Vernon and Mori data showed a possible sex difference in relation to NCV and intelligence, with the correlation between these variables much smaller in females than males. (SLD)

  18. The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic…

  19. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  20. Test Review: Hammill, D. D., Pearson, N. A., & Weiderholt, J. L. (2009). "Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2)." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delen, Erhan; Kaya, Fatih; Ritter, Nicola L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2), a nonverbal intelligence test created to assess reasoning and problem solving of children and adults. The goal of the CTONI-2 is to minimize the influence of language ability on intelligence test scores. Oral or pantomime instructions can…

  1. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  2. Intelligence, race, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They further argue that race is a social construction with no scientific definition. Thus, studies of the relationship between race and other constructs may serve social ends but cannot serve scientific ends. No gene has yet been conclusively linked to intelligence, so attempts to provide a compelling genetic link of race to intelligence are not feasible at this time. The authors also show that heritability, a behavior-genetic concept, is inadequate in regard to providing such a link.

  3. Modelling intelligent behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. S.; Triffet, T.

    1993-01-01

    An introductory discussion of the related concepts of intelligence and consciousness suggests criteria to be met in the modeling of intelligence and the development of intelligent materials. Methods for the modeling of actual structure and activity of the animal cortex have been found, based on present knowledge of the ionic and cellular constitution of the nervous system. These have led to the development of a realistic neural network model, which has been used to study the formation of memory and the process of learning. An account is given of experiments with simple materials which exhibit almost all properties of biological synapses and suggest the possibility of a new type of computer architecture to implement an advanced type of artificial intelligence.

  4. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.; McDermott, D.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on artificial intelligence. Topics include reasoning under uncertainty, robot plans, language understanding, and learning. The history of the field as well as intellectual ties to related disciplines are presented.

  5. The Convergence of Intelligences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Joachim

    Minsky (1985) argued an extraterrestrial intelligence may be similar to ours despite very different origins. ``Problem- solving'' offers evolutionary advantages and individuals who are part of a technical civilisation should have this capacity. On earth, the principles of problem-solving are the same for humans, some primates and machines based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Intelligent systems use ``goals'' and ``sub-goals'' for problem-solving, with memories and representations of ``objects'' and ``sub-objects'' as well as knowledge of relations such as ``cause'' or ``difference.'' Some of these objects are generic and cannot easily be divided into parts. We must, therefore, assume that these objects and relations are universal, and a general property of intelligence. Minsky's arguments from 1985 are extended here. The last decade has seen the development of a general learning theory (``computational learning theory'' (CLT) or ``statistical learning theory'') which equally applies to humans, animals and machines. It is argued that basic learning laws will also apply to an evolved alien intelligence, and this includes limitations of what can be learned efficiently. An example from CLT is that the general learning problem for neural networks is intractable, i.e. it cannot be solved efficiently for all instances (it is ``NP-complete''). It is the objective of this paper to show that evolved intelligences will be constrained by general learning laws and will use task-decomposition for problem-solving. Since learning and problem-solving are core features of intelligence, it can be said that intelligences converge despite very different origins.

  6. Intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.R.; Boyle, C.F.; Reiser, B.J.

    1985-04-26

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP. 19 references, 2 figures.

  7. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  8. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Driver is built on top of the RIK-A and implements a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-D is used to orchestrate hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a single cognitive behavior kernel that provides intrinsic intelligence for a wide variety of unmanned ground vehicle systems.

  9. Intelligent tutoring systems.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R; Boyle, C F; Reiser, B J

    1985-04-26

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP. PMID:17746875

  10. Introducing artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the field of artificial intelligence. The volume sets Al in a broad context of historical attitudes, imaginative insights, and ideas about intelligence in general. The author offers a wide-ranging survey of Al concerns, including cognition, knowledge engineering, problem inference, speech understanding, and perception. He also discusses expert systems, LISP, smart robots, and other Al products, and provides a listing of all major Al systems.

  11. 78 FR 90 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the National Intelligence University Board of Visitors has been scheduled...

  12. 78 FR 32241 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence Agency... given that a closed meeting of the National Intelligence University Board of Visitors has been...

  13. Brain Development Parameters and Intelligence in Chilean High School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanovic, Daniza M.; Leiva, Boris P.; Castro, Carmen G.; Olivares, Manuel G.; Jansana, Joan Manuel M.; Castro, Veronica G.; Almagia, Atilio Aldo F.; Toro, Triana D.; Urrutia, Maria Soledad C.; Miller, Patricio T.; Bosch, Enrique O.; Larrain, Cristian G.; Perez, Hernan T.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that independently of sex, brain volume (BV) and head circumference (HC) are positively and significantly associated with intellectual quotient (IQ) was examined in a sample of 96 high school graduates of high [Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults--Revised (WAIS-R) is greater than 120] and low IQ (WAIS-R is less than 100) (1:1),…

  14. Exercise and Children's Intelligence, Cognition, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Davis, Catherine L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Studies that examine the effects of exercise on children's intelligence, cognition, or academic achievement were reviewed and results were discussed in light of (a) contemporary cognitive theory development directed toward exercise, (b) recent research demonstrating the salutary effects of exercise on adults' cognitive functioning, and (c) studies…

  15. How Accurate Are Judgments of Intelligence by Strangers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borkenau, Peter

    Whether judgments made by complete strangers as to the intelligence of subjects are accurate or merely illusory was studied in Germany. Target subjects were 50 female and 50 male adults recruited through a newspaper article. Eighteen judges, who did not know the subjects, were recruited from a university community. Videorecordings of the subjects,…

  16. Intelligence, Belief in the Paranormal, Knowledge of Probability and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Nayak, Laxman; Priest, Lee

    2006-01-01

    In young adults, preparedness to accept improbable events as planned rather than due to chance is predictive of the level of belief in the paranormal, possibly underpinned by lower intelligence levels (Musch and Ehrenberg, 2002). The present study, using a sample of 73 older participants aged 60-84 years failed to find any relationship between…

  17. Children's Working Memory: Its Structure and Relationship to Fluid Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, Caroline; Brunner, Martin; Reuter, Robert A. P.; Martin, Romain

    2011-01-01

    Working memory (WM) has been predominantly studied in adults. The insights provided by these studies have led to the development of competing theories on the structure of WM and conflicting conclusions on how strongly WM components are related to higher order thinking skills such as fluid intelligence. However, it remains unclear whether and to…

  18. Intelligent life in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  19. Intelligent Potroom Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Jan Berkow; Larry Banta

    2003-07-29

    The Intelligent Potroom Operation project focuses on maximizing the performance of an aluminum smelter by innovating components for an intelligent manufacturing system. The Intelligent Potroom Advisor (IPA) monitors process data to identify reduction cells exhibiting behaviors that require immediate attention. It then advises operational personnel on those heuristic-based actions to bring the cell back to an optimal operating state in order to reduce the duration and frequency of substandard reduction cell performance referred to as ''Off-Peak Modes'' (OPMs). Techniques developed to identify cells exhibiting OPMs include the use of a finite element model-based cell state estimator for defining the cell's current operating state via advanced cell noise analyses. In addition, rule induction was also employed to identify statistically significant complex behaviors that occur prior to OPMs. The intelligent manufacturing system design, concepts and formalisms developed in this project w ere used as a basis for an intelligent manufacturing system design. Future research will incorporate an adaptive component to automate continuous process improvement, a technology platform with the potential to improve process performance in many of the other Industries of the Future applications as well.

  20. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  1. Integrated Curricular Approaches in Reaching Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerick-Brown, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    In the field of adult basic education, there are two strategies that have been found to be of particular value to student learning: multiple intelligences and purpose-based learning. However, putting these learning theories into practice is not always as easy as an educator might at first believe. Adult basic education teacher Dylan Emerick-Brown…

  2. Radical Ideas in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohliger, John

    The outline for an adult education colloquim states 17 discussion questions. Under each question, the outline refers to appropriate items on an eight page, 81-item, annotated bibliography. The first of three topical areas, ideas about people, considers: all people's desire to learn and their rough equality in intelligence; common people's ability…

  3. Measuring the Intelligence of College Students with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Results Obtained on the WAIS-R and the KAIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anna W.; Sullivan, Susan A.; Darden, Cindy; Gregg, Noel

    1997-01-01

    This study involving 30 college students with learning disabilities and 30 students without learning disabilities (ages 18-30) compared results obtained on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test. Results found no significant differences between the two groups or between tests.…

  4. WAIS-R Factors and Performance on the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales: A Canonical Model of Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Patrick C.; Macciocchi, Stephen N.

    1986-01-01

    Pattern and level of performance on the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised) and the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales were examined for 93 neurologically impaired adults. Each set of procedures evidently is indexing the same theoretical constructs. (Author/ABB)

  5. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  6. The Problem of Defining Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubar, David

    1981-01-01

    The major philosophical issues surrounding the concept of intelligence are reviewed with respect to the problems surrounding the process of defining and developing artificial intelligence (AI) in computers. Various current definitions and problems with these definitions are presented. (MP)

  7. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  8. Animal intelligence as encephalization.

    PubMed

    Jerison, H J

    1985-02-13

    There is no consensus on the nature of animal intelligence despite a century of research, though recent work on cognitive capacities of dolphins and great apes seems to be on one right track. The most precise quantitative analyses have been of relative brain size, or structural encephalization, undertaken to find biological correlates of mind in animals. Encephalization and its evolution are remarkably orderly, and if the idea of intelligence were unknown it would have to be invented to explain encephalization. The scientific question is: what behaviour or dimensions of behaviour evolved when encephalization evolved? The answer: the relatively unusual behaviours that require increased neural information processing capacity, beyond that attributable to differences among species in body size. In this perspective, the different behaviours that depend on augmented processing capacity in different species are evidence of different intelligences (in the plural) that have evolved.

  9. Ask an intelligent question...

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, K.

    1995-05-01

    In recent years, as electric utilities have moved toward deregualtion, industry watchers have counceled them to create streamlined competitor intelligence functions or else be outstripped by utilities that do. Gathering competitor intelligence stays focused on answering key questions and showing a cource of action. To that extent, it is part and parcel of good decision-making. In strategic analysis, intelligence focuses on broad-scale comparisons to other electric utilities to determine competitive strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This information helps utilities develop business strategies, including a high-level view of what products and services to offer customers. The objective is to ensure that the company doesn`t miss an important issue or trend, so such analysis is ongoing and benefits from a visionary or creative viewpoint.

  10. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  11. Analysis of WAIS-IV Index Score Scatter Using Significant Deviation from the Mean Index Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L.; Zhu, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement…

  12. WAIS-IV Subtest Covariance Structure: Conceptual and Statistical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Charles; Bergman, Maria A.; Hebert, Katina R.

    2012-01-01

    D. Wechsler (2008b) reported confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) with standardization data (ages 16-69 years) for 10 core and 5 supplemental subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). Analyses of the 15 subtests supported 4 hypothesized oblique factors (Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning,…

  13. Bifactor Modeling and the Estimation of Model-Based Reliability in the WAIS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gignac, Gilles E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    Previous confirmatory factor analytic research that has examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) has endorsed either higher order models or oblique factor models that tend to amalgamate both general factor and index factor sources of systematic variance. An alternative model that has not yet…

  14. Introducing artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes the background to AI, explores some characteristic objectives and methods, and indicates some of the practical ramifications for expert, robotic and other types of systems. Following a brief discussion of the nature of intelligence, the recent history of AI is outlined. Characteristic activities of AI systems are explored in Part II. Here it is emphasized that AI systems are not only concerned with ''thought'' but with ''action''-it is an obvious requirement of intelligent commercial and other systems that they behave with competence in a real-world environment. Finally some of the current and future uses of AI systems are explored.

  15. World-Wide Intelligent Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Elmar; Brusilovsky, Peter; Weber, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    New WWW technologies allow for integrating distance education power of WWW with interactivity and intelligence. Integrating on-line presentation of learning materials with the interactivity of problem solving environments and the intelligence of intelligent tutoring systems results in a new quality of learning materials that we call I3-textbooks.…

  16. Dental ethics and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.

  17. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  18. An Overview of Intelligence Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Margaret B.; Hall, Alfred E.

    1980-01-01

    This article briefly traces the development of intelligence testing from its beginnings in 1905 with Alfred Binet; cites the intelligence theories of Spearman, Thurstone, and Guilford; and examines current objections to intelligence tests in terms of what they test and how they are interpreted. (SJL)

  19. Intelligent Support for Interface Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teskey, F. N.

    This paper describes how a language for building information systems that is being developed by the Office for Research at OCLC can be linked to an artificial intelligence environment, Poplog. The demonstration system--ISIS (Intelligent Support for Interface systems)--shows how Poplog could provide some intelligent support for a D interface,…

  20. Political Orientations, Intelligence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Woodley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The social sciences have traditionally assumed that education is a major determinant of citizens' political orientations and behavior. Several studies have also shown that intelligence has an impact. According to a theory that conceptualizes intelligence as a "burgher" (middle-class, civil) phenomenon--intelligence should promote civil attitudes,…

  1. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  2. Digital Intelligence Fostered by Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nan B.

    2004-01-01

    Through interaction with digital technologies for work, play, and communication, the pattern for intellectual development is being altered. The multiple intelligences theoretical framework developed by Gardner (1983) is easily employed to provide evidence that yet another intelligence, digital intelligence, has emerged. In a postmodern pluralistic…

  3. Mathematics, Computation, and Psychic Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moise, Edwin E.

    1984-01-01

    Defines psychic intelligence as an inclination all children possess to use whatever cognitive intelligence they have for learning, adaptive behavior, and pleasure; strongly suggests that algorithmic drill usually damages the mentality of children by stifling psychic intelligence; and discusses the use of pocket calculators to prevent this effect.…

  4. Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorescu, Ioana

    1987-01-01

    Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)

  5. [Factor analysis on the intelligence of patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Liu, X; Huo, K; Li, Y

    2000-03-01

    The authors made a factor analysis on the intelligence of patients with schizophrenia. 119 patients with schizophrenia were measured by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China (WAIS-RC). The results revealed the average full intelligence quotient (IQ) of schizophrenia was 79.70, the verbal intelligence quotient(VIQ) 84.43, and the performance intelligence quotient(PIQ) 74.10. Multiple regression showed the regression coefficient of educational level for IQ was 8.6721. The regression coefficient of the course of disease for IQ was negative 0.1519. Factor analysis showed that the cumulative percent of three-factor solution of schizophrenia was 73.5. In conclusion, the IQ of most patients with schizophrenia was lower than norm, VIQ > PIQ(P = 0.0000). Educational level had greater influence on IQ. The longer the course of disease was, the worse the intelligence came to be. Factor analysis indicated that three-factor solution of schizophrenia was similar to that of norm, but each subtest value was lower than norm.

  6. Constructive thinking, rational intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Enrique; Ortega, Marta Moreno; Alonso, Monica Olga Garcia; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate rational and experiential intelligence in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) sufferers. METHODS: We recruited 100 subjects with IBS as per Rome II criteria (50 consulters and 50 non-consulters) and 100 healthy controls, matched by age, sex and educational level. Cases and controls completed a clinical questionnaire (including symptom characteristics and medical consultation) and the following tests: rational-intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition); experiential-intelligence (Constructive Thinking Inventory); personality (NEO personality inventory); psychopathology (MMPI-2), anxiety (state-trait anxiety inventory) and life events (social readjustment rating scale). Analysis of variance was used to compare the test results of IBS-sufferers and controls, and a logistic regression model was then constructed and adjusted for age, sex and educational level to evaluate any possible association with IBS. RESULTS: No differences were found between IBS cases and controls in terms of IQ (102.0 ± 10.8 vs 102.8 ± 12.6), but IBS sufferers scored significantly lower in global constructive thinking (43.7 ± 9.4 vs 49.6 ± 9.7). In the logistic regression model, global constructive thinking score was independently linked to suffering from IBS [OR 0.92 (0.87-0.97)], without significant OR for total IQ. CONCLUSION: IBS subjects do not show lower rational intelligence than controls, but lower experiential intelligence is nevertheless associated with IBS. PMID:19575489

  7. Sleep spindles and intelligence: evidence for a sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Ujma, Péter P; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Genzel, Lisa; Bleifuss, Annabell; Simor, Péter; Pótári, Adrián; Körmendi, János; Gombos, Ferenc; Steiger, Axel; Bódizs, Róbert; Dresler, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in nonrapid eye movement sleep, which play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Sleep spindle features are stable within and vary between individuals, with, for example, females having a higher number of spindles and higher spindle density than males. Sleep spindles have been associated with learning potential and intelligence; however, the details of this relationship have not been fully clarified yet. In a sample of 160 adult human subjects with a broad IQ range, we investigated the relationship between sleep spindle parameters and intelligence. In females, we found a positive age-corrected association between intelligence and fast sleep spindle amplitude in central and frontal derivations and a positive association between intelligence and slow sleep spindle duration in all except one derivation. In males, a negative association between intelligence and fast spindle density in posterior regions was found. Effects were continuous over the entire IQ range. Our results demonstrate that, although there is an association between sleep spindle parameters and intellectual performance, these effects are more modest than previously reported and mainly present in females. This supports the view that intelligence does not rely on a single neural framework, and stronger neural connectivity manifesting in increased thalamocortical oscillations in sleep is one particular mechanism typical for females but not males. PMID:25471574

  8. Sleep spindles and intelligence: evidence for a sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Ujma, Péter P; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Genzel, Lisa; Bleifuss, Annabell; Simor, Péter; Pótári, Adrián; Körmendi, János; Gombos, Ferenc; Steiger, Axel; Bódizs, Róbert; Dresler, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in nonrapid eye movement sleep, which play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Sleep spindle features are stable within and vary between individuals, with, for example, females having a higher number of spindles and higher spindle density than males. Sleep spindles have been associated with learning potential and intelligence; however, the details of this relationship have not been fully clarified yet. In a sample of 160 adult human subjects with a broad IQ range, we investigated the relationship between sleep spindle parameters and intelligence. In females, we found a positive age-corrected association between intelligence and fast sleep spindle amplitude in central and frontal derivations and a positive association between intelligence and slow sleep spindle duration in all except one derivation. In males, a negative association between intelligence and fast spindle density in posterior regions was found. Effects were continuous over the entire IQ range. Our results demonstrate that, although there is an association between sleep spindle parameters and intellectual performance, these effects are more modest than previously reported and mainly present in females. This supports the view that intelligence does not rely on a single neural framework, and stronger neural connectivity manifesting in increased thalamocortical oscillations in sleep is one particular mechanism typical for females but not males.

  9. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  10. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  11. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  12. Genetical background of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  13. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  14. Evolution & Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Advocates of Intelligent Design (ID) theory argue that evolution is a theory in crisis, ID is a legitimate scientific theory, and biology teachers should teach the controversy. Supporters of evolutionary theory testify that ID is a religious, not scientific, concept, and evolution is in no danger of bankruptcy, having survived 140 years of…

  15. Improving Alaryngeal Speech Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, John M.; Dwyer, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients using esophageal speech or an electronic artificial larynx have difficulty producing correct voicing contrasts between homorganic consonants. This paper describes a therapy technique that emphasizes "pushing harder" on voiceless consonants to improve alaryngeal speech intelligibility and proposes focusing on the production…

  16. The Intelligent School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGilchrist, Barbara; Myers, Kate; Reed, Jane

    This book is a practical resource to help teachers make schools "intelligent organizations" that can synthesize different kinds of knowledge, experience, and ideas to improve schools. Chapters set forth key messages on school effectiveness, school improvement, teaching, and learning. The chapters are: (1) "Improving the Effectiveness of Schools";…

  17. Metacognition, Intelligence and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Bruce M.; Dover, Arlene C.

    1987-01-01

    The triarchic theory of intelligence (Sternberg et al.) includes three types of intellectual elements: metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components. Recent research on metacognition and giftedness and on availability and flexibility of cognitive style indicates that interaction among all these elements may provide a…

  18. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2009-01-01

    With the advancement of image acquisition and analysis methods in recent decades, unique opportunities have emerged to study the neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence. Traditional approaches examining global measures have been complemented by insights from more regional analyses based on pre-defined areas. Newer state-of-the-art approaches…

  19. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  20. Developing Emotionally Intelligent Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Transformational change in today's schools will require leaders with strong intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. A recent assessment program in South Carolina focused attention on the identification of the emotional intelligence of aspiring and newly appointed principals. A battery of personality and leadership assessments was used to develop…

  1. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  2. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  3. Johannes Kepler's Intelligent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Paul M.

    2006-12-01

    In the last decade, the theory labeled "Intelligent Design" has exacerbated long-standing conflicts between religion and science. This issue will be addressed from the perspective of the philosophy and science of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), whose unconventional belief in design lived in harmony with his revolutionary physical astronomy.

  4. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  5. Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, D. Michael; Ford, Donnie R.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE) expert system and an IDARE user's manual are given. IDARE is a data reduction system with the addition of a user profile infrastructure. The system was tested on a nickel-cadmium battery testbed. Information is given on installing, loading, maintaining the IDARE system.

  6. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  7. Artificial intelligence. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of the field of artificial intelligence. It contains material covering the latest advances in control, representation, language, vision, and problem solving. Problem solving in design and analysis systems is addressed. Mitcell's version-space learning procedure, Morevec's reduced-images stereo procedure, and the Strips problem solver are covered.

  8. Intelligence: Power and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordberg, Robert B.

    1976-01-01

    Author concludes that "...intelligence is a power rather than an activity or a thing,...accident rather than substance, potency rather than act, and...many confusions relating to (its) character, measurement, development and function stem chiefly from the difficulties of putting it in the category of a power." (Auth.)

  9. The Use of WAIS-III in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Antoinette A.; Scholte, Evert M.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2008-01-01

    The WAIS III was administered to 16 adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and 27 adults with Asperger syndrome. Differences between Verbal Intelligence (VIQ) and Performance Intelligence (PIQ) were not found. Processing Speed problems in people with HFA appeared. At the subtest level, the Asperger syndrome group performed weak on Digit Span.…

  10. An Assessment of Cognitive Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults in North Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Lillian S.; And Others

    This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived young adults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction…

  11. Estimated Full Scale IQ in an Adult Heroin Addict Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Robert L.; And Others

    The research concerning intellectual functioning in addict populations has not addressed basic questions concerning why and how intelligence quotients (IQ) might be related to drug addiction. A study was undertaken to estimate intellectual functioning based upon a demographic profile for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Full…

  12. Physical Intelligent Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandhil, Pavan; Chitikeshi, Sanjeevi; Mahajan, Ajay; Figueroa, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of intelligent sensors as part of an integrated systems approach, i.e. one treats the sensors as a complete system with its own sensing hardware (the traditional sensor), A/D converters, processing and storage capabilities, software drivers, self-assessment algorithms, communication protocols and evolutionary methodologies that allow them to get better with time. Under a project being undertaken at the NASA s Stennis Space Center, an integrated framework is being developed for the intelligent monitoring of smart elements. These smart elements can be sensors, actuators or other devices. The immediate application is the monitoring of the rocket test stands, but the technology should be generally applicable to the Integrated Systems Health Monitoring (ISHM) vision. This paper outlines progress made in the development of intelligent sensors by describing the work done till date on Physical Intelligent Sensors (PIS). The PIS discussed here consists of a thermocouple used to read temperature in an analog form which is then converted into digital values. A microprocessor collects the sensor readings and runs numerous embedded event detection routines on the collected data and if any event is detected, it is reported, stored and sent to a remote system through an Ethernet connection. Hence the output of the PIS is data coupled with confidence factor in the reliability of the data which leads to information on the health of the sensor at all times. All protocols are consistent with IEEE 1451.X standards. This work lays the foundation for the next generation of smart devices that have embedded intelligence for distributed decision making capabilities.

  13. Reconsidering the heritability of intelligence in adulthood: taking assortative mating and cultural transmission into account.

    PubMed

    Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; van der Sluis, Sophie; Maes, Hermine H M; Posthuma, Danielle

    2012-03-01

    Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet, considerable positive assortative mating has been reported for general intelligence. Unmodeled assortative mating may lead to biased estimates of the relative magnitude of genetic and environmental factors. To investigate the effects of assortative mating on the estimates of the variance components of intelligence, we employed an extended twin-family design. Psychometric IQ data were available for adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their siblings, the partners of the twins and siblings, and either the parents or the adult offspring of the twins and siblings (N = 1314). Two underlying processes of assortment were considered: phenotypic assortment and social homogamy. The phenotypic assortment model was slightly preferred over the social homogamy model, suggesting that assortment for intelligence is mostly due to a selection of mates on similarity in intelligence. Under the preferred phenotypic assortment model, the variance of intelligence in adulthood was not only due to non-shared environmental (18%) and additive genetic factors (44%) but also to non-additive genetic factors (27%) and phenotypic assortment (11%).This non-additive nature of genetic influences on intelligence needs to be accommodated in future GWAS studies for intelligence.

  14. The Perceptions of Community College Students to Foreign Language Acquisition Grounded in Multiple Intelligence Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Richard Le Roy Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine and gain a clearer understanding of the perceptions of foreign language learning of adult foreign language learners attending a South-West Missouri community college. This study was based on the Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory of Howard Gardner. It examined the perceptions of adult language…

  15. The Relationship of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to IQ Level and the Fluid and Crystallized IQ Discrepancy on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; McLean, James E.; Lincoln, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Results from 1,297 adolescents and adults show that, consistent with hypothesized relationships, people classified as Intuitive by the MBTI earned higher KAIT Composite IQs than those classified as Sensing. However, most other hypotheses were not supported, as the Fluid-Crystallized discrepancy was not meaningfully related to any MBTI dimension.…

  16. The Secret Sentinels: Careers in Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael

    1985-01-01

    This article profiles the principal practitioners of the craft of intelligence. It also examines other agencies that play supporting roles in this arcane arena, including the Central Intelligence Agency, the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the service intelligence branches of the Department…

  17. Multiple Intelligences: Current Trends in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2009-01-01

    With his theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner challenged the presumption that intelligence is a single innate entity. He maintained that multiple intelligences exist and are related to specific brain areas and symbol systems. Each of the intelligences has its merits and limits, but by using a multiple intelligences approach, more…

  18. Intelligent Sensors Security

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC) related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process. PMID:22315571

  19. Geospatial intelligence workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-02-01

    A report on the future U.S. workforce for geospatial intelligence, requested by the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), found that the agency—which hires about 300 scientists and analysts annually—is probably finding sufficient experts to fill the needs in all of its core areas, with the possible exception of geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing. The report by the U.S. National Research Council, released on 25 January, noted that competition for GIS applications analysts is strong. While there appear to be enough cartographers, photogrammetrists, and geodesists to meet NGA's current needs in those core areas, the report cautioned that future shortages in these areas seem likely because of a relatively small number of graduates.

  20. Intelligent Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.

  1. Sail intelligent terminal evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruitt, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Engineering assessments, recommendations, and equipment necessary to solve the operational problems are described, and operational flexibility of the intelligent terminal facility are extended. The following capabilities were considered: (1) the operation of at least two D/D stations and one remote graphics terminal simultaneously; (2) the capability to run plotter, AIDS and FORTRAN programs simultaneously; (3) simultaneous use of system utility routines of D/D stations and remote graphics terminal; (4) the capability to provide large volume hardcopy of data and graphics; and (5) the capability to eliminate or at least ease the current operation/programming problems with related labor costs. The overall intelligent terminal development, and plans guiding the analysis and equipment acquisitions were studied, and the assessments and analyses performed are also summarized.

  2. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  3. Artificial intelligence at CSM

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.E.

    1985-08-01

    The recent developments in artificial intelligence have been cited as being the most significant technological advancement in computer science in the twentieth century. Machines that can mimic human reasoning will have a great impact upon our civilization. The way we think, learn, and work will be changed in a profound way. It is for these reasons that the Colorado School of Mines, in order to maintain its reputation of quality engineering education, has entered the AI field. CSM presently is evaluating artificial intelligence for applications in the mineral industries; decision support systems, process control, machine vision, data acquisition and analysis, etc. Future plans are to move AI out of the research laboratories and into the curriculum. An understanding of the concepts and unlimited power of the application of AI will enhance the engineering methods of Mines graduates. 6 references.

  4. Introduction to Physical Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    A slight deviation from Newtonian dynamics can lead to new effects associated with the concept of physical intelligence. Non-Newtonian effects such as deviation from classical thermodynamic as well as quantum-like properties have been analyzed. A self-supervised (intelligent) particle that can escape from Brownian motion autonomously is introduced. Such a capability is due to a coupling of the particle governing equation with its own Liouville equation via an appropriate feedback. As a result, the governing equation is self-stabilized, and random oscillations are suppressed, while the Liouville equation takes the form of the Fokker-Planck equation with negative diffusion. Non- Newtonian properties of such a dynamical system as well as thermodynamical implications have been evaluated.

  5. Intelligent adaptive structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.

    1990-01-01

    'Intelligent Adaptive Structures' (IAS) refers to structural systems whose geometric and intrinsic structural characteristics can be automatically changed to meet mission requirements with changing operational scenarios. An IAS is composed of actuators, sensors, and a control logic; these are integrated in a distributed fashion within the elements of the structure. The IAS concepts thus far developed for space antennas and other precision structures should be applicable to civil, marine, automotive, and aeronautical structural systems.

  6. Perspective on intelligent avionics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Technical issues which could potentially limit the capability and acceptibility of expert systems decision-making for avionics applications are addressed. These issues are: real-time AI, mission-critical software, conventional algorithms, pilot interface, knowledge acquisition, and distributed expert systems. Examples from on-going expert system development programs are presented to illustrate likely architectures and applications of future intelligent avionic systems. 13 references.

  7. Artificial intelligence in parallel

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1984-08-10

    The current rage in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) community is parallelism: the idea is to build machines with many independent processors doing many things at once. The upshot is that about a dozen parallel machines are now under development for AI alone. As might be expected, the approaches are diverse yet there are a number of fundamental issues in common: granularity, topology, control, and algorithms.

  8. Fast Tracks to Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. H.

    It is often assumed that the evolution of intelligence is inevitable, given the self-organizing seen in dissapative systems and the gradual shaping-up of Darwinism. While compound-interest reasoning suggests that small advantages will eventually triumph, eventually may be a very long time: there are few examples of rapid brain growth, suggesting that "smarter-is-better" is not a potent force for evolution.

  9. Halmahera (Molukkas): terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1944-01-01

    This folio was rushed to completion on urgent request from the Strategic Intelligence Branch, Office of Chief of Engineers. The geologists, soils scientists, and ground-water hydrologists had completed their studies in manu- script form, but time was not available for editing the folio, coordinating its different parts, or checking it for inconsistencies. Parts of the text have not even been proof-read for typing mistakes.

  10. Children's naive theories of intelligence influence their metacognitive judgments.

    PubMed

    Miele, David B; Son, Lisa K; Metcalfe, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the metacognitive judgments adults infer from their experiences of encoding effort vary in accordance with their naive theories of intelligence. To determine whether this finding extends to elementary schoolchildren, a study was conducted in which 27 third graders (M(age) = 8.27) and 24 fifth graders (M(age) = 10.39) read texts presented in easy- or difficult-to-encode fonts. The more children in both grades viewed intelligence as fixed, the less likely they were to interpret effortful or difficult encoding as a sign of increasing mastery and the more likely they were to report lower levels of comprehension as their perceived effort increased. This suggests that children may use naive theories of intelligence to make motivationally relevant inferences earlier than previously thought. PMID:23574195

  11. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  12. What Makes Nations Intelligent?

    PubMed

    Hunt, Earl

    2012-05-01

    Modern society is driven by the use of cognitive artifacts: physical instruments or styles of reasoning that amplify our ability to think. The artifacts range from writing systems to computers. In everyday life, a person demonstrates intelligence by showing skill in using these artifacts. Intelligence tests and their surrogates force examinees to exhibit some of these skills but not others. This is why test scores correlate substantially but not perfectly with a variety of measures of socioeconomic success. The same thing is true at the international level. Nations can be evaluated by the extent to which their citizens score well on cognitive tests, including both avowed intelligence tests and a variety of tests of academic achievement. The resulting scores are substantially correlated with various indices of national wealth, health, environmental quality, and schooling and with a vaguer variable, social commitment to innovation. These environmental variables are suggested as causes of the differences in general cognitive skills between national populations. It is conceivable that differences in gene pools also contribute to international and, within nations, group differences in cognitive skills, but at present it is impossible to evaluate the extent of genetic influences.

  13. Neurotechnology for intelligence analysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Amy A.; Boyd, Karen C.; Schulman, Joshua J.

    2006-05-01

    Geospatial Intelligence Analysts are currently faced with an enormous volume of imagery, only a fraction of which can be processed or reviewed in a timely operational manner. Computer-based target detection efforts have failed to yield the speed, flexibility and accuracy of the human visual system. Rather than focus solely on artificial systems, we hypothesize that the human visual system is still the best target detection apparatus currently in use, and with the addition of neuroscience-based measurement capabilities it can surpass the throughput of the unaided human severalfold. Using electroencephalography (EEG), Thorpe et al1 described a fast signal in the brain associated with the early detection of targets in static imagery using a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) paradigm. This finding suggests that it may be possible to extract target detection signals from complex imagery in real time utilizing non-invasive neurophysiological assessment tools. To transform this phenomenon into a capability for defense applications, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) currently is sponsoring an effort titled Neurotechnology for Intelligence Analysts (NIA). The vision of the NIA program is to revolutionize the way that analysts handle intelligence imagery, increasing both the throughput of imagery to the analyst and overall accuracy of the assessments. Successful development of a neurobiologically-based image triage system will enable image analysts to train more effectively and process imagery with greater speed and precision.

  14. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  15. Evolutionary psychology and intelligence research.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative variation on a monomorphic design allows us to incorporate heritable individual differences in evolved adaptations. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, which is one consequence of the integration of evolutionary psychology and intelligence research, can potentially explain why less intelligent individuals enjoy TV more, why liberals are more intelligent than conservatives, and why night owls are more intelligent than morning larks, among many other findings. The general approach proposed here will allow us to integrate evolutionary psychology with any other aspect of differential psychology.

  16. Intelligent Robots for Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Oh, S. J.

    1985-04-01

    Industrial robots are now proven technology in a variety of applications including welding, materials handling, spray painting, machine loading and assembly. However, to fully realize the potential of these universal manipulators , "intelligence" needs to be added to the industrial robot. This involves adding sensory capability and machine intelligence to the controls. The "intelligence" may be added externally or as integral components of the robot. These new "intelligent robots" promise to greatly enhance the versatility of the robot for factory applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief review of the techniques and applications of intelligent robots for factory automation and to suggest possible designs for the intelligent robot of the future.

  17. Intelligent editor/printer enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodfill, M. C.; Pheanis, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Microprocessor support hardware, software, and cross assemblers relating to the Motorola 6800 and 6809 process systems were developed. Pinter controller and intelligent CRT development are discussed. The user's manual, design specifications for the MC6809 version of the intelligent printer controller card, and a 132-character by 64-line intelligent CRT display system using a Motorola 6809 MPU, and a one-line assembler and disassembler are provided.

  18. Improving intelligence: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Buschkuehl, M; Jaeggi, S M

    2010-05-01

    Intelligence is associated with performance on a wide range of cognitive tasks and is a reliable predictor for educational and professional success. Therefore, the development of effective training regimens that aim to improve intelligence is of high interest. In recent years, there has been accumulating evidence that certain interventions have a positive impact on intelligence. The aim of the present paper is to provide a literature review on such studies. Despite promising results, we conclude that there are still many unknown variables and that the mechanisms that underlie improvements in intelligence are not well understood. More work is needed in order to disentangle these involved processes and to further refine existing training regimens.

  19. Proximate factors associated with speech intelligibility in children with cochlear implants: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chin, Steven B; Kuhns, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive pilot study was to examine possible relationships among speech intelligibility and structural characteristics of speech in children who use cochlear implants. The Beginners Intelligibility Test (BIT) was administered to 10 children with cochlear implants, and the intelligibility of the words in the sentences was judged by panels of naïve adult listeners. Additionally, several qualitative and quantitative measures of word omission, segment correctness, duration, and intonation variability were applied to the sentences used to assess intelligibility. Correlational analyses were conducted to determine if BIT scores and the other speech parameters were related. There was a significant correlation between BIT score and percent words omitted, but no other variables correlated significantly with BIT score. The correlation between intelligibility and word omission may be task-specific as well as reflective of memory limitations. PMID:25000376

  20. Intelligence in youth and health at age 50

    PubMed Central

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55–1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components—income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities. PMID:26766880

  1. Psychopathy, intelligence, and impulsivity in German violent offenders.

    PubMed

    de Tribolet-Hardy, Fanny; Vohs, Knut; Mokros, Andreas; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported numerous correlations between psychopathy and various personality traits, behavioural tendencies or clinical characteristics. The present study examined in greater depth the relationships between the components of psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and intelligence as well as impulsivity. A total of ninety male violent offenders were recruited from a prison and a forensic-psychiatric hospital in Germany. All of the subjects were assessed using the PCL-R, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and a short version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WIP). As expected, a canonical correlation analysis showed a negative association between spatial intelligence and the Factor 2 subtotal on the PCL-R (reckless lifestyle/antisociality). In addition, our results agreed with the assumption of an association between impulsivity and the subtotal for PCL-R Factor 2. The positive relationship between verbal intelligence and the subtotal for Factor 1 of the PCL-R (insincere, manipulative conduct/affective deficits) vanished after controlling for educational level. The results indicate that there is a relationship between the spatial components of intelligence and the concept of psychopathy as described by Hare. This result supports the spatial impairment aetiological model of antisocial behaviour.

  2. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Florian U; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  3. Scholastic Success: Fluid Intelligence, Personality, and Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Luke A.; Lomas, Justine; Billings, Clare; Hansen, Karen; Stough, Con

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and emotional intelligence (EI) in predicting female Year 9 students' grade point average (GPA) and to determine whether any differences in scholastic performance were related to differences in EI or Personality. Two-hundred and forty-three female…

  4. Emotional Intelligence Mediates the Relationship between Age and Subjective Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Fang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Individuals' Subjective Well-being (SWB) increases as they grow older. Past literature suggests that emotional intelligence may increase with age and lead to higher levels of SWB in older adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to test whether emotional intelligence would mediate the relationship between age and SWB. A total of 360 Chinese adults (age range: 20 to 79 years old) participated in this study. They filled out questionnaires that assessed their age, life satisfaction (The Satisfaction with Life Scale), affective well-being (The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and emotional intelligence (The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale). Using Structural Equation Modeling, the mediation model was supported, χ(2) (75) = 194.21, p < .01; RMSEA = .07; CFI = .91. Emotional intelligence partially mediated the relationship between age and life satisfaction, and fully mediated the relationship between age and affective well-being. The findings suggest that older adults may use their increased emotional intelligence to enhance their SWB. PMID:27199490

  5. Emotional Intelligence Mediates the Relationship between Age and Subjective Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Fang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Individuals' Subjective Well-being (SWB) increases as they grow older. Past literature suggests that emotional intelligence may increase with age and lead to higher levels of SWB in older adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to test whether emotional intelligence would mediate the relationship between age and SWB. A total of 360 Chinese adults (age range: 20 to 79 years old) participated in this study. They filled out questionnaires that assessed their age, life satisfaction (The Satisfaction with Life Scale), affective well-being (The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and emotional intelligence (The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale). Using Structural Equation Modeling, the mediation model was supported, χ(2) (75) = 194.21, p < .01; RMSEA = .07; CFI = .91. Emotional intelligence partially mediated the relationship between age and life satisfaction, and fully mediated the relationship between age and affective well-being. The findings suggest that older adults may use their increased emotional intelligence to enhance their SWB.

  6. Plant intelligence and attention

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies. PMID:23425923

  7. Architecture for robot intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  8. An intelligent traffic controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kagolanu, K.; Fink, R.; Smartt, H.; Powell, R.; Larsen, E.

    1995-12-01

    A controller with advanced control logic can significantly improve traffic flows at intersections. In this vein, this paper explores fuzzy rules and algorithms to improve the intersection operation by rationalizing phase changes and green times. The fuzzy logic for control is enhanced by the exploration of neural networks for families of membership functions and for ideal cost functions. The concepts of fuzzy logic control are carried forth into the controller architecture. Finally, the architecture and the modules are discussed. In essence, the control logic and architecture of an intelligent controller are explored.

  9. Emotional Intelligence and Simulation.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Sophia K; Phitayakorn, Roy

    2015-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is an established concept in the business literature with evidence that it is an important factor in determining career achievement. There is increasing interest in the role that EI has in medical training, but it is still a nascent field. This article reviews the EI literature most relevant to surgical training and proposes that simulation offers many benefits to the development of EI. Although there are many unanswered questions, it is expected that future research will demonstrate the effectiveness of using simulation to develop EI within surgery. PMID:26210976

  10. Advances in intelligent sootblowing

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, H.R.

    2005-10-01

    Smart software now can decide whether a boiler section is sufficiently free of ash or slag, or needs to be cleaned by sootblowing. Such software constitutes the brains of integrated control systems capable of optimizing the order and frequency of sootblower operations and determining achievable cleanliness levels. Some of these systems can even perform adaptive set point control by basing cleanliness levels on real-time boiler operating parameters. The article describes the various modules of an intelligent sootblowing system (ISB) and gives results of the implementation of the system on PRB coal-burning boilers. 5 figs.

  11. Emotional Intelligence and Simulation.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Sophia K; Phitayakorn, Roy

    2015-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is an established concept in the business literature with evidence that it is an important factor in determining career achievement. There is increasing interest in the role that EI has in medical training, but it is still a nascent field. This article reviews the EI literature most relevant to surgical training and proposes that simulation offers many benefits to the development of EI. Although there are many unanswered questions, it is expected that future research will demonstrate the effectiveness of using simulation to develop EI within surgery.

  12. Artificial intelligence and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The research and development of AI are discussed. Papers are presented on an expert system for chemical process control, an ocean surveillance information fusion expert system, a distributed intelligence system and aircraft pilotage, a procedure for speeding innovation by transferring scientific knowledge more quickly, and syntax programming, expert systems, and real-time fault diagnosis. Consideration is given to an expert system for modeling NASA flight control room usage, simulating aphasia, a method for single neuron recognition of letters, numbers, faces, and certain types of concepts, integrating AI and control system approach, testing an expert system for manufacturing, and the human memory.

  13. Intelligent Control Systems Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a three phase research program into intelligent control systems are presented. The first phase looked at implementing the lowest or direct level of a hierarchical control scheme using a reinforcement learning approach assuming no a priori information about the system under control. The second phase involved the design of an adaptive/optimizing level of the hierarchy and its interaction with the direct control level. The third and final phase of the research was aimed at combining the results of the previous phases with some a priori information about the controlled system.

  14. When Is a Program Intelligent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaland, Norman

    1981-01-01

    The current status of creating artificial intelligence (AI) in computers is viewed in terms of what has been accomplished, what the current limitations are, and how vague the concept of intelligent behavior is in today's world. Progress is expected to accelerate once sufficient fundamental knowledge is available. (MP)

  15. Intelligent Information Retrieval: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauch, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the application of artificial intelligence to online information retrieval systems and describes several systems: (1) CANSEARCH, from MEDLINE; (2) Intelligent Interface for Information Retrieval (I3R); (3) Gausch's Query Reformulation; (4) Environmental Pollution Expert (EP-X); (5) PLEXUS (gardening); and (6) SCISOR (corporate…

  16. Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

    The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

  17. Stephen Jay Gould on Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korb, Kevin B.

    1994-01-01

    Critiques ideas expressed by Gould in "The Mismeasure of Man." Agrees with Gould that many scientists who studied human intelligence were racist, but disagrees that their work must therefore necessarily be dismissed. Disputes Gould's claim that factor analysts who study human intelligence have reified their factors and that factor analysis is…

  18. Italy's Intelligent Educational Training Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Educational Training Station has been developed in Italy to meet emerging school building needs. The project, for schools from the primary to upper secondary level, proposes flexible architecture for an "intelligent school" network, and was developed by CISEM, the Centre for Educational Innovation and Experimentation of Milan.

  19. Multiple Intelligences and Lab Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colannino, Noreen M.; Hoyt, William L.; Murray, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Science teachers who are committed to excellence in the classroom continually seek ways to improve teaching and learning, and the concept of multiple intelligences holds promise as a method for accomplishing this. The essence of the theory of multiple intelligences is to understand the many differences among students, the variations in the ways…

  20. Multiple Intelligences for Differentiated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    There is an intricate literacy to Gardner's multiple intelligences theory that unlocks key entry points for differentiated learning. Using a well-articulated framework, rich with graphic representations, Williams provides a comprehensive discussion of multiple intelligences. He moves the teacher and students from curiosity, to confidence, to…

  1. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  2. The Machine Intelligence Hex Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalup, Stephan K.; Mellor, Drew; Rosamond, Fran

    2005-01-01

    Hex is a challenging strategy board game for two players. To enhance students' progress in acquiring understanding and practical experience with complex machine intelligence and programming concepts we developed the Machine Intelligence Hex (MIHex) project. The associated undergraduate student assignment is about designing and implementing Hex…

  3. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  4. Intelligent Portfolios for Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bonita L.; And Others

    The intelligent electronic portfolio goes beyond assessment of teachers to a method of strengthening their professional development in the classroom. Adopted for teachers in a 3-year doctoral program, the intelligent electronic portfolio is a collection of artifacts, indicating competencies and skills, a place to showcase accomplishments and…

  5. Distributed Interactive Intelligent Tutoring Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddo, John; Kolodziej, James

    A Distributed Interactive Intelligent Tutoring Simulation (DIITS) has been developed to train Army Infantry squad and fire team leaders skills to perform military operations cooperatively in urban terrain. It integrates distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) and thus capitalizes on the strengths of both:…

  6. An Intelligent Use for Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aborn, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Over the last three decades there has been a major shift in how practicing educators think about intelligence. One great driving force of this change can be attributed to "Frames of Mind: Theory of Multiple Intelligences," written by Howard Gardner in 1983. Gardner's book is conceived around the premise that every human being maintains seven (now…

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Successful Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulding, Wanda S.

    Cognitive intelligence is often equated with eventual success in many areas. However, there are many instances where people of high IQ flounder whereas those of modest IQ do surprisingly well. Author and renowned psychologist Daniel Goleman believes that the explanation for this fact lies in abilities called "emotional intelligence," which include…

  8. Nonconscious intelligence in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    Animals lacking humanoid intelligence have evolved systems indistinguishable in function, if not in structure, from systems built by humans. Although radio communication has never been verified in animals, it is completely feasible biologically. If such systems are present in non-intelligent organisms on other planets, then our chances of detecting life in the universe by current SETI methods are greatly enhanced.

  9. The Intelligent Method of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moula, Alireza; Mohseni, Simin; Starrin, Bengt; Scherp, Hans Ake; Puddephatt, Antony J.

    2010-01-01

    Early psychologist William James [1842-1910] and philosopher John Dewey [1859-1952] described intelligence as a method which can be learned. That view of education is integrated with knowledge about the brain's executive functions to empower pupils to intelligently organize their learning. This article links the pragmatist philosophy of…

  10. Multiple Intelligences in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Kathleen M.

    Within the context of school improvement and school reform, it is important to examine Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI theory). His work has far-reaching implications for curriculum development and classroom implementation. Gardner believes that the culture defines intelligence too narrowly. He sought to broaden the scope of…

  11. In Pursuit of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watstein, Sarah; Kesselman, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence and reviews current research in natural language processing, expert systems, and robotics and sensory systems. Discussion covers current commercial applications of artificial intelligence and projections of uses and limitations in library technical and public services, e.g., in cataloging and online information and…

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Ron

    1987-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence (AI) in relation to intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) and science education. Provides a brief background of AI work, examples of expert systems, examples of ICAI work, and addresses problems facing AI workers that have implications for science education. Proposes a revised model of the Karplus/Renner…

  13. Multiple Intelligences and Business Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Results from 97 business students with substantial work histories indicate that the Multiple Intelligence Preference Inventory gives a valid and reliable indication of their preferred intelligences. Awareness of these results is associated with assessments of self and others as knowledge sources. This information can help in recognizing,…

  14. Writing and the Seven Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Gerald

    In "Frames of Mind," Howard Gardner replaces the standard view of intelligence with the idea that human beings have several distinct intelligences. Using an elaborate set of criteria, including evidence from studies of brain damage, prodigies, developmental patterns, cross-cultural comparisons, and various kinds of tests, Gardner identifies seven…

  15. Teaching & Learning through Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda; Campbell, Bruce; Dickinson, Dee

    In his studies of human capacity, Howard Gardner revealed a wider family of human intelligences than previously suggested. Noting that restricting educational programs to focusing on a preponderance of linguistic and mathematical intelligences minimizes the importance of other forms of knowing, this book presents strategies for creating open…

  16. Nurturing Emotional Intelligence through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosn, Irma K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of literature in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom for enhancing development of children's emotional intelligence. Literature can foster emotional intelligence by providing vicarious emotional experiences that shape the brain circuits for empathy and help children gain insight into human behavior and can promote…

  17. Computer Intelligence: Unlimited and Untapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Betsy

    1983-01-01

    Herbert Simon (Nobel prize-winning economist/professor) expresses his views on human and artificial intelligence, problem solving, inventing concepts, and the future. Includes comments on expert systems, state of the art in artificial intelligence, robotics, and "Bacon," a computer program that finds scientific laws hidden in raw data. (JN)

  18. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  19. Stupid Tutoring Systems, Intelligent Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…

  20. The language of artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    This is a guide to LISP. It clarifies data structures and recursion via examples and practical explanations, uses BASIC as a reference point throughout (enabling comparisons with LISP), and stresses artificial intelligence applications. Contents: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. The Fundamentals of LISP. Functions. Conditionals and Loops. Further LISP Processing. Recursion. More Advanced Uses of Functions. LISP Programming and AI. Standard LISP Functions.

  1. Enhancing Learning through Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Pinar; Guneysu, Sibel; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a significant difference between multiple intelligence instruction (MII) and traditionally designed science instruction (TDSI) on fourth grade students' understanding of concepts associated with the "Diversity of Living Things" unit. Students' intelligence types were also examined. There were two…

  2. DECtalk and VeriVox: intelligibility, likeability, and rate preference differences for four listener groups.

    PubMed

    Von Berg, Shelley; Panorska, Anna; Uken, Dennis; Qeadan, Fares

    2009-03-01

    The intelligibility, likeability, and speech presentation rates for two types of popular synthesized speech, DECtalk and VeriVox, were investigated across four age groups ranging from 6-85 years old. Results for all age groups revealed differences in intelligibility between synthesized adult and child voices, with intelligibility scores for child synthesized voices significantly below those for adult synthesized voices. The most popular synthesized voices were from the VeriVox family. Of interest is that preferred speech presentation rate, expressed as mean words per minute, increased as a function of age, with the oldest listeners preferring the fastest speech presentation rate. This is inconsistent with previous studies that have investigated rate preferences among older adults, and could reflect the different synthesized speech options employed in this study. Implications of these findings for the improvement of text-to-speech products and the practice of AAC are discussed, along with suggestions for further research. PMID:19280420

  3. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

  4. Changes in thickness and surface area of the human cortex and their relationship with intelligence.

    PubMed

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Evans, Alan; Durston, Sarah; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-06-01

    Changes in cortical thickness over time have been related to intelligence, but whether changes in cortical surface area are related to general cognitive functioning is unknown. We therefore examined the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and changes in cortical thickness and surface over time in 504 healthy subjects. At 10 years of age, more intelligent children have a slightly thinner cortex than children with a lower IQ. This relationship becomes more pronounced with increasing age: with higher IQ, a faster thinning of the cortex is found over time. In the more intelligent young adults, this relationship reverses so that by the age of 42 a thicker cortex is associated with higher intelligence. In contrast, cortical surface is larger in more intelligent children at the age of 10. The cortical surface is still expanding, reaching its maximum area during adolescence. With higher IQ, cortical expansion is completed at a younger age; and once completed, surface area decreases at a higher rate. These findings suggest that intelligence may be more related to the magnitude and timing of changes in brain structure during development than to brain structure per se, and that the cortex is never completed but shows continuing intelligence-dependent development. PMID:24408955

  5. Intelligence as a predictor of outcome in short- and long-term psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Knekt, Paul; Saari, Taru; Lindfors, Olavi

    2014-12-30

    Intelligence has been suggested as a suitability factor for short-term therapy whereas its possible effect on short-term versus long-term therapy still is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the prediction of intelligence on the level of psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning in psychotherapies of different lengths. A total of 251 outpatients from the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, aged 20–46 years, and suffering from mood or anxiety disorders were allocated to two long-term and two short-term therapies. Intelligence was assessed at baseline with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R). Psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning were assessed 5–10 times during a 5-year follow-up using two primary symptom measures (HDRS and HARS) and one primary measure of psychosocial functioning (GAF). Short-term therapy was more effective than long-term therapy during the first year of follow-up. During the second to fourth follow-up year no differences between short- and long-term therapies or the intelligence groups were found. At the fifth follow-up year, however, long-term psychotherapy showed a statistically significantly larger change in all three primary measures compared to short-term therapy among those with higher intelligence. No differences between therapy groups were noted in those with lower intelligence. People with higher intelligence may benefit more from long-term than from short-term psychotherapy. These findings should be confirmed.

  6. Changes in thickness and surface area of the human cortex and their relationship with intelligence.

    PubMed

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Evans, Alan; Durston, Sarah; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-06-01

    Changes in cortical thickness over time have been related to intelligence, but whether changes in cortical surface area are related to general cognitive functioning is unknown. We therefore examined the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and changes in cortical thickness and surface over time in 504 healthy subjects. At 10 years of age, more intelligent children have a slightly thinner cortex than children with a lower IQ. This relationship becomes more pronounced with increasing age: with higher IQ, a faster thinning of the cortex is found over time. In the more intelligent young adults, this relationship reverses so that by the age of 42 a thicker cortex is associated with higher intelligence. In contrast, cortical surface is larger in more intelligent children at the age of 10. The cortical surface is still expanding, reaching its maximum area during adolescence. With higher IQ, cortical expansion is completed at a younger age; and once completed, surface area decreases at a higher rate. These findings suggest that intelligence may be more related to the magnitude and timing of changes in brain structure during development than to brain structure per se, and that the cortex is never completed but shows continuing intelligence-dependent development.

  7. Demographic and Lifestyle Characteristics, but Not Apolipoprotein E Genotype, Are Associated with Intelligence among Young Chinese College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tingting; Zhang, Zhen-Lian; Wang, Yiwei; Heckman, Michael G.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Zhang, Yun-Wu; Xu, Huaxi; Bu, Guojun

    2015-01-01

    Background Intelligence is an important human feature that strongly affects many life outcomes, including health, life-span, income, educational and occupational attainments. People at all ages differ in their intelligence but the origins of these differences are much debated. A variety of environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be associated with individual intelligence, yet their nature and contribution to intelligence differences have been controversial. Objective To investigate the contribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, which is associated with the risk for Alzheimer’s disease, as well as demographic and lifestyle characteristics, to the variation in intelligence. Methods A total of 607 Chinese college students aged 18 to 25 years old were included in this prospective observational study. The Chinese revision of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (the fourth edition, short version) was used to determine the intelligence level of participants. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires. Results No significant association was found between APOE polymorphic alleles and different intelligence quotient (IQ) measures. Interestingly, a portion of demographic and lifestyle characteristics, including age, smoking and sleep quality were significantly associated with different IQ measures. Conclusions Our findings indicate that demographic features and lifestyle characteristics, but not APOE genotype, are associated with intelligence measures among young Chinese college students. Thus, although APOE ε4 allele is a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, it does not seem to impact intelligence at young ages. PMID:26574747

  8. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  9. Intelligent data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.

    1985-01-01

    Intelligent data management is the concept of interfacing a user to a database management system with a value added service that will allow a full range of data management operations at a high level of abstraction using human written language. The development of such a system will be based on expert systems and related artificial intelligence technologies, and will allow the capturing of procedural and relational knowledge about data management operations and the support of a user with such knowledge in an on-line, interactive manner. Such a system will have the following capabilities: (1) the ability to construct a model of the users view of the database, based on the query syntax; (2) the ability to transform English queries and commands into database instructions and processes; (3) the ability to use heuristic knowledge to rapidly prune the data space in search processes; and (4) the ability to use an on-line explanation system to allow the user to understand what the system is doing and why it is doing it. Additional information is given in outline form.

  10. Are Myxobacteria intelligent?

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Dale

    2013-01-01

    "Intelligence" is understood in different ways. Because humans are proud of their ability to speak, intelligence often includes the ability to communicate with others, to plan for the future, and to solve frequently encountered problems. Myxobacteria are among the most socially adept and ubiquitous of bacteria that live in the soil. To survive in nature, Myxobacteria communicate with their peers, using signals that elicit specific responses. Both swarming-growth and starvation-induced fruiting body development depend upon the specificity and effectiveness of signals passed between cells. Dynamic swarms spread outward, forming regular multi-cellular and multi-layered structures as they spread. Several different extra-cellular signals have been identified for fruiting body development and one is hypothesized for swarm development. Some extra-cellular signals are small, diffusible molecules. Others are protein molecules. The swarm signal appears to consist of structurally complex, protein to protein, contact junctions between pairs of side by side aligned cells. Each junction persists for less than a minute before disconnecting. After separating, both cells move on to make similar, transient connections with other cells. Eventually, the signal spreads across a prescribed population of communicating cells. PMID:24273536

  11. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  12. Variability and Intelligibility of Clarified Speech to Different Listener Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Ronnie F.

    Two studies examined the modifications that adult speakers make in speech to disadvantaged listeners. Previous research that has focused on speech to the deaf individuals and to young children has shown that adults clarify speech when addressing these two populations. Acoustic measurements suggest that the signal undergoes similar changes for both populations. Perceptual tests corroborate these results for the deaf population, but are nonsystematic in developmental studies. The differences in the findings for these populations and the nonsystematic results in the developmental literature may be due to methodological factors. The present experiments addressed these methodological questions. Studies of speech to hearing impaired listeners have used read, nonsense, sentences, for which speakers received explicit clarification instructions and feedback, while in the child literature, excerpts of real-time conversations were used. Therefore, linguistic samples were not precisely matched. In this study, experiments used various linguistic materials. Experiment 1 used a children's story; experiment 2, nonsense sentences. Four mothers read both types of material in four ways: (1) in "normal" adult speech, (2) in "babytalk," (3) under the clarification instructions used in the "hearing impaired studies" (instructed clear speech) and (4) in (spontaneous) clear speech without instruction. No extra practice or feedback was given. Sentences were presented to 40 normal hearing college students with and without simultaneous masking noise. Results were separately tabulated for content and function words, and analyzed using standard statistical tests. The major finding in the study was individual variation in speaker intelligibility. "Real world" speakers vary in their baseline intelligibility. The four speakers also showed unique patterns of intelligibility as a function of each independent variable. Results were as follows. Nonsense sentences were less intelligible than story

  13. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  14. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  15. Teaching for Multiple Intelligences. Fastback 342.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazear, David G.

    Over the past 50 years, brain researchers have stated that human beings probably use less than 1 percent of the brain's potential, and research findings about human intelligence have transformed almost all previous definitions of intelligence. This booklet addresses the following key findings in intelligence research: intelligence is not fixed or…

  16. Artificial Intelligence and Its Importance in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilmann, Martha J.

    Artificial intelligence, or the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent, is discussed in terms of what it is, what it has done, what it can do, and how it may affect the teaching of tomorrow. An extensive overview of artificial intelligence examines its goals and applications and types of artificial intelligence including (1) expert…

  17. Using Intelligent Agents To Assist Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knode, Steve; Knode, Jon-David W.

    This paper begins with background on intelligent agents (software programs built to perform certain specific tasks for the user). A taxonomy that categorizes intelligent agents by the degree of intelligence embedded in the software is presented. Applications of today's intelligent agents are discussed, including specific examples of the following:…

  18. Emotional Intelligence and Achievement: Redefining Giftedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Ebersohn, Liesel

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the possible meaning of the construct "emotional intelligence". Two case studies of adolescent males are presented and indicate that emotional intelligence has a significant impact not only on the qualitative level of intelligence actualization but also on the quantitative level of intelligence measurement and scholastic…

  19. A Further Search for Social Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Martin E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    1983-01-01

    A behavioral effectiveness criterion was employed to conceptually and operationally define social intelligence. Using Keating's "A Search for Social Intelligence" as a methodological model, the present study examined four measures of academic intelligence and six measures of social intelligence using three different correlational procedures.…

  20. Convergence: Human Intelligence The Next 100 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    How might human intelligence evolve over the next 100 years? This issue paper explores that idea. First, the paper summarizes five emerging perspectives about human intelligence: Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory, Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, Ellen Langer's mindfulness theory, David Perkins' learnable…

  1. The Development and Education of Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Joseph M.; Gardner, Howard

    This paper presents the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) and analyzes its potential impact on education. MI pluralizes the traditional concept of intelligence from logical and linguistic problem solving to a set of abilities, talents, or mental skills called Intelligences. An Intelligence entails the ability to solve problems or fashion…

  2. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  3. Physical Invariants of Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    A program of research is dedicated to development of a mathematical formalism that could provide, among other things, means by which living systems could be distinguished from non-living ones. A major issue that arises in this research is the following question: What invariants of mathematical models of the physics of systems are (1) characteristic of the behaviors of intelligent living systems and (2) do not depend on specific features of material compositions heretofore considered to be characteristic of life? This research at earlier stages has been reported, albeit from different perspectives, in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: One of the main underlying ideas is to extend the application of physical first principles to the behaviors of living systems. Mathematical models of motor dynamics are used to simulate the observable physical behaviors of systems or objects of interest, and models of mental dynamics are used to represent the evolution of the corresponding knowledge bases. For a given system, the knowledge base is modeled in the form of probability distributions and the mental dynamics is represented by models of the evolution of the probability densities or, equivalently, models of flows of information. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the focus of this research was upon the following aspects of the formalism: Intelligence is considered to be a means by which a living system preserves itself and improves its ability to survive and is further considered to manifest itself in feedback from the mental dynamics to the motor dynamics. Because of the feedback from the mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: The trajectory of the physical aspect of the system in the space of dynamical variables splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with a probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. From a slightly different perspective

  4. Neuronal factors determining high intelligence.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Ursula; Roth, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to correlate degrees of both animal and human intelligence with brain properties. With respect to mammals, a much-discussed trait concerns absolute and relative brain size, either uncorrected or corrected for body size. However, the correlation of both with degrees of intelligence yields large inconsistencies, because although they are regarded as the most intelligent mammals, monkeys and apes, including humans, have neither the absolutely nor the relatively largest brains. The best fit between brain traits and degrees of intelligence among mammals is reached by a combination of the number of cortical neurons, neuron packing density, interneuronal distance and axonal conduction velocity--factors that determine general information processing capacity (IPC), as reflected by general intelligence. The highest IPC is found in humans, followed by the great apes, Old World and New World monkeys. The IPC of cetaceans and elephants is much lower because of a thin cortex, low neuron packing density and low axonal conduction velocity. By contrast, corvid and psittacid birds have very small and densely packed pallial neurons and relatively many neurons, which, despite very small brain volumes, might explain their high intelligence. The evolution of a syntactical and grammatical language in humans most probably has served as an additional intelligence amplifier, which may have happened in songbirds and psittacids in a convergent manner. PMID:26598734

  5. Intelligent materials and structures revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1996-02-01

    Presented are new definitions and interpretations for smartness and intelligence associated with materials, structures, and material systems (MS & MS). These newly proposed definitions complement and augment the present notion of smart and/or intelligent materials, structures and material systems, as accepted by our scientific community. These new definitions numerically quantify the concepts of smartness and intelligence for materials, structures and material systems. In this context amino acid sequences and structures such as proteins are proposed to be the smartest material family and are given an MSQ of 1000. Correspondingly, ribonucleic acid sequences such as RNA and DNA macromolecular assemblies and structures are proposed to be the most intelligent material family and are given an MIQ of 1000. In the same category the proteins are given an MIQ of about 700. Ionic polymeric gels, shape memory alloys, electromagnetic (electrostrictive, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic) materials, electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological fluids are then categorized under this hierarchy of smart/intelligent materials with MSQs and MIQs of smaller values. A similar classification is also applied to smart/intelligent structures with reference to simple cells such as bacteria and viruses such as T4 Bacteriophages. A number of examples are presented and the corresponding MSQs and MIQs are estimated to show that materials, structure and material systems can truly be numerically categorized in connection with their smartness and intelligence and thus be compared with biological and botanical structures and material systems.

  6. Neuronal factors determining high intelligence.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Ursula; Roth, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to correlate degrees of both animal and human intelligence with brain properties. With respect to mammals, a much-discussed trait concerns absolute and relative brain size, either uncorrected or corrected for body size. However, the correlation of both with degrees of intelligence yields large inconsistencies, because although they are regarded as the most intelligent mammals, monkeys and apes, including humans, have neither the absolutely nor the relatively largest brains. The best fit between brain traits and degrees of intelligence among mammals is reached by a combination of the number of cortical neurons, neuron packing density, interneuronal distance and axonal conduction velocity--factors that determine general information processing capacity (IPC), as reflected by general intelligence. The highest IPC is found in humans, followed by the great apes, Old World and New World monkeys. The IPC of cetaceans and elephants is much lower because of a thin cortex, low neuron packing density and low axonal conduction velocity. By contrast, corvid and psittacid birds have very small and densely packed pallial neurons and relatively many neurons, which, despite very small brain volumes, might explain their high intelligence. The evolution of a syntactical and grammatical language in humans most probably has served as an additional intelligence amplifier, which may have happened in songbirds and psittacids in a convergent manner.

  7. Predicting asthma exacerbations using artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Modern telemonitoring systems identify a serious patient deterioration when it already occurred. It would be much more beneficial if the upcoming clinical deterioration were identified ahead of time even before a patient actually experiences it. The goal of this study was to assess artificial intelligence approaches which potentially can be used in telemonitoring systems for advance prediction of changes in disease severity before they actually occur. The study dataset was based on daily self-reports submitted by 26 adult asthma patients during home telemonitoring consisting of 7001 records. Two classification algorithms were employed for building predictive models: naïve Bayesian classifier and support vector machines. Using a 7-day window, a support vector machine was able to predict asthma exacerbation to occur on the day 8 with the accuracy of 0.80, sensitivity of 0.84 and specificity of 0.80. Our study showed that methods of artificial intelligence have significant potential in developing individualized decision support for chronic disease telemonitoring systems.

  8. LEARNING AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN ADULTS. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KUHLEN, RAYMOND G.; AND OTHERS

    THIS RETROSPECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OVER 1,500 ITEMS IS LARGELY DEVOTED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF ADULT LEARNING AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR (CONDITIONING, SKILL LEARNING, DISCRIMINATION, VERBAL LEARNING, PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPLEX BEHAVIOR, MEMORY, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, AND SET), TO STUDIES ON INTELLIGENCE AND TEST BEHAVIOR (AGE CHANGES, CORRELATIONAL AND FACTOR…

  9. Rare Copy Number Deletions Predict Individual Variation in Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Ronald A.; Gangestad, Steven W.; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in human intellectual functioning shows substantial heritability, as demonstrated by a long history of behavior genetic studies. Many recent molecular genetic studies have attempted to uncover specific genetic variations responsible for this heritability, but identified effects capture little variance and have proven difficult to replicate. The present study, motivated an interest in “mutation load” emerging from evolutionary perspectives, examined the importance of the number of rare (or infrequent) copy number variations (CNVs), and the total number of base pairs included in such deletions, for psychometric intelligence. Genetic data was collected using the Illumina 1MDuoBeadChip Array from a sample of 202 adult individuals with alcohol dependence, and a subset of these (N = 77) had been administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). After removing CNV outliers, the impact of rare genetic deletions on psychometric intelligence was investigated in 74 individuals. The total length of the rare deletions significantly and negatively predicted intelligence (r = −.30, p = .01). As prior studies have indicated greater heritability in individuals with relatively higher parental socioeconomic status (SES), we also examined the impact of ethnicity (Anglo/White vs. Other), as a proxy measure of SES; these groups did not differ on any genetic variable. This categorical variable significantly moderated the effect of length of deletions on intelligence, with larger effects being noted in the Anglo/White group. Overall, these results suggest that rare deletions (between 5% and 1% population frequency or less) adversely affect intellectual functioning, and that pleotropic effects might partly account for the association of intelligence with health and mental health status. Significant limitations of this research, including issues of generalizability and CNV measurement, are discussed. PMID:21298096

  10. Intelligence, memory, and handedness in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray; Christensen, Bruce K; Dickey, Robert; Klassen, Philip E; Beckstead, A Lee; Blak, Thomas; Kuban, Michael E

    2004-01-01

    A sample of 473 male patients with pedophilia (assessed by the patients' sexual history and penile response in the laboratory to standardized, erotic stimuli) or other problematic sexual interests or behaviors received brief neuropsychological assessments. Neuropsychological measures included a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (D. Wechsler, 1981), the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test--Revised (R. H. B. Benedict, D. Schretlen. L. Groninger. & J. Brandt, 1998), the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test--Revised (R. H. B. Benedict, 1997), and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (S. M. Williams, 1986). Pedophilia showed significant negative correlations with IQ and immediate and delayed recall memory. Pedophilia was also related to non-right-handedness even after covarying age and IQ. These results suggest that pedophilia is linked to early neurodevelopmental perturbations. PMID:14744183

  11. An Intelligent Weather Station.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-12-10

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead.

  12. An Intelligent Weather Station

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M.; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead. PMID:26690433

  13. Robotic intelligence kernel

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  14. Creationism and intelligent design.

    PubMed

    Pennock, Robert T

    2003-01-01

    Creationism, the rejection of evolution in favor of supernatural design, comes in many varieties besides the common young-earth Genesis version. Creationist attacks on science education have been evolving in the last few years through the alliance of different varieties. Instead of calls to teach "creation science," one now finds lobbying for "intelligent design" (ID). Guided by the Discovery Institute's "Wedge strategy," the ID movement aims to overturn evolution and what it sees as a pernicious materialist worldview and to renew a theistic foundation to Western culture, in which human beings are recognized as being created in the image of God. Common ID arguments involving scientific naturalism, "irreducible complexity," "complex specified information," and "icons of evolution," have been thoroughly examined and refuted. Nevertheless, from Kansas to Ohio to the U.S. Congress, ID continues lobbying to teach the controversy, and scientists need to be ready to defend good evolution education. PMID:14527300

  15. Creationism and intelligent design.

    PubMed

    Pennock, Robert T

    2003-01-01

    Creationism, the rejection of evolution in favor of supernatural design, comes in many varieties besides the common young-earth Genesis version. Creationist attacks on science education have been evolving in the last few years through the alliance of different varieties. Instead of calls to teach "creation science," one now finds lobbying for "intelligent design" (ID). Guided by the Discovery Institute's "Wedge strategy," the ID movement aims to overturn evolution and what it sees as a pernicious materialist worldview and to renew a theistic foundation to Western culture, in which human beings are recognized as being created in the image of God. Common ID arguments involving scientific naturalism, "irreducible complexity," "complex specified information," and "icons of evolution," have been thoroughly examined and refuted. Nevertheless, from Kansas to Ohio to the U.S. Congress, ID continues lobbying to teach the controversy, and scientists need to be ready to defend good evolution education.

  16. Cooperating intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Some of the issues connected to the development of a bureaucratic system are discussed. Emphasis is on a layer multiagent approach to distributed artificial intelligence (DAI). The division of labor in a bureaucracy is considered. The bureaucratic model seems to be a fertile model for further examination since it allows for the growth and change of system components and system protocols and rules. The first part of implementing the system would be the construction of a frame based reasoner and the appropriate B-agents and E-agents. The agents themselves should act as objects and the E-objects in particular should have the capability of taking on a different role. No effort was made to address the problems of automated failure recovery, problem decomposition, or implementation. Instead what has been achieved is a framework that can be developed in several distinct ways, and which provides a core set of metaphors and issues for further research.

  17. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research. PMID:17937602

  18. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Declassified photographs from U.S. intelligence satellites provide an important worldwide addition to the public record of the Earth's land surface. This imagery was released to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in accordance with Executive Order 12951 on February 23, 1995. The NARA has the original declassified film and a viewing copy. The USGS has another copy of the film to complement the Landsat archive. The declassified collection involves more than 990,000 photographs taken from 1959 through 1980 and was released on two separate occasions: February 1995 (Declass 1) and September 2002 (Declass 2). The USGS copy is maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Both the NARA and EROS provide public access to this unique collection that extends the record of land-surface change back another decade from the advent of the Landsat program that began satellite operations in 1972.

  19. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  20. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  1. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Lobeck, William E.

    2002-01-01

    Four research activities related to Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) have been performed under this grant. The four activities are: 1) non-deterministic approaches that incorporate technologies such as intelligent software agents, visual simulations and other ISE technologies; 2) virtual labs that leverage modeling, simulation and information technologies to create an immersive, highly interactive virtual environment tailored to the needs of researchers and learners; 3) advanced learning modules that incorporate advanced instructional, user interface and intelligent agent technologies; and 4) assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments.

  2. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    2002-12-01

    Four research activities related to Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) have been performed under this grant. The four activities are: 1) non-deterministic approaches that incorporate technologies such as intelligent software agents, visual simulations and other ISE technologies; 2) virtual labs that leverage modeling, simulation and information technologies to create an immersive, highly interactive virtual environment tailored to the needs of researchers and learners; 3) advanced learning modules that incorporate advanced instructional, user interface and intelligent agent technologies; and 4) assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments.

  3. Intelligently interactive combat simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.

    2001-09-01

    To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

  4. Foraging search: Prototypical intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobus, George

    2000-05-01

    We think because we eat. Or as Descartes might have said, on a little more reflection, "I need to eat, therefore I think." Animals that forage for a living repeatedly face the problem of searching for a sparsely distributed resource in a vast space. Furthermore, the resource may occur sporadically and episodically under conditions of true uncertainty (nonstationary, complex and non-linear dynamics). I assert that this problem is the canonical problem solved by intelligence. It's solution is the basis for the evolution of more advanced intelligence in which the space of search includes that of concepts (objects and relations) encoded in cortical structures. In humans the conscious experience of searching through concept space we call thinking. The foraging search model is based upon a higher-order autopoeitic system (the forager) employing anticipatory processing to enhance its success at finding food while avoiding becoming food or having accidents in a hostile world. I present a semi-formal description of the general foraging search problem and an approach to its solution. The latter is a brain-like structure employing dynamically adaptive neurons. A physical robot, MAVRIC, embodies some principles of foraging. It learns cues that lead to improvements in finding targets in a dynamic and nonstationary environment. This capability is based on a unique learning mechanism that encodes causal relations in the neural-like processing element. An argument is advanced that searching for resources in the physical world, as per the foraging model, is a prototype for generalized search for conceptual resources as when we think. A problem represents a conceptual disturbance in a homeostatic sense. The finding of a solution restores the homeostatic balance. The establishment of links between conceptual cues and solutions (resources) and the later use of those cues to think through to solutions of quasi-isomorphic problems is, essentially, foraging for ideas. It is a quite

  5. Aging and Strategic Retrieval in a Cued-Recall Test: The Role of Executive Functions and Fluid Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David; Vanneste, Sandrine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Cued-recall in episodic memory was investigated in relation to low and high cognitive support at retrieval, executive function level and fluid intelligence level in 81 healthy adults divided first into two age groups (young and elderly adults). The first analyses showed that age-related differences were greater when a low cognitive support was…

  6. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery and the WAIS-R in Assessment of Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynda; Goldstein, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Compared intellectual (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised) and neuropsychological (Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery) assessment as valid methods of identifying learning disabilities in adults. Findings from 155 subjects revealed that both instruments were able to distinguish adults with and without learning disabilities.…

  7. Childhood intelligence is heritable, highly polygenic and associated with FNBP1L.

    PubMed

    Benyamin, B; Pourcain, Bst; Davis, O S; Davies, G; Hansell, N K; Brion, M-J A; Kirkpatrick, R M; Cents, R A M; Franić, S; Miller, M B; Haworth, C M A; Meaburn, E; Price, T S; Evans, D M; Timpson, N; Kemp, J; Ring, S; McArdle, W; Medland, S E; Yang, J; Harris, S E; Liewald, D C; Scheet, P; Xiao, X; Hudziak, J J; de Geus, E J C; Jaddoe, V W V; Starr, J M; Verhulst, F C; Pennell, C; Tiemeier, H; Iacono, W G; Palmer, L J; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Boomsma, D I; Posthuma, D; McGue, M; Wright, M J; Davey Smith, G; Deary, I J; Plomin, R; Visscher, P M

    2014-02-01

    Intelligence in childhood, as measured by psychometric cognitive tests, is a strong predictor of many important life outcomes, including educational attainment, income, health and lifespan. Results from twin, family and adoption studies are consistent with general intelligence being highly heritable and genetically stable throughout the life course. No robustly associated genetic loci or variants for childhood intelligence have been reported. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) on childhood intelligence (age range 6-18 years) from 17,989 individuals in six discovery and three replication samples. Although no individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected with genome-wide significance, we show that the aggregate effects of common SNPs explain 22-46% of phenotypic variation in childhood intelligence in the three largest cohorts (P=3.9 × 10(-15), 0.014 and 0.028). FNBP1L, previously reported to be the most significantly associated gene for adult intelligence, was also significantly associated with childhood intelligence (P=0.003). Polygenic prediction analyses resulted in a significant correlation between predictor and outcome in all replication cohorts. The proportion of childhood intelligence explained by the predictor reached 1.2% (P=6 × 10(-5)), 3.5% (P=10(-3)) and 0.5% (P=6 × 10(-5)) in three independent validation cohorts. Given the sample sizes, these genetic prediction results are consistent with expectations if the genetic architecture of childhood intelligence is like that of body mass index or height. Our study provides molecular support for the heritability and polygenic nature of childhood intelligence. Larger sample sizes will be required to detect individual variants with genome-wide significance.

  8. Determinants of intelligence in childhood-onset epilepsy: a single-center study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungmee; Yum, Mi-Sun; Choi, Hae-won; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Hyo Won; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the intelligence of children with epilepsy and to determine the clinical factors associated with intellectual impairment. The medical records of patients diagnosed with childhood-onset epilepsy at a single tertiary medical center in Korea between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The Korean Education Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for adults was used to quantify the level of intelligence. Age at seizure onset, etiology, epilepsy duration, number of seizures in the last year, use of antiepileptic drugs, EEG/MRI findings, and epilepsy classification were recorded. The association between clinical factors and the intelligence was determined using logistic regression. Three hundred and twenty-two patients were included in the analysis. One hundred and seventy-six (54.7%) patients had low intelligence (intelligence quotient [IQ]<80) with 18 (5.6%) defined as borderline mental retardation (IQ 70-79), 47 (14.6%) as mild mental retardation (IQ 60-69), and 111 (34.5%) as moderate-to-severe mental retardation (IQ<60). Epilepsy duration, number of seizures in the last year, and epilepsy classification were significantly associated with low intelligence in multivariate logistic regression (p<0.05). However, when analyzed according to etiology, these factors were not associated with low intelligence in children with idiopathic epilepsy. The most important factors associated with low intelligence in childhood-onset epilepsy are the underlying etiology and, in cryptogenic and symptomatic epilepsy, seizure burden. The results of this study underscore the importance of seizure control to alleviate the harmful impact of epilepsy on cognition.

  9. Intelligent Agents in Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Mora, César

    2010-07-01

    Intelligent Agents are being applied in a wide range of processes and everyday applications. Their development is not new, in recent years they have had an increased attention and design; like learning and mentoring tools. In this work we discuss the definition of what an intelligent agent is; how they are applied; how they look like; recent implementations of agents; agents as support in the learning process, more precisely intelligent tutors; their state in Latin-American countries and future developments and trends that will permit a better communication between people and agents. Also we present an Intelligent Tutor applied as a tool for improving high-school students' skills and reasoning for the first five topics of Mechanics curricula.

  10. System for intelligent teleoperation research

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, N.E.

    1983-10-25

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA Langley Research Center is developing a research capability in the field of artificial intelligence, particularly as applicable in teleoperator/robotics development for remote space operations. As a testbed for experimentation in these areas, a system concept has been developed and is being implemented. This system, termed DAISIE (Distributed Artificially Intelligent System for Interacting with the Environment), interfaces the key processes of perception, reasoning, and manipulation by linking hardware sensors and manipulators to a modular artificial intelligence (AI) software system in a hierarchical control structure. Verification experiments have been performed: one experiment used a blocksworld database and planner embedded in the DAISIE system to intelligently manipulate a simple physical environment; the other experiment implemented a joint-space collision avoidance algorithm. Continued system development is planned.

  11. Recent Advances in the Theory and Measurement of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Hans

    1984-01-01

    Illustrates kinds of intelligence tests, discussing factors indicating intelligence: genetics, reaction time, latency and amplitude, and variability. Lists the advantages and disadvantages of the intelligence tests mentioned. (CI)

  12. School cafeteria noise-The impact of room acoustics and speech intelligibility on children's voice levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridger, Joseph F.

    2002-05-01

    The impact of room acoustics and speech intelligibility conditions of different school cafeterias on the voice levels of children is examined. Methods of evaluating cafeteria designs and predicting noise levels are discussed. Children are shown to modify their voice levels with changes in speech intelligibility like adults. Reverberation and signal to noise ratio are the important acoustical factors affecting speech intelligibility. Children have much more difficulty than adults in conditions where noise and reverberation are present. To evaluate the relationship of voice level and speech intelligibility, a database of real sound levels and room acoustics data was generated from measurements and data recorded during visits to a variety of existing cafeterias under different occupancy conditions. The effects of speech intelligibility and room acoustics on childrens voice levels are demonstrated. A new method is presented for predicting speech intelligibility conditions and resulting noise levels for the design of new cafeterias and renovation of existing facilities. Measurements are provided for an existing school cafeteria before and after new room acoustics treatments were added. This will be helpful for acousticians, architects, school systems, regulatory agencies, and Parent Teacher Associations to create less noisy cafeteria environments.

  13. Intelligent interface design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent interface concepts and systematic approaches to assessing their functionality are discussed. Four general features of intelligent interfaces are described: interaction efficiency, subtask automation, context sensitivity, and use of an appropriate design metaphor. Three evaluation methods are discussed: Functional Analysis, Part-Task Evaluation, and Operational Testing. Design and evaluation concepts are illustrated with examples from a prototype expert system interface for environmental control and life support systems for manned space platforms.

  14. Intelligence moderates neural responses to monetary reward and punishment

    PubMed Central

    DeYoung, Colin G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    The relations between intelligence (IQ) and neural responses to monetary gains and losses were investigated in a simple decision task. In 94 healthy adults, typical responses of striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal after monetary reward and punishment were weaker for subjects with higher IQ. IQ-moderated differential responses to gains and losses were also found for regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior frontal cortex. These regions have previously been identified with the subjective utility of monetary outcomes. Analysis of subjects' behavior revealed a correlation between IQ and the extent to which choices were related to experienced decision outcomes in preceding trials. Specifically, higher IQ predicted behavior to be more strongly correlated with an extended period of previously experienced decision outcomes, whereas lower IQ predicted behavior to be correlated exclusively to the most recent decision outcomes. We link these behavioral and imaging findings to a theoretical model capable of describing a role for intelligence during the evaluation of rewards generated by unknown probabilistic processes. Our results demonstrate neural differences in how people of different intelligence respond to experienced monetary rewards and punishments. Our theoretical discussion offers a functional description for how these individual differences may be linked to choice behavior. Together, our results and model support the hypothesis that observed correlations between intelligence and preferences may be rooted in the way decision outcomes are experienced ex post, rather than deriving exclusively from how choices are evaluated ex ante. PMID:24523519

  15. Intelligence moderates neural responses to monetary reward and punishment.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Daniel R; DeYoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-05-01

    The relations between intelligence (IQ) and neural responses to monetary gains and losses were investigated in a simple decision task. In 94 healthy adults, typical responses of striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal after monetary reward and punishment were weaker for subjects with higher IQ. IQ-moderated differential responses to gains and losses were also found for regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior frontal cortex. These regions have previously been identified with the subjective utility of monetary outcomes. Analysis of subjects' behavior revealed a correlation between IQ and the extent to which choices were related to experienced decision outcomes in preceding trials. Specifically, higher IQ predicted behavior to be more strongly correlated with an extended period of previously experienced decision outcomes, whereas lower IQ predicted behavior to be correlated exclusively to the most recent decision outcomes. We link these behavioral and imaging findings to a theoretical model capable of describing a role for intelligence during the evaluation of rewards generated by unknown probabilistic processes. Our results demonstrate neural differences in how people of different intelligence respond to experienced monetary rewards and punishments. Our theoretical discussion offers a functional description for how these individual differences may be linked to choice behavior. Together, our results and model support the hypothesis that observed correlations between intelligence and preferences may be rooted in the way decision outcomes are experienced ex post, rather than deriving exclusively from how choices are evaluated ex ante. PMID:24523519

  16. Intelligence moderates neural responses to monetary reward and punishment.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Daniel R; DeYoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-05-01

    The relations between intelligence (IQ) and neural responses to monetary gains and losses were investigated in a simple decision task. In 94 healthy adults, typical responses of striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal after monetary reward and punishment were weaker for subjects with higher IQ. IQ-moderated differential responses to gains and losses were also found for regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior frontal cortex. These regions have previously been identified with the subjective utility of monetary outcomes. Analysis of subjects' behavior revealed a correlation between IQ and the extent to which choices were related to experienced decision outcomes in preceding trials. Specifically, higher IQ predicted behavior to be more strongly correlated with an extended period of previously experienced decision outcomes, whereas lower IQ predicted behavior to be correlated exclusively to the most recent decision outcomes. We link these behavioral and imaging findings to a theoretical model capable of describing a role for intelligence during the evaluation of rewards generated by unknown probabilistic processes. Our results demonstrate neural differences in how people of different intelligence respond to experienced monetary rewards and punishments. Our theoretical discussion offers a functional description for how these individual differences may be linked to choice behavior. Together, our results and model support the hypothesis that observed correlations between intelligence and preferences may be rooted in the way decision outcomes are experienced ex post, rather than deriving exclusively from how choices are evaluated ex ante.

  17. Successful intelligence: finding a balance.

    PubMed

    Sternberg

    1999-11-01

    Human intelligence has long been on the borderline between a scientific and a quasi-scientific field within the scope of psychological science. This is partially because its study and measurement have been particularly susceptible to socio-political agendas, but also because empirical tests of theories of intelligence have too often ranged from inadequate to nonexistent. In this article it is argued that two extremes have prevailed in the study of intelligence. At one extreme are general-ability (g) theorists, who have collected large amounts of data to test the theory of general intelligence, but often using restricted ranges of participants, materials or situational contexts. They also show a tendency to limit their methods of data analysis (e.g. to exploratory factor analysis). At another extreme are theorists arguing for new, multiple intelligences, whose theories have been subjected to few or no empirical tests. I argue that a middle ground is needed that recognizes the multifarious nature of intelligence and of people's conceptions of it, but that also is subjected to rigorous empirical tests.

  18. The Social Embedding of Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Bruce

    I claim that to pass the Turing Test over any period of extended time, it will be necessary to embed the entity into society. This chapter discusses why this is, and how it might be brought about. I start by arguing that intelligence is better characterized by tests of social interaction, especially in open-ended and extended situations. I then argue that learning is an essential component of intelligence and hence that a universal intelligence is impossible. These two arguments support the relevance of the Turing Test as a particular, but appropriate test of interactive intelligence. I look to the human case to argue that individual intelligence uses society to a considerable extent for its development. Taking a lead from the human case, I outline how a socially embedded Artificial Intelligence might be brought about in terms of four aspects: free will, emotion, empathy, and self-modeling. In each case, I try to specify what social 'hooks' might be required for the full ability to develop during a considerable period of in situ acculturation. The chapter ends by speculating what it might be like to live with the result.

  19. Successful intelligence: finding a balance.

    PubMed

    Sternberg

    1999-11-01

    Human intelligence has long been on the borderline between a scientific and a quasi-scientific field within the scope of psychological science. This is partially because its study and measurement have been particularly susceptible to socio-political agendas, but also because empirical tests of theories of intelligence have too often ranged from inadequate to nonexistent. In this article it is argued that two extremes have prevailed in the study of intelligence. At one extreme are general-ability (g) theorists, who have collected large amounts of data to test the theory of general intelligence, but often using restricted ranges of participants, materials or situational contexts. They also show a tendency to limit their methods of data analysis (e.g. to exploratory factor analysis). At another extreme are theorists arguing for new, multiple intelligences, whose theories have been subjected to few or no empirical tests. I argue that a middle ground is needed that recognizes the multifarious nature of intelligence and of people's conceptions of it, but that also is subjected to rigorous empirical tests. PMID:10529799

  20. Sex differences in parents' estimations of their own and their children's multiple intelligences: a Portuguese replication.

    PubMed

    Neto, Félix; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-05-01

    In this study, 148 Portuguese adults (M = 45.4 years) rated themselves and their children on overall IQ and on H. Gardner (1999) 10 intelligence subtypes. Men's self-estimates were not significantly higher than women's on any of the 11 estimates. The results were in line with previous studies, in that both sexes rated the overall intelligence of their first male children higher than the first female children. Higher parental IQ self-estimates correspond with higher IQ estimates for children. Globally parents estimated that their sons had significantly higher IQs than their daughters. In particular, parents rated their son's spiritual intelligence higher than those of their daughters. Children's age and sex, and parents' age and sex were all non-significant predictors of the overall "g" score estimates of the first two children. Participants thought verbal, mathematical, and spatial intelligence were the best indicators of the overall intelligence for self and children. There were no sex differences in experience of, or attitudes towards, intelligence testing. Results are discussed in terms of the growing literature in the self-estimates of intelligence, as well as limitations of that approach.

  1. Comparing the single-word intelligibility of two speech synthesizers for small computers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Previous research on the intelligibility of synthesized speech has placed emphasis on the segmental intelligibility (rather than word or sentence intelligibility) of expensive and sophisticated synthesis systems. There is a need for more information about the intelligibility of low-to-moderately priced speech synthesizers because they are the most likely to be widely purchase for clinical and educational use. This study was to compare the word intelligibility of two such synthesizers for small computers, the Votrax Personal Speech System (PSS) and the Echo GP (General Purpose). A multiple-choice word identification task was used in a two-part study in which 48 young adults served as listeners. Groups of subjects in Part I completed one trial listening to taped natural speech followed by one trial with each synthesizer. Subjects in Part II listened to the taped human speech followed by two trials with the same synthesizer. Under the quiet listening conditions used for this study, taped human speech was 30% more intelligible than the Votrax PSS, and 53% more intelligible than the Echo GP.

  2. Speech Intelligibility in Deaf Children After Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Jessica L.; AuBuchon, Angela M.; Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated long-term speech intelligibility outcomes in 63 prelingually deaf children, adolescents, and young adults who received cochlear implants (CIs) before age 7 (M = 2;11 [years;months], range = 0;8–6;3) and used their implants for at least 7 years (M = 12;1, range = 7;0–22;5). Method Speech intelligibility was assessed using playback methods with naïve, normal-hearing listeners. Results Mean intelligibility scores were lower than scores obtained from an age- and nonverbal IQ–matched, normal-hearing control sample, although the majority of CI users scored within the range of the control sample. Our sample allowed us to investigate the contribution of several demographic and cognitive factors to speech intelligibility. CI users who used their implant for longer periods of time exhibited poorer speech intelligibility scores. Crucially, results from a hierarchical regression model suggested that this difference was due to more conservative candidacy criteria in CI users with more years of use. No other demographic variables accounted for significant variance in speech intelligibility scores beyond age of implantation and amount of spoken language experience (assessed by communication mode and family income measures). Conclusion Many factors that have been found to contribute to individual differences in language outcomes in normal-hearing children also contribute to long-term CI users’ ability to produce intelligible speech. PMID:25260109

  3. Sex differences in parents' estimations of their own and their children's multiple intelligences: a Portuguese replication.

    PubMed

    Neto, Félix; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-05-01

    In this study, 148 Portuguese adults (M = 45.4 years) rated themselves and their children on overall IQ and on H. Gardner (1999) 10 intelligence subtypes. Men's self-estimates were not significantly higher than women's on any of the 11 estimates. The results were in line with previous studies, in that both sexes rated the overall intelligence of their first male children higher than the first female children. Higher parental IQ self-estimates correspond with higher IQ estimates for children. Globally parents estimated that their sons had significantly higher IQs than their daughters. In particular, parents rated their son's spiritual intelligence higher than those of their daughters. Children's age and sex, and parents' age and sex were all non-significant predictors of the overall "g" score estimates of the first two children. Participants thought verbal, mathematical, and spatial intelligence were the best indicators of the overall intelligence for self and children. There were no sex differences in experience of, or attitudes towards, intelligence testing. Results are discussed in terms of the growing literature in the self-estimates of intelligence, as well as limitations of that approach. PMID:21568168

  4. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Mohaghegh, Shahab D.

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise

  5. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  6. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or nearmore » surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift

  7. An Evaluation of Articulatory Working Space Area in Vowel Production of Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunton, Kate; Leddy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Many adolescents and adults with Down syndrome have reduced speech intelligibility. Reasons for this reduction may relate to differences in anatomy and physiology, both of which are important for creating an intelligible speech signal. The purpose of this study was to document acoustic vowel space and articulatory working space for two adult…

  8. Intelligent Design versus Evolution.

    PubMed

    Aviezer, Nathan

    2010-07-01

    Intelligent Design (ID) burst onto the scene in 1996, with the publication of Darwin's Black Box by Michael Behe. Since then, there has been a plethora of articles written about ID, both pro and con. However, most of the articles critical of ID deal with peripheral issues, such as whether ID is just another form of creationism or whether ID qualifies as science or whether ID should be taught in public schools. It is our view that the central issue is whether the basic claim of ID is correct. Our goal is fourfold: (I) to show that most of the proposed refutations of ID are unconvincing and/or incorrect, (II) to describe the single fundamental error of ID, (III) to discuss the historic tradition surrounding the ID controversy, showing that ID is an example of a "god-of-the-gaps" argument, and (IV) to place the ID controversy in the larger context of proposed proofs for the existence of God, with the emphasis on Jewish tradition.

  9. Intelligent Design versus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Aviezer, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent Design (ID) burst onto the scene in 1996, with the publication of Darwin’s Black Box by Michael Behe. Since then, there has been a plethora of articles written about ID, both pro and con. However, most of the articles critical of ID deal with peripheral issues, such as whether ID is just another form of creationism or whether ID qualifies as science or whether ID should be taught in public schools. It is our view that the central issue is whether the basic claim of ID is correct. Our goal is fourfold: (I) to show that most of the proposed refutations of ID are unconvincing and/or incorrect, (II) to describe the single fundamental error of ID, (III) to discuss the historic tradition surrounding the ID controversy, showing that ID is an example of a “god-of-the-gaps” argument, and (IV) to place the ID controversy in the larger context of proposed proofs for the existence of God, with the emphasis on Jewish tradition. PMID:23908779

  10. Chimpanzee intelligence is heritable.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Russell, Jamie L; Schaeffer, Jennifer

    2014-07-21

    The role that genes play in human intelligence or IQ has remained a point of significant scientific debate dating back to the time of Galton [1]. It has now become increasingly clear that IQ is heritable in humans, but these effects can be modified by nongenetic mechanisms [2-4]. In contrast to human IQ, until recently, views of learning and cognition in animals have largely been dominated by the behaviorist school of thought, originally championed by Watson [5] and Skinner [6]. A large body of accumulated research now demonstrates a variety of cognitive abilities in nonhuman animals and challenges traditional behaviorist interpretations of performance [7, 8]. This, in turn, has led to a renewed interest in the role that social and biological factors might play in explaining individual and phylogenetic differences in cognition [9]. Specifically, aside from early attempts to selectively breed for learning skills in rodents [10-12], studies examining the role that genetic factors might play in individual variation in cognitive abilities in nonhuman animals, particularly nonhuman primates, are scarce. Here, we utilized a modified Primate Cognitive Test Battery [13] in conjunction with quantitative genetic analyses to examine whether cognitive performance is heritable in chimpanzees. We found that some but not all cognitive traits were significantly heritable in chimpanzees. We further found significant genetic correlations between different dimensions of cognitive functioning, suggesting that the genes that explain the variability of one cognitive trait might also explain that of other cognitive traits. PMID:25017206

  11. Chimpanzee intelligence is heritable.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Russell, Jamie L; Schaeffer, Jennifer

    2014-07-21

    The role that genes play in human intelligence or IQ has remained a point of significant scientific debate dating back to the time of Galton [1]. It has now become increasingly clear that IQ is heritable in humans, but these effects can be modified by nongenetic mechanisms [2-4]. In contrast to human IQ, until recently, views of learning and cognition in animals have largely been dominated by the behaviorist school of thought, originally championed by Watson [5] and Skinner [6]. A large body of accumulated research now demonstrates a variety of cognitive abilities in nonhuman animals and challenges traditional behaviorist interpretations of performance [7, 8]. This, in turn, has led to a renewed interest in the role that social and biological factors might play in explaining individual and phylogenetic differences in cognition [9]. Specifically, aside from early attempts to selectively breed for learning skills in rodents [10-12], studies examining the role that genetic factors might play in individual variation in cognitive abilities in nonhuman animals, particularly nonhuman primates, are scarce. Here, we utilized a modified Primate Cognitive Test Battery [13] in conjunction with quantitative genetic analyses to examine whether cognitive performance is heritable in chimpanzees. We found that some but not all cognitive traits were significantly heritable in chimpanzees. We further found significant genetic correlations between different dimensions of cognitive functioning, suggesting that the genes that explain the variability of one cognitive trait might also explain that of other cognitive traits.

  12. Intelligent Design versus Evolution.

    PubMed

    Aviezer, Nathan

    2010-07-01

    Intelligent Design (ID) burst onto the scene in 1996, with the publication of Darwin's Black Box by Michael Behe. Since then, there has been a plethora of articles written about ID, both pro and con. However, most of the articles critical of ID deal with peripheral issues, such as whether ID is just another form of creationism or whether ID qualifies as science or whether ID should be taught in public schools. It is our view that the central issue is whether the basic claim of ID is correct. Our goal is fourfold: (I) to show that most of the proposed refutations of ID are unconvincing and/or incorrect, (II) to describe the single fundamental error of ID, (III) to discuss the historic tradition surrounding the ID controversy, showing that ID is an example of a "god-of-the-gaps" argument, and (IV) to place the ID controversy in the larger context of proposed proofs for the existence of God, with the emphasis on Jewish tradition. PMID:23908779

  13. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  14. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  15. Components of Swarm Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    David Bruemmer; Donald Dudenhoeffer; Matthew Anderson; Mark McKay

    2004-03-01

    This paper discusses the successes and failures over the past three years as efforts at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed and evaluated robot behaviors that promote the emergence of swarm intelligence. Using a team of 12 small robots with the ability to respond to light and sound, the INEEL has investigated the fundamental advantages of swarm behavior as well as the limitations of this approach. The paper discusses the ways in which biology has inspired this work and the ways in which adherence to the biological model has proven to be both a benefit and hindrance to developing a fieldable system. The paper outlines how a hierarchical command and control structure can be imposed in order to permit human control at a level of group abstraction and discusses experimental results that show how group performance scales as different numbers of robots are utilized. Lastly, the paper outlines the applications for which the resulting capabilities have been applied and demonstrated.

  16. Are Myxobacteria intelligent?

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Dale

    2013-01-01

    “Intelligence” is understood in different ways. Because humans are proud of their ability to speak, intelligence often includes the ability to communicate with others, to plan for the future, and to solve frequently encountered problems. Myxobacteria are among the most socially adept and ubiquitous of bacteria that live in the soil. To survive in nature, Myxobacteria communicate with their peers, using signals that elicit specific responses. Both swarming-growth and starvation-induced fruiting body development depend upon the specificity and effectiveness of signals passed between cells. Dynamic swarms spread outward, forming regular multi-cellular and multi-layered structures as they spread. Several different extra-cellular signals have been identified for fruiting body development and one is hypothesized for swarm development. Some extra-cellular signals are small, diffusible molecules. Others are protein molecules. The swarm signal appears to consist of structurally complex, protein to protein, contact junctions between pairs of side by side aligned cells. Each junction persists for less than a minute before disconnecting. After separating, both cells move on to make similar, transient connections with other cells. Eventually, the signal spreads across a prescribed population of communicating cells. PMID:24273536

  17. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710

  18. Hearing Loss is Associated with Decreased Nonverbal Intelligence in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Susan D.; Schmitz, Jane; Pillion, Joseph; Wu, Lee; Khatry, Subarna K.; Karna, Sureshwar L.; LeClerq, Steven C.; West, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the association between adolescent and young adult hearing loss and nonverbal intelligence in rural Nepal Study Design Cross-sectional assessment of hearing loss among a population cohort of adolescents and young adults Setting Sarlahi District, southern Nepal Patients 764 individuals aged 14–23 years Intervention Evaluation of hearing loss, defined by WHO criteria of pure-tone average (PTA) >25 decibels (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz), unilaterally and bilaterally Main Outcome Measure Nonverbal intelligence, measured by the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 3rd Edition (TONI-3) standardized score (mean 100; standard deviation (SD) 15) Results Nonverbal intelligence scores differed between participants with normal hearing and those with bilateral (p =0.04) but not unilateral (p =0.74) hearing loss. Demographic and socioeconomic factors including male sex, higher caste, literacy, education level, occupation reported as student, and ownership of a bicycle, watch, and latrine were strongly associated with higher nonverbal intelligence scores (all p <0.001). Subjects with bilateral hearing loss scored an average of 3.16 points lower (95% CI: −5.56, −0.75; p =0.01) than subjects with normal hearing after controlling for socioeconomic factors. There was no difference in nonverbal intelligence score based on unilateral hearing loss (0.97; 95% CI: −1.67, 3.61; p =0.47). Conclusions Nonverbal intelligence is adversely affected by bilateral hearing loss, even at mild hearing loss levels. Social and economic well being appear compromised in individuals with lower nonverbal intelligence test scores. PMID:25299832

  19. On the nature and nurture of intelligence and specific cognitive abilities: the more heritable, the more culture dependent.

    PubMed

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Wicherts, Jelte M; Dolan, Conor V; van der Maas, Han L J

    2013-12-01

    To further knowledge concerning the nature and nurture of intelligence, we scrutinized how heritability coefficients vary across specific cognitive abilities both theoretically and empirically. Data from 23 twin studies (combined N = 7,852) showed that (a) in adult samples, culture-loaded subtests tend to demonstrate greater heritability coefficients than do culture-reduced subtests; and (b) in samples of both adults and children, a subtest's proportion of variance shared with general intelligence is a function of its cultural load. These findings require an explanation because they do not follow from mainstream theories of intelligence. The findings are consistent with our hypothesis that heritability coefficients differ across cognitive abilities as a result of differences in the contribution of genotype-environment covariance. The counterintuitive finding that the most heritable abilities are the most culture-dependent abilities sheds a new light on the long-standing nature-nurture debate of intelligence.

  20. Intelligent Systems For Aerospace Engineering: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, K.

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become extremely important for advancing the current trends in information technology. Artificially intelligent systems currently utilize computers to emulate various faculties of human intelligence and biological metaphors. They use a combination of symbolic and sub-symbolic systems capable of evolving human cognitive skills and intelligence, not just systems capable of doing things humans do not do well. Intelligent systems are ideally suited for tasks such as search and optimization, pattern recognition and matching, planning, uncertainty management, control, and adaptation. In this paper, the intelligent system technologies and their application potential are highlighted via several examples.

  1. Intelligent Systems for Aerospace Engineering: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Clancey, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become extremely important for advancing the current trends in information technology. Artificially intelligent systems currently utilize computers to emulate various faculties of human intelligence and biological metaphors. They use a combination of symbolic and sub-symbolic systems capable of evolving human cognitive skills and intelligence, not just systems capable of doing things humans do not do well. Intelligent systems are ideally suited for tasks such as search and optimization, pattern recognition and matching, planning, uncertainty management, control, and adaptation. In this paper, the intelligent system technologies and their application potential are highlighted via several examples.

  2. Resilience in relation to personality and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Barlaug, Dag; Martinussen, Monica; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Hjemdal, Odin

    2005-01-01

    Resilience is a construct of increasing interest, but validated scales measuring resilience factors among adults are scarce. Here, a scale named the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was crossvalidated and compared with measures of personality (Big Five/5PFs), cognitive abilities (Raven's Advanced Matrices, Vocabulary, Number series), and social intelligence (TSIS). All measures were given to 482 applicants for the military college. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the fit of the five-factor model, measuring 'personal strength', 'social competence', 'structured style', 'family cohesion' and 'social resources'. Using Big Five to discriminate between well adjusted and more vulnerable personality profiles, all resilience factors were positively correlated with the well adjusted personality profile. RSA-personal strength was most associated with 5PFs-emotional stability, RSA-social competence with 5PFs-extroversion and 5PFs-agreeableness, as well as TSIS-social skills, RSA-structured style with 5PFs-conscientiousness. Unexpectedly but interestingly, measures of RSA-family cohesion and RSA-social resources were also related to personality. Furthermore, the RSA was unrelated to cognitive abilities. This study supported the convergent and discriminative validity of the scale, and thus the inference that individuals scoring high on this scale are psychologically healthier, better adjusted, and thus more resilient.

  3. Resilience in relation to personality and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Barlaug, Dag; Martinussen, Monica; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Hjemdal, Odin

    2005-01-01

    Resilience is a construct of increasing interest, but validated scales measuring resilience factors among adults are scarce. Here, a scale named the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was crossvalidated and compared with measures of personality (Big Five/5PFs), cognitive abilities (Raven's Advanced Matrices, Vocabulary, Number series), and social intelligence (TSIS). All measures were given to 482 applicants for the military college. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the fit of the five-factor model, measuring 'personal strength', 'social competence', 'structured style', 'family cohesion' and 'social resources'. Using Big Five to discriminate between well adjusted and more vulnerable personality profiles, all resilience factors were positively correlated with the well adjusted personality profile. RSA-personal strength was most associated with 5PFs-emotional stability, RSA-social competence with 5PFs-extroversion and 5PFs-agreeableness, as well as TSIS-social skills, RSA-structured style with 5PFs-conscientiousness. Unexpectedly but interestingly, measures of RSA-family cohesion and RSA-social resources were also related to personality. Furthermore, the RSA was unrelated to cognitive abilities. This study supported the convergent and discriminative validity of the scale, and thus the inference that individuals scoring high on this scale are psychologically healthier, better adjusted, and thus more resilient. PMID:16097398

  4. Temporal Relations and Intelligence: Correlating Relational Performance with Performance on the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hora, Denis; Pelaez, Martha; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rae, Gordon; Robinson, Karen; Chaudhary, Tahir

    2008-01-01

    Relational frame theory (RFT) explicitly suggests that derived relational responding underlies complex verbally-based cognitive performances. The current study investigated whether the ability to respond in accordance with temporal relations between stimuli was predictive of performance on the four indices of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,…

  5. Academic and Practical Intelligence: A Case Study of the Yup'ik in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Meier, Elisa; Lipka, Jerry; Mohatt, Gerald; Yanez, Evelyn; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the importance of academic and practical intelligence in rural and relatively urban Yup'ik Alaskan communities with respect to Yup'ik-valued traits rated by adults or peers in the adolescents' communities. A total of 261 adolescents participated in the study; of these adolescents, 145 were females and 116 were males, and they were from…

  6. Emotional Intelligence in Asperger Syndrome: Implications of Dissonance between Intellect and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; McCrimmon, Adam W.; Schwean, Vicki L.; Saklofske, Donald H.

    2010-01-01

    Although many individuals with AS keenly desire social relationships, they are often unsuccessful in developing and maintaining them. Emotional intelligence (EI) as both an ability and trait is a construct that offers potential to enhance understanding of emotional and social characteristics of individuals with AS. Twenty-five young adults (aged…

  7. Open-Label, Prospective Trial of Olanzapine in Adolescents with Subaverage Intelligence and Disruptive Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of psychotic and mood disorders in adults. This prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine the safety and usefulness of olanzapine in treating disruptive behavior disorders in adolescents with subaverage intelligence. Method: Sixteen…

  8. Expanding Conceptions of Intelligence: Lessons Learned from Refugees and Newcomers to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magro, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examines dimensions of emotional intelligence and, more specifically, the growth of resilience through the experiences and challenges of ten refugee and newcomer adult learners who were either children or teenagers during times of conflict and war. Despite their hardships, learners interviewed in this study showed…

  9. Can Fluid Intelligence Be Reduced to "Simple" Short-Term Storage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Kenia; Burgaleta, Miguel; Roman, Francisco J.; Escorial, Sergio; Shih, Pei Chun; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Colom, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Much is written regarding the associations between human intelligence and cognition. However, it is unusual to find comprehensive studies. Here twenty four measures tapping eight cognitive abilities and skills are considered for assessing a sample of one hundred and eighty five young adults. The simultaneous relationships among fluid,…

  10. Using Computer-Based Artificial Intelligence Technology to Help ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dennis M.

    This paper discusses ways in which artificial intelligence (AI) technologies may be used to aid students for whom English is a second language in the development of language and reading skills, and asserts that the coupling of technology with close adult-teacher contacts within a context of cultural precedents and social rewards is an important…

  11. Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Eating Patterns: A New Insight into the Antecedents of Eating Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zysberg, Leehu; Rubanov, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and emotional eating. The authors hypothesized that EI will negatively associate with emotional eating. Methods: A correlational study, conducted in a convenience sample. The researchers personally approached working adults in their workplaces. Ninety Israelis, selected to…

  12. Leadership and Emotional Intelligence: A Phenomenological Study on Developmental Experiences of Effective Federal Government Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the experiences of effective Federal Government leaders in developing their emotional intelligence (EI). Using a conceptual framework of adult learning, leadership, and leader development, this study focused on experiential and situated learning to discern how EI develops. The researcher in the context of this…

  13. Spotting Books and Countries: New Approaches to Estimating and Conceptualizing Prior Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kirsten M.; de Wit, Isabella; Deary, Ian J.

    2006-01-01

    We aimed to design alternative estimates of pre-morbid/prior intelligence to the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and the Spot-the-Word (STW) in order to tap non-vocabulary based knowledge stores. The rationale for the development of the new tests was that more cognitively able individuals acquire and retain more "singular facts" from their…

  14. The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Academic Progress and Achievement in UK University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Debbie; Roper, Claire; Qualter, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found relationships between higher levels of emotional intelligence (EI) and academic success in both adolescents and adults. This study examines the relationship between overall EI and specific EI competencies in 135 undergraduate psychology students in the UK. EI was measured at the start of a psychology degree course using…

  15. Individual Differences in General Intelligence Correlate with Brain Function during Nonreasoning Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haier, Richard J.; White, Nathan S.; Alkire, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Administered Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices to 22 adults and measured cerebral glucose activity as subjects viewed videos on 2 occasions. Data provide evidence that individual differences in intelligence correlate with brain function even when the brain is engaged in non-reasoning tasks. (SLD)

  16. Gray Matter and Intelligence Factors: Is There a Neuro-g?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haier, Richard J.; Colom, Roberto; Schroeder, David H.; Condon, Christopher A.; Tang, Cheuk; Eaves, Emily; Head, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous results among neuro-imaging studies using psychometric intelligence measures may result from the variety of tests used. The g-factor may provide a common metric across studies. Here we derived a g-factor from a battery of eight cognitive tests completed by 6929 young adults, 40 of whom also completed structural MRI scans. Regional…

  17. Gray Matter Correlates of Fluid, Crystallized, and Spatial Intelligence: Testing the P-FIT Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.; Head, Kevin; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Quiroga, Maria Angeles; Shih, Pei Chun; Jung, Rex E.

    2009-01-01

    The parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) nominates several areas distributed throughout the brain as relevant for intelligence. This theory was derived from previously published studies using a variety of both imaging methods and tests of cognitive ability. Here we test this theory in a new sample of young healthy adults (N = 100) using a…

  18. A Comparison of Speech Synthesis Intelligibility with Listeners from Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirenda, Pat; Beukelman, David R.

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated the intelligibility of three different types of speech synthesizers (Echo II+, Votrax Personal Speech System, and DECtalk) with children at two different age groups and adults. Results are reported in terms of their educational application with communication disordered persons. (Author/DB)

  19. Children's Naive Theories of Intelligence Influence Their Metacognitive Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, David B.; Son, Lisa K.; Metcalfe, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the metacognitive judgments adults infer from their experiences of encoding effort vary in accordance with their naive theories of intelligence. To determine whether this finding extends to elementary schoolchildren, a study was conducted in which 27 third graders (M[subscript age] = 8.27) and 24 fifth graders…

  20. Ecocultural Bias in Culture-Specific Intelligence Tests in an Ecologically Diverse Culture: The Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    1987-01-01

    Ecocultural bias in the Preschool Intelligence Test and the Adult Verbal Aptitude Test was studied. Test results with 177 five- and six-year-olds and 168 mothers in neighborhoods with similar lifestyles and economies in the Philippines show need to screen items for bias. Tests of crystallized abilities had greatest potential for bias. Culturally…

  1. Intelligent navigation and multivehicle coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Flann, Nicholas S.

    1999-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University's Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles. This paper discusses the development of a strategy that uses a sophisticated, highly intelligent sensor platform to allow centralized coordination between smaller and inexpensive robots. The three components of the multi-agent cooperative scheme are small-scale robots, large-scale robots, and the central control station running a mission and path- planning software. The smaller robots are used for activities where the probability of loss increases, such as Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) or mine detonation. The research is aimed at building simple, inexpensive multi-agent vehicles and an intelligent navigation and multi-vehicle coordination system suitable for UXO, environmental remediation or mine detection. These simplified robots are capable of conducting hunting missions using low-cost positioning sensors and intelligent algorithms. Additionally, a larger sensor-rich intelligent system capable of transporting smaller units to outlying remote sites has been developed. The larger system interfaces to the central control station and provides navigation assistance to multiple low-cost vehicles. Finally, mission and path-planning software serves as the operator control unit, allowing central data collection, map creation and tracking, and an interface to the larger system as well as each smaller unit. The power of this scheme is the ability to scale to the appropriate level for the complexity of the mission.

  2. Human intelligence and brain networks.

    PubMed

    Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E; Haier, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other.

  3. Natural history of Ashkenazi intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Gregory; Hardy, Jason; Harpending, Henry

    2006-09-01

    This paper elaborates the hypothesis that the unique demography and sociology of Ashkenazim in medieval Europe selected for intelligence. Ashkenazi literacy, economic specialization, and closure to inward gene flow led to a social environment in which there was high fitness payoff to intelligence, specifically verbal and mathematical intelligence but not spatial ability. As with any regime of strong directional selection on a quantitative trait, genetic variants that were otherwise fitness reducing rose in frequency. In particular we propose that the well-known clusters of Ashkenazi genetic diseases, the sphingolipid cluster and the DNA repair cluster in particular, increase intelligence in heterozygotes. Other Ashkenazi disorders are known to increase intelligence. Although these disorders have been attributed to a bottleneck in Ashkenazi history and consequent genetic drift, there is no evidence of any bottleneck. Gene frequencies at a large number of autosomal loci show that if there was a bottleneck then subsequent gene flow from Europeans must have been very large, obliterating the effects of any bottleneck. The clustering of the disorders in only a few pathways and the presence at elevated frequency of more than one deleterious allele at many of them could not have been produced by drift. Instead these are signatures of strong and recent natural selection.

  4. Miniature Intelligent Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    An electronic unit denoted the Miniature Intelligent Sensor Module performs sensor-signal-conditioning functions and local processing of sensor data. The unit includes four channels of analog input/output circuitry, a processor, volatile and nonvolatile memory, and two Ethernet communication ports, all housed in a weathertight enclosure. The unit accepts AC or DC power. The analog inputs provide programmable gain, offset, and filtering as well as shunt calibration and auto-zeroing. Analog outputs include sine, square, and triangular waves having programmable frequencies and amplitudes, as well as programmable amplitude DC. One innovative aspect of the design of this unit is the integration of a relatively powerful processor and large amount of memory along with the sensor-signalconditioning circuitry so that sophisticated computer programs can be used to acquire and analyze sensor data and estimate and track the health of the overall sensor-data-acquisition system of which the unit is a part. The unit includes calibration, zeroing, and signalfeedback circuitry to facilitate health monitoring. The processor is also integrated with programmable logic circuitry in such a manner as to simplify and enhance acquisition of data and generation of analog outputs. A notable unique feature of the unit is a cold-junction compensation circuit in the back shell of a sensor connector. This circuit makes it possible to use Ktype thermocouples without compromising a housing seal. Replicas of this unit may prove useful in industrial and manufacturing settings - especially in such large outdoor facilities as refineries. Two features can be expected to simplify installation: the weathertight housings should make it possible to mount the units near sensors, and the Ethernet communication capability of the units should facilitate establishment of communication connections for the units.

  5. Theory of Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.

  6. The GABRB1 gene is associated with thalamus volume and modulates the association between thalamus volume and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Lei, Xuemei; Li, Jin; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde

    2014-11-15

    The GABRB1 gene encodes the beta 1 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA A receptor), which is responsible for mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the thalamus. Potential relationships between the GABRB1 gene, thalamus volume, and intelligence have been suggested by previous clinical studies, but have not been directly examined among nonclinical samples. The current study collected structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data from 316 healthy Chinese adults (including 187 females and 129 males), and examined associations between GABRB1 variants, thalamus volume, and intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised). After controlling for intracranial volume, sex, and age, GABRB1 genetic polymorphism at the SNP rs7435958 had the strongest association with thalamus volume (p = 0.002 and 0.00008 for left and right thalamus volumes, respectively), with GG homozygotes having smaller bilateral thalamus volumes than the other genotypes. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between bilateral thalamus volumes and intelligence, especially for GABRB1 rs7435958 GG female homozygotes (r's = 0.31 and 0.29, p < 0.01, for the correlations of intelligence with left and right thalamus volumes, respectively). This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of the GABRB1 gene in the thalamus structure and their interactive effects on intelligence. Future studies of the thalamus-intelligence associations should consider genetic factors as potential moderators.

  7. Complementary Machine Intelligence and Human Intelligence in Virtual Teaching Assistant for Tutoring Program Tracing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Huang, Bau-Hung; Lin, Chi-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a virtual teaching assistant (VTA) to share teacher tutoring tasks in helping students practice program tracing and proposes two mechanisms of complementing machine intelligence and human intelligence to develop the VTA. The first mechanism applies machine intelligence to extend human intelligence (teacher answers) to evaluate…

  8. Intelligence Builders for Every Student: 44 Exercises To Expand Multiple Intelligences in Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazear, David

    This book offers 44 activities for developing capacities of seven types of intelligence identified by Howard Gardner in his theory of multiple intelligences. The activities, grouped by the type of intelligence the activity primarily fosters, are intended for students to do on their own. The intelligences and sample activities are as follows: (1)…

  9. Self-Assessing of the Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Intelligence in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagiene, Valentina; Juškeviciene, Anita; Carneiro, Roberto; Child, Camilla; Cullen, Joe

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Organisational Intelligence (OI) competences self-assessment tools developed and applied by the IGUANA project. In the paper Emotional Intelligence and Organisational Intelligence competences are discussed, their use in action research experiments to assess and…

  10. Intelligent Agents as Cognitive Tools for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the educational potential for intelligent agents as cognitive tools. Discusses the role of intelligent agents: managing large amounts of information (information overload), serving as a pedagogical expert, and creating programming environments for the learner. (AEF)

  11. Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druskat, Vanessa Urch; Wolff, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Research has found that individual emotional intelligence has a group analog and it is critical to groups' effectiveness. Teams can develop greater emotional intelligence and boost their overall performance. (JOW)

  12. Competitive Intelligence and the Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. Frances

    1988-01-01

    Examines the competitive intelligence approach to corporate information gathering, and discusses how it differs from the traditional library information center approach. Steps for developing a competitive intelligence system in the library information center are suggested. (33 references) (MES)

  13. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  14. The growing significance of hot intelligences.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Caruso, David R; Panter, A T; Salovey, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Comments on the original article, "Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments," by R. E. Nisbett, J. Aronson, C. Blair, W. Dickens, J. Flynn, D. F. Halpern, and E. Turkheimer (see record 2011-30298-001). The present authors note that Nisbett et al's review focuses on intelligences that have been topics of research through the 20th century. Since then, however, attention to a new group of intelligences that the present authors refer to as "hot intelligences" has been growing (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004). Although Nisbett et al (2012) mentioned potential newcomers to the group of intelligences, such as practical intelligence, the present authors feel that future reviews should consider the burgeoning research in new conceptions of intelligence. Here the authors express a rationale for including a consideration of these newly described intelligences.

  15. Intelligence And Differential Modes Of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyles, A. G.

    1973-01-01

    This study is aimed at trying to discover the isolable characteristics of intelligence, of the kind of mental processes which result from it, and of the relationship between intelligence and the formation of concepts. (Author)

  16. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  17. Artificial Intelligence Databases: A Survey and Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David

    1990-01-01

    Identifies and describes online databases containing references to materials on artificial intelligence, robotics, and expert systems, and compares them in terms of scope and usage. Recommendations for conducting online searches on artificial intelligence and related fields are offered. (CLB)

  18. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  19. [Intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rubio García, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The Syndrome of Irritable Intestine (SII) is a chronic functional dysfunction that it is characterized by abdominal pain and changes of intestinal rhythm without demonstrable organic alteration. It is avery prevelent dysfunction in the developed countries, there being involved in its physiopathology, among other, the psychosocial factors (illness behavior, social situation, stress, vital events, neuroticism, anxiety and somatization). However no study has been carried out on the Rational Intelligence and Experiential Intelligence or Constructive Thought in patient with SII in spite of knowing that the cognitive processes participate in its genesis. On the hypothesis that the patients with SII would have an experiencial intelligence smaller that the fellows controls, 100 cases of SII and 100 controls have been studied, being excluded of both patients groups with intellectual deficit or psychiatric illness in the last year. The cases of SII were distributed in two groups, one of 50 cases that habitually consulted with the doctor and other 50 that didn't make it. All the participants completed specific tests to evaluate all the psychological factors and Rational Intelligence and the Constructive Thought. The results show an alteration of the psychological factors in the SII, expressed by the antecedents of vital events, m even significant of anxiety feature and anxiety and a neuroticism statistically significant. As for Rational Intelligence and Experiential Intelligence in the SII, it was observed that to Rational Intelligence is same in the patients with SII that in the controls. Only in the group of SII that habitually consulted with the doctor a slightly significant decrease of the intellectual coefficient it was observed. As for the Experiential Intelligence a significant decrease of the Constructive Thought was observed in the patients with SII in comparison with the group control. Of their components a decrease of the emotionality exists and of the

  20. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  1. Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje

    2003-01-01

    This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

  2. Christian Soteriology and Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidemann, C.

    The paper presents an argument for the incompatibility of classical Christian soteriology (doctrine of salvation) with belief in numerous extraterrestrial intelligent life forms (ETI). Four popular answers to the problem are discussed and rejected: a) unlike humanity, extraterrestrial intelligent species are not in need of salvation; b) Jesus of Nazareth has reconciled the entire cosmos to God; c) God or the second person of the Trinity has incarnated (or will incarnate) himself multiple times; d) alien sinners have been or are going to be saved by means different from a divine incarnation. The final section deals with remaining options for rational Christian believers and speculates briefly about consequences for interstellar space flight.

  3. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  4. Intelligent, autonomous systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Heer, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

  5. Intelligent management of epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, F.; Evoli, L. M.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Ricci, F. L.

    1991-01-01

    In the lifecycle of epidemiologic data three steps can be identified: production, interpretation and exploitation for decision. Computerized support can be precious, if not indispensable, at any of the three levels, therefore several epidemiologic data management systems were developed. In this paper we focus on intelligent management of epidemiologic data, where intelligence is needed in order to analyze trends or to compare observed with reference value and possibly detect abnormalities. After having outlined the problems involved in such a task, we show the features of ADAMS, a system realized to manage aggregated data and implemented in a personal computer environment. PMID:1807619

  6. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  7. Schooling Built on the Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    This article features a school built on multiple intelligences. As the first multiple intelligences school in the world, the Key Learning Community shapes its students' days to include significant time in the musical, spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences, as well as the more traditional areas of logical-mathematical and linguistics. In…

  8. The Development of Children's Beliefs about Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinlaw, C. Ryan; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on development of children's beliefs about intelligence; proposes that this development represents simultaneous processes of concept acquisition and theory building. Discusses research foci on children's definitions of intelligence, beliefs about the component structure of intelligence, criteria children use to evaluate ability,…

  9. High School Students' Beliefs about Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.; Byrd, C. Noel; Lusk, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    We implemented a sequential mixed methods design using parallel samples to answer our general research question: What are high school students' definitions of intelligence and implicit beliefs about the malleability of intelligence? We surveyed 9th and 11th grade students who responded to questions about their intelligence beliefs on open- and…

  10. Exploring Preservice Teachers' Views of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliquin, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored preservice teachers' views of intelligence. Specifically, I was interested in whether preservice teachers believed that intelligence was changeable (incremental) or fixed (entity). Dweck and colleagues found that people view traits like intelligence as either fixed or incremental (Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Dweck, Chiu, & Hong,…

  11. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  12. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  13. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  14. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  15. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  16. Multiple Intelligences: Gardner's Theory. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brualdi, Amy C.

    This digest discusses the origins of Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, his definition of intelligence, the incorporation of the theory into the classroom, and its role in alternative assessment practices. Gardner defines intelligence as the "capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural…

  17. Can Fast and Slow Intelligence Be Differentiated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partchev, Ivailo; De Boeck, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Responses to items from an intelligence test may be fast or slow. The research issue dealt with in this paper is whether the intelligence involved in fast correct responses differs in nature from the intelligence involved in slow correct responses. There are two questions related to this issue: 1. Are the processes involved different? 2. Are the…

  18. Learning and Teaching through the Naturalist Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    Howard Gardner defines naturalists as persons who recognize flora and fauna and other consequential distinctions in the natural world and use this ability productively. A sixth-grade teacher discusses Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, specifically the naturalist intelligence, and suggests ways to teach the naturalist intelligence through…

  19. Intelligent decision support in process environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hollnagel, E.; Mancini, G.; Woods, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with the basis for design of intelligent systems to support human decision-making in supervisory control, and provides a view of how human and artificial cognitive systems can interact. It covers the design and development of intelligent decision aiding systems, as well as the testing and evaluation. Topics discussed include: decision theory; cognitive engineering; systems engineering; and artificial intelligence.

  20. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707