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Sample records for adult japanese beetle

  1. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  2. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E. Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  3. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Morris, E Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2011-09-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  4. Host suitability and diet mixing influence activities of detoxification enzymes in adult Japanese beetles.

    PubMed

    Adesanya, Adekunle; Liu, Nannan; Held, David W

    2016-05-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450, glutathione S transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CoE) activity was measured in guts of the scarab Popillia japonica Newman, after consumption of single or mixed plant diets of previously ranked preferred (rose, Virginia creeper, crape myrtle and sassafras) or non-preferred hosts (boxelder, riverbirch and red oak). The goal of this study was to quantify activities of P450, GST and CoE enzymes in the midgut of adult P. japonica using multiple substrates in response to host plant suitability (preferred host vs non-preferred hosts), and single and mixed diets. Non-preferred hosts were only sparingly fed upon, and as a group induced higher activities of P450, GST and CoE than did preferred hosts. However, enzyme activities for some individual plant species were similar across categories of host suitability. Similarly, beetles tended to have greater enzyme activities after feeding on a mixture of plants compared to a single plant type, but mixing per se does not seem as important as the species represented in the mix. Induction of detoxification enzymes on non-preferred hosts, or when switching between hosts, may explain, in part, the perceived feeding preferences of this polyphagous insect. The potential consequences of induced enzyme activities on the ecology of adult Japanese beetles are discussed. PMID:26964493

  5. Effects of Biopesticides on Foliar Diseases and Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) Adults in Roses (Rosa spp.), Oakleaf Hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated efficacy of biopesticides for reducing foliar diseases and feeding damage from Japanese beetle adults on hybrid T rose (Rosa spp.), oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica). The materials tested included household soaps with Triclosan act...

  6. Japanese Interest in "Hotaru" (Fireflies) and "Kabuto-Mushi" (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, "Hotaru" and "Kabuto-mushi" in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan. PMID:26466535

  7. Super-Protective Child-Rearing by Japanese Bess Beetles, Cylindrocaulus patalis: Adults Provide Their Larvae with Chewed and Predigested Wood.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Tatsuya; Wada, Noriko; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Anzai, Hirosi; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Beetles of the family Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are termed subsocial. The insects inhabit rotten wood as family groups consisting of the parents and their offspring. The Japanese species Cylindrocaulus patalis has the lowest fecundity among passalids because siblicide occurs among the first-instar larvae; accordingly, parental care toward the survived larva is the highest among Passalidae. To clarify the nutritional relationships between the parents and their offspring, we investigated their ability to digest three types of polysaccharides that are components of wood (cellulose and β-1,4-xylan) and fungal cell walls (β-1,3-glucan). Although carboxymethyl-cellulase activity was barely detectable, β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase activities were clearly detected in both adults and larvae. Because the activities of enzymes that digest β-1,3-glucan were much higher than those for degrading β-1,4-xylan, in both adults and larvae, it is concluded that they are mainly fungivorous. Furthermore, these digestive enzymatic activities in second- and third-instar larvae were much lower than they were in adults. Although all larval instars grew rapidly when fed chewed wood by their parents, larvae ceased growing and died when fed only artificially ground wood meals. We conclude that the larvae are assumed to be provided with chewed predigested wood in which β-1,3-glucan is degraded by parental enzymes. PMID:27128944

  8. Super-Protective Child-Rearing by Japanese Bess Beetles, Cylindrocaulus patalis: Adults Provide Their Larvae with Chewed and Predigested Wood

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Tatsuya; Wada, Noriko; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Anzai, Hirosi; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Beetles of the family Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are termed subsocial. The insects inhabit rotten wood as family groups consisting of the parents and their offspring. The Japanese species Cylindrocaulus patalis has the lowest fecundity among passalids because siblicide occurs among the first-instar larvae; accordingly, parental care toward the survived larva is the highest among Passalidae. To clarify the nutritional relationships between the parents and their offspring, we investigated their ability to digest three types of polysaccharides that are components of wood (cellulose and β-1,4-xylan) and fungal cell walls (β-1,3-glucan). Although carboxymethyl-cellulase activity was barely detectable, β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase activities were clearly detected in both adults and larvae. Because the activities of enzymes that digest β-1,3-glucan were much higher than those for degrading β-1,4-xylan, in both adults and larvae, it is concluded that they are mainly fungivorous. Furthermore, these digestive enzymatic activities in second- and third-instar larvae were much lower than they were in adults. Although all larval instars grew rapidly when fed chewed wood by their parents, larvae ceased growing and died when fed only artificially ground wood meals. We conclude that the larvae are assumed to be provided with chewed predigested wood in which β-1,3-glucan is degraded by parental enzymes. PMID:27128944

  9. Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

    2009-08-01

    Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle. PMID:19736768

  10. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  11. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  12. DNA Barcoding of Japanese Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa. PMID:25636000

  13. Ophiostoma ips from Pinewood Nematode Vector, Japanese Pine Sawyer Beetle (Monochamus alternatus), in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Yeon; Hyun, Min Woo; Kim, Jae Jin; Son, Seung Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Japanese pine sawyer beetle (Monochamus alternatus) is an economically important pest in coniferous trees. Ophiostoma ips was isolated from the beetle and identified based on analysis of morphological properties and the β-tubulin gene sequence. The fungus easily produced perithecia with a long neck on malt extract agar and its ascospores were rectangular shaped. This is first report of Ophiostoma species associated with the pinewood nematode vector beetle in Korea. PMID:23610541

  14. Ophiostoma ips from Pinewood Nematode Vector, Japanese Pine Sawyer Beetle (Monochamus alternatus), in Korea.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Yeon; Hyun, Min Woo; Kim, Jae Jin; Son, Seung Yeol; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2013-03-01

    Japanese pine sawyer beetle (Monochamus alternatus) is an economically important pest in coniferous trees. Ophiostoma ips was isolated from the beetle and identified based on analysis of morphological properties and the β-tubulin gene sequence. The fungus easily produced perithecia with a long neck on malt extract agar and its ascospores were rectangular shaped. This is first report of Ophiostoma species associated with the pinewood nematode vector beetle in Korea. PMID:23610541

  15. Evaluation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Japanese beetle larvae in turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental and commercial preparations of Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 were evaluated for control of Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarbaeidae) larvae (white grubs) in the laboratory and under field conditions. Experimental preparations consisted of granule and liquid f...

  16. The spatial distribution of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in soybean fields.

    PubMed

    Sara, Stacey A; McCallen, Emily B; Switzer, Paul V

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  17. The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  18. Surface-Applied Insecticide Treatments for the Elimination of Larval Japanese Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Field-Grown Nursery Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, continues to be a quarantine issue for nurseries shipping plants from the eastern U.S. to states west of the Mississippi River. Currently, the only pre-harvest treatments approved for field-grown nurseries in the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmoniza...

  19. A Rare Excitatory Amino Acid from Flowers of Zonal Geranium responsible for Paralyzing the Japanese Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    e Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flowers from zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum). Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paraly...

  20. Acute Toxicity of Essential Oils to Japanese Beetle Larvae and their Corresponding Mass Spectral Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root-feeding larvae of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman have traditionally been viewed as contaminant pests of field-grown nursery crops. However, increasing attention is being paid to the deleterious effects of root herbivory by white grubs, which can cause girdling of roots and ev...

  1. Beetle and plant density as cues initiating dispersal in two species of adult predaceous diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Taylor, Stacy; Vamosi, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Dispersal can influence population dynamics, species distributions, and community assembly, but few studies have attempted to determine the factors that affect dispersal of insects in natural populations. Consequently, little is known about how proximate factors affect the dispersal behavior of individuals or populations, or how an organism's behavior may change in light of such factors. Adult predaceous diving beetles are active dispersers and are important predators in isolated aquatic habitats. We conducted interrelated studies to determine how several factors affected dispersal in two common pond-inhabiting species in southern Alberta, Canada: Graphoderus occidentalis and Rhantus sericans. Specifically, we (1) experimentally tested the effect of plant and beetle densities on dispersal probabilities in ponds; (2) surveyed ponds and determined the relationships among beetle densities and plant densities and water depth; and (3) conducted laboratory trials to determine how beetle behavior changed in response to variation in plant densities, conspecific densities, food, and water depth. Our field experiment determined that both species exhibited density dependence, with higher beetle densities leading to higher dispersal probabilities. Low plant density also appeared to increase beetle dispersal. Consistent with our experimental results, densities of R. sericans in ponds were significantly related to plant density and varied also with water depth; G. occidentalis densities did not vary with either factor. In the laboratory, behavior varied with plant density only for R. sericans, which swam at low density but were sedentary at high density. Both species responded to depth, with high beetle densities eliciting beetles to spend more time in deeper water. The presence of food caused opposite responses for G. occidentalis between experiments. Behavioral changes in response to patch-level heterogeneity likely influence dispersal in natural populations and are expected

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Raffaelea quercivora JCM 11526, a Japanese Oak Wilt Pathogen Associated with the Platypodid Beetle, Platypus quercivorus

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Endoh, Rikiya

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese oak wilt pathogen Raffaelea quercivora and the platypodid beetle, Platypus quercivorus, cause serious mass mortality of Quercus spp. in Japan. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of R. quercivora JCM 11526 to increase our understanding of the mechanism of pathogenicity and symbiosis with the ambrosia beetle. PMID:27469944

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Raffaelea quercivora JCM 11526, a Japanese Oak Wilt Pathogen Associated with the Platypodid Beetle, Platypus quercivorus.

    PubMed

    Masuya, Hayato; Manabe, Ri-Ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Endoh, Rikiya

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese oak wilt pathogen Raffaelea quercivora and the platypodid beetle, Platypus quercivorus, cause serious mass mortality of Quercus spp. in Japan. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of R. quercivora JCM 11526 to increase our understanding of the mechanism of pathogenicity and symbiosis with the ambrosia beetle. PMID:27469944

  4. Field resistance of two soybean germplasm lines, HC95-15MB and HC95-24MB, against bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaidae).

    PubMed

    Hammond, R B; Bierman, P; Levine, E; Cooper, R L

    2001-12-01

    Two recently released, Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis, Mulsant, resistant soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, germplasm lines, HC95-15MB and HC95-24MB, were examined for foliar and pod feeding resistance to adult bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman. Both lines were planted along with a susceptible control cultivar in 18 by 30-m plots and separate 0.8-ha size fields. Insects were sampled on a weekly basis with a sweep net. In late summer, defoliation ratings were recorded along with data on percentage pod feeding. Although a few significant differences in insect densities were obtained among the soybean lines on some sampling dates, no specific trends were observed in the ability of the resistant germplasm to reduce insect numbers. Insect population densities were similarly on all lines. However, both resistant lines were able to reduce defoliation during the growing season. Conversely, percentage pod feeding was similar among all the soybean lines, with no differences observed. The resistant germplasm lines appear able to lower levels of defoliation, and thus, offer a potential management tactic where leaf feeding, i.e., defoliation, is of concern. However, their ability to greatly reduce beetle population densities, and for the bean leaf beetle, to reduce pod feeding, appears limited. PMID:11777070

  5. Hydrogen Isotopes as a Sentinel of Biological Invasion by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman)

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Kiona; Caron, Melanie; Marks, Jane C.; Rogg, Helmuth W.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H) records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.). The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007–2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3–7 days for beetles trapped from 2012–2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure. PMID:26959686

  6. Hydrogen Isotopes as a Sentinel of Biological Invasion by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman).

    PubMed

    Hungate, Bruce A; Kearns, Diana N; Ogle, Kiona; Caron, Melanie; Marks, Jane C; Rogg, Helmuth W

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H) records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.). The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007-2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3-7 days for beetles trapped from 2012-2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure. PMID:26959686

  7. Adult beetles compensate for poor larval food conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorben; Müller, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Life history traits of herbivores are highly influenced by the quality of their hosts, i.e., the composition of primary and secondary plant metabolites. In holometabolous insects, larvae and adults may face different host plants, which differ in quality. It has been hypothesised that adult fitness is either highest when larval and adult environmental conditions match (environmental matching) or it may be mainly determined by optimal larval conditions (silver spoon effect). Alternatively, the adult stage may be most decisive for the actual fitness, independent of larval food exposure, due to adult compensation ability. To determine the influence of constant versus changing larval and adult host plant experiences on growth performance, fitness and feeding preferences, we carried out a match-mismatch experiment using the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Larvae and adults were either constantly reared on watercress (natural host) or cabbage (crop plant) or were switched after metamorphosis to the other host. Growth, reproductive traits and feeding preferences were determined repeatedly over lifetime and host plant quality traits analysed. Differences in the host quality led to differences in the development time and female reproduction. Egg numbers were significantly influenced by the host plant species experienced by the adults. Thus, adults were able to compensate for poor larval conditions. Likewise, the current host experience was most decisive for feeding preferences; in adult beetles a feeding preference was shaped regardless of the larval host plant. Larvae or adults reared on the more nutritious host, cabbage, showed a higher preference for this host. Hence, beetles most likely develop a preference when gaining a direct positive feedback in terms of an improved performance, whereby the current experience matters the most. Highly nutritious crop plants may be, in consequence, all the more exploited by potential pests that may show a high plasticity in

  8. Insecticides evaluated as regulatory immersion treatments to eliminate third-instar Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from small-diameter field-grown nursery plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman, are a quarantine issue for nursery shipments to certain U.S. states. The Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP) allows balled and burlapped (B&B) root ball immersion in chlorpyrifos or bifenthrin for P. japonica certification. Study objective...

  9. Insecticides evaluated as potential regulatory immersion treatments to eliminate larval Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), from small diameter field-grown nursery plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman, are a quarantine issue for nursery shipments to certain U.S. states. The Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP) allows balled and burlapped (B&B) root ball immersion in chlorpyrifos or bifenthrin for P. japonica certification. Study objective...

  10. Building a Beetle: How Larval Environment Leads to Adult Performance in a Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Reaney, Leeann T.; Knell, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related traits such as strength and testes mass in the horned beetle Euoniticellus intermedius. In males weight gain post-eclosion had a central role in determining both testes mass and strength. Weight gain was unaffected by adult nutrition but was strongly correlated with by horn length, itself determined by larval resource availability, indicating strong indirect effects of larval nutrition on the adult beetle’s ability to assimilate food and grow tissues. Female strength was predicted by a simple path diagram where strength was determined by eclosion weight, itself determined by larval nutrition: weight gain post-eclosion was not a predictor of strength in this sex. Based on earlier findings we discuss the insulin-like signalling pathway as a possible mechanism by which larval nutrition could affect adult weight gain and thence traits such as strength. PMID:26244874

  11. Adult perceptions of phonotactic violations in Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Laurel; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Werker, Janet; Amano, Shigeaki

    2001-05-01

    Adult Japanese speakers ``hear'' epenthetic vowels in productions of Japanese-like words that violate the canonical CVCVCV form by containing internal consonant clusters (CVCCV) [Dupoux et al., J. Exp. Psychol. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. Given this finding, this research examined how Japanese adults rated the goodness of Japanese-like words produced without a vowel in the final syllable (CVC), and words produced without vowels in the penultimate and final syllables (CVCC). Furthermore, in some of these contexts, voiceless vowels may appear in fluent, casual Japanese productions, especially in the Kanto dialect, and in some, such voiceless vowels may not appear. Results indicate that both Kanto and Kinki speakers rated CVC productions for contexts in which voiceless vowels are not allowed as the worst; they rated CVC and CVCC contexts in which voiceless vowel productions are allowed as better. In these latter contexts, the CVC words, which result from the loss of one, final, vowel, are judged to be better than the CVCC words, which result from the loss of two (final and penultimate) vowels. These results mirror the relative seriousness of the phonotactic violations and indicate listeners have tacit knowledge of these regularities in their language.

  12. Drench Treatments for Management of Larval Japanese Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Field-Grown Balled and Burlapped Nursery Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study evaluated insecticide drenches applied to post-harvest field-grown nursery plants harvested as 60-cm diameter balled and burlapped (B&B) root balls for controlling third instar Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam were d...

  13. The social environment affects mate guarding behavior in Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Yoriko; Kruse, Kipp C.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the social environment on post-copulatory mate guarding duration in Japanese beetles, (Popillia japonica Newman), was examined in a laboratory experiment. The mate guarding durations of beetles in different sex ratios and densities were observed for 10 hours. Guarding duration was longer when females were larger, suggesting the presence of ‘cryptic’ male mate choice. Densities, but not sex ratio, affected the duration of guarding bouts, with males guarding for longer at higher densities. This result implies that males increase their guarding duration under conditions in which their female may be likely to be encountered by other males. The lack of a sex ratio effect on the duration of guarding bouts is consistent with other studies on this species that indicate males have difficulty distinguishing females from males. Consequently, because the sex ratio on food plants is typically male-biased, a paired male may react just to density, treating surrounding individuals as if they were mostly males. The total amount of time males spent guarding was lower at lower densities and at male-biased sex ratios; this suggests that after ceasing to guard one female, males were less able to find a subsequent mate under these conditions. PMID:16341250

  14. Knockdown, residual, and antifeedant activity of pyrethroids and home landscape bioinsecticides against Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Linden foliage.

    PubMed

    Baumler, Rebecca E; Potter, Daniel A

    2007-04-01

    Residual toxicity and leaf protection capability of five pyrethroids, professional and home garden azadirachtin formulations, and six other bioinsecticides for the home landscape were evaluated against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), on linden, Tilia cordata L. Capacity of intoxicated beetles to recover and subsequently feed and disperse also was evaluated to provide insight on activity characteristics of the different compounds. Intact shoots were sprayed and left in the field for varying intervals before being challenged with beetles in no-choice and choice tests. All pyrethroids except permethrin gave greater leaf protection, knockdown, and kill than did carbaryl, the standard, after 14 d of weathering. Deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lamda-cyhalothrin gave a high level of protection for at least 19 d, and azadirachtin (Azatin XL) deterred feeding in choice tests for as long as 14 d. Home garden formulations containing pyrethrins in canola oil (Pyola) or azadiractin (Neem-Away) gave good short-term (< 3-d) protection. Formulations of capsaicin, rotenone + pyrethrins, kaolin particle film, D-limonene, or garlic extract were ineffective, the latter two formulations being highly phytotoxic to linden. Results of this study should help support updating of guidelines for insecticidal control of Japanese beetles. PMID:17461070

  15. Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

  16. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  17. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai’i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  18. Preharvest quarantine treatments of Chlorantraniliprole,Clothianidin, & Imidacloprid-based insecticides for control of Japanese beetle Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae)& other scarab larvae in the root zone of field-grown nurserytrees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is an important quarantine pest of nurseries. Nursery plant movement from P. japonica-infested regions is regulated by the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP), which classifies states by risk categories. Treatm...

  19. Physicochemical comparison of chitin and chitosan obtained from larvae and adult Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Baran, Talat; Erdoğan, Sevil; Menteş, Ayfer; Özüsağlam, Meltem Aşan; Çakmak, Yavuz Selim

    2014-12-01

    Chitins and chitosans obtained from larva and adult Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) were physico-chemically characterized and differences between adults and larvae were identified. The dry weight chitin contents of the adult Colorado potato beetles and larvae were determined as 20% and 7%, respectively. The chitin produced chitosan yields of 72% from the adult Colorado potato beetles and 67% from the larvae. FTIR analysis showed that the isolated chitins were in the alpha form. Crystalline index values, determined by XRD, were 72% for larvae and 76% for adults. The degradation temperatures of the isolated chitin structures were measured by TGA, and this showed that the chitin from adult Colorado potato beetles had a more stable structure than that from the larvae. The surface morphologies of the isolated chitin and chitosan structures were analysed with SEM and it was revealed that these structures consisted of nanofibres. According to elemental analysis, the purity of chitin and chitosan from adults was greater than that from the larvae. The results of molecular analysis showed that the chitosans from adults (2.722 kDa) and larvae (2.676 kDa) of the Colorado potato beetle have low molecular weights. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of both adult and larval chitosans were determined. The adult potato beetle is more appropriate than the larvae as an alternative chitin source because of the fact that its dry weight chitin content, chitosan yield and purity of chitin are higher than those from the larvae, and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities are also higher than those from the larvae. PMID:25491803

  20. Identification of QTL in soybean underlying resistance to herbivory by Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica, Newman).

    PubMed

    Yesudas, C R; Sharma, H; Lightfoot, D A

    2010-07-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was one of the most important legume crops in the world in 2010. Japanese beetles (JB; Popillia japonica, Newman) in the US were an introduced and potentially damaging insect pest for soybean. JBs are likely to spread across the US if global warming occurs. Resistance to JB in soybean was previously reported only in plant introductions. The aims here were to identify loci underlying resistance to JB herbivory in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Essex x Forrest cultivars (EF94) and to correlate those with loci with factors that confer insect resistance in soybean cultivars. The RIL population was used to map 413 markers, 238 satellite markers and 177 other DNA markers. Field data were from two environments over 2 years. Pest severity (PS) measured defoliation on a 0-9 scale. Pest incidence (PI) was the percentage of plants within each RIL with beetles on them. Antibiosis and antixenosis data were from feeding assays with detached leaves in petri plates. Five QTL were detected for the mean PS field trait (16% < R (2) < 27%). The loci were within the intervals Satt632-A2D8 on linkage group (LG) A2 (chromosome 8); Satt583-Satt415 on LG B1 (11); Satt009-Satt530 on LG N (3); and close to two markers OB02_140 (LG E; 20 cM from Satt572) and OZ15_150 LG (19 cM from Satt291 C2). Two QTL were detected for the mean PI field trait (16% < R (2) < 18%) close to Satt385 on LG A1 and Satt440 on LG I. The no choice feeding studies detected three QTL that were significant; two for antixenosis (22% < R (2) < 24%) between Satt632-A2D8 on LG A2 (8) and Sat_039-Satt160 on LG F (13); and a major locus effect (R (2) = 54%) for antibiosis on LG D2 (17) between Satt464-Satt488. Therefore, loci underlying resistance to JB herbivory were a mixture of major and minor gene effects. Some loci were within regions underlying resistance to soybean cyst nematode (LGs A2 and I) and root knot nematode (LG F) but not other major loci underlying

  1. Evaluation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for Control of Japanese Beetle Larvae in Turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Behle, Robert W; Richmond, Douglas S; Jackson, Mark A; Dunlap, Christopher A

    2015-08-01

    Experimental and commercial preparations of Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52 were evaluated for control of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarbaeidae), larvae (white grubs) in the laboratory and under field conditions. Experimental preparations consisted of granule and liquid formulations made using in vitro produced microsclerotia, which are intended to produce infective conidial spores after application. These formulations were compared against commercial insecticides (imidacloprid and trichlorfon), and commercial formulations of M. brunneum F52 (Met 52) containing only conidia. Field-collected grubs were susceptible to infection in a dosage-dependent relationship when exposed to potting soil treated with experimental microsclerotia granules in the laboratory. The LC(50) for field-collected larvae was 14.2 mg of granules per cup (∼15 g granules/m(2)). Field plots treated with experimental and commercial formulations of M. brunneum F52 after 10 September (targeting second and third instar grubs) had significantly lower grub densities compared with untreated plots, providing 38.6-69.2% control, which sometimes equaled levels of control with chemical insecticides. Fungal treatments made prior to 21 August provided 14.3-69.3% control, although grub densities resulting from these treatments were often not significantly lower than those in untreated control plots. By comparison, chemical insecticide treatments provide 68-100% grub control, often providing better control when applied earlier in the season. In conclusion, P. japonica larvae are susceptible to infection by M. brunneum, and grub densities were reduced most consistently by fall applications targeting later instars. PMID:26470299

  2. CHLORPYRIFOS IMMERSION TO ELIMINATE THIRD INSTAR JAPANESE BEETLE (COLEOPTERA:SCARABAEIDAE) IN BALLED AND BURLAPPED TREES AND SUBSEQUENT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON RED MAPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined chlorpyrifos immersion of balled and burlapped (B&B) root balls for elimination of third instar Japanese beetle (JB) (Popillia japonica Newman) and for phytotoxicity on red maple (Acer rubrum L.). Trees were harvested as 45 and 60 cm diameter B&B and immersed in chlorpyrifos at ...

  3. JH Biosynthesis by Reproductive Tissues and Corpora Allata in Adult Longhorned Beetles, Apriona germari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis from long-chain intermediates by specific reproductive system tissues and the corpora allata (CA) prepared from adult longhorned beetles, Apriona germari. Testes, male accessory glands (MAGs), ovaries and CA contain the long-chain intermediates in the ...

  4. A comparison of internal and external lipids of nondiapausing and diapause initiation phase adult Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, reared under diapause inducing conditions will emerge from the soil as an adult and enter the diapause initiation phase, a period where metabolic reserves are stockpiled before the beetles enter the nonfeeding diapause maintenance phase. Interna...

  5. Older Japanese Adults and Mobile Phones: An Applied Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachiya, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research investigates the meaning of "keitai" (mobile phones) for older Japanese adults between the ages of 59 and 79. Participants' emails from keitai, handwritten daily logs, and audio and video recordings from meetings and interviews were collected during my stay of nearly seven months in one of the largest cities in Japan.…

  6. Detection of Adult Beetles Inside the Stored Wheat Mass Based on Their Acoustic Emissions.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, P A; Potamitis, I; Kontodimas, D Ch; Givropoulou, E G

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy of bioacoustics in detecting the presence of adult beetles inside the grain mass was evaluated in the laboratory. A piezoelectric sensor and a portable acoustic emission amplifier connected with a computer were used. Adults of the most common beetle pests of stored wheat have been detected in varying population densities (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 adults per kilogram of wheat). The verification of the presence of the insect individuals was achieved through automated signal parameterization and classification. We tried out two different ways to detect impulses: 1) by applying a Hilbert transform on the audio recording and 2) by subtracting a noise estimation of the recording from the spectral content of the recording, thus allowing the frequency content of possible impulses to emerge. Prediction for infestation was rated falsely negative in 60-74%, 48-60%, 0-28%, and 0-4% of the cases when actual population density was 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 adults per kilogram, respectively, irrespective of pest species. No significant differences were recorded in positive predictions among different species in almost all cases. The system was very accurate (72-100%) in detecting 1 or 2 insects per kilogram of hard wheat grain, which is the standard threshold for classifying a grain mass "clean" or "infested." Our findings are discussed on the basis of enhancing the use of bioacoustics in stored-product IPM framework. PMID:26470377

  7. Cold exposure and associated metabolic changes in adult tropical beetles exposed to fluctuating thermal regimes.

    PubMed

    Lalouette, L; Kostál, V; Colinet, H; Gagneul, D; Renault, D

    2007-04-01

    Environmental stress deleteriously affects every aspect of an ectotherm's biological function. Frequent exposure of terrestrial insects to temperature variation has thus led to the evolution of protective biochemical and physiological mechanisms. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the positive impact of fluctuating thermal regimes (FTRs) on the fitness and survival of cold-exposed insects have not been studied. We have thus investigated the metabolic changes in adults of the beetle Alphitobius diaperinus in order to determine whether FTRs trigger the initiation of a metabolic response involving synthesis of protective compounds, such as free amino acids (FAAs) and polyols. The metabolic profile was analyzed during constant fluctuating thermal regimes (the beetles had daily pulses at higher temperatures that enabled them to recover) and compared with constant cold exposure and untreated controls. The increase of several essential amino acids (Lys, Iso, Leu, Phe and Trp) in cold-exposed beetles supports the conclusion that it results from the breakdown of proteins. Some FAAs have been shown to have cryoprotective properties in insects, but the relationship between FAAs, cold tolerance and survival has not yet been well defined. Instead of considering FAAs only as a part of the osmo- and cryoprotective arsenal, they should also be regarded as main factors involved in the multiple regulatory pathways activated during cold acclimation. Under FTRs, polyol accumulation probably contributes to the increased duration of survival in A. diaperinus. PMID:17331186

  8. Literacy to Aurality/Orality in an Adult Japanese ESL Student: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Jan E.

    A study examined the factors shaping English language education within the Japanese public education system and the attitudes of Japanese learners toward the pronunciation of English, first in an overview and then within the context of a case study of an adult Japanese student. The first section discusses the status and instruction of English in…

  9. Neofunctionalization of embryonic head patterning genes facilitates the positioning of novel traits on the dorsal head of adult beetles.

    PubMed

    Zattara, Eduardo E; Busey, Hannah A; Linz, David M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-13

    The origin and integration of novel traits are fundamental processes during the developmental evolution of complex organisms. Yet how novel traits integrate into pre-existing contexts remains poorly understood. Beetle horns represent a spectacular evolutionary novelty integrated within the context of the adult dorsal head, a highly conserved trait complex present since the origin of insects. We investigated whether otd1/2 and six3, members of a highly conserved gene network that instructs the formation of the anterior end of most bilaterians, also play roles in patterning more recently evolved traits. Using ablation-based fate-mapping, comparative larval RNA interference (RNAi) and transcript sequencing, we found that otd1/2, but not six3, play a fundamental role in the post-embryonic formation of the adult dorsal head and head horns of Onthophagus beetles. By contrast, neither gene appears to pattern the adult head of Tribolium flour beetles even though all are expressed in the dorsal head epidermis of both Onthophagus and Tribolium We propose that, at least in beetles, the roles of otd genes during post-embryonic development are decoupled from their embryonic functions, and that potentially non-functional post-embryonic expression in the dorsal head facilitated their co-option into a novel horn-patterning network during Onthophagus evolution. PMID:27412276

  10. 3D Standard Brain of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium Castaneum: A Tool to Study Metamorphic Development and Adult Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, David; Vitt, Holger; Dippel, Stefan; Goetz, Brigitte; el Jundi, Basil; Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0). The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes (ALs), optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the ALs. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity. PMID:20339482

  11. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. Results With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was −0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, −0.33 to −0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when “body mass index”, “consumption of meat or fish”, “self-rated health”, “presence of medical conditions”, “hyperlipidemia”, or “respiratory disease “was included in the model. Conclusion Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways. PMID:27276092

  12. Relations Between the Structure of Benthic Macro-Invertebrates and the Composition of Adult Water Beetle Diets from the Dytiscidae Family.

    PubMed

    Frelik, Anna; Pakulnicka, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the relations between the diet structure of predaceous adult water beetles from the Dytiscidae family and the structure of macrofauna inhabiting the same environments. The field studies were carried out from April until September in 2012 and 2013 in 1-mo intervals. In total, >1,000 water beetles and 5,115 benthic macro-invertebrates were collected during the whole period of the study. Subsequently, 784 specimens of adult water beetles (70.6% out of the total sampled) with benthic macro-invertebrates found in their proventriculi, were subject to analysis. The predators were divided into three categories depending on their body size: small beetles (2.3-5.0 mm), medium-sized beetles (13-15 mm), and large beetles (27-37 mm). All adult Dytiscidae consumed primarily Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae larvae. Although Asellidae were numerically dominant inhabitants of the sites, the adult water beetles did not feed on them. The analysis of feeding relations between predators and their prey revealed that abundance of Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae, and larval Dytiscidae between the environment and the diet of adult Dytiscidae were strongly correlated. PMID:26314015

  13. Characterizing the adult and larval transcriptome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis

    PubMed Central

    MacManes, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The reasons for the evolution and maintenance of striking visual phenotypes are as widespread as the species that display these phenotypes. While study systems such as Heliconius and Dendrobatidae have been well characterized and provide critical information about the evolution of these traits, a breadth of new study systems, in which the phenotype of interest can be easily manipulated and quantified, are essential for gaining a more general understanding of these specific evolutionary processes. One such model is the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, which displays significant elytral spot and color polymorphism. Using transcriptome data from two life stages, adult and larva, we characterize the transcriptome, thereby laying a foundation for further analysis and identification of the genes responsible for the continual maintenance of spot variation in H. axyridis. PMID:27326374

  14. Japanese Adult Learners' Development of the Locality Condition on English Reflexives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Yasuhiro

    2002-01-01

    Explores the developmental patterns observed when Japanese adult learners acquire the locality condition on English reflexives. Experimental tasks were designed specifically to deal with the methodological problems of earlier research and then administered to Japanese learners of English at five proficiency levels as well as English and Japanese…

  15. I Think, Therefore, I Improve: A Qualitative Study of Concepts of "Hansei (Introspection) among Japanese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Wang, L. Weiping; Ogawa, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concept of "hansei" (introspection) among teachers, parents, and other relatives of Japanese kindergarteners. The data came from essays written by Japanese adults. The data analysis revealed that the concept of "hansei" encompassed self-evaluation, improvement, and morality. The implications for…

  16. Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Timmons, Nicholas R; Goebel, Jessica M; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-10-01

    The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with < or = 3.2 adults recovered (out of 20) among all three treatments across all experiments. In addition, the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos at the low (0.25 fl oz/100 gal) and high (0.50 fl oz/100 gal) label rates; the plant-derived essential oil product (Indoor Pharm) containing soybean and rosemary oil; and the insecticide/miticide chlorfenpyr were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with recovery rates -8.6 (out of 20) among all the treatments. The fungicides (azoxystrobin, fosetyl-aluminum, and mefenoxam) were not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults, with < or = 17.7 adults recovered (out of 20) across all experiments. The insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, flonicamid, Metarhizium anisopliae strain52, and spinosad) and insect growth regulator azadirachtin were also not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults. Furthermore, many of these same treatments did not inhibit the ability of adult A. coriaria to consume fungus gnat (Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behavior experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over

  17. Cognitive Impairment and Disability in Older Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of disability is increasing due to an expanding aging population and an increasing incidence of chronic health problems. Cognitive impairment may predict the development of disability in older adults. Therefore, we examined the association of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and/or general cognitive impairment (GCI, defined as a Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score of 20–23) with the development of disability in a cohort of Japanese community-dwelling older adults. A total of 4290 participants (aged ≥65 years) enrolled in the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly were classified according to the presence and degree of cognitive impairment as follows: cognitively healthy, GCI, MCI single domain (MCIs), MCIs with GCI, MCI multiple domain (MCIm), and MCIm with GCI. MMSE scores, risk factors for dementia, and incidences of new disability were recorded. After an average of 29.5 months, 205 participants (4.8%) experienced a new onset of disability. All subtypes of cognitive impairment showed significant relationships with disability except for GCI alone. The following hazard ratios (HRs) were determined: MCIs (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.39–3.00), MCIs with GCI (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.21–3.62), MCIm (HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.39–3.85), and MCIm with GCI (HR, 4.23; 95% CI, 2.73–6.57). These results indicate that cognitive impairment may be related to an increased risk for the development of disability. Healthcare providers should implement global cognitive assessments to identify MCI and GCI and consider preventive interventions for disability, especially in older persons. PMID:27415430

  18. Implications of "Amae" for HIV Risk in Japanese Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onuoha, Francis N.; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2005-01-01

    Assertiveness, defined as perceived confidence to express true feelings in interpersonal relationships, has been reported to correlate with HIV risk avoidance. However, Japanese social structure encourages "amae" or self-repression. The present study investigated the implications of "amae" for HIV risk avoidance among Japanese university students.…

  19. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J.; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctena quinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence (insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period. PMID:26657564

  20. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctenaquinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Alticabrevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence(insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period. PMID:26657564

  1. Lady beetles of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lady beetles are one of the most familiar groups of beneficial insects. Farmers and gardeners appreciate them for devouring insect pests. Both adult lady beetles and caterpillar-like juveniles eat pests. Lady beetles are recognizable by their red and orange colors that contrast with black spots and...

  2. Intonation Facilitates Contrast Resolution: Evidence from Japanese Adults and 6-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…

  3. Differences in dentofacial characteristics of Class I malocclusion between Saudi and Japanese adult females

    PubMed Central

    Abbassy, Mona A; Abushal, Amal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to compare dentofacial characteristics of Class I malocclusion in Saudi and Japanese adult females. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 50 Saudi adult female and 50 Japanese adult female (18–35-year-old) were obtained. All patients were skeletal Class I, angle Class I malocclusion, arch length discrepancy (−10–10 mm), overjet (1–5 mm), overbite (1–5 mm), absence of congenital anomalies, or significant facial asymmetries or congenitally missing tooth other than the 3rd molar and absence of temporomandibular joint problems. Patient cephalograms were traced and digitized. 16 angular measurements and 13 linear measurements of facial form were used. Results: A comparison of the vertical dimension showed that the Saudi females had a significantly larger gonial angle, a significantly larger facial angle and longer lower face height compared to the Japanese females. Dentally, Saudi females had more protruded incisors with increased distances of the posterior teeth to the palatal plane. For the soft tissue dimension, the Saudi subjects had a significantly more prominent nose, retruded lip and a more protruded chin compared with Japanese. Conclusions: There were significant differences in dentofacial morphology between Saudi and Japanese adult females. Both Asian countries have distinct cephalometric features, which should be considered as a reference in treating patients of varying ethnic backgrounds to optimize the final results. PMID:26229950

  4. Impact of host plant connectivity, crop border and patch size on adult Colorado potato beetle retention.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Gilles; Vincent, Charles; Leskey, Tracy C; Colpitts, Bruce G; MacKinley, Pamela; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant or patch. Results confirmed the long residency time on the host plant and showed that close connection of the plant to neighboring plants hastened dispersal between plants. Tracking walking CPB for over 6 h in small potato plots revealed that all types of mixed borders tested (potato/bare ground, potato/timothy and potato/woodland) acted as a strong barrier and retained beetles within the patch. In another experiment in potato patches surrounded by bare ground borders, tracked walking CPB displayed similar behaviour for up to four days. The distribution of turning angles in the CPB walking paths was not uniform and corresponded to beetles following the edge rows of potato patches in response to the crop border barrier or reversing their direction as they reached the end of a row and therefore a border. Patch size had no or little effect on beetle retention in the patch. The relative distribution of counts of tagged beetles detected among small (16 m2), medium (64 m2) and large size (256 m2) patches of potato four days after initial release remained similar to that of numbers released. Even though mixed crop borders were a strong barrier to walking CPB emigrating from potato patches, the departure rate of beetles over time was high. Results suggest that the effect of mixed borders is largely limited to dispersal by walking and does not apply to beetles leaving host patches by flight. The manipulation of crop borders and patch size seem to have limited potential for the management of CPB emigrating from potato fields. PMID:24816717

  5. Development of a Japanese Quality of Life Instrument for Older Adults Experiencing Dementia (QLDJ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Abe, Toshiko; Okita, Yuko; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Sugishita, Chieko; Kamata, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    This study develops a quality of life instrument for older Japanese people experiencing dementia (QLDJ). Quality of life (QL) for these older adults is defined as a three dimensional construct including 1) interacting with surroundings, 2) expressing self, and 3) experiencing minimum negative behaviors. From 53 items in the initial item pool, 24…

  6. Dynamic Processes of Speech Development by Seven Adult Learners of Japanese in a Domestic Immersion Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the dynamic process of speech development in a domestic immersion program by seven adult beginning learners of Japanese. The speech data were analyzed with fluency, accuracy, and complexity measurements at group, interindividual, and intraindividual levels. The results revealed the complex nature of language development…

  7. Syntax in a Native Language Still Continues to Develop in Adults: Honorification Judgment in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momo, Kanako; Sakai, Hiromu; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.

    2008-01-01

    Native languages (L1s) are tacitly assumed to be complete and stable in adults. Here we report an unexpected individual variation in judgment of L1 regarding Japanese sentences including honorification, and further clarify its neural basis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). By contrasting an honorification judgment task with a…

  8. Japanese Children's and Adults' Reasoning about the Consequences of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…

  9. The Politics of Time and Space in Japanese Adult Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines critical pedagogy in Japanese adult basic education. The research focuses on what teachers and others think the current conditions are for education that deals with social justice. As part of this, the research looks at how critical pedagogy is conceptualized in this context. Participants in the study (literacy…

  10. Community Building as an Instructional Goal in Japanese Adult Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multisite case study of adult basic education in Japan. A key finding of the study is that as part of community building within classrooms, students, teachers, and administrators prioritize human relations and expressions of empathy rather than academic skill development. In contrast to Japanese educational…

  11. Impact of host plant connectivity, crop border and patch size on adult Colorado potato beetle retention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant...

  12. [Developing the Japanese version of the Adult Attachment Style Scale (ECR)].

    PubMed

    Nakao, Tatsuma; Kato, Kazuo

    2004-06-01

    This study attempted to adapt into Japanese the Adult Attachment Style Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory) that was constructed by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver (1998), based on 14 existing scales. Of 387 respondents, 231 who reported having been or are currently involved in romantic relationships were employed for final analysis. We examined validities of the Japanese version of ECR in the two ways: (1) Examining the correlations between "Anxiety" and Self-esteem scale by Rosenberg (1965) which were theoretically related to Self-view, and the correlations between "Avoidance" and Other-view scale by Kato (1999b) which were theoretically related to Other-view; (2) whether or not ECR represents the features of four attachment styles as classified by Relationship Questionnaire (RQ; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The results supported our expectations. This Japanese version of ECR was demonstrated to have adequate psychometric properties in validity and reliability. PMID:15747547

  13. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation. PMID:27262980

  14. Behavioral Ecology of Host Selection in the Asian Longhorn Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cermabycidae): Implications for Survey, Detection and Monitoring Adult Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), is among high risk invasive species that recently invaded the U.S. from China, with infestations in New York City and Long Island, NY, Chicago, IL, Jersey City, Carteret and Linden, NJ, and Toronto, Canada. ALB has attacked 25 deciduous tree s...

  15. Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40-79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

  16. Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40–79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

  17. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  18. Insecticidal metabolites from the rhizomes of Veratrum album against adults of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Tuba; Cakir, Ahmet; Kazaz, Cavit; Bayrak, Neslihan; Bayir, Yasin; Taşkesenligil, Yavuz

    2014-08-01

    The dried rhizomes of Veratrum album were individually extracted with CHCl3 , acetone, and NH4 OH/benzene to test the toxic effects against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, which is an important agricultural pest. Fifteen compounds in various amounts were isolated from the extracts using column and thin-layer chromatography. The chemical structures of 14 compounds were characterized as octacosan-1-ol (1), β-sitosterol (2), stearic acid (3), diosgenin (4), resveratrol (5), wittifuran X (6), oxyresveratrol (7), β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), diosgenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyronoside (9), oxyresveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), jervine (11), pseudojervine (13), 5,6-dihydro-1-hydroxyjervine (14), and saccharose (15) using UV, IR, MS, (1) H- and (13)C-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods. However, the chemical structure of 12, an oligosaccharide, has not fully been elucidated. Compounds 4, 6, 9, and 10 were isolated from V. album rhizomes for the first time in the current study. The toxic effects of three extracts (acetone, CHCl3 , and NH4 OH/benzene) and six metabolites, 2, 2+4, 5, 7, 8, and 11, were evaluated against the Colorado potato beetle. The assay revealed that all three extracts, and compounds 7, 8, and 11 exhibited potent toxic effects against this pest. This is the first report on the evaluation of the toxic effects of the extracts and secondary metabolites of V. album rhizomes against L. decemlineata. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the extracts can be used as natural insecticides. PMID:25146763

  19. Susceptibility of Adults of the Cerambycid Beetle Hedypathes betulinus to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Purpureocillium Lilacinum

    PubMed Central

    Schapovaloff, M. E.; Alves, L. F. A.; Fanti, A. L.; Alzogaray, R. A.; Lastra, C. C. López

    2014-01-01

    The cerambycid beetle Hedypathes betulinus (Klug) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) causes severe damage to yerba mate plants (Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hilaire) (Aquifoliales: Aquifoliaceae)), which results in large losses of production. In this study, the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi of the species Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Hywel-Jones, Houbraken and Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on yerba mate were evaluated. Fifteen isolates of B. bassiana, two of M. anisopliae, and seven of P. lilacinum on H. betulinus adults were analyzed under laboratory conditions. The raw mortality rate caused by B. bassiana isolates varied from 51.1 to 86.3%, and their LT50 values varied between 8.7 and 13.6 d. The isolates of M. anisopliae caused 69.6–81.8% mortality, and their LT50 values varied between 7.4 and 7.9 d. In contrast, isolates of P. lilacinum were not pathogenic. M. anisopliae and B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic against H. betulinus adults, suggesting that they may be useful in biological control programs for insect pests of yerba mate. PMID:25368071

  20. The Acquisition of /R/ and /L/ by Japanese Children and Adults Learning English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, R. McCrae

    1980-01-01

    Describes two experiments to evaluate acquisition of /r/ and /l/ involving native Japanese children and adults residing in the United States. The first required subjects to produce and discriminate English /r/ and /l/ in listening and speaking. Children's performance was better than adults'. In the second, the subject received programed training.…

  1. Sources of strength-training information and strength-training behavior among Japanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2016-03-01

    The promotion of strength training is now recognized as an important component of public health initiatives for older adults. To develop successful communication strategies to increase strength-training behavior among older adults, the identification of effective communication channels to reach older adults is necessary. This study aimed to identify the information sources about strength training that were associated with strength-training behaviors among Japanese older adults. The participants were 1144 adults (60-74 years old) randomly sampled from the registry of residential addresses. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The independent variables were sources of strength-training information (healthcare providers, friends, families, radio, television, newspapers, newsletters, posters, books, magazines, booklets, the Internet, lectures, other sources), and the dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential relationships. After adjusting for demographic factors and all other information sources, strength-training information from healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet were positively related to regular strength-training behavior. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of strength-training behavior and the means of successful communication directed at increasing strength training among older adults. The results suggest that healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet are effective methods of communication for increasing strength-training behaviors among older adults. PMID:24997193

  2. A one-year longitudinal study of English and Japanese vowel production by Japanese adults and children in an English-speaking setting

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Grace E.; Guion-Anderson, Susan; Aoyama, Katsura; Flege, James E.; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Yamada, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of age of acquisition on first- and second-language vowel production was investigated. Eight English vowels were produced by Native Japanese (NJ) adults and children as well as by age-matched Native English (NE) adults and children. Productions were recorded shortly after the NJ participants’ arrival in the USA and then one year later. In agreement with previous investigations [Aoyama, et al., J. Phon. 32, 233–250 (2004)], children were able to learn more, leading to higher accuracy than adults in a year’s time. Based on the spectral quality and duration comparisons, NJ adults had more accurate production at Time 1, but showed no improvement over time. The NJ children’s productions, however, showed significant differences from the NE children’s for English “new” vowels /ɪ/, /ε/, /ɑ/, /ʌ/ and /ʊ/ at Time 1, but produced all eight vowels in a native-like manner at Time 2. An examination of NJ speakers’ productions of Japanese /i/, /a/, /u/ over time revealed significant changes for the NJ Child Group only. Japanese /i/ and /a/ showed changes in production that can be related to second language (L2) learning. The results suggest that L2 vowel production is affected importantly by age of acquisition and that there is a dynamic interaction, whereby the first and second language vowels affect each other. PMID:21603058

  3. Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small hive beetles (SHB) have become serious pests of honey bees, especially in the southeastern region of the United States. Both adults and larvae cause serious feeding damages and their fecal matters contaminate harvestable honey. At present, Coumaphos (used as an in-hive treatment) and Gardstar ...

  4. Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

  5. Predictive modelling of adult emergence in a polyphagous Eucolaspis (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Doddala, P R C; Trewick, S A; Rogers, D J; Minor, M A

    2013-04-01

    Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) is a pest that inflicts huge economic loss in many organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in New Zealand. The timing of control methods for this pest has been shown to be crucial for success. To aid in planning control programs, we studied threshold temperature and degree-days required for the development of Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" pupae and modeled adult emergence in the field. Pupal development was observed at three constant temperatures. Pupae required 237.0 +/- 21.67 degree-days above lower threshold temperature of 4.7 degrees C +/- 0.89 degrees C to develop into adults. The emergence of adults was modeled with these thermal values and the model was tested for accuracy with field data. The model performed well with a precision of +/- 4 d. The proposed phenology model has wide applicability in monitoring and planning pest control measures. PMID:23786080

  6. Persistence and level of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium in larval and adult darkling beetles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alphitobius diaperinus is a common litter pest in broiler houses. Both adults and larvae are regularly ingested by broilers and could serve as a vector of Salmonella to the current and subsequent broiler flocks. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the persistence of a marker S. Typhimuri...

  7. The Association between Sarcopenic Obesity and Depressive Symptoms in Older Japanese Adults.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shinya; Chang, Chang; Tanaka, Tomoki; Kuroda, Aki; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Akishita, Masahiro; Iijima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women) randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific quintile of the percentage body fat. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item score ≥ 6. Multiple logistic regression was employed to examine the association of depressive symptoms with four groups defined by the presence/absence of sarcopenia and obesity. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 10.1% and the proportions of sarcopenia/obesity, sarcopenia/non-obesity, non-sarcopenia/obesity, non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were 3.7%, 13.6%, 16.9% and 65.8%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia/obesity was positively associated with depressive symptoms compared with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity, whereas either sarcopenia or obesity alone was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association was particularly pronounced in those aged 65 to 74 years in age-stratified analysis. We conclude that our findings suggest a synergistic impact exerted by sarcopenic obesity on the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly in those aged 65 to 74 years. PMID:27627756

  8. Seasonal effects of UCP1 gene polymorphism on visceral fat accumulation in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Miyashita, Hiroshi; Yanagisawa, Yoshiko; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2013-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) genes play central roles in the thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans. However, the importance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both genes during the development of obesity is controversial. Although active BAT in adult humans is frequently observed in the winter season, the effects of sampling season have not been taken into consideration in previous association studies. Here, we tested the associations of UCP1 -3826A/G and ADRB3 Trp64Arg with body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat area (VFA) in 3013 Japanese adults sampled during different seasons. Association between SNPs and the obesity-related traits were assessed using multiple linear regression models, including sex, age, physical activity, and genotypes. Both SNPs did not show significant associations in the models based on the entire cohort. However, in subsets comprising individuals mainly sampled from winter to spring, UCP1 showed significant associations with VFA (P = 0.0098) and VFA adjusted for BMI (P = 0.0128). Moreover, the effects of UCP1 on VFA were strongly negatively correlated with outdoor temperature (P = 0.00011), but not with night length (P = 0.039). ADRB3 did not show these associations, but an additive effect with UCP1 was observed for VFA adjusted for BMI (P = 0.0067). Subsets sampled in the hot season did not show significant associations for both SNPs. The season-specific effects of UCP1 on VFA were consistent with a previous finding that active BAT was more frequently found in winter than in summer, and supported the importance of cold stress in BAT activation and the significance of BAT in the development of obesity in adult humans. PMID:24086366

  9. Acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome: Japanese case reports

    PubMed Central

    Akahoshi, Keiko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Funahashi, Masuko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. We report 13 Japanese adolescents or young adults with Down syndrome who developed acute neuropsychiatric disorders including withdrawal, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and occasional delusions or hallucinations. Methods: The following information was collected from each patient: age at onset of acute neuropsychiatric disorder, complications, signs and symptoms, personality traits before the onset of the acute neuropsychiatric disorder, prescribed medications with their respective doses and the response to treatment, and senile changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Results: The mean age at onset of these disorders was 21.2 years. Brain imaging showed almost senile changes; patients responded well to low-dose psychotropic therapy. Patients had an onset at a young age and presented with treatable conditions, although the average age of the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is generally over 40 years of age in patients with Down syndrome. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the pathology of acute neuropsychiatric disorder in patients with Down syndrome may be related to presenile changes; however, these disorders present features and a clinical course that is different from those presented in typical Alzheimer’s disease with Down syndrome. PMID:22888254

  10. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Takako; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mantoku, Akiko; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Chatani, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira; Uchida, Satoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Fujisawa, Koichi; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Terai, Shuji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment (“Medaka Osteoclast”) was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish) were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4) and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation–reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114), and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation. PMID:26427061

  11. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Takako; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mantoku, Akiko; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Chatani, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira; Uchida, Satoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Fujisawa, Koichi; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Terai, Shuji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment ("Medaka Osteoclast") was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish) were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4) and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation-reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114), and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation. PMID:26427061

  12. Association between Smoking Status and Obesity in a Nationwide Survey of Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Taku; Tsujino, Ichizo; Konno, Satoshi; Ito, Yoichi M.; Takashina, Chisa; Sato, Takahiro; Isada, Akira; Ohira, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Fukutomi, Yuma; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kawagishi, Yukio; Okada, Chiharu; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Taniguchi, Masami; Akasawa, Akira; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Objective A positive association between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and obesity has been reported, whereas how other smoking-related indices, such as pack-years and duration of smoking, are related with obesity has been less investigated. We analyzed the age-adjusted cross-sectional association between smoking and obesity in a general Japanese population. Methods We used data from a nationwide epidemiological study of Japanese adults (N = 23,106). We compared the prevalence of obesity (defined as body mass index ≥ 25kg/m2) among groups classified by smoking behavior, pack-years, number of cigarettes per day, duration of smoking, and duration and time of smoking cessation. Results In men, current smokers had a lower odds ratio (OR) for obesity of 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–0.88) compared to non-smokers, whereas past smokers had a higher OR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.09–1.37) compared to current smokers. In women, there were no differences in obesity between the three groups classified by smoking behavior. However, in both sexes, the prevalence of obesity tended to increase with pack-years and the number of cigarettes per day, but not with duration of smoking in current and past smokers. Further, in male smokers, the risks for obesity were markedly higher in short-term heavy smokers compared with long-term light smokers, even with the same number of pack-years. Regarding the impact of smoking cessation, female past smokers who quit smoking at an age > 55-years had an elevated OR of 1.60 (95% CI:1.05–2.38) for obesity. Conclusions In a general Japanese population, obesity is progressively associated with pack-years and number of cigarettes per day, but not with the duration of smoking. When investigating the association between obesity and cigarette smoking, the daily smoking burden and the duration of smoking require to be independently considered. PMID:27007232

  13. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs. PMID:24669510

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Insufficient Sleep Syndrome in Japanese Young Adults: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Asaoka, Shoichi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insufficient sleep syndrome (ISS), and factors associated with daytime dysfunction in the disorder in Japanese young adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a web-based questionnaire survey was used to assess demographic variables, sleep habits and quality, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 2,276 participants aged 20–25. Results: Eleven percent of participants were classified as having ISS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of ISS was significantly associated with social status (student or full-time employee). The participants with ISS had significantly higher depression scores and lower mental component summary scores than healthy sleepers. In the participants with ISS, a delayed sleep-wake schedule was extracted as a factor associated with worse mental component summary. Conclusions: Results indicate a relatively high proportion of Japanese young adults suffer from ISS, and that the condition is associated with a social status of student or full-time employee. Moreover, a delayed sleep-wake schedule may lead to further deterioration of mental HRQOL in ISS-affected persons. Citation: Morita Y, Sasai-Sakuma T, Asaoka S, Inoue Y. Prevalence and correlates of insufficient sleep syndrome in Japanese young adults: a web-based cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1163–1169. PMID:26094926

  15. Dish influences implicit gender-based food stereotypes among young Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Asakawa, Akio; Masuda, Tomohiro; Goto, Sho-ichi; Dan, Ippeita; Oka, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    The present study explored whether the gender impression of a dish affects the gender stereotypes of foods. We assessed gender stereotypes of food among young Japanese adults using a semantic priming task. As prime stimuli, we took pictures of food in combination with a dish. We used feminine- and masculine-evaluated foods and dishes in order to create four different combinations of food and dishes. In the semantic priming task, we primed the participants (n=58) with the pictures of food-dish combinations and immediately after the priming, we presented them with forenames as target stimuli and let them decide whether the forename given was feminine or masculine. By so doing, we estimated the semantic association between the food-dish combinations with gender. The results demonstrate that gender impressions of dishes affect gender stereotypes toward foods. The feminine-evaluated dish exhibited a facilitation of the femininity and an inhibition of the masculinity of foods. Similarly, the masculine-evaluated dish exhibited a facilitation of the masculinity and an inhibition of the femininity of foods. These results suggest that gender-based stereotypical attitudes toward food pictures are determined by the combination of gender impressions for both the food itself and its dish. PMID:22349777

  16. A Case Series of Three US Adults with Japanese Encephalitis, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Susan L.; Stoltey, Juliet; Martínez, Diana; Kim, Paul Y.; Sheriff, Heather; Zangeneh, Ana; Eilerman, Sally R.; Fischer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the leading vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. Although the risk for JE for most travelers to Asia is low, it varies based on the destination, season, trip duration, and activities. Methods We present case reports for three US adults who were infected with JE virus while traveling or residing in Asia. Results Among the three JE cases, one case had a 10-day trip to mainland China and participated in outdoor activities in a rural area, a second case had been resident in Taiwan for 4 months, and a third, fatal case was an expatriate living in South Korea. Conclusions JE should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any patient with an acute neurologic infection who recently has been in a JE-endemic country. Health-care providers should assess the itineraries of travelers to JE-endemic countries, provide guidance on personal protective measures to prevent vector-borne diseases, and consider recommending JE vaccine for travelers at increased risk for JE virus infection. PMID:24861145

  17. Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Determined Daily Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Suburban Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Haeuchi, Yuki; Nofuji, Yu Y; Matsuo, Eri; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge regarding accelerometer-derived physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SED) levels is scarce for Japanese older adults. The aims of this study were therefore to 1) describe levels of PA and SED in Japanese community-dwelling older adults, using tri-axial accelerometer; 2) examine the variation of PA and SED with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Participants of this study were from the baseline survey of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study, who were 65 years or older and not certified as those requiring long-term care. PA was assessed objectively for seven consecutive days using tri-axial accelerometer. A total of 1,739 participants (median age: 72 years, men: 38.0%) with valid PA data were included. Overall, participants in the present study spent 54.5% of their waking time being sedentary and 45.5% being active, of which 5.4% was moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Women accumulated more minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and MVPA compared with men. In contrast, men spent more time being sedentary. Mean steps per day did not differ between sexes. Furthermore, participants with higher BMI (BMI ≥25) had lower PA levels, and longer SED compared with those with lower BMI (BMI <). PA levels were lower and SED was longer with age. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the levels of PA and SED differed by sex, age, and BMI in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. In particular, women were more active compared with men, providing unique insight into the current level of PA in older adults. Data presented in the study will enable further investigation of additional determinants of PA and SED in order to develop effective population-based intervention strategies to promote PA and reduce prolonged SED in the Japanese population and possibly other rapidly aging societies. Key points Accelerometer, that is capable to assess PA more precisely in large scale epidemiological studies, provides opportunity for improving

  18. Phonetic training with acoustic cue manipulations: A comparison of methods for teaching English /r/-/l/ to Japanese adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Paul; Hazan, Valerie; Bannister, Kerry

    2005-11-01

    Recent work [Iverson et al. (2003) Cognition, 87, B47-57] has suggested that Japanese adults have difficulty learning English /r/ and /l/ because they are overly sensitive to acoustic cues that are not reliable for /r/-/l/ categorization (e.g., F2 frequency). This study investigated whether cue weightings are altered by auditory training, and compared the effectiveness of different training techniques. Separate groups of subjects received High Variability Phonetic Training (natural words from multiple talkers), and 3 techniques in which the natural recordings were altered via signal processing (All Enhancement, with F3 contrast maximized and closure duration lengthened; Perceptual Fading, with F3 enhancement reduced during training; and Secondary Cue Variability, with variation in F2 and durations increased during training). The results demonstrated that all of the training techniques improved /r/-/l/ identification by Japanese listeners, but there were no differences between the techniques. Training also altered the use of secondary acoustic cues; listeners became biased to identify stimuli as English /l/ when the cues made them similar to the Japanese /r/ category, and reduced their use of secondary acoustic cues for stimuli that were dissimilar to Japanese /r/. The results suggest that both category assimilation and perceptual interference affect English /r/ and /l/ acquisition.

  19. Proteomics Indicators of the Rapidly Shifting Physiology from Whole Mountain Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Adults during Early Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Caitlin; Robert, Jeanne A.; Bonnett, Tiffany R.; Keeling, Christopher I.; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P. W.

    2014-01-01

    We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle), structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton), and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction. PMID:25360753

  20. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross–Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future

  1. A Qualitative Study of Confusing Experiences among Japanese Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Ikuko; Chujo, Masami; Kataoka, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the powerlessness of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and described the structure of powerlessness that these individuals experienced. In order for patients to recover from this state, we recommend that they take steps to regain their power. Methods Fifteen Japanese adults with T1D participated in this study. Data were collected from all subjects between July 2013 and March 2014 via in-depth semi-structured interviews. Qualitative data analysis was conducted according to a grounded theory approach. Finally, the core category was identified, which allowed us to build a new powerlessness structure for T1D. Results The results suggested a core category, ‘Wandering a tangled path,’ comprising four categories, eight subcategories, and twenty-six concepts. These four categories were as follows: ‘being burdened by T1D,’ ‘suffering from insulin-related troubles,’ ‘being unable to cope with difficulties in self-management,’ and ‘facing social prejudice.’ In the state of powerlessness, negative emotional experiences snowballed, with patients feeling more and more depressed until they ultimately reached ‘rock bottom.’ Conclusion We found that as negative emotional experiences related to powerlessness increased, negative feelings intensified until the patients reached rock bottom. Powerlessness is like ‘wandering a tangled path,’ a state in which T1D patients struggle to cope with reality on their own when faced with both internal and external events. ‘Wandering a tangled path’ is at the core of powerlessness. A primary characteristic of the structure of powerlessness is suffering from confusing experiences. To help patients cope with T1D without being crushed by powerlessness, nurses must pay attention to signs of powerlessness. Powerlessness is not just an emotional state, but a combination of feelings, perceptions, and thoughts; therefore, it is important to comprehensively understand patients

  2. Effects of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt Intake on the Serum Cholesterol Levels of Healthy Japanese Adults.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kawasaki, Yuuki; Suzuki, Naoko; Takara, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a water-soluble quinone compound that has a strong anti-oxidant capacity. A previous study in rats fed a PQQ-depleted diet showed that elevated levels of serum triglyceride (TG) decreased after PQQ supplementation. However, there is only one study reporting the effects of PQQ on serum lipid levels, such as those of TG and cholesterol, in humans. In this study, the effects of PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) on serum TG and cholesterol levels in humans after 6 and 12 wk of treatment at an oral dosage of 20 mg/d were examined. This trial was conducted according to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded protocol. A total of 29 healthy Japanese adults, ranging from 40 to 57 y old, with normal to moderately high TG levels (110-300 mg/dL) as measured by a recent blood examination, were included in this study. In eleven volunteers out of 29, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-chol) levels at baseline were high (≥140 mg/dL). After 12 wk, the mean serum TG levels had not changed; however, a marginally significant decrease in the mean LDL-chol (from 136.1 to 127.0 mg/dL) was observed in the PQQ group. In the stratification analysis of the high LDL-chol subgroup (baseline LDL-chol level ≥140 mg/dL), the mean LDL-chol levels decreased significantly from the baseline values in the PQQ group compared to the placebo group. Our study findings suggest that PQQ suppressed the LDL-chol level, which is an important finding, because a high level of this lipid is a risk factor for various lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26226960

  3. Less indoor cleaning is associated with poor health and unhappiness in adults: Japanese General Social Survey, 2010.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Indoor environment is important to human health and well-being. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among indoor cleaning, rubbish disposal and human health and well-being in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the Japanese General Social Survey, 2010. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, frequency of indoor cleaning and rubbish disposal and self-reported health and well-being in Japanese adults was obtained by household interview. Analysis included chi-square test, logistic and multi-nominal regression modelling. Of 5003 Japanese adults (aged 20-89) included in the study cohort, 11.4 % (n = 566) never cleaned their living place, 39.1 % had occasional cleaning and 49.6 % had frequent cleaning. Moreover, 17.5 % (n = 869) never disposed rubbish, 24.9 % had occasional rubbish disposal and 57.6 % had frequent rubbish disposal. 15.0 % of Japanese adults claimed poor self-rated health, and 5.9 % reported unhappiness. Compared to people who frequently cleaned the living place, others tended to report poor self-rated health condition (relative risk ratios (RRR) 1.52, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 1.24-1.85, P < 0.001) and unhappiness (RRR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.10-1.95, P < 0.001). The combined effects of never cleaning and never rubbish disposal significantly impacted on poor self-rated health (RRR 2.61, 95 % CI 1.40-4.88, P = 0.003) and unhappiness (RRR 2.72, 95 % CI 1.72-4.30, P < 0.001). Only half of the Japanese population frequently cleaned their living place and disposed rubbish. Less or never cleaning and rubbish disposal were associated with poor self-rated health, subjective happiness and potentially other health conditions. Public education on maintaining clean indoor environments to optimise psychological well-being in addition to the known physical health would be suggested. PMID:26503003

  4. Far from Oblivion: the Nanking Massacre in Japanese historical writing for children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Penney, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The Nanking Massacre of 1937 frequently has been described as a forgotten genocidal act or "Holocaust." Concentrating on atrocity as reflected in Japanese popular historical writing for children and adolescents since the 1960s, this essay argues that such war crimes are far from ignored. Representations of the Nanking Massacre in particular, and of Japanese World War II atrocities in general, have been widely mobilized in Japan to inculcate an anti-war philosophy. PMID:20681109

  5. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  6. Resistance of sweetpotato genotypes to spotted and banded cucumber beetles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay techniques were developed for evaluating the resistance of sweetpotato germplasm to larvae and adults of the banded and spotted cucumber beetles. For the adult bioassay, individual beetles were placed on pieces of sweetpotato peel (periderm and cortex with stele removed) that was embedded ...

  7. Estimation of Trans Fatty Acid Intake in Japanese Adults Using 16-Day Diet Records Based on a Food Composition Database Developed for the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-01-01

    Background The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan do not include information on trans fatty acids. Previous studies estimating trans fatty acid intake among Japanese have limitations regarding the databases utilized and diet assessment methodologies. We developed a comprehensive database of trans fatty acid food composition, and used this database to estimate intake among a Japanese population. Methods The database was developed using analytic values from the literature and nutrient analysis software encompassing foods in the US, as well as values estimated from recipes or nutrient compositions. We collected 16-day diet records from 225 adults aged 30 to 69 years living in 4 areas of Japan. Trans fatty acid intake was estimated based on the database and the 16-day diet records. Results Mean total fat and trans fatty acid intake was 56.9 g/day (27.7% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.8% total energy), respectively, for women and 66.8 g/day (25.5% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.7% total energy) for men. Trans fatty acid intake accounted for greater than 1% of total energy intake, which is the maximum recommended according to the World Health Organization, in 24.4% of women and 5.7% of men, and was particularly high among women living in urban areas and those aged 30–49 years. The largest contributors to trans fatty acid intake were confectionaries in women and fats and oils in men. Conclusions Although mean trans fatty acid intake was below the maximum recommended intake of the World Health Organization, intake among subgroups was of concern. Further public health efforts to reduce trans fatty acid intake should be encouraged. PMID:20037259

  8. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be unreliable

  9. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Yack, Jayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an “accommodating” type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that ‘steer’ the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be

  10. The experience of Japanese adolescents and young adults after losing siblings to childhood cancer: three types of narratives.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Hoshi, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Japanese adolescents' and young adults' experiences after losing siblings to childhood cancer. A conceptual framework of the transition and analysis based on narrative method were adopted from qualitative data from 6 Japanese adolescents and young adults who had lost their siblings to childhood cancer. It was revealed that the participants' psychological experience after the sibling's death was directed by their perceptions of their mothers' responses to bereavement. We also found that the psychological distance between participants and their mothers could be an important factor in enabling transition into mourning and in orienting the lost sibling in their mind. The stories obtained from these 6 participants were categorized into the following 3 types of narratives: "Mother in another world and the sibling who became a god," "Return of the loving mother and the sibling as savior," and "The poor mother and the sibling who needs my help to carry on her legacy." This typology will serve as a framework for grief care and future research. PMID:25413258

  11. Identification of a Pheromone Component and a Critical Synergist for the Invasive Beetle Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Zou, Yunfan; Rutledge, Claire E; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi; Maier, Chris T; Hanks, Lawrence M; Richards, Austin B; Lacey, Emerson S; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2016-02-01

    The invasive Asian cerambycid beetle Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky), informally known as the Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, was first detected in North America in North Carolina in 1997. The beetle has since been detected in neighboring states and is expected to further expand its range. However, delineating the current distribution of C. rufipenne has been hindered by the lack of efficient sampling methods. Here, we present the results of research on the chemistry of volatile pheromones of C. rufipenne. Analyses of headspace odors revealed that males produce (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, with lesser amounts of (S)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, and (R)- and (S)-2-hydroxyhexan-3-one. In field bioassays conducted over several years in Connecticut, where populations of the beetle were well established, no reconstructed blend of these compounds was significantly attractive to beetles of either sex. However, during field trials in Japan that targeted another species, we discovered that adult male and female C. rufipenne were attracted to a blend of racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and a novel natural product, 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1,2-propanedione. Attraction to (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and the pyrrole subsequently was confirmed in field trials in Connecticut. Although it is unclear why the pyrrole acts as a synergist for a species that apparently does not produce it, the serendipitous discovery that adult C. rufipenne are attracted by the blend of ketone and pyrrole provides a badly needed method for monitoring its ongoing range expansion within North America, and for detecting new introductions in other parts of the world. PMID:26510607

  12. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2. PMID:25536843

  13. Adult Education for Peace: Japanese Experiences. Peace Education Miniprints No. 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Hideo

    To this point peace education has been carried out and discussed more in elementary and high schools than in adult education. This paper stresses the need for adult education for peace and discusses the organization, content, and methods of such education, with special attention to experiences in Japan. Methods of adult education for peace in…

  14. A culture method for darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp., have become a serious pest of Cucurbitaceae crops, especially in California. A culture method was sought to provide large numbers (> 500) of adult beetles of known age and sex that could be used for laboratory testing when needed. A method previously developed for ...

  15. a Cross-Sectional Study on Insomnia among Japanese Adult Women in Relation to Night-Time Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, T.; Kabuto, M.; Nitta, N.; Kurokawa, Y.; Taira, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takemoto, T.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to determine the contribution of night-time road traffic noise to insomnia in the general population, 3600 adult Japanese women living in urban residential areas were surveyed. Living near a road with a heavy traffic volume is one of the risk factors for insomnia. The risk for insomnia in the zones 0-20 m from the main roads increased linearly with the night-time traffic volume. This suggests that road traffic noise raises the sound level in bedrooms in such zones, and consequently the prevalence rate of insomnia among the residents, and that noise-induced insomnia is an important public health problem, at least in highly urbanized areas.

  16. Double left renal veins and multiple right renal veins found in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Yahiro, J; Miyoshi, S

    1993-12-01

    A case of circumaortic renal venous collar, the first such collar to be observed in a Japanese female cadaver, is presented, and its anatomical organization is compared with that in another case in which four right renal veins accompanied four right and three left renal arteries in a Japanese male cadaver. Double left renal veins are formed by persistence of a more central retroaortic venous anastomosis, in contrast to multiple right renal veins, which are formed by persistence of some embryonic renal veins arranged in ladder-like patterns. In our case, the dorsal limb of the renal collar communicated with the azygos system veins and lumbar veins. The azygos system veins were considered to have atrophied as a result of some persisting retroaortic venous anastomoses located in the thorax. Therefore, we believe that the renal collar was related to the atrophy of the azygos system veins. To determine whether there are racial differences in incidence of renal collar, further studies in Asians are required. PMID:8202308

  17. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    PubMed

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction. PMID:19253612

  18. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Season-Specific Correlates in Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Akiko; Foo, Leng Huat; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Hori, Ai; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Matsushita, Yumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence indicate an important role for vitamin D in the prevention of a range of diseases. Blood vitamin D levels show clear seasonal variation; however, data on the determinants of vitamin D status for each season are limited. We investigated the association between lifestyle and serum vitamin D concentration by season in Japanese workers. Methods Subjects were 312 men and 217 women aged 21 to 67 years who worked in municipal offices in Northern Kyushu, Japan and participated in a periodic checkup in July or November. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxivitamin D concentrations and lifestyle factors for each season. Results Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 27.4 ng/ml (68.4 nmol/L) and 21.4 ng/ml (53.4 nmol/L) for workers surveyed in July and November, respectively (P < 0.001); the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was 9.3% and 46.7%, respectively (P < 0.001). In November, dietary vitamin D intake (in both sexes) and nonsmoking and physical activity (in men) were significantly associated with higher concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. In summer, fish/shellfish intake was associated with higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in women. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common in Japanese workers during seasons with limited sunlight. The lifestyle correlates of favorable vitamin D status in November were physical activity, dietary vitamin D intake, and nonsmoking. PMID:21747209

  19. Numerical Analysis of Organ Doses Delivered During Computed Tomography Examinations Using Japanese Adult Phantoms with the WAZA-ARI Dosimetry System.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji; Ban, Nobuhiko; Hasegawa, Takayuki; Katsunuma, Yasushi; Yoshitake, Takayasu; Kai, Michiaki

    2015-08-01

    A dosimetry system for computed tomography (CT) examinations, named WAZA-ARI, is being developed to accurately assess radiation doses to patients in Japan. For dose calculations in WAZA-ARI, organ doses were numerically analyzed using average adult Japanese male (JM) and female (JF) phantoms with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). Experimental studies clarified the photon energy distribution of emitted photons and dose profiles on the table for some multi-detector row CT (MDCT) devices. Numerical analyses using a source model in PHITS could specifically take into account emissions of x rays from the tube to the table with attenuation of photons through a beam-shaping filter for each MDCT device based on the experiment results. The source model was validated by measuring the CT dose index (CTDI). Numerical analyses with PHITS revealed a concordance of organ doses with body sizes of the JM and JF phantoms. The organ doses in the JM phantoms were compared with data obtained using previously developed systems. In addition, the dose calculations in WAZA-ARI were verified with previously reported results by realistic NUBAS phantoms and radiation dose measurement using a physical Japanese model (THRA1 phantom). The results imply that numerical analyses using the Japanese phantoms and specified source models can give reasonable estimates of dose for MDCT devices for typical Japanese adults. PMID:26107430

  20. Longicorn beetles of Japan. 818 pp., (1,800 color photos, hundreds of line drawings). Japanese text with headings, scientific names, some figure legends, and index in English. Hardbound in slip case.ISBN# 978-4-486-01741-7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presented is a book review of Ohbayashi, N. and T. Niisato (Eds.). 2007. Longicorn Beetles of Japan. This monumental book of 818 pages with contributions of 11 authors, represents the pinnacle of quality that can be attained for a regional treatment of a taxon. It contains 78 plates of 1,463 dor...

  1. Delayed efficacy of Beauveria bassiana foliar spray applications against Colorado potato beetle: impacts of number and timing of applications on larval and next-generation adult populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray programs comprising multiple or single foliar applications of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana strain GHA (Bb) made during morning (AM) vs. evening (PM) hours were tested against Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (CPB) in small research plots of potatoes over multiple fiel...

  2. Functional analysis of four neuropeptides, EH, ETH, CCAP and bursicon and their receptors, in adult ecdysis behavior of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysis behavior or shedding of the old cuticle in arthropods is driven by complex interactions among multiple neuropeptide signaling systems. To understand the roles of neuropeptides and their receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed systemic RNA interference (RNAi) uti...

  3. Perceived Parental Rejection Mediates the Influence of Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphisms on Impulsivity in Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Saori; Nishitani, Shota; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Noborimoto, Ippei; Kitahara, Takayuki; Takamura, Tsunehiko; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study examined (1) the interrelationships among 5-HTTLPR genotype, perceived parental rejection, and impulsivity, and (2) meditational models in which perceived paternal/maternal rejection mediates the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and impulsive behaviour. Participants included 403 adults (152 males and 252 females, mean age = 24.20) who provided genetic data and a set of the questionnaires (BIS11; Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and EMBU; Egna Minnen av Bätraffande Uppfostran). Using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling), we evaluated 3 models for both direct and indirect relationships between 5-HTTLPR (5HTT) and Impulsivity (IMP), via maternal/fraternal rejection (MAT/FAT). In model 1, the direct path from 5HTT and IMP was not significant across the mother’s and father’s analysis. Models 2 and 3 assessed the indirect influence of 5HTT on IMP through MOT/FAT. The paths of models 2 and 3 were all significant and showed a good fit between the hypothesized model and data. Furthermore, the effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype on impulsiveness in this Japanese sample were particularly accounted for by perceived rejection from the mother or father. The effects from the parents appeared to be robust especially among males. These results may help elucidate the specific pathways of risk in relation to genetic and environment influences on impulsive phenotypes. PMID:23112823

  4. Correlation between a liking for fat-rich foods and body fatness in adult Japanese: a gender difference.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Shimai, S; Kikuchi, S; Tanaka, M

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that Japanese adults who like fat-rich foods have more body fatness and higher serum lipid levels than those who do not. The subjects were 540 male and 492 female workers under 41 years of age. A self-administered questionnaire determined four levels of liking for fat-rich foods. Anthropometric measurements were employed yielding body mass index (BMI), waist to hip circumference ratio (WHR), and skinfold thickness. Anthropometric values were compared among the levels of liking for fat-rich foods using analysis of covariance. For males, a liking for fat-rich foods was associated with BMI, WHR, whole-body skinfold thickness, and abdominal skinfold thickness (p<0.0001). In particular, those who like fat-rich foods "quite a bit" or "very much" showed significantly higher values than those who answered "no" or "a little". Multiple regression analysis showed that a liking for fat-rich foods explains 7-9% of the variation in the anthropometric indices, even when other lifestyles were taken into account. For females, such findings were not evident. There is a gender difference in the association between a liking for fat-rich foods and body fatness. The difference may be due to a female-specific attitude toward high-calorie foods. PMID:11161340

  5. Time Spent Walking and Risk of Diabetes in Japanese Adults: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Kabeya, Yusuke; Goto, Atsushi; Kato, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yumi; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Isogawa, Akihiro; Inoue, Manami; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between time spent walking and risk of diabetes was investigated in a Japanese population-based cohort. Methods Data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Diabetes cohort were analyzed. The surveys of diabetes were performed at baseline and at the 5-year follow-up. Time spent walking per day was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire (<30 minutes, 30 minutes to <1 hour, 1 to <2 hours, or ≥2 hours). A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 26 488 adults in the baseline survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between time spent walking and the presence of unrecognized diabetes. We then performed a longitudinal analysis that was restricted to 11 101 non-diabetic adults who participated in both the baseline and 5-year surveys. The association between time spent walking and the incidence of diabetes during the 5 years was examined. Results In the cross-sectional analysis, 1058 participants had unrecognized diabetes. Those with time spent walking of <30 minutes per day had increased odds of having diabetes in relation to those with time spent walking of ≥2 hours (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02–1.48). In the longitudinal analysis, 612 participants developed diabetes during the 5 years of follow-up. However, a significant association between time spent walking and the incidence of diabetes was not observed. Conclusions Increased risk of diabetes was implied in those with time spent walking of <30 minutes per day, although the longitudinal analysis failed to show a significant result. PMID:26725285

  6. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  7. Radiographic Determination of Hip Rotation Center and Femoral Offset in Japanese Adults: A Preliminary Investigation toward the Preoperative Implications in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Taichiro; Shishido, Takaaki; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Masaoka, Toshinori; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Kubo, Kosuke; Endo, Kenji; Aoki, Masaya; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    The values of hip rotation center (HRC) and femoral offset (FO) evaluated according to Caucasian anatomical landmarks have been regarded as a useful reference also for Japanese patients in total hip arthroplasty (THA). In a strict sense, however, since there can be racial differences among their anatomical morphologies, it is clinically important to reconsider those parameters for the Japanese. In the present study, in order to investigate correlations among hip and pelvic morphometric parameters, frontal radiographs were taken from 98 Japanese adults (60 males and 38 females) without acetabular dysplasia and arthropathy in the standing position. Their mean age was 62.0 ± 16.7 years. The horizontal position of HRC was significantly correlated with the pelvic width in both genders (P = 0.0026 and 0.0010 for the males and the females, resp.). The vertical position of HRC was significantly correlated with the teardrop-sacroiliac distance in the males (P = 0.0003) and with the pelvic cavity height in the females (P = 0.0067). However, in both genders, there were no correlations among FO and the other parameters analyzed in this study. Our present findings might contribute to theoretical implications of an appropriate HRC position for Japanese OA patients in THA. PMID:26576428

  8. Radiographic Determination of Hip Rotation Center and Femoral Offset in Japanese Adults: A Preliminary Investigation toward the Preoperative Implications in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Taichiro; Shishido, Takaaki; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Masaoka, Toshinori; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Kubo, Kosuke; Endo, Kenji; Aoki, Masaya; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    The values of hip rotation center (HRC) and femoral offset (FO) evaluated according to Caucasian anatomical landmarks have been regarded as a useful reference also for Japanese patients in total hip arthroplasty (THA). In a strict sense, however, since there can be racial differences among their anatomical morphologies, it is clinically important to reconsider those parameters for the Japanese. In the present study, in order to investigate correlations among hip and pelvic morphometric parameters, frontal radiographs were taken from 98 Japanese adults (60 males and 38 females) without acetabular dysplasia and arthropathy in the standing position. Their mean age was 62.0 ± 16.7 years. The horizontal position of HRC was significantly correlated with the pelvic width in both genders (P = 0.0026 and 0.0010 for the males and the females, resp.). The vertical position of HRC was significantly correlated with the teardrop-sacroiliac distance in the males (P = 0.0003) and with the pelvic cavity height in the females (P = 0.0067). However, in both genders, there were no correlations among FO and the other parameters analyzed in this study. Our present findings might contribute to theoretical implications of an appropriate HRC position for Japanese OA patients in THA. PMID:26576428

  9. Carabid Beetles as Parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid habit is uncommon in beetles; only 11 beetle families include parasitoid species. Three tribes of 76 in the Carabidae are known to have species in which larvae are pupal ectoparasitoids: Brachinini, Peleciini, and Lebiini. The first larval instar is the free-living, host-finding stage...

  10. Ambrosia beetle fungiculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3,500 species of ambrosia beetles, represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. This presentation focuses on the discovery of a clade within the filamentous fungus Fusarium that is associ...

  11. Trenbolone acetate metabolites promote ovarian growth and development in adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Kristy L; Qu, Shen; Lavado, Ramon; Cwiertny, David; Schlenk, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Trenbolone acetate, a synthetic androgen, has been used as a growth promoter in beef cattle in the US since 1987. While several teleost studies have investigated the masculinization effects of the metabolite 17β-trenbolone, few have focused on the reproductive impacts of all three trenbolone acetate (TBA) metabolites including trendione. Adult female medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to TBA metabolites (10, 100, and 1000ng/L) for 14days (n=3). Histological examination revealed that TBA metabolites (1000ng/L) significantly reduced the percentage of primary ovarian follicles and increased the percentage of vitellogenic follicles compared to control fish. 17α-Trenbolone significantly increased whereas trendione reduced whole body levels of estradiol-17β. Testosterone was significantly reduced by trendione treatment and only the highest dose of 17β-trenbolone and lowest dose of trendione altered 11-ketotestosterone. Additionally, TBA metabolites may be further broken down and/or metabolized or converted by the animal influencing both sex steroid levels and ovarian development. PMID:24780119

  12. The relationship between traffic noise and insomnia among adult Japanese women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.; Suzuki, S.

    2004-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between traffic noise and insomnia, the authors conducted a survey and measured the actual sound level of noise in an urban area. Questionnaires were distributed to adult women who lived within 150 m from two major roads and were completed by 648 of the 1286 subjects (50.4%). The area was divided into three zones according to distance from the road (more than 50, 20-50 and 0-19.9 m). Fifty-seven subjects (8.8%) were classified as having insomnia. Average values of sound level at distances of 20, 50, and 100 m from the major road were Leq 64.7, 57.1, and 51.8 dBA, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences among the three zones in the prevalence of insomnia and no association between distance from the road and insomnia. However, the result from a sub-data set of the subjects who lived in the areas that showed decreasing noise level as the distance from the main road increased showed that distance from the road was associated with insomnia. This study suggests that researchers should consider the actual traffic situation and its sound level in epidemiological studies about the effects of traffic noise on insomnia.

  13. Statistical analysis of biomechanical properties of the adult sagittal suture using a bending method in a Japanese forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Koizumi, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the mechanical properties of the adult sagittal suture compared with surrounding parietal bones using bending tests and investigated the association between the mechanical properties of the suture and age. We used the heads of 116 Japanese cadavers (76 male cadavers and 40 female cadavers) of known age and sex. A total of 1160 cranial samples, 10 from each skull, were collected. The samples were imaged using multidetector computed tomography, and the sample thickness at the center of each sample (ST) was measured. The failure stress of each sample (FS) was measured by a bending test, and the ratio of failure stress to the square of sample thickness (FS/ST(2)) was calculated. Statistical analyses revealed that the FS and FS/ST(2) values were significantly lower at all suture sites than at all bone sites regardless of sex. There were not significant but slight positive correlations between age and FS and FS/ST(2) values at any suture site in male samples. In female samples, age had significant positive correlations with FS and FS/ST(2) values at the middle suture sites, whereas there were not significant but slight positive correlations between age and FS and FS/ST(2) values at the edges of the suture. Statistical analyses also demonstrated that FS and FS/ST(2) values were significantly greater in male samples than in female samples at the middle suture sites. These findings suggest that the bending strength of the adult sagittal suture is significantly lower than that of surrounding parietal bones. Therefore, avoiding direct impact on cranial sutures may be important for preventing skull fractures and severe complications that can cause death. The results of this study also revealed that the bending strength of the middle sagittal suture significantly increases with age in only female samples, whereas the bending strength is significantly higher in male samples than in female samples at the middle suture sites, indicating the possibility of sex

  14. Incidences of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Japanese Adults Aged 50 Years and Older From a Community-based Prospective Cohort Study: The SHEZ Study

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Okeda, Masayuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Yano, Shuichiro; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cross-sectional studies have examined the incidences of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), but prospective studies in Japanese older adults are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a community-based prospective cohort study to determine the incidence in Japanese adults aged ≥50 years. Methods We recruited 12 522 participants from Shozu County, Kagawa Prefecture, between December 2008 and November 2009 and followed participants for 3 years. When a subject presented with symptoms suggestive of HZ, they were examined at collaborating medical institutions and cooperated with onset and recovery surveys (eg, measurement of varicella zoster virus-specific immunity and a pain survey). The hazard ratios (HRs) of HZ and PHN according to sex and age were analyzed by Cox regression analysis with a significance level of 5%. Results The incidence of HZ was 10.9/1000 person-years (men: 8.5/1000 person-years; women: 12.8/1000 person-years) and was significantly higher in women than in men (HR 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–1.8). The incidence of PHN was 2.1/1000 person-years (men: 1.7/1000 person-years; women: 2.4/1000 person-years), with no significant sex differences. A total of 19% of HZ cases progressed to PHN; no sex-specific difference in the proportion of PHN cases was observed. Conclusions We clarified the accurate incidences of HZ and PHN in a population of Japanese older adults. These incidences increased with age. HZ incidence was higher in women than in men, while PHN incidence did not differ markedly between the sexes. PMID:26399445

  15. Ultrasonographic reference sizes of the median and ulnar nerves and the cervical nerve roots in healthy Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takamichi; Ochi, Kazuhide; Hosomi, Naohisa; Mukai, Tomoya; Ueno, Hiroki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Toshiho; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify, for practical use, ultrasonographic reference values for nerve sizes at multiple sites, including entrapment and non-entrapment sites along the median and ulnar nerves and among the cervical nerve roots. We verified reliable sites and site-based differences between the reference values. In addition, we found associations between the reference nerve sizes and several physical characteristics (gender, dominant hand, age, height, weight, body mass index [BMI] and wrist circumference). Nerves were measured bilaterally at 26 sites or levels in 60 healthy Japanese adults (29 males; age, 35.4 ± 9.7 y; BMI, 22.3 ± 3.6 kg/m(2); wrist circumference, 16.0 ± 1.3 cm on the right side and 15.9 ± 1.2 cm on the left side). The mean reference nerve sizes were 5.6-9.1 mm(2) along the median nerve, 4.1-6.7 mm(2) along the ulnar nerve and 2.14-3.39 mm among the cervical nerve roots. Multifactorial regression analyses revealed that the physical characteristics most strongly associated with nerve size were age, BMI and wrist circumference at the entrapment sites (F = 7.6, p < 0.01, at the pisiform bone level of the carpal tunnel; F = 15.1, p < 0.001, at the level of Guyon's canal), as well as wrist circumference and gender at the non-entrapment sites (F = 70.6, p < 0.001, along the median nerve; F = 24.7, p < 0.001, along the ulnar nerve). Our results suggest that the factors with the greatest influence on nerve size differed between entrapment and non-entrapment sites. Site-based differences in nerve size were determined using one-way analyses of variance (p < 0.001). Intra- and inter-observer reliability was highest for the median nerve, at both the distal wrist crease and mid-humerus; at the arterial split along the ulnar nerve; and at the fifth cervical nerve root level. No systematic error was indicated by Bland-Altman analysis; the coefficients of variation were 5.5%-9.2% for intra-observer reliability and 7.1%-8.7% for inter

  16. Lethal Effects of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Demand® CS on Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Implications for Population Suppression, Tree Protection, Eradication and Containment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the 24h contact toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin for adult Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, using topical application. Results showed that beetles are sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin: the LD50 and LD90 were 0.13639 and 0.78461µg/beetle, respectively. Residual...

  17. Japanese encephalitis (JE). Part I: clinical profile of 1,282 adult acute cases of four epidemics.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, N B S; Thacker, A K; Barthwal, S P; Mishra, V K; Prapann, Shiv; Srivastava, Deepak; Sarkari, M

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is numerically the most important global cause of encephalitis and so far confirmed to have caused major epidemics in India. Most of the reported studies have been in children. This largest study involving only adults, belonging to four epidemics, is being reported from Gorakhpur. The aim of this study is to detail the acute clinical profile (not viral) outcome and to classify the sequelae at discharge. This prospective study involved 1,282 adult patients initially diagnosed as JE admitted during the epidemics of 1978, 1980, 1988, and 1989, on identical clinical presentation and CSF examination. In the meantime, the diagnosis of JE was confirmed by serological and/or virological studies in only a representative number of samples (649 of 1,282 cases). Eighty-three left against medical advice (LAMA) at various stages, so 1,199 of 1,282 were available for the study. Peak incidence of [1,061 of 1,282 (83%)] of clinically suspected cases was from September 15 to November 2. Serum IgM and IgG were positive in high titers in 50.87% (330 of 649) and IgM positive in CSF in 88.75% (109 of 123) of the cases. JE virus could be isolated from CSF and brain tissue in 5 of 5 and 4 of 5 samples, respectively. Altered sensorium (AS) in (96%), convulsions (86%), and headache (85%) were the main symptoms for hospitalization by the third day of the onset. Other neurological features included hyperkinetic movements in 593 of 1,282 (46%)-choreoathetoid in 490 (83%) and bizarre, ill-defined in 103 (17%). The features of brain stem involvement consisted of opsoclonus (20%), gaze palsies (16%), and pupillary changes (48%) with waxing and waning character. Cerebellar signs were distinctly absent. Dystonia and decerebrate rigidity was observed in 43 and 6%, respectively, paralytic features in 17% and seizures in 30%. Many non-neurological features of prognostic importance included abnormal breathing patterns (ABP) (45%), pulmonary edema (PO) (33%), and upper

  18. Ultrasound-Derived Forearm Muscle Thickness Is a Powerful Predictor for Estimating DXA-Derived Appendicular Lean Mass in Japanese Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Fujita, Eiji; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Akamine, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    To test the validity of published equations, anterior forearm muscle thickness (MT-ulna) of 158 Japanese older adults (72 men and 86 women) aged 50-79 y was measured with ultrasound. Appendicular lean soft tissue mass (aLM) was estimated from MT-ulna using two equations (body height without [eqn 1] and with [eqn 2]) previously published in the literature. Appendicular lean mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA), and this method served as the reference criterion. There was a strong correlation between DXA-derived and ultrasound-estimated aLM in both equations (r = 0.882 and r = 0.944). Total error was 2.60 kg for eqn (1) and 1.38 kg for eqn (2). A Bland-Altman plot revealed that there was no systematic bias between DXA-derived and ultrasound-estimated aLM; however, eqn (1) overestimated aLM compared with DXA-derived aLM. Our results suggest that an ultrasound MT-ulna equation that includes body height is appropriate and useful for estimating aLM in Japanese adults. PMID:27321173

  19. Comparing fungal band formulations for Asian longhorned beetle biological control.

    PubMed

    Ugine, Todd A; Jenkins, Nina E; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-07-01

    Experiments were conducted with the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium brunneum to determine the feasibility of using agar-based fungal bands versus two new types of oil-formulated fungal bands for Asian longhorned beetle management. We investigated conidial retention and survival on three types of bands attached to trees in New York and Pennsylvania: standard polyester fiber agar-based bands containing fungal cultures, and two types of bands made by soaking either polyester fiber or jute burlap with oil-conidia suspensions. Fungal band formulation did not affect the number or viability of conidia on bands over the 2-month test period, although percentage conidial viability decreased significantly with time for all band types. In a laboratory experiment testing the effect of the three band formulations on conidial acquisition and beetle survival, traditional agar-based fungal bands delivered the most conidia to adult beetles and killed higher percentages of beetles significantly faster (median survival time of 27d) than the two oil-formulated materials (36-37d). We also tested the effect of band formulation on conidial acquisition by adult beetles kept individually in cages with a single band for 24h, and significantly more conidia (3-7times) were acquired by beetles from agar-based bands compared to the two oil formulations. PMID:23628142

  20. Darkling Beetles as a Potential Transmission Source of Salmonella in Broiler Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adult and larval darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer) are common insect pests of commercial broiler operations. High populations of darkling beetles in commercial broiler operations can have a negative impact finanacially due to structural and insulation damage within the house, red...

  1. Control of Chinese rose beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) through the use of solar-powered nighttime illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister), a scarab beetle found in Asia and the Pacific Islands, was first reported in Hawaii in 1891. Adults feed at night on leaves of a wide range of plant species, including many that are economically important. Aggregate feeding can stunt or even kill ...

  2. A system for harvesting eggs from the pink-spotted lady beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink spotted lady beetle. Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Adult beetles placed in square transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on t...

  3. Marking small hive beetles with thoracic notching: Effects on longevity, flight ability and fecundity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested two marking techniques for adult small hive beetles (SHB): dusting and thoracic notching. The use of blue and red chalk dusts to mark beetles was not persistent and caused early death of SHB with an average survival of 52.6 ± 23.8 and 13.9 ± 7.3 days, respectively. In contrast, notched bee...

  4. Things Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  5. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  6. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans. PMID:25210461

  7. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans. PMID:25210461

  8. Confirmation of the factorial structure of the Japanese short version of the TEMPS-A in psychiatric patients and general adults

    PubMed Central

    Nakato, Yasuya; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Kameyama, Rie; Wakatsuki, Yumi; Kitagawa, Kan; Omiya, Yuki; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) is a 110-item questionnaire that assesses five affective temperaments. However, a valid shortened version is desired for large-scale investigations to enhance the compliance of respondents. Methods A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted among 320 psychiatric patients and 61 general adults. The participants completed the Japanese 39-item short version of the TEMPS-A, and a portion of the participants completed the 110-item version. An exploratory factor analysis with the principal factor method and varimax rotation was conducted to identify a more suitable model of the short version of the TEMPS-A. Results The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the 39-item version exhibited a poor model fit. However, we found that the 18-item version exhibited a firm five-factor structure based on the exploratory factor analysis, and this model exhibited an acceptable model fit. It had good or acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s αs: 0.672–0.819). Limitations The majority of the subjects in the present study were patients, and the temperament data may have been affected by psychiatric symptoms. Conclusion A firm five-factor structure was not found in the 39-item short version of the Japanese TEMPS-A. Therefore, an 18-item version was proposed. This new 18-item version of the TEMPS-A might be useful for clinical applications and large-scale investigations. PMID:27601911

  9. Mutualism Between Fire Ants and Mealybugs Reduces Lady Beetle Predation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shoujie; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-08-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is an important invasive pest that has a negative impact on biodiversity. However, current knowledge regarding the ecological effects of its interaction with honeydew-producing hemipteran insects is inadequate. To partially address this problem, we assessed whether the interaction between the two invasive species S. invicta and Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley mediated predation of P. solenopsis by Propylaea japonica Thunbery lady beetles using field investigations and indoor experiments. S. invicta tending significantly reduced predation by the Pr. japonica lady beetle, and this response was more pronounced for lady beetle larvae than for adults. A field investigation showed that the species richness and quantity of lady beetle species in plots with fire ants were much lower than in those without fire ants. In an olfaction bioassay, lady beetles preferred to move toward untended rather than tended mealybugs. Overall, these results suggest that mutualism between S. invicta and P. solenopsis may have a serious impact on predation of P. solenopsis by lady beetles, which could promote growth of P. solenopsis populations. PMID:26470296

  10. Comparison of internal doses calculated using the specific absorbed fractions of the average adult Japanese male phantom with those of the reference computational phantom-adult male of ICRP publication 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira

    2014-03-01

    In order to study the effects of body sizes and masses of organs and tissues on internal dose assessment, the values corresponding to effective dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides were calculated using the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of two phantoms: the average adult Japanese male phantom (JM-103) and the reference computational phantom-adult male (RCP-AM) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. SAFs were evaluated using the phantoms and Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX or were taken from published data. As a result of a comparison for 2894 cases of 923 radionuclides, the maximum discrepancy in the effective dose coefficients between the JM-103 and RCP-AM was about 40%. However, the discrepancies were smaller than 10% in 97% of all cases.

  11. First Record of the Scarab Beetle, Phyllophaga lissopyge from South America, with Descriptions of Adult Seasonal Activity and Male Response to Sex Attractants

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Rodriguez, Anuar; Peck, Daniel C.; Robbins, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Phyllophaga lissopyge (Bates) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) is reported for the first time from South America. Male sex pheromone response is described for P. lissopyge and two other co-occurring Phyllophaga species. Adults of P. lissopyge and P. menetriesi (Blanchard) flew to traps baited with methyl 2-(methylthio) benzoate whereas adults of P. obsoleta (Blanchard) flew irregularly to four different pheromone compounds. Adult seasonal activity is described from males captures in Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. PMID:21529153

  12. Pine Beetle Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

  13. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  14. Beetles, Biofuel, and Coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier

    2015-05-06

    Berkeley Lab scientist Javier Ceja-Navarro discusses his research on the microbial populations found the guts of insects, specifically the coffee berry borer, which may lead to better pest management and the passalid beetle, which could lead to improved biofuel production.

  15. Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...

  16. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin. PMID:21882695

  17. High temperature effects on water loss and survival examining the hardiness of female adults of the spider beetles, Mezium affine and Gibbium aequinoctiale.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Chambers, Michael J; Tank, Justin L; Keeney, George D

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable ability to tolerate temperatures as high as 52 degrees C for Mezium affine Boieldieu and 56 degrees C for Gibbium aequinoctiale Boieldieu (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) was discovered as part of a water balance study that was conducted to determine whether desiccation-resistance (xerophilic water balance classification) is linked to survival at high temperature. Characteristics of the heat shock response were an intermediate, reversible level of injury, appearing as though dead; greater recovery from heat shock by G. aequinoctiale (57%) than M. affine (30%) that supplemented higher temperature survival by G. aequinoctiale; and lack of protection generated by conditioning at sublethal temperature. Heatinduced mortality is attributed to an abrupt, accelerated water loss at 50 degrees C for M. affine and 54 degrees C for G. aequinoctiale, not to the species (M. affine) that loses water the slowest and has the lower activation energy, E(a) as a measure of cuticular boundary effectiveness. These temperatures where water loss increases sharply are not critical transition temperatures because Arrhenius analysis causes them to be erased (uninterrupted Boltzmann function) and E(a) fails to change when cuticular lipid from these beetles is removed. Our conclusion is that the temperature thresholds for survival and accelerated water loss closely match, and the key survival element in hot and dry environments contributing to wide distribution of G. aequinoctiale and M. affine derives from rising temperature prompting entry into quiescence and a resistance in cuticular lipid fluidity. PMID:20053123

  18. A Report of an Adult Case of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Uveitis (TINU) Syndrome, with a Review of 102 Japanese Cases

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Keiichiro; Fukunari, Kenichi; Ikeda, Yuji; Miyazono, Motoaki; Kishi, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Ryoko; Fukuda, Makoto; Ichiumi, Saori; Yoshizaki, Mai; Nonaka, Yasunori; Kanaya, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 44 Final Diagnosis: Tubulointerstitial nephritis • uveitis syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: Loxoprofen sodium hydrate Clinical Procedure: Renal biopsy Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: Although TINU syndrome is characterized by idiopathic TIN with bilateral anterior uveitis, few reports have provided a comprehensive summary of the features of this disorder. Previous reports have suggested that many Japanese patients had HLA-A2 and -A24 (7), but there is no evidence. Case Report: A 44-year-old female was referred to our hospital due to renal dysfunction in March 2012. After admission, her symptoms improved spontaneously without medication within 2 weeks. In the outpatient clinic, she was diagnosed with idiopathic bilateral anterior uveitis in May, and her renal dysfunction relapsed in November. A renal biopsy showed diffuse TIN. We made a diagnosis of TINU syndrome because we could not explain the origin, and treated her with a systemic corticosteroid. Her renal function and ocular symptoms have been improving. The patient had HLA-A24, -B7, -DR1, -C*07: 02 and -DQB1*05: 01: 01. We collected 102 Japanese cases in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Japanese Medical Abstracts Society and compared our case with the previous cases. Conclusions: This disorder affects primarily young females (median age, 14 years), and the most common symptom is fever (44/102 cases). We conducted a statistical analysis using contingency table and Pearson’s chi-square test, for HLA-A2 and A24, and calculated the odds ratio (OR). There are no significant differences (A2 was present in 7/22 cases and in 19/50 controls, p value (P) 0.61, OR 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI)) 0.27–2.2; A24 was present in 10/22 cases and in 33/50 controls, P 0.10, OR 0.43, CI 0.16–1.2). PMID:25725230

  19. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose

  20. CUTICULAR HYDROCARBONS OF THE SUNFLOWER BEETLE, ZYGOGRAMMA EXCLAMATIONIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrocarbons were the major lipid class on the cuticular surface of adults, nymphs, and eggs of the sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis, characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minor amounts of wax ester from 40 to 48 carbon atoms in size were only detected in larvae. The hyd...

  1. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  2. Fusarium euwallaceae, a novel species cultivated by a Euwallacea ambrosia beetle that threatens avocado production in Israel and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocado production in Israel and California, USA is facing a serious threat due to damage caused by an invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetle and a novel Fusarium that it cultivates as a source of food. Adult female beetles possess mandibular mycangia within which they carry the Fusarium symbiont. At l...

  3. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  4. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944

  5. Diversity, abundance and community network structure in sporocarp-associated beetle communities of the central Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Epps, Mary Jane; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Although arthropods are abundant and diverse in and on macrofungal sporocarps, their associations with fungi seldom have been described at a community level. We examined sporocarp-associated beetle communities in two primary sites in the Appalachian Mountains and foothills, assessing beetle diversity and abundance in relation to study site, sampling season (early vs. late summer), and sporocarp characteristics such as taxonomic position, dry mass and age. From 758 sporocarps representing >180 species we recovered 15404 adult beetles representing 72 species and 15 families, primarily Staphylinidae (> 98% of individuals and of 64% morphospecies). The probability of sporocarp colonization by beetles, beetle abundance and diversity differed among fungal species and were positively associated with sporocarp dry mass. Sporocarp age was positively correlated with beetle diversity and abundance (as measured in a focal species, Megacollybia platyphylla, Tricholomataceae), and its effects were independent of dry mass. Many beetle species were generalists, visiting a wide breadth of fungi in both the Agaricales and Polyporales; however, several beetle taxa showed evidence of specialization on particular fungal hosts. Host association data were used to examine the structure underlying sporocarp-beetle associations. Here we present the first evidence of nested community structure in the sporocarp-beetle interaction network. PMID:20648747

  6. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    PubMed

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  7. Ascarosides coordinate the dispersal of a plant-parasitic nematode with the metamorphosis of its vector beetle

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Xinxing; Wei, Yanan; Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Peijun; Chinta, Satya; Kong, Xiangbo; Liu, Yunpeng; Yu, Haiying; Hu, Songnian; Zou, Zhen; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Insect vectors are required for the transmission of many species of parasitic nematodes, but the mechanisms by which the vectors and nematodes coordinate their life cycles are poorly understood. Here, we report that ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones, are produced not only by a plant-parasitic nematode, but also by its vector beetle. The pinewood nematode and its vector beetle cause pine wilt disease, which threatens forest ecosystems world-wide. Ascarosides secreted by the dispersal third-stage nematode LIII larvae promote beetle pupation by inducing ecdysone production in the beetle and up-regulating ecdysone-dependent gene expression. Once the beetle develops into the adult stage, it secretes ascarosides that attract the dispersal fourth-stage nematode LIV larvae, potentially facilitating their movement into the beetle trachea for transport to the next pine tree. These results demonstrate that ascarosides play a key role in the survival and spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27477780

  8. Ascarosides coordinate the dispersal of a plant-parasitic nematode with the metamorphosis of its vector beetle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Xinxing; Wei, Yanan; Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Peijun; Chinta, Satya; Kong, Xiangbo; Liu, Yunpeng; Yu, Haiying; Hu, Songnian; Zou, Zhen; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Insect vectors are required for the transmission of many species of parasitic nematodes, but the mechanisms by which the vectors and nematodes coordinate their life cycles are poorly understood. Here, we report that ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones, are produced not only by a plant-parasitic nematode, but also by its vector beetle. The pinewood nematode and its vector beetle cause pine wilt disease, which threatens forest ecosystems world-wide. Ascarosides secreted by the dispersal third-stage nematode LIII larvae promote beetle pupation by inducing ecdysone production in the beetle and up-regulating ecdysone-dependent gene expression. Once the beetle develops into the adult stage, it secretes ascarosides that attract the dispersal fourth-stage nematode LIV larvae, potentially facilitating their movement into the beetle trachea for transport to the next pine tree. These results demonstrate that ascarosides play a key role in the survival and spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27477780

  9. When Ontogeny Matters: A New Japanese Species of Brittle Star Illustrates the Importance of Considering both Adult and Juvenile Characters in Taxonomic Practice.

    PubMed

    Martynov, Alexander; Ishida, Yoshiaki; Irimura, Seiichi; Tajiri, Rie; O'Hara, Timothy; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Current taxonomy offers numerous approaches and methods for species delimitation and description. However, most of them are based on the adult characters and rarely suggest a dynamic representation of developmental transformations of taxonomically important features. Here we show how the underestimation of ontogenetic changes may result in long term lack of recognition of a new species of one of the most common ophiacanthid brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from the North Pacific. Based on vast material collected predominantly by various Japanese expeditions in the course of more than 50 years, and thorough study of appropriate type material, we revise the complex of three common species of the ophiuroid genus Ophiacantha which have been persistently confused with each other. The present study thus reveals the previously unrecognized new species Ophiacantha kokusai sp.nov. which is commonly distributed off the Pacific coast of Japan. The new species shows developmental differentiation from the closely related species Ophiacantha rhachophora H. L. Clark, 1911 and retains clearly expressed early juvenile features in the adult morphology. Another species, Ophiacantha clypeata Kyte, 1977, which had been separated from O. rhachophora, is in turn shown to be just a juvenile stage of another North Pacific species, Ophiacantha trachybactra H.L. Clark, 1911. For every species, detailed morphological data from both adult and juvenile specimens based on scanning electron microscopy are presented. A special grinding method showing complex internal features has been utilized for the first time. For all three species in this complex, a clear bathymetric differentiation is revealed: O. rhachophora predominantly inhabits shallow waters, 0-250 m, the new species O. kokusai lives deeper, at 250-600 m, and the third species, O. trachybactra, is found at 500-2,000 m. The present case clearly highlights the importance of considering developmental transformations, not only for

  10. When Ontogeny Matters: A New Japanese Species of Brittle Star Illustrates the Importance of Considering both Adult and Juvenile Characters in Taxonomic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Martynov, Alexander; Ishida, Yoshiaki; Irimura, Seiichi; Tajiri, Rie; O’Hara, Timothy; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Current taxonomy offers numerous approaches and methods for species delimitation and description. However, most of them are based on the adult characters and rarely suggest a dynamic representation of developmental transformations of taxonomically important features. Here we show how the underestimation of ontogenetic changes may result in long term lack of recognition of a new species of one of the most common ophiacanthid brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from the North Pacific. Based on vast material collected predominantly by various Japanese expeditions in the course of more than 50 years, and thorough study of appropriate type material, we revise the complex of three common species of the ophiuroid genus Ophiacantha which have been persistently confused with each other. The present study thus reveals the previously unrecognized new species Ophiacantha kokusai sp.nov. which is commonly distributed off the Pacific coast of Japan. The new species shows developmental differentiation from the closely related species Ophiacantha rhachophora H. L. Clark, 1911 and retains clearly expressed early juvenile features in the adult morphology. Another species, Ophiacantha clypeata Kyte, 1977, which had been separated from O. rhachophora, is in turn shown to be just a juvenile stage of another North Pacific species, Ophiacantha trachybactra H.L. Clark, 1911. For every species, detailed morphological data from both adult and juvenile specimens based on scanning electron microscopy are presented. A special grinding method showing complex internal features has been utilized for the first time. For all three species in this complex, a clear bathymetric differentiation is revealed: O. rhachophora predominantly inhabits shallow waters, 0–250 m, the new species O. kokusai lives deeper, at 250–600 m, and the third species, O. trachybactra, is found at 500–2,000 m. The present case clearly highlights the importance of considering developmental transformations, not

  11. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mark K; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers (Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites. PMID:19997899

  12. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  13. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  14. Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Sakurai, Kiyoko; Kunieda, Etsuo; Watanabe, Satoshi; Taki, Masao; Yamanaka, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on each side; the models are segmented into 51 anatomic regions. The adult female model is the first of its kind in the world and both are the first Asian voxel models (representing average Japanese) that enable numerical evaluation of electromagnetic dosimetry at high frequencies of up to 3 GHz. In this paper, we will also describe the basic SAR characteristics of the developed models for the VHF/UHF bands, calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.

  15. The Overnight Effect of Dietary Energy Balance on Postprandial Plasma Free Amino Acid (PFAA) Profiles in Japanese Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40–61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion. PMID:23667542

  16. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders. PMID:21777439

  17. The Role of Spirituality in Learning Music: A Case of North American Adult Students of Japanese Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the role of spirituality in learning music for North American adult students is explored by examining the case of shakuhachi music. One distinctive character of engaging in music through the shakuhachi is that it facilitates the attainment of an "optimal relationship" between the practitioners" musical pursuit and self-cultivation…

  18. Harmonia Axyridis Adults Avoid Catnip and Grapefruit-derived Terpenoids in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We observed the avoidance behavior of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), when adults were exposed to volatiles derived from catnip oil and grapefruit seed. In replicated laboratory bioassays, beetles avoided contact with volatiles emanating f...

  19. Effects of Ultraviolet (254nm) Irradiation on Egg Hatching and Adult Emergence of the Flour Beetles, Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum and the Almond Moth, Cadra cautella

    PubMed Central

    Faruki, S. I.; Das, D. R.; Khan, A. R.; Khatun, M.

    2007-01-01

    The eggs of the stored grain pests, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), T. confusum (Duval) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae) belonging to three age groups, 1, 2, and 3 days-old, were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation with 254nm wavelength (UV-C) for different durations to determine irradiation effects on egg-hatching and adult emergence. An increase in time of exposure to UV-rays caused a gradual decrease in the percentage of hatching of eggs in all age groups of eggs. No hatching occurred after 24 minutes of exposure in 2 and 3 day-old eggs of T. confusum. C. cautella eggs were less sensitive to UV-rays than were T. castaneum and T. confusum eggs. All the exposure periods significantly reduced the eclosion of adults in all the experimental insects. No adults emerged when 3 day-old eggs of T. castaneum were irradiated for 16 or 24 minutes, or from 2 and 3 day-old eggs T. confusum irradiated for 16 or 24 minutes. PMID:20233102

  20. Life Table Analysis for Immatures and Female Adults of the Predatory Beetle, Delphastus catalinae, Feeding on Whiteflies Under Three Constant Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Crisostomo Legaspi, Jesusa; Legaspi, Benjamin C.; Simmons, Alvin M.; Soumare, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Immature development and reproductive life history of Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) (= B. argentifolii Bellows and Perring) immatures was studied at three constant temperatures: 22, 26 and 30 °C. Lower developmental threshold temperatures (T0) were estimated at 9 and 9.9 °C, for males and females, respectively. Female adults weighed slightly more than males (0.587 and 0.505 mg, respectively). As temperature increased from 22 to 30 °C, developmental time from eggs to eclosion of the adult declined from 24 to 15 days. Thermal units required for immature development was ∼300 degree-days. Percentage egg hatch declined at increasing temperatures, but no significant effect of time was found. The intrinsic rate of increase, r, increased from 0.048 to 0.082 and doubling time decreased from 14.44 to 8.45 days as temperature increased from 22 to 26 °C. Mean daily fecundity was modeled as a function of time and temperature to create a 3-dimensional surface. Overall, Delphastus catalinae was found to perform better at 22 and 26 °C while 30 °C was detrimental to immature development and adult reproduction. PMID:20345295

  1. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population. PMID:26797054

  2. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Japanese Adults: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Shamima; Okazaki, Hiroko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kochi, Takeshi; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Sasaki, Naoko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Hori, Ai; Sakamoto, Nobuaki; Nishiura, Chiro; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kato, Noritada; Fukasawa, Kenji; Pham, Ngoc M.; Kurotani, Kayo; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) using a large database. Methods The present study included 53,930 Japanese employees, aged 15 to 83 years, who received health check-up and did not have diabetes at baseline. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl, HbA1c ≥6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol), or receiving medication for diabetes. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of diabetes. Results During 3.9 years of median follow-up, 2,441 (4.5%) individuals developed T2D. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for diabetes were 1 (reference), 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30) and 1.34 (1.22 to 1.48) for never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers, respectively. Diabetes risk increased with increasing numbers of cigarette consumption among current smokers (P for trend <0.001). Although the relative risk of diabetes was greater among subjects with lower BMIs (< 23 kg/m2), attributable risk was greater in subjects with higher BMIs (≥ 23 kg/m2). Compared with individuals who had never smoked, former smokers who quit less than 5 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 years or more exhibited hazards ratios for diabetes of 1.36 (1.14 to 1.62), 1.23 (1.01 to 1.51), and 1.02 (0.85 to 1.23), respectively. Conclusions Results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of T2D, which may decrease to the level of a never smoker after 10 years of smoking cessation. PMID:26200457

  3. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

    PubMed Central

    Mizuki, Rie; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin (OT) is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history and OT concentrations among healthy adults. Method: Eighty adults (49 women and 31 men) with 18- to 48-month-old children were recruited using a snowball sample in Tokyo, Japan. Urine samples were collected for OT measurement. Less severe (low and moderate) childhood maltreatment history, including physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, was assessed using the self-report questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Less severe physical abuse was significantly associated with higher OT concentration after adjusting for age (p = 0.014). Also, less severe forms of physical abuse were independently significantly associated with higher OT concentration after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment (p = 0.027). A positive dose-response association between the number of less severe childhood maltreatment types and OT concentration was observed (p = 0.031). Conclusion: A history of less severe forms of childhood physical abuse was associated with higher OT concentration in healthy adults. Poly-victimization of several types of less severe childhood maltreatment was also associated with higher OT concentrations. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment might enhance OT concentrations in order to cope with social stress. PMID:26157369

  4. Insecticidal effect of spinosad dust, in combination with diatomaceous earth, against two stored-grain beetle species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficacy of the biological insecticide spinosad applied alone and combination with diatomaceous earth (DE) was determined through laboratory bioassays with adults of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val...

  5. Efficacy of deltamethrin against stored-product beetles at short exposure intervals or on a partially-treated rice mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stored product insects can potentially be exposed to grain protectants for variable time periods. Adults of six species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the red flour beetle, ...

  6. Transcription factor broad suppresses precocious development of adult structures during larval–pupal metamorphosis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, A.; Bai, H.; Palli, Subba R.

    2013-01-01

    Broad (br), a transcription factor containing the Broad-Tramtrack-Bric-a-brac (BTB) and zinc finger domains was shown to mediate 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) action and pupal development in Drosophila melanogaster and Manduca sexta. We determined the key roles of br during larval–pupal metamorphosis using RNA interference (RNAi) in a coleopteran insect, Tribolium castaneum. Two major peaks of T. castaneum broad (Tcbr) mRNA, one peak at the end of feeding stage prior to the larvae entering the quiescent stage and another peak during the quiescent stage were detected in the whole body and midgut tissue dissected from staged insects. Expression of br during the final instar larval stage is essential for successful larval–pupal metamorphosis, because, RNAi-mediated knock-down of Tcbr during this stage derailed larval–pupal metamorphosis and produced insects that showed larval, pupal and adult structures. Tcbr dsRNA injected into the final instar larvae caused reduction in the mRNA levels of genes known to be involved in 20E action (EcRA, E74 and E75B). Tcbr dsRNA injected into the final instar larvae also caused an increase in the mRNA levels of JH-response genes (JHE and Kr-h1b). Knock-down of Tcbr expression also affected 20E-mediated remodeling of midgut during larval–pupal metamorphosis. These data suggest that the expression of Tcbr during the final instar larval stage promotes pupal program while suppressing the larval and adult programs ensuring a transitory pupal stage in holometabolous insects. PMID:18083350

  7. Transcription factor broad suppresses precocious development of adult structures during larval-pupal metamorphosis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, R; Tan, A; Bai, H; Palli, Subba R

    2008-01-01

    Broad (br), a transcription factor containing the Broad-Tramtrack-Bric-a-brac (BTB) and zinc finger domains was shown to mediate 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) action and pupal development in Drosophila melanogaster and Manduca sexta. We determined the key roles of br during larval-pupal metamorphosis using RNA interference (RNAi) in a coleopteran insect, Tribolium castaneum. Two major peaks of T. castaneum broad (Tcbr) mRNA, one peak at the end of feeding stage prior to the larvae entering the quiescent stage and another peak during the quiescent stage were detected in the whole body and midgut tissue dissected from staged insects. Expression of br during the final instar larval stage is essential for successful larval-pupal metamorphosis, because, RNAi-mediated knock-down of Tcbr during this stage derailed larval-pupal metamorphosis and produced insects that showed larval, pupal and adult structures. Tcbr dsRNA injected into the final instar larvae caused reduction in the mRNA levels of genes known to be involved in 20E action (EcRA, E74 and E75B). Tcbr dsRNA injected into the final instar larvae also caused an increase in the mRNA levels of JH-response genes (JHE and Kr-h1b). Knock-down of Tcbr expression also affected 20E-mediated remodeling of midgut during larval-pupal metamorphosis. These data suggest that the expression of Tcbr during the final instar larval stage promotes pupal program while suppressing the larval and adult programs ensuring a transitory pupal stage in holometabolous insects. PMID:18083350

  8. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  9. Soil-applied imidacloprid translocates to ornamental flowers and reduces survival of adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles, and larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui butterflies.

    PubMed

    Krischik, Vera; Rogers, Mary; Gupta, Garima; Varshney, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient) /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed) translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon) pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in) cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI) to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola), where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the principles of IPM

  10. Soil-Applied Imidacloprid Translocates to Ornamental Flowers and Reduces Survival of Adult Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens Lady Beetles, and Larval Danaus plexippus and Vanessa cardui Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Krischik, Vera; Rogers, Mary; Gupta, Garima; Varshney, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision making process used to manage pests that relies on many tactics, including cultural and biological control, which are practices that conserve beneficial insects and mites, and when needed, the use of conventional insecticides. However, systemic, soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides are translocated to pollen and nectar of flowers, often for months, and may reduce survival of flower-feeding beneficial insects. Imidacloprid seed-treated crops (0.05 mg AI (active ingredient) /canola seed and 1.2 mg AI/corn seed) translocate less than 10 ppb to pollen and nectar. However, higher rates of soil-applied imidacloprid are used in nurseries and urban landscapes, such as 300 mg AI/10 L (3 gallon) pot and 69 g AI applied to the soil under a 61 (24 in) cm diam. tree. Translocation of imidacloprid from soil (300 mg AI) to flowers of Asclepias curassavica resulted in 6,030 ppb in 1X and 10,400 ppb in 2X treatments, which are similar to imidacloprid residues found in another plant species we studied. A second imidacloprid soil application 7 months later resulted in 21,000 ppb in 1X and 45,000 ppb in 2X treatments. Consequently, greenhouse/nursery use of imidacloprid applied to flowering plants can result in 793 to 1,368 times higher concentration compared to an imidacloprid seed treatment (7.6 ppb pollen in seed- treated canola), where most research has focused. These higher imidacloprid levels caused significant mortality in both 1X and 2X treatments in 3 lady beetle species, Coleomegilla maculata, Harmonia axyridis, and Hippodamia convergens, but not a fourth species, Coccinella septempunctata. Adult survival were not reduced for monarch, Danaus plexippus and painted lady, Vanessa cardui, butterflies, but larval survival was significantly reduced. The use of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid at greenhouse/nursery rates reduced survival of beneficial insects feeding on pollen and nectar and is incompatible with the principles of IPM

  11. Purification and molecular cloning of aspartic proteinases from the stomach of adult Japanese fire belly newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Sano, Kaori; Kawaguchi, Mari; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Inokuchi, Tomofumi

    2016-04-01

    Six aspartic proteinase precursors, a pro-cathepsin E (ProCatE) and five pepsinogens (Pgs), were purified from the stomach of adult newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster). On sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weights of the Pgs and active enzymes were 37-38 kDa and 31-34 kDa, respectively. The purified ProCatE was a dimer whose subunits were connected by a disulphide bond. cDNA cloning by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that three of the purified Pgs were classified as PgA and the remaining two were classified as PgBC belonging to C-type Pg. Our results suggest that PgBC is one of the major constituents of acid protease in the urodele stomach. We hypothesize that PgBC is an amphibian-specific Pg that diverged during its evolutional lineage. PgBC was purified and characterized for the first time. The purified urodele pepsin A was completely inhibited by equal molar units of pepstatin A. Conversely, the urodele pepsin BC had low sensitivity to pepstatin A. In acidic condition, the activation rates of newt pepsin A and BC were similar to those of mammalian pepsin A and C1, respectively. Our results suggest that the enzymological characters that distinguish A- and C-type pepsins appear to be conserved in mammals and amphibians. PMID:26711235

  12. Isolation of diapause-regulated transcripts by differential display from the Colorado potato beetle, and their expression in prediapausing and nondiapausing adults. GenBank. Accessions: FG591137-FG591192

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using differential display, 56 putatively diapause regulated transcripts were isolated from the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The clones insert sizes range from 114 to 795 bp with mean length of 392 ± SD of 191 bp. Fourteen of the transcripts were confirmed by northern blot anal...

  13. Radiation doses received by adult Japanese populations living outside Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011, following the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant failures.

    PubMed

    Priest, N D

    2012-12-01

    Data on the concentration of radionuclides in air for March following the reactor failures at the Fukushima NPP were available for Takasaki, Chiba and Tokyo. Gamma dose data for the same/close locations and for fixed locations in other prefectures were also obtained. Gamma dose data was used to calculate the cumulative gamma dose, during 2 weeks (15th-28th March) following the power plant failures. Corresponding doses were calculated for sites in other Japanese prefectures - except Fukushima Prefecture, for which equivalent monitoring data was not published. For Takasaki, Chiba and Tokyo air concentration data and ICRP dose coefficients were used to calculate inhalation committed effective doses (CED, E(50)) and thyroid equivalent doses (H) for adult members of the public. Average ratios of gamma dose to inhalation CED and inhalation CED from iodine isotopes to thyroid equivalent dose, determined for Takasaki, Chiba and Tokyo, were then used to predict these quantities for sites in other prefectures. Cumulative gamma dose profiles were used to identify dose increments that could be attributed to Fukushima releases within 11 prefectures (excluding Fukushima Prefecture). The most impacted of these were located in Gunma, Ibaraki, Tochigi and Saitama Prefectures - to the south of Fukushima - and in Miyagi Prefecture - to the north of Fukushima. Calculated total doses ranged from 16 μSv in Shizuoka (Shizuoka) to 400 μSv in Ibaraki (Mito). The total doses calculated for the major population centres of Tokyo and Chiba were 97 μSv and 80 μSv, respectively. For all prefecture locations the largest calculated contribution to total dose, during the period of assessment, was from inhalation (~80%). Estimated thyroid equivalent doses ranged from 5.9 mSv in Ibaraki to 200 μSv in Shizuoka. All total doses calculated were probably overestimates - since no allowances were made for shielding and shelter during the passage of radioactive clouds. Minor contributions to dose from

  14. Variability in small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, reproduction in laboratory and field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two kinds of experiments were conducted with groups of Aethina tumida adults: Laboratory experiments exposing adult beetles in closed boxes to two different levels of food availability and kept at two temperatures (28ºC and 32ºC); and 3 field experiments in honey bee colonies, the typical environme...

  15. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  16. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  17. The incidence and use of Oryctes virus for control of rhinoceros beetle in oil palm plantations in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ramle, M; Wahid, M B; Norman, K; Glare, T R; Jackson, T A

    2005-05-01

    The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, has emerged as a serious pest of oil palm since the prohibition of burning as a method for maintaining estate hygiene in the 1990s. The abundance of beetles is surprising given that the Malay peninsula was the site of first discovery of the Oryctes virus, which has been used to effect good as a biological control agent in other regions. A survey of adult beetles was carried out throughout Malaysia using pheromone traps. Captured beetles were examined for presence of virus using both visual/microscopic examination and PCR detection methods. The survey indicated that Oryctes virus was common in Malaysia among the adult beetles. Viral DNA analysis was carried out after restriction with HindIII enzyme and indicated at least three distinct viral genotypes. Bioassays were used to compare the viral strains and demonstrate that one strain (type B) is the most virulent against both larvae and adults of the beetle. Virus type B has been cultured and released into healthy populations where another strain (type A) forms the natural background. Capture and examination of beetles from the release site and surrounding area has shown that the spread and persistence of the applied virus strain is accompanied by a reduction in palm frond damage. PMID:16039309

  18. 7 CFR 301.48-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-4 Conditions governing the... threat to spread the Japanese beetle because adult beetle populations are not present; or (b) The... be free of and safeguarded against Japanese beetle; or (c) The aircraft is loaded during the hours...

  19. 7 CFR 301.48-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-4 Conditions governing the... threat to spread the Japanese beetle because adult beetle populations are not present; or (b) The... be free of and safeguarded against Japanese beetle; or (c) The aircraft is loaded during the hours...

  20. A deficiency of the homeotic complex of the beetle Tribolium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    In Drosophila, the establishment of regional commitments along most of the anterior/posterior axis of the developing embryo depends on two clusters of homeotic genes: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and the bithorax complex (BX-C). The red flour beetle has a single complex (HOM-C) representing the homologues of the ANT-C and BX-C in juxtaposition. Beetles trans-heterozygous for two particular HOM-C mutations spontaneously generate a large deficiency, presumably by an exchange within the common region of two overlapping inversions. Genetic and molecular results indicate that this deficiency spans at least the interval between the Deformed and abdominal-A homologues. In deficiency homozygous embryos, all gnathal, thoracic and abdominal segments develop antennal appendages, suggesting that a gene(s) has been deleted that acts to distinguish trunk from head. There is no evidence that beetles have a homologue of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu of similar genomic location and function. On the basis of the genetic tractability, convenient genome size and organization of Tribolium, and its relatively long phylogenetic divergence from Drosophila (>300 million years), we have integrated developmental genetic and molecular analyses of the HOM-C. We isolated about 70 mutations in the complex representing at least six complementation groups. The homeotic phenotypes of adults and lethal embryos lead us to believe that these beetle genes are homologous with the Drosophila genes indicated in Fig. 1 (see text).

  1. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. PMID:23550535

  2. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  3. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. )

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  4. The first record of a leaf-hole shelter in leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with descriptions of two new Orthaltica Crotch species from southern India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two behavioral novelties in adults of leaf beetles were observed in a couple of new species of Orthaltica Crotch: 1) use of low cost, leaf-hole shelter, which are pre-formed holes produced by larger beetles that fed on the same leaf, or made artificially as part of an experiment; 2) use of feces t...

  5. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  6. Effects of knowledge of an endangered species on recreationists' attitudes and stated behaviors and the significance of management compliance for ohlone tiger beetle conservation.

    PubMed

    Cornelisse, Tara M; Duane, Timothy P

    2013-12-01

    Recreation is a leading cause of species decline on public lands, yet sometimes it can be used as a tool for conservation. Engagement in recreational activities, such as hiking and biking, in endangered species habitats may even enhance public support for conservation efforts. We used the case of the endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone) to investigate the effect of biking and hiking on the beetle's behavior and the role of recreationists' knowledge of and attitudes toward Ohlone tiger beetle in conservation of the species. In Inclusion Area A on the University of California Santa Cruz (U.S.A.) campus, adult Ohlone tiger beetles mate and forage in areas with bare ground, particularly on recreational trails; however, recreation disrupts these activities. We tested the effect of recreation on Ohlone tiger beetles by observing beetle behavior on trails as people walked and road bikes at slow and fast speed and on trails with no recreation. We also surveyed recreationists to investigate how their knowledge of the beetle affected their attitudes toward conservation of the beetle and stated compliance with regulations aimed at beetle conservation. Fast cycling caused the beetles to fly off the trail more often and to fly farther than slow cycling or hiking. Slow cycling and hiking did not differ in their effect on the number of times and distance the beetles flew off the trail. Recreationists' knowledge of the beetle led to increased stated compliance with regulations, and this stated compliance is likely to have tangible conservation outcomes for the beetle. Our results suggest management and education can mitigate the negative effect of recreation and promote conservation of endangered species. Efectos del Conocimiento de una Especie en Peligro sobre las Actitudes y Comportamientos Declarados de los Recreacionistas y el Significado del Manejo de la Conformidad para la Conservación del Escarabajo Tigre de Ohlone. PMID:23869997

  7. Development of Text Reading in Japanese: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jincho, Nobuyuki; Feng, Gary; Mazuka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    This study examined age-group differences in eye movements among third-grade, fifth-grade, and adult Japanese readers. In Experiment 1, Japanese children, but not adults, showed a longer fixation time on logographic kanji words than on phonologically transparent hiragana words. Further, an age-group difference was found in the first fixation…

  8. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  9. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  10. Independent analysis of the radiation risk for leukaemia in children and adults with mortality data (1950-2003) of Japanese A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jan Christian; Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    A recent analysis of leukaemia mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors has applied descriptive models, collected together from previous studies, to derive a joint excess relative risk estimate (ERR) by multi-model inference (MMI) (Walsh and Kaiser in Radiat Environ Biophys 50:21-35, 2011). The models use a linear-quadratic dose response with differing dose effect modifiers. In the present study, a set of more than 40 models has been submitted to a rigorous statistical selection procedure which fosters the parsimonious deployment of model parameters based on pairwise likelihood ratio tests. Nested models were consequently excluded from risk assessment. The set comprises models of the excess absolute risk (EAR) and two types of non-standard ERR models with sigmoidal responses or two line spline functions with a changing slope at a break point. Due to clearly higher values of the Akaike Information Criterion, none of the EAR models has been selected, but two non-standard ERR models qualified for MMI. The preferred ERR model applies a purely quadratic dose response which is slightly damped by an exponential factor at high doses and modified by a power function for attained age. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study reports similar point estimates and confidence intervals (CI) of the ERR from MMI for doses between 0.5 and 2.5 Sv. However, at lower doses, the point estimates are markedly reduced by factors between two and five, although the reduction was not statistically significant. The 2.5 % percentiles of the ERR from the preferred quadratic-exponential model did not fall below zero risk in exposure scenarios for children, adolescents and adults at very low doses down to 10 mSv. Yet, MMI produced risk estimates with a positive 2.5 % percentile only above doses of some 300 mSv. Compared to CI from a single model of choice, CI from MMI are broadened in cohort strata with low statistical power by a combination of risk extrapolations from several

  11. The parvocellular vasotocin system of Japanese quail: a developmental and adult model for the study of influences of gonadal hormones on sexually differentiated and behaviorally relevant neural circuits.

    PubMed Central

    Panzica, Gian Carlo; Bakthazart, Jacques; Pessatti, Marzia; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Vasotocin (VT; the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. A sexually dimorphic system of VT-immunoreactive (ir) parvocellular elements has been described within the male medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the nucleus of the stria terminalis, pars medialis (BSTm). VT-ir fibers are present in many diencephalic and extradiencephalic locations, and quantitative morphometric analyses demonstrated their sexually dimorphic distribution in regions involved in the control of different aspects of reproduction. Moreover, systemic or intracerebroventricular injections of VT markedly inhibit the expression of some aspects of male sexual behavior. In adult animals, circulating levels of testosterone (T) have a profound influence on the VT immunoreactivity within BSTm, POM, and lateral septum. Castration markedly decreases the immunoreaction, whereas T-replacement therapy restores a situation similar to the intact birds. We observed no changes in gonadectomized females treated with T. These changes parallel similar changes in male copulatory behavior (not present in castrated male quail, fully expressed in castrated, T-treated males). The restoration by T of the VT immunoreactivity in castrated male quail could be fully mimicked by a treatment with estradiol (E(2)), suggesting that the aromatization of T into E(2) may play a key limiting role in both the activation of male sexual behavior and the induction of VT synthesis. This dimorphism has an organizational nature: administration of E(2) to quail embryos (a treatment that abolishes male sexual behavior) results in a dramatic decrease of the VT immunoreactivity in sexually dimorphic regions. Conversely, the inhibition of E(2) synthesis during embryonic life (a treatment that stimulates the expression of male copulatory behavior in treated females exposed in adulthood to T) results in a malelike distribution of VT immunoreactivity. The VT

  12. Multi-model inference of adult and childhood leukaemia excess relative risks based on the Japanese A-bomb survivors mortality data (1950-2000).

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Kaiser, Jan Christian

    2011-03-01

    Some relatively new issues that augment the usual practice of ignoring model uncertainty, when making inference about parameters of a specific model, are brought to the attention of the radiation protection community here. Nine recently published leukaemia risk models, developed with the Japanese A-bomb epidemiological mortality data, have been included in a model-averaging procedure so that the main conclusions do not depend on just one type of model or statistical test. The models have been centred here at various adult and young ages at exposure, for some short times since exposure, in order to obtain specially computed childhood Excess Relative Risks (ERR) with uncertainties that account for correlations in the fitted parameters associated with the ERR dose-response. The model-averaged ERR at 1 Sv was not found to be statistically significant for attained ages of 7 and 12 years but was statistically significant for attained ages of 17, 22 and 55 years. Consequently, such risks when applied to other situations, such as children in the vicinity of nuclear installations or in estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence attributable to background radiation (i.e. low doses for young ages and short times since exposure), are only of very limited value, with uncertainty ranges that include zero risk. For example, assuming a total radiation dose to a 5-year-old child of 10 mSv and applying the model-averaged risk at 10 mSv for a 7-year-old exposed at 2 years of age would result in an ERR=0.33, 95% CI: -0.51 to 1.22. One model (United Nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation report. Volume 1. Annex A: epidemiological studies of radiation and cancer, United Nations, New York, 2006) weighted model-averaged risks of leukaemia most strongly by half of the total unity weighting and is recommended for application in future leukaemia risk assessments that continue to ignore model uncertainty. However, on the basis of the analysis

  13. Influence of mating and age on susceptibility of the beetle Anoplophora glabripennis to the fungal pathogen Metarhizium brunneum.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Joanna J; Hajek, Ann E

    2016-05-01

    The age and life history of an insect can influence its susceptibility to pathogens. Reproduction can be costly and may trade off with immunity while it is generally assumed that immunity will decrease with increasing age through a process called immunosenescence. Fungal pathogens are used as biological control agents for a variety of insect pests, and Metarhizium brunneum is being developed to control the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), an invasive wood-borer. Because adult female A. glabripennis take 1-2weeks to mature after eclosion and both sexes can be long-lived, we investigated how age and mating status would influence susceptibility of A. glabripennis to M. brunneum. Young (6.5day-old) unmated, mature (27-33day-old) mated and unmated, and old (57-71day-old) unmated and mated adults were inoculated with a lethal dose of M. brunneum. The presence of M. brunneum in the hemolymph was quantified and beetle mortality was monitored daily. There was a cost to reproduction for mated mature male and female beetles which died a median of 1.6-1.9days earlier than unmated beetles, while there was no effect of mating on susceptibility for old beetles. We found no evidence for immunosenescence in old beetles, as they did not die faster than young or mature beetles. Young unmated males however were more susceptible than mature or old unmated males, while there was no effect of age on susceptibility of unmated females. PMID:27103165

  14. Population trends and flight behavior of the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae), on Block Island, RI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raithel, C.J.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Prospero, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus, was monitored on Block Island, RI, USA, from 1991-2003 using mark-recapture population estimates of adults collected in pitfall traps. Populations increased through time, especially after 1994 when a program was initiated that provided carrion for beetle production. Beetle captures increased with increasing temperature and dew point, and decreased with increasing wind speed. Short distance movement was not related to wind direction, while longer distance flights tended to be downwind. Although many individuals flew considerable distances along transects, most recaptures were in traps near the point of release. These behaviors probably have counterbalancing effects on population estimates.

  15. Systematics and biology of mites associated with neotropical hispine beetles in unfurled leaves of Heliconia, with descriptions of two new genera of the family Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Gamasina: Ascoidea).

    PubMed

    Moraza, María L; Lindquist, Evert E

    2015-01-01

    Two new genera Makarovaia and Hispiniphis are described from adults and immatures of newly described species associated with hispine beetles of the genera Chelobasis and Cephaloleia, respectively, occupying unfurled leaves of Heliconia in lowland rainforest of Costa Rica. The new genera share a suite of unique morphological attributes, but are tentatively assigned to the family Melicharidae. While all instars of the mites can be found under the elytra of their adult beetle hosts, adult mites also move freely on and off the beetles. A new form of laboulbeniaceous fungus of the genus Rickia is frequently associated with adult mites of Makarovaia as well as their beetle hosts, yet evidently rarely with mites of a species of Hispiniphis or its beetle hosts which may co-occupy the same host leaves. Limited data suggest considerable host specificity between mites and their beetle hosts. Whether the association of these mites with hispine beetles may be ancient, prior to the beetles' adaptation to living in unfurled leaves of host plants, or is a more recent invasion and partitioning of the rolled leaf beetle fauna, is discussed. PMID:25781831

  16. Associational Patterns of Scavenger Beetles to Decomposition Stages.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Nestor D

    2015-07-01

    Beetles associated with carrion play an important role in recycling organic matter in an ecosystem. Four experiments on decomposition, one per season, were conducted in a semirural area in Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Melyridae are reported for the first time of forensic interest. Apart from adults and larvae of Scarabaeidae, thirteen species and two genera of other coleopteran families are new forensic records in Argentina. Diversity, abundance, and species composition of beetles showed differences between stages and seasons. Our results differed from other studies conducted in temperate regions. Four guilds and succession patterns were established in relation to decomposition stages and seasons. Dermestidae (necrophages) predominated in winter during the decomposition process; Staphylinidae (necrophiles) in Fresh and Bloat stages during spring, summer, and autumn; and Histeridae (necrophiles) and Cleridae (omnivores) in the following stages during those seasons. Finally, coleopteran activity, diversity and abundance, and decomposition rate change with biogeoclimatic characteristics, which is of significance in forensics. PMID:26174466

  17. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress.

    PubMed

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knízek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-07-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10 x 50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O(3) level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O(3) levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. PMID:15046842

  18. Vocational Behavior of the Japanese in Late Adulthood: Focusing on Those in the Retirement Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe-Muraoka, A. Mieko; Kawasaki, Tomotsugu; Sato, Shin'ichi

    1998-01-01

    Having experienced traditional Japanese employment system, older Japanese adults are affected by workplace and socioeconomic changes. Two recent surveys of workers nearing retirement showed high work salience and considerable anxiety about retirement. (SK)

  19. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  20. The Acquisitional Value of Recasts in Instructed Second Language Speech Learning: Teaching the Perception and Production of English /?/ to Adult Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of recasts together with form-focused instruction (FFI) on the development of second language speech perception and production of English /?/ by Japanese learners. Forty-five learners were randomly assigned to three groups--FFI recasts, FFI only, and Control--and exposed to four hours of communicatively…

  1. Handling Japanese without a Japanese Operating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatasa, Kazumi; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Macintosh HyperCard environment has become a popular platform for Japanese language courseware because of its flexibility and ease of programing. This project created Japanese bitmap font files for the JIS Levels 1 and 2, and writing XFCNs for font manipulation, Japanese kana input, and answer correction. (12 references) (Author/LB)

  2. Developmental mortality increases sex-ratio bias of a size-dimorphic bark beetle

    PubMed Central

    Lachowsky, Leanna E; Reid, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    1. Given sexual size dimorphism, differential mortality owing to body size can lead to sex-biased mortality, proximately biasing sex ratios. This mechanism may apply to mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, which typically have female-biased adult populations (2 : 1) with females larger than males. Smaller males could be more susceptible to stresses than larger females as developing beetles overwinter and populations experience high mortality. 2. Survival of naturally-established mountain pine beetles during the juvenile stage and the resulting adult sex ratios and body sizes (volume) were studied. Three treatments were applied to vary survival in logs cut from trees containing broods of mountain pine beetles. Logs were removed from the forest either in early winter, or in spring after overwintering below snow or after overwintering above snow. Upon removal, logs were placed at room temperature to allow beetles to complete development under similar conditions. 3. Compared with beetles from logs removed in early winter, mortality was higher and the sex ratio was more female-biased in overwintering logs. The bias increased with overwinter mortality. However, sex ratios were female-biased even in early winter, so additional mechanisms, other than overwintering mortality, contributed to the sex-ratio bias. Body volume varied little relative to sex-biased mortality, suggesting other size-independent causes of male-biased mortality. 4. Overwintering mortality is considered a major determinant of mountain pine beetle population dynamics. The disproportionate survival of females, who initiate colonisation of live pine trees, may affect population dynamics in ways that have not been previously considered. PMID:25400320

  3. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447

  4. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  5. Aphid facultative symbionts reduce survival of the predatory lady beetle Hippodamia convergens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts also play a defensive role against predation in this system. We tested whether feeding on aphids harboring different facultative symbionts affected the fitness of an aphid predator, the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Results While these aphid faculative symbionts did not deter lady beetle feeding, they did decrease survival of lady beetle larvae. Lady beetle larvae fed a diet of aphids with facultative symbionts had significantly reduced survival from egg hatching to pupation and therefore had reduced survival to adult emergence. Additionally, lady beetle adults fed aphids with facultative symbionts were significantly heavier than those fed facultative symbiont-free aphids, though development time was not significantly different. Conclusions Aphids reproduce clonally and are often found in large groups. Thus, aphid symbionts, by reducing the fitness of the aphid predator H. convergens, may indirectly defend their hosts’ clonal descendants against predation. These findings highlight the often far-reaching effects that symbionts can have in ecological systems. PMID:24555501

  6. Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

    1990-05-01

    Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed. PMID:2189910

  7. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  8. Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is a potential biological vector of honeybee viruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle (SHB) is a parasite and scavenger of honeybee colonies. Here, we conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the potential of SHB as a vector of honeybee viruses. Using RT-PCR methods, Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) was detected in adult SHBs that: 1) were fed with dead workers ...

  9. Methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride effectiveness against red flour beetle life stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of methyl bromide (MB) and sulfuryl fluoride (SF) for managing all life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was investigated in the Hal Ross Flour Mill at Kansas State University. Eggs, young larvae, large larvae, pupae, and adults confined in plastic compartments with ...

  10. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in the Conservation Reserve Program crop rotation systems in Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...

  11. Efficacy of Lambda-Cyhalothrin for Control of the Asian Longhorned Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), is among high risk invasive species that recently invaded the U.S. from China. The only method thus far proven to control adult ALB is the removal of infested trees. To date, over 32,000 and 23,000 high value shade trees have been removed in t...

  12. Detecting Signs and Symptoms of Asian Longhorned Beetle Injury: A Training Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian Longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is native to China and Korea. Between 1996 and 2004 ALB infestations were found in New York, Illinois, Austria, New Jersey, France, and Ontario, Canada. More recently, adult ALB were discovered in S...

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) baits and lures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the attractiveness of a lure developed by the Food and Environment Research Agency (=UK lure) to adult small hive beetles (SHB). Experiment 1 compared the UK lure with: USDA fermented pollen dough, banana scent, apple cider and their combinations while Exp...

  14. Dispersion, efficacy, and persistence of dichlorvos aerosol against two flour beetle life stages in a mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution, efficacy, and residual activity of dichlorvos applied as an aerosol to each of five floors of the Kansas State University pilot flour mill (9,968.8 m3 total volume) were evaluated based on responses of adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), and ...

  15. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...

  16. The influence of light on small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) behavior and trap capture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Murray) is a major pest of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, particularly in the Southeastern United States. We evaluated the small hive beetle’s (SHB) response to different wavelengths of the light spectrum and found that SHB larvae and adults were most att...

  17. Research Update: Efficacy of Lambda-Cyhalothrin for Control of the Asian Longhorned Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), is among high risk invasive species that recently invaded the U.S. from China. The only method thus far proven to control adult ALB is the removal of infested trees. To date, over 32,000 and 23,000 high value shade trees have been removed in t...

  18. Effect of height and color on the efficiency of the small hive beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) pole traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olfactory cues released by adult bees, brood, pollen and honey from a honey bee colony are the primary stimuli that guide the small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida Murray) to host colonies. To investigate the response of adult SHB to visual stimuli, we tested the influence of color and height on tr...

  19. Temporal Dynamics of Corn Flea Beetle Populations Infested with Pantoea stewartii, Causal Agent of Stewart's Disease of Corn.

    PubMed

    Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In order to better understand the epidemiology of the Stewart's disease of corn pathosystem, quantitative information concerning the temporal dynamics of the amount of pathogen inoculum present in the form of Pantoea stewartii-infested corn flea beetles (Chaetocnema pulicaria) is needed. Temporal changes in the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetle populations were monitored by testing individual corn flea beetles for the presence of P. stewartii using a peroxidase-labeled, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 90 corn flea beetles were collected each week from seven locations in Iowa from September 1998 through October 2000 using sweep nets. The proportion of P. stewartii-infested beetles at the end of the 1998 growing season ranged from 0.04 to 0.19. In spring 1999, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.10 to 0.11 and did not differ significantly from the previous fall based on chi(2). During the 1999 corn-growing season, the proportion of infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.04 to 0.86, with the highest proportions occurring in August. In fall 1999, the proportion of beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.20 to 0.77. In spring 2000, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.08 to 0.30; these proportions were significantly lower than the proportions observed in fall 1999 at Ames, Chariton, and Nashua. During the 2000 corn-growing season, the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.08 to 0.53, and the highest observed proportions again occurred in August. Corn flea beetle populations sampled in late fall 2000 had proportions of infested beetles ranging from 0.08 to 0.20. This is the first study to quantify the temporal population dynamics of P. stewartii-infested C. pulicaria populations in hybrid corn and provides new quantitative information that should be useful in

  20. crw1 - A Novel Maize Mutant Highly Susceptible to Foliar Damage by the Western Corn Rootworm Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Venkata, Bala Puchakayala; Lauter, Nick; Li, Xu; Chapple, Clint; Krupke, Christian; Johal, Gurmukh; Moose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen of alternate hosts. Conversely, the corn foliage is largely neglected as a food source by WCR beetles, leading to a perception of a passive interaction between the two. We report here a novel recessive mutation of corn that was identified and named after its foliar susceptibility to corn rootworm beetles (crw1). The crw1 mutant under field conditions was exceptionally susceptible to foliar damage by WCR beetles in an age-specific manner. It exhibits pleiotropic defects on cell wall biochemistry, morphology of leaf epidermal cells and lower structural integrity via differential accumulation of cell wall bound phenolic acids. These findings indicate that crw1 is perturbed in a pathway that was not previously ascribed to WCR susceptibility, as well as implying the presence of an active mechanism(s) deterring WCR beetles from devouring corn foliage. The discovery and characterization of this mutant provides a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of interactions between maize and adult WCR beetles and identify new strategies to control the spread and invasion of this destructive pest. PMID:23951124

  1. crw1--A novel maize mutant highly susceptible to foliar damage by the western corn rootworm beetle.

    PubMed

    Venkata, Bala Puchakayala; Lauter, Nick; Li, Xu; Chapple, Clint; Krupke, Christian; Johal, Gurmukh; Moose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen of alternate hosts. Conversely, the corn foliage is largely neglected as a food source by WCR beetles, leading to a perception of a passive interaction between the two. We report here a novel recessive mutation of corn that was identified and named after its foliar susceptibility to corn rootworm beetles (crw1). The crw1 mutant under field conditions was exceptionally susceptible to foliar damage by WCR beetles in an age-specific manner. It exhibits pleiotropic defects on cell wall biochemistry, morphology of leaf epidermal cells and lower structural integrity via differential accumulation of cell wall bound phenolic acids. These findings indicate that crw1 is perturbed in a pathway that was not previously ascribed to WCR susceptibility, as well as implying the presence of an active mechanism(s) deterring WCR beetles from devouring corn foliage. The discovery and characterization of this mutant provides a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of interactions between maize and adult WCR beetles and identify new strategies to control the spread and invasion of this destructive pest. PMID:23951124

  2. The ghost sex-life of the paedogenetic beetle Micromalthus debilis.

    PubMed

    Perotti, M Alejandra; Young, Daniel K; Braig, Henk R

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and sexual systems can be evolutionarily dynamic within and among clades. However, identifying the processes responsible for switches between, for instance, sexual and asexual reproduction, or cyclic and non-cyclic life histories remains challenging. When animals evolve parthenogenetic reproduction, information about the sexual mating system becomes lost. Here we report an extraordinary case where we have been able to resurrect sexual adults in a species of beetle that reproduces by parthenogenetic paedogenesis, without the production of adults. Via heat treatment, we were able to artificially induce adult beetles of Micromalthus debilis in order to describe its pre-paedogenetic mating system. Adults showed a highly female biased sex ratio, out-breeding behaviour, and sex-role reversal. Paedogenetic larvae of Micromalthus are infected with the endosymbiotic bacteria Rickettsia and Wolbachia. Clear signs of vestigialization in adults are concurrent with the loss of adults. Our data suggest an ancient female sex ratio bias that predates the loss of adults, perhaps associated with endosymbionts. We propose a model for the transition from a haplodiploid cyclical parthenogenetic life history to parthenogenetic paedogenesis. Paedogenetic development induces a new mechanism of sex ratio bias in midges, wasps and beetles. PMID:27270667

  3. The ghost sex-life of the paedogenetic beetle Micromalthus debilis

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, M. Alejandra; Young, Daniel K.; Braig, Henk R.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and sexual systems can be evolutionarily dynamic within and among clades. However, identifying the processes responsible for switches between, for instance, sexual and asexual reproduction, or cyclic and non-cyclic life histories remains challenging. When animals evolve parthenogenetic reproduction, information about the sexual mating system becomes lost. Here we report an extraordinary case where we have been able to resurrect sexual adults in a species of beetle that reproduces by parthenogenetic paedogenesis, without the production of adults. Via heat treatment, we were able to artificially induce adult beetles of Micromalthus debilis in order to describe its pre-paedogenetic mating system. Adults showed a highly female biased sex ratio, out-breeding behaviour, and sex-role reversal. Paedogenetic larvae of Micromalthus are infected with the endosymbiotic bacteria Rickettsia and Wolbachia. Clear signs of vestigialization in adults are concurrent with the loss of adults. Our data suggest an ancient female sex ratio bias that predates the loss of adults, perhaps associated with endosymbionts. We propose a model for the transition from a haplodiploid cyclical parthenogenetic life history to parthenogenetic paedogenesis. Paedogenetic development induces a new mechanism of sex ratio bias in midges, wasps and beetles. PMID:27270667

  4. Specific detection of the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans DNA in predatory diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Vinnersten, Thomas Z Persson; Halvarsson, Peter; Lundström, Jan O

    2015-08-01

    Floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are associated with periodically flooded wet meadows, marshes, and swamps in floodplains of major rivers worldwide, and their larvae are abundant in the shallow parts of flooded areas. The nuisance caused by the blood-seeking adult female mosquitoes motivates mosquito control. Larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is considered the most environmentally safe method. However, some concern has been raised whether aquatic predatory insects could be indirectly affected by this reduction in a potential vital prey. Top predators in the temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains are diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), and Aedes sticticus and Ae. vexans are the target species for mosquito control. For detailed studies on this aquatic predator-prey system, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of mosquito DNA in the guts of medium-sized diving beetles. Primers were designed for amplifying short mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans, respectively. Primer specificity was confirmed and half-life detectability of Ae. sticticus DNA in diving beetle guts was derived from a feeding and digestion experiment. The Ae. sticticus DNA within diving beetle guts was detected up to 12 h postfeeding, and half-life detectability was estimated to 5.6 h. In addition, field caught diving beetles were screened for Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans DNA and in 14% of the diving beetles one or both mosquito species were detected, showing that these mosquito species are utilized as food by the diving beetles. PMID:24895318

  5. Cold tolerance of the montane Sierra leaf beetle, Chrysomela aeneicollis.

    PubMed

    Boychuk, Evelyn C; Smiley, John T; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P; Bernards, Mark A; Rank, Nathan E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Small ectothermic animals living at high altitude in temperate latitudes are vulnerable to lethal cold throughout the year. Here we investigated the cold tolerance of the leaf beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis living at high elevation in California's Sierra Nevada mountains. These insects spend over half their life cycle overwintering, and may therefore be vulnerable to winter cold, and prior studies have demonstrated that survival is reduced by exposure to summertime cold. We identify overwintering microhabitat of this insect, describe cold tolerance strategies in all life stages, and use microclimate data to determine the importance of snow cover and microhabitat buffering for overwinter survival. Cold tolerance varies among life history stages and is typically correlated with microhabitat temperature: cold hardiness is lowest in chill-susceptible larvae, and highest in freeze-tolerant adults. Hemolymph osmolality is higher in quiescent (overwintering) than summer adults, primarily, but not exclusively, due to elevated hemolymph glycerol. In nature, adult beetles overwinter primarily in leaf litter and suffer high mortality if early, unseasonable cold prevents them from entering this refuge. These data suggest that cold tolerance is tightly linked to life stage. Thus, population persistence of montane insects may become problematic as climate becomes more unpredictable and climate change uncouples the phenology of cold tolerance and development from the timing of extreme cold events. PMID:26231921

  6. Chemical signals synchronize the life cycles of a plant-parasitic nematode and its vector beetle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Hao, Haijun; Zhang, Bin; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

    2013-10-21

    The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused severe damage to pine forests in large parts of the world [1-4]. Dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode occurs when the nematode develops into the dispersal fourth larval stage (LIV) upon encountering its insect vector, the Monochamus pine sawyer beetle, inside an infected pine tree [5-9]. Here, we show that LIV formation in B. xylophilus is induced by C16 and C18 fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which are produced abundantly on the body surface of the vector beetle specifically during the late development pupal, emerging adult, and newly eclosed adult stages. The LIV can then enter the tracheal system of the adult beetle for dispersal to a new pine tree. Treatment of B. xylophilus with long-chain FAEEs, or the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, promotes LIV formation, while Δ7-dafachronic acid blocks the effects of these chemicals, suggesting a conserved role for the insulin/IGF-1 and DAF-12 pathways in LIV formation. Our work provides a mechanism by which LIV formation in B. xylophilus is specifically coordinated with the life cycle of its vector beetle. Knowledge of the chemical signals that control the LIV developmental decision could be used to interfere with the dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode. PMID:24120638

  7. Book review: Methods for catching beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

  8. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moths...

  9. Standard methods for small hive beetle research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are parasites and scavengers of honey bee and other social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa, where they are a minor pest only. In contrast, the beetles can be harmful parasites of European honey bee subspecies. Very rapidly after A. tumida established pop...

  10. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moth...

  11. QT/QTc study conducted in Japanese adult healthy subjects: a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor topiroxostat was not associated with QT prolongation.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Hiroya; Nakamura, Yuji; Fujita, Tomoe; Kumagai, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    A QT/QTc study was conducted in compliance with ICH E14 guideline to evaluate the effects of a new xanthine oxidase inhibitor topiroxostat in Japanese healthy subjects. Forty-eight Japanese healthy subjects (males 24; females 24) received a single oral dose of topiroxostat (60 or 180 mg), moxifloxacin (400 mg) or placebo in a single-center, double-blind, four-period crossover design. Fridericia's formula (QTcF = QT/RR(0.33) ) was used as a primary method for QT-interval correction. The mean QTcF was prolonged by moxifloxacin, of which largest time-matched difference from placebo administration was 13.6 milliseconds with 90% confidence interval (CI) of 11.2 and 15.9 milliseconds at 4 hours post-dose. The mean QTcF was hardly affected by either dose of topiroxostat, of which largest time-matched difference from placebo administration was 2.9 milliseconds with 90% CI of 0.6 and 5.3 milliseconds at 4 hours post-dose for 60 mg, and 2.3 milliseconds with 90% CI of 0 and 4.7 milliseconds at 1 hour post-dose for 180 mg. The results were essentially the same in the sex subgroup analysis. Moxifloxacin can be used as a positive control for QT/QTc studies in Japanese subjects; and topiroxostat may not cause QT-interval prolongation in males as well as females. PMID:24214189

  12. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands.

    PubMed

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  13. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands

    PubMed Central

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  14. Development of the Gerotranscendence Scale Type 2: Japanese Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, Kazumi; Zarit, Steven H.; Nakayama, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    This study developed the Japanese version of the Gerotranscendence Scale Type 2 (the GST2) and examined reliability and validity of the scale. In Japan, 525 community-dwelling older adults (Male = 260, Female = 265) answered a questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis of the Japanese version of the GST2 revealed the same three-factor structure…

  15. The Internalization of Values: Adopting Cooperation (Sunao) in Japanese Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Satomi Izumi; And Others

    Japanese children are socialized to internalize parental, group, and institutional norms. Japanese adults believe "good" children to be sunao (cooperative). Sunao is difficult to translate into English, but can be thought of as being gentle and spirited. This paper presents a study that examined and described feelings and thoughts of Japanese…

  16. Ethnocentrism, Cultural Traits, Beliefs, and English Proficiency: A Japanese Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinenoya, Kimiko; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the role in second language (L2) learning of ethnocentrism, cultural and personality traits, and acceptance of values and beliefs expressed in myths and proverbs. Japanese adults (n-108) living in North American were asked how much they agreed with or accepted statements expressing ethnocentric views about Japanese culture and…

  17. Anemomenotatic orientation in beetles and scorpions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsenmair, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Orientation, by beetles and scorpions, according to wind direction and force are analyzed. Major efforts were made to determine: (1) which physical qualities of the air current influence anemomenotaxis, (2) which physiological mechanism is responsible for such orientation, (3) which sense organs do beetles and scorpions use to perceive wind directions, and (4) what the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in the beetle and scorpion is. Experimental results show that the trichobothria in scorpions perceives wind direction; in the beetle it is perceived by sense organs excited by pendicellus-flagellum joint movements. A compensation mechanism is suggested as the basis for anemomenotactic orientation. It was also suggested that the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in scorpions is space orientation; while in beetles it was found to be part of the appetitive behavior used to search for olfactory sign stimuli.

  18. Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

    2013-01-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future. PMID:24062759

  19. Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) on Gut Function and Intestinal Microflora in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Motoi; Ohnishi, Yuriko; Kotani, Tatsuya; Gato, Nobuki

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). The fecal lipids content (% DW) of the feces sampled on the final day of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058). Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects. PMID:21731428

  20. Effects of new dietary fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) on gut function and intestinal microflora in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Motoi; Ohnishi, Yuriko; Kotani, Tatsuya; Gato, Nobuki

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). The fecal lipids content (% DW) of the feces sampled on the final day of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058). Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects. PMID:21731428

  1. Reinspiring Japanese Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)

  2. 7 CFR 301.48-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-2 Authorization to designate, and... State to be a regulated airport when he or she determines that adult populations of Japanese beetle... Japanese beetle and aircraft destined for the States listed in § 301.48(b) may be leaving the airport....

  3. 7 CFR 301.48-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-2 Authorization to designate, and... State to be a regulated airport when he or she determines that adult populations of Japanese beetle... Japanese beetle and aircraft destined for the States listed in § 301.48(b) may be leaving the airport....

  4. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  5. Bullying in Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

  6. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  7. A Culture Method for Darkling Beetles, Blapstinus spp. (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Zilkowski, Bruce W; Cossé, Allard A

    2015-06-01

    Darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp., have become a serious pest of Cucurbitaceae crops, especially in California. A culture method was sought to provide large numbers (>500) of adult beetles of known age and sex that could be used for laboratory testing when needed. A method previously developed for Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) using a diet of ground chick feed, with apple slices as a moisture source, was modified for use with Blapstinus spp. and then compared with the same method substituting apple slices with zucchini as the moisture source. Rearing boxes set up with apple slices produced significantly more pupae and adults than boxes containing zucchini slices. However, using either zucchini or apples as a moisture source yielded over the target of 500 adults per rearing box. A previous method designed to sex A. diaperinus based on the presence (♀) or absence (♂) of second valvifers in the pupal stage also proved to be effective for sexing the Blapstinus spp. PMID:26470223

  8. Mortality and testicular derangements in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) exposed to hen's egg white proteins.

    PubMed

    Parshad, Ranjit K; Kansal, Megha

    2012-03-01

    Red flour beetle (T. castaneum) is a major pest of stored grains and is known for its adaptability to all classes of insecticides. The present study was carried out to determine the insecticidal potential of egg white proteins to manage beetle population. Protein samples obtained through salt fractionation were lyophilized and were used separately and simultaneously in different concentrations by adding them to wheat flour and milk powder. The results indicated that the mortality rate of the adult beetles was dependent on the type of treatment, concentration of protein samples and duration of feeding. In multiple-choice feeding trials beetles showed their movement towards the control section as the concentration of treatment increases. Marked abnormalities were observed in appearance and dimensions of the testes which indicated that the egg white proteins caused considerable effect on the process of spermatogenesis and sperm functions. SEM study revealed the formation of deep wrinkles and folds on the testicular surface of the testes of beetles fed on treated diets, points towards the depletion of internal cellular material. The results suggest that egg white protein affects the survival and cause subsequent derangements in the testis of red flour beetle. PMID:22439439

  9. Multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Japanese herbal medicine Daikenchuto to prevent bowel dysfunction after adult liver transplantation (DKB 14 Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kaido, Toshimi; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Sadamori, Hiroshi; Shirabe, Ken; Yamamoto, Michio; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial will aim to determine the ability of an extract (TJ-100) of Daikenchuto (traditional Japanese herbal medicine; Kampo) to prevent bowel dysfunction in at least 110 patients after liver transplantation (LT). Methods and analysis The following co-primary end points will be evaluated on postoperative day 7: total oral and enteral caloric intake, abdominal distension and abdominal pain. The secondary end points will comprise sequential changes of total oral and enteral caloric intake after LT, sequential changes in numeric rating scales for abdominal distension and pain, elapsed time to the first postoperative passage of stool, quality of life assessment using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale score (Japanese version), postoperative liver function, liver regeneration rate, incidence of bacteraemia and bacterial strain, trough level of immunosuppressants, occurrence of acute cellular rejection, discharge or not within 2 months after LT, sequential changes of portal venous flow to the graft and ascites discharge. The two arms of the study will comprise 55 patients per arm. Ethics and dissemination The study has been conducted according to the CONSORT statement. All participants signed a written consent form, and the study has been approved by the institutional review board of each participating institute and conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of 1996. The findings will be disseminated through scientific and professional conferences, and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number The DKB 14 Study was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registration (UMIN-CTR), Japan (registration number: UMIN000014326) during 2014. PMID:26419681

  10. Intermediate disturbance in experimental landscapes improves persistence of beetle metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Byju N; Feng, Zhilan; DeWoody, Yssa D; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-03-01

    Human-dominated landscapes often feature patches that fluctuate in suitability through space and time, but there is little experimental evidence relating the consequences of dynamic patches for species persistence. We used a spatially and temporally dynamic metapopulation model to assess and compare metapopulation capacity and persistence for red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) in experimental landscapes differentiated by resource structure, patch dynamics (destruction and restoration), and connectivity. High connectivity increased the colonization rate of beetles, but this effect was less pronounced in heterogeneous relative to homogeneous landscapes. Higher connectivity and faster patch dynamics increased extinction rates in landscapes. Lower connectivity promoted density-dependent emigration. Heterogeneous landscapes containing patches of different carrying capacity enhanced landscape-level occupancy probability. The highest metapopulation capacity and persistence was observed in landscapes with heterogeneous patches, low connectivity, and slow patch dynamics. Control landscapes with no patch dynamics exhibited rapid declines in abundance and approached extinction due to increased adult mortality in the matrix, higher pupal cannibalism by adults, and extremely low rates of exchange between remaining habitable patches. Our results highlight the role of intermediate patch dynamics, intermediate connectivity, and the nature of density dependence of emigration for persistence of species in heterogeneous landscapes. Our results also demonstrate the importance of incorporating local dynamics into the estimation of metapopulation capacity for conservation planning. PMID:26236869

  11. Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum. PMID:20578952

  12. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Brief-Type Self-Administered Diet History Questionnaire for Japanese Children Aged 3–6 Years: Application of a Questionnaire Established for Adults in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Keiko; Haga, Megumi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary intake assessment and subsequent dietary education or intervention in young children is important in decreasing prevalence of various noncontagious diseases in adulthood. Validation of diet assessment questionnaires for preschool children has just started in Japan. In this study, we rearranged the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ), a convenient diet assessment questionnaire that is widely used in a range of situations for adults, for use in children aged 3–6 years (BDHQ3y) and then validated the BDHQ3y in Japanese children. Methods The guardians of 61 children aged 3–4 years completed the BDHQ3y twice at an interval of 1 month, along with a 3-nonconsecutive-day diet record (DR) between the two administrations of the BDHQ3y. Dietary intakes for energy and 42 selected nutrients were estimated using both the DR and the BDHQ3y. Mean intakes estimated by the two methods were compared, and correlation coefficients were calculated. Reproducibility of the BDHQ3y estimates was investigated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results No significant differences in mean intakes estimated by the DR and the BDHQ3y were observed for one- to two-thirds of energy and examined nutrients. The median of Pearson correlation coefficients between intakes energy-adjusted by the residual method was 0.31 (interquartile range, 0.24 to 0.38). The median ICC was 0.72 (interquartile range, 0.63 to 0.76) for the crude nutrient intakes. Conclusions Although the BDHQ3y might be a good candidate for dietary intake assessment in Japanese preschool children, its validity is currently moderate to low. Shortcomings should be overcome by obtaining and utilizing more information about children’s dietary habits. PMID:25843433

  13. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close. PMID:24690169

  14. Necrophagous beetles associated with carcasses in a semi-arid environment in northeastern Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Ana C G; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2013-03-10

    Data on the ecology and bionomics of necrophagous beetles are scarce in tropical countries despite their relevance in forensic investigations. We performed a survey on the diversity and temporal pattern of colonization of beetles on pig carcasses in a fragment of dry forest in northeastern Brazil. We collected 1550 adults of diverse feeding habits from 12 families, of which 96% had necrophagous and/or copro-necrophagous habits and belonged to four families: Dermestidae, Scarabaeidae, Cleridae and Trogidae. Three species, Dermestes maculatus, Necrobia rufipes and Omorgus suberosus are reported for the first time with an expanded geographical distribution that includes the semi-arid region in Brazil. Adult beetles were collected as early as 24h after death. One endemic species, Deltochilum verruciferum, stood out in terms of numerical dominance and temporal occurrence during different stages of decomposition. Its intimate association with carrion emphasizes their potential role in forensic entomology in the region. PMID:23398925

  15. Interactions between a Sap Beetle, Sabal Palm, Scale Insect, Filamentous Fungi and Yeast, with Discovery of Potential Antifungal Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Andrew R.; Skelley, Paul E.; Kinnee, Scott A.; Rooney-Latham, Suzanne; Winterton, Shaun L.; Borkent, Christopher J.; Audisio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The multi-trophic relationship between insects, yeast, and filamentous fungi is reported on sabal palm (Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f.). Gut content analyses and observations of adult and larval feeding of the sap beetle Brachypeplus glaber LeConte indicate that niche partitioning of fungal food substrata occurs between adults and larvae. This is the first report of specific mycophagous niche partitioning among beetle life stages based on gut content analyses. Fungi isolated from the beetle gut of adults, larvae, and pupae include species of Fusarium Link, Cladosporium Link, and Penicillium Link, which were differentially ingested by larvae and adults; Fusarium solani and Penicillium species in larvae, whereas F. oxysoproum, F. verticillioides, and Cladosporium in adults. These data indicate the first species-level host data for Brachypeplus Erichson species. Fusarium proliferatum (Matsush.) Nirenberg was the most commonly occurring fungal gut component, being isolated from the palm as well as gut of larvae, pupae, and adults; representing a commonly shared food resource. One species of yeast, Meyerozyma caribbica (Vaughan-Mart. et al.) Kurtzman & Suzuki (basionym = Pichia caribbica), was isolated from all life stages and is likely responsible for anti-fungal properties observed in the pupae and represents a promising source of antifungal compounds; rearing and diagnostic protocols are provided to aid biomedical researchers. Feeding and cleaning behaviors are documented using time-lapse video-micrography, and discussed in a behavioral and functional morphological context. Adults spent long periods feeding, often >1/3 of the two-hour observation period. A generic adult body posture was observed during feeding, and included substrate antennation before and after ingestion. Adult grooming behaviors were manifested in distinct antennal and tarsal cleaning mechanisms. Larval behaviors were different from adults, and larvae feeding on Fusarium

  16. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    PubMed Central

    Koksharov, Mikhail I.; Ugarova, Natalia N.

    2012-01-01

    Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems. PMID:24688645

  17. Combined physical and chemical methods to control lesser mealworm beetles under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jônatas; Potrich, Michele; Lozano, Everton R; Gouvea, Alfredo; Pegorini, Carla S

    2015-06-01

    The lesser mealworm beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest. The insect acts as a disease vector and reservoir, negatively affecting the health of birds and humans, and harming poultry husbandry. Controlling the lesser mealworm is generally based on using synthetic chemical insecticides, which are sometimes ineffective, and is limited due to market concerns regarding the toxicity of chemical residues in food products. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential for the combination of physical and chemical methods to control A. diaperinus. Bioassays were conducted using poultry bedding and known populations of beetle adults and larvae. The treatments consisted of the isolated application of 400 g/m2 hydrated lime; 20% added moisture (distilled water); temperature increase to 45°C; an insecticide composed of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and citronellal; and a combination of these factors. Beetle mortality was measured at 7 and 10 d of treatment. The hydrated lime and moisture treatments alone did not control A. diaperinus. Raising the temperature of the poultry bedding to 45°C effectively controlled both larvae (90±6%) and adults (90±4%). The use of insecticide provided adequate control of A. diaperinus in the conditions of the bioassay (93±2% and 68±5% for adults and larvae, respectively). The combination of the studied factors led to the total control of larvae and adults after 7 d of treatment. PMID:25834245

  18. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults exposed on concrete, vinyl tile, and plywood surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insecticidal pyrrol chlorfenapyr was applied to concrete, tile, and wood surfaces, at an application rate of 0.11 mgAI/cm2. Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and adult T. confusum (DuVal), the confused flour beetle, were exposed for 2 and 4 hours, removed, and held witho...

  19. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults exposed on concrete, vinyl tile, and plywood surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insecticidal pyrrol chlorfenapyr was applied to concrete, tile, and wood surfaces, at an application rate of 0.11mg AI/cm2. Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and adult T. confusum (DuVal), the confused flour beetle, were exposed for 2 and 4 hours, removed, and held witho...

  20. Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, R L; Metcalf, R A; Rhodes, A M

    1980-07-01

    The characteristic bitter substances of the Cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. These beetles (e.g., Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (Cuc) B on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. Six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to Cuc B than to Cuc E and less responsive to Cuc D, I, and L. Chloroform extracts of 18 species of Cucurbita were developed on thin-layer chromatograms and exposed to diabroticite beetles. The feeding patterns showed pronounced beetle responses to three general Cuc distribution patterns: Cuc B and D as in Cucurbita andreana and C. ecuadorensis; Cuc E and I as in C. okeechobeensis and C. martinezii; and Cuc E glycoside in C. texana. All the diabroticites responded in exactly the same feeding patterns. The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles. PMID:16592849

  1. Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Robert A.; Rhodes, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic bitter substances of the Cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. These beetles (e.g., Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (Cuc) B on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. Six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to Cuc B than to Cuc E and less responsive to Cuc D, I, and L. Chloroform extracts of 18 species of Cucurbita were developed on thin-layer chromatograms and exposed to diabroticite beetles. The feeding patterns showed pronounced beetle responses to three general Cuc distribution patterns: Cuc B and D as in Cucurbita andreana and C. ecuadorensis; Cuc E and I as in C. okeechobeensis and C. martinezii; and Cuc E glycoside in C. texana. All the diabroticites responded in exactly the same feeding patterns. The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles. PMID:16592849

  2. CUTICULAR HYDROCARBONS OF THE FLEA BEETLES, APHTHONA LACERTOSA AND APHTHONA NIGRISCUTIS, BIOCONTROL AGENTS FOR LEAFY SPURGE, EUPHORBIA ESULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adult beetles, Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis, used as biocontrol agents for leafy spurge, had a complex mixture of hydrocarbons on their cuticular surface consisting of alkanes, methylalkanes, alkenes and alkadienes as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In both ...

  3. Studies on the life history and control of small hive beetles in the south-eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We monitored natural infestation of adult small hive beetles (SHB) in honey bee colonies from 2005 to 2008. We found that SHB populations varied throughout the year with peak infestations observed in the autumn (September and November). Abundance of SHB was significantly correlated with the proport...

  4. Effects of organic acid treatments on small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, and the associated yeast Kodamaea ohmeri.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In honey bees, Apis mellifera, colonies infested with larval and adult small hive beetles (=SHB), hive materials and in particular honey tends to ferment due to the SHB associated yeast Kodamaea ohmeri. Here we test the effects of organic acids used by beekeepers to control other pests on SHB and K...

  5. crw1- A novel maize mutant highly susceptible to foliar damage by the Western corn rootworm beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L) in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen o...

  6. Release of Oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) pheromone from waxed-based granules under laboratory and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriental beetle, Exomala orientalis Waterhouse, is a univoltine pest of turf, nursery plants, and fruit crops in the Northeastern United States as a result of larvae feeding on plant roots. Disruption of adult mating is considered a viable control option for this pest in turf grass, and specifically...

  7. Lack of establishment of the Mediterranean tamarisk beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on athel (Tamarix aphylla) (Tamaricaceae) in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Mediterranean tamarisk beetles, Diorhabda elongata (Brullé), a defoliator of exotic saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), were released into four field cages containing small saltcedar trees or closely-related exotic athel trees (Tamarix aphylla (L.). Karsten) and onto uncaged beneficial mature athel tree...

  8. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  9. Modeling Landscape-Level Spatial Variation in Sex Ratio Skew in the Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    James, Patrick M A; Janes, Jasmine K; Roe, Amanda D; Cooke, Barry J

    2016-08-01

    Through their influence on effective population sizes, sex ratio skew affects population dynamics. We examined spatial variation in female-biased sex ratios in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak in western Canada to better understand how environmental context affects sex ratio skew. Our specific objectives were to: 1) characterize spatial variation in mountain pine beetle sex ratio; 2) test previously asserted hypotheses that beetle sex ratio varies with tree diameter and year in outbreak; and 3) develop predictive models of sex ratio skew for larval and adult populations. Using logistic regression, we modeled the probability that an individual beetle (n = 2,369) was female as a function of multiple environmental variables across 34 stands in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. We identified a consistent female-biased sex ratio with significantly greater skew in adults (2:1, n = 713) than in larvae (1.76:1, n = 1,643). We found that the proportion of larval females increased with decreasing tree size and with outbreak age. However, adults did not respond to tree size and larvae did not respond to outbreak age. Predictive models differed between larvae and adults. All identified models perform well and included predictors related to weather, tree diameter, and year in outbreak. Female-biased sex ratios appear to originate from differential male mortality during development rather than from sex-biased oviposition, suggesting sex ratio skew is not the cause of outbreaks, but rather a consequence. PMID:27209334

  10. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  11. Effects of rearing density, age, sex, and food deprivation on flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of rearing density, adult density and sex ratio in the flight chamber, adult age, sex, presence or absence of food, and duration of food deprivation on rate of and time to flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were studied in the laboratory. Rates of flight...

  12. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  13. Effects of a Lifestyle-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Medical Expenditure in Japanese Adults: A Community-Based Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to investigate whether a lifestyle-based physical activity program could contribute to reduced medical expenditure. Methods. The study participants were 60 adults aged 63.1 (standard deviation, 4.4) years in the intervention group; the case-control group consisted of 300 adults who were randomly selected from Japan's national health insurance system. This community-based retrospective study incorporated a 3-year follow-up. Results. The total and outpatient medical expenditure in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group: total expenditure, $US640.4/year; outpatient expenditure, $369.1/year. The odds ratio for outpatient visiting was 6.47-fold higher in the control than in the intervention group. Conclusion. Our study suggests that a health program to promote physical activity can result in reduced total medical expenditure, outpatient medical expenditure, and possibly also inpatient medical expenditure. PMID:27493963

  14. Combined effects of eating alone and living alone on unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity and underweight in older Japanese adults: Results of the JAGES.

    PubMed

    Tani, Yukako; Kondo, Naoki; Takagi, Daisuke; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether eating alone is associated with dietary behaviors and body weight status, and assessed the modifying effects of cohabitation status in older Japanese people. Data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, with a self-reported questionnaire for 38,690 men and 43,674 women aged ≥65 years, were used. Eating status was classified as eating with others, sometimes eating alone, or exclusively eating alone. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity, and underweight, adjusting for age, education, income, disease, and dental status using Poisson regression. Overall, 16% of men and 28% of women sometimes or exclusively ate alone. Among those who exclusively ate alone, 56% of men and 68% of women lived alone. Men who exclusively ate alone were 3.74 times more likely to skip meals than men who ate with others. Among men who exclusively ate alone, those who lived alone had a higher APR than men who lived with others. Compared with subjects who ate and lived with others, the APRs of being obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) among men who exclusively ate alone were 1.34 (1.01-1.78) in those who lived alone and 1.17 (0.84-1.64) in those who lived with others. These combined effects of eating and living alone were weaker in women, with a potential increase in the APRs among those who ate alone despite living with others. Men who exclusively ate alone were more likely to be underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) than men who ate with others in both cohabitation statuses. Eating alone and living alone may be jointly associated with higher prevalence of obesity, underweight and unhealthy eating behaviors in men. PMID:26116391

  15. Virtual CT morphometry of lower limb long bones for estimation of the sex and stature using postmortem Japanese adult data in forensic identification.

    PubMed

    Hishmat, Asmaa Mohammed; Michiue, Tomomi; Sogawa, Nozomi; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki; Fawzy, Irene Atef; Hashem, Mohamed Abdel Mohsen; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    The application of computed tomography (CT) is useful for the documentation of whole-body anatomical data on routine autopsy, virtual reconstruction of skeletal structure, objective measurements, and reassessment by repetitive analyses. In addition, CT data processing facilitates volumetric and radiographic density analyses. Furthermore, a recently developed automated analysis system markedly improved the performance and accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The present study investigated virtual CT morphometry of lower limb long bones, including the femur, tibia, fibula, and first metatarsus, to estimate the sex and stature using postmortem CT data of forensic autopsy cases of Japanese over 19 years of age (total n = 259, 150 males and 109 females). Bone mass volumes, lengths, and total CT attenuation values of bilateral femurs, tibias, and fibulas correlated with the stature; however, the mean CT attenuation (HU) values showed age-dependent decreases. Correlations with the stature were similar for the lengths and mass volumes of the femur, tibia, and fibula (r = 0.77-0.85) but were higher for the mass volume of the first metatarsus (r = 0.77 for right and r = 0.58 for left). In addition, the ratio of the bone volume to the length of each bone showed the most significant sex-related differences (males > females with accuracy of 75.8-98.1 %). These findings indicate the usefulness of virtual CT morphometry of individual lower limb long bones, including volumetry, to estimate the sex and stature in identification. PMID:26156452

  16. Comparison of Social Trust's effect on suicide ideation between urban and non-urban areas: The Case of Japanese Adults in 2006.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2015-09-01

    An increasing number of studies have addressed the determinants of suicide. Social capital is a key factor in preventing suicide. However, little is known about the experience of suicide ideation using subjective values. From the viewpoint of suicide prevention, it is worth examining how people think of suicide. This paper attempts to examine the effect of social capital on suicide ideation. Furthermore, the paper compares the effect of social capital between urban and non-urban areas. In this paper, urban areas are equivalent to mega-cities with populations over one million. Non-urban areas are cities with populations of less than one million, towns and villages. Individual-level data from the Japanese General Social Surveys (JGSSs) are used. The survey, which was conducted in 2006, provides information about the subjective value of suicide ideation. The survey was answered by 1413 subjects with a mean age of 54.5. Of the subjects, 49% were male. Social trust is used to measure the degree of social capital, and the outcome of interest is suicide ideation within the past 5 years. After controlling for various factors, the major findings are that both individual-level social trust and social trust accumulated in one's residential administrative district reduce the probability that one will consider suicide. After dividing the sample into urban and non-urban residents, particularized trust plays a role in deterring suicide ideation in urban areas, while generalized trust plays a role in deterring suicide ideation in non-urban areas. The effect of each type of trust depends on its scarcity in residential areas. PMID:26218455

  17. [Japanese adults' general beliefs about changes in the ability to remember from childhood to old age as measured by the General Beliefs about Memory Instrument (GBMI)].

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    This study examined and compared beliefs about the ability to remember of three groups of adults: 99 young, 97 middle-aged, and 104 older adults. The beliefs were assessed by asking participants to indicate the expected trajectory over the lifespan on a graphic rating scale, the General Beliefs about Memory Instrument (GBMI) (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998). The results showed the following. Although all age groups expect a decline in the ability to remember with age with the peak around 20-30 years old, older adults perceive an age-related sharp decline later in life than the other age groups do. All age groups perceive that remembering names is more affected by age than any other memory abilities. The trajectory of age decline in remembering in general coincides with that in remembering trivia. All age groups believe that the ability to remember at the age of 10 is as good as at the age of 40. All age groups responded to the scales based mainly on the abilities based on their experiences. PMID:23379080

  18. Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their

  19. Volatile emissions from the lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) is a serious, cosmopolitan pest in poultry production facilities, consuming grain, carrying disease organisms, and causing structural damage in poultry house walls. Pheromones have been described for many economically important beetle speci...

  20. Do Pine Beetles Fan the Flames in Western Forests?

    NASA Video Gallery

    As mountain pine beetles damage whole regions of Western forests, some worry that the dead trees left behind have created a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? I...

  1. Effects of Pesta-Pelletized Steinernema carpocapsae (All) on Western Corn Rootworms and Colorado Potato Beetles.

    PubMed

    Nickle, W R; Connick, W J; Cantelo, W W

    1994-06-01

    Pesta-pelletized Steinernema carpocapsae (All) nematodes were used in soil treatments in the greenhouse against larvae of Western corn rootworm and prepupae of Colorado potato beetle. The pesta-pellets delivered 100,000 living nematodes/g. Infective-stage nematodes and their associated bacteria survived the pesta-pellet process, emerged from the pellets in large numbers in the soil, and reduced adult emergence of both pest insects by more than 90%. PMID:19279889

  2. Biology of 11-Spotted Beetle Coccinella undicimpunctata L. (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) on Mustard Aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solangi, Bhai Khan; Ghani Lanjar, Abdul; Lohar, Mohammad Khan

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the biology of 11-spotted beetle Coccinella undecimpunctata L. on mustard aphid during the year 2006. The oviposition, fecundity, adult emergence, fertility percentage, sex ratio, longevity and mortality were studied in the laboratory on 10 separately reared pairs of beetles. The results indicated that average pre-copulation period was 4.1±1.28 days post copulation period 3.6±1.26 days, oviposition period, 37.7±6.88 days and post oviposition period 4.0±1.63 days. The mean fecundity was 593.4±86.5 eggs, fertile eggs were 531.80±76.16 with the fertility percentage of 89.63±3.44. the incubation was 3.1±1.19 and 3.1±0.94 days while 1st and 2nd instar larva period was 3.1±1.19 and 3.1±0.87 days and for 3rd and 4th instar larvae averaged 3.5±1.26 and 3.3±0.94 days, respectively whereas the total larval period was 12.9±1.28 days and pupal period 5.6±0.96 days. The average number of pupae observed were 19.9±6.69, while the male emergence was 7.4±2.63 (38.50±13.12%) and the female emergence was 8.9±3.66 (43.48±8.24%). The sex ratio (male: female) averaged 1:1.25±1: 0.45. thus the total male + female emergence was 81.99±13.37 per beetle pair. The mortality recorded was 3.7±3.43 beetles showing an averaged mortality of 17.57±14.51%. Longevity of the male was 36.5±4.17 days and the female longevity of 46.0±9.14 days. It was recorded that longevity period was significantly greater in case of female ladybird beetles as compared to their males. Adult emergence was greater in females of 11-spotted beetles as compared to males and thus the sex ratio was higher in females as compared to males. The longevity was comparably higher in case of females than in male beetles.

  3. Effect on non-host plants on movements of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Movements of Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were studied in experimental plots of potatoes planted in monocultures and in polycultures with beans and/or marigolds. Rates of movement into and out of plots of varying plant composition were measured by mark-recapture of adult beetles. The amount of emigration was not affected by the presence of non-host plants. However, there were significantly more beetles moving into the pure stands of potatoes than into the plots containing non-host plants. This pattern is consistent with the idea that non-host plants act to mask host plants from potential herbivores, but do not affect the insect once it has located a host plant. It is thus unlikely that marigolds or beans repel Colorado potato beetles, since an increase in emigration would be expected if this were true. Beans are more effective than marigolds at deterring immigration, and both non-host plants together have an additive effect greater than one alone.

  4. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  5. Contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion in an introduced herbivorous beetle Ophraella communa.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Y; Doi, H; Thomas, C E; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T

    2016-04-01

    Host range expansion of herbivorous insects is a key event in ecological speciation and insect pest management. However, the mechanistic processes are relatively unknown because it is difficult to observe the ongoing host range expansion in natural population. In this study, we focused on the ongoing host range expansion in introduced populations of the ragweed leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, to estimate the evolutionary process of host plant range expansion of a herbivorous insect. In the native range of North America, O. communa does not utilize Ambrosia trifida, as a host plant, but this plant is extensively utilized in the beetle's introduced range. Larval performance and adult preference experiments demonstrated that native O. communa beetles show better survival on host plant individuals from introduced plant populations than those from native plant populations and they also oviposit on the introduced plant, but not on the native plant. Introduced O. communa beetles showed significantly higher performance on and preference for both introduced and native A. trifida plants, when compared with native O. communa. These results indicate the contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion of introduced O. communa and suggest that the evolutionary change of both the host plant and the herbivorous insect involved in the host range expansion. PMID:26728888

  6. A host beetle pheromone regulates development and behavior in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    PubMed Central

    Cinkornpumin, Jessica K; Wisidagama, Dona R; Rapoport, Veronika; Go, James L; Dieterich, Christoph; Wang, Xiaoyue; Sommer, Ralf J; Hong, Ray L

    2014-01-01

    Nematodes and insects are the two most speciose animal phyla and nematode–insect associations encompass widespread biological interactions. To dissect the chemical signals and the genes mediating this association, we investigated the effect of an oriental beetle sex pheromone on the development and behavior of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus. We found that while the beetle pheromone is attractive to P. pacificus adults, the pheromone arrests embryo development, paralyzes J2 larva, and inhibits exit of dauer larvae. To uncover the mechanism that regulates insect pheromone sensitivity, a newly identified mutant, Ppa-obi-1, is used to reveal the molecular links between altered attraction towards the beetle pheromone, as well as hypersensitivity to its paralyzing effects. Ppa-obi-1 encodes lipid-binding domains and reaches its highest expression in various cell types, including the amphid neuron sheath and excretory cells. Our data suggest that the beetle host pheromone may be a species-specific volatile synomone that co-evolved with necromeny. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03229.001 PMID:25317948

  7. Sex, offspring and carcass determine antimicrobial peptide expression in the burying beetle

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Chris G. C.; Steiger, Sandra; Heckel, David G.; Wielsch, Natalie; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogel, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides has emerged as a model system for the investigation of adaptations that allow the utilization of carrion as a diet and as a resource for reproduction. The survival of beetles and their offspring given their exposure to soil-dwelling and cadaver-borne microbes requires mechanisms that reduce bacterial contamination in the diet and that achieve sanitation of the microhabitat. To explore the role of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in this context, we analyzed burying beetle males and females at different stages of their breeding cycle using the RNA-Seq and proteomics approaches. To address variation in immune functions, we investigated the impact of adult sex, the presence or absence of offspring (social context), and the presence of carrion (environmental context) on the expression of the identified immune effector genes. We found that particular AMPs are sex-specific and tightly regulated by the presence of a carcass or offspring and identified the two most context-dependent antimicrobial proteins in anal secretions. The context-specific expression dynamics of particular AMPs and lysozymes reveals a complex regulatory system, reflecting adaptations to specific ecological niches. This study highlights how burying beetles cope with microorganisms found on carrion and identifies candidates for both internal and external immunity. PMID:27139635

  8. Sex, offspring and carcass determine antimicrobial peptide expression in the burying beetle.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Chris G C; Steiger, Sandra; Heckel, David G; Wielsch, Natalie; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogel, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides has emerged as a model system for the investigation of adaptations that allow the utilization of carrion as a diet and as a resource for reproduction. The survival of beetles and their offspring given their exposure to soil-dwelling and cadaver-borne microbes requires mechanisms that reduce bacterial contamination in the diet and that achieve sanitation of the microhabitat. To explore the role of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in this context, we analyzed burying beetle males and females at different stages of their breeding cycle using the RNA-Seq and proteomics approaches. To address variation in immune functions, we investigated the impact of adult sex, the presence or absence of offspring (social context), and the presence of carrion (environmental context) on the expression of the identified immune effector genes. We found that particular AMPs are sex-specific and tightly regulated by the presence of a carcass or offspring and identified the two most context-dependent antimicrobial proteins in anal secretions. The context-specific expression dynamics of particular AMPs and lysozymes reveals a complex regulatory system, reflecting adaptations to specific ecological niches. This study highlights how burying beetles cope with microorganisms found on carrion and identifies candidates for both internal and external immunity. PMID:27139635

  9. Effects of cattle treatment with a fluazuron pour-on on survival and reproduction of the dung beetle species Onthophagus gazella (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Kryger, U; Deschodt, C; Davis, A L V; Scholtz, C H

    2007-02-28

    While resistance against many other classes of acaricides has been described, products containing benzoylphenyl urea are currently still successfully used against the pesticide-resistant blue tick (Boophilus decoloratus) in South Africa. In order to assess any adverse impact of these tickicides on the important dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) fauna, a bioassay was undertaken on the ecotoxicological effects of a fluazuron (benzoylphenyl urea) pour-on formulation (Acatak) on the survival and reproduction of the African dung beetles species Onthophagus gazella (Fabricius). The experiment yielded no significant differences in adult or larval survival, egg production, fecundity and fertility between the control and treatment group following three beetle generations over. These results suggested that treatment of cattle with the fluazuron pour-on formulation Acatak was not detrimental to the selected dung beetle species in any notable way. PMID:16978786

  10. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted. PMID:21874580

  11. Effect of Lures and Colors on Capture of Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Tedders Pyramidal Traps.

    PubMed

    Kemp, E A; Cottrell, T E

    2015-10-01

    Purposeful attraction and aggregation of adult Coccinellidae at target sites would be useful for sampling purposes and pest suppression. We field-tested 1) lures in yellow and black pyramidal traps and 2) pyramidal traps that had been painted one or two colors (without lures) to determine if lures or trap color affected capture of adult Coccinellidae. In only one experiment with lures did a single rate of limonene increase trap capture, whereas no other lure ever did. Yellow traps, regardless of using a lure, always captured significantly more lady beetles than black traps. When single-color red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black, and white traps (without lures) were tested, yellow traps captured significantly more lady beetles. Of all species of Coccinellidae captured in these single-color traps, 95% were the exotic species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Coccinella septempunctata L. H. axyridis alone dominated trap capture comprising 74.1% of all lady beetles. Two-color traps (yellow-green, yellow-orange, yellow-white, and yellow-black) never captured more than single-color yellow traps. These results demonstrate that yellow pyramidal traps can be used to purposefully attract, and when used without a collection device, possibly aggregate adult Coccinellidae at targeted field sites. PMID:26314010

  12. Air Writing as a Technique for the Acquisition of Sino-japanese Characters by Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This article calls attention to a facet of the expertise of second language (L2) learners of Japanese at the intersection of language, memory, gesture, and the psycholinguistics of a logographic writing system. Previous research has shown that adult L2 learners of Japanese living in Japan (similarly to native speakers of Japanese) often…

  13. Microsclerotia of Metarhizium brunneum F52 Applied in Hydromulch for Control of Asian Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Goble, Tarryn A; Hajek, Ann E; Jackson, Mark A; Gardescu, Sana

    2015-04-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) is able to produce environmentally persistent microsclerotia (hyphal aggregates). Microsclerotia of strain F52 produced as granules and incorporated into hydromulch (hydro-seeding straw, water, and a natural glue) provides a novel mycoinsecticide that could be sprayed onto urban, forest, or orchard trees. We tested this formulation against adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) using three substrates (moistened bark, dry bark, absorbent bench liner) sprayed with a low rate (9 microsclerotia granules/cm2) of hydromulch. Median survival times of beetles continuously exposed to sprayed moist bark or absorbent liner were 17.5 and 19.5 d, respectively. Beetles exposed to sprayed dry bark, which had a lower measured water activity, lived significantly longer. When moist bark pieces were sprayed with increased rates of microsclerotia granules in hydromulch, 50% died by 12.5 d at the highest application rate, significantly sooner than beetles exposed to lower application rates (16.5-17.5 d). To measure fecundity effects, hydromulch with or without microsclerotia was sprayed onto small logs and pairs of beetles were exposed for a 2-wk oviposition period in containers with 98 or 66% relative humidity. At 98% humidity, oviposition in the logs was highest for controls (18.3±1.4 viable offspring per female) versus 3.9±0.8 for beetles exposed to microsclerotia. At 66% humidity, fecundities of controls and beetles exposed to microsclerotia were not significantly different. This article presents the first evaluation of M. brunneum microsclerotia in hydromulch applied for control of an arboreal insect pest. PMID:26470154

  14. Neoeubria inbionis Shepard & Barr, a new genus and new species of neotropical water penny beetle (Coleoptera: Psephenidae: Eubriinae), with a key to the adult Eubriinae of the Neotropic Zone.

    PubMed

    Shepard, William D; Barr, Cheryl B

    2014-01-01

    Neoeubria inbionis, new genus and new species, is described from Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama and Ecuador. All life stages are descibed and illustrated, and a key to adults of the Eubriinae genera of the Neotropics is provided. Neoeubria is one of the most basal genera of the Eubriinae. PMID:24943186

  15. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  16. Japanese Quality Control Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical…

  17. The Japanese containerless experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuma, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

  18. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  19. Japanese Elementary School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…

  20. Extensive Reading in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…

  1. Thermal and water relations of desert beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J.

    2001-11-01

    The physical problems that living organisms have to contend with in hot deserts are primarily extremes of temperature, low humidity, shortage or absence of free water, and the environmental factors that accentuate these - such as strong winds, sand-storms, lack of shade, rocky and impenetrable soils. Climatic factors are particularly important to smaller animals such as arthropods on account of their relatively enormous surface to volume ratios. Nevertheless, beetles (especially Tenebrionidae and, to a lesser extent, Chrysomelidae) are among the most successful animals of the desert, and are often the only ones to be seen abroad during the day. Similar physical problems are experienced by insects in all terrestrial biomes, but they are much enhanced in the desert. Although climatic extremes are often avoided by burrowing habits coupled with circadian and seasonal activity rhythms, as well as reproductive phenology, several species of desert beetle are nevertheless able to withstand thermal extremes that would rapidly cause the death of most other arthropods including insects. The reactions of desert beetles to heat are largely behavioural whilst their responses to water shortage are primarily physiological. The effects of coloration are not discussed. In addition to markedly low rates of transpiration, desert beetles can also withstand a considerable reduction in the water content of their tissues. The study of desert beetles is important because it illustrates many of the solutions evolved by arthropods to the problems engendered, in an extreme form, by life in all terrestrial environments.

  2. Thermal and water relations of desert beetles.

    PubMed

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J L

    2001-11-01

    The physical problems that living organisms have to contend with in hot deserts are primarily extremes of temperature, low humidity, shortage or absence of free water, and the environmental factors that accentuate these--such as strong winds, sand-storms, lack of shade, rocky and impenetrable soils. Climatic factors are particularly important to smaller animals such as arthropods on account of their relatively enormous surface to volume ratios. Nevertheless, beetles (especially Tenebrionidae and, to a lesser extent, Chrysomelidae) are among the most successful animals of the desert, and are often the only ones to be seen abroad during the day. Similar physical problems are experienced by insects in all terrestrial biomes, but they are much enhanced in the desert. Although climatic extremes are often avoided by burrowing habits coupled with circadian and seasonal activity rhythms, as well as reproductive phenology, several species of desert beetle are nevertheless able to withstand thermal extremes that would rapidly cause the death of most other arthropods including insects. The reactions of desert beetles to heat are largely behavioural whilst their responses to water shortage are primarily physiological. The effects of coloration are not discussed. In addition to markedly low rates of transpiration, desert beetles can also withstand a considerable reduction in the water content of their tissues. The study of desert beetles is important because it illustrates many of the solutions evolved by arthropods to the problems engendered, in an extreme form, by life in all terrestrial environments. PMID:11771473

  3. The Development of Sentences in Japanese Narrative Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancy, Patricia M.

    Sentences produced by children and adults in telling stories are analyzed, with particular emphasis on developmental trends in sentence length, the degree of cohesion between clauses, and the internal coherence of sentence content. Subjects for the study were 10 adults and 60 Japanese children in six different age groups. Each subject was…

  4. Children's On-Line Processing of Scrambling in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the on-line processing of scrambled sentences in Japanese by preschool children and adults using a combination of self-paced listening and speeded picture selection tasks. The effects of a filler-gap dependency, reversibility, and case markers were examined. The results show that both children and adults had difficulty in…

  5. Disentangling Detoxification: Gene Expression Analysis of Feeding Mountain Pine Beetle Illuminates Molecular-Level Host Chemical Defense Detoxification Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jeanne A.; Pitt, Caitlin; Bonnett, Tiffany R.; Yuen, Macaire M. S.; Keeling, Christopher I.; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P. W.

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle. PMID:24223726

  6. Dusky sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and other kernel damaging insects in Bt and non-Bt sweet corn in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Dowd, P F

    2000-12-01

    Bt and non-Bt sweet corn hybrids (Rogers 'Empire' Bt and non-Bt, respectively) were compared for distribution of kernel damaging insect pests in central Illinois in 1998 and 1999. The occurrence and damage by caterpillars [primarily Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] were reduced by at least 80% in each year for the Bt compared with the non-Bt hybrid. However, the incidence of sap beetle adults (primarily Carpophilus lugubris Murray) was higher, and larvae, lower for the Bt versus non-Bt in 1999. The incidence of ears with more than five kernels damaged by sap beetles was higher for the Bt compared with non-Bt hybrid in 1998 (13.8 versus 5.5%), but nearly equivalent in 1999 (15.3 versus 15.1%, respectively). Distribution of predators on plants (primarily Coccinelidae) and harvested ears (primarily Orius spp.) were not significantly different on Bt versus non-Bt hybrids. Ears with husks flush with the ear tip or with ear tips exposed had significantly higher sap beetle damage for both hybrids, and the Bt hybrids had significantly higher incidence of exposed ear tips in both years. Sap beetle numbers determined by scouting were often proportional to numbers of beetles captured in baited traps, increasing and decreasing at about the same time. However, values determined with traps were typically less variable than when scouted, and time of sampling was typically four times more rapid for each trap than for each 10 plant scout sample when measured in 1999. PMID:11142303

  7. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J D; Pirk, C W W; Hepburn, H R; Kastberger, G; Elzen, P J

    2002-07-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y. PMID:12216866

  8. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  9. Patterns on the iridescent beetle, Chrysina gloriosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Ok; Sharma, Vivek; Crne, Matija; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2009-03-01

    The brilliant metallic color of a beetle Chrysina gloriosa has been known to occur due to selective reflectance from a cholesteric structure on the exoskeleton. The surface also appears to have hexagonally packed structures. Crystallographic concepts and Voronoi analysis were used to determine the degree of order in different regions of the beetle. Along the hexagons in the Voronoi diagram, many clustered pentagons and heptagons were observed. Due to the surface curvature, the number of pentagons was found to be higher than the number of heptagons. The cells appear yellow in the center surrounded by a green region with a yellow edge. Confocal microscopy was used to image the underlying structure, which was found to consist of concentric arcs on a surface of a shallow cone. The observed structures resemble the defects on a cholesteric phase with a free surface, and provide an interesting explanation of structural color development in beetles, along with inspiration for the design of chiral photonic structures.

  10. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed. PMID:21738430

  11. TrOn: an anatomical ontology for the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Grossmann, Daniela; Schild, Inga; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Bradler, Sven; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Bucher, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera), is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn), which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de. PMID:23936240

  12. BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S R; Brown, Susan J

    2007-01-01

    BeetleBase (http://www.bioinformatics.ksu.edu/BeetleBase/) is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software components developed by the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project. This strategy not only reduces the time required to develop the database query tools but also makes the data structure of BeetleBase compatible with that of other model organism databases. BeetleBase will be useful to the Tribolium research community for genome annotation as well as comparative genomics. PMID:17090595

  13. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

    1997-09-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

  14. Cold temperatures increase cold hardiness in the next generation Ophraella communa beetles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Rasmann, Sergio; Li, Min; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, has been introduced to control the spread of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in China. We hypothesized that the beetle, to be able to track host-range expansion into colder climates, can phenotypically adapt to cold temperatures across generations. Therefore, we questioned whether parental experience of colder temperatures increases cold tolerance of the progeny. Specifically, we studied the demography, including development, fecundity, and survival, as well as physiological traits, including supercooling point (SCP), water content, and glycerol content of O. communa progeny whose parents were maintained at different temperature regimes. Overall, the entire immature stage decreased survival of about 0.2%-4.2% when parents experienced cold temperatures compared to control individuals obtained from parents raised at room temperature. However, intrinsic capacity for increase (r), net reproductive rate (R 0) and finite rate of increase (λ) of progeny O. communa were maximum when parents experienced cold temperatures. Glycerol contents of both female and male in progeny was significantly higher when maternal and paternal adults were cold acclimated as compared to other treatments. This resulted in the supercooling point of the progeny adults being significantly lower compared to beetles emerging from parents that experienced room temperatures. These results suggest that cold hardiness of O. communa can be promoted by cold acclimation in previous generation, and it might counter-balance reduced survival in the next generation, especially when insects are tracking their host-plants into colder climates. PMID:24098666

  15. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    PubMed

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread. PMID:26470205

  16. Cold Temperatures Increase Cold Hardiness in the Next Generation Ophraella communa Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Rasmann, Sergio; Li, Min; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, has been introduced to control the spread of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in China. We hypothesized that the beetle, to be able to track host-range expansion into colder climates, can phenotypically adapt to cold temperatures across generations. Therefore, we questioned whether parental experience of colder temperatures increases cold tolerance of the progeny. Specifically, we studied the demography, including development, fecundity, and survival, as well as physiological traits, including supercooling point (SCP), water content, and glycerol content of O. communa progeny whose parents were maintained at different temperature regimes. Overall, the entire immature stage decreased survival of about 0.2%–4.2% when parents experienced cold temperatures compared to control individuals obtained from parents raised at room temperature. However, intrinsic capacity for increase (r), net reproductive rate (R0) and finite rate of increase (λ) of progeny O. communa were maximum when parents experienced cold temperatures. Glycerol contents of both female and male in progeny was significantly higher when maternal and paternal adults were cold acclimated as compared to other treatments. This resulted in the supercooling point of the progeny adults being significantly lower compared to beetles emerging from parents that experienced room temperatures. These results suggest that cold hardiness of O. communa can be promoted by cold acclimation in previous generation, and it might counter-balance reduced survival in the next generation, especially when insects are tracking their host-plants into colder climates. PMID:24098666

  17. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  18. Responses of an aphidophagous ladybird beetle, Anegleis cardoni, to varying densities of Aphis gossypii.

    PubMed

    Omkar; Kumar, Gyanendra

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the functional and numerical responses of fourth instar larvae, adult male, and adult female ladybird beetles, Anegleis cardoni Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), to different densities of aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the bottle gourd, Lagenaria vulgaris Seringe (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae). The results revealed a density dependent, Type II functional response of A. cardoni. Prey consumption increased curvilinearly with an increase in prey density for all three predatory stages. Numerical responses revealed significant increases in oviposition with increases in prey density. The food exploitation efficiency and the efficiency of conversion of ingested food decreased with increases in prey density. The attack rate was highest for adult females, followed by fourth instar larvae and adult males. Prey consumption was highest and handling time lowest in fourth instar larvae, followed by adult females and males. Therefore, fourth instar larvae of A. cardoni may be considered the most efficient predatory stage in aphid management strategies. PMID:23901912

  19. Laboratory evaluation of seven pakistani strains of entomopathogenic nematodes against a stored grain insect pest, Pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Shahina; Javed, Salma

    2009-12-01

    Seven Pakistani strains of entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis were tested against last instar and adult stages of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). These nematodes included Steinernema pakistanense Shahina, Anis, Reid and Maqbool (Ham 10 strain); S. asiaticum Anis, Shahina, Reid and Rowe (211 strain); S. abbasi Elawad, Ahmad and Reid (507 strain); S. siamkayai Stock, Somsook and Reid (157 strain); S. feltiae Filipjev (A05 strains); Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (1743 strain); and H. indica Poinar, Karunakar and David (HAM-64 strain). Activity of all strains was determined at four different nematode densities in Petri dishes and in concrete containers. A significant nematode density effect was detected for all nematode species tested. Overall, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, S. siamkayai, and S. pakistanense were among those that showed the highest virulence to pulse beetle larvae and adults. For all nematode species, the last larval stage of the pulse beetle seems to be more susceptible than the adult. LC(50) values in Petri dish and concrete containers were 14-340 IJs/larvae and 41-441 IJs/larvae, respectively, and 59-1376 IJs/adult and 170-684/adult, respectively. PMID:22736823

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Seven Pakistani Strains of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against a Stored Grain Insect Pest, Pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Salma

    2009-01-01

    Seven Pakistani strains of entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis were tested against last instar and adult stages of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). These nematodes included Steinernema pakistanense Shahina, Anis, Reid and Maqbool (Ham 10 strain); S. asiaticum Anis, Shahina, Reid and Rowe (211 strain); S. abbasi Elawad, Ahmad and Reid (507 strain); S. siamkayai Stock, Somsook and Reid (157 strain); S. feltiae Filipjev (A05 strains); Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (1743 strain); and H. indica Poinar, Karunakar and David (HAM-64 strain). Activity of all strains was determined at four different nematode densities in Petri dishes and in concrete containers. A significant nematode density effect was detected for all nematode species tested. Overall, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, S. siamkayai, and S. pakistanense were among those that showed the highest virulence to pulse beetle larvae and adults. For all nematode species, the last larval stage of the pulse beetle seems to be more susceptible than the adult. LC50 values in Petri dish and concrete containers were 14-340 IJs/larvae and 41-441 IJs/larvae, respectively, and 59-1376 IJs/adult and 170-684/adult, respectively. PMID:22736823

  1. Geotrupine beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) as bio-monitors of man-made radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Szwałko, Przemysław; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Gaca, Paweł; Grabowska, Sylwia

    2003-04-01

    Adults of the geotrupine beetle Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae), a common European forest insect species, were used in the role of bio-monitors for mainly man-made radionuclides in a forest environment. Activities of 137Cs, 40K, 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, 90Sr and 241Am were studied. Samples originated from four areas in Poland, two from the north-east and two from the south of the country. The north-eastern areas were previously recognized as the places where hot particle fallout from Chernobyl took place. Results confirmed the differences in the activities between north-eastern and southern locations. Significant correlations were found between activities of 40K and 137Cs, and between activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. An additional study of the concentration of radionuclides within the bodies of beetles showed a general pattern of distribution of radioisotopes in the insect body. PMID:12729271

  2. Demography and Dispersal Ability of a Threatened Saproxylic Beetle: A Mark-Recapture Study of the Rosalia Longicorn (Rosalia alpina)

    PubMed Central

    Drag, Lukas; Hauck, David; Pokluda, Pavel; Zimmermann, Kamil; Cizek, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    The Rosalia longicorn or Alpine longhorn (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an endangered and strictly protected icon of European saproxylic biodiversity. Despite its popularity, lack of information on its demography and mobility may compromise adoption of suitable conservation strategies. The beetle experienced marked retreat from NW part of its range; its single population survives N of the Alps and W of the Carpathians. The population inhabits several small patches of old beech forest on hill-tops of the Ralska Upland, Czech Republic. We performed mark-recapture study of the population and assessed its distribution pattern. Our results demonstrate the high mobility of the beetle, including dispersal between hills (up to 1.6 km). The system is thus interconnected; it contained ∼2000 adult beetles in 2008. Estimated population densities were high, ranging between 42 and 84 adult beetles/hectare a year. The population survives at a former military-training ground despite long-term isolation and low cover of mature beech forest (∼1%). Its survival could be attributed to lack of forestry activities between the 1950s and 1990s, slow succession preventing canopy closure and undergrowth expansion, and probably also to the distribution of habitat patches on conspicuous hill-tops. In order to increase chances of the population for long term survival, we propose to stop clear-cuts of old beech forests, increase semi-open beech woodlands in areas currently covered by conifer plantations and active habitat management at inhabited sites and their wider environs. PMID:21738640

  3. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry. PMID:9929991

  4. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  5. Research on Asian longhorned beetle in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An established population of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis) (Motschulsky) was discovered in 2003 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Given the enormous risk that ALB posses to the expansive forests of southern Canada and northern U.S. and the urgent need to eradicate ALB, as ...

  6. Systematics of Fusaria associated with Ambrosia beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here, I summarize research efforts directed at characterizing ambrosia beetle-associated fusaria, including the species responsible for avocado wilt in Israel (Mendel et al., Phytoparasitica 2012) and branch dieback in California (Eskalen et al., Pl. Dis. 2012). Our multilocus molecular phylogenetic...

  7. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Reproduction in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult. PMID:26470208

  8. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dena M.; Marcot, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  9. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dena M; Marcot, Jonathan D

    2015-04-22

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  10. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  11. Now You Hear It, Now You Don't: Vowel Devoicing in Japanese Infant-Directed Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fais, Laurel; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Amano, Shigeaki; Werker, Janet F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we examine a context in which a conflict arises between two roles that infant-directed speech (IDS) plays: making language structure salient and modeling the adult form of a language. Vowel devoicing in fluent adult Japanese creates violations of the canonical Japanese consonant-vowel word structure pattern by systematically…

  12. The contemporary JAEA Japanese voxel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2012-03-01

    Average adult Japanese male (JM-103 phantom) and female (JF-103 phantom) voxel (volume pixel) phantoms were newly constructed by modifying the JM and JF phantoms previously developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The JM-103 and JF-103 have average characteristics with respect to organ masses and body sizes. Their tissue segmentations were based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103. The anatomical and dosimetric characteristics of JM-103 and JF-103 were compared with those of ICRP adult reference male (AM phantom) and female (AF phantoms) phantoms. This study discusses their anatomical and dosimetric characteristics, and applications to the dose assessment of the atomic bomb survivors. PMID:22003186

  13. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium–Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known independent evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symb...

  14. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  15. Floral Associations of Cyclocephaline Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: 1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, 2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and 3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  16. Endothermy of dynastine scarab beetles (Cyclocephala colasi) associated with pollination biology of a thermogenic arum lily (Philodendron solimoesense).

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; White, Craig R; Gibernau, Marc

    2009-09-15

    Cyclocephala colasi beetles are facultative endotherms that spend most of their adult lives inside the inflorescences of Philodendron solimoesense, where ambient temperature (T(a)) averages about 28 degrees C due to floral thermogenesis. Measurements of respiration within a range of T(a) showed that active beetles became spontaneously endothermic at T(a) below 28 degrees C but were rarely endothermic above it. There was no evidence of endothermy within the inflorescences, indicating that activities in the floral chamber can occur without the high energy expense of endothermy. Bouts of endothermy occurred at lower T(a) in respirometer chambers mainly in the evening, when the insects normally fly from one inflorescence to another, and during the night, when they normally eat and mate within the inflorescence. Patterns of endothermy in individual episodes were studied in non-flying beetles with respirometry and infrared thermal imaging. Heat was generated in the thorax by oscillatory waves of respiration that were coupled with thoracic temperature (T(th)) increases. Stationary beetles could regulate T(th) at about 33 degrees C independently of T(a) between 16 and 29 degrees C. At T(a)=20 degrees C, this represents a 116-fold increase in metabolic rate over resting, ectothermic values. Endothermy was clearly a requirement for flight, and beetles departing inflorescences warmed to about 30 degrees C before take-off. During flight, T(th) was dependent on T(a), decreasing from 37 to 28 degrees C at T(a) of 37 to 20 degrees C, respectively. The lowest T(a) at which flight could occur was about 20 degrees C. Thermal conductance of stationary, endothermic beetles increased at higher metabolic rates, probably because of increased ventilatory heat loss. PMID:19717678

  17. How Does Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Diversity Vary Along a Rainy Season in a Tropical Dry Forest?

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Samuel M. A.; Evangelista, Lucas A.; Reis-Júnior, Ronaldo; Neves, Frederico S.

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetle community dynamics are determined by regional rainfall patterns. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs). This study was designed to test the following predictions: 1) Peak diversity of dung beetle species occurs early in the wet season, with a decrease in diversity (α and β) and abundance throughout the season; 2) Nestedness is the primary process determining β-diversity, with species sampled in the middle and the end of the wet season representing subsets of the early wet season community. Dung beetles were collected in a TDF in the northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil over three sampling events (December 2009, February and April 2010). We sampled 2,018 dung beetles belonging to 39 species and distributed among 15 genera. Scarabaeinae α-diversity and abundance were highest in December and equivalent between February and April, while β-diversity among plots increased along the wet season. The importance of nestedness and species turnover varies between pairs of sample periods as the main process of temporal β-diversity. Most species collected in the middle and end of the wet season were found in greater abundance in early wet season. Thus, the dung beetle community becomes more homogeneous at the beginning of the wet season, and as the season advances, higher resource scarcity limits population size, which likely results in a smaller foraging range, increasing β-diversity. Our results demonstrate high synchronism between the dung beetle life cycle and seasonality of environmental conditions throughout the wet season in a TDF, where the onset of rains determines adult emergence for most species. PMID:27620555

  18. Rhinoceros beetles suffer male-biased predation by mammalian and avian predators.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Wataru; Sugiura, Shinji; Makihara, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-03-01

    Male sexually-selected traits often impose an increased risk of predation on their bearers, causing male-biased predation. We investigated whether males of the sap-feeding Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus were more susceptible to predation than females by comparing the morphology of beetles caught in bait traps with the remains of beetles found on the ground. The males of this species are larger than the females and have a horn on the head. We found that predation pressure was greater for males than for females, and that larger individuals of both sexes were more vulnerable to predation. We identified two predators, the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides and jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos, by monitoring sap-site trees with infrared video cameras. Raccoon dogs visited sap-site trees at night, while crows came after daybreak. The highest frequency of visits by both predators was observed in the first half of August, which matches the peak season of T. dichotomus. Raccoon dogs often left bite marks on the remains of prey, whereas crows did not. Bite marks were found on most of the remains collected at two distant localities, which suggested that predation by raccoon dogs is common. Size- and sex-dependent differences in the conspicuousness and active period of T. dichotomus probably explain these biased predation patterns. Our results suggest that having a large horn/body is costly in terms of the increased risk of predation. Predation cost may act as a stabilizing selection pressure against the further exaggeration of male sexual traits. PMID:24601771

  19. Individualistic Striving and Group Dynamics of Fifth- and Eighth-Grade Japanese Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwalb, David W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Individualistic and competitive striving and group dynamics were compared for 42 fifth grade and 42 eighth grade Japanese boys in central Tokyo using a card-stacking procedure. Results are discussed in terms of social loafing versus social striving and behavior patterns of Japanese adults. (SLD)

  20. Research Note: The Effect of Visuals on Listening Comprehension: A Study of Japanese Learners' Listening Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Kyoko

    2002-01-01

    Aims to identify listening comprehension strategies used by adult Japanese native speakers and monolingual Australian learners of the Japanese language. Investigates how two different listening contexts (audiovisual and audio-only) may influence listeners' choice of strategies and how the strategies chosen relate to learners' proficiency.…

  1. Acquaintance or Fiancee: Pragmatic Differences in Requests between Japanese and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Mitsuo

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated differences in the speech styles used in making requests among five native speakers of Japanese (JJ), five American learners of Japanese (AJ), and Americans speaking English (AE) and their implications for intercultural communication. All subjects were adults. Data were elicited in role-plays of a scenario including the…

  2. Experimentally induced host-shift changes life-history strategy in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Savković, Uroš; ĐorĐević, Mirko; Šešlija Jovanović, Darka; Lazarević, Jelica; Tucić, Nikola; Stojković, Biljana

    2016-04-01

    Expansion of the host range in phytophagous insects depends on their ability to form an association with a novel plant through changes in host-related traits. Phenotypic plasticity has important effects on initial survival of individuals faced with a new plant, as well as on the courses of evolutionary change during long-term adaptation to novel conditions. Using experimental populations of the seed beetle that evolved on ancestral (common bean) or novel (chickpea) host and applying reciprocal transplant at both larval and adult stage on the alternative host plant, we studied the relationship between the initial (plastic) phases of host-shift and the subsequent stages of evolutionary divergence in life-history strategies between populations exposed to the host-shift process. After 48 generations, populations became well adapted to chickpea by evolving the life-history strategy with prolonged larval development, increased body mass, earlier reproduction, shorter lifespan and decreased plasticity of all traits compared with ancestral conditions. In chickpea-adapted beetles, negative fitness consequences of low plasticity of pre-adult development (revealed as severe decrease in egg-to-adult viability on beans) exhibited mismatch with positive effects of low plasticity (i.e. low host sensitivity) in oviposition and fecundity. In contrast, beetles adapted to the ancestral host showed high plasticity of developmental process, which enabled high larval survival on chickpea, whereas elevated plasticity in adult behaviour (i.e. high host sensitivity) resulted in delayed reproduction and decreased fecundity on chickpea. The analysis of population growth parameters revealed significant fluctuation during successive phases of the host-shift process in A. obtectus. PMID:26790127

  3. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in

  4. Dental fear of Japanese residents in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Domoto, P.; Weinstein, P.; Kamo, Y.; Wohlers, K.; Fiset, L.; Tanaka, A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate dental fear in a sample of Japanese adults and to make preliminary comparisons with a previously described US sample. The survey instrument was translated into Japanese and then translated back into English and was sent to 839 Japanese residing in the Seattle area. A total of 419 (49.9%) usable questionnaires were returned. Results indicate a level of fear higher than the US population (only 17.9% were not at all afraid). Fear level did not vary by age; most respondents (73.3%) acquired their fear in early childhood. While reported utilization was lower than the American sample, the percentage of Japanese respondents who reported being hurt at the last appointment was high (68.0%). Japanese respondents indicated that 35% of dentists appeared to be in a hurry, hurry being associated with being hurt. Japanese coping practices appeared to differ from the American sample. For example, 14.7% of the Japanese whereas 28.2% of the US sample requested the dentist to stop treatment. PMID:1814250

  5. Endozoochory by beetles: a novel seed dispersal mechanism

    PubMed Central

    de Vega, Clara; Arista, Montserrat; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Herrera, Carlos M.; Talavera, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Due in part to biophysical sized-related constraints, insects unlike vertebrates are seldom expected to act as primary seed dispersers via ingestion of fruits and seeds (endozoochory). The Mediterranean parasitic plant Cytinus hypocistis, however, possesses some characteristics that may facilitate endozoochory by beetles. By combining a long-term field study with experimental manipulation, we tested whether C. hypocistis seeds are endozoochorously dispersed by beetles. Methods Field studies were carried out over 4 years on six populations in southern Spain. We recorded the rate of natural fruit consumption by beetles, the extent of beetle movement, beetle behaviour and the relative importance of C. hypocistis fruits in beetle diet. Key Results The tenebrionid beetle Pimelia costata was an important disperser of C. hypocistis seeds, consuming up to 17·5 % of fruits per population. Forty-six per cent of beetles captured in the field consumed C. hypocistis fruits, with up to 31 seeds found in individual beetle frass. An assessment of seeds following passage through the gut of beetles indicated that seeds remained intact and viable and that the proportion of viable seeds from beetle frass was not significantly different from that of seeds collected directly from fruits. Conclusions A novel plant–animal interaction is revealed; endozoochory by beetles may facilitate the dispersal of viable seeds after passage through the gut away from the parent plant to potentially favourable underground sites offering a high probability of germination and establishment success. Such an ecological role has until now been attributed only to vertebrates. Future studies should consider more widely the putative role of fruit and seed ingestion by invertebrates as a dispersal mechanism, particularly for those plant species that possess small seeds. PMID:21303784

  6. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. PMID:26992100

  7. Biological Control of Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in South Texas with the Saltcedar Leaf Beetle, Diorhabda elongata, and Effects on Athel (T.aphylla).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) has involved releases of exotic saltcedar leaf beetles, Diorhabda elongata Brullé sensu lato, in the western U.S. Adults in field cages feed, oviposit, and produce larvae on athel (Tamarix aphylla), an evergreen tree used in the southwestern U.S. and n...

  8. Allozyme gene diversities in some leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Krafsur, E S

    1999-08-01

    Gene diversity at allozyme loci was investigated in the bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata Forster; the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller); the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricus; the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the southern corn rootworm, also called the spotted cucumber beetle, D. undecimpunctata howardi Baker; the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence; and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Six of these species are economically important pests of crops and display adaptive traits that may correlate with genetic diversity. Gene diversity H(E) in bean leaf beetles was 17.7 +/- 4.0% among 32 loci. In western corn rootworms, H(E) = 4.8 +/- 2.0% among 36 loci, and in spotted cucumber beetles, H(E) = 11.9 +/- 2.7% among 39 loci. Diversity among 27 loci was 10.5 +/- 4.3% in the Colorado potato beetle. The data were compared with gene diversity estimates from other leaf beetle species in which heterozygosities varied from 0.3 to 21% and no correlation was detected among heterozygosities, geographic ranges, or population densities. Distributions of single-locus heterozygosities were consistent with selective neutrality of alleles. PMID:10624512

  9. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

  10. New Frontiers for Japanese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Frank H.

    1974-01-01

    Japanese literature, television, movies, and school texts from 1935 to 1955 are analyzed for their influence and contribution to Japanese youths' pioneering spirit and frontiermindedness. "Asian Affairs" is published by the American-Asian Educational Exchange, New York. (DE)

  11. Response of different populations of seven lady beetle species to lambda-cyhalothrin with record of resistance.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Agna R S; Spindola, Aline F; Torres, Jorge B; Siqueira, Herbert A A; Colares, Felipe

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous use of biological and chemical controls is a valued and historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved. One explanation for this failure may be the inadequate documentation of field populations of natural enemies for insecticide tolerance or resistance because natural enemies surviving insecticide application do not create problems like resistant pest species. Therefore, this study investigated 31 populations of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) regarding their susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide that is widely used in cotton and other crops to control lepidopteran and coleopteran pests that are not targeted as prey by lady beetles. The study focused on seven coccinellid species common in cotton fields Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Eriopis connexa Germar, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant), and Brumoides foudrasi (Mulsant) and one lady beetle species [Curinus coeruleus Mulsant] from a non-cotton ecosystem for comparisons. Dose-mortality curves were estimated after topical treatment of adult lady beetles with lambda-cyhalothrin. Statistically significant variations in lady beetle susceptibility were observed between species and between populations of a given species. Seven and eighteen populations of lady beetles exhibited greater values of LD50 and LD90, respectively, than the highest recommended field rate of lambda-cyhalothrin (20g a.i./hectare≈0.2g a.i./L) for cotton fields in Brazil. Furthermore, based on LD50 values, 29 out of 30 tested populations of lady beetles exhibited ratios of relative tolerance varying from 2- to 215-fold compared to the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Four populations of E. connexa were 10.5-37.7 times more tolerant than the most susceptible population and thus were considered to be resistant to lambda

  12. Body size is not critical for critical PO₂ in scarabaeid and tenebrionid beetles.

    PubMed

    Lease, Hilary M; Klok, Cornelis J; Kaiser, Alexander; Harrison, Jon F

    2012-07-15

    Constraints on oxygen delivery potentially limit animal body size. Because diffusion rates are highly distance dependent, and because tracheal length increases with size, gas exchange was traditionally thought to be more difficult for larger insects. As yet the effect of body size on critical oxygen partial pressure (P(crit)) has not been measured for any clade of insect species for which there are interspecific data on tracheal scaling. We addressed this deficiency by measuring P(crit) over a 4150-fold mass range (ratio of largest to smallest species mean) of two families of Coleoptera (Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeidae). We exposed adult beetles to progressively lower oxygen levels and measured their ability to maintain CO(2) release rates. Absolute metabolic rates increased hypometrically with beetle body mass (M) at both normoxic (M(0.748)) and hypoxic (M(0.846)) conditions. P(crit), however, was independent of body size. Maximum overall conductances for oxygen from air to mitochondria (G(O(2),max)) matched metabolic rates as insects became larger, likely enabling the similar P(crit) values observed in large and small beetles. These data suggest that current atmospheric oxygen levels do not limit body size of insects because of limitations on gas exchange. However, increasing relative investment in the tracheal system in larger insects may produce trade-offs or meet spatial limits that constrain insect size. PMID:22723492

  13. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis. PMID:26839506

  14. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis. PMID:26839506

  15. Effect of abiotic factors on initiation of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mendoza, Joel; Campbell, James F; Throne, James E

    2014-02-01

    Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera-Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum movement are not fully understood. We investigated the impact of photoperiod, light intensity, temperature, and relative humidity on flight initiation. The percentage of adults initiating flight reached a maximum at 30 -35 degrees C, and then fell to zero at 22.5 and 45 degrees C. Only 2% of beetles flew in complete darkness, and the number of beetles initiating flight increased to 41% under 18 h of light and then decreased slightly to 37% under 24 h of light. Rates of flight initiation did not vary with light intensities from 1,784 to 4,356 lux or relative humidities from 25 to 85%. Thus, temperature and photoperiod are the main abiotic factors tested that impact flight initiation in T castaneum, which have broad ranges of temperatures and photoperiods over which they can fly. The current results should be useful in helping to interpret trap catches based on abiotic conditions during the trapping period, and the results should be useful in helping to understand T. castaneum movement outside grain storages and processing facilities and their potential to infest structures. PMID:24665734

  16. Prison construction and guarding behaviour by European honeybees is dependent on inmate small hive beetle density.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J D; Hepburn, H R; Ellis, A M; Elzen, P J

    2003-08-01

    Increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) density changes prison construction and guarding behaviour in European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). These changes include more guard bees per imprisoned beetle and the construction of more beetle prisons at the higher beetle density. Despite this, the number of beetles per prison (inmate density) did not change. Beetles solicited food more actively at the higher density and at night. In response, guard bees increased their aggressive behaviour towards beetle prisoners but did not feed beetles more at the higher density. Only 5% of all beetles were found among the combs at the low density but this percentage increased five-fold at the higher one. Successful comb infiltration (and thus reproduction) by beetles is a possible explanation for the significant damage beetles cause to European honeybee colonies in the USA. PMID:12955230

  17. Variation in Fitness of the Longhorned Beetle, Dectes texanus, as a Function of Host Plant

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.; Grant, Angela K.

    2010-01-01

    Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) has become a serious pest of two different crops in the American Midwest, sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. and soybean, Glycines max (L.). Laboratory and field studies were used to compare the effects of these two host plants on D. texanus life history and behavior. Insects from soybean were 40–60% smaller than those from sunflower and larval weight at collection was strongly correlated with survival to adulthood, whereas it was not in sunflower, suggesting that body size was more limiting to immature survival in soybean. Pupal weights increased more rapidly with increasing stem diameter in soybean than in sunflower and the correlation was stronger, indicating that body size was more limited by plant size in soybean. Adults collected as larvae from soybean had shorter longevities when starved, fed soybean, or fed an alternating diet of soybean and cultivated sunflower, than did those collected from sunflower, suggesting a negative larval legacy of soybean on adult fitness. Adult beetles that developed in soybean lived longer when fed soybean than when starved, but an adult diet of sunflower doubled longevity compared to soybean for beetles that developed in sunflower, and tripled it for those that developed in soybean. An adult diet of wild H. annuus yielded survivorship equivalent to cultivated H. annuus in one trial, and slightly lower in another. Larval host plant did not influence the numbers of ovipunctures or eggs laid by females in field trials, but adult diet did. Sunflower-fed females punctured more, and laid more eggs, on sunflowers than on soybeans in field cages and the reverse trend was evident, but not significant, in soybean-fed females. It can be concluded that H. annuus is a superior food source to G. max for both larval and adult D. texanus, and that wild sunflowers may represent a valuable food for adults during the pre-reproductive period, prior to invasion of soybean fields, even though they

  18. Fungal Symbionts of the Spruce Bark Beetle Synthesize the Beetle Aggregation Pheromone 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems. PMID:26302987

  19. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra. PMID:25499796

  20. Cultural Competence in Business Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Shohei

    Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…

  1. Water capture by a desert beetle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Andrew R.; Lawrence, Chris R.

    2001-11-01

    Some beetles in the Namib Desert collect drinking water from fog-laden wind on their backs. We show here that these large droplets form by virtue of the insect's bumpy surface, which consists of alternating hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions. The design of this fog-collecting structure can be reproduced cheaply on a commercial scale and may find application in water-trapping tent and building coverings, for example, or in water condensers and engines.

  2. An Unprecedented Role Reversal: Ground Beetle Larvae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Lure Amphibians and Prey upon Them

    PubMed Central

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    Amphibians often feed on beetle larvae, including those of ground beetles (Carabidae). Preliminary reports have detailed an unusual trophic interaction in which, in contrast, larvae of the ground beetle Epomis prey upon juvenile and adult amphibians. While it is known that these larvae feed exclusively on amphibians, how the predator-prey encounter occurs to the advantage of the beetle larvae had been unknown to date. Using laboratory observations and controlled experiments, we recorded the feeding behavior of Epomis larvae, as well as the behavior of their amphibian prey. Here we reveal that larvae of two species of Epomis (E. circumscriptus and E. dejeani) lure their potential predator, taking advantage of the amphibian's predation behavior. The Epomis larva combines a sit-and-wait strategy with unique movements of its antennae and mandibles to draw the attention of the amphibian to the presence of a potential prey. The intensity of this enticement increases with decreasing distance between the larva and the amphibian. When the amphibian attacks, the larva almost always manages to avoid the predator's protracted tongue, exploiting the opportunity to attach itself to the amphibian's body and initiate feeding. Our findings suggest that the trophic interaction between Epomis larvae and amphibians is one of the only natural cases of obligatory predator-prey role reversal. Moreover, this interaction involves a small insect larva that successfully lures and preys on a larger vertebrate. Such role reversal is exceptional in the animal world, extending our perspective of co-evolution in the arms race between predator and prey, and suggesting that counterattack defense behavior has evolved into predator-prey role reversal. PMID:21957480

  3. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Sprayable Polymer Gel Against Crucifer Flea Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Canola.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2016-08-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), is a key pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in the northern Great Plains of North America. The efficacies of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.), a sprayable polymer gel, and a combination of both were assessed on canola for flea beetle management. Plots were treated soon after colonization by adult flea beetles, when canola was in the cotyledon to one-leaf stage. Ten plants along a 3.6-m section of row were selected and rated at pre-treatment and 7 and 14 d post treatment using the damage-rating scheme advanced by the European Plant Protection Organization, where 1 = 0%, 2 = 2%, 3 = 5%, 4 = 10%, and 5 = 25% leaf area injury. Under moderate flea beetle feeding pressure (1-3.3% leaf area damaged), seeds treated with Gaucho 600 (Bayer CropScience LP Raleigh, NC) (imidacloprid) produced the highest yield (843.2 kg/ha). Meanwhile, Barricade (Barricade International, Inc. Hobe Sound, FL) (polymer gel; 1%) + Scanmask (BioLogic Company Inc, Willow Hill, PA) (Steinernema feltiae) resulted in the highest yields: 1020.8 kg/ha under high (2.0-5.3% leaf area damaged), and 670.2 kg/ha at extremely high (4.3-8.6 % leaf area damaged) feeding pressure. Our results suggest that Barricade (1%) + Scanmask (S. feltiae) can serve as an alternative to the conventional chemical seed treatment. Moreover, Scanmask (S. feltiae) can be used to complement the effects of seed treatment after its protection has run out. PMID:27329629

  4. Differential expression of two antifreeze proteins in the desert beetle Anatolica polita (Coleoptera: Tenebriondae): seasonal variation and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Wang, J; Mao, X F; Wang, Y

    2012-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can inhibit and modify the growth of ice crystals. Two antifreeze protein genes, Apafp752 and Apafp914, were cloned from the desert beetle Anatolica polita (Coleoptera: Tenebriondae), and they shared 61.3 percent similarity at the amino acid level. Apafp752 also contained one variation in the most conserved TCT motif of beetle AFPs. Apafp752 and Apafp914 mRNAs had similar seasonal expression pattern. Both were stimulated by cold stress, but they expressed slightly differentially with Apafp752 being more sensitive to cold stress than Apafp914, and no more sensitive to desiccation stress than Apafp914. The thermal hysteresis activity (THA) in the beetle's hemolymph followed approximately the patterns of mRNA seasonal expression and expression upon environmental stress, with a time lag. Summer adults of the desert beetle also express mRNA of Apafp752 and Apafp914, and exhibit some hemolymph THA, suggesting other likely function of these proteins beyond antifreeze. PMID:23224367

  5. Phyllotreta striolata flea beetles use host plant defense compounds to create their own glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

    PubMed

    Beran, Franziska; Pauchet, Yannick; Kunert, Grit; Reichelt, Michael; Wielsch, Natalie; Vogel, Heiko; Reinecke, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Mewis, Inga; Schmid, Daniela; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Ulrichs, Christian; Hansson, Bill S; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G

    2014-05-20

    The ability of a specialized herbivore to overcome the chemical defense of a particular plant taxon not only makes it accessible as a food source but may also provide metabolites to be exploited for communication or chemical defense. Phyllotreta flea beetles are adapted to crucifer plants (Brassicales) that are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, the so-called "mustard-oil bomb." Tissue damage caused by insect feeding brings glucosinolates into contact with the plant enzyme myrosinase, which hydrolyzes them to form toxic compounds, such as isothiocyanates. However, we previously observed that Phyllotreta striolata beetles themselves produce volatile glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Here, we show that P. striolata adults selectively accumulate glucosinolates from their food plants to up to 1.75% of their body weight and express their own myrosinase. By combining proteomics and transcriptomics, a gene responsible for myrosinase activity in P. striolata was identified. The major substrates of the heterologously expressed myrosinase were aliphatic glucosinolates, which were hydrolyzed with at least fourfold higher efficiency than aromatic and indolic glucosinolates, and β-O-glucosides. The identified beetle myrosinase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and has up to 76% sequence similarity to other β-glucosidases. Phylogenetic analyses suggest species-specific diversification of this gene family in insects and an independent evolution of the beetle myrosinase from other insect β-glucosidases. PMID:24799680

  6. First record of leaf-hole shelters used and modified by leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), with descriptions of two new Orthaltica Crotch species from southern India

    PubMed Central

    Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Konstantinov, Alexander S.; Shameem, K. M.; Balan, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Behavioural novelties observed in adult leaf beetles of two new Orthaltica Crotch species include: 1) the use of low cost leaf-hole shelters, either in pre-formed holes produced by larger beetles that fed on the same leaf, or artificially created holes as part of an experiment; and 2) the use of faeces to partition the hole. Two new southern Indian species of the genus Orthaltica are described and illustrated: Orthaltica syzygium and Orthaltica terminalia. Host plants are identified for both species. A key to the Indian species of Orthaltica is provided. PMID:24146572

  7. Loss of flight promotes beetle diversification.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Sota, Teiji

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of flight is a key innovation that may enable the extreme diversification of insects. Nonetheless, many species-rich, winged insect groups contain flightless lineages. The loss of flight may promote allopatric differentiation due to limited dispersal power and may result in a high speciation rate in the flightless lineage. Here we show that loss of flight accelerates allopatric speciation using carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). We demonstrate that flightless species retain higher genetic differentiation among populations and comprise a higher number of genetically distinct lineages than flight-capable species, and that the speciation rate with the flightless state is twice that with the flight-capable state. Moreover, a meta-analysis of 51 beetle species from 15 families reveals higher genetic differentiation among populations in flightless compared with flight-capable species. In beetles, which represent almost one-fourth of all described species, repeated evolution of flightlessness may have contributed to their steady diversification since the Mesozoic era. PMID:22337126

  8. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right–left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use. PMID:25368178

  9. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-11-18

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use. PMID:25368178

  10. An integrative view of sexual selection in Tribolium flour beetles.

    PubMed

    Fedina, Tatyana Y; Lewis, Sara M

    2008-05-01

    Sexual selection is a major force driving the evolution of diverse reproductive traits. This evolutionary process is based on individual reproductive advantages that arise either through intrasexual competition or through intersexual choice and conflict. While classical studies of sexual selection focused mainly on differences in male mating success, more recent work has focused on the differences in paternity share that may arise through sperm competition or cryptic female choice whenever females mate with multiple males. Thus, an integrative view of sexual selection needs to encompass processes that occur not only before copulation (pre-mating), but also during copulation (peri-mating), as well as after copulation (post-mating), all of which can generate differences in reproductive success. By encompassing mechanisms of sexual selection across all of these sequential reproductive stages this review takes an integrative approach to sexual selection in Tribolium flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), a particularly well-studied and economically important model organism. Tribolium flour beetles colonize patchily distributed grain stores, and juvenile and adult stages share the same food resources. Adults are highly promiscuous and female reproduction is distributed across an adult lifespan lasting approximately 1 year. While Tribolium males produce an aggregation pheromone that attracts both sexes, there appears to be little pre-mating discrimination among potential mates by either sex. However, recent work has revealed several peri-mating and post-mating mechanisms that determine how offspring paternity is apportioned among a female's mates. During mating, Tribolium females reject spermatophore transfer and limit sperm numbers transferred by males with low phenotypic quality. Although there is some conflicting evidence, male copulatory leg-rubbing appears to be associated with overcoming female resistance to insemination and does not influence a male

  11. The multidimensional nature of hyperspeech: evidence from Japanese vowel devoicing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew; Utsugi, Akira; Mazuka, Reiko

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that infant-directed speech is a form of hyperspeech, optimized for intelligibility, by focusing on vowel devoicing in Japanese. Using a corpus of infant-directed and adult-directed Japanese, we show that speakers implement high vowel devoicing less often when speaking to infants than when speaking to adults, consistent with the hyperspeech hypothesis. The same speakers, however, increase vowel devoicing in careful, read speech, a speech style which might be expected to pattern similarly to infant-directed speech. We argue that both infant-directed and read speech can be considered listener-oriented speech styles-each is optimized for the specific needs of its intended listener. We further show that in non-high vowels, this trend is reversed: speakers devoice more often in infant-directed speech and less often in read speech, suggesting that devoicing in the two types of vowels is driven by separate mechanisms in Japanese. PMID:24813573

  12. Efficacy of Deltamethrin Against Stored-Product Beetles at Short Exposure Intervals or on a Partially Treated Rice Mass.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-06-01

    Stored-product insects can potentially be exposed to grain protectants for variable time periods. Adults of three species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were exposed for 1, 4, 8, and 24 h on brown rice treated with the pyrethroid deltamethrin at the label rate of 0.5 ppm, then removed and placed on untreated rice. Adults of these same species plus the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were exposed on treated brown rice mixed with varying amounts of untreated rice to assess progeny production. Immediate and delayed mortality of exposed adults did not exceed 7% for any exposure interval, but progeny production for T. castaneum was generally lower in comparison with that for the other species. Increasing the amount of treated rice decreased progeny production of R. dominica but not for any Sitophilus species. Mixed results were obtained for T. castaneum and T. variabile. Results show that long exposure times and treatment of an entire rice mass may be necessary to give complete control of stored-product beetles. PMID:26470270

  13. Evaluations of sampling methods for darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) in the litter of turkey and broiler houses.

    PubMed

    Safrit, R D; Axtell, R C

    1984-12-01

    Materials placed on the litter in turkey and broiler houses were evaluated as sampling devices for the larvae and adults of Alphitobius diaperinus (lesser mealworm or darkling beetle). Insects harbored in, on, and between pieces of the materials were counted after 1-week exposure. Pan traps consisting of two stacked pieces of 1.3-cm thick foil-covered polyisocyanurate insulation (Celotex) placed under a protective metal pan staked to the litter surface was a more effective sampling device than pan traps using thicker (5 cm) Celotex, 3.8 cm thick polystyrene (Styrofoam), or two stacked pieces of wood. A tube trap consisting of rolled fluted corrugated cardboard inserted in a section of polyvinyl chloride pipe was as effective a sampling device as the two pieces of Celotex in a pan trap and was more convenient to use. Six pieces of corrugated cardboard stacked under a pan caught larger numbers of beetle larvae and adults but was awkward to handle and impractical. Placement of sampling devices in the major subhabitats (open center, near walls, near feeders, and near waterers) in turkey and broiler houses affected catches of beetle larvae and adults. The open center area was satisfactory and most convenient. PMID:6531324

  14. Nucleus Course in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Nobuo; Flamm, Carol S.

    The "Nucleus Course in Japanese," based on the Institute of Modern Languages'"Situational Reinforcement" approach, is designed for 80 to 100 hours of instruction. Each lesson has several sections--Response drills, Appropriate Response Sequence, and Reading. Most of the lessons also include optional sections with Sentences for Repetition or a…

  15. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  16. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  17. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  18. I Can Learn Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Michael; Funato, Makiko

    This set of materials for Japanese second language instruction was designed for students who can be taught most effectively through a functional, conversational approach. It is intended as a supplement to the regular course of study so that all students, regardless of ability level, can be provided with an effective instructional program. It…

  19. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  20. Experimental Analysis of Japanese Martial Art Nihon-Kempo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuragano, Tetsuzo; Yokokura, Saburo

    2012-01-01

    With a male, adult subject, this study measured the punch force and kick force of the Japanese martial art Nihon-Kempo, the movements of the dominant (right) arm, leg, and the movements of the legs using timed synchronization. Using an electromyogram (EMG), the relationship between the variation of punch force and the variation of the electrical…

  1. Arterial stiffness of lifelong Japanese female pearl divers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirofumi; Tomoto, Tsubasa; Kosaki, Keisei; Sugawara, Jun

    2016-05-15

    Japanese female pearl divers called Ama specialize in free diving in the cold sea for collecting foods and pearls in oysters. Exercising in the water combined with marked bradycardia and pressor responses provides a circulatory challenge to properly buffer or cushion elevated cardiac pulsations. Because Ama perform repeated free dives throughout their lives, it is possible that they may have adapted similar arterial structure and function to those seen in diving mammals. We compared arterial stiffness of lifelong Japanese pearl divers with age-matched physically inactive adults living in the same fishing villages. A total of 115 Japanese female pearl divers were studied. Additionally, 50 physically inactive adults as well as 33 physically active adults (participating in community fitness programs) living in the same coastal villages were also studied. There were no differences in age (∼65 yr), body mass index, and brachial blood pressure between the groups. Measures of arterial stiffness, cardio-ankle vascular index and β-stiffness index were lower (P < 0.05) in pearl divers and physically active adults than in their physically inactive peers. Augmentation pressure and augmentation index adjusted for the heart rate of 75 beats/min were lower (P < 0.05) in pearl divers than in other groups. These results indicate that lifelong Japanese pearl divers demonstrate reduced arterial stiffness and arterial wave reflection compared with age-matched physically inactive peers living in the same fishing villages. PMID:26984889

  2. Creating a Global Cultural Consciousness in a Japanese EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Recently, culture has taken an important role in language education. In this view, creating a global cultural consciousness among second language (L2) students can help bridge the gap between linguistic ability and functional intercultural communication. This paper, which makes reference to Japanese adult EFL learners, justifies the body of…

  3. Theoretical Implications of Contemporary Brain Science for Japanese EFL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, John Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in brain science show that adult native Japanese speakers utilize a different balance of language processing routes in the brain as compared to native English speakers. Biologically this represents the remarkable flexibility of the human brain to adapt universal human cognitive processes to fit the specific needs of linguistic and…

  4. Japanese Women's Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time…

  5. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  6. Simulation model of the red flour beetle in flour mills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is one of the most common insect pests infesting wheat flour mills. Structural treatments such as methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride and heat, are used to control the red flour beetle. The structural treatments do not provide any residual action and, thus, any s...

  7. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  8. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DeGuzman, L.I.& A.M. Frake. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles - The life history of small hive beetles (SHB) kept in an incubator (34ºC) and at room temperature (24-28ºC) was compared. Six slides of eggs, obtained using the glass slide technique, were placed individually in rear...

  9. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  10. Male-specific sesquiterpenes from Phyllotreta flea beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flea beetles in several genera are known to possess male-specific sesquiterpenes, at least some of which serve as aggregation pheromones that attract both sexes. In continuing research on the chemical ecology of Phyllotreta flea beetles, six new male-specific sesquiterpenes were identified, one fro...

  11. Cantharidin Poisoning due to Blister Beetle Ingestion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Al-Binali, Ali M.; Shabana, Medhat; Al-Fifi, Suliman; Dawood, Sami; Shehri, Amer A.; Al-Barki, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Cantharidin is an intoxicant found in beetles in the Meloidae (Coleoptera) family. Ingestion may result in haematemesis, impaired level of consciousness, electrolyte disturbance, haematurea and renal impairment. Here, we report two paediatric cases of meloid beetle ingestion resulting in cantharidin poisoning and the clinical presentation of the ensuing intoxication. PMID:21509239

  12. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  13. Discovery of mycangia and the associated xylose-fermenting yeasts in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi

    2010-03-01

    Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.

  14. Nutritional Composition and Protein Quality of the Edible Beetle Holotrichia parallela

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingli; Liu, Shaofang; Sun, Jie; Yu, Lina; Zhang, Chushu; Bi, Jie; Yang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The adult edible beetle Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) represents a traditional food source in China. Based on nutritional analyses, adult H. parallela is high in protein (70%) and minerals and low in fat. H. parallela contained approximately 10% chitin; the corrected protein content was 66%. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were the most abundant fatty acids. Of the total amino acids in H. parallela, 47.4% were essential amino acids. The amino acid scores were 87 and 100, based on the corrected crude and net protein contents, respectively; threonine was the limiting amino acid. In vitro protein digestibility was 78%, and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score was 89 based on the net protein content. Adult H. parallela may be a potential source of proteins and minerals for humans and animals. PMID:25347830

  15. Nutritional composition and protein quality of the edible beetle Holotrichia parallela.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingli; Liu, Shaofang; Sun, Jie; Yu, Lina; Zhang, Chushu; Bi, Jie; Yang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The adult edible beetle Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) represents a traditional food source in China. Based on nutritional analyses, adult H. parallela is high in protein (70%) and minerals and low in fat. H. parallela contained approximately 10% chitin; the corrected protein content was 66%. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were the most abundant fatty acids. Of the total amino acids in H. parallela, 47.4% were essential amino acids. The amino acid scores were 87 and 100, based on the corrected crude and net protein contents, respectively; threonine was the limiting amino acid. In vitro protein digestibility was 78%, and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score was 89 based on the net protein content. Adult H. parallela may be a potential source of proteins and minerals for humans and animals. PMID:25347830

  16. Long-term reduction of cold hardiness following ingestion of ice-nucleating bacteria in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Costanzo dagger, J P.; Humphreys double dagger, T L.; Lee, R E.; Moore dagger, J B.; Lee double dagger, M R.; Wyman, J A.

    1998-12-01

    We investigated the effect of ingestion of ice-nucleating bacteria on the supercooling capacity and cold hardiness of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), a freeze-intolerant species that overwinters as adults in shallow, terrestrial burrows. Ingestion of ice-nucleating bacteria (Enterobacter agglomerans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas syringae), fed on slices of potato tuber, caused an abrupt decrease in supercooling capacity. No change occurred in the supercooling capacity of beetles fed Escherichia coli, as this species lacks ice-nucleating activity. Ingestion rates showed that tubers treated with different species were equally palatable. During diapause induction beetles evacuated food from their guts, but nevertheless retained sufficient ice-nucleating bacteria to diminish supercooling. Beetles fed P. fluorescens and P. putida exhibited reduced supercooling even after an 8-wk exposure to simulated winter conditions. Furthermore, P. fluorescens was isolated 10-wk post-ingestion from diapausing beetles. Our data suggest that ingested bacteria may be retained by insects during entry into diapause and that the cold hardiness of candidate crop pests, such as L. decemlineata, may be reduced by feeding them ice-nucleating bacteria prior to winter diapause. PMID:12770317

  17. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  18. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  19. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  20. Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Summary Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles. Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks. PMID:18698369

  1. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  2. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

  3. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L

    2012-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs. PMID:22606816

  4. Morphological characterization of pollens from three Apiaceae species and their ingestion by twelve-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    D'Ávila, V A; Aguiar-Menezes, E L; Gonçalves-Esteves, V; Mendonça, C B F; Pereira, R N; Santos, T M

    2016-04-19

    Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems. PMID:27097091

  5. Negative Feedbacks on Bark Beetle Outbreaks: Widespread and Severe Spruce Beetle Infestation Restricts Subsequent Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sarah J.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  6. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  7. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2]. PMID:26543883

  8. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2]. PMID:26543883

  9. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ)

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of the English Developmental Sentence Scoring model (Lee, 1974). Using this measure, we calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8 and 5;2 on the basis of 100-sentence samples collected from free-play child-adult conversations. The analysis showed a high correlation of the DSSJ overall score with the Mean Length of Utterance. The analysis of the DSSJ subarea scores revealed large variations between these subarea scores for children with similar overall DSSJ scores. When investigating the high-scoring children (over 1 SD over group average), most children scored high in three to five subareas, but the combination of scores for these subareas varied from child to child. It is concluded that DSSJ is a valuable tool especially for the language acquisition research. The overall DSSJ score reliably reflects the overall morpho-syntactic development of Japanese children, and the subarea scores provide specific information on individual acquisition patterns. PMID:25414535

  10. The De Novo Transcriptome and Its Functional Annotation in the Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Bayram, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Despite their unparalleled biodiversity, the genomic resources available for beetles (Coleoptera) remain relatively scarce. We present an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome of the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, an important and cosmopolitan agricultural pest as well as an emerging model species in ecology and evolutionary biology. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we sequenced 492 million read pairs generated from 51 samples of different developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults) of C. maculatus. Reads were de novo assembled using the Trinity software, into a single combined assembly as well as into three separate assemblies based on data from the different developmental stages. The combined assembly generated 218,192 transcripts and 145,883 putative genes. Putative genes were annotated with the Blast2GO software and the Trinotate pipeline. In total, 33,216 putative genes were successfully annotated using Blastx against the Nr (non-redundant) database and 13,382 were assigned to 34,100 Gene Ontology (GO) terms. We classified 5,475 putative genes into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and 116 metabolic pathways maps were predicted based on the annotation. Our analyses suggested that the transcriptional specificity increases with ontogeny. For example, out of 33,216 annotated putative genes, 51 were only expressed in larvae, 63 only in pupae and 171 only in adults. Our study illustrates the importance of including samples from several developmental stages when the aim is to provide an integrative and high quality annotated transcriptome. Our results will represent an invaluable resource for those working with the ecology, evolution and pest control of C. maculatus, as well for comparative studies of the transcriptomics and genomics of beetles more generally. PMID:27442123

  11. Knockdown and Mortality of Five Stored Product Beetle Species After Short Exposures of Thiamethoxam.

    PubMed

    Tsaganou, Fotoula C; Vassilakos, Thomas N; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of thiamethoxam, against five major stored-grain beetle species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn), and the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Adults of the above species were exposed on wheat (or maize in the case of P. truncatus) treated with thiamethoxam at 0.1, 1, and 10 ppm for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 40, 72, and 96 h. After each of these intervals, mortality was recorded (immediate mortality) and the surviving individuals were transferred in untreated wheat (or maize), where mortality was recorded again 7 d later (delayed mortality). During both immediate and delayed mortality counts, the number of adults that were knocked down was also recorded. Immediate mortality was low in all exposures, with the exception of the highest dose rate and after 72-96 h. At these conditions, during this interval, most of the surviving individuals were knocked down. Delayed mortality was further increased with the increase of dose and the initial exposure, but knockdown was extremely low, with the exception of P. truncatus. The results of the present work show that O. surinamensis was the least susceptible species, while P. truncatus was the most susceptible. These findings show that, despite the increased mortality, recovery after short exposures is likely for all species tested here. In this regard, partially treated areas on which the insects are exposed only for short intervals may reduce thiamethoxam efficacy. PMID:26470089

  12. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status. PMID:21468408

  13. Elemental concentration in mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor L.) during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Edina; Baranyai, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2013-07-01

    Mealworm beetles have been used in numerous experiments as bioindicators. The aim of our experiment was to study the elemental composition in three larvae, pupae and first and second generation adult stages during their life cycle. We selected 180 larvae from a genetically similar population and put them in three groups, in two boxes (60 larvae in each box). Larvae were fed with mashed potato made of the same quality and quantity of potato powder. Then, we selected 10 individuals from each stage to the elemental analysis, using the ICP-OES method. The following elements were analysed in the studied stages: Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr and Zn. The results of principal component analysis demonstrated that based on elemental composition, different stages were separated with each other, but in the cases of the three larvae stages, high overlap was found. The results of the GLM ANOVA showed significant differences between the different stages of metamorphosis-based elemental composition. Our results show that the calcium and magnesium were found in a relatively high concentration, while the iron and zinc may be essential elements during the metamorphosis. Our results also show that in insect, the concentration of sodium was higher than in the pupa which may cause by hemolymph. We also demonstrated that the metamorphosis has an effect on the concentration of elements. Our study shows that in the different stages of insects, there are significant changes in the elemental composition of different stages of insects during their metamorphosis. PMID:23695727

  14. Detection of seed DNA in regurgitates of granivorous carabid beetles.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, C; Sint, D; Baier, F; Schmid, C; Mayer, R; Traugott, M

    2015-12-01

    Granivory can play a pivotal role in influencing regeneration, colonization as well as abundance and distribution of plants. Due to their high abundance, nutrient content and longevity, seeds are an important food source for many animals. Among insects, carabid beetles consume substantial numbers of seeds and are thought to be responsible for a significant amount of seed loss. However, the processes that govern which seeds are eaten and are therefore prevented from entering the seedbank are poorly understood. Here, we assess if DNA-based diet analysis allows tracking the consumption of seeds by carabids. Adult individuals of Harpalus rufipes were fed with seeds of Taraxacum officinale and Lolium perenne allowing them to digest for up to 3 days. Regurgitates were tested for the DNA of ingested seeds at eight different time points post-feeding using general and species-specific plant primers. The detection of seed DNA decreased with digestion time for both seed species, albeit in a species-specific manner. Significant differences in overall DNA detection rates were found with the general plant primers but not with the species-specific primers. This can have implications for the interpretation of trophic data derived from next-generation sequencing, which is based on the application of general primers. Our findings demonstrate that seed predation by carabids can be tracked, molecularly, on a species-specific level, providing a new way to unravel the mechanisms underlying in-field diet choice in granivores. PMID:26271284

  15. Tracheal compression in pupae of the beetle Zophobas morio.

    PubMed

    Pendar, Hodjat; Kenny, Melissa C; Socha, John J

    2015-06-01

    Insects that are small or exhibit low metabolic rates are considered to not require active ventilation to augment diffusive gas exchange. Some pupae with low metabolic rates exhibit abdominal pumping, a behaviour that is known to drive tracheal ventilation in the adults of many species. However, previous work on pupae suggests that abdominal pumping may serve a non-respiratory role. To study the role of abdominal pumping in pupa of the beetle Zophobas morio, we visualized tracheal dynamics with X-rays while simultaneously measuring haemolymph pressure, abdominal movement, and CO2 emission. Pupae exhibited frequent tracheal compressions that were coincident with both abdominal pumping and pulsation of pressure in the haemolymph. However, more than 63% of abdominal pumping events occurred without any tracheal collapse and hence ventilation, suggesting that the major function of the abdominal pump is not respiratory. In addition, this study shows that the kinematics of abdominal pumping can be used to infer the status of the spiracles and internal behaviour of the tracheal system. PMID:26085499

  16. Tracheal compression in pupae of the beetle Zophobas morio

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Kenny, Melissa C.; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Insects that are small or exhibit low metabolic rates are considered to not require active ventilation to augment diffusive gas exchange. Some pupae with low metabolic rates exhibit abdominal pumping, a behaviour that is known to drive tracheal ventilation in the adults of many species. However, previous work on pupae suggests that abdominal pumping may serve a non-respiratory role. To study the role of abdominal pumping in pupa of the beetle Zophobas morio, we visualized tracheal dynamics with X-rays while simultaneously measuring haemolymph pressure, abdominal movement, and CO2 emission. Pupae exhibited frequent tracheal compressions that were coincident with both abdominal pumping and pulsation of pressure in the haemolymph. However, more than 63% of abdominal pumping events occurred without any tracheal collapse and hence ventilation, suggesting that the major function of the abdominal pump is not respiratory. In addition, this study shows that the kinematics of abdominal pumping can be used to infer the status of the spiracles and internal behaviour of the tracheal system. PMID:26085499

  17. Phylogeny of the Gondwanan beetle family Ulodidae (Tenebrionoidea).

    PubMed

    Leschen, Richard A B; Escalona, Hermes E; Elgueta, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ulodidae is a small family of saproxylic and fungus feeding beetles restricted to New Zealand, Australia, Chile and New Caledonia. The phylogeny of this family is presented for the first time, based on a cladistic analysis of 53 adult characters from 16 ulodid genera, rooted with Parahelops Waterhouse (Promecheilidae). The topology shows Arthopus Sharp at the base of the tree and confirms the placement of Meryx Latreille as a member of Ulodidae and closely related to the Chilean genus Trachyderas Philippi & Philippi. The extinct New Zealand genus Waitomophylax Leschen & Rhode was placed among a clade consisting of Brouniphylax Strand, Exohadrus Broun, and Pteroderes Germain. Two new genera and two new species are described: Ulobostrichus gen. n. (type species: Ulobostrichus monteithi sp. n.) and Ulocyphaleus gen. n. (type species: Cyphaleus valdivianus Philippi & Philippi, 1864, now U. valdivianus (Philippi & Philippi) n. comb.; U. laetus sp. n.). Dipsaconia pyritosa Pascoe is designated as the type species of Dipsaconia Pascoe and a lectotype was designated for C. valdivianus. A fully illustrated key to the genera and a checklist of the 16 genera and 42 species is included. Based on the phylogeny, the following characters are derived in the family: tuberculate body surface and the presence of scales and /or encrustations. The presence of pore-fields in the abdominal cuticle has evolved at least three times in Meryx Latreille (Australia), Syrphetodes Pascoe (New Zealand) and Trachyderastes Kaszab (New Caledonia). PMID:27470774

  18. Flowering of Japanese astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozai, Y.

    1988-06-01

    A development history is presented for Japanese astronomy from the 6th century to the present day, together with a status report and account of future plans. About 500 professionals currently belong to the Astronomical Society of Japan. Tokyo's Mitaka Observatory employs a staff of about 70 astronomers; most modern astronomical instruments, however, have been installed at sites outside the Tokyo area. The limitations of present instruments are notably severe for astronomers working in the visible and IR wavelengths.

  19. Brilliant Whiteness in Ultrathin Beetle Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukusic, Pete; Hallam, Benny; Noyes, Joe

    2007-01-01

    The colored appearances of animals are controlled by pigmentation, highly periodic ultrastructure, or a combination of both. Whiteness, however, is less common and is generated by neither of these, because it requires scattering processes appropriate for all visible wavelengths. We report whiteness resulting from a three-dimensional photonic solid in the scales of Cyphochilus spp. beetles. Their scales are characterized by their exceptional whiteness, their perceived brightness, and their optical brilliance, but they are only 5 micrometers thick. This thickness is at least two orders of magnitude thinner than common synthetic systems designed for equivalent-quality whiteness.

  20. Brilliant whiteness in ultrathin beetle scales.

    PubMed

    Vukusic, Pete; Hallam, Benny; Noyes, Joe

    2007-01-19

    The colored appearances of animals are controlled by pigmentation, highly periodic ultrastructure, or a combination of both. Whiteness, however, is less common and is generated by neither of these, because it requires scattering processes appropriate for all visible wavelengths. We report whiteness resulting from a three-dimensional photonic solid in the scales of Cyphochilus spp. beetles. Their scales are characterized by their exceptional whiteness, their perceived brightness, and their optical brilliance, but they are only 5 micrometers thick. This thickness is at least two orders of magnitude thinner than common synthetic systems designed for equivalent-quality whiteness. PMID:17234940

  1. Water capture by a desert beetle.

    PubMed

    Parker, A R; Lawrence, C R

    2001-11-01

    Some beetles in the Namib Desert collect drinking water from fog-laden wind on their backs. We show here that these large droplets form by virtue of the insect's bumpy surface, which consists of alternating hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions. The design of this fog-collecting structure can be reproduced cheaply on a commercial scale and may find application in water-trapping tent and building coverings, for example, or in water condensers and engines. PMID:11689930

  2. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    PubMed

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan. PMID:7233479

  3. Evaluation of catmint oil and hydrogenated catmint oil as repellents for the flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Frank H; Fontenot, Emily A; Campbell, James F

    2011-01-01

    Catmint oil and hydrogenated catmint oil were evaluated as repellents for adult Tribolium casteneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the red flour beetle, and T. confusum (DuVal), the confused flour beetle, using both a traditional method of visual assessment of distribution and a video recording method to determine movement patterns of individual insects. Visual assessments of distribution using groups of adults showed that the hydrogenated catmint oil was more effective than the pure catmint oil, but there was no significant difference between species. However, when repellency was measured using single insects and the visual recording system, both oils were significantly more repellent to T. castaneum than T. confusum at the concentrations evaluated in the study. Avoidance movement and change in direction when T. castaneum encountered the repellent were observed. Results indicate that repellents may be more accurately assessed using single insects rather than groups of individuals, and simple visual observations of distribution may be less sensitive in measuring repellent efficacy. Procedures for utilizing a video system are described as models for future evaluations of repellents for stored-product beetles. PMID:22235903

  4. Residual activity of methoprene and novaluron as surface treatments to manage the flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Frank H; Fontenot, Emily A

    2012-01-01

    The juvenile hormone analog methoprene, and the chitin synthesis inhibitor novaluron, were evaluated by exposing late-stage larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) or Tribolium confusum (Jacqueline DuVal) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to it. The larvae were exposed to it in food material, on concrete, on plywood, and on floor tile. Larvae of T. castaneum were more susceptible than T. confusum larvae to both methoprene and novaluron on all surfaces. A further evaluation was done by exposing adult T. confusum to methoprene and novaluron through food placed on concrete treated with methoprene and novaluron, and then assessing resulting progeny production. The emergence of adults with normal morphology was reduced for both chemicals, with more malformed adults appearing in the methoprene treatment, and fewer adults of any form emerging in the novaluron treatment. The results show direct exposures to larvae, or determining progeny production from exposed adults, are valid methods for assessing the susceptibility of flour beetles to insecticides. PMID:23421852

  5. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-01-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  6. Efficacy of nanostructured silica as a stored pulse protector against the infestation of bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Ganesh; Velayutham, Veeramani; Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with the pulse seeds of Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum and Vigna unguiculata against the infestation of stored pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus revealed a significant reduction in oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage potential. There was a complete retardation of growth of this beetle in the treated seeds of C. cajan. SNP-treated seeds of these six varieties of pulses revealed no effect on the growth of seeds as revealed by seed germination, growth rate of root and shoot. Similarly, the soil microflora measured in terms of colony forming units was not affected by silica nanoparticles upon its treatment with pulse seeds. The results of this study thus clearly demonstrated the useful nature of silica nanoparticles as seed protecting agent for the control of C. maculatus.

  7. Egg Predation by the Introduced Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Lowers Mortality but Raises Relative Risk for the Native Lady Beetle, Coccinella novemnotata

    PubMed Central

    Turnipseed, Rakim; Ugine, Todd A.; Losey, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the native ninespotted lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, have undergone precipitous declines in North America following the establishment of the exotic sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L. Recent volunteer efforts have made it possible to establish colonies of the now-rare C. novemnotata and test mechanisms contributing to its decline. We evaluated the relative frequencies of intraguild predation and cannibalism of eggs between these two species. A single C. novemnotata or C. septempunctata adult was exposed to conspecific and heterospecific eggs in either the presence or absence of pea aphids. The study revealed two expected results: 1) eggs of C. novemnotata were consumed more frequently than eggs of C. septempunctata by both species, and 2) egg consumption was higher when aphids were absent, independent of predator and egg species. There were also two unexpected results from the study: 1) the asymmetry between egg predation rates was higher when aphids were present, and 2) higher predation rates on C. novemnotata eggs in the absence of alternate prey was due to a relatively higher rate of intraspecific cannibalism. This implies that C. novemnotata would have suffered higher egg mortality rates before the invasion of C. septempunctata, but even though the aggregate rate of egg predation on C. novemnotata eggs is lower post-invasion, it is still significantly higher than the aggregate rate of predation of C. septempunctata eggs. This differential pattern of asymmetric predation could contribute to habitat compression and the overall decline of C. novemnotata. PMID:26090935

  8. Egg Predation by the Introduced Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Lowers Mortality but Raises Relative Risk for the Native Lady Beetle, Coccinella novemnotata.

    PubMed

    Turnipseed, Rakim; Ugine, Todd A; Losey, John E

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the native ninespotted lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, have undergone precipitous declines in North America following the establishment of the exotic sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L. Recent volunteer efforts have made it possible to establish colonies of the now-rare C. novemnotata and test mechanisms contributing to its decline. We evaluated the relative frequencies of intraguild predation and cannibalism of eggs between these two species. A single C. novemnotata or C. septempunctata adult was exposed to conspecific and heterospecific eggs in either the presence or absence of pea aphids. The study revealed two expected results: 1) eggs of C. novemnotata were consumed more frequently than eggs of C. septempunctata by both species, and 2) egg consumption was higher when aphids were absent, independent of predator and egg species. There were also two unexpected results from the study: 1) the asymmetry between egg predation rates was higher when aphids were present, and 2) higher predation rates on C. novemnotata eggs in the absence of alternate prey was due to a relatively higher rate of intraspecific cannibalism. This implies that C. novemnotata would have suffered higher egg mortality rates before the invasion of C. septempunctata, but even though the aggregate rate of egg predation on C. novemnotata eggs is lower post-invasion, it is still significantly higher than the aggregate rate of predation of C. septempunctata eggs. This differential pattern of asymmetric predation could contribute to habitat compression and the overall decline of C. novemnotata. PMID:26090935

  9. Parental effects and flight behaviour in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

    PubMed Central

    Attisano, Alfredo; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a key role in determining the phenotype of their offspring. However, relatively few studies have investigated whether parents can change their offspring's behaviour in a sustained way that persists into adulthood. With experiments on the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, we investigated how the developmental environment created by parents affects their offspring's wing morphology in adulthood, and the correlated effects on adult flight behaviour. Burying beetles exhibit complex biparental care, but offspring can survive without parental provisioning. By removing parents just prior to hatching, while holding the nutritional environment constant, we investigated the downstream consequences for offspring morphology and behaviour. Larvae that developed in the absence of their parents had relatively long and more slender wings than those that developed in their parents' presence. Flight mill tests revealed that flight performance was dependent on the presence of parents during development but not on wing shape. Our results demonstrate that parents have long-lasting effects on the behaviour of their offspring, by influencing the morphology and flight behaviour of their young even after they have matured into adults. PMID:26681810

  10. Climatic, Edaphic Factors and Cropping History Help Predict Click Beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) (Agriotes spp.) Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kozina, A.; Lemic, D.; Bazok, R.; Mikac, K. M.; Mclean, C. M.; Ivezić, M.; Igrc Barčić, J.

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the abundance of Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is affected by agro-ecological factors such as climatic and edaphic factors and the crop/previous crop grown at the sites investigated. The aim of this study, conducted in three different geographic counties in Croatia from 2007 to 2009, was to determine the factors that influence the abundance of adult click beetle of the species Agriotes brevis Cand., Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.), Agriotes sputator (L.), and Agriotes ustulatus Schall. The mean annual air temperature, total rainfall, percentage of coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt and clay, the soil pH, and humus were investigated as potential factors that may influence abundance. Adult click beetle emergence was monitored using sex pheromone traps (YATLORf and VARb3). Exploratory data analysis was preformed via regression tree models and regional differences in Agriotes species’ abundance were predicted based on the agro-ecological factors measured. It was found that the best overall predictor of A. brevis abundance was the previous crop grown. Conversely, the best predictor of A. lineatus abundance was the current crop being grown and the percentage of humus. The best predictor of A. obscurus abundance was soil pH in KCl. The best predictor of A. sputator abundance was rainfall. Finally, the best predictors of A. ustulatus abundance were soil pH in KCl and humus. These results may be useful in regional pest control programs or for predicting future outbreaks of these species. PMID:26175463

  11. Environmental Factors Affecting Pupation Decision in the Horned Flour Beetle Gnatocerus cornutus.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takane; Ohta, Kunihiro; Shimada, Masakazu; Okada, Kensuke; Okada, Yasukazu

    2015-04-01

    Social environments often affect the development of organisms. In Tenebrionidae beetles, larval development can be arrested at the final instar stage in the presence of conspecific larvae. This developmental plasticity is considered to be an anti-cannibalistic strategy but the critical environmental determinants and actual effects remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of the heterospecific environment, conspecific sexual environment (i.e., presence of conspecific male or female), and abiotic physical stimulation on the pupation decision of the sexually dimorphic horned-flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. Additionally, actual anti-cannibalistic or antipredatory effects of developmental arrest were evaluated by analyzing stage-dependent vulnerabilities. When G. cornutus larvae were maintained with a G. cornutus larva, a G. cornutus adult, or T. castaneum adult, the developmental period up to the prepupal stage was significantly elongated, suggesting that the cue is not species-specific. Sexual environment did not affect the timing of pupation in G. cornutus; however, we found that abiotic tactile stimulations by glass beads could repress pupation. We also discovered that prepupal and pupal stages were more vulnerable to cannibalism and predation than the larval stage. These data suggest that G. cornutus larvae use non-species specific tactile stimulation as a decision cue for pupation and it has broader defensive effects against heterospecific predation as well as conspecific cannibalism. PMID:25826068

  12. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  13. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) with the protein content and negatively correlated (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05) with the carbohydrate content. For T. castaneum, the suitable diets were ranked as follows: atta flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P < 0.05) than in the other diets, and the greatest number of progeny was produced from beetles reared on atta flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth. PMID:22299375

  14. Sex and cultural differences in spatial performance between Japanese and North Americans.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Maiko; Spiers, Mary V

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Asians perform better than North Americans on spatial tasks but show smaller sex differences. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between long-term experience with a pictorial written language and spatial performance. It was hypothesized that native Japanese Kanji (a complex pictorial written language) educated adults would show smaller sex differences on spatial tasks than Japanese Americans or North Americans without Kanji education. A total of 80 young healthy participants (20 native Japanese speakers, 20 Japanese Americans-non Japanese speaking, and 40 North Americans-non Japanese speaking) completed the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and customized 2D and 3D spatial object location memory tests. As predicted, main effects revealed men performed better on the MRT and RCFT and women performed better on the spatial object location memory tests. Also, as predicted, native Japanese performed better on all tests than the other groups. In contrast to the other groups, native Japanese showed a decreased magnitude of sex differences on aspects of the RCFT (immediate and delayed recall) and no significant sex difference on the efficiency of the strategy used to copy and encode the RCFT figure. This study lends support to the idea that intensive experience over time with a pictorial written language (i.e., Japanese Kanji) may contribute to increased spatial performance on some spatial tasks as well as diminish sex differences in performance on tasks that most resemble Kanji. PMID:24356949

  15. Red List of beetles of the Wadden Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, V.; Suikat, R.; Aßmann, Th.

    1996-10-01

    As no data on beetles in the Wadden Sea area are available from The Netherlands, the trilateral status of threat only refers to the Danish and German part of the Wadden Sea. In this area, in total, 238 species of beetles are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 189 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 4 species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 24 species of beetles is (probably) critical, 46 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 86 species is (probably) vulnerable and of 29 species (probably) susceptible.

  16. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database)

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A.; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ESACIB (‘EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos’) database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the “Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular”. In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  17. Dew condensation on desert beetle skin.

    PubMed

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Mongruel, A; Medici, M-G; Baquero, E; Parker, A R; Milimouk-Melnytchuk, I; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D

    2014-11-01

    Some tenebrionind beetles inhabiting the Namib desert are known for using their body to collect water droplets from wind-blown fogs. We aim to determine whether dew water collection is also possible for desert insects. For this purpose, we investigated the infra-red emissivity, and the wetting and structural properties, of the surface of the elytra of a preserved specimen of Physasterna cribripes (Tenebrionidæ) beetle, where the macro-structure appears as a series of "bumps", with "valleys" between them. Dew formation experiments were carried out in a condensation chamber. The surface properties (infra-red emissivity, wetting properties) were dominated by the wax at the elytra surface and, to a lower extent, its micro-structure. We performed scanning electron microscope on histological sections and determined the infra-red emissivity using a scanning pyrometer. The emissivity measured (0.95±0.07 between 8-14 μm) was close to the black body value. Dew formation occurred on the insect's elytra, which can be explained by these surface properties. From the surface coverage of the condensed drops it was found that dew forms primarily in the valleys between the bumps. The difference in droplet nucleation rate between bumps and valleys can be attributed to the hexagonal microstructure on the surface of the valleys, whereas the surface of the bumps is smooth. The drops can slide when they reach a critical size, and be collected at the insect's mouth. PMID:25403836

  18. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  19. "Excess Water" Following Deforestation by Beetle Kill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, K.; Miller, S. N.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation resulting from tree mortality by insects and disease may reduce transpiration demand and increase available water in mountain environments throughout. We tested this hypothesis using three large catchments (97-407 km2) located in the Snowy Mountains of Wyoming where hydrology is snowmelt dominated. An epidemic of spruce bark beetle and associated tree mortality emerged in 2006 and has since impacted 60 to 80% of basal area of the spruce-fir and mixed conifer forests. A 25-year continuous record (1998-2013) of daily snowfall, temperature, and stream discharge data between 1 April and 30 September of each year were available for each catchment. We used quantile regression and multivariate time series analysis first to control for the effects of temperature and snow water equivalent on the timing and magnitude of discharge and then to test for changes in discharge trends since 2006. We found no compelling evidence of changes in discharge trends associated with the onset of the beetle epidemic independent of snowmelt trends. Several factors could explain this apparent lack of "excess water" following tree mortality by insects and disease. Any increases in water may be scale dependent, a local phenomenon that does not transfer through large catchments. Other vegetation including young cohorts of affected tree species, shrubs, and herbaceous cover may respond robustly to the open canopy and utilize soil water previously consumed by the infected trees.

  20. The Japanese Education System is a Failure, Say Some Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1997-01-01

    A Japanese editorial in an English-language daily harshly criticized Japanese education's failure to enhance students' spirit of independence; develop critical and artistic thinking skills; and promote social awareness and an international viewpoint. The United States finished fourth out of 60 in the (unpublicized) International Math Olympiad.…

  1. Paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene: a Japanese mothers' view.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vázquez, Genaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the views of 20 Japanese mothers concerning paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene. In Japan, routine male circumcision has never been implemented for newborns and children, and adult males are mostly circumcised at aesthetic clinics. However, media reports indicate a trend of Japanese mothers willing to have their sons circumcised. In discussing penile hygiene and male circumcision, the construct of a 'sexual script' becomes relevant to understanding how linguistic and gender barriers made references to male genitalia and penile hygiene largely appear as 'vulgar' and 'unfeminine' in daily life conversations. Peers were often identified as the main source of information and only mothers who have struggled with their children's penile infections have learnt about male genital hygiene, a domain of knowledge largely transmitted by men. Male circumcision becomes a double-edged sword that could help prevent penile infections but also an embarrassing conversational topic that could elicit discrimination because most Japanese children are uncircumcised. PMID:24152018

  2. Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle?s joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhendong; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2004-01-01

    Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS. The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle’s joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3°). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

  3. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    PubMed

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

  4. Enhanced success of Mexican bean beetle (coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on glutathione-enriched soybean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.R.; Chiment, J.J. )

    1988-01-01

    Artificial augmentation of soybean leaves with reduced glutathione (GSH) elicited all of the same responses from Mexican bean beetle (MBB), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, as did fumigation with the air pollutant sulfur dioxide. Larval growth, rate of development, and survivorship as well as adult fecundity and longevity were all significantly greater on excised leaves that had been allowed to imbibe a solution of the tripeptide. In addition, adults showed a strong preference for feeding on the treated leaves over nontreated leaves. Increased fecundity after feeding on treated leaves was a consequence of the earlier and longer period of egg laying rather than a change in the rate of egg production. The effects of GSH treatment were even more distinct than those produced by exposure of plants to the pollutant. These results establish the very close correlation between changes in foliar glutathione and alteration of MBB success on this plant in response to air pollution.

  5. Interactions between Phoretic Mites and the Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Sharif, Eyas Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon arabicus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the main pests on date palm trees in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two mite species were found associated with this beetle: Sancassania sp. (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) and Hypoaspis rhinocerotis Oudemans (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). Sancassania deutonymphs (hypopi) were phoretic on O. a. arabicus adults and larvae. However, they were also necromenic, because once the host dies they feed on its carcass. The highest deutonymph load was found in the subelytral space of O. a. arabicus adult. The phoretic and necromenic interactions between Sancassania sp. and O. a. arabicus need to be investigated in more detail. H. rhinocerotis was recorded for the first time in UAE. Its role has not yet been studied in the date palm agricultural ecosystem. PMID:23448160

  6. The Oryctes virus: its detection, identification, and implementation in biological control of the coconut palm rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Huger, Alois M

    2005-05-01

    In view of the increasing and devastating damage by rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) to coconut palms in the middle of last century, many efforts were made to find an efficient natural control factor against this pest, which could not be controlled by pesticides. The basic procedures of these monitoring programmes are outlined together with the final detection of a virus disease in oil palm estates in Malaysia in 1963. In extensive laboratory studies, the virus was isolated and identified as the first non-occluded, rod-shaped insect virus, morphologically resembling the baculoviruses. Infection experiments clarified the pathology, histopathology, and virulence of the virus and demonstrated that the virus was extremely virulent to larvae after peroral application. These findings encouraged the first pilot release of virus in 1967 in coconut plantations of Western Samoa where breeding sites were contaminated with virus. Surprisingly, the virus became established in the Samoan rhinoceros beetle populations and spread autonomously throughout the Western Samoan islands. As a consequence, there was a drastic decline of the beetle populations followed by a conspicuous recovery of the badly damaged coconut stands. This unexpected phenomenon could only be explained after it was shown that the adult beetle itself is a very active virus vector and thus was responsible for the efficient autodissemination of the virus. The functioning of the beetle as a 'flying virus factory' is due to the unique cytopathic process developing in the midgut after peroral virus infection. Pathological details of this process are presented. Because of the long-term persistence of the virus in the populations, rhinoceros beetle control is maintained. Incorporation of virus into integrated control measures and successful virus releases in many other countries are recorded. PMID:16039308

  7. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

  8. The Japanese Language: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backhouse, A. E.

    This guide provides an overview of the salient features of the Japanese language from the perspective of the beginning-level English-speaking learner. Chapters address these topics: the Japanese language and its historic and cultural setting; phonology (sounds and syllables, word accentuation; loanwords; connected speech); writing (scripts,…

  9. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  10. A GLOSSARY OF JAPANESE NEOLOGISMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, DON C.

    THIS GLOSSARY COMPRISES A LIST OF USEFUL NEW WORDS AND PHRASES IN CURRENT USE NOT FOUND IN JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARIES, SPECIFICALLY KENKYUSHA'S NEW JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1954 EDITION, WHICH HAS SERVED AS THE MODEL IN MOST RESPECTS FOR THE FORMAT AND STYLE. ROMANIZATION OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY FOLLOWS A MODIFIED HEPBURN SYSTEM AND THE JAPANESE…

  11. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…

  12. Biologically inspired optics: analog semiconductor model of the beetle exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhl, Kaia; Roth, Zachary; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Rumpf, Raymond; Johnson, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms. For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave structures produce matching reflection spectra. In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.

  13. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  14. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  15. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  16. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  17. Two Additional Invasive Scarabaeoid Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of dynastine scarab beetles are reported for the first time on the island of Hawaii: the Pasadena masked chafer, Cyclocephala pasadenae (Casey)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) and the Temnorhynchus retusus (Fabricius)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini). The Pasadena mask...

  18. New generic synonyms in the Oriental flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following new synonyms are proposed for the genera of flea beetles from Oriental Region: Pseudocrypta Medvedev, 1996 and Sebaethiella Medvedev, 1993 = Acrocrypta Baly, 1862: 457; Bhutajana Scherer, 1979 = Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836; Burmaltica Scherer, 1969 = Aphthonaltica Heikertinger, 1924; Apht...

  19. The Role of Beetle Marks and Flower Colour on Visitation by Monkey Beetles (Hopliini) in the Greater Cape Floral Region, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Van Kleunen, Mark; Nänni, Ingrid; Donaldson, John S.; Manning, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims A deviation from the classical beetle pollination syndrome of dull-coloured flowers with an unpleasant scent is found in the Greater Cape Floral Region of South Africa. Here, monkey beetles (Scarabaeidae) visit brightly coloured, odourless flowers with conspicuous dark spots and centres (beetle marks). The role of flower colour and markings in attracting monkey beetles is still poorly understood. Method Artificial model flowers with different marking patterns were used to test the effect of beetle marks on visitation by monkey beetles. To test whether monkey beetles are conditioned to the colour of the local matrix species, model flowers of different colours were placed in populations of three differently coloured species of Iridaceae. Key Results Among all three matrix species the presence of dark markings of some kind (either centres or spots) increased visitation rates but the different matrix species differed in whether the effect was due to a dark centre or to dark spots. Monkey beetles were not conditioned for the colour of the matrix species: model colour was not significant in the Hesperantha vaginata and in the Romulea monadelpha matrices, whereas yellow model flowers were preferred over orange ones in the orange-flowered Sparaxis elegans matrix. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate that beetle marks attract pollinating monkey beetles in the Greater Cape Floral Region. In contrast to plants with the classical beetle pollination syndrome that use floral scent as the most important attractant of pollinating beetles, plants with the monkey beetle pollination syndrome rely on visual signals, and, in some areas at least, monkey beetles favour flowers with dark beetle markings over unmarked flowers. PMID:17951585

  20. Big dung beetles dig deeper: trait-based consequences for faecal parasite transmission.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nichar; Gómez, Andrés; Oliveira, Trícia Maria F de S; Nichols, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Observational evidence suggests that burial of faeces by dung beetles negatively influences the transmission of directly transmitted gastrointestinal helminths. However, the mechanistic basis for these interactions is poorly characterised, limiting our ability to understand relationships between beetle community composition and helminth transmission. We demonstrate that beetle body size and sex significantly impact tunnel depth, a key variable affecting parasite survival. Additionally, high parasite loads reduce the depth of beetle faeces burial, suggesting that the local prevalence of parasites infecting beetles may impact beetle ecosystem function. Our study represents a first step towards a mechanistic understanding of a potentially epidemiologically relevant ecosystem function. PMID:25496914

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  2. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

  3. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  4. Maize Benefits the Predatory Beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to Provide Potential to Enhance Biological Control for Aphids in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton. PMID:22984499

  5. Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of the Morinda lucida Essential Oil against Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Moses S.; Ogundajo, Akintayo L.; Ogunwande, Isiaka A.; Yusuff, Olaniyi K.; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and β-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

  6. Seasonal phenology of the cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lawrence M.; Reagel, Peter F.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wong, Joseph C. H.; Meier, Linnea R.; Silliman, Christina A.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Striman, Becca L.; Robinson, Kenneth P.; Mongold-Diers, Judith A.; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize field data on the species composition and seasonal phenology of the community of cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Data were drawn from field bioassays conducted during 2009 – 2012 that tested attraction of adult beetles of diverse species to a variety of synthetic pheromones and host plant volatiles. A total of 34,086 beetles of 114 species were captured, including 48 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 41 species in the Lamiinae, 19 species in the Lepturinae, two species in the Spondylidinae, and one species each in the Necydalinae, Parandrinae, Prioninae, and the Disteniidae. Most of the best-represented species were attracted to pheromones that were included in field experiments, particularly species that use (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a pheromone component. The species captured, and their patterns of abundance and seasonal phenology were similar to those in an earlier study conducted in Pennsylvania. The most abundant species identified in both studies included the cerambycines Elaphidion mucronatum (Say), Neoclytus a. acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus m. mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Cerambycine species became active in an orderly progression from early spring through late fall, whereas most lamiine species were active in summer and fall, and lepturine species were limited to summer. Potential cross attraction between some cerambycine species that shared pheromone components may have been averted by differences in seasonal activity period, and by minor pheromone components that acted as synergists for conspecifics and/or antagonists for heterospecifics. These results provide quantitative data on the abundance and seasonal phenology of a large number of species. PMID:24683267

  7. Non-Native Ambrosia Beetles as Opportunistic Exploiters of Living but Weakened Trees

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, Christopher M.; Schultz, Peter B.; Frank, Steven D.; Chong, Juang H.; Reding, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles established in non-native habitats have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on a diverse range of living trees, but factors driving their shift from dying/dead hosts to living and healthy ones are not well understood. We sought to characterize the role of host physiological condition on preference and colonization by two invaders, Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. When given free-choice under field conditions among flooded and non-flooded deciduous tree species of varying intolerance to flooding, beetles attacked flood-intolerant tree species over more tolerant species within 3 days of initiating flood stress. In particular, flood-intolerant flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) sustained more attacks than flood-tolerant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor). Ethanol, a key host-derived attractant, was detected at higher concentrations 3 days after initiating flooding within stems of flood intolerant species compared to tolerant and non-flooded species. A positive correlation was also detected between ethanol concentrations in stem tissue and cumulative ambrosia beetle attacks. When adult X. germanus and X. crassiusculus were confined with no-choice to stems of flood-stressed and non-flooded C. florida, more ejected sawdust resulting from tunneling activity was associated with the flood-stressed trees. Furthermore, living foundresses, eggs, larvae, and pupae were only detected within galleries created in stems of flood-stressed trees. Despite a capability to attack diverse tree genera, X. germanus and X. crassiusculus efficiently distinguished among varying host qualities and preferentially targeted trees based on their intolerance of flood stress. Non-flooded trees were not preferred or successfully colonized. This study demonstrates the host-selection strategy exhibited by X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in non-native habitats involves

  8. Explosive adaptive radiation and extreme phenotypic diversity within ant-nest beetles.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy; Robertson, James A

    2014-10-20

    Ant-nest beetles (Paussus) are the quintessential Trojan horses of the insect world. They hack the complex communication system of ants, allowing them to blend into the ant society and be treated as royalty, all the while preying upon the ants and the ants' brood and duping the ants into rearing their young. Here we present results of the first molecular-based phylogeny of ant-nest beetles, which reveals that this symbiosis has produced one of the most stunning examples of rapid adaptive radiation documented to date. The most recent ancestor of a Paussus clade endemic to Madagascar is only 2.6 million years old. This species gave rise to a remarkably phenotypically diverse clade of 86 extant species with a net diversification interval of 0.38-0.81 million years, a rate of radiation faster than classic textbook examples of large, recent, rapid radiations such as Anolis lizards on Caribbean islands, cichlids of the East African Great Lakes, finches on the Galápagos Islands, and Drosophila and tetragnathid spiders on the Hawaiian Islands. In order for Paussus to adapt to a new host ant species, the beetle's ability to perceive, deceive, and communicate with the new host must evolve quickly and in synchrony in both the larval and adult life stages, resulting in unusually strong selective pressure levied by their host ants. Data on host associations suggest that the history of host shifts may help explain both the striking phenotypic diversity within the Malagasy radiation and the evolution of phenotypically similar yet distantly related species in Madagascar and Africa. PMID:25283783

  9. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Byrne, Marcus J; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-11-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. PMID:26538537

  10. Field response of Colorado potato beetle to the (R)-enantiomer of the male-produced aggregation pheromone CPB I and determination of activity of blends of the (S)- and (R)-enantiomers of the pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Colorado potato beetles (CPB) are attracted to (S)-3,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-oct-6-ene-1,3-diol [(S)-CPB I], a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Studies were conducted to determine if the opposite enantiomer of the pheromone, (R)-CPB I had an effect on CPB in the field. Results revealed no differe...

  11. Open field host selection and behavior by tamarisk beetles (Diorhabda spp.)(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in biological control of exotic saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) and risks to non-target athel (T. aphylla) and native Frankenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of exotic, invasive saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the western USA involves releases of exotic saltcedar leaf beetles, Diorhabda elongata Brullé sensu lato. Adults in cages alight, feed and oviposit on athel (Tamarix aphylla), an evergreen cold-intolerant tree used for shade and as...

  12. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  13. Intraguild Predation and Native Lady Beetle Decline

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Mary M.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Landis, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  14. Pathogenicity of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi, seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Y; Shoji, T

    2009-06-01

    Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi, seedlings was tested with inoculation experiments under nursery conditions. Water suspensions of nematodes (mixed stages cultured on Botrytis cinerea or dispersal fourth-stage juveniles (DJ4) extracted from the adult Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus) were injected into the stems of 2- and 3-year-old Japanese larch and Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, seedlings growing in a nursery. In another treatment, Japanese pine sawyer adults holding DJ4 were released under a net that covered the upper half of the seedlings. Regardless of nematode inoculation method, Japanese larch seedlings were as susceptible as Japanese black pine seedlings to B. xylophilus under nursery conditions. The rate of disease development was similar on larch and pine seedlings. Nematode population densities were lower in the stems of dead larch seedlings than in the stems of dead pine seedlings. Histopathological observations revealed that the distribution of nematodes in the stems of dead larch seedlings was mostly limited to the cortex, phloem and cambial zone. Traumatic resin canal formation was one of the most characteristic symptoms in larch seedlings which was dissimilar to that in pine seedlings. PMID:22661789

  15. Method of application of tylosin, an antibiotic for American foulbrood control, with effects on small hive beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Elzen, P J; Westervelt, D; Causey, D; Ellis, J; Hepburn, H R; Neumann, P

    2002-12-01

    The method of application of the antibiotic tylosin (Tylan) for control of oxytetracycline-resistant American foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae White) was tested in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. A powdered sugar mixture with tylosin, applied as a dust, was efficacious in eliminating American foulbrood symptoms at a rate of 200-mg Tylan per 20 g of powdered sugar, applied at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. A second method of treatment consisting of Tylan mixed with granulated sugar and vegetable shortening and applied once as a patty, at an equivalent total dose as the dust method, to diseased colonies also effectively eliminated symptoms of disease. In all colonies treated with patties, however, small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) populations significantly increased, compared with the powder sugar method or untreated controls. Bee populations in patty-treated colonies also were significantly reduced, most likely the result of the invasion and proliferation of adult and larval small hive beetles. Such reduction in colony strength was not seen in dust-treated colonies. Because of the obvious damaging populations of small hive beetles, concerns about development of disease resistance, unknown risks of residues, and lack of support by regulatory agencies for the use of the patty method, the use of the dust method of tylosin is greatly favored over the patty method. PMID:12539820

  16. Adopting Bacteria in Order to Adapt to Water-How Reed Beetles Colonized the Wetlands (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae).

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Birgit; Kölsch, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reviews the biology of reed beetles (Donaciinae), presents experimental data on the role of specific symbiotic bacteria, and describes a molecular method for the detection of those bacteria. Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous. They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots. The larvae pupate there in a water-tight cocoon, which they build using a secretion that is produced by symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria are located in four blind sacs at the foregut of the larvae; in (female) adults they colonize two out of the six Malpighian tubules. Tetracycline treatment of larvae reduced their pupation rate, although the bacteria could not be fully eliminated. When the small amount of bacterial mass attached to eggs was experimentally removed before hatching, symbiont free larvae resulted, showing the external transmission of the bacteria to the offspring. Specific primers were designed to detect the bacteria, and to confirm their absence in manipulated larvae. The pupation underwater enabled the reed beetles to permanently colonize the wetlands and to diversify in this habitat underexploited by herbivorous insects (adaptive radiation). PMID:26467833

  17. Seasonal Succession of Fungi Associated with Ips typographus Beetles and Their Phoretic Mites in an Outbreak Region of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Mahilainen, Saila; Harrington, Alison; Vanhanen, Henri; Eriksson, Miikka; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Pappinen, Ari; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The ophiostomatoid fungi (Microascales and Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) are common associates of Ips typographus, and include tree pathogens and species responsible for blue-stain of timber. Fungal assemblages associated with I. typographus have varied considerably between studies but few investigations have attempted to explain this variation. For this reason, we assessed the overall cultivable fungal diversity associated with I. typographus in a storm-felled spruce forest in south-eastern Finland. Fungi were isolated from the individually collected beetles as well as their phoretic mites in spring, summer and autumn, including different life stages of the beetle (hibernation, dispersal flight and first generation). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region was used to identify the fungi. A total of 32 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found and these resided in four fungal phyla/subphyla (24 Ascomycota, 2 Basidiomycota, 5 Mucoromycotina, 1 Mortierellomycotina) in association with adult bark beetles. Ophiostomatoid species were the most commonly detected fungal associates. A generalized linear model analysis showed a clear association between fungal communities and season, indicating seasonal succession among I. typographus-associated fungi. The season of sampling appears to be an important factor that has resulted in inconsistencies between results in previous studies. Many of these fungi were also found on phoretic mites and their presence or absence could have influenced variation in patterns of association. PMID:27187192

  18. Uncovering the cultivable microbial diversity of costa rican beetles and its ability to break down plant cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Asensio, Gabriel; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Rivera, Beatriz; Hernandez, Myriam; Hernandez, Carlos; Soto-Montero, Silvia; Murillo, Catalina; Sherman, David H; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Coleopterans are the most diverse insect order described to date. These organisms have acquired an array of survival mechanisms through their evolution, including highly efficient digestive systems. Therefore, the coleopteran intestinal microbiota constitutes an important source of novel plant cell wall-degrading enzymes with potential biotechnological applications. We isolated and described the cultivable fungi, actinomycetes and aerobic eubacteria associated with the gut of larvae and adults from six different beetle families colonizing decomposing logs in protected Costa Rican ecosystems. We obtained 611 isolates and performed phylogenetic analyses using the ITS region (fungi) and 16S rDNA (bacteria). The majority of fungal isolates belonged to the order Hypocreales (26% of 169 total), while the majority of actinomycetes belonged to the genus Streptomyces (86% of 241 total). Finally, we isolated 201 bacteria spanning 19 different families belonging into four phyla: Firmicutes, α, β and γ-proteobacteria. Subsequently, we focused on microbes isolated from Passalid beetles to test their ability to degrade plant cell wall polymers. Highest scores in these assays were achieved by a fungal isolate (Anthostomella sp.), two Streptomyces and one Bacillus bacterial isolates. Our study demonstrates that Costa Rican beetles harbor several types of cultivable microbes, some of which may be involved in symbiotic relationships that enable the insect to digest complex polymers such as lignocellulose. PMID:25411842

  19. Uncovering the Cultivable Microbial Diversity of Costa Rican Beetles and Its Ability to Break Down Plant Cell Wall Components

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Asensio, Gabriel; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Rivera, Beatriz; Hernandez, Myriam; Hernandez, Carlos; Soto-Montero, Silvia; Murillo, Catalina; Sherman, David H.; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Coleopterans are the most diverse insect order described to date. These organisms have acquired an array of survival mechanisms through their evolution, including highly efficient digestive systems. Therefore, the coleopteran intestinal microbiota constitutes an important source of novel plant cell wall-degrading enzymes with potential biotechnological applications. We isolated and described the cultivable fungi, actinomycetes and aerobic eubacteria associated with the gut of larvae and adults from six different beetle families colonizing decomposing logs in protected Costa Rican ecosystems. We obtained 611 isolates and performed phylogenetic analyses using the ITS region (fungi) and 16S rDNA (bacteria). The majority of fungal isolates belonged to the order Hypocreales (26% of 169 total), while the majority of actinomycetes belonged to the genus Streptomyces (86% of 241 total). Finally, we isolated 201 bacteria spanning 19 different families belonging into four phyla: Firmicutes, α, β and γ-proteobacteria. Subsequently, we focused on microbes isolated from Passalid beetles to test their ability to degrade plant cell wall polymers. Highest scores in these assays were achieved by a fungal isolate (Anthostomella sp.), two Streptomyces and one Bacillus bacterial isolates. Our study demonstrates that Costa Rican beetles harbor several types of cultivable microbes, some of which may be involved in symbiotic relationships that enable the insect to digest complex polymers such as lignocellulose. PMID:25411842

  20. Seasonal Succession of Fungi Associated with Ips typographus Beetles and Their Phoretic Mites in an Outbreak Region of Finland.

    PubMed

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Mahilainen, Saila; Harrington, Alison; Vanhanen, Henri; Eriksson, Miikka; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Pappinen, Ari; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The ophiostomatoid fungi (Microascales and Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) are common associates of Ips typographus, and include tree pathogens and species responsible for blue-stain of timber. Fungal assemblages associated with I. typographus have varied considerably between studies but few investigations have attempted to explain this variation. For this reason, we assessed the overall cultivable fungal diversity associated with I. typographus in a storm-felled spruce forest in south-eastern Finland. Fungi were isolated from the individually collected beetles as well as their phoretic mites in spring, summer and autumn, including different life stages of the beetle (hibernation, dispersal flight and first generation). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region was used to identify the fungi. A total of 32 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found and these resided in four fungal phyla/subphyla (24 Ascomycota, 2 Basidiomycota, 5 Mucoromycotina, 1 Mortierellomycotina) in association with adult bark beetles. Ophiostomatoid species were the most commonly detected fungal associates. A generalized linear model analysis showed a clear association between fungal communities and season, indicating seasonal succession among I. typographus-associated fungi. The season of sampling appears to be an important factor that has resulted in inconsistencies between results in previous studies. Many of these fungi were also found on phoretic mites and their presence or absence could have influenced variation in patterns of association. PMID:27187192