Science.gov

Sample records for adult labor market

  1. Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2014-09-01

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.

  2. The effects of childhood ADHD on adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-02-01

    Although several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Because ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness. This article uses a longitudinal national sample, including sibling pairs, to show the important labor market outcome consequences of ADHD. The employment reduction is between 10 and 14 percentage points, the earnings reduction is approximately 33%, and the increase in social assistance is 15 points, figures that are larger than many estimates of the Black people/White people earnings gap and the gender earnings gap. A small share of the link is explained by educational attainments and co-morbid health conditions and behaviors. The results also show important differences in labor market consequences by family background and age of onset. These findings, along with similar research showing that ADHD is linked with poor education outcomes and adult crime, suggest the importance of treating childhood ADHD to foster human capital.

  3. Parental Problem-Drinking and Adult Children's Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.

    2008-01-01

    Current estimates of the societal costs of alcoholism do not consider the impact of parental drinking on children. This paper analyzes the consequences of parental problem-drinking on children's labor market outcomes in adulthood. Using the NLSY79, I show that having a problem-drinking parent is associated with longer periods out of the labor…

  4. Left Behind in the Labor Market: Labor Market Problems of the Nation's Out-of-School, Young Adult Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Khatiwada, Ishwar; Pond, Nathan; Trub 'skyy, Mykhaylo; Fogg, Neeta; Palma, Sheila

    The problems faced by out-of-school young adults in the United States and the policy implications of those problems were examined. The analysis was based on a review of pertinent publications and statistical data from various government agencies and other sources. The study documented that the past decade has witnessed areas of progress,…

  5. The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18689

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several types of mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, have been linked with poor labor market outcomes, no current research has been able to examine the effects of childhood ADHD. As ADHD has become one of the most prevalent childhood mental conditions, it is useful to understand the full set of consequences of the illness.…

  6. Labor Market Progeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  7. Time well spent: the duration of foster care and early adult labor market, educational, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7220 children. The children experienced different average durations of foster care because of differences in exposure to a reform. Later born cohorts spent on average 3 months longer in foster care than earlier born cohorts. Isolating exogenous variation in duration of foster care, the study finds positive effects of increased duration of foster care on income and labor market participation.

  8. Labor Market Outcomes of Hispanics by Generation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Richard

    This digest presents an analysis of the workforce participation of Latinos, emphasizing findings by generation. It describes the demographics of native-born and immigrant Latinos and compares labor market outcomes for adult, young adult, and teen workers. The digest also explores the relationship between schooling and labor market participation,…

  9. Pathways to Labor Market Success: The Literacy Proficiency of U.S. Adults. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Kirsch, Irwin; Yamamoto, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of reports that draws upon the vast amount of background and assessment data and information that have been collected from the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). In this report, the authors find connections between the literacy skills of adults and their success…

  10. Labor Market Experiences and Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia

    This paper reports on a study which measured labor market experience and its possible effects on workers' psychological expectancies. Past efforts that employed black and white men and women had made to improve their market situations are described, as well as attributions they gave for their experiences. Work or educational changes attempted by…

  11. Labor Market Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a class experiment where students search a hypothetical job market for jobs paying wages in a known range but with an unknown wage distribution. The experiment is divided into three "trials", each one introducing different variables (unemployment insurance, search costs, and recession). Includes experiment instructions and a…

  12. Academic Labor Markets and Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breneman, David W., Ed.; Youn, Ted I. K., Ed.

    As part of the Stanford Series on Education and Public Policy, academic careers and academic labor markets in American higher education are examined from a perspective based on both economic reasoning and sociological analysis. Research common to both fields is considered in a series of 10 essays that discuss the following subjects: "Studies…

  13. The Chilean Teacher Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Maria del Rosario

    2013-01-01

    In Chile, as many other countries, understanding how high-qualified teachers are distributed across schools and which are the relationships that may lead to teachers' potential sorting are key aspect of the teacher labor market and it is central to addressing student achievement gaps. The first paper uses rich new data on all elementary public…

  14. Economic and Labor Market Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…

  15. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  16. Labor Market Information for Business and Marketing Occupations. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Economics.

    This paper reviews and analyzes labor market trends to provide information for business and marketing program planners. Emphasizing the demand side of the market, the paper considers only those aspects of labor markets that have an impact on the supply of students to business and marketing programs and the demand for graduates of those programs.…

  17. Labor Market Outcomes and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and…

  18. Physician Labor Market in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyze the physician labor market in Croatia with respect to the internship and employment opportunities, Croatian needs for physicians and specialists, and trends in physician labor market in the European Union (EU) in the context of EU enlargement. Methods Data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Employment Service, and the Croatian Institute for Public Health. We compared the number of physicians waiting for internship before and 14 months after the implementation of the State Program for Intern Employment Stimulation. Also, the number of employed specialists in internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, and pediatrics was compared with estimated number of specialists that will have been needed by the end of 2007. Average age of hospital physicians in the four specialties was determined and the number of Croatian physicians compared with the number of physicians in EU countries. Results The number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship decreased from 335 in 2003 to 82 in 2004, while a total number of unemployed physicians decreased from 436 to 379 (χ2 = 338, P<0.001). In October 2004, 79.3% of unemployed physicians waited for internship <6 months; of them, 89.2% waited for internship <3 months. In February 2005, 365 unemployed physicians were registered at the Croatian Employment Service and that number has been decreasing in the last couple of years. The number of employed specialists was lower than the estimated number of specialists needed in the analyzed specialists, as defined by the prescribed standards. A shortage of 328 internists, 319 surgeons, 209 gynecologists, and 69 pediatricians in Croatian hospitals is expected in 2007. Conclusion The lack of employment incentive seems to be the main reason for the large number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship before the implementation of the Employment Stimulation Program. According to the number of physicians per 100

  19. Education: The Key to Labor Market Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Janet L.

    Although education is the key to labor market success, it never has been a sufficient condition for that goal. In addition to the changing educational attainment of U.S. workers, the shifts in the demographic composition of the labor force and in the very conditions and expectations of the workplace have made the task of efficient use of labor a…

  20. Statistical Mechanics of Labor Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    We introduce a probabilistic model of labor markets for university graduates, in particular, in Japan. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weaken if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. Assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate. We find that the system undergoes a sort of `phase transition' from the `good employment phase' to `poor employment phase' when one controls the degree of importance for the ranking.

  1. Labor Market Segmentation and Librarian Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van House, Nancy A.

    1987-01-01

    Segmented labor market theory is used to explain how the structure of the library labor market may determine salary differences by type of library. Evidence that segmentation exists at intraoccupational levels and the possibility that comparing entire occupations may obscure results are also reported. (Author/CLB)

  2. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    PubMed

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  3. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  4. Migraine headache and labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rees, Daniel I; Sabia, Joseph J

    2015-06-01

    While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of being diagnosed with migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates suggest that migraines are associated with reduced labor force participation and lower wages among females. A negative association between migraine headache and the wages of female respondents is also obtained using an instrumental variables (IV) approach, although the IV estimates are imprecise relative to the OLS estimates.

  5. From Dreams to Dust: The Deteriorating Labor Market Fortunes of Young Adults. Policy Issues Monograph 96-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; And Others

    Over the past 2 decades, the inflation-adjusted median weekly earnings of full-time employed males and females decreased by 31% and 13%, respectively, and the deterioration in the real weekly earnings of young adults (ages 18-24) shows no signs of abatement. Male high school dropouts and graduates with no postsecondary schooling experienced the…

  6. Labor Market Areas for the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Charles M., II; Killian, Molly Sizer

    This research report identifies labor market areas (LMAs) that can be used for statistical and planning purposes in research on rural America. It details the process by which the 382 LMAs were delineated, using commuting-to-work data from the 1980 Census. A rationale for identifying LMAs appears first. The next part describes the research…

  7. The Youth Labor Market: A Dynamic Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antos, Joseph R.; Mellow, Wesley S.

    Based on the National Longitudinal Surveys of over 10,000 men and women aged eighteen to twenty-seven who were interviewed annually from 1966 through 1971, this study investigates how the youth labor market operates and identifies its manpower problems that should be addressed by policymakers. A five-part recursive model is established for the…

  8. The Labor Market and Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallmann, Judith I.; And Others

    This study tests the hypothesis that the local labor market structure, particularly the proportions of high- and low-paying occupations, affects human capital investment. Most studies have assumed that the direction of causation flows from the supply of human capital to employment growth. However, the creation of low-skilled jobs merely reshuffles…

  9. Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeringer, Peter B.; Piore, Michael J.

    Using data gathered in a series of interviews with management and union officials in over 75 companies between 1964 and 1969, this report analyzes the concept of the internal labor market and describes its relevance for federal manpower policy. The management interviews, which were mostly in personnel, industrial engineering, and operations areas…

  10. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  11. The Labor Market Effects of Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, George E.

    1980-01-01

    The probable effects on the U.S. labor market of a continued high rate of illegal immigration are examined. The impact each additional immigrant has on the employment of the domestic population, on GNP, and on the distribution of income is estimated. (CT)

  12. European Academic Labor Markets in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselin, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Even if convergences are to be observed among the orientations adopted by higher education policies in European countries, they still are characterized by strong national features. One of the most striking national patterns of each system is its academic labor market, salaries, status, recruitment procedures, workloads, career patterns, promotion…

  13. Labor Market Information for Career Cluster Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared

    2008-01-01

    In the midst of several upheavals in the American labor market, career clusters entered the scene in the late 1990s. Career clusters, sometimes called career pathways or ladders, have exploded in popularity and are now being implemented by most states. Job types can be grouped according to similar work interests and knowledge/skill requirements.…

  14. Studying Ourselves: The Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    This paper focuses on three academic labor market issues that researchers at Cornell University are addressing currently: (1) the declining salaries of faculty employed at public colleges and universities relative to the salaries of their counterparts at private higher education institutions; (2) the growing dispersion of average faculty salaries…

  15. The Labor Market And Schizoprenics' Posthospital Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Lee; Lorei, Theodore W.

    1973-01-01

    Survey results indicated that posthospital employment was meagre and that it was unrelated to urbanization industrialization and local unemployment rates. Variance in vocational adjustment was more importantly accounted for by characteristics of the subject than by labor market characteristics, and was seen as having encouraging implications for…

  16. No time for the gym? Housework and other non-labor market time use patterns are associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among adults in full-time, sedentary jobs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-11-01

    Physical activity and inactivity have distinct cardio-metabolic consequences, suggesting that combinations of activities can impact health above and beyond the effects of a single activity. However, little work has examined patterns of non-labor market time activity in the US population, particularly among full-time employees in sedentary occupations, who are at increased risk of adverse health consequences associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Identification of these patterns, and how they are related to total physical activity levels, is important for developing effective, attainable physical activity recommendations among sedentary employees, who typically have less time available for exercise. This is especially the case for low-income employees who face the highest time and financial barriers to achieving physical activity goals. This study uses cluster analysis to examine patterns of non-labor market time use among full-time (≥40 h/week) employed adults in sedentary occupations (<3 MET-h) on working days in the American Time Use Study. We then examine whether these patterns are associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations and higher overall physical activity (MET-h). We find that non-labor market time use patterns include those characterized by screen activities, housework, caregiving, sedentary leisure, and exercise. For both genders, the screen pattern was the most common and increased from 2003 to 2012, while the exercise pattern was infrequent and consistent across time. Screen, sedentary leisure, and community patterns were associated with lower likelihoods of meeting physical activity recommendations, suggesting that interventions targeting screen time may miss opportunities to improve physical activity among similarly sedentary groups. Alternately, non-labor market time use patterns characterized by housework and caregiving represented feasible avenues for increasing overall physical activity levels, especially for

  17. [Labor market and health. SESPAS Report 2010].

    PubMed

    García, Ana M

    2010-12-01

    The labor market, where the supply of labor meets demand, determines employment and working conditions, with positive and negative effects on the active population's health and that of their families. Labor markets are also affected by national and international social and economic policies. Unemployment, precarious contracts and new types of employment have been shown to be related to exposure to living and working conditions that cause physical and mental health problems. Some collectives, such as manual, young or immigrant workers, are more vulnerable to labor market fluctuations and more frequently experience adverse employment and working conditions. The current situation in Spain is now highly worrysome. In Spain, in 2009, more than 1.2 million workers lost their jobs. The unemployment rate has doubled in 5 years, from 9% in 2005 to 18% in 2009. Temporary contracts account for 24% of all job contracts. Economic and employment policies are urgently needed to reverse this situation, which unquestionably has a negative effect on people's health and wellbeing.

  18. White Ethnics, Racial Prejudice, and Labor Market Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Scott

    The contemporary conflict between blacks and selected white ethnic groups (Catholic immigrants, Jews) is the product of competition for jobs in the secondary labor market. Radical economists have described the existence of a dual labor market within the American economy. The idea of this segmented labor market provides a useful way to integrate…

  19. The U.S. Labor Market. Getting Inside the Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Economics, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Important changes are taking place in the U.S. labor market. The economy has performed solidly over the last several years; the labor market has experienced robust job growth. A strong labor market benefits different segments of the population. Unemployment rates for those with less than a high school diploma fell by the largest amount between…

  20. Dynamics of Vocational Education Effects on Labor Market Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul B.; And Others

    An analysis assessed the effects of a high school vocational curriculum over time as labor market experience accumulates. Since two additional years of labor market experience had become available for respondents to the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience-Youth Cohort (NLS-Youth) and longer trends of effects could be observed,…

  1. Social inequalities in probabilistic labor markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Chen, He

    2015-03-01

    We discuss social inequalities in labor markets for university graduates in Japan by using the Gini and k-indices . Feature vectors which specify the abilities of candidates (students) are built-into the probabilistic labor market model. Here we systematically examine what kind of selection processes (strategies) by companies according to the weighted feature vector of each candidate could induce what type of inequalities in the number of informal acceptances leading to a large mismatch between students and companies. This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) No. 2533027803 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area No. 2512001313.

  2. Determinants of Early Labor Market Entry and Attainment: A Study of Labor Market Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Larry J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The early career attainments of a large, national sample of noncollege educated workers are considered from a dual labor market perspective. The analysis considers both the kinds of workers selected initially into secondary sector employment and the consequences of being so situated for a variety of indicators of market success, including…

  3. Labor Market Impediments to Stability in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    out. Sad accounts of child labor abound.[35] Accounts of income earned by children vary. Representative figures are:[36] • Car mechanic—working...market in expensive consumer items, some of which had been unavailable for years. Rising salaries and incomes have enabled many Iraqis to repurchase... household items sold during the sanctions-era of the 1990s.[1] No doubt much of this new found consumer good boom can be attributed to the

  4. Statistical Mechanics of Japanese Labor Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He

    We introduce a probabilistic model to analyze job-matching processes of recent Japanese labor markets, in particular, for university graduates by means of statistical physics. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weakening if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. By assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate and Gini index. We discuss social inequalities in labor markets, and provide some ways to improve these situations, such as the informal job offer rate, the job-worker mismatch between students and companies. Graduate School of Information Science and Technology.

  5. Minorities in the Labor Market. Volume II: Orientals in the American Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, George L.; And Others

    The major task of this report is to describe and evaluate the participation and status achievements of Orientals in the labor market, with particular attention to factors affecting such participation and whether differences in participation as compared to that of whites reflect discrimination. Inequalities and discrimination are examined in terms…

  6. Labor market outcomes and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and self-sufficiency that are important markers of the transition to adulthood. Young men with no more than a high school degree have difficulty earning enough to support a family. Even though young women have achieved gains in earnings, employment, and schooling relative to men in recent decades, those without a college degree also struggle to achieve economic stability and self-sufficiency. The authors begin by describing trends in labor market outcomes for young adults-median annual earnings, the extent of low-wage work, employment rates, job instability, and the returns to education. Then they examine how these outcomes may contribute to delays in other markers of the transition to adulthood-completing an education, establishing independent living arrangements, and marrying and having children. They conclude that adverse changes in labor market outcomes are related to those delays but have not been shown to be the primary cause. Danziger and Ratner next consider several public policy reforms that might improve the economic outlook for young adults. They recommend policies that would increase the returns to work, especially for less-educated workers. They propose raising the federal minimum wage and adjusting it annually to maintain its value relative to the median wage. Expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless low-wage workers, the authors say, could also raise the take-home pay of many young adult workers, with minimal adverse employment effects. New policies should also provide work opportunities for young adults who cannot find steady employment either because of poor economic conditions or because of physical

  7. Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.

    PubMed

    Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna

    2015-09-01

    This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.

  8. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.

  9. Africans in the American Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  10. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  11. Education, Labor Markets and the Retreat from Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harknett, Kristen; Kuperberg, Arielle

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and the Current Population Survey, we find that labor market conditions play a large role in explaining the positive relationship between educational attainment and marriage. Our results suggest that if low-educated parents enjoyed the same, stronger labor market conditions as their…

  12. Requirements Higher Education Graduates Meet on the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Edith M. P.; Brachem, Julia-Carolin

    2015-01-01

    In Europe and all over the world, higher education systems face the challenge of preparing an increasing number of students for the labor market and teaching them discipline-related knowledge and competences as well as generic competences. But what requirements do higher education graduates actually meet on the labor market? To identify higher…

  13. Academic Labor Markets and Assistant Professors' Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargens, Lowell L.

    2012-01-01

    Using data for 638 assistant professors who joined graduate sociology departments between 1975 and 1992, I examine the claim that when the labor market for new doctorates is weak, assistant professors experience less favorable employment outcomes than when that labor market is strong. Surprisingly, I find that those hired during the weak…

  14. Changing Labor Markets: A Systems Approach to Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastrik, Peter; Seltzer, Marlene B.; Taylor, Judith Combes

    A systems approach to changing labor market performance requires a substantial and enduring commitment to the task of change. A systems reform framework has been developed that is based on a dual-customer approach, with a focus on improving labor market outcomes for both low-income people and their employers. The objective is to change the labor…

  15. Teaching Labor Market Survey Methodology in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Labor Market Survey (LMS) and labor market analysis knowledge and methodologies are minimum competencies expected of rehabilitation counselors through credentialing and accreditation boards. However, LMS knowledge and methodology is an example of a contemporary oral tradition that is universally recognized in rehabilitation and disability services…

  16. A Labor Market Success Model of Young Male Hispanic Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenstat, Paul

    The study develops a labor market success model of young male inner-city Hispanics and examines several variables influencing labor market success. A sample of inner-city Puerto Ricans who attended the eighth grade in two schools in Wilmington, Delaware, in the 1966-1971 period was chosen and interviewed. Small control groups of blacks and whites…

  17. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  18. The 21st-Century Community College: A Strategic Guide to Maximizing Labor Market Responsiveness. Volumes 1, 2, and 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Poliakoff, Anne Rogers

    2004-01-01

    The Community College Labor Market Responsiveness (CCLMR) Initiative was created by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), to develop and disseminate information to enable community colleges to keep pace with the needs of a diverse student body and a dynamic labor market. The main goals of the initiative…

  19. Helping Ex-Offenders Enter the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, Frederick

    1983-01-01

    How beneficial are programs designed to improve employability and reduce recidivism? This article reviews research on various labor market strategies and casts doubt on their effectiveness. (Author/SSH)

  20. Labor Markets and Economic Incorporation among Recent Immigrants in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…

  1. Primary and Secondary Labor Markets: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagner, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…

  2. National Labor Market Projections for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Dixie

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the job outlook for occupations where the most important path to entry is through programs typically found at the community college: an associate degree or postsecondary training but less than a degree. The discussion draws on labor market projections from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the federal agency charged…

  3. Peasants in reserve: temporary West Indian labor in the U.S. farm labor market.

    PubMed

    Griffith, D

    1986-01-01

    In the past 10 years, the British West Indies Temporary Alien Labor Program has received widespread judicial and legislative support and criticism. While sugar and apple producers who import West Indians argue that domestic labor is insufficient to harvest their crops, labor organizations and their supporters maintain that domestic labor is adequate. The resulting labor disputes focus primarily on the issue of whether or not West Indians are displacing US workers or undermining wage rates and working conditions. This article examines the relationships among legal issues surrounding the program, the US farm labor market, and the Jamaican peasantry. It argues that continued imports of foreign labor during times of high domestic unemployment, as well as the varied factors which underlie the continued willingness and ability of Jamaican peasant households to supply workers to US producers, can be most clearly understood from an international and historical perspective, rather than focussing on the needs and problems of any 1 nation.

  4. Nonmetro and Metro Teens in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    Drawing on theories of family organization and labor market structures, it is argued that teenagers are a useful population for research on the effects of race, household characteristics, and local labor markets on labor force participation. Predictive models of labor force participation were applied to a sample of all White and Black 16- to…

  5. Myths and Realities of Academic Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines national data on 4,481 full-time college and university faculty to develop a pay model derived from competing propositions (market segmentation, single national market, and incentive-based perspectives) concerning salary's role in faculty rewards. Findings suggest a blend of market segmentation with a national market perspective rewarding…

  6. The Labor Market Problems of Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roner, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    This study concludes that older workers do not have especially high unemployment rates, but when they become unemployed, they are less likely to find a job and more likely to leave the labor force in discouragement. (Author/SSH)

  7. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  8. Height and cognition at work: Labor market productivity in a low income setting.

    PubMed

    LaFave, Daniel; Thomas, Duncan

    2016-11-05

    Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker of strength which is rewarded in the labor market; a proxy for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human capital such as school quality; a proxy for health status; and a proxy for family background and genetic characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been argued that the height premium is driven by occupational and sectoral choice. This paper evaluates the relative importance of these potential mechanisms underlying the link between adult stature and labor market productivity in a specific low income setting, rural Central Java, Indonesia. Drawing on twelve waves of longitudinal survey data, we establish that height predicts hourly earnings after controlling education, multiple indicators of cognitive performance and physical health status, measures of family background, sectoral and occupational choice, as well as local area market characteristics. The height premium is large and significant in both the wage and self-employed sectors indicating height is not only a signal of worker quality to employers. Since adult stature is largely determined in the first few years of life, we conclude that exposures during this critical period have an enduring impact on labor market productivity.

  9. Labor Market Experiences and Transitions to Adulthood. Discussion Paper No. 1319-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes labor market behaviors of young adults, their changing patterns among two cohorts that are twenty years apart, and their associations with transitions to adulthood as measured by living with parents, being married, or cohabiting. We analyze these issues using data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of he National Longitudinal…

  10. Education, Labor Market Experiences, and Current Expectancies of Black and White Men and Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; Morrison, Betty Mae

    The research reported here examines the role of psychological expectancies as labor market supply characteristics of black and white men and women. Secondary analyses are carried out on data provided by the Survey Research Center 1972 national probability sample of adults 18 years and older drawn for the presidential election study. The report…

  11. Unleashing the Power of the 21st Century Community College: Maximizing Labor Market Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Poliakoff, Anne Rogers

    2004-01-01

    To help all community colleges unleash their potential for workforce and economic development, the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education sponsored the Community College Labor Market Responsiveness (CCLMR) Initiative. This project sought to develop and disseminate information and tools enabling colleges to keep pace…

  12. Dynamic Gender Differences in a Post-Socialist Labor Market: Russia, 1991-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Theodore P.; Mayorova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    We examine how the shift from state socialism affects gender inequality in the labor market using multivariate models of employment exit, employment entry, job mobility and new job quality for 3,580 Russian adults from 1991 through 1997. Gender differences changed in a complex fashion. Relative to men, women gained greater access to employment,…

  13. Compensating differentials, labor market segmentation, and wage inequality.

    PubMed

    Daw, Jonathan; Hardie, Jessica Halliday

    2012-09-01

    Two literatures on work and the labor market draw attention to the importance of non-pecuniary job amenities. Social psychological perspectives on work suggest that workers have preferences for a range of job amenities (e.g. Halaby, 2003). The compensating differentials hypothesis predicts that workers navigate tradeoffs among different job amenities such that wage inequality overstates inequality in utility (Smith, 1979). This paper joins these perspectives by constructing a new measure of labor market success that evaluates the degree to which workers' job amenity preferences and outcomes match. This measure of subjective success is used to predict workers' job satisfaction and to test the hypothesis that some degree of labor force inequality in wages is due to preference-based tradeoffs among all job amenities. Findings demonstrate that the new measure predicts workers' job satisfaction and provides evidence for the presence of compensating differentials in the primary and intermediate, but not secondary, labor markets.

  14. How Can the Imbalance Be Eliminated between the Labor Market and the Education Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, I.

    2005-01-01

    In the recent past, there has been more and more talk about the fact that the system of professional education has to meet the constantly changing need for specialists in the labor market. In the author's opinion, this is where the problem lies: the labor market requires that education satisfy its social and economic needs with respect to a…

  15. Effects of Adult Education Vouchers on the Labor Market: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 11-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerdt, Guido; Messer, Dolores; Woessmann, Ludger; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    Lifelong learning is often promoted in ageing societies, but little is known about its returns or governments' ability to advance it. This paper evaluates the effects of a large-scale randomized field experiment issuing vouchers for adult education in Switzerland. We find no significant average effects of voucher-induced adult education on…

  16. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  17. [Economic consequences of migration for the domestic labor market].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, K F

    1993-09-01

    "The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the labor market consequences of immigration. The European countries had substantial experiences with labor migration in recent years. The various theoretical channels how natives might be affected by foreign labor are discussed, especially the issue whether natives and foreigners are complements or substitutes. Most empirical studies for the U.S. confirm that the employment and wage processes of natives are hardly affected. However, recent investigations for Germany qualify these findings." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  18. How much do immigration and trade affect labor market outcomes?

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Freeman, R B; Katz, L F

    1997-01-01

    "This paper provides new estimates of the impact of immigration and trade on the U.S. labor market.... We examine the relation between economic outcomes for native workers and immigrant flows to regional labor markets.... We...use the factor proportions approach to examine the contributions of immigration and trade to recent changes in U.S. educational wage differentials and attempt to provide a broader assessment of the impact of immigration on the incomes of U.S. natives." Comments and discussion by John DiNardo, John M. Abowd, and others are included (pp. 68-85).

  19. From Labor Shortage to Labor Surplus: The Changing Labor Market Context and Its Meaning for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…

  20. The Labor Market and Education in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez Medina, Alberto

    1979-01-01

    Problems in employment and education in Mexico will remain in spite of the rapid economic growth expected from the expanding petroleum industry. The structural problems of the job market and education are analyzed with particular reference to higher education. Commentary by Michael Olivas accompanies this article. (JMF)

  1. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  2. Labor market work and home care's unpaid caregivers: a systematic review of labor force participation rates, predictors of labor market withdrawal, and hours of work.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-12-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for "intensive" caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers.

  3. Teenagers in the U.S. Labor Force: Local Labor Markets, Race, and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.; Keithly, Diane

    1994-01-01

    Among youth aged 16-18 living at home in 1980, employment was proportionately higher among whites than blacks and among metropolitan compared to nonmetropolitan youth. Employment of white youth was linked more closely than that of black youth to family resources (income and occupational status) and local labor market characteristics. Discusses…

  4. Labor Market Experience for Engineers During Periods of Changing Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Trevor

    This report was prepared to present reviews, synthesis, and evaluation of research studies and demonstration projects concerned with the labor market experience of unemployed engineers, particularly in aerospace-defense. It also includes a review and evaluation of national manpower efforts to aid the reemployment of unemployed engineers,…

  5. The Rural Community College as an Administrative Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nathan T.; Cejda, Brent D.

    2007-01-01

    External culture acts as a powerful force on rural community colleges and the presidents that lead them. This article examines whether rural community colleges comprise an administrative labor market, based on the careers of 69 chief academic officers employed in rural community colleges. Findings indicate the characteristics of both an…

  6. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  7. The Role of Temporary Agency Employment in Tight Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseman, Susan N.; Kalleberg, Arne L.; Erickcek, George A.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of six hospitals and five auto parts suppliers showed that in high-skilled occupations, employers paid more to temporary agency help than regular staff. In low-skilled occupations, temporary agencies facilitated use of riskier workers. Temporaries may relieve pressure to raise wages in tight labor markets, perhaps contributing to…

  8. Are Job Banks Improving The Labor Market Information System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Joseph C.; Huber, George P.

    1974-01-01

    Local job banks, computer aided man-job matching systems, are the spearhead of the multiphased Federal program to improve the functioning of the labor market information system. As evaluated here, the program may eventually achieve this objective but the evidence concerning the first phase is not encouraging. (DS)

  9. Native Internal Migration and the Labor Market Impact of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical study of how immigration influences the joint determination of the wage structure and internal migration behavior for native-born workers in local labor markets. Using data from the 1960-2000 decennial censuses, the study shows that immigration is associated with lower in-migration rates, higher…

  10. The Disparate Labor Market Impacts of Monetary Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Seth B.; Rodgers, William M., III

    2004-01-01

    Employing two widely used approaches to identify the effects of monetary policy, this paper explores the differential impact of policy on the labor market outcomes of teenagers, minorities, out-of-school youth, and less-skilled individuals. Evidence from recursive vector autoregressions and autoregressive distributed lag models that use…

  11. The Impact of New College Graduates on Intrastate Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    A crucial issue in the debate on state support for higher education is the extent that a state's production of college graduates affects the state's education attainment. The view that many new graduates take their state-supported degrees to labor markets in other states undermines states' incentives to promote wider access to college. This study…

  12. Labor Market Conditions and the Reemployment of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Marie; Peterson, George E.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the impact of local labor market conditions on the financial losses of dislocated manufacturing workers. It found that strong overall growth in the local economy reduced economic losses of white collar workers but not of blue collar workers. (JOW)

  13. Working in America: A Blueprint for the New Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Paul; Kochan, Thomas A.; Locke, Richard; Piore, Michael J.

    The evolution of jobs and the job market in the United States was examined in a 3-year project during which a task force consisting of 25 representatives of the education, labor, business, and policy sectors organized 17 workshops and commissioned working papers from experts. The project began by examining how recent changes in the world of work…

  14. Community Literacy, Labor Market Intermediaries, and Community Communication Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Arguing that we fail both parents and students if we continue to think of community literacy as a dichotomy between school and work, this article illustrates Labor Market Intermediaries (LMIs) as sites of community literacy. The investigation of LMIs in a particular community (Greater Lafayette, Indiana) allows for a more thorough understanding of…

  15. Job Displacement and Labor Market Mobility. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Swaim, Paul

    A study examined the labor market mobility of displaced workers, using a new data file that matches the January 1984, 1986, and 1988 Displaced Worker Surveys (DWS) to the March Current Population Surveys in the same years. This large database provides information on displaced workers and their families and permits comparison of the geographic…

  16. Responsiveness of Training Institutions to Changing Labor Market Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert E., Ed.; And Others

    These 19 papers from the second annual Policy Forum on Employability Development explore the responsiveness of various educational and training institutions to changing labor market demands. The first three papers provide an overview of the forum. They summarize the proceedings and policy considerations and address how vocational education and…

  17. Education and the Labor Market in Venezuela, 1975-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Steier, Francis

    1988-01-01

    Examines various education-related aspects of Venezuela's labor market for 1975-1984, using a sample of 40,000 workers. Education returns have declined only two percent during a rapid educational expansion period. The increased supply of educated persons influenced the narrowing of earnings differentials and led to more equitable income…

  18. Using Illustrations from American Novels to Teach about Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachris, Michelle Albert; Bohanon, Cecil E.

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates how literature can bring models to life in undergraduate courses on labor market economics. The authors argue that economics instructors and students can benefit from even small doses of literature. The authors examine excerpts from five American novels: "Sister Carrie" by Theodore Drieser (1900/2005); "The Grapes of…

  19. Professional Education and the Labor Market: Problems of Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochetov, A. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing desire to obtain a higher education in Russia is causing a growing disparity between educational qualifications and the needs of the labor market. Blue-collar jobs of varying levels are difficult to fill, and the demand for the qualification of those with degrees is not sufficient to avoid high levels of unemployment. Ways need to…

  20. Job Queues, Certification Status, and the Education Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the interaction between training programs and certification status in one education labor market to examine the micro-level interactions that shape the recruitment process. Using job queue theory, it is found that the information available to novice teachers operates to stratify and shape their worksite choices in addition…

  1. Education and Signaling: Evidence from a Highly Competitive Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, John S.; Wei, Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    This paper directly tests for differences in returns to education between the employed and self-employed in Hong Kong. Using a step-function, we find significantly smaller returns for the self-employed, suggesting that in the highly competitive labor market of Hong Kong education plays a signaling role. This pattern persists for both genders, when…

  2. Evaluating Extension-Based Adult Education for Agricultural Labor Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morera, Maria C.; Monaghan, Paul F.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Tovar-Aguilar, J. Antonio; Roka, Fritz M.; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Educating farm labor supervisors about the regulations that govern agricultural operations and employment is critical to reducing unintentional violations of workplace safety and labor laws. Cooperative Extension can provide the training needed to professionalize this vital and diverse workforce. One challenge to providing adult education to a…

  3. Vocal Fry May Undermine the Success of Young Women in the Labor Market

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rindy C.; Klofstad, Casey A.; Mayew, William J.; Venkatachalam, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities. PMID:24870387

  4. Psychological testing and the German labor market, 1925 to 1965.

    PubMed

    Meskill, David

    2015-11-01

    From the 1920s to the 1950s, the massive German Labor Administration used loosely standardized, pragmatic evaluations of personality to steer young people into appropriate jobs. Starting in the late 1950s, the Administration shifted to American scientific methods of trait and factor psychological testing. Behind this change lay not a change in academic psychology but a power shift in the German labor market. Originally, the Labor Administration had to appeal to employers, for whom pragmatic evaluations of personality seemed most convincing. Thanks to the Economic Miracle in the 1950s, the Administration had to gain the trust of young Germans, their parents, and the public, who, it was hoped, would be won over by science.

  5. Rising Wage Inequality: The 1980s Experience in Urban Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyclak, Thomas

    The rising wage inequality in U.S. urban labor markets during the 1980s was examined in a study of 20 metropolitan area labor markets. The study's perspective differs from the prevailing perspective on the problem in three ways: (1) it focuses on changes in the wage structure in a sample of local labor markets; (2) it examines changes in the…

  6. Labor market segmentation, human capital and the economics of crime. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGahey, R.M.

    1982-08-24

    This dissertation analyzes the relationships between human capital, labor market structure and crime. Using a unique micro-level data base with individually matched crime and employment data for over 900 felony arrestees, it tests the relative explanatory power of neoclassical economic choice theory and labor market segmentation theory on the determinants of labor market outcomes, criminal behavior, and their interactions.

  7. Labor market trends among registered nurses: 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Benson, Alan

    2012-11-01

    This study uses recent data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and Registered Nurses (RNs) licensing exam to examine the recession's effect on the RN labor market. It then reports results of a survey of 518 hospital nursing officers conducted in 2008 and 2010 matched with institutional data from the American Hospital Association (AHA). These unique data show how the recession led hospitals to slow hiring despite accelerating attrition of retirement-age nurses; shift away from H1-B, agency, and, overtime work; and reduce training, and other benefits for new hires. More broadly, results show how nurse-staffing practices adapt to market conditions. Results also suggest reduced hospital support for nursing education may strain the supply of managerial and specialty nurses as baby-boom nurses retire.

  8. Observatory facility staff requirements and local labor markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabanus, David

    2012-09-01

    Current large observatories, both in operation and projects in development or construction, face the challenge to find skilled personnel for integration and operation. Typical locations of these observatories are found to be remote, mainly due to electromagnetic pollution prevention, which in many if not all cases reduces the attractiveness of the work posts. Additional budgetary limitations restrict the recruitment radius for certain positions to the local labor market. This paper outlines these staffing constraints in more detail and elaborates on the need for training programs on various levels, which can be costly. This, in turn, drives the need for creative retention efforts. Therefore, financial modeling, contingency, risk and quality management, and the reliability, availability, and maintainability of an observatory are directly coupled to the local embedding in the labor market of the host country.

  9. Education, mental health, and education-labor market misfit.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Piet; van de Straat, Vera; Missinne, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Higher-educated people experience enhanced mental health. We ponder whether the mental health benefits of educational attainment are limitless. At the individual level, we look at the impact of job-education mismatch. At the societal level, we hypothesize that diminishing economic returns on education limit its mental health benefits. Using a subsample of individuals aged 20 to 65 years (N = 28,288) from 21 countries in the European Social Survey (ESS 2006), we estimate the impact on depressive symptoms of characteristics at both the employee level (years of education and job-education mismatch) and the labor market/country level (the gap between the nontertiary and tertiary educated in terms of unemployment risks and earnings). The results show that educational attainment produces mental health benefits in most European countries. However, in some of the countries, these benefits are limited or even completely eliminated by education-labor market misfit.

  10. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    PubMed

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness.

  11. Labor market trends for nuclear engineers through 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.; Baker, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout most of the 1980s, both private organizations and government agencies were concerned about the availability of an adequate supply of qualified nuclear engineers. This concern was primarily the result of a number of nuclear engineering academic programs being eliminated coupled with a continuous decline in graduate and undergraduate enrollments and degrees. By the early 1990s, the number of degrees and available supply had declined to new lows, but cutbacks in funding for the nuclear weapons program and nuclear energy R&D, and in hiring by the electric utility industry, offset in large measure the declining supply. Recently, concerns about environment and waste management and about nuclear safety have again generated questions about the adequacy of supply of qualified personnel for nuclear energy activities. This report briefly examines the nuclear engineering labor market. Trends in employment, new graduates, job openings, and salaries are reviewed as a basis for understanding the current labor market. This review is then used as a basis for assessing future employment needs and new graduate supply to provide an outlook for future labor market conditions through 2000.

  12. Global work force 2000: the new world labor market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W B

    1991-01-01

    Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers.

  13. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  14. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  15. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  16. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  17. Women Workers in South Africa: Participation, Pay and Prejudice in the Formal Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carolyn

    Although concern over labor market inequities in South Africa has focused almost exclusively on racial differences in labor force participation and pay, gender also has been important, since women do not enjoy the same access, opportunities, and rewards in the formal labor market as men, especially among races traditionally subject to…

  18. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Merchandise Produced by Convict, Forced, Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any...

  19. Labor-Market Conditions for Engineers: Is There a Shortage? Proceedings of a Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    These proceedings include four papers that examine four different models of the engineering labor market, namely, those of: (1) the American Electronics Association ("Technical Employment Projections, 1983-1987" by Pat Hill Hubbard); (2) the Bureau of Labor Statistics ("Future Labor-Market Conditions for Engineers" by Ronald E.…

  20. What happens to defined contribution accounts when labor markets and financial markets move together?

    PubMed

    Weller, Christian E; Wenger, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    The relationship among earnings, savings, and retirement is well known; however, the linkage between labor market outcomes and financial market performance is generally unacknowledged. We examine the implications of the link between labor markets and financial markets for workers who save money in individual retirement accounts. Specifically, differences in labor market outcomes across groups may imply differences in the timing of investments, which may reduce savings over time for these groups compared to their counterparts. Using monthly data from the Current Population Survey (1979-2002), we generate hypothetical investment portfolios using stock and bond indices. We exploit differences across demographic groups in unemployment and wage growth and use these differences to examine each group's investment outcomes. We then disaggregate the total effects into short-term and long-term components. We find some evidence of short-term market timing effects on investment, but we find much larger long-term effects for some groups. Our findings suggest that, for many people, the retirement savings losses associated with the timing of markets are similar to the costs of annuitizing savings upon retirement. The differences are especially pronounced by education and gender.

  1. Immigrants Equilibrate Local Labor Markets: Evidence from the Great Recession*

    PubMed Central

    Cadena, Brian C.; Kovak, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants’ location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. We leverage the substantial geographic variation in employment losses that occurred during Great Recession, and our results confirm the standard finding that high-skilled populations are quite geographically responsive to employment opportunities while low-skilled populations are much less so. However, low-skilled immigrants, especially those from Mexico, respond even more strongly than high-skilled native-born workers. Moreover, we show that natives living in metro areas with a substantial Mexican-born population are insulated from the effects of local labor demand shocks compared to those in places with few Mexicans. The reallocation of the Mexican-born workforce reduced the incidence of local demand shocks on low-skilled natives’ employment outcomes by more than 50 percent. PMID:27551329

  2. Labor market penalties for foreign degrees among college educated immigrants.

    PubMed

    Arbeit, Caren A; Warren, John Robert

    2013-05-01

    Are college degrees earned abroad worth less in the American economy than degrees earned in the United States? Do the labor market penalties associated with holding a foreign degree vary as a function of the country or region in which it was earned? Do these processes differ for men and women? We use data on 18,361 college-educated immigrants from the National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG) to address these questions. Female immigrants with foreign degrees are less likely to be employed than immigrant women who earned their degrees in the US. When employed, both female and male immigrants with foreign degrees are less likely to work in a job related to their highest college degree. Among employed female immigrants, the wage returns to foreign degrees are about 17% less than for US degrees; among male immigrants, this figure is about 11%. For both female and male immigrants, the labor market penalties associated with holding a foreign degree vary as a function of the region from which the foreign degree was obtained.

  3. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Long-Term Labor Market Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Maczulskij, Terhi

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines whether alcohol consumption is related to long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women matched to register-based individual information on employment and earnings. The twin data allow us to account for the shared environmental and genetic factors. The quantity of alcohol consumption was measured by weekly average consumption using self-reported data from three surveys (1975, 1981 and 1990). The average of an individual's employment months and earnings were measured in adulthood over the period 1990-2009. The models that account for the shared environmental and genetic factors reveal that former drinkers and heavy drinkers both have almost 20% lower earnings compared with moderate drinkers. On average, former drinkers work annually approx. 1 month less over the 20-year observation period. These associations are robust to the use of covariates, such as education, pre-existing health endowment and smoking. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Labor Market and Illegal Immigration: The Outlook for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Michael L.

    1980-01-01

    A labor supply forecast is developed for the U.S. labor market in the 1980s, focusing on the effects of the low fertility rates of recent years. That forecast is then compared with the Bureau of Labor Statistics projection of employment demand in the next decade. Effects of illegal immigrants are also discussed. (CT)

  6. The Labor Market and the System of Education: Difficulties in the Interpretation of Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamoya, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    The training of professional cadres for the economy as it transitions to innovative development must take account of the current state of the labor market as well as tendencies in workers' labor mobility. These tendencies reflect the degree of concentration and reproduction of labor potential in various forms of economic activity, and define…

  7. The Bright Side of Corporate Diversification: Evidence from Internal Labor Markets

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    We document differences in human-capital deployment between diversified and focused firms. We find that diversified firms have higher labor productivity and that they redeploy labor to industries with better prospects in response to changing opportunities. The opportunities and incentives provided in internal labor markets in turn affect the development of workers' human capital. We find that workers more frequently transition to other industries in which their diversified firms operate and with smaller wage losses compared with workers in the open market, even when they leave their original firms. Overall, internal labor markets provide a bright side to corporate diversification. PMID:26924889

  8. Labor Markets in the Rural South: A Study Based on Four Rural Southern Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.; And Others

    Focusing on the factors inhibiting the labor market's adjustment to economic change, the study examined the economic and social problems facing southern rural areas and populations, including Chicanos and migrants. Factors were in the areas of the labor market behavior, income and earnings, poverty, welfare system and welfare reform, manpower…

  9. Local Labor Market Characteristics and the Occupational Concentration of Different Sociodemographic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Leonard E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes concentration of employment opportunities for different socioeconomic groups in different local labor-market areas (LMAs). Uses regression analysis of 1980 census data. Finds rural LMAs offer fewer opportunities. Gender differences in occupational concentrations relate to industrial composition of labor market. Racial difference is…

  10. Connecting the Dots: The Labor Market Information View of Workforce Development. Essays for the Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Richard, Ed.

    This monograph is comprised of 12 essays related to the federal Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), each of which serves as a generic primer on a topic relevant to work force development staff and researchers nationwide. The essays are "Learning the Language of LMI (Labor Market Information): Basic Labor Market Information Terms and…

  11. Tracking Success: High School Curricula and Labor Market Outcomes by Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Stephanie; Stearns, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Education researchers have established that educational tracking reinforces inequalities, but they have not fully examined the affect of these tracks on labor market outcomes for men and women of different races/ethnicities. At the same time, labor market researchers have studied the association between education and income by race and gender, but…

  12. Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from Michigan. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley; Dynarski, Susan; Jacob, Brian; Kreisman, Daniel; Sosa, Alfredo; Wiederspan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relative labor market gains experienced by first-time college students who enrolled in five community colleges in Michigan in 2003 and 2004. We track credentials, credits, earnings, and employment for these students through 2011. We compare labor market outcomes of those who earned a credential (associate degree or certificate) to…

  13. A Classroom Labor Market Game Illustrating the Existence, and Implications of, Statistical Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Many undergraduate students report a lack of concern about facing labor market discrimination throughout their careers. However, there is ample evidence that discrimination based on race, gender, and age still persists within the labor market. The author outlines a classroom experiment demonstrating the existence of discrimination, even when the…

  14. Proposed Model for Innovation of Community Colleges to Meet Labor Market Needs in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The study introduced a very important issue for the development of labor market in any developing country. The rapid changes in technology and communication imposed challenges on education institutions for the development of labor market to meet local communities. These institutions have more responsibilities to provide professional and skilled…

  15. Localism and Teacher Labor Markets: How Geography and Decision Making May Contribute to Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Cannata, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of evidence indicates that there is a large inequality in the distribution of teachers across schools. Relatedly, recent research has revealed a number of important dimensions of teacher labor markets in the United States. We review the literature in two of these areas: the geography of teacher labor markets and the decision-making…

  16. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  17. Educational Systems and the Trade-Off between Labor Market Allocation and Equality of Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Thijs; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems with a high level of tracking and vocational orientation have been shown to improve the allocation of school-leavers in the labor market. However, tracked educational systems are also known to increase inequality of educational opportunity. This presumed trade-off between equality and labor market preparation is clearly rooted…

  18. Another Look at the Enclave Economy Thesis: Chinese Immigrants in the Ethnic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Don

    1991-01-01

    Experiences of 165 Chinese immigrants to San Francisco (California) who arrived between 1965 and 1975 suggest that workers employed in the ethnic labor market (enclave economy) have lower wages, higher turnover, and less promotional opportunities than workers in other labor markets. Positive aspects of the enclave economy are discussed. (SLD)

  19. Hardship: The Welfare Consequences of Labor Market Problems. A Policy Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upjohn (W.E.) Inst. for Employment Research, Kalamazoo, MI.

    Social statistics may exaggerate the degree of hardship caused by labor market problems. Yet, in many ways social statistics underestimate the degree of hardship caused by extended unemployment, underemployment, and low wages. Therefore, new measures are needed to reassess long-term and cyclical labor market developments, the changing status of…

  20. Three Essays on Educator Labor Markets: Evidence from Missouri Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Shishan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay investigates the feasibility of moving high-performing teachers to low-performing schools using administrative micro data from Missouri. I define teacher labor markets concentrically and construct models to allow teachers' local labor markets, within teaching, to influence their mobility…

  1. From Higher Education to Work Patterns of Labor Market Entry in Germany and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita; Weiss, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies describing the transition from higher education to work have often simplified the complex transition processes involved. In this paper we extend previous research by taking into account several steps that comprise labor market entry, e.g., recurrent education leading to more than one instance of labor market entry. By comparing…

  2. A Scheme To Improve the Utilization on Vocational Qualifications in the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong-Im; Kim, Deog-Ki

    Korea's labor market was analyzed to inform efforts to develop a scheme to improve the utilization of vocational qualifications. The study examined the different meanings of qualifications in South Korea's labor market and how utilization of qualifications is influenced by factors such as types of human resource management, vocational training…

  3. Labor Market Experience of Teenagers with and without High School Diplomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David; And Others

    The rationale for high school dropout reduction programs rests mainly on evidence that graduates are more successful than dropouts in the labor market. It is not evident, however, whether this difference is attributable to the diploma itself or to underlying characteristics that affect both graduation and labor market success. This paper estimates…

  4. Trade Liberalization and Women's Integration into National Labor Markets: A Cross-Country Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Lisa B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization and the risks associated with participation in the global trading system on women's integration into national labor markets. Using data from 1970 to 1995, I identify two global determinants of the female share of national labor markets: trade openness and transnational corporate penetration.…

  5. The Impact of College Quality on Early Labor Market Outcomes in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Li

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of college quality on early labor market outcomes in China, including the fresh college graduates' initial employment status and starting wages for students who graduated in 2011. The main data source is the College Student Labor Market (CSLM) survey conducted by Tsinghua University. Distinguished from…

  6. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.

  7. Vacancy chains and equilibration in senior-level labor markets

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Y.; Roth, A.E.; Rothblum, U.

    1994-12-31

    In senior-level labor markets unfilled positions (caused by retirement of worker or by creation of new jobs) are often filled with candidates who are themselves incumbents in other similar position; thus creating a chain of vacancies that propagates from firm to firm. In this paper we apply the stable marriage model of Gale and Shapley (in which the two sided are {open_quotes}firms{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}workers{close_quotes}) to study this re-equilibration process. We show that a simple {open_quotes}deferred acceptance{close_quotes} algorithm in which firms with vacant position propose to workers who could hold at most one position at a time, would always produce a stable matching (assuming that the market was initially stable). This algorithm generates a matching that is independent of the order of proposals and optimal for the firms in a well defined subset of the stable matchings. We also show that this re-equilibration process is monotone and preserves individual firm-optimality. Once we assume that the {open_quotes}deferred acceptance{close_quotes} algorithm is the equilibration process, the workers and firms have to decide how to act when the algorithm works (an agent must not act truly according to its/her true preferences). This decision problem define a game where the strategy space is any profile of preferences. We show that in this game it is optimal for each firm to act truly and to reveal its true preferences, independently of how the other agents play. This result is shown to be untrue for the workers. In particular, workers have often incentives to deviate from their true preferences. We also show that an equilibrium always exist in this game and we characterize some matchings that can result from strategies that form an equilibrium. Finally, we show that each matching that results from equilibrium is stable for the true preferences.

  8. The labor market effects of California's minimum nurse staffing law.

    PubMed

    Munnich, Elizabeth L

    2014-08-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement statewide minimum nurse-to-patient ratios in general hospitals. In spite of years of work to establish statewide staffing regulations, there is little evidence that the law was effective in attracting more nurses to the hospital workforce or improving patient outcomes. This paper examines the effects of this legislation on employment and wages of registered nurses. By using annual financial data from California hospitals, I show that nurse-to-patient ratios in medical/surgical units increased substantially following the staffing mandate. However, survey data from two nationally representative datasets indicate that the law had no effect on the aggregate number of registered nurses or the hours they worked in California hospitals, and at most a modest effect on wages. My findings suggest that offsetting changes in labor demand due to hospital closures, combined with reclassification of workers within hospitals, and mitigated the employment effects of California's staffing regulation. This paper cautions that California's experience with minimum nurse staffing legislation may not be generalizable to states considering similar policies in very different hospital markets.

  9. A View from UMBC: Using Real-Time Labor-Market Data to Evaluate Professional Program Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Christopher; Goldberger, Susan; Restuccia, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Continuing and professional education units are faced with the constant need to keep pace with dynamic labor markets when assessing program offerings and content. Real-time labor-market data derived from detailed analysis of online job postings offers a new tool for more easily aligning programs to local labor-market demand. The authors describe a…

  10. Instrumental Variable Estimates of the Labor Market Spillover Effects of Welfare Reform. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    The labor market spillover effects of welfare reform were estimated by using models that pool time-series and cross-section data from the Current Population Survey on the state-year cell means of wages, employment, and other labor market outcomes for various demographic groups. The labor market outcomes in question are dependent variables that are…

  11. Heterogeneity and the Effect of Mental Health Parity Mandates on the Labor Market*

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance benefit mandates are believed to have adverse effects on the labor market, but efforts to document such effects for mental health parity mandates have had limited success. I show that one reason for this failure is that the association between parity mandates and labor market outcomes vary with mental distress. Accounting for this heterogeneity, I find adverse labor market effects for non-distressed individuals, but favorable effects for moderately distressed individuals and individuals with a moderately distressed family member. On net, I conclude that the mandates are welfare increasing for moderately distressed workers and their families, but may be welfare decreasing for non-distressed individuals. PMID:26210944

  12. The Spatial Geography of Teacher Labor Markets: Evidence from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    An unequal distribution of teacher quality is a problem underlying the unequal distribution of educational outcomes in developing countries. However, we know little about how the labor market produces such a distribution. Using data from two regions in Peru, we investigate whether there is a national teacher market or smaller regional markets. We…

  13. Labor Market Projections Model: a user's guide to the population, labor force, and unemployment projections model at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, E.

    1980-08-01

    In an effort to assist SESA analysts and CETA prime sponsor planners in the development of labor-market information suitable to their annual plans, the Labor Market Projections Model (LMPM) was initiated. The purpose of LMPM is to provide timely information on the demographic characteristics of local populations, labor supply, and unemployment. In particular, the model produces short-term projections of the distributions of population, labor force, and unemployment by age, sex, and race. LMPM was designed to carry out these projections at various geographic levels - counties, prime-sponsor areas, SMSAs, and states. While LMPM can project population distributions for areas without user input, the labor force and unemployment projections rely upon inputs from analysts or planners familiar with the economy of the area of interest. Thus, LMPM utilizes input from the SESA analysts. This User's Guide to LMPM was specifically written as an aid to SESA analysts and other users in improving their understanding of LMPM. The basic method of LMPM is a demographic cohort aging model that relies upon 1970 Census data. LMPM integrates data from several sources in order to produce current projections from the 1970 baseline for all the local areas of the nation. This User's Guide documents the procedures, data, and output of LMPM. 11 references.

  14. The Volatile Teenage Labor Market: Labor Force Entry, Exit, and Unemployment Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph E.; Vanski, Jean E.

    1979-01-01

    Alerts researchers to the potential value and limitations of the gross flow data published in the Department of Labor's Current Population Survey (CPS). Reports on research which used CPS data to analyze patterns of teenage unemployment and labor force participation. (PR)

  15. The gender gap reloaded: are school characteristics linked to labor market performance?

    PubMed

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Constant, Amelie

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the wage gender gap of young adults in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000 in the US. Using quantile regression we estimate the gender gap across the entire wage distribution. We also study the importance of high school characteristics in predicting future labor market performance. We conduct analyses for three major racial/ethnic groups in the US: Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, employing data from two rich longitudinal studies: NLS and NELS. Our results indicate that while some school characteristics are positive and significant predictors of future wages for Whites, they are less so for the two minority groups. We find significant wage gender disparities favoring men across all three surveys in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000. The wage gender gap is more pronounced in higher paid jobs (90th quantile) for all groups, indicating the presence of a persistent and alarming "glass ceiling."

  16. [Immigrants and the labor market: a new age of immigration?].

    PubMed

    Dechaux, J

    1991-04-01

    Trends in migration to France since the 1974 legislation restricting immigration are described. The author notes that the growing integration of pre-1974 immigrants into the labor force and society is accompanied by a growth in illegal immigration. He concludes that the present situation concerning immigrant labor remains fluid, and that the characteristics of immigrants are extremely diverse. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  17. Are College Graduates More Responsive to Distant Labor Market Opportunities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    Are highly educated workers better at locating in areas with high labor demand? To answer this question, I use three decades of U.S. Census data to estimate a McFadden-style model of residential location choice. I test for education differentials in the likelihood that young workers reside in states experiencing positive labor demand shocks at the…

  18. Imported Talent: Foreign Immigration and the New England Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Trubs'kyy, Mykhaylo; Fogg, Neeta P.

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of foreign immigration on population and labor force growth during the 1990s varied widely across U.S. geographic regions, divisions and states. New England was far more dependent than nearly all other regions on the new wave of foreign immigrants to achieve its population growth and labor force growth during the past decade. In fact,…

  19. Adult Education and the Labour Market. European Society for Research on the Education of Adults Seminar Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 10-12, 1993). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenovsek, Tanja Vilic, Ed.; Olesen, Henning Salling, Ed.

    This book contains papers, reports, and welcoming speeches from a seminar for European adult education researchers. The following are included: "Background and Thematic Outline for the ESREA (European Society for Research on the Education of Adults) Seminar on Research into Adult Education and the Labor Market" (Olesen); "Welcoming…

  20. Labor Market Changes and Adjustments: How Do the U.S. and Japan Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarzik, Robert W.; Shiells, Clinton R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors analyze labor market flexibility and adjustment capabilities of Japan and the United States. They examine the job shift to services and trends in wages, productivity, and exchange rates to judge the international competitive position of each country. (CH)

  1. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Frank A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)

  2. The Youth Labor Market. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalacheck, Edward

    Literature on the job-hunting and the work records of young persons in school and during their initial period of adjustment to full-time membership in the labor force is reviewed and evaluated. While this suggests an analysis of the labor market experiences of 14 to 24 year olds, most of the literature to be surveyed deals with a more narrowly…

  3. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  4. Teaching Keynes's Principle of Effective Demand Using the Aggregate Labor Market Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalziel, Paul; Lavoie, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Suggests a method to teach John Keynes's principle of effective demand using a standard aggregate labor market diagram familiar to students taking advanced undergraduate macroeconomics courses. States the analysis incorporates Michal Kalecki's version to show Keynesian unemployment as a point on the aggregate labor demand curve inside the…

  5. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  6. Sector-Based Analysis of the Education-Occupation Mismatch in the Turkish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercan, Murat Anil; Karakas, Mesut; Citci, Sadettin Haluk; Babacan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of sectorial undereducation and overeducation problems in the Turkish labor market. In order to cope with this issue, the 2009 Household Labor Force Survey (TurkStat), which covers 145,934 individuals within 27 sectors, was utilized. An objective measure of education-occupation mismatch based…

  7. Identifying Higher-Education Level Skill Needs in Labor Markets: The Main Tools Usable for Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    There are natural mismatches in the labor market between the demand for higher-educated laborers and the supply of graduates provided by the higher education system in terms of quantity and qualifications. While there are open positions, some graduates still cannot find work. There are various findings indicating that the mismatch between…

  8. Segmented Labor Markets: A Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Its Implication for Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    The study reviews orthodox theories of labor markets, presents new formulations of segmentation theory, and provides empirical tests of segmentation in the United States and several developing nations. Orthodox labor market theory views labor as being paid for its contribution to production and that investment in education and vocational training…

  9. Women and the Economy: A Bibliography and a Review of the Literature on Sex Differentiation in the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Andrew I.; And Others

    The first two-thirds of the document is a bibliography on women in the labor market which is divided into 27 categories and sub-categories, the major headings of which are: historical perspective, the supply of female labor in the labor market, earnings of women workers, occupations of women workers (covers occupational distribution, academic and…

  10. Situating the Rural Teacher Labor Market in the Broader Context: A Descriptive Analysis of the Market Dynamics in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Luke C.

    2012-01-01

    Expanding accountability systems that impose policies across all schools have amplified assertions that rural teacher labor markets differ from non-rural labor markets in meaningful ways that complicate rural schools' efforts to comply with the policy directives. The analysis presented here examines this claim by exploring teacher labor market…

  11. Thick-Market Effects and Churning in the Labor Market: Evidence from U.S. Cities*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Using U.S. Census microdata, we show that, on average, workers change occupation and industry less in more densely populated areas. The result is robust to standard demographic controls, as well as to including aggregate measures of human capital and sectoral mix. Analysis of the displaced worker surveys shows that this effect is present in cases of involuntary separation as well. On the other hand, we actually find the opposite result (higher rates of occupational and industrial switching) for the subsample of younger workers. These results provide evidence in favor of increasing-returns-to-scale matching in labor markets. Results from a back-of-the-envelope calibration suggest that this mechanism has an important role in raising both wages and returns to experience in denser areas. PMID:24039316

  12. Job-Transitions in the Administrative Labor Market in Higher Education: Some Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolansky, Bettie M.

    The question of whether the market for administrators is segmented by institutional types (i.e., region, affiliation, size, mission, and resource level) was investigated. One facet of the research was the applicability of segmentation theory to the occupational labor market for college managers. Principal data were provided by career histories of…

  13. Innovations in Labor Market Information and Their Application: Applications for Workforce Programs. A Greenways Action Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milfort, Myriam; Kelley, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    With funding from the Joyce and Lumina foundations, Jobs for the Future (JFF) launched Credentials that Work to help postsecondary institutions, regions, and states align their occupational training programs to changing market demands. This initiative incorporates innovations in real-time labor market information in guiding institutions to better…

  14. Pushed, pulled, or blocked? The elderly and the labor market in post-Soviet Russia.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Theodore P; Radl, Jonas

    2014-05-01

    Russia provides an interesting context for studying the labor market experiences of the elderly because of its experience with market transition, its looming growth in the elderly dependency ratio, and its unusual pension policies that do not penalize pensioners for working. We use data from twenty surveys of the Russian population conducted from February 1991 to November 2007 to analyze the labor market participation and earnings of elderly Russians following market transition. Economic desperation, exacerbated by low pension levels, pushed some elderly to seek employment for income on the labor market. Elderly Russians with more education had more opportunities to work, and education differentials increased as market reforms progressed. The correlates of earnings operate similarly for retirement- and pre-retirement age Russians, with several exceptions: unobserved factors favoring employment are negatively associated with earnings for the elderly, occupation mediates most of the effects of education, and patterns of change over time differ somewhat. Elderly Russians are not disproportionately blocked from employment following market reforms. Following the initial transition shock, their labor market activity increased. Overall, both push and pull factors shape the employment and earnings of the elderly, affecting different segments of them.

  15. An Efficiency Assessment among Empirically Defined Labor Markets for Determining Pay for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental to updating a fixed-rate salary schedule for teachers is the reliance on a relevant labor market containing comparisons to other school districts--that is, object school districts, which can be chosen from a policy or empirical/efficiency perspective. As such, four relevant markets having roots in neoclassical economic…

  16. Forecasting the Ph.D. Labor Market: Pitfalls for Policy. Technical Report Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Richard B.; Breneman, David W.

    This paper provides a critical review of the purposes, current techniques and potential methods for analyzing doctorate and other high-level labor markets. Chapter 1 describes and interprets the doctorate manpower market of the 1960's and early 1970's, as well as the forecasted manpower crisis of the 1970's and early 1980's. Chapter 2 gives a…

  17. Do Child Care Regulations Affect the Child Care and Labor Markets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of child care regulations on outcomes in the child care market and the labor market for mothers of young children is examined. The analysis uses a time series of cross sections and examines the robustness of previous cross-section findings to controls for state-level heterogeneity. Child care regulations as a group have statistically…

  18. Monopsony power and relative wages in the labor market for nurses.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, B T; Schumacher, E J

    1995-10-01

    This paper examines the thesis that monopsony power is an important determinant of wages in nursing labor markets. Using data from the 1985-93 Current Population Surveys, measures of relative nurse/non-nurse wage rates for 252 labor markets are constructed. Contrary to predictions from the monopsony model, no positive relationship exists between relative nursing wages and hospital density or market size. Nor is support found for the presence of monopsony power based on evidence on union wage premiums, slopes of experience profiles, or the mix of RN to total hospital employment.

  19. Evaluation of the prevalence of stress and its phases in acute myocardial infarction in patients active in the labor market

    PubMed Central

    Lucinda, Luciane Boreki; Prosdócimo, Ana Claudia Merchan Giaxa; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; do Amaral, Vivian Ferreira; Faria, José Rocha; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute myocardial infarction is a social health problem of epidemiological relevance, with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Stress is one of the modifiable risk factors that triggers acute myocardial infarction. Stress is a result of a set of physiological reactions, which when exaggerated in intensity or duration can lead to imbalances in one's organism, resulting in vulnerability to diseases. Objective To identify the presence of stress and its phases in hospitalized and active labor market patients with unstable myocardial infarction and observe its correlation with the life of this population with stress. Methods The methodology used was a quantitative, descriptive and transversal research approach conducted with a total of 43 patients, who were still active in the labor market, presenting or not morbidities. Data collection occurred on the fourth day of their hospitalization and patients responded to Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory for adults. Results Thirty-one patients (72.1%) presented stress and twelve (27.8%) did not. In patients with stress, the identified phases were: alert - one patient (3.2%); resistance -twenty-two patients (71.0%); quasi-exhaustion - six patients (19.4%) and exhaustion - two patients (6.5%). All women researched presented stress. Conclusion The results suggest a high level of stress, especially in the resistance phase, in the male infarcted population, hospitalized and active in the labor market. PMID:25859863

  20. State Labor Market Research Study: An Econometric Analysis of the Effects of Labor Subsidies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, C. Duncan; And Others

    The report describes the construction, application, and theoretical implications of an econometric model depicting the effects of labor subsidies on the supply of workers in the U.S. Three papers deal with the following aspects of constructing the econometric model: (1) examination of equilibrium wages, employment, and earnings of primary and…

  1. The Youth Labor Market in the Context of Social Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Many young people in Russia find it difficult to move into employment, and given the importance of a more efficient labor force for Russia's economic future, more needs to be done by the Russian government to improve the situation. Under current conditions, the state's activity in regard to solving issues of protecting the interests of young…

  2. Ethnic Minorities in American Labor Markets. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    The document presents an analysis of the economic status of certain minority groups in the United States. The groups include Blacks, American Indians, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos. Specifically, the document examines differences in female labor supply, female occupational status, and male earnings among the…

  3. The Russian Labor Market in the Statistics of the Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertsii, Iu. V.; Malyshev, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The social and economic development of the country was subjected to serious trials in 2009. The world financial and economic crisis had a negative effect on the main basic indicators of the economy. This had an immediate impact on the social labor sphere. Many social indicators went downhill. In particular, that led to a decline in real wages and…

  4. Psychiatric disorders and labor market outcomes: evidence from the National Latino and Asian American Study.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Pinka; Alegría, Margarita; Lu, Mingshan; Takeuchi, David

    2007-10-01

    This paper investigates to what extent psychiatric disorders and mental distress affect labor market outcomes in two rapidly growing populations that have not been studied to date-ethnic minorities of Latino and Asian descent, most of whom are immigrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), we examine the labor market effects of meeting diagnostic criteria for any psychiatric disorder in the past 12 months as well as the effects of psychiatric distress in the past year. The labor market outcomes analyzed are current employment status, the number of weeks worked in the past year among those who are employed, and having at least one work absence in the past month among those who are employed. Among Latinos, psychiatric disorders and mental distress are associated with detrimental effects on employment and absenteeism, similar to effects found in previous analyses of mostly white, American born populations. Among Asians, we find more mixed evidence that psychiatric disorders and mental distress detract from labor market outcomes. Our findings suggest that reducing disparities and expanding access to effective treatment may have significant labor market benefits-not just for majority populations, as has been demonstrated, but also for Asians and Latinos.

  5. Spousal labor market effects from government health insurance: Evidence from a veterans affairs expansion.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act.

  6. Spousal Labor Market Effects from Government Health Insurance: Evidence from a Veterans Affairs Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Melissa A.; Lahey, Joanna N.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly-provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands’ labor supply decreases, wives’ labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. JEL codes: H4, I1, J2 PMID:26734757

  7. Business structure, ethnic shifts in labor markets, and violence: the link between company size, local labor markets, and non-Latino homicide.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Raymond E; Shihadeh, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    Combining several schools of thought, including the civic engagement thesis, we extend current research by linking three things at the county level; firm size, the ethnic composition of labor markets, and violent crime. Our results suggest that larger businesses (based on the average number of persons employed) are more likely to have an external orientation and long recruitment reach, and this is linked to ethnic shifts in labor markets toward Latino workers. Such shifts are in turn associated with high rates of homicide among non-Latinos. Through indirect effects modeling, we find that increases in Black homicide are linked to rises in concentrated poverty, while increases in White homicide are linked to changes in unemployment. We discuss the implications of our findings.

  8. Labor Market Status of Older Males in the United States, 1880–1940

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the labor market status of older males in the early twentieth century, focusing on how the extent of pressure toward retirement differed across occupations and how it changed over time. A comparison of the probability of retirement across occupations shows that men who had better occupations in terms of economic status and work conditions were less likely to retire than were those with poorer jobs. The difficulty faced by older workers in the labor market, as measured by the relative incidence of long-term unemployment, was relatively severe among craftsmen, operatives, and salesmen. In contrast, aged farmers, professionals, managers, and proprietors appear to have fared well in the labor market. The pattern of shifts in the occupational structure that occurred between 1880 and 1940 suggests that industrialization had brought a growth of the sectors in which the pressure toward departure from employment at old ages was relatively strong. PMID:20234793

  9. [Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A

    2013-03-01

    The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area.

  10. Asian-born scientists and engineers: their immigration flow and labor market adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, M

    1993-07-01

    "This paper examines the flow of Asian-born scientists and engineers and their labor market adjustment. First, main elements to affect their immigration flow are described: supply, demand, and institution....The scarcity of domestic workers is the most important factor affecting demand of immigration. Institution, such as immigration policies, is another element to influence the immigration flow....Second, by using the 1980 U.S. Census data set, their labor market adjustment is explored in terms of hourly wages. Compared to the native-born white, there is no evidence that Asian-born scientists and engineers receive lower wages or lower return on human capital."

  11. [Migration to the northern frontier of Mexico and its relationship with the regional labor market].

    PubMed

    Anguiano Tellez, M E

    1998-01-01

    "This document tries to show the close relationship between the recent population growth in the northern border cities of Mexico and the dynamic demand of the regional market labor. First, it analyzes the evolution of demographic growth and the development of economic activities, in the Mexican borders in urban towns, then it reviews the data from the survey called Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte de Mexico in order to explore the connection between the regional labor market characteristics and the internal and international migration flows." (EXCERPT)

  12. Marketing and Retention Strategies for Adult Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joann A.

    2004-01-01

    Four marketing strategies are critical to the success of adult degree programs: integrating marketing, knowing your students (research), shaping programs and services for adults, and staying the course (retention).

  13. The Economics of Community College Labor Markets: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Hirschel

    2009-01-01

    The community college has many roles and constituents: academic, professional, and vocational. Its curriculum may be distinguished from that of other institutions of higher education by its many courses designed to enhance students' immediate career opportunities, especially with nearby employers. This article focuses on the job markets for…

  14. Migrant workers and labor market segmentation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mori, H

    1994-01-01

    The amended Immigration Control Act of 1990 focused on 1) redefinition of the resident status of foreign nationals, 2) clarification of immigration regulations, and 3) countermeasures to cope with the problem of illegal migrant workers. Tough penalties were introduced for illegal employment. The reform paved the way for third generation Nikkei (foreigners of Japanese ancestry) and also opened the door to non-Nikkei married to second generation Nikkei to reside in the country. The migration of Nikkei workers to Japan dates back to the beginning of the 1980s. The Technical Intern Training Program introduced in 1993 also opened a legal channel for the employment of unskilled or semi-skilled foreigners. The categories of foreign workers were heavily concentrated in the automobile and electric appliances industries, mostly as assembly line workers. Foreign students and clandestine workers had a wider dispersion in the labor force than the Nikkei. Students often find work in the urban service sector while attending school. Clandestine male workers predominate in the construction industry as unskilled workers. According to the size of firms, small firms had had the most acute labor shortages in the past 15 years prior to 1994, especially in the late 1980s. The Immigration Law of 1990 brought major changes in the hiring practices of large firms that began hiring legal workers such as the Nikkei, while small firms continued hiring clandestine workers from Asian countries. Foreign workers also earned almost as much as native part-time workers and sometimes even outstripped native seasonal workers. In terms of wages, Nikkei South Americans were on the top followed by Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalese, Ghanians, and Iranians on the bottom. Unskilled foreign workers generally had a high turnover rate with the Nikkei showing the lowest rate. Only 7% of the Nikkei changed jobs more than four times vs. 16-17% of foreign students and 21% of clandestine workers.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Education and Marriage on Labor Market Exit Decisions of Women. Working Paper 2010-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Pitts, M. Melinda; Walker, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    During the late 1990s, the convergence of women's labor force participation rates to men's rates came to a halt. This paper explores the degree to which the role of education and marriage in women's labor supply decisions also changed over this time period. Specifically, this paper investigates women's decisions to exit the labor market upon the…

  16. Literacy in the Labor Force. Results from the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew

    This document, which is based on data gathered during the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS), examines the literacy skills of the U.S. civilian labor force, including the employed and unemployed. The following topics are among those discussed: (1) human resources and the U.S. economy; (2) literacy proficiencies of the nation's labor force;…

  17. [Report SVIMEZ: population, education and the labor market and migration].

    PubMed

    Cura Della Redazione, A

    2012-01-01

    SVIMEZ REPORT: Population, school, job market, migrations. The Svimez, a private non profit institution, is an association for the development of business and industries in the south of Italy, whose aim is the study of the economy of the South of Italy to propose development programs. The report on the Economy in the South of Italy is the main annual yearly report since 1974. The main indicators and the development of southern economy in several key sectors are presented and discussed, each year focusing on different specific problems. AIR has already proposed contributions on the gap between north and south to reflect on inequalities. The relationship between economy, wellbeing and health has been demonstrated. The section on school, job market and migrations is presented.

  18. “Aging Out” of Dependent Coverage and the Effects on US Labor Market and Health Insurance Choices

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I examined how labor market and health insurance outcomes were affected by the loss of dependent coverage eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. I used National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data and regression discontinuity models to measure the percentage-point change in labor market and health insurance outcomes at age 26 years. My sample was restricted to unmarried individuals aged 24 to 28 years and to a period of time before the ACA’s individual mandate (2011–2013). I ran models separately for men and women to determine if there were differences based on gender. Results. Aging out of this provision increased employment among men, employer-sponsored health insurance offers for women, and reports that health insurance coverage was worse than it was 1 year previously (overall and for young women). Uninsured rates did not increase at age 26 years, but there was an increase in the purchase of non–group health coverage, indicating interest in remaining insured after age 26 years. Conclusions. Many young adults will turn to state and federal health insurance marketplaces for information about health coverage. Because young adults (aged 18–29 years) regularly use social media sites, these sites could be used to advertise insurance to individuals reaching their 26th birthdays. PMID:26447916

  19. Does cancer reduce labor market entry? Evidence for prime-age females.

    PubMed

    Moran, John R; Short, Pamela Farley

    2014-06-01

    Existing studies of the labor market status of cancer survivors have focused on the extent to which cancer disrupts the employment of individuals who were working when diagnosed with cancer. We examine how surviving cancer affects labor market entry and usual hours of work among females aged 28 to 54 years who were not working when first diagnosed. We find that prime-age females have employment rates 2 to 6 years after diagnosis that are 12 percentage points lower than otherwise similar women who were initially out of the labor force, full-time employment rates that are 10 percentage points lower, and usual hours of work that are 5 hours per week lower. These estimates are somewhat larger than estimates for prime-age women employed at the time of diagnosis and highlight the importance of considering nonworking females when assessing the economic and psychosocial burden of cancer.

  20. Labor Markets for New Science and Engineering Graduates in Private Industry. Science Resources Studies Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Data are presented on labor market conditions for science and engineering graduates based on responses of 255 firms to mail and telephone surveys conducted in late fall of 1981. Highlights presented in table, chart, and text indicate: (1) definite and likely shortages were concentrated in the computer and engineering fields; (2) chemical,…

  1. Career Thresholds: Longitudinal Studies of the Educational and Labor Market Experiences of Young Men. Volume Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Andrew I.; And Others

    This volume focuses on young men whose ages span the years of transition from adolescence to adulthood, and analyzes a number of facets of their educational and labor market experiences over the period from 1966 to 1971. It is based on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys, collected by annual personal interviews with the same national…

  2. Nest Leaving in Sweden: The Importance of Early Educational and Labor Market Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Karina; Strandh, Mattias

    1999-01-01

    Study looked at the importance of early education and labor market careers for nest leaving and returning to the parental home. The data determined that employment means a high probability of nest leaving but less stability of independent living. The early career was more important for structuring women's nest leaving than men's nest leaving.…

  3. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  4. Influences on Labor Market Outcomes of African American College Graduates: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an expanded econometric model, this study sought to estimate more precisely the net effect of independent variables (i.e., attending an HBCU) on three measures of labor market outcomes for African American college graduates. Findings reveal a statistically significant, albeit moderate, relationship between measures of background, human and…

  5. Race and Unemployment: Labor Market Experiences of Black and White Men, 1968-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of multinomial logistic regression models on a sample of unemployed workers suggested that persistently higher black unemployment is due to differential access to employment opportunities by region, occupational placement, labor market segmentation, and discrimination. The racial gap in unemployment is greatest for college-educated…

  6. Labor Market Surveys: Importance to and Preparedness of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs') importance of and preparedness in the labor market survey (LMS) competency through data collected by the "Knowledge Validation Inventory-Revised" ("KVI-R") instrument used by the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's (CRCC)…

  7. Heterogenous Effects of Sports Participation on Education and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorry, Devon

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of education and labor market benefits from sports participation. Results show that effects are similar across gender, but differ on other dimensions. In particular, participants in team sports show greater gains than those in individual sports. Quantile regressions show that educational gains are larger for…

  8. The Role of Temporary Help Employment in Tight Labor Markets. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseman, Susan N.; Kalleberg, Arne L.; Erickcek, George A.

    The impact of hiring temporary workers during the tight labor markets of the 1990s was examined through case studies of six hospitals and five automobile plants. The hospitals varied in size from 450 to 6,000 employees. The auto suppliers included unionized and nonunionized small and large companies. The case studies included extensive interviews…

  9. Second Survey of High School Students' Needs for Labor Market Information in Career Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laner, Stephen

    A survey of high school students' attitudes toward their prospective involvement in the world of work and the influences which promote or hinder their employment choices was conducted to contribute data toward the design of a model labor market information system. Two-thirds of the students sampled said that they had reached decisions about their…

  10. Youth and the Labor Market. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E., Ed.

    This collection consists of analyses based on data from the 1979, 1980, and 1981 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience. In a paper entitled "A Description of Employed and Unemployed Youth in 1981," Michael E. Borus describes employed, unemployed, and discouraged workers between the ages of 16 and 21. Next, Tom K.…

  11. Institutional Determinants of Labor Market Outcomes for Community College Students in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalleberg, Arne L.; Dunn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The labor market success of community college students depends on both the attributes of individual students and the characteristics of the community colleges they attend. In this article, we examine the impact of community college characteristics on the earnings of first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina…

  12. Prospects for the Faculty Labor Market in the 1990s: A Clemson University Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley

    Through a faculty retirement survey and a review of the literature, Clemson University, South Carolina, studied the future labor market for college faculty. The survey was administered to 1,250 faculty at the university in Fall, 1991. Fifty-six responded with data indicating that the College of Sciences, and the College of Agricultural Sciences…

  13. The Labor Markets of Knowledge Workers: Investment Bankers' Careers in the Wake of Corporate Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Carol; Althauser, Robert P.

    2003-01-01

    Review of organizational history, interviews with 36 human resources staff, and 110 employee survey responses in an investment bank examined the extent to which external hiring and collapsed career ladders affected careers. The mixture of entry- and midlevel hiring, career progression, and two different midlevel labor markets contradicted…

  14. The Implications of Labor Market Orientation Programs for Black Teenage Job Entry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Charles; Pentecoste, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The Labor Market Orientation (LMO) program responded to the problem of unemployment among Black teenagers. LMO provided classroom training which mitigated unrealistic expectations and served as an introduction to the requisites of the work world. The program was successful in providing a rational sequence of training and job exposure. (JCD)

  15. The Effect of School Inputs on Labor Market Returns that Account for Selective Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I estimate the effect of state school inputs on labor market returns to schooling. The method follows Card and Krueger (1992) and Heckman et al. (1996), but I extend their analysis in two ways. First, I correct state-level returns to schooling for selective migration, adapting a method from Dahl (2002). Second, I use more recent…

  16. Benchmarking the Importance and Use of Labor Market Surveys by Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros-Bailey, Mary; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to benchmark the importance and use of labor market survey (LMS) among U.S. certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs). A secondary post hoc analysis of data collected via the "Rehabilitation Skills Inventory--Revised" for the 2011 Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification job analysis resulted in…

  17. The Effect of Labor Market Conditions and Financial Aid on Doctoral Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaw, Frimpomaa D.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-three percent of doctoral students never complete their degree. This dropout is the highest among graduate and professional degree programs. Previous cross sectional studies of doctoral students' retention show the importance of financial aid in predicting degree completion. The studies however, do not estimate the labor market's effect on…

  18. Intervening against "Racial" Disadvantage: Educational Policy and Labor-Market Outcomes in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Argues that education can not guarantee social or occupational mobility, or even work, for minority groups in the United Kingdom. Presents evidence that labor market disadvantage for minority groups arises from direct racist discrimination, ethnocentric notions of "acceptability," and word-of-mouth recruitment of employees. Contains 54…

  19. Assessing the Impact of Gender and Race on Earnings in the Library Science Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeper, Darren; Smith, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this paper examines earnings in the library science labor market and assesses the impact of gender on the income attainment process. We use this cross-sectional dataset to determine if there are significant income differences between male and female library science professionals. The…

  20. Responding to a Changing Labor Market: The Challenges for Community-Based Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastrik, Peter

    Changes in the labor market and rising expectations of employers, government, and job seekers are putting enormous pressure on non-profit, community based organizations (CBOs) in the field of work force development. Providing intensive services for hard-to-serve populations costs more than serving clients who are more "job ready," yet increased…

  1. Assembling a Career: Labor Market Outcomes for Manufacturing Program Students in Two-Year Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, Christopher J.; Chan, Hsun-yu; Wang, Xueli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Research on labor market outcomes for individuals who enroll in technical colleges is limited, with even less attention to the effects of short-term certificates than associate degrees. Also, despite the importance of manufacturing programs, there is a lack of research on employment outcomes for individuals who enroll in these programs…

  2. Career Effects of Occupation-Related Vocational Education: Evidence from the Military's Internal Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pema, Elda; Mehay, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the labor market success of secondary vocational education has produced mixed results, with several studies finding wage gains only for individuals who work in training-related occupations. We contribute to this debate by focusing on a single occupation and organization and by comparing the careers of employees with and without…

  3. Work Environments and Labor Markets: Explaining Principal Turnover Gap between Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min; Ni, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge about principals' leadership roles in charter schools' success has become more important as the number of charter schools increases and as we have learned more about the influence of principal leadership on school effectiveness. To contribute to the limited empirical literature on the principal labor market, this study explores…

  4. Education and Labor Market Risk: Understanding the Role of Data Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether conclusions about the relationship between education and labor market risk depend on the use of commonly applied procedures to clean data of extreme values. The analysis uses fifteen years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to demonstrate that conclusions about the relationship between education and labor…

  5. Labor Market Responsiveness: Assessing Seven Dimensions of the West Virginia Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipway, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the presidents of the ten public community and technical colleges in the state of West Virginia perceive their institutions implementing the seven dimensions of college life in support of labor market responsiveness identified by the U.S. Department of Education. The U.S. Department…

  6. Five Faculty Labor Market Dilemmas Facing Community Colleges in the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Yildiz, Selin; Batie, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges employ more than one-third of the nation's higher education faculty. Nevertheless, the labor market through which faculty are recruited, selected, hired, evaluated and retained or replaced is one of the least understood aspects of these institutions. Functional management and effective policy both require a clear understanding…

  7. STEM in the Ohio Labor Market: A Mismatch or a Missed Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Stacia Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the supply of educated workers and the talent demands of employers is complex. Declining educational attainment levels in the US have been identified as a possible cause for the reported mismatch between the availability of talent that businesses want to hire and the talent available in the labor market, especially in the…

  8. Undocumented Immigrants in the Labor Market: Recent Research Findings. Perspectivas Publicas: Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Most early research on the impact of undocumented workers on the labor market held that it results in the widespread displacement of native workers. More recent and more sophisticated theory argues that immigrants, both legal and illegal, create jobs by consuming goods and services, and by starting new businesses. This latter idea may not be as…

  9. Ethnic Gaps in Educational Attainment and Labor-Market Outcomes: Evidence from France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langevin, Gabin; Masclet, David; Moizeau, Fabien; Peterle, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the "Trajectoires et Origines" survey to analyze ethnic gaps in education and labor-market outcomes between second-generation immigrants and their French-native counterparts. Our three main findings underscore the importance of family background in explaining lifelong ethnic inequalities. First, second-generation…

  10. Policy Responses to the Recent Poor Performance of the U.S. Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Since the onset of the Great Recession, the U.S. labor market has been reeling. Public concern has largely focused on the unemployment rate, which rose to double digits and has since been stalled at just over 9 percent. This rate is unacceptably high, and macroeconomic policy efforts have been unsuccessful in bringing it down. The overall…

  11. Family Formation, Labor Market Experience, and the Wages of Married Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John F.; Berger, Franklin

    The impact of the timing, spacing, and number of children on a married woman's wage growth over her life cycle was examined. The data used for the analysis were information pertaining to the labor market experience of women and the birth dates of their children, taken from the 1976 survey of the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics (IDP). There…

  12. External Labor Markets and the Distribution of Black Scientists and Engineers in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Shaw, Heather; Chong, Yinong

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1989 Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate racial segmentation of the academic labor market along geographic and disciplinary lines. Finds that black faculty in the sciences and engineering are found disproportionately in southern, historically black institutions; areas with sizable black populations; and, independent…

  13. Staying-On at School at 16: The Impact of Labor Market Conditions in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrongolo, Barbara; San Segundo, Maria J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the impact of family characteristics and local labor-market conditions on the demand for postcompulsory education in Spain. Finds that record levels of youth unemployment did not enhance substantially the demand for postcompulsory education. Parents' education seems to be the main determinant of school enrollment. (Contains 32…

  14. The Labor Market in the Central California Raisin Industry: Five Years after IRCA. California Agricultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew; And Others

    This report examines the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) on the raisin industry's labor market, and provides educators with background on California migrant workers and their deteriorating working conditions. Because the raisin harvest lasts only 3-4 weeks but employs 40,000-50,000 workers, any effects of IRCA on…

  15. Labor Market Assessment of Business Computer Programming Personnel for the Eastern Iowa Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport. Office of Academic Affairs and Planning.

    In October 1991, a labor market assessment was conducted to provide information and direction for the curriculum development and evaluation efforts of the Eastern Iowa Community College District's (EICCD's) Business Computer Programming (BCP) Program. The study focused on employment opportunities for and educational needs of personnel performing…

  16. Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…

  17. Between hearth and labor market: the recruitment of peasant women in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, S A

    1990-01-01

    To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.

  18. The Class of 2011: Young Workers Face a Dire Labor Market without a Safety Net. EPI Briefing Paper #306

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shierholz, Heidi; Edwards, Kathryn Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Great Recession left a crater in the labor market that has been devastating for unemployed Americans of all ages. After more than two years of unemployment at well over 8%, there is a hole of more than 11 million jobs, with average spells of unemployment lasting nearly nine months. The weak labor market has been particularly tough on young…

  19. Weathering the Great Recession with Human Capital? Evidence on Labor Market Returns to Education from Arkansas. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession was one of the sharpest economic downturns of the past century, with significant impacts across the U.S. labor market. Over past decades, one key feature of the U.S. labor market has been the high and stable returns to education. In this paper I estimate the returns to education for large samples of young workers in Arkansas…

  20. The Labor Market Outcomes of Two Forms of Cross-Border Higher Education Degree Programs between Malaysia and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…

  1. Career Thresholds: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth. Volume Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrisani, Paul; Kohen, Andrew I.

    This study deals with the impact of collective bargaining coverage on the 1969-70 labor market experience of young men in blue collar jobs. Specifically examined is the impact of collective bargaining on five dimensions of the labor market experience: (1) hourly rate of pay, (2) hours worked per week, (3) susceptibility to unemployment, (4)…

  2. Individual Schooling Decisions and Labor Market Allocation: Vertical and Horizontal Sorting. IFG Program Report No. 84-B8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog, Joop

    If labor market phenomena are interpreted from an allocational point of view, where individuals differing in levels of various capabilities have to be matched with jobs differing in job requirements, education can be seen as an intermediary institution affecting the capability endowment of individuals upon entering the labor market. Vertical…

  3. Why Women Are Progressive in Education? Gender Disparities in Human Capital, Labor Markets, and Family Arrangement in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Futoshi; Tiongco, Marites

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows mutually consistent evidence to support female advantage in education and disadvantage in labor markets observed in the Philippines. We set up a model that shows multiple Nash equilibria to explain schooling and labor market behaviors for females and males. Our evidence from unique sibling data of schooling and work history and…

  4. Who's Not Working and Why. Employment, Cognitive Skills, Wages, and the Changing U.S. Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Frederic L.; Schaffer, David L.

    This book explains major trends in the U.S. labor market over the last quarter-century. Chapter 1 presents hypotheses regarding the changing labor market. Chapter 2 looks at cognitive skills and formal education as determinants of employment. Chapter 3 develops the argument that the downward occupational mobility arising from changes in the supply…

  5. Human health care and selection effects. Understanding labor supply in the market for nursing.

    PubMed

    Barigozzi, Francesca; Turati, Gilberto

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study (adverse) selection in a labor supply model where potential applicants are characterized by different vocational levels and skills. We look at how the composition of the pool of active workers changes as the wage rate increases. Contrary to what would expect, average productivity does not necessarily increase monotonically in the wage rate. We identify conditions in which a wage increase reduces the average productivity and/or average vocation of active workers. Our results help understand the potential impact of wage increases as a policy designed to resolving shortages in the labor market for nurses.

  6. Restructuring of labor markets in the Philippines and Zambia: the gender dimension.

    PubMed

    Floro, M S; Schaefer, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension

  7. [The influence of the economic recession on health care labor market in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Bagat, Mario; Drakulić, Velibor

    2010-01-01

    Trends in the labor market, as a result of global economic recession, are characterized by reduction of manpower activity, decreased number of employed and increased number of unemployed persons. As the result of economic recession more then million workplaces are expected to be lost in the European Union. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of economic recession on labor market in general and healthcare labor market in Croatia. In Q1/2009, the number of employed persons in the European Union declined by -1.2% compared to the same quarter of 2008, while in Croatia the number of employed persons declined by -0.4%. The comparison of quarterly employment rate in Croatia and the European Union in the period from Q2/2008 to Q1/2009 was not significantly different (p = 0.169, df = 6, t = 1.564, Student t test). Average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 in the European Union was 8.1% +/- 0.3 and it was increased by 9.4% compared to Q4/2008, while in Croatia the average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 was 8.4% +/- 0.1 and it was increased by 3.3% compared to Q4/2008. Monthly changes of unemployment rates compared between the European Union and Croatia in the six month period (Q4/2008 and Q1/2009) was significantly different (p = 0.001, df = 10, t = 4.425, Student t test). In Croatian health care system in Q1/2009 the number of employed person increased by 0.7% compared to Q1/2008, while the number of unemployed persons in the same period was reduced by -1.0%. Trends in the labor market in Croatia follow the global trends in the labor market in times of economic recession, although the increase in unemployment in Croatia was slower than in the countries of the European Union. As a result of Croatian healthcare system organization, system of financing, supply and demand on healthcare labor market, healthcare workforce in Croatia was less affected by recession than workforce in Croatia in general.

  8. Organize! A Look at Labor History in Young Adult Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Deborah Wilson

    2001-01-01

    Explores how labor history has been written in books for young readers. Discusses 12 books that focus on the "monstrous working conditions, the miserable poverty of the workers, and the callous apathy of the bosses." Notes that these novels avoid any meaningful discussion of the inherent injustices of capitalism, class structure, and the belief in…

  9. Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Brian C

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants' location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents.

  10. The US healthcare workforce and the labor market effect on healthcare spending and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Qian, Jing

    2014-06-01

    The healthcare sector was one of the few sectors of the US economy that created new positions in spite of the recent economic downturn. Economic contractions are associated with worsening morbidity and mortality, declining private health insurance coverage, and budgetary pressure on public health programs. This study examines the causes of healthcare employment growth and workforce composition in the US and evaluates the labor market's impact on healthcare spending and health outcomes. Data are collected for 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1999-2009. Labor market and healthcare workforce data are obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mortality and health status data are collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics program and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Healthcare spending data are derived from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Dynamic panel data regression models, with instrumental variables, are used to examine the effect of the labor market on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality. Regression analysis is also performed to model the effects of healthcare spending on the healthcare workforce composition. All statistical tests are based on a two-sided [Formula: see text] significance of [Formula: see text] .05. Analyses are performed with STATA and SAS. The labor force participation rate shows a more robust effect on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality than the unemployment rate. Study results also show that declining labor force participation negatively impacts overall health status ([Formula: see text] .01), and mortality for males ([Formula: see text] .05) and females ([Formula: see text] .001), aged 16-64. Further, the Medicaid and Medicare spending share increases as labor force participation declines ([Formula: see text] .001); whereas, the private healthcare spending share decreases ([Formula: see text] .001). Public and private healthcare spending also

  11. An Agent-Based Labor Market Simulation with Endogenous Skill-Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemkow, S.

    This paper considers an agent-based labor market simulation to examine the influence of skills on wages and unemployment rates. Therefore less and highly skilled workers as well as less and highly productive vacancies are implemented. The skill distribution is exogenous whereas the distribution of the less and highly productive vacancies is endogenous. The different opportunities of the skill groups on the labor market are established by skill requirements. This means that a highly productive vacancy can only be filled by a highly skilled unemployed. Different skill distributions, which can also be interpreted as skill-biased technological change, are simulated by incrementing the skill level of highly skilled persons exogenously. This simulation also provides a microeconomic foundation of the matching function often used in theoretical approaches.

  12. The impact of maternity length-of-stay mandates on the labor market and insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Sabik, Lindsay M; Laugesen, Miriam J

    2012-01-01

    To understand the effects of insurance regulation on the labor market and insurance coverage, this study uses a difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to compare five states that passed minimum maternity length-of-stay laws with states that waited until after a federal law was passed. On average, we do not find statistically significant effects on labor market outcomes such as hours of work and wages. However, we find that employees of small firms in states with maternity length-of-stay mandates experienced a 6.2-percentage-point decline in the likelihood of having employer-sponsored insurance. Implementation of federal health reform that requires minimum benefit standards should consider the implications for firms of differing sizes.

  13. PV Installation Labor Market Analysis and PV JEDI Tool Developments (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.

    2012-06-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  14. Employment effects of active labor market programs for sick-listed workers.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Kristin Storck; Houlberg, Helle Sofie Bøje

    2017-01-30

    We use register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers in Denmark over the period 2008-2011 to investigate the effect of active labor market programs on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in the use of active labor market programs in 98 job centers and time-to- event. We find that ordinary education and subsidized job training have significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, positive effect on the transition into employment but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition into employment. The latter effect is the result of two opposing effects, a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock-in effect, with low re-employment chances during program participation.

  15. Explaining levels of within-group wage inequality in U.S. labor markets.

    PubMed

    McCall, L

    2000-11-01

    Most research on earnings inequality has focused on the growing gap between workers of different races and at different education, age, and income levels, but a large portion of the increasing inequality has actually occurred within these groups. This article focuses on the extent and sources of "within-group" wage inequality in more than 500 labor markets in the United States in 1990. In addition to documenting that within-group wage inequality across regions varies more widely today than over the past several decades, the analysis reveals that two frequently cited explanations of rising wage inequality over time have little impact on within-group wage inequality when measured at the local labor market level: (1) industrial shifts and (2) increased technology and trade. By contrast, flexible and insecure employment conditions (e.g., unemployment, contingent work, and immigration) are associated strongly with high local levels of within-group wage inequality, especially among women.

  16. An Application of the Marketing Mix to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Wray; Hoy, Frank

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the experience of a major university in applying the concept of the marketing mix to an adult education program. The concept requires the understanding of the interdependence of the four Ps of marketing: product, place, price, and promotion. (JOW)

  17. Productivity or discrimination? An economic analysis of excess-weight penalty in the Swedish labor market.

    PubMed

    Dackehag, Margareta; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Nordin, Martin

    2015-07-01

    This article investigates the excess-weight penalty in income for men and women in the Swedish labor market, using longitudinal data. It compares two identification strategies, OLS and individual fixed effects, and distinguishes between two main sources of excess-weight penalties, lower productivity because of bad health and discrimination. For men, the analysis finds a significant obesity penalty related to discrimination when applying individual fixed effects. We do not find any significant excess-weight penalty for women.

  18. STEM Employment in the New Economy: A Labor Market Segmentation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Olave, Blanca M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples,…

  19. Job Search on the Internet, E-Recruitment, and Labor Market Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    around the world. Visit RAND at www.rand.org Explore Pardee RAND Graduate School View document details For More Information Browse Books & Publications...is part of the Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS) dissertation series. PRGS dissertations are produced by graduate fellows of the Pardee RAND...fellow’s faculty committee. PARDEE RAND GRADUATE SCHOOL Job Search on the Internet, E-Recruitment, and Labor Market Outcomes Farrukh Suvankulov This

  20. The influence of legal status on the labor market impact of immigration.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T

    1985-01-01

    This article explores US labor market changes that would take place as a result of an amnesty that would regularize the status of undocumented workers without changing the total size of the alien workforce. The theoretical analysis suggests that the influence of legal status on market wage rates and on minimum wage enforcement is weak and that to the extent that there is an effect, it depends on particular institutional arrangements. Although data are not adequate for a definite measurement of these effects, those data that are available support this conclusion. It appears that the presence of undocumented as opposed to resident aliens can weaken union organizing efforts.

  1. Does human capital raise earnings for immigrants in the low-skill labor market?

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Farkas, George

    2008-08-01

    We use monthly Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 to estimate the determinants of differentiation in intercepts and slopes for age/earnings profiles of low-skill immigrant and native male workers. Our findings provide further depth of understanding to the "mixed"picture of earnings determination in the low-skill labor market that has been reported by others. On the positive side, many immigrants are employed in similar occupations and industries as natives. Both groups show substantial wage gains over time and generally receive similar returns to years of schooling completed. Immigrants also receive substantial returns to acculturation, measured as age at arrival and English language skill. These results cast doubt on the strong version of segmented labor market theory, in which low-skill immigrants are permanently consigned to dead-end jobs with no wage appreciation. On the negative side, immigrants earn approximately 24% less than natives and are less likely to occupy supervisory and managerial jobs. Latino immigrants receive lower returns to education than do white immigrants. Furthermore, age at arrival and language ability do not explain the lower returns to education experienced by Latino immigrants. These results suggest that Latino immigrants in particular may suffer from barriers to mobility and/or wage discrimination. Whether these negative labor market experiences occur primarily for illegal immigrants remains unknown.

  2. Complementarities or contradictions? Scoping the health dimensions of "flexicurity" labor market policies.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Zabia; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Mahmood, Qamar; Ng, Edwin; Schrecker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Flexicurity, or the integration of labor market flexibility with social security and active labor market policies, has figured prominently in economic and social policy discussions in Europe since the mid-1990s. Such policies are designed to transcend traditional labor-capital conflicts and to form a mutually supportive nexus of flexibility and security within a climate of intensified competition and rapid technological change. International bodies have marketed flexicurity as an innovative win-win strategy for employers and workers alike, commonly citing Denmark and The Netherlands as exemplars of best practice. In this article, we apply a social determinants of health framework to conduct a scoping review of the academic and gray literature to: (a) better understand the empirical associations between flexicurity practices and population health in Denmark and (b) assess the relevance and feasibility of implementing such policies to improve health and reduce health inequalities in Ontario, Canada. Based on 39 studies meeting our full inclusion criteria, preliminary findings suggest that flexicurity is limited as a potential health promotion strategy in Ontario, offers more risks to workers' health than benefits, and requires the strengthening of other social protections before it could be realistically implemented within a Canadian context.

  3. Employment Preferences and Outcomes of Recent Science and Engineering Doctorate Holders in the Labor Market. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannankutty, Nirmala; Kang, Kelly

    This issue brief discusses the statistical results of the 1997 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) and identifies doctorate holders' employment preferences at the beginning of their doctoral education and labor market experiences. (YDS)

  4. Long-Term Effects of a Recession at Labor Market Entry in Japan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genda, Yuji; Kondo, Ayako; Ohta, Souichi

    2010-01-01

    We examine effects of entering the labor market during a recession on subsequent employment and earnings for Japanese and American men, using comparable household labor force surveys. We find persistent negative effects of the unemployment rate at graduation for less-educated Japanese men, in contrast to temporary effects for less-educated…

  5. Marketing and Market Research for Adult and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckmaster, Annette

    Marketing is an essential part of conducting a continuing education program, but marketing consists of more than just promotion. According to Kotler, exchange is the central concept underlying marketing. Marketing involves understanding, planning, implementing, and controlling this exchange. The exchange situation contains all the elements of the…

  6. A specific labor market comparison of male and female willingness to travel: The case of the Army National Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, A. ); Bell, S.E. ); Vogt, D.P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an examination of gender differences in commuting behavior within the Army National Guard. This labor market provides a more level playing field than most for a direct comparison between male and female willingness to travel. In contrast to other studies, we find that women as a group are willing to travel greater distances, in this particular labor market. 9 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  7. Labor market outcomes of immigrant women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Schoeni, R F

    1998-01-01

    42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes.

  8. Marketing Your Adult Literacy Program: A "How To" Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara E.

    This document presents a training module designed to help adult literacy program providers in New York and elsewhere to use the principles of social marketing to improve recruitment and retention in adult education programming. Literacy program providers are taught to view the social marketing process as a process of exchange between themselves as…

  9. The Promise and the Pathway: Marketing Higher Education to Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David S.; Wanstreet, Constance E.; Saunders, Charles T., Jr.; Lutz, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of college and university Web site home pages to determine the frequency of marketing messages that might persuade adult learners to enroll at the institution. The findings suggest that colleges and universities in this study do not have adult-oriented marketing messages and are giving scant attention to the…

  10. PLACE OF ORIGIN AND LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES AMONG MIGRANT WORKERS IN URBAN CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunni; Xie, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The localistic enclave is a special kind of enclave in urban China, which is characterized by high concentration of rural migrants from the same place of origin. Prior research has documented that rural migrants work in these localistic enclaves, but the significance of participation in them for labor market outcomes among migrant workers has yet to be determined. In this article, we argue that localistic economic enclaves may improve the labor force outcomes of rural-to-urban migrants. We report results from a study of the social determinants and consequences of working in localistic enclaves, based on data from a 2010 survey of migrant workers in the Pearl River and the Yangzi River Deltas. The results provide limited support for our hypothesis: Localistic enclaves enable migrant workers to earn higher earnings overall, but the earnings returns to human capital in an enclave are limited. PMID:24223441

  11. Preschool and maternal labor market outcomes: evidence from a regression discontinuity Design.

    PubMed

    Berlinski, Samuel; Galiani, Sebastian; McEwan, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, employment rates for mothers with young children are relatively low. This study analyzes how maternal labor market outcomes in Argentina are affected by the preschool attendance of their children. Using pooled household surveys, we show that 4-year-olds with birthdays on June 30 have sharply higher probabilities of preschool attendance than children born on July 1, given enrollment-age rules. Regression-discontinuity estimates using this variation suggest that preschool attendance of the youngest child in the household increases the probability of full-time employment and weekly hours of maternal employment. We find no effect of preschool attendance on maternal labor outcomes for children who are not the youngest in the household.

  12. Marketing in Adult Education. A Critical Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rita L.

    In the literature on marketing in adult education there is much debate on the ethics of marketing educational programs; although many individuals have written about the potential negative impacts of big business and high-pressure advertising in education, others have viewed marketing as an acceptable process that attempts to establish mutually…

  13. STEM employment in the new economy: A labor market segmentation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Olave, Blanca M.

    The present study examined the extent to which the U.S. STEM labor market is stratified in terms of quality of employment. Through a series of cluster analyses and Chi-square tests on data drawn from the 2008 Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP), the study found evidence of segmentation in the highly-skilled STEM and non-STEM samples, which included workers with a subbaccalaureate diploma or above. The cluster analyses show a pattern consistent with Labor Market Segmentation theory: Higher wages are associated with other primary employment characteristics, including health insurance and pension benefits, as well as full-time employment. In turn, lower wages showed a tendency to cluster with secondary employment characteristics, such as part-time employment, multiple employment, and restricted access to health insurance and pension benefits. The findings also suggest that women have a higher likelihood of being employed in STEM jobs with secondary characteristics. The findings reveal a far more variegated employment landscape than is usually presented in national reports of the STEM workforce. There is evidence that, while STEM employment may be more resilient than non-STEM employment to labor restructuring trends in the new economy, the former is far from immune to secondary labor characteristics. There is a need for ongoing dialogue between STEM education (at all levels), employers, policymakers, and other stakeholders to truly understand not only the barriers to equity in employment relations, but also the mechanisms that create and maintain segmentation and how they may impact women, underrepresented minorities, and the foreign-born.

  14. Disruptive innovation, labor markets, and Big Valley STEM School: network analysis in STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Scott; Allen, Ben

    2016-11-01

    A defining characteristic of contemporary trends in global education policy is the promotion of STEM learning in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of education as a means to generate innovation and prosperity in the economy. Intertwined with common sensical assumptions about future labor markets and the transformative potential of technology in education, STEM has become a hegemonic discourse informing policy formation and educational practice. In Gramscian terms, the struggle over STEM as a discursive practice, between proponents of instrumental learning of marketable economic skills and those of education towards humanistic goals, reveals insights about the ideological characteristics of the push for STEM learning. This article explores the power dynamics behind the push for STEM learning as an ideological discourse propagated by global networks of elite policy actors and enacted by non-elite policy actors at the school level. The findings point toward a disjuncture between the discourse of elite policy actors in the US, the realities of STEM labor markets, and the actualization of this policy discourse into classroom practice. The implications of this study indicate that analyses of vertical power relations in network governance in STEM education should attend to the semiotics, materiality, and mutability of networked spaces.

  15. Review Symposium. "Working in America: A Blueprint for the New Labor Market," by Paul Osterman, Thomas A. Kochan, Richard Locke, and Michael J. Piore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Harry C., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    A panel comments on the book, Working in America, and implications for the U.S. labor market, including declining traditional internal labor markets, the need for private versus public policy interventions, international labor policy, and value-based policy. Commentators include David Neumark, Peter Cappelli, Sanford M. Jacoby, Rebecca M. Blank,…

  16. Increasing illness among people out of labor market - A Danish register-based study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Finn Kenneth; Diderichsen, Finn

    2016-05-01

    In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i) the prevalence of four chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and mental disorders) among those out-of-work had changed, ii) the occurrence of new cases of those diseases were higher among those who were already out-of-work, or iii) if non-health-related benefits were disproportionately given to individuals recently diagnosed with a disease compared to those without disease. The study was register-based and comprised all Danish residents aged 20-60. During the study period, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders increased among both employed and non-employed people. The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4.83 (4.53-5.14) for the period 2007-2010. The estimates were similar for women.

  17. [Labor market structure and access to private health insurance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Machado, Ana Flavia; Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Maia, Ana Carolina

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to describe health insurance coverage among different types of workers in Brazil. Health insurance coverage and labor market insertion are used to define homogeneous groups of workers. The Grade of Membership method is used to build a typology of workers. The database was the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD) for 1998 and 2003, including a health survey. Five worker profiles were defined. The key variables were: health insurance coverage, schooling, and work status. The main findings show a positive association between health insurance coverage, income from work, and trade union membership.

  18. Hispanic youth in the labor market. Special report 1979-80

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, R.

    1983-07-01

    Using data from the 1979 and 1980 interviews of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLS), this study examines the labor market experiences of Hispanic youth. Subjects selected for analysis include employment and unemployment, job search methods, types of occupation, job satisfaction, government sponsored employment and training, attitudes toward work and military service, reported illegal activities, and employment opportunities. Comparisons are made with blacks and whites who were also included in this sample of young men and women aged 14 to 21 in 1979.

  19. Effect of Immigrant Nurses on Labor Market Outcomes of US Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Robert; Kaushal, Neeraj

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of immigration of foreign-trained, registered nurses (RNs) on the employment and wages of US-trained RNs. We use the “area” approach and study effects of immigration in labor markets defined by the state. We find substantial evidence that immigration by foreign-trained nurses increases the supply of nurses and that this increase in supply is associated with a decrease in annual earnings. Estimates suggest that a 10 percent increase in supply due to immigration is associated with a one to four percent decrease in annual earnings. PMID:22199410

  20. The Ethnic Niche as an Economic Pathway for the Dark Skinned: Labor Market Incorporation of Latina/o Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of Latina/os are turning to employment in ethnic niches as an alternative to general labor markets. This study places special focus on how skin color segmentation or colorism influences job-market allocation. The hypothesis is that dark-skinned Latina/os are more likely to be employed in ethnically homogeneous jobsites or…

  1. Rising Mal-Employment and the Great Recession: The Growing Disconnection between Recent College Graduates and the College Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over…

  2. Physician shortages in rural Vietnam: using a labor market approach to inform policy.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko; Shengelia, Bakhuti; Alfano, Marco; Thu, Ha Bui

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates labor market dynamics for physicians in Vietnam, paying particular attention to geographic distribution and dual job holding. The analysis is based on a survey of a random sample of physicians in 3 regions in 2009-10. We found that the labor market for physicians in Vietnam is characterized by very little movement among both facility levels and geographic areas. Dual practice is also prominent, with over one-third of physicians holding a second job. After taking account of the various sources of income for physicians and controlling for key factors, there is a significant wage premium associated with locating in an urban area. This premium is driven by much higher earnings from dual job holding rather than official earnings in the primary job. There are important policy implications that emerge. With such low job turnover rates, policies to increase the number of physicians in rural areas could focus on initial recruitment. Once in place, physicians tend to remain in their jobs for a very long time. Lastly, findings from an innovative discrete choice experiment suggest that providing long-term education and improving equipment are the most effective instruments to recruit physicians to work in rural areas.

  3. Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Ove; Häggström, Elisabeth; Nyström, Lisbet

    2015-09-07

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  4. The Icelandic economic collapse, smoking, and the role of labor-market changes.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Thorhildur; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is related to health deterioration through increased risk of various diseases. Changes in this health behavior could contribute to the documented health improvements during economic downturns. Furthermore, the reasons for changes in behavior are not well understood. We explore smoking behavior in Iceland before and after the sudden and unexpected economic crisis in 2008. Furthermore, to explore the mechanisms through which smoking could be affected we focus on the role of labor-market changes. Both real income and working hours fell significantly and economic theory suggests that such changes can affect health behaviors which in turn affect health. We use individual longitudinal data from 2007 to 2009, incidentally before and after the crisis hit. The data originates from a postal survey, collected by The Public Health Institute in Iceland. Two outcomes are explored: smoking participation and smoking intensity, using pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) and linear probability models. The detected reduction in both outcomes is not explained by the changes in labor-market variables. Other factors in the demand function for tobacco play a more important role. The most notable are real prices which increased in particular for imported goods because of the devaluation of the Icelandic currency as a result of the economic collapse.

  5. Labor market conditions and violent crime across the metro-nonmetro divide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Slack, Tim

    2008-09-01

    This analysis extends prior research on labor market conditions and violent crime. Specifically, we elaborate on research demonstrating a link between poor labor market conditions and violence by directly measuring the associations between secondary sector work, low hour work, low pay work, and levels of violence across the metro-nonmetro divide. The results demonstrate that low paying work tends to be more similar to other forms of social disadvantage such as poverty and unemployment. In contrast, secondary sector work and low hour work are empirically distinct constructs. Consistent with prior research, multivariate analyses indicate that the pernicious effect of secondary sector work is relatively constant across metro and nonmetro areas. However, contrary to the logic articulated in previous studies, we find that an index of low hour and seasonal employment is actually associated with lower violent crime rates across the metro-nonmetro divide. This finding is consonant with the assertion that the availability of low hour and seasonal employment--work that is often viewed as less than optimal--provides downward pressure on crime rates because it structures ecological behavior patterns and enhances attachments to institutions cultivating conventional behavior.

  6. Gender differences in socioeconomic returns to family migration in Malaysia: the role of family decision making versus labor market stratification.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author examines gender differences in the effect of family migration on socioeconomic attainment in Malaysia. The analysis discerns the relative importance of gender roles in household migration decisions, compared to gender stratification in the labor market. The Malaysian economy has undergone rapid industrialization and great structural changes which have opened up new economic opportunities, particularly for women. Despite the somewhat advantaged position of women compared to men in the Malaysian labor market, the author finds that men experience much greater socioeconomic gains than women from family migration. Hence indicating that family migration decisions in Malaysia, rather than optimizing family gains, compensate for the gender effect in the labor market. However, the gains of Malaysian men are more assured when they move alone. Data for the study come from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey.

  7. Smoking, alcohol consumption and betal-quid chewing among young adult Myanmar laborers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Htin, Kyaw; Howteerakull, Nopporn; Suwannapong, Nawarat; TipayamongkholgulI, Mathuros

    2014-07-01

    Health-risk behaviors among young adults are a serious public health problem. This cross sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of single and concurrent multiple health-risk behaviors: smoking tobacco, consuming alcohol, and chewing betel quid among young adult Myanmar laborers in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Three hundred Myanmar laborers, aged 18-24 years, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. About 33.6% reported no risk behaviors, 24.7% had one, and 41.7% had two or three risk behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed six variables were significantly associated with health-risk behaviors: male gender, high/moderate custom/traditional influences, friends who smoked/consumed alcohol/chewed betel quid, and exposure to betel-quid chewing by other family members.

  8. Developing a Marketing Strategy for Adult and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    The project described in this report aimed to develop an effective and affordable educational marketing strategy in one local British continuing education provider, as a case study for adult and continuing education nationally. Methods employed were as follows: a marketing consultant visited education centers; business and community directories…

  9. On the evolution of intergenerational division of labor, menopause and transfers among adults and offspring

    PubMed Central

    Cyrus Chu, C.Y.; Lee, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    We explain how upward transfers from adult children to their elderly parents might evolve as an interrelated feature of a deepening intergenerational division of labor. Humans have a particularly long period of juvenile dependence requiring both food and care time provided mainly by younger and older adults. We suggest that the division of labor evolves to exploit comparative advantage between young and old adults in fertility, childcare and foraging. Eventually the evolving division of labor reaches a limit when the grandmother's fertility reaches zero (menopause). Continuing, it may hit another limit when the grandmother's foraging time has been reduced to her subsistence needs. Further specialization can occur only with food transfers to the grandmother, enabling her to reduce her foraging time to concentrate on additional childcare. We prove that this outcome can arise only after menopause has evolved. We describe the conditions necessary for both group selection (comparative steady state reproductive fitness) and individual selection (successful invasion by a mutation), and interpret these conditions in terms of comparative advantages. PMID:23648187

  10. On the evolution of intergenerational division of labor, menopause and transfers among adults and offspring.

    PubMed

    Cyrus, Chu C Y; Lee, Ronald D

    2013-09-07

    We explain how upward transfers from adult children to their elderly parents might evolve as an interrelated feature of a deepening intergenerational division of labor. Humans have a particularly long period of juvenile dependence requiring both food and care time provided mainly by younger and older adults. We suggest that the division of labor evolves to exploit comparative advantage between young and old adults in fertility, childcare and foraging. Eventually the evolving division of labor reaches a limit when the grandmother's fertility reaches zero (menopause). Continuing, it may hit another limit when the grandmother's foraging time has been reduced to her subsistence needs. Further specialization can occur only with food transfers to the grandmother, enabling her to reduce her foraging time to concentrate on additional childcare. We prove that this outcome can arise only after menopause has evolved. We describe the conditions necessary for both group selection (comparative steady state reproductive fitness) and individual selection (successful invasion by a mutation), and interpret these conditions in terms of comparative advantages.

  11. Building Program Awareness through Adult Marketing and Distributive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William T., Jr.

    A large portion of the business community has limited and/or inaccurate knowledge about marketing and distributive education (MDE). If MDE begins meeting the adult training and development needs of industry, recognition of MDE as a viable training program should emerge. With the proper organizational structure and delivery system, adult MDE can be…

  12. Training in two-tier labor markets: The role of job match quality.

    PubMed

    Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; van Huizen, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    This study examines training investments in two-tier labor markets, focusing on the role of job match quality. Temporary workers are in general more likely than permanent workers to leave their employer and therefore are less likely to receive employer-funded training. However, as firms prefer to continue productive job matches, we hypothesize that the negative effect of holding a temporary contract on the probability to be trained diminishes with the quality of the job match. Using a recent longitudinal survey from the Netherlands, we find that temporary workers indeed participate less frequently in firm-sponsored training. However, this effect is fully driven by mismatches: holding a temporary contract does not significantly decrease the probability to receive training for workers in good job matches. Depending on match quality, a temporary job can either be a stepping stone or a dead-end.

  13. Labor market segmentation and relative black/white teenage birth rates.

    PubMed

    Mccrate, E

    1990-01-01

    "Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued."

  14. The inclusion of disabled persons in the labor market in Belo horizonte, Brazil: scenario and perspective.

    PubMed

    Neves-Silva, Priscila; Prais, Fabiana Gomes; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Even after the publication of Law 8213 in 1991, which established quotas for employing disabled persons, their inclusion in the workplace still presents a challenge for Brazilian society. In order to understand the main barriers that hamper this process a qualitative research study was conducted in the municipality of Belo Horizon-te. This study included interviews with important actors involved in the process of inclusion; and focus groups including disabled persons and members of their families. The main barriers encountered were: preconceived ideas and discrimination; family relationships; the Continuous Cash Benefit (BPC) program; the low level of qualifi-cation among disabled person; lack of access; and the unpreparedness of companies. It was concluded that drafting laws is not sufficient to guarantee inclusion in the labor market and that governments should implement public policies to assist in this process.

  15. Labor Market Projections Model: updating census with current population survey data at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, L.

    1980-08-01

    The Labor Market Projection Model (LMPM) was started in the summer of 1975 to provide local CETA planners with current local estimates of persons in need of manpower services. The geographic levels of LMPM include states, SMSAs', prime sponsors and other special jurisdictions. During the course of project development, two independent efforts have been undertaken at LBL. The first effort produces short-term projections of population, labor force, and unemployment by sex, race, and age for each area. The population projection is based on a refined cohort-component method and integrates data on mortality, fertility, and net migration. Submodels are developed to handle the military and college-student populations. The second effort updates selected socio-economic characteristics available at the local level in certain tabulations of the 1970 Fourth Count Census by using data from the March Current Population Survey (CPS) for 1970 and the current year. The actual updating is done using proportions based upon current year and 1970 CPS values for the selected socio-economic characteristics. The updating methodology is detailed in Section 2. Future directions of the updating procedure is presented in Section 3.

  16. Labor Market Outcomes for Legal Mexican Immigrants Under the New Regime of Immigration Enforcement

    PubMed Central

    Gentsch, Kerstin; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This paper documents the effects of increasingly restrictive immigration and border policies on Mexican migrant workers in the United States. Methods Drawing on data from the Mexican Migration Project we create a data file that links age, education, English language ability, and cumulative U.S. experience in three legal categories (documented, undocumented, guest worker) to the occupational status and wage attained by migrant household heads on their most recent U.S. trip. Results We find that the wage and occupational returns to various forms of human capital generally declined after harsher policies were imposed and enforcement dramatically increased after 1996, especially for U.S. experience and English language ability. Conclusion These results indicate that the labor market status of legal immigrants has deteriorated significantly in recent years as larger shares of the migrant workforce came to lack labor rights, either because they were undocumented or because they held temporary visas that did not allow mobility or bargaining over wages and working conditions. PMID:21857750

  17. Assessment of the labor market experiences of CETA-trained solar workers

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, B.A.; Mason, B.; Mikasa, G.Y.

    1980-12-01

    This study assessed solar training offered by CETA-funded programs and labor market experiences of program graduates. The initial research was restricted to programs within California, because the state is involved in a variety of solar-related activities, including development of jobs and training programs in solar energy. Interviews were conducted with 12 CETA solar training programs and graduates in 1979, in cooperation with California's SolarCal Office. Information on graduates includes demographics, educational and work experience, satisfaction with solar training, types of jobs found, wage levels, and job tenure. Program information includes length, types of training, and the number and kinds of solar systems installed. Results show that major programs problems were: limited funding; shortages of trained instructors; insufficient staff; need for local employment information; need for better defined role for unions; and pressures for high placement rates. The curricula involved general skills, skills specific to solar technologies, and basic job behavior and skills. The training involved both classroom and hands-on experience and was mainly tailored to participants and the local job market. Successful placement of program participants was relatively high; over half the initial job placements involved solar energy. Solar jobs appeared to pay more than nonsolar jobs. Participants generally felt that their training had prepared them adequately for their current work.

  18. Pathways to the Future: A Longitudinal Study of Young Americans. Preliminary Report: Youth and the Labor Market--1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E.; And Others

    This monograph presents preliminary cross-tabulation analyses of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience of 12,693 youth of ages 14-21 who will be interviewed annually for at least five years. (Hispanic; non-Hispanic black; and non-Hispanic, non-black, poor youth were oversampled.) Each of the twenty-four topics…

  19. Prosperity, Sustainable Employment and Social Justice: Challenges for the German Labor Market in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möller, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of German labor market reforms on the competitiveness and performance of the German economy. The contribution starts with giving some background information on the rationale behind the reforms and stresses the specific structure of the German economy. We then describe the salient effects of the reforms for…

  20. Entry into the Labor Market: The Preparation and Job Placement of Negro and White Vocational High School Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillsman, Sally Turnbull

    This study is concerned with the role of educational institutions as mechanisms of labor market selection, in particular the role of high schools for terminal graduates. The aspects of this process under primary concern are racial differences in economic achievement generated and sustained by educational institutions in their capacity as…

  1. Racial Differences in the Impact of Participating in Advanced Placement Programs on Educational and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the wealth of information generated in recent years regarding the benefits for students who participate in Advanced Placement (AP) programs on educational outcomes, limited research exists contrasting and comparing the differential effects of AP program participation on educational and labor market outcomes by race. However, research…

  2. The Characteristics and Role of Illegal Aliens in the U.S. Labor Market: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.; Houstoun, Marion F.

    Data on the characteristics and labor market experiences of illegal aliens in the U.S. work force were collected by voluntary interviews with 793 apprehended illegal immigrants who had worked at least two weeks in the U.S. From the resulting diverse collection of case histories, it was concluded that (1) illegal workers in the U.S. are likely to…

  3. Is It Worth It? Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes for the Disadvantaged. CALDER Working Paper No. 117

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes, Benjamin; Holzer, Harry J.; Dunlop Velez, Erin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine a range of postsecondary education and labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on minorities and/or disadvantaged workers. We use administrative data from the state of Florida, where postsecondary student records have been linked to UI earnings data and also to secondary education records. Our main findings can be…

  4. What about the Non-Completers? The Labor Market Returns to Progress in Community College. CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidenberg, Matthew; Scott, Marc; Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Of the copious research on the labor market returns to college, very little has adequately modeled the pathways of non-completers or compared their outcomes with those of award holders. In this paper, we present a novel method for linking non-completers with completers according to their program of study. This method allows us to calculate the…

  5. What about the Non-Completers? The Labor Market Returns to Progress in Community College. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidenberg, Matthew; Scott, Marc; Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Of the copious research on the labor market returns to college, very little has adequately modeled the pathways of non-completers or compared their outcomes with those of award holders. In this paper, we present a novel method for linking non-completers with completers according to their program of study. This method allows us to calculate the…

  6. The Labor Market Experience of Female Migrants: The Case of Temporary Mexican Migration to the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranney, Susan; Kossoudji, Sherrie A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews data on the labor market experience of Mexican female temporary migrants in the United States. Analyzes data from a Mexican national survey and compares the role of schooling, work experience, region of origin,and legal status in male and female migrants' working experiences. (KH)

  7. Job Satisfaction among Mexican Alumni: A Case of Incongruence between Hunch-based Policies and Labor Market Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Alberto F.; de Vries, Wietse; Anderson, Shaquana

    2007-01-01

    During decades, the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP) like many other Mexican universities has tried to contribute to the national development by offering different educational programs presumed to be better attuned to the needs of the labor market. In this paper we explore the association of three different waves of major offering…

  8. Women and the Economy: A Bibliography and Review of the Literature on Sex Differentiation in the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Andrew I.; And Others

    The booklet presents (1) a bibliography of approximately 660 references to literature about sex discrimination in the labor market and (2) an expository review of recent research about male/female differences in earnings and occupational assignments. The bibliography is divided into 12 content categories. These include earnings of women workers,…

  9. First-Generation Students: A Longitudinal Analysis of Educational and Early Labor Market Outcomes. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Anne-Marie

    This paper provides initial results of a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of first-generation students, their college choices, their academic and social integration into the institution, their postsecondary persistence and attainment outcomes, and their labor market outcomes. The study analyzed data from the 1989-90…

  10. Increase in the Length of Incarceration and the Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Men Released from Illinois State Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Haeil

    2011-01-01

    The sharp rise in U.S. incarceration rates has heightened long-standing concerns among scholars and policymakers that lengthy incarceration permanently harms the future labor market outcomes of prisoners. If true, then lengthy prison sentences will not only punish criminals for crimes committed, but will also make it far more difficult for…

  11. The Rhode Island Labor Market in Recovery: Where Is the Skills Gap? Current Policy Perspectives. No. 15-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which Rhode Island's workforce lacks skills that are in demand among the state's current and potential employers and, if so, whether such a skills gap or labor market "mismatch" significantly restrains employment growth in the state. Using an index developed by Sahin et al. (2014), we find that…

  12. Beginning Subbaccalaureate Students' Labor Market Experiences: Six Years Later in 2009. Web Tables. NCES 2012-273

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifill, Nicole; Radford, Alexandria Walton

    2012-01-01

    This set of Web Tables presents descriptive statistics on the spring 2009 labor market experiences of subbaccalaureate students who first entered postsecondary education in 2003-04. The Web Tables use data from the nationally representative 2004/09 Beginning Post-secondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09), which followed a cohort of…

  13. An Overview of the Labor Market Problems of Indians and Native Americans. Research Report No. 89-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Robert G.

    This booklet provides an overview of the labor market problems facing Indians and Native Americans, the most economically disadvantaged ethnic group in the United States. It summarizes Indian policy, particularly major policies and laws that relate to early trade restrictions and the exploitation of Indians through trade; their forced removal from…

  14. What about Certificates? Evidence on the Labor Market Returns to Nondegree Community College Awards in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Di; Trimble, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    The annual number of certificates awarded by community colleges has increased dramatically, but relatively little research has been conducted on the economic benefits of certificates in the labor market. Based on detailed student-level information from matched college transcript and employment data in two states, this article estimates the…

  15. Goldratt's Thinking Process Applied to the Problems Associated with Trained Employee Retention in a Highly Competitive Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lloyd J., III; Poyner, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the problem of trained employee retention in a highly competitive labor market for a manufacturing facility in the oilfields of West Texas. Design/methodology/approach: This article examines how one manufacturing facility should be able to retain their trained employees by using the logic of Eliyahu M.…

  16. From Parent to Child: Early Labor Market Experiences of Second-Generation Immigrants in the Netherlands. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ours, Jan C.; Veenman, Justus

    This study investigated the early labor market experiences of second generation immigrants in the Netherlands, focusing on Turks, Moroccans, Surinamese, and Antilleans. Researchers examined those leaving school and their job experiences. Data came from a 1998 nationwide survey involving the four minority groups and a Dutch reference group in 13…

  17. Evidence from Florida on the Labor Market Attachment of Male Dropouts Who Attempt the GED. NCSALL Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This Research Brief highlights key findings from a study that examined the labor market attachment of male dropouts who obtained the GED credential in Florida between 1994 and 1998. I compared these credentialed dropouts to the men who attempted, but failed, the GED exam during the same period. Credentialed dropouts had a higher probability of…

  18. The Medium-Term Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from North Carolina. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Liu, Yuen Ting; Trimble, Madeline Joy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the relative labor market gains for first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina Community College System in 2002-03. The medium-term returns to diplomas, certificates, and degrees are compared with returns for students who accumulated college credits but did not graduate. The authors also…

  19. Is It Worth It? Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes for the Disadvantaged. Discussion Paper No. 1425-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes, Benjamin; Holzer, Harry J.; Velez, Erin Dunlop

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine a range of postsecondary education and labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on minorities and/or disadvantaged workers. We use administrative data from the state of Florida, where postsecondary student records have been linked to Unemployment Insurance (UI) earnings data and also to secondary education records.…

  20. The Comparative Labor Market Role of Newspaper Help Wanted Ads and Public Employment Service Job Listings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Miriam; Sugarman, Marged

    A 1-year study of 12 U.S. labor market areas compared job listings in the help wanted ads of local newspapers to job orders in the local public employment services to help determine what the role of the public employment service should be. The study gathered two types of data. One type was used to compare the "stock," or inventory, of…

  1. The fallacies in arguing that current high unemployment in Spain (27%) is a consequence of supposed labor market rigidities.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    This article refutes the argument that high unemployment in Spain is due to labor market rigidities, questioning the premises on which this theory is based. It then goes on to explain how those advancing this argument are the very same forces responsible for the macroeconomic decisions that are currently causing unemployment.

  2. Utilization of Manpower and Labor Market Data in College and University Planning: An Exploratory Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazziel, William

    A small-sample exploratory investigation is reported that attempted to develop some initial insights regarding the uses of manpower and labor market data in new planning, the needs for new types and forms of data, the nature of program changes generated, and the needs for further research and development. Planning models and program change data…

  3. A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.…

  4. Labor Market Flexibility and Inequality: The Changing Skill-Based Temporary Employment and Unemployment Risks in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebel, Michael; Giesecke, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In this article we use comparative micro data for 15 European countries covering the period 1992-2007 to study the impact of labor market reforms on the skill-related individual risk of holding a temporary contract and the risk of being unemployed. Our results indicate no general increase in either of these skill gaps. Using two-step multilevel…

  5. Creating Effective Education and Workforce Policies for Metropolitan Labor Markets in the United States. Discussion Paper No. 1394-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    How well do our education policies prepare America's youth for the labor market? What challenges limit our success, and what opportunities do we have for improvements? Can public policy play a greater role in encouraging more success? In this chapter, I provide a summary of what we know on these issues, incorporating but also complementing…

  6. The Labor Market Returns to For-Profit Higher Education: Evidence for Transfer Students. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuen Ting; Belfield, Clive

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the labor market gains for students who enrolled at for-profit colleges after beginning their post-secondary education in community college. We use student-level administrative record data from college transcripts, Unemployment Insurance earnings data, and progression data from the National Student Clearinghouse across full…

  7. Labor Force Participation in Formal Work-Related Education in 2000-01. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2005-048

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lisa; Bhandari, Rajika; Peter, Katharin; Bills, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Of the many purposes education serves in society, one of the most important is to prepare people for work. In today's economy, education is important not just to help adults enter the labor market, but also to ensure that adults remain marketable throughout their working lives. This report examines how adults in the labor force use formal…

  8. The civilian labor market experiences of Vietnam-era veterans: the influence of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Savoca, Elizabeth; Rosenheck, Robert

    2000-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research on the civilian labor market experiences of veterans has focused on the extent to which the skills and experience acquired in the military are rewarded in the civilian employment sector. While studies have been mindful of the need to analyze this question in a multivariate framework, controlling for other factors that might independently affect labor market outcomes, they have met this goal with limited success. As a result, an important element of the employment and wage determination process - psychiatric health - has been absent from this literature. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Using a nationally representative survey of Vietnam-era veterans, this study analyzes the contribution of psychiatric health toward explaining differences in the post-service civilian wages, hours worked, and employment probabilities among male veterans. METHODS: The analysis is based on data from the National Survey of the Vietnam Generation, a survey, completed in the late 1980s, of persons who were on active duty during the years of the Vietnam War, 1964-1975. Three outcome variables are studied - the hourly wage rate, usual hours worked per week, and a 0-1 indicator for whether the respondent is currently working. Lifetime diagnoses of four categories of mental disorders - major depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse/dependence, and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - were constructed from the US NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule, administered by the survey. The employment probability equation was estimated using probit; the hourly earnings and hours worked equations via ordinary least squares conditioned on being employed. RESULTS: The study finds that PTSD significantly lowered the likelihood of working and, for those veterans who were working, their hourly wages. On average, a veteran with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD was 8.5 percentage points less likely to be currently working than was a veteran who did not meet diagnostic criteria

  9. The Rhetoric of "Job Market" and the Reality of the Academic Labor System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Marc

    2003-01-01

    One way of describing the recent movement of thought about the academic labor system is as a series of waves. A "first wave" of labor consciousness emerged before 1970, propelling the self-organization of the academic work force, especially in public institutions, where more than half the faculty are unionized. This labor awareness was…

  10. The Prediction of Labor Force Status: Implications from International Adult Skill Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tongyun; von Davier, Matthias; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    This report investigates the prediction of labor force status using observed variables, such as gender, age, and immigrant status, and more importantly, measured skill variables, including literacy proficiency and a categorical rating of educational attainment based on the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), the 2003 Adult Literacy…

  11. Economic and labor market forces matter for worker well-being.

    PubMed

    Tay, Louis; Harter, James K

    2013-07-01

    In light of recent interest in societal subjective well-being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well-being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce; Bonikowski, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Decades of racial progress have led some researchers and policymakers to doubt that discrimination remains an important cause of economic inequality. To study contemporary discrimination, we conducted a field experiment in the low-wage labor market of New York City, recruiting white, black, and Latino job applicants who were matched on demographic characteristics and interpersonal skills. These applicants were given equivalent résumés and sent to apply in tandem for hundreds of entry-level jobs. Our results show that black applicants were half as likely as equally qualified whites to receive a callback or job offer. In fact, black and Latino applicants with clean backgrounds fared no better than white applicants just released from prison. Additional qualitative evidence from our applicants’ experiences further illustrates the multiple points at which employment trajectories can be deflected by various forms of racial bias. These results point to the subtle yet systematic forms of discrimination that continue to shape employment opportunities for low-wage workers. PMID:20689685

  13. The labor market experience of female migrants: the case of temporary Mexican migration to the U.S.

    PubMed

    Kossoudji, S A; Ranney, S I

    1984-01-01

    This article, using a Mexican national survey, provides a profile of temporary Mexican female migrants in the US labor market. The usual association between occupational groups and wage rates does not hold up, with women in unskilled jobs averaging nearly the same wages as while collar women. The dramatic exception is private household workers, who earn less than 1/4 of the wage rates of other women. Although the distribution of wage rates across occupational groups for migrant women is not easily explained by schooling or potential work experience, wage rates seem to be positively correlated with marriage and childrearing. This is partly explained by the fact that married women are more likely to have the option of not working outside the home, and also that the labor market contacts provided by husbands may be helpful in securing more remunerative jobs. Migration networks make the region of origin in Mexico strongly correlate with wage rate variations across occupational groups for women. Although women are found to have more schooling, higher legal status, more US work experience and are more likely to come from regions with well developed migration networks than men, women average upto $7 less per day--a phenomenon largely explained by the labor market segmentation. A lack of legal status constrains women's job opportunities more than men's: over 90% of the women without entry permits are in the low paying private household sector, compared with less than 1/4 of those with some legal status. This connection between lack of proper legal status and low status jobs does not seem to prevent women from migrating illegally--more than 1/2 the women migrant studied had no legal status at all. This study concludes that women do not necessarily follow men in migration, and their labor market functions are quite distinct from those of men.

  14. Manpower Policies and the Disadvantaged; A Summary Report on Labor Market Information Systems and the Disadvantaged, with Emphasis on Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Charles A.

    The report highlights policy implications of research conducted on formal and informal labor market information systems and the disadvantaged. Policy implications are developed at the end of each of eight sections reviewing studies in the areas of: insurance, an inner-city training program, newspaper ads, the Job Bank system, immigrant labor,…

  15. Labor Market Integration of People with Disabilities: Results from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Post, Marcel W. M.; Fekete, Christine; Trezzini, Bruno; Brinkhof, Martin W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP) of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population. Methods We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the cross-sectional community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Data on LMP of the Swiss general population were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Factors associated with employment status as well as the amount of work performed in terms of full-time equivalent (FTE) were examined with regression techniques. Results 53.4% of the participants were employed at the time of the study. Adjusted odds of being employed were increased for males (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.33–2.25) and participants with paraplegia (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.40–2.27). The likelihood of being employed showed a significant concave relationship with age, peaking at age 40. The relation of LMP with education was s-shaped, while LMP was linearly related to time since injury. On average, employment rates were 30% lower than in the general population. Males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54 showed the greatest difference. From the 771 employed persons, the majority (81.7%) worked part-time with a median of 50% FTE (IRQ: 40%-80%). Men, those with younger age, higher education, incomplete lesions, and non-traumatic etiology showed significantly increased odds of working more hours per week. Significantly more people worked part-time than in the general population with the greatest difference found for males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54. Conclusions LMP of persons with SCI is comparatively high in Switzerland. LMP after SCI is, however, considerably lower than in the general population. Future research needs to show whether the reduced LMP in SCI reflects individual capacity adjustment, contextual constraints on higher LMP or both. PMID:27875566

  16. Essays on the statistical mechanics of the labor market and implications for the distribution of earned income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Markus P. A.

    This dissertation contributes to two areas in economics: the understanding of the distribution of earned income and to Bayesian analysis of distributional data. Recently, physicists claimed that the distribution of earned income is exponential (see Yakovenko, 2009). The first chapter explores the perspective that the economy is a statistical mechanical system and the implication for labor market outcomes is considered critically. The robustness of the empirical results that lead to the physicists' claims, the significance of the exponential distribution in statistical mechanics, and the case for a conservation law in economics are discussed. The conclusion reached is that physicists' conception of the economy is too narrow even within their chosen framework, but that their overall approach is insightful. The dual labor market theory of segmented labor markets is invoked to understand why the observed distribution may be a mixture of distributional components, corresponding to different generating mechanisms described in Reich et al. (1973). The application of informational entropy in chapter II connects this work to Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy econometrics. The analysis follows E. T. Jaynes's treatment of Wolf's dice data, but is applied to the distribution of earned income based on CPS data. The results are calibrated to account for rounded survey responses using a simple simulation, and answer the graphical analyses by physicists. The results indicate that neither the income distribution of all respondents nor of the subpopulation used by physicists appears to be exponential. The empirics do support the claim that a mixture with exponential and log-normal distributional components ts the data. In the final chapter, a log-linear model is used to fit the exponential to the earned income distribution. Separating the CPS data by gender and marital status reveals that the exponential is only an appropriate model for a limited number of subpopulations, namely

  17. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria.

  18. Unlocking the Treasure Chest of Labor Market Information: Crucial Information for Job Seekers, Educators, and Employers in a Tough Economy. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichtner, Aaron; Kauder, Ronnie; Krepcio, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Quality labor market data and analysis is critical to developing effective market-driven workforce and economic strategies in states, regions, and localities. Such information can be complex, intimidating, and overwhelming to many users, however. This issue brief offers a framework for understanding workforce information, including a summary of…

  19. How Are Low-Skilled Women Doing in the Labor Market? Policy Brief #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Poverty Center, University of Michigan, 2006

    2006-01-01

    When chronicling how less-skilled workers have fared in the U.S. since the late 1970's, existing literature often cites their falling wages and declining participation in the labor force. Most research describing these trends, however, focuses primarily on men, failing to account for the fact that less-skilled women's real wages have not fallen,…

  20. Why Are Recent College Graduates Underemployed? University Enrollments and Labor-Market Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Denhart, Christopher; Robe, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of recent college graduates are ending up in relatively low-skilled jobs that, historically, have gone to those with lower levels of educational attainment. This study examines this phenomenon in some detail, concluding: (1) About 48 percent of employed U.S. college graduates are in jobs that the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)…

  1. The Labor Market Orientation of Single Mothers on Welfare in The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2001-01-01

    Presents a study of 1,049 Dutch single mothers on welfare. Using LISREL, a conceptual model is examined for effects of past and current circumstances of mothers on labor orientation and steps toward employment. A mother's motivation to work is related to care ethos as opposed to work ethos and to problems she anticipates in combining care and…

  2. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Matthew Sigelman on Reading the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Matthew Sigelman, CEO of Burning Glass Technologies, a Boston-based labor market…

  3. Labor market experience, work organization, gender inequalities and health status: results from a prospective analysis of US employed women.

    PubMed

    O'Campo, Patricia; Eaton, William W; Muntaner, Carles

    2004-02-01

    Women's labor force participation has increased dramatically over the past several decades. Although previous research has documented that a wide array of labor market characteristics affect health, more work is needed to understand how women are impacted by gender-specific employment patterns and exposures. We examine a cohort of 659 employed women from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study in the USA. Baseline and follow-up data collected 13 years apart are used to identify associations between demographic, labor market, work organization, and occupational gender inequality with four health outcomes: generalized distress, depressive syndrome, anxiety and fair or poor health. We also use gender-specific data on the workplace to create indicators of occupational gender inequality. We found wide gender inequalities in terms of pay and power in this sample of employed women. Financial strain was associated with all of our mental health outcomes with those reporting financial strain having increased odds of distress, depressive syndrome and anxiety for the 13 years prior to the interview. Workplace factors that were found to be associated with the four outcomes included experiencing a promotion or demotion in the 13 years prior to the interview; working at a large firm; and being a professional. Occupations where women compared to men had lower levels of job strain-domestic workers in private households, machine operator and transportation-showed increased risk for anxiety or fair/poor health. Our findings suggest that measuring the complexities of employment including promotion or demotion history, firm characteristics and even occupational gender inequality can yield important information about associations with health among women.

  4. A Theoretical Model of Segmented Youth Labor Markets and the School to Work Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrooman, John

    Recurring evidence that workers with similar skills do not necessarily earn the same wages led to the formulation of an alternative to the conventional market theory, namely, the segmented market theory. This theory posits that certain skills are distributed not among prospective employees but among jobs, in relation to the technology of those…

  5. Through the Looking Glass: The Labor Market for Registered Nurses in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Carol S.

    1997-01-01

    Demand for registered nurses is changing in a managed care environment and wages are likely to decrease. These trends will affect nursing school enrollments, and schools will need to monitor market conditions and adjust policies accordingly. (SK)

  6. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework.

  7. "It's for Us to Change that": Emotional Labor in Researching Adults' Learning--Between Feminist Criticality and Complicity in Temporary, Gendered Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Irene

    2012-01-01

    There has been little exploration of emotional labor in researching the learning of adults, and emotional labor on the part of research contractors has scarcely featured in published debates. The article explores the role of emotion in this context from a critical feminist perspective, drawing on life history data from a study of the learning…

  8. [Process of training and insertion in the labor market: a vision of nursing graduates].

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    Study to analyze nursing graduates' perception about the contribution of the training process in its insertion in the labour market. Descriptive exploratory study, a qualitative approach. The data was collected in 2011 through semistructured interviews. Attended by 15 professionals, graduated from the Nursing Course at a South Brazilian university in 2009-2010, inserted in the labour market. Data was analysed according to Minayo's proposals. From this analysis emerged the category Training route, including the subcategory: following the travel itineray. The results demonstrate the need for curricular integration, better use of clinical practices experiences, research valorization, and the importance of training based on dialogue between students and professors.

  9. Long-run effects of gestation during the Dutch Hunger Winter famine on labor market and hospitalization outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Robert S; van den Berg, Gerard J; Lindeboom, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Hunger Winter (1944/45) is the most-studied famine in the literature on long-run effects of malnutrition in utero. Its temporal and spatial demarcations are clear, it was severe, it was not anticipated, and nutritional conditions in society were favorable and stable before and after the famine. This is the first study to analyze effects of in utero exposure on labor market outcomes and hospitalization late in life, and the first to use register data covering the full Dutch population to examine long-run effects of this famine. We provide results of famine exposure by sub-interval of gestation. We find a significantly negative effect of exposure during the first trimester of gestation on employment outcomes 53 or more years after birth. Hospitalization rates in the years before retirement are higher after middle or late gestational exposure.

  10. The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount.

  11. The Effects of California’s Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers’ Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999–2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California’s first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers – with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of one-to-three year-old children by 10 to 17% and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

  12. Displacement in new economy labor markets: Post-displacement wage loss in high tech versus low tech cities.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Rubin, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    While scholars and politicians tout education as the salve to employment disruptions, we argue that the geography of the new economy, and the social closure mechanisms that geography creates, may be just as important as individuals' characteristics for predicting post-displacement wage loss (or gain). We use data from the 2012 Displaced Workers ement of the Current Population Survey and from the 2010 United States Census to test hypotheses linking local labor markets in different industrial contexts to post-displacement wage loss. Our results point to age as a closure mechanism, and to the partially protective effect of education in high-tech versus low-tech economic sectors. This study is the first to use national level data to examine how employment in high-tech cities influences post-displacement wages. These findings are relevant both for theorizing about the new economy and for public policy.

  13. Corruption, Collusion, and Nepotism in Higher Education and the Labor Market in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a new approach to conceptualizing the limited affordability and access to higher education for socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Georgia. Unlike most traditional views, it associates the issue with corruption, collusion, and nepotism existent in the country's higher education, job market, and banking system. It argues…

  14. A Guide for Using Labor Market Data to Improve Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Never before has the link between a college education and postgraduate job prospects been more important. College graduates are employed more often and, on average, earn significantly more than those without college degrees. During recent years, as students have moved into a challenging job market, a college education has remained the most…

  15. Revitalizing Higher Education through Innovative Labor Market Based Curriculum for Sustainable National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, A. O.

    2014-01-01

    The role of higher education in preparing youths for the labour market is becoming more challenging in the modern society. This is visible in the high number of tertiary institutions' graduates that are unemployable for lack of necessary skills, which would make them contribute profitably to any employer of labour. This paper examines the history…

  16. Adult Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry; And Others

    Folk high schools, study circles, labor market training, union education, and municipal adult schools are the major providers of adult education in Sweden. For the most part, these programs are financed by the government and are tuition free. Folk high schools, which are the oldest type, were founded to provide young adults with a general civic…

  17. [Professional development and entering the labor market: the perceptions of nursing graduates].

    PubMed

    Colenci, Raquel; Berti, Heloísa Wey

    2012-02-01

    The professional history of nursing graduates allows for understanding and reflecting on higher education and the characteristics inherent in the job market. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the perceptions that nursing graduates of a private university have regarding their development process, focusing on the conditions of entering the job market and the demands they deal with in their professional life. The Collective Subject Discourse was the method of choice used in this study. Participants included 104 graduates who were divided into three groups according to their position after graduation. Discourse analysis allowed for deep reflection regarding their preparation, indicating the need to review the pedagogical project, particularly in terms of developing competencies in the four dimensions of care: management, healthcare, education, and research.

  18. The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persico, Nicola; Postlewaite, Andrew; Silverman, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Taller workers receive a wage premium. Net of differences in family background, the disparity is similar in magnitude to the race and gender gaps. We exploit variation in an individual's height over time to explore how height affects wages. Controlling for teen height essentially eliminates the effect of adult height on wages for white men. The…

  19. Marketing Public Health Through Older Adult Volunteering: Experience Corps as a Social Marketing Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Xue, Qian-Li; Rebok, George W.; Frick, Kevin D.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Wang, Tao; Piferi, Rachel L.; McGill, Sylvia; Whitfield, Keith E.; Fried, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We present a social marketing conceptual framework for Experience Corps Baltimore City (EC) in which the desired health outcome is not the promoted product or behavior. We also demonstrate the feasibility of a social marketing–based recruitment campaign for the first year of the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial (BECT), a randomized, controlled trial of the health benefits of EC participation for older adults. Methods. We recruited older adults from the Baltimore, MD, area. Participants randomized to the intervention were placed in public schools in volunteer roles designed to increase healthy behaviors. We examined the effectiveness of a recruitment message that appealed to generativity (i.e., to make a difference for the next generation), rather than potential health benefits. Results. Among the 155 participants recruited in the first year of the BECT, the average age was 69 years; 87% were women and 85% were African American. Participants reported primarily generative motives as their reason for interest in the BECT. Conclusions. Public health interventions embedded in civic engagement have the potential to engage older adults who might not respond to a direct appeal to improve their health. PMID:20167888

  20. Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile’s universal voucher system

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9–12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality. PMID:22059095

  1. Is There Really a Labor Market Advantage to Being Bilingual in the U.S.? Policy Information Report and Research Report. ETS RR-15-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gándara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Although it is commonly thought that people who are bilingual have an advantage in the labor market, studies on this topic have not borne out this perception.The literature, in fact, has found an earnings penalty is associated with bilingualism--people who are bilingual often make less than people who are monolingual in similar jobs. This report…

  2. Changes in the Economy, the Labor Market, and Expectations for the Future: What Might Europe and the United States Look Like in Twenty-Five Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Sandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the labor markets and economies of modern societies have been confronted by a marked intensification of cross-border exchange between modern states that has attained a new and previously unattained quality over the past thirty years. In the economic and sociological literature, this development is usually labeled…

  3. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  4. An Econometric Analysis of the Unemployment Insurance System in a Local Urban Labor Market. Final Report for September 1, 1973--September 30, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Stephen Tilney

    The study derives a model of the unemployment insurance (UI) system and its relationship to the labor market, estimates it with data from the Detroit Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, and evaluates its potential use to forecast UI benefit amounts, UI insured unemployment, and UI exhaustions. It further uses the model to analyze policy issues…

  5. Pathways to the Future, Vol. IV. A Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1982. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paula; And Others

    The six papers which comprise this report analyze the labor market experience of youth as reflected in the 1982 results of a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 32.9 million young people who were ages 14-21 as of January 1, 1979. Chapter 1, "The Nature and Consequences of High School Employment," by Ronald D'Amico…

  6. Towards Improving Employment in the New Haven Labor Market Area: The F.A.C.T. (Fostering Active Communication Today) Network. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Linda

    The FACT (Fostering Active Communication Today) project in New Haven, Connecticut was conducted by the Urban League from November 1981 to July 1982 to create a formal and direct communication mechanism among the many existing organizations concerned with aiding clients to find employment and sharing research and ideas about labor market needs. The…

  7. Just the Facts, Ma'am: Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes in the U.S. IRP Discussion Paper No. 1411-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.; Dunlop, Erin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date snapshot of the most important postsecondary education and labor market outcomes in the United States using two nationally representative sources of data: the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS). We find that postsecondary…

  8. Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

  9. Changes in the economy, the labor market, and expectations for the future: what might Europe and the United States look like in twenty-five years?

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Sandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    In times of globalization, modern societies' labor markets have been marked by an increasing segmentation and growing social inequality. Youths in particular have experienced a worsening of their employment chances in the past three decades. However, what will the future bring?

  10. Employer Perceptions of Associate Degrees in Local Labor Markets: A Case Study of the Employment of Information Technology Technicians in Detroit and Seattle. CCRC Working Paper No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Jacobs, James

    2012-01-01

    While promoting postsecondary credential completion is a national priority intended to help graduates secure good jobs, the value of credentials in the labor market from the perspective of employers is not well understood. Specifically, more attention is needed to understand how credentials align with employer needs. Through in-depth interviews…

  11. Science Education Impacts on Labor Market and University Expectations of Students by Citizenship Status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Comparative Analysis Using TIMSS 2007 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Alromi, Naif H.; Alshumrani, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    This study comparatively examines the impact of students' citizenship status on science education relative to labor market and university expectations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Specifically, the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) provides science education teaching, learning and achievement data from the…

  12. Mathematical and Computer Skills and Workplace Literacy in Labor Markets: An Analysis of Their Actual and Potential Effect on the Economic Status of Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joel Popkin and Co., Washington, DC.

    Data from the Current Population Surveys of October 1984, October 1989, and January 1991 were used to examine the role of computer and mathematical skills in the U.S. labor market from 1984-91. Particular attention was given to their actual and potential effect on the economic status of women. Data confirmed the overall increase in the education…

  13. Why Does the Spatial Agglomeration of Firms Benefit Workers? Examining the Role of Organizational Diversity in U.S. Industries and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Andrew S.; Villemez, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies across the social sciences show that the spatial agglomeration of employment in a local labor market benefits both firms and workers in terms of better firm performance and higher wages. Drawing from the organizational ecology perspective, we argue that workers receive higher wages in large industrial clusters and urban…

  14. Creating Effective Education and Workforce Policies for Metropolitan Labor Markets in the U.S. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #11-31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    How well do our education policies prepare America's youth for the labor market? What challenges limit our success, and what opportunities do we have for improvements? Can public policy play a greater role in encouraging more success? I consider these questions as they apply to the unique characteristics of metropolitan areas in the U.S. Most…

  15. Be as Careful of the Company You Keep as of the Books You Read: Peer Effects in Education and on the Labor Market. NBER Working Paper No. 14948

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGiorgi, Giacomo; Pellizzari, Michele; Redaelli, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether peers' behavior influences the choice of college major, thus contributing to the mismatch of skills in the labor market. Using a newly constructed dataset, we are able to identify the endogenous effect of peers on such decisions through a novel identification strategy that solves the common econometric problems…

  16. The Labor Market Returns to Math in Community College: Evidence Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the returns to math courses relative to those in courses in other subjects for students who started their postsecondary education at community college. The limited available evidence presumes that college-level math is valuable in the labor market relative to other coursework. Using data on college transcript and earnings from…

  17. Marketing Adult Literacy Education: Administrators' Perceptions of Effective Strategies for Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Kristen H.; Valentine, Thomas; Cervero, Ronald M.

    1999-01-01

    Adult-literacy administrators (n=224) ranked eight marketing strategies in the following order (highest first): communicating with publics, maximizing access, minimizing costs, promoting programs, planning responsively, understanding learners, conducting market research, and segmenting markets. The two rated lowest are those most highly rated by…

  18. Analyzing an Active Labor Market Program in Germany: A Regional Approach--An Attempt to Use Propensity Score Matching for the Estimation of Causal Effects on the Level of Counties and Independent Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegmann, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Work, Skills and Training was assigned to evaluate a labor market program aimed at the integration of long-term unemployed individuals aged 50 or older. The integration should have been achieved not only by training and coaching of individuals, but also by building regional networks between labor market stakeholders within a…

  19. Young adults: beloved by food and drink marketers and forgotten by public health?

    PubMed

    Freeman, Becky; Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Baur, Louise

    2016-12-01

    Young adults are a highly desirable target population for energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing. But little research, resources, advocacy and policy action have been directed at this age group, despite the fact that young adults are gaining weight faster than previous generations and other population groups. Factors such as identity development and shifting interpersonal influences differentiate young adulthood from other life stages and influence the adoption of both healthy and unhealthy eating behaviours. EDNP food and beverage marketing campaigns use techniques to normalize brands within young adult culture, in particular through online social media. Young adults must be a priority population in future obesity prevention efforts. Stronger policies to protect young adults from EDNP food and beverage marketing may also increase the effectiveness of policies that are meant to protect younger children. Restrictions on EDNP food and beverage marketing should be extended to include Internet-based advertising and also aim to protect vulnerable young adults.

  20. Labor Force Experiences of a National Sample of Young Adult Men: The Role of Drug Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine on the following aspects of labor force experience: (1) earnings; (2) stability of employment; (3) gaps between employment spells; and (4) duration of unemployment. Illicit drug use was found to have an impact on all factors except earnings. (JS)

  1. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Labor Market Exposure and Sensitivity Analysis to a Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.; Wein, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards (Jones and others, 2007). In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 (M7.8) earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report contains an exposure and sensitivity analysis of economic Super Sectors in terms of labor and employment statistics. Exposure is measured as the absolute counts of labor market variables anticipated to experience each level of Instrumental Intensity (a proxy measure of damage). Sensitivity is the percentage of the exposure of each Super Sector to each Instrumental Intensity level. The analysis concerns the direct effect of the scenario earthquake on economic sectors and provides a baseline for the indirect and interactive analysis of an input-output model of the regional economy. The analysis is inspired by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report that analyzed the labor market losses (exposure) of a M6.9 earthquake on the Hayward fault by overlaying geocoded labor market data on Instrumental Intensity values. The method used here is influenced by the ZIP-code-level data provided by the California Employment Development Department (CA EDD), which requires the assignment of Instrumental Intensities to ZIP codes. The ZIP-code-level labor market data includes the number of business establishments, employees, and quarterly payroll categorized by the North American Industry Classification System. According to the analysis results, nearly 225,000 business

  2. The impact of rehabilitation and counseling services on the labor market activity of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Robert R; Bailey, Michelle Stegman

    2014-01-01

    We use data from a social experiment to estimate the impact of a rehabilitation and counseling program on the labor market activity of newly entitled Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries. Our results indicate that the program led to a 4.6 percentage point increase in the receipt of employment services within the first year following random assignment and a 5.1 percentage point increase in participation in the Social Security Administration's Ticket to Work program within the first three years following random assignment. The program led to a 5.3 percentage point increase, or almost 50 percent increase, in employment, and an $831 increase in annual earnings in the second calendar year after the calendar year of random assignment. The employment and earnings impacts are smaller and not statistically significant in the third calendar year following random assignment, and we describe SSDI rules that are consistent with this finding. Our findings indicate that disability reform proposals focusing on restoring the work capacity of people with disabilities can increase the disability employment rate.

  3. Social Marketing Interventions Aiming to Increase Physical Activity among Adults: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubacki, Krzysztof; Ronti, Rimante; Lahtinen, Ville; Pang, Bo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A significant proportion of the world's adult population is insufficiently active. One approach used to overcome barriers and facilitate participation in physical activity is social marketing. The purpose of this paper are twofold: first, this review seeks to provide a contemporary review of social marketing's effectiveness in changing…

  4. Adult Marketing Education for the Small Business Sector: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William T., Jr.

    A study identified and analyzed adult marketing education services that have been and are currently being provided for the small business sector. The methodology involved a literature review and a mail survey of all secondary and postsecondary marketing education state supervisors listed in the 1985-86 State Supervisors Directory. Of the 54…

  5. Customer for life: marketing oral health care to older adults.

    PubMed

    Niessen, L C

    2000-01-01

    Respect for and awareness of the needs of older patients from dental office staff will help such patients feel welcome in a practice. Marketing to older patients is built upon this foundation. In addition, there are other strategies for internal and external marketing aimed at older people. This article addresses the concept of turning aging patients into "customers for life."

  6. Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.

    Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women…

  7. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  8. Learning to Do Well or Learning to Do Good? Estimating the Effects of Schooling on Civic Engagement, Social Cohesion, and Labor Market Outcomes in the Presence of Endowments

    PubMed Central

    Schnittker, Jason; Behrman, Jere R.

    2013-01-01

    Although some point to the large effects of schooling on civic engagement (usually measured in terms of volunteering and participation in civic organizations) and social cohesion (usually measured in terms of social networks and relationship quality), the effects of schooling on social outcomes have not been estimated with the same rigor as the effects of schooling on labor-market outcomes, such as earnings. In particular, previous research has failed to consider (i) the many potential and often unobserved confounding factors (“endowments”) influencing both schooling and social outcomes, including family upbringing, innate characteristics, and personality, and (ii) the ways in which schooling pushes individuals in multiple directions simultaneously, including toward greater social engagement, but also toward more independent and market-driven pursuits. Using samples of unrelated persons, ordinary siblings, and identical twins, this study explores the effects of schooling on measures of civic engagement and social relationships, as well as labor-force earnings and labor-force participation. The siblings models reveal a more complex picture than typically suggested by standard individual estimates. On one hand, the results reveal a robust positive effect of schooling on earnings: well-schooled persons work more and earn more, albeit not as much as associations without control for endowments suggest. On the other hand, the results reveal more tenuous and occasionally negative effects of schooling on social outcomes. The effects of schooling on volunteering and membership in civic organizations, for example, disappear almost entirely with control for endowments. Also, within-identical-twins models reverse the positive effects of schooling on reports of support from friends, family, and coworkers. These results may reflect the tension schooling creates between market and non-market commitments, as well as between independence and interpersonal reliability. Schooling

  9. Learning to do well or learning to do good? Estimating the effects of schooling on civic engagement, social cohesion, and labor market outcomes in the presence of endowments.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, Jason; Behrman, Jere R

    2012-03-01

    Although some point to the large effects of schooling on civic engagement (usually measured in terms of volunteering and participation in civic organizations) and social cohesion (usually measured in terms of social networks and relationship quality), the effects of schooling on social outcomes have not been estimated with the same rigor as the effects of schooling on labor-market outcomes, such as earnings. In particular, previous research has failed to consider (i) the many potential and often unobserved confounding factors ("endowments") influencing both schooling and social outcomes, including family upbringing, innate characteristics, and personality, and (ii) the ways in which schooling pushes individuals in multiple directions simultaneously, including toward greater social engagement, but also toward more independent and market-driven pursuits. Using samples of unrelated persons, ordinary siblings, and identical twins, this study explores the effects of schooling on measures of civic engagement and social relationships, as well as labor-force earnings and labor-force participation. The siblings models reveal a more complex picture than typically suggested by standard individual estimates. On one hand, the results reveal a robust positive effect of schooling on earnings: well-schooled persons work more and earn more, albeit not as much as associations without control for endowments suggest. On the other hand, the results reveal more tenuous and occasionally negative effects of schooling on social outcomes. The effects of schooling on volunteering and membership in civic organizations, for example, disappear almost entirely with control for endowments. Also, within-identical-twins models reverse the positive effects of schooling on reports of support from friends, family, and coworkers. These results may reflect the tension schooling creates between market and non-market commitments, as well as between independence and interpersonal reliability. Schooling may

  10. Impact of health care system delay in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction on return to labor market and work retirement.

    PubMed

    Laut, Kristina Grønborg; Hjort, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Tilsted Hansen, Hans-Henrik; Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Frants; Jørgensen, Erik; Holmvang, Lene; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht; Lippert, Freddy; Lang-Jensen, Torsten; Jans, Henning; Hansen, Poul Anders; Trautner, Sven; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Lash, Timothy L; Clemmensen, Peter; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2014-12-15

    System delay (delay from emergency medical service call to reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention [PPCI]) is acknowledged as a performance measure in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), as shorter system delay is associated with lower mortality. It is unknown whether system delay also impacts ability to stay in the labor market. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether system delay is associated with duration of absence from work or time to retirement from work among patients with STEMI treated with PPCI. We conducted a population-based cohort study including patients ≤67 years of age who were admitted with STEMI from January 1, 1999, to December 1, 2011 and treated with PPCI. Data were derived from Danish population-based registries. Only patients who were full- or part-time employed before their STEMI admission were included. Association between system delay and time to return to the labor market was analyzed using a competing-risk regression analysis. Association between system delay and time to retirement from work was analyzed using a Cox regression model. A total of 4,061 patients were included. Ninety-three percent returned to the labor market during 4 years of follow-up, and 41% retired during 8 years of follow-up. After adjustment, system delay >120 minutes was associated with reduced resumption of work (subhazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.92) and earlier retirement from work (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.36). In conclusion, system delay was associated with reduced work resumption and earlier retirement. This highlights the value of system delay as a performance measure in treating patients with STEMI.

  11. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used.

  12. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults' interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18-24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants' attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were examined via surveys and semi-structured interviews after their exposure to two popular energy drink brands' websites and social media sites (exposure time 8 minutes). Exposure to digital marketing contents of energy drinks improved the experimental group participants' attitudes towards and purchase and consumption intention of energy drinks. This study indicates the influential power of unhealthy online marketing on cognitively mature young adults. This study draws public health attentions to young adults, who to date have been less of a focus of researchers but are influenced by online food advertising.

  13. Mismatch in the Labor Market: The Supply of and Demand for "Middle-Skill" Workers in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modestino, Alicia Sasser

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, policymakers and business leaders across New England have been concerned that the region's slower population growth and loss of residents to other parts of the country will lead to a shortage of skilled labor--particularly when the baby boom generation retires. Prior to the Great Recession, the concern was that an inadequate…

  14. Corn Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The instructional unit designed to develop the effective ability of farmers to produce, harvest, store, and market corn profitably is structured in 11 lessons. The unit was developed as a guide for use by teachers in planning and conducting young farmer or adult farmer classes. The specific topic areas include varieties of corn, principles of…

  15. Soybean Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Education in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irish, Paul; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The instructional unit was developed for use as a guide for planning and teaching adult or young farmer classes in Kentucky. The unit consists of 12 lessons covering various aspects of soybean production and marketing. The course objective is to develop the effective ability of farmers to plan for profitable soybean production. Transparency and…

  16. Threshold Pricing: A Strategy for the Marketing of Adult Education Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Marvin E.

    Because threshold pricing's scope for course price development had a good potential for application to the marketing of services by nonprofit organizations, this study's purpose was to determine the existence and applicability of course price thresholds or ranges to the decisionmaking framework of adult educators, with special reference to…

  17. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies.

    PubMed

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Chen, Wen-Hao; Barr, Ben; Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Per Kragh; Dahl, Espen; Uppal, Sharanjit; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in the Nordic countries than in Canada or the United Kingdom. Their employment chances also varied by educational level and country. The employment impact of having both chronic illness and low education was not just additive but synergistic. This amplification was strongest for British men and women, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported. Attention must be paid to the differential impact of macro-level policies on the labor market participation of chronically ill and disabled people with low education, a group facing multiple barriers to gaining employment.

  18. Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association. Report to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Lending and secondary market activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) since it began operations in 1973 were reviewed. Specific areas of review were: the Association's legislative development and financial activities, its profitability compared to commercial banks and other government-sponsored enterprises that provide…

  19. Understanding fall meaning and context in marketing balance classes to older adults.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lauren; Thoreson, Sallie; Goss, Cynthia W; Zimmer, Lorena Marquez; Marosits, Mark; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2013-02-01

    This study explored older, community-dwelling adults' attitudes and values about proposed church-delivered balance classes for fall prevention. Community observation, group interviews with stakeholders, key informant interviews, and focus groups with church members ≥ 60 years of age were analyzed in two ways: first for inductive themes expressing community sentiment about fall prevention for older adults, then for content useful in creating locally tailored social marketing messages. Four themes expressed perceptions of fall-prevention programming: de-emphasizing fall risk and emphasizing strength and independence, moving older adults out of their "comfort zones" to join classes, identifying relationships to support fall-prevention activities, and considering gender-based differences in approaches to fall prevention. A content analysis of the same dataset yielded information about preferred places in the community, promotion through churches, a tolerable price, and the balance class product itself. The qualitative results will inform the social marketing program to increase intervention delivery success.

  20. [The young people of foreign extraction in the Federal Republic of Germany and the labor market in 2000].

    PubMed

    Von Delhaes-guenther, D

    1988-03-01

    This study analyzes immigration trends and prospects with respect with to the Federal Republic's changing demography and economy. Low birth rates and an aging population will result in a decrease in the local population and an increase in the foreign population of the Federal Republic in the next decades. After 1990 the demand for foreign labor will diminish. There will, however, still be a need for highly specialized personnel for the new technological sectors. In this context the professional qualification of young people of foreign extraction acquires an even greater significance, since they also face difficulties at a cultural and linguistic level. The technological challenges demand scholastic and professional training programs which maximize migrant labor force potential and help to eliminate socioeconomic conflicts. By the year 2000 60% of the jobs in the Federal Republic will be in service-related industries and the "third industrial revolution" based on innovations in microelectronics will demand a trained labor force that can easily shift and adapt. Local and national institutions will have to form a trained and competent labor force. However, foreign young people educated in German public schools face difficulties in achieving professional certificates and gaining superior employment. The potential exists for ever greater problems as minimum skill jobs diminish and higher-skilled jobs increase in the changing German economy. Language barriers and lack of sufficient skills prevent the complete integration of foreign young people and can lead to frustration, mental depression, and even criminal behavior. The author proposes closer contacts between parents of foreign youths and local and Federal authorities and better bilingual education.

  1. Adults and the Changing Workplace. 1985 Yearbook of the American Vocational Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt, Ed.

    The 31 papers in this yearbook are organized in five sections: I. Changes in the Labor Force, which includes: "Labor Market Needs to the Year 2000" (Morgan V. Lewis) and "Occupational Adaptability and Transferable Skills: Preparing Today's Adults for Tomorrow's Careers" (Frank C. Pratzner and William L. Ashley); II. Educating Adult Students, which…

  2. Market-Based Manpower Planning with Labour Market Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Adams, Arvil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Labor market planning techniques must take into account the dynamic nature of economies. A better approach than labor needs forecasting is use of labor market signals developed by monitoring wage and employment changes and evaluating training programs. (SK)

  3. Out-of-Field Teaching: A Cross-National Study on Teacher Labor Market and Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yisu

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, the issue of out-of-field teaching (OFT) has concerned policy makers and researchers alike who see raising teachers' subject matter knowledge as the main policy lever to improve teacher quality. The study of OFT has emerged as one of the important subfields of teacher quality and teacher labour market research.…

  4. Precursors to overnutrition: the effects of household market food expenditures on measures of body composition among Tsimane' adults in lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Rosinger, Asher; Tanner, Susan; Leonard, William R

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition transitions are characterized by shifts in diet and activity levels that lead to changes in weight and body fatness over a relatively short time. Research has linked these nutritional shifts to socio-economic factors, including wealth and income. However, few studies have examined household spending patterns on market foods among subsistence populations, which may reveal food access, choice, and indicate household nutritional environment. This paper examines the relation between household monetary expenditures on "market" foods and measures of body composition among Tsimane', a forager-horticulturalist indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. Economic and anthropometric surveys were conducted for adults (n = 1199) 16 years or older in 563 households in 40 Tsimane' villages in 2008. Results indicate that overweight status (19% of men and 24% of women) is more common than obesity (1% of men and 4% of women). Sixty-one percent (61%) of households reported purchasing market foods during the previous week. Multiple linear and logistic regressions suggest that men living in households in the top third of monetary expenditures on market foods had significantly higher BMI (0.69 kg/m(2); p = 0.027), weight (1.80 kg; p = 0.048), percent body fat (1.06%; p = 0.025), and probability of being overweight/obese (Odds ratio = 1.83; p = 0.042) than men in households that reported not spending money on market foods in the previous week. We discuss the possibility that the division of labor may help explain the differences between men and women in this sample. This research suggests household expenditures on market foods may mediate the relation between wealth and body composition.

  5. Towards Developing Financial Literacy Programmes for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Meg; Boucher, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    In the context of increased labor market flexibility and "portfolio work," adults need knowledge of financial services and their interrelationships with insurance, taxation, and welfare systems. One approach uses the radical tradition of adult education to help people develop critical awareness and control of their financial decision…

  6. Approaches to a Successful Adult Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Tanjula; Thomas, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 40 million Americans adults live their lives deprived of prosperity, pleasures, and the rewards of lifelong learning (Comings & Cuban, 2007). With the economic, social, and technical changes in society, there are shifts in the labor market (Champagne, 1987). Many adults are having to set their sights on obtaining sufficient skills…

  7. Economic Returns to Sub-Baccalaureate Technical Education: A Study of Labor Market Outcomes for Manufacturing Engineering Technologist and Technician Education (METTE) Programs in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the labor market outcomes of sub-baccalaureate education for individuals attending Manufacturing Engineering Technologist and Technician Education (METTE) programs in the Wisconsin Technical College System. Increasingly, public policy for postsecondary education and economic development, as well as decisions…

  8. Yes, but Can They Earn a Living? Methods for Creating an Effective System of Measuring Labor Market Outcomes in Higher Education. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.5.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.; Chapman, Kenneth; Huber, Bettina; Shors, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A new federal initiative calls for a College Scorecard which will include a yet to be determined measure of graduate earnings. In this paper we examine the political context that drives this initiative and examine the nascent efforts of four states to develop statewide systems to measure the labor market outcomes of higher education. We propose…

  9. Labor contractors: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Martin, P M

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of labor brokering or contracting that helps to explain why employers turn to foreign workers to fill certain vacant jobs, and how the presence of foreign workers brought to a country by labor contractors can affect the size and duration of migration flows. The major conclusion is that East Asian policies that aim to avoid the settlement of unskilled foreign workers also make labor brokering a prominent feature of labor migration and migrant labor markets in the region."

  10. Labor Induction

    MedlinePlus

    ... for labor and delivery, the cervix begins to soften (ripen), thin out, and open. These changes usually ... cervix is a process that helps the cervix soften and thin out in preparation for labor. Medications ...

  11. Older adult perceptions of smart home technologies: implications for research, policy & market innovations in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, J; D'Ambrosio, L A; Reimer, B; Pratt, M R

    2007-01-01

    Advances in information communications technology and related computational power are providing a wide array of systems and related services that form the basis of smart home technologies to support the health, safety and independence of older adults. While these technologies offer significant benefits to older people and their families, they are also transforming older adults into lead adopters of a new 24/7 lifestyle of being monitored, managed, and, at times, motivated, to maintain their health and wellness. To better understand older adult perceptions of smart home technologies and to inform future research a workshop and focus group was conducted with 30 leaders in aging advocacy and aging services from 10 northeastern states. Participants expressed support of technological advance along with a variety of concerns that included usability, reliability, trust, privacy, stigma, accessibility and affordability. Participants also observed that there is a virtual absence of a comprehensive market and policy environment to support either the consumer or the diffusion of these technologies. Implications for research, policy and market innovation are discussed.

  12. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  13. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  14. Realizing universal health coverage for maternal health services in the Republic of Guinea: the use of workforce projections to design health labor market interventions

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Christel; Codjia, Laurence; Cometto, Giorgio; Yansané, Mohamed Lamine; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage requires a health workforce that is available, accessible, and well-performing. This article presents a critical analysis of the health workforce needs for the delivery of maternal and neonatal health services in Guinea, and of feasible and relevant interventions to improve the availability, accessibility, and performance of the health workforce in the country. Methods A needs-based approach was used to project human resources for health (HRH) requirements. This was combined with modeling of future health sector demand and supply. A baseline scenario with disaggregated need and supply data for the targeted health professionals per region and setting (urban or rural) informed the identification of challenges related to the availability and distribution of the workforce between 2014 and 2024. Subsequently, the health labor market framework was used to identify interventions to improve the availability and distribution of the health workforce. These interventions were included in the supply side modeling, in order to create a “policy rich” scenario B which allowed for analysis of their potential impact. Results In the Republic of Guinea, only 44% of the nurses and 18% of the midwives required for maternal and neonatal health services are currently available. If Guinea continues on its current path without scaling up recruitment efforts, the total stock of HRH employed by the public sector will decline by 15% between 2014 and 2024, while HRH needs will grow by 22% due to demographic trends. The high density of HRH in urban areas and the high number of auxiliary nurses who are currently employed pose an opportunity for improving the availability, accessibility, and performance of the health workforce for maternal and neonatal health in Guinea, especially in rural areas. Conclusion Guinea will need to scale up its recruitment efforts in order to improve health workforce availability. Targeted labor market interventions need to be

  15. The Division of Household Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna D.; Huber, Joan

    A study was conducted to test the following hypotheses concerning division of household labor (DOHL) between husbands and wives: (1) the division of household labor is somewhat affected by the availability of time, especially the wife's time; (2) there are strong effects of relative power, as measured by market-related resources, marital…

  16. Zombies, Cyborgs, and other Labor Organizers: An Introduction to Representations of Adult Learning Theories and HRD in Popular Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robin Redmon

    2013-01-01

    Too often, educators, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of adult education and human resource development rely on traditional curricular materials and an academic body of knowledge for teaching, evaluating, and training adults. This assumes a coherent body of prior knowledge, assumptions, worldviews, and experiences in their students…

  17. Testimony of Morton Bahr for the National Commission on Adult Literacy to the House Subcommittee on Education and Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Morton

    2009-01-01

    It is no secret that America is at risk of losing its place as a world leader in education. Some 88 million adults in America need help with their English as a Second Language (ESL) and basic skills, yet the nation is currently providing services to only 3 million people. The Commission on Adult Literacy calls for bold change at the state and…

  18. Admission-Group Salary Differentials in the United States: The Significance of Labor Market Institutional Selection of High-Skilled Workers*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lingxin

    2015-01-01

    In 1990 a temporary-to-permanent pathway was established for highly skilled workers admitted to the United States under nonimmigrant programs. The paper argues that this policy shift has allowed employers to play a crucial role in the immigration of highly skilled workers, thereby creating labor-market institutional selection that gives a salary advantage to highly skilled temporary-admitted workers retained in the United States. Through analyses of the salary differentials among admission-category groups, the paper finds that the salary advantage is based on recruitment from Western countries, adjustment from temporary to permanent status after a second employer screening, working in the information technology sector and the private sector, holding a supervisory position, or having a skill-matched job, all of which are consequences of institutional selection rather than individual self-selection. Our results also reveal a difference between those admitted from abroad and those recruited from graduating foreign students in USA higher educational institutions, which suggests a distinction between overseas hiring and domestic hiring. Policy implications for the United States and other receiving countries are discussed. PMID:26269690

  19. Does obesity influence labour market outcomes among working-age adults? Evidence from Canadian longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Larose, Samantha L; Kpelitse, Koffi A; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S; Sarma, Sisira

    2016-03-01

    Although a negative association between obesity and labour market outcomes is commonly reported in many studies, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the last six confidential master files (2000/2001-2010/2011) of the National Population Health Survey, we examine the association between obesity and employment participation and earnings among working-age adults in Canada. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, our results show that obesity is not significantly associated with employment participation but is associated with reduced hourly wage rate and annual income among women by about 4% and 4.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for men show that obesity is associated with about 2% reduction in wage rate and income, but significant at 10% level. However, after controlling for the potential reverse causality bias using the lagged measure of obesity, the effect of obesity on wage rate and income became positive or statistically non-significant. Our findings suggest that obesity is not causally associated with negative labour market outcomes among working-age men in Canada. For working-age women, we find limited evidence of negative labour market outcomes.

  20. Older Adult Learners in the Workforce: New Dimensions to Workforce Training Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Ruth; Orel, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Lower fertility rates and declines in the number of births have created a tremendous labor shortage. This tight labor market has encouraged many companies to recruit and retain a greater number of workers older than the age of 55. Additionally, with the shift to knowledge and technology-based industries, older adult workers are finding that…

  1. Hiring Policies, Labor Market Institutions, and Labor Market Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pries, Michael; Rogerson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    We develop a matching model to account for the fact that worker turnover in Europe is much less than in the United States, whereas job turnover is roughly the same. The model assumes that the quality of worker-firm matches is both an inspection good and an experience good. Both parties have limited information at the time of meeting about the…

  2. Expanding Educational Services for Adults. OPTIONS. Publicity Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This publicity kit is intended to provide adult educators with materials for promoting and recruiting students into an adult education program designed according to the OPTIONS model (i.e., programs geared toward teaching the literacy, technical, and entrepreneurship skills that are necessary to adapt to changing labor market conditions resulting…

  3. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  4. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  5. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  6. ‘Get Your Life Back’: process and impact evaluation of an asthma social marketing campaign targeting older adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma in older adults is underdiagnosed and poorly self-managed. This population has little knowledge about the key symptoms, the prevalence among older adults, and the serious consequences of untreated asthma. The purpose of this study was to undertake a multifaceted evaluation of a social marketing campaign to increase asthma awareness among older adults in a regional Australian community. Methods A cohort of older adults in an intervention region (n = 316) and a control region (n = 394) were surveyed immediately prior to and following the social marketing campaign. Campaign awareness, message recall, materials recognition, and actions taken as a result of the campaign were assessed in both regions. Asthma knowledge and perceptions, experience of asthma symptoms, and general health were also assessed in both regions at baseline and follow-up. Analyses were conducted to explore the effects of the campaign in the intervention region, and to examine outcomes among different audience segments. Results The survey data showed that those in the target segments (Wheezers and Strugglers) had better message recall, and were more likely to report having taken action to control their respiratory symptoms. The campaign significantly increased the number of calls to an asthma information line from the target audience in the intervention community. Conclusions A theory-based social marketing campaign conducted over 3-months increased the asthma information seeking behaviours of older adults in the intervention community compared to the control community. Recommendations are outlined for future community health promotion campaigns targeting older adults. PMID:23947479

  7. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  8. [Immigrants in the labor market].

    PubMed

    Pugliese, E

    1990-04-01

    This is an analysis by occupation of foreigners working in Italy. "A relationship can frequently be observed between country of origin, religion, sex, and employment. Then, those who immigrate into Italy from Islamic countries are largely single males; most of them work as hawkers. At the opposite end, women, still prevalently employed in domestic service, come from Catholic countries, or from Catholic minorities within countries with different predominant religions. Besides these two categories, more traditional and majoritarian, there are the employed in agriculture, services, and, only recently, industry. The article points to the highly intense dynamics of immigration and to the ever-changing relative weight of different nationalities, main settlements, and prevalent activities themselves in the various regions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  9. L'Education des Adultes et les Problemes de Main-D'Oeuvre (Adult Education and Manpower Problems). Les Cahiers de L'I.C.E., 6-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Adult Education, Montreal (Quebec).

    The impact of continuing education on the complex problems encountered in developing and implementing overall manpower policies is discussed and documented in this anthology. An introductory chapter on adult education and the labor force is followed by surveys and critiques of manpower policy and the organization of the labor market in Sweden, the…

  10. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  11. Reconstructing or Deconstructing Labor Archives? Shaping Labor Collection Development in an Uncertain Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigel, James P., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Labor archival programs confront numerous challenges to remain viable in a changing academic environment and institutional culture. The marketing of higher education, the anti-union stance of some university administrations, and the transition of labor studies programs create a less-than-benign environment for labor collection development…

  12. International labor migration and domestic labor supply.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, R

    1992-04-01

    "This paper constructs a dynamic, general equilibrium framework to study the relationship between international labor migration and domestic labor supply. The general equilibrium nature of the model enables us to endogenize the pattern of labor migration. The effect of labor migration on domestic wage rates and labor supply is shown to depend on the pattern of labor migration. If the substitution effect dominates the income effect in labor supply, the domestic supply of labor necessarily decreases in response to an inflow of migrants....Similarly, if the dominant effect is the income effect, the immigration of labor necessarily increases the domestic supply of labor."

  13. Inducing labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... inducing labor is to "break the bag of waters" or rupture the membranes. Your health care provider will do a pelvic exam and will guide a small plastic probe with a hook on the end through your cervix to create a hole in the membrane. This does not hurt you ...

  14. Some Reasons Why Rural Workers Do Not Find Work in Tight Labor Markets: Results from Focus Groups Meetings in Rural Michigan. Staff Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Colletta H.; Begashaw, Getachew W.

    A study examined barriers to employment for rural Michigan residents, especially during an economic boom. Four focus groups conducted in four nonmetropolitan growth counties in Michigan indicated that educated, skilled workers were seeking to enter the labor force or to work more hours, even though community leaders, newspapers, and job developers…

  15. The Aftermath of the Bracero: A Study of the Economic Impact on the Agricultural Hired Labor Market of Michigan from the Termination of Public Law 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John Dancer

    To test the "stoop labor" hypotheses that the supply response of domestic migrants to increased wages would be inelastic, this study examined wage adjustment in Michigan agriculture after 1964, supply response to wage changes in the pickle industry, and acreage decline and capital substitution following the termination of the bracero…

  16. The Role of Occupational Attainment, Labor Market Structure, and Earnings Inequality on the Relative Earnings of Mexican Americans: 1986-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagan, Jose A.; Cardenas, Gilberto

    1997-01-01

    Relative earnings of young Mexican American workers declined during 1986-92, influenced by recession-induced changes in the U.S. earnings structure and new immigration laws. Although Mexican American females experienced significantly greater occupational segregation than males, structural changes in labor demand worked to reduce the gender…

  17. Direct-to-Consumer Tobacco Marketing and Its Association with Tobacco Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Lee, Won; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assess exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing and its association with ever having tried smoking, smoking within past 30 days (‘current’), and smoking ≥100 cigarettes in lifetime (‘established’) among adolescents and young adults. Methods We surveyed a U.S. telephone sample of 3,342 15–23 year olds and 2,541 respondents subsequently completed a web-based survey. Among respondents completing both the telephone and web-based surveys (N=2,541 [75%]), we assessed their exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing (receiving direct mail from tobacco companies and seeing tobacco company websites) and their associations with ever having tried smoking, current smoking, and established smoking. Results Overall, 12% of 15–17 year olds and 26% of 18–23 year olds were exposed to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing. Racial/ethnic minority non-smoking respondents were more likely to see tobacco websites than non-smoking Whites. Respondents exposed to either form of direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing were more likely to currently smoke (adjusted odds ratio[AOR]: 2.2; 95% CI 1.3–3.8), while those exposed to both forms of marketing experienced even higher odds of currently smoking (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI 1.1–6.6). We observed similar relationships for ever having tried smoking and established smoking. Conclusions Direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing reaches adolescent and young adult non-smokers and is associated with smoking behavior. PMID:24661738

  18. Consequences of marketing exceptions in the Master Settlement Agreement: exposure of youth to adult-only tobacco promotions.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Nyman, Amy

    2006-06-01

    The Master Settlement Agreement between a consortium of tobacco companies and 46 states contains many restrictions on tobacco sales and advertising that were designed to reduce youth exposure to tobacco promotions. Most of the restrictions include an exception for "adult-only" facilities. The present study investigated the extent to which youth are being exposed to marketing that is presumably limited to adults. Using data from a statewide random-digit-dialed survey of 3,863 Massachusetts youth aged 12-17 years, we found that about half of all youth in this age group reported seeing cigarettes advertised at events, concerts, bars, or clubs in the past 12 months, and that about 5% of youth in this age group reported being present at a venue where free samples of cigarettes were being distributed. Youth exposed to this marketing were those most at risk for progression to established smoking. To our knowledge, this is the first study to estimate youth exposure to advertisements designed for adult-only venues. In light of the large body of evidence that exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion increases tobacco use among youth, our findings demonstrate the need to close the "adult-only" loophole.

  19. Labor Policy, Minorities, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Inst. for Research and Education, Washington, DC.

    The central theme of the papers presented in this symposium is that the labor market for minorities and youth does not appear to function properly because of structural impediments (often caused by government regulations meant to help minorities) and that these impediments must be identified and effective remedies proposed. Following an…

  20. Labor in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S., Ed.

    Originally presented at a Conference on Labor in Nonprofit Industry and Government held at Princeton University, the studies are the first to provide an economic discussion of the public sector labor market. Melvin Reder examines the effect of the absence of the profit motive on employment and wage determination in the public sector. Orley…

  1. Return to Work: Work-Based Learning and the Reintegration of Unemployed Adults into the Labour Market. Working Paper No 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehmel, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Low-qualified adults have experienced a greater rise in unemployment than any other group in Europe. What particular barriers are they facing in (re-)entering the labour market? How can VET be used in active labour market policies to help overcome these barriers? How can training programmes be designed to address the particular needs of this…

  2. Adult Education Goes to Market: An Ethnographic Case Study of the Restructuring and Reculturing of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis; Carlson, Marie

    2004-01-01

    The restructuring of adult education in Goteborg was first initiated experimentally with respect only to SFI education (an education in beginning Swedish for ethnic minorities living in Sweden). This was done on the basis of decisions in the Goteborg Municipal Council in 1999. But restructuring came into full force for all municipal adult…

  3. Removing Barriers to the Adult Learner: Through Marketing, Management, and Programming. NUCEA Region VI Conference (Las Vegas, Nevada, October 10-13, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conter, Robert V., Ed.; Porcelli, Winifred A., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the texts of nine presentations delivered at a conference on removing barriers to the adult learner through marketing, management, and programing. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Faculty Perceptions of Adult Learners, Off-Campus Credit Programs, and Teaching Strategies," by Diane…

  4. Qualitative developmental research among low income African American adults to inform a social marketing campaign for walking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health (PATH) trial. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Results Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the “5 Ps” to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents’ homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Conclusions Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers. PMID:23497164

  5. A global strategy for labor.

    PubMed

    Faux, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  6. Marketing II Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  7. The relationship between early recruitment-related activities and the application decisions of new labor-market entrants: a brand equity approach to recruitment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christopher J; Stevens, Cynthia Kay

    2002-12-01

    Theory and research from the marketing literature on customer-based brand equity were used to predict how positive exposure to 4 early recruitment-related activities-publicity, sponsorships, word-of-mouth endorsements, and advertising-may affect the application decisions of engineering students. Similar to prior marketing findings, the results suggested that early recruitment-related activities were indirectly related to intentions and decisions through 2 dimensions of employer brand image: general attitudes toward the company and perceived job attributes. The relationships between word-of-mouth endorsements and the 2 dimensions of brand image were particularly strong. In addition, it was found that early recruitment-related activities interacted with one another such that employer brand image was stronger when firms used publicity in conjunction with other early recruitment-related activities.

  8. Cultural Issues Affecting Labor Force Participation. Background Paper No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriet Pipes

    A major challenge facing U.S. society is how to bring the massive groups of underemployed and unemployed minorities into the mainstream of the labor market. These groups will soon comprise 22 percent of the labor market and will be expected to take over positions requiring increased skill levels, but for generations they have been hindered in…

  9. Piloting proactive marketing to recruit disadvantaged adults to a community-wide obesity prevention program.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Eggins, Dianne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Wiggers, John

    2015-03-30

    Population-wide obesity prevention and treatment programs are fundamental to addressing the increasing overweight and obesity rates in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Innovative recruitment strategies, including proactive marketing strategies, are needed to ensure such programs have universal reach and target vulnerable populations. This study aimed to determine the success of proactive recruitment to Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) and to assess whether the recruitment strategy influenced participants' outcomes. Sociodemographic information was collected from all GHS participants who joined the service between February 2009 and August 2013, and anthropometric information regarding behavioural risk factors was collected from all GHS coaching participants at baseline and six months. Data were analysed according to the participants' referral source (self-referral and secondary referral versus proactive recruitment). Participants recruited through proactive marketing were more likely to be male, aged 50 years or older, have high school education, not be in paid employment and be from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic advantage. The risk factor profile of coaching participants recruited through proactive marketing did not vary significantly from those recruited via other mechanisms, although they were less likely to be obese and less likely to have a higher 'at risk' waist circumference measurement. Proactively recruited coaching participants reported significant improvements from baseline to six months (consistent with improvements made by participants recruited through other strategies), although they were significantly more likely to withdraw from coaching before they completed the six-month program.Proactive marketing facilitated use of an obesity prevention service; similar services may have greater reach if proactive marketing recruitment strategies are used. These strategies could be encouraged to assist

  10. How Television Fast Food Marketing Aimed at Children Compares with Adult Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Bergamini, Elaina; Marijnissen, Jill; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Quick service restaurant (QSR) television advertisements for children’s meals were compared with adult advertisements from the same companies to assess whether self-regulatory pledges for food advertisements to children had been implemented. Methods All nationally televised advertisements for the top 25 US QSR restaurants from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010 were obtained and viewed to identify those advertising meals for children and these advertisements were compared with adult advertisements from the same companies. Content coding included visual and audio assessment of branding, toy premiums, movie tie-ins, and depictions of food. For image size comparisons, the diagonal length of the advertisement was compared with the diagonal length of salient food and drink images. Results Almost all of the 92 QSR children’s meal advertisements that aired during the study period were attributable to McDonald’s (70%) or Burger King (29%); 79% of 25,000 television placements aired on just four channels (Cartoon Network, Nickelodeon, Disney XD, and Nicktoons). Visual branding was more common in children’s advertisements vs. adult advertisements, with food packaging present in 88% vs. 23%, and street view of the QSR restaurant present in 41% vs. 12%. Toy premiums or giveaways were present in 69% vs. 1%, and movie tie-ins present in 55% vs. 14% of children’s vs. adult advertisements. Median food image diagonal length was 20% of the advertisement diagonal for children’s and 45% for adult advertisements. The audio script for children’s advertisements emphasized giveaways and movie tie-ins whereas adult advertisements emphasized food taste, price and portion size. Conclusions Children’s QSR advertisements emphasized toy giveaways and movie tie-ins rather than food products. Self-regulatory pledges to focus on actual food products instead of toy premiums were not supported by this analysis. PMID:24015250

  11. Elderly parent health and the migration decisions of adult children: evidence from rural China.

    PubMed

    Giles, John; Mu, Ren

    2007-05-01

    Recent research has shown that participation in migrant labor markets has led to substantial increases in income for families in rural China. This article addresses the question of how participation is affected by elderly parent health. We find that younger adults are less likely to work as migrants when a parent is ill. Poor health of an elderly parent has less impact on the probability of employment as a migrant when an adult child has siblings who may be available to provide care. We also highlight the potential importance of including information on nonresident family members when studying how parent illness and elder care requirements influence the labor supply decisions of adult children.

  12. [Labor rights and the organization of workers in a context of change in labor relations: effects on health workers].

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Elina Gonçalves da Fonte; Artur, Karen

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.

  13. Market Socialism Meets the Lost Generation: Motivational Orientations of Adult Learners in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan; Song, Qihui; Song, Lei

    2006-01-01

    In Western countries, women and men, young and old, enroll in adult education for different reasons. This is even more the case in China. This study helps Shanghai program planners better appreciate learners by understanding how motivational orientations vary as a function of gender and age. The Chinese version of the Education Participation Scale…

  14. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    PubMed

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  15. Nurses who do not nurse: factors that predict non-nursing work in the U.S. registered nursing labor market.

    PubMed

    Black, Lisa; Spetz, Joanne; Harrington, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) who work outside of nursing have seldom been examined. This aim of this study was to compare the 122,178 (4%) of RNs who are employed outside of nursing to those who work in nursing jobs in terms of sociodemographic, market, and political variables to determine if these groups are substantively different from one another. Using a logit regression model, wages were a significant predictor of working outside of nursing for unmarried nurses but not for married nurses. Married and unmarried male nurses were more likely to work outside of nursing. Baccalaureate education, children under age 6, higher family income, and years since graduation increased the odds of working outside of nursing for married nurses. Ultimately, identifying characteristics on which these groups differ may inform future policy directions that could target nurses who may leave nursing at a time when retention efforts might be effective to alter their trajectory away from the profession.

  16. Math skills and market and non-market outcomes: Evidence from an Amazonian society of forager-farmers.

    PubMed

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Schultz, Alan; Yiu, Julie; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2013-12-01

    Research in industrial nations suggests that formal math skills are associated with improvements in market and non-market outcomes. But do these associations also hold in a highly autarkic setting with a limited formal labor market? We examined this question using observational annual panel data (2008 and 2009) from 1,121 adults in a native Amazonian society of forager-farmers in Bolivia (Tsimane'). Formal math skills were associated with an increase in wealth in durable market goods and in total wealth between data collection rounds, and with improved indicators of own reported perceived stress and child health. These associations did not vary significantly by people's Spanish skills or proximity to town. We conclude that the positive association between math skills and market and non-market outcomes extends beyond industrial nations to even highly autarkic settings.

  17. Math skills and market and non-market outcomes: Evidence from an Amazonian society of forager-farmers

    PubMed Central

    Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Behrman, Jere R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Schultz, Alan; Yiu, Julie; Godoy, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Research in industrial nations suggests that formal math skills are associated with improvements in market and non-market outcomes. But do these associations also hold in a highly autarkic setting with a limited formal labor market? We examined this question using observational annual panel data (2008 and 2009) from 1,121 adults in a native Amazonian society of forager-farmers in Bolivia (Tsimane’). Formal math skills were associated with an increase in wealth in durable market goods and in total wealth between data collection rounds, and with improved indicators of own reported perceived stress and child health. These associations did not vary significantly by people’s Spanish skills or proximity to town. We conclude that the positive association between math skills and market and non-market outcomes extends beyond industrial nations to even highly autarkic settings. PMID:24327793

  18. Labor Market Characteristics and the Labor Force Participation of Individuals,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Bass, 1970, pp. 38-47. Durkheim , Emile , Les Regles del la Methode Sociologieque, Paris, F. Alcan, 1895. Fuguitt, Glenn and Stanley Lieberson...and conditioned by the cultural (e.g., Durkheim , 1895) or material (e.g., Marx and Engels, 1922) conditions of the collectivities in which people live

  19. Trends in Job Instability and Wages for Young Adult Men. IEE Working Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Annette; Morris, Martina; Handcock, Mark; Scott, Marc

    To determine whether there has been a secular rise in job instability among young adults over the past 3 decades, a study compared two National Longitudinal Survey cohorts of young white men. The first cohort entered the labor market in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the second during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The study examined…

  20. The Vocational and Language Development of Limited English Proficient Adults. Information Series No. 363.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenberg, Joan E.

    This critical review of the literature examines the characteristics and needs of limited English proficient (LEP) adults and the programs and services typically available to them. The complexities of the LEP population are explored first, including differences in education, English proficiency, labor market experience, and economic status.…

  1. The Expansion of Adult Education and Training in Europe: Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes factors contributing to 1980s expansion of adult vocational education (AE) and training in Europe, reviewing demographic, economic, political, and social factors. Discusses ramifications of emerging decentralization in educational decision making. Examines potential conflict between emphasis on economic and labor market objectives of AE…

  2. Is College Worth It for Me? How Adults without Degrees Think about Going (Back) to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Schleifer, David; DiStasi, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This research report examines the expectations, attitudes and needs of adults who are thinking about earning postsecondary credentials after having spent some or in most cases many years in the workforce. Most of these prospective students hope a certificate or degree will advance their chances in the labor market, but they are greatly worried…

  3. Labour Market Policy in Germany: Job Placement, Unemployment Insurance and Active Labour Market Policy in Germany. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blien, Uwe; Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz

    Job placement, unemployment insurance, and active labor market policy in Germany were reviewed. The following were among the review's main conclusions: (1) measures of active and passive labor market policy are still regarded as important to combating unemployment and improving the matching function of the German labor market; (2) the many…

  4. The Changing Composition of the Military and the Effect on Labor Force Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sider, Hal; Cole, Cheryl

    1984-01-01

    Examines some of the changes in the military that have resulted from the all-volunteer armed forces. Compares labor force data that include the military with traditional statistics that measure the civilian labor market. (SK)

  5. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  6. Gendered Work. Sexuality, Family and the Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Lisa

    A study examined the interrelationships between sexuality, family, and the labor market in Great Britain. First, a range of analyses of women's role in the labor market, including analyses from feminist and sociological perspectives, were reviewed to determine how sexual as opposed to gender relations operate in the labor market. Next, the role of…

  7. Tips for labor coaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... some tips for getting prepared. Before the big day Arrives Labor coaches should go to childbirth classes ... get through her labor and delivery. When the day Arrives You might be at the hospital for ...

  8. High Technology and International Labour Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the impact of "high-tech" industries on labor markets, the division of labor and the organization of work, and the policy options open to societies for dealing with the effects. (CT)

  9. Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... and eat during labor, which can provide needed energy later. Yet some doctors advise laboring women to avoid solid food as a precaution should a cesarean delivery be needed. Ask your doctor about eating during labor. While at home, time your contractions and keep your doctor up ...

  10. The Integration of Immigrants Into the Labour Markets of the EU. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Heinz

    Integration of foreign workers into European Union (EU) labor markets was evaluated. Three indicators of labor market integration were analyzed: unemployment rate, employment rate, and self- employment rate. Results were drawn from the Labor Force Survey data compiled by Eurostat. Findings indicated that, in all EU countries, the unemployment rate…

  11. Intersectionality at Work: Determinants of Labor Supply among Immigrant Latinas.

    PubMed

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2014-06-01

    This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women's labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict.

  12. Status Variations in Alcohol Use among Young Adults: Results from the 1984 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Joan E.

    This document gives descriptive results on alcohol use patterns among young adults from the 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market of Youth, a survey of a large, nationally representative sample supplemented by samples of blacks, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanic youth and covering the entire range of…

  13. Interregional equilibrium with heterogeneous labor.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Perrot, A; Thisse J-f

    1996-02-01

    "The impact of labor migration on interregional equilibrium is studied when workers are heterogeneous in productivity and regional mobility. The skilled respond to market disequilibrium by moving into the most attractive region. The unskilled are immobile in the short-run and move with the skilled in the long-run. Both regions have a neoclassical production function affected by an externality depending on the number of skilled. Workers move according to the utility differential when regional amenities vary with population or according to the wage differential. The equilibrium pattern depends on the unskilled's mobility and on migration incentives. Typically, regional imbalance characterizes the equilibrium which is often suboptimal."

  14. New Evidence on Teacher Labor Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Jacob, Brian A.; Curran, F. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence on the large variance in teacher effectiveness has spurred interest in teacher labor markets. Research documents that better qualified teachers typically work in more advantaged schools but cannot determine the relative importance of supply versus demand. To isolate teacher preferences, we document which schools prospective…

  15. 20 CFR 654.5 - Classification of labor surplus areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cancellations expected to have a long-term impact on labor market area conditions, discounting temporary or seasonal factors. For purposes of this paragraph, “Metropolitan Statistical Area” and “Primary...

  16. 20 CFR 655.34 - Validity of temporary labor certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... domestic labor market for the job opportunity. (3) Other amendments to the application, including elements of the job offer and the place of work, may be requested, in writing, and will be granted if the...

  17. Teacher Labor Markets in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries--an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly,…

  18. Worker Displacement in a Strong Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Ryan T.

    2001-01-01

    As economic growth continued in 1997 and 1998, job losses declined and the displacement rate was the lowest of the 1990s. Many displaced workers were able to find new jobs with little or no change in weekly earnings. (Author/JOW)

  19. Lady Academe and Labor-Market Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in the global economy is not represented particularly well by old-school "pipeline" theories of women entering particular industries, whether it is manufacturing, medicine, or college teaching. The pipeline analogy suggests that if women enter a field in equal or greater numbers to men, they will somehow automatically be "piped"…

  20. Career Technical Education and Labor Market Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Current data indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) graduates with high school diplomas or postsecondary skills are preparing for careers in fields that are growing or in high-demand. Matching employability skills with workforce demand has been an issue among industries across the nation. CTE provides relevant academic and technical…

  1. Community food environments and healthy food access among older adults: A review of the evidence for the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP).

    PubMed

    O'Dare Wilson, Kellie

    2017-04-01

    Although an array of federal, state, and local programs exist that target food insecurity and the specific nutritional needs of seniors, food insecurity among older adults in the United States remains a persistent problem, particularly in minority and rural populations. Food insecurity is highly predictive of inadequate fresh fruit and vegetable (FFV) consumption in particular. The Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) is a community-based program to help seniors purchase FFVs at farmer's markets in their neighborhoods. The SFMNP continues to grow; however, little is known about the effectiveness of the program. The purposes of this article are to (1) highlight the importance of community and neighborhood based food insecurity programs, specifically emphasizing the importance of FFV access for seniors, (2) review the current state of the evidence on the SFMNP, and (3) provide recommendations for researchers and policy-makers wishing to continue to advance the knowledge base in neighborhood-based food security among older adults.

  2. Epigenetic modifications and their relation to caste and sex determination and adult division of labor in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos A M; Fujimura, Patrícia Tieme; Santos-Júnior, Célio Dias; Borges, Naiara Araújo; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Hartfelder, Klaus; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria

    2017-03-02

    Stingless bees of the genus Melipona, have long been considered an enigmatic case among social insects for their mode of caste determination, where in addition to larval food type and quantity, the genotype also has a saying, as proposed over 50 years ago by Warwick E. Kerr. Several attempts have since tried to test his Mendelian two-loci/two-alleles segregation hypothesis, but only recently a single gene crucial for sex determination in bees was evidenced to be sex-specifically spliced and also caste-specifically expressed in a Melipona species. Since alternative splicing is frequently associated with epigenetic marks, and the epigenetic status plays a major role in setting the caste phenotype in the honey bee, we investigated here epigenetic chromatin modification in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. We used an ELISA-based methodology to quantify global methylation status and western blot assays to reveal histone modifications. The results evidenced DNA methylation/demethylation events in larvae and pupae, and significant differences in histone methylation and phosphorylation between newly emerged adult queens and workers. The epigenetic dynamics seen in this stingless bee species represent a new facet in the caste determination process in Melipona bees and suggest a possible mechanism that is likely to link a genotype component to the larval diet and adult social behavior of these bees.

  3. Women in the labor force.

    PubMed

    Vatter, R H

    1994-01-01

    Unlike the rate for men, the labor force participation rate for women has increased significantly over the past three decades or so. This trend is expected to continue at least through 2005. Among the reasons for the growing role of women in the labor market are higher levels of educational attainment, improved employment opportunities, changing values in society, and economic pressures and aspirations that require women to assume dual careers as homemakers and family income producers. By the year 2005, it is estimated that women workers will number about 72 million, with more than 63 percent of all women age 16 and over either working or actively looking for work. While traditional occupations such as secretarial and clerical administrative support and professions such as nursing and teaching still predominate, about 4 million women are now in executive, administrative and managerial positions in the private sectors of the economy. As for the types of industry in which women are employed, service industries clearly predominate. Projections suggest that women workers of the future will be older on average, with the fastest growth occurring in the 45-64 age cohort. They will also be a more diverse group as the number of black, Asian and Hispanic women workers grows more rapidly than the number of white non-Hispanic labor force participants.

  4. Creating a Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazimirski, J.; And Others

    The second in a series of programmed books, "Creating a Market" is published by the International Labour Office as a manual for persons studying marketing. This manual was designed to meet the needs of the labor organization's technical cooperation programs and is primarily concerned with consumer goods industries. Using a fill-in-the-blanks and…

  5. Industrial labor relations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Industrial Labor Relations Manual provides internal guidelines and procedures to assist NASA Field Installations in dealing with contractor labor management disputes, Service Contract Act variance hearings, and to provide access of Labor Union Representatives to NASA for the purpose of maintaining schedules and goals in connection with vital NASA programs. This manual will be revised by page changes as revisions become necessary. Initial distribution of this manual has been made to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  6. Labor supply responses to large social transfers: Longitudinal evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ardington, Cally; Case, Anne; Hosegood, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of the developing world, rural areas exhibit high rates of unemployment and underemployment. Understanding what prevents people from migrating to find better jobs is central to the development process. In this paper, we examine whether binding credit constraints and childcare constraints limit the ability of households to send labor migrants, and whether the arrival of a large, stable source of income - here, the South African old-age pension - helps households to overcome these constraints. Specifically, we quantify the labor supply responses of prime-aged individuals to changes in the presence of pensioners, using longitudinal data collected in KwaZulu-Natal. Our ability to compare households and individuals before and after pension receipt, and pension loss, allows us to control for a host of unobservable household and individual characteristics that may determine labor market behavior. We find that large cash transfers to elderly South Africans lead to increased employment among prime-aged members of their households, a result that is masked in cross-sectional analysis by differences between pension and non-pension households. Pension receipt also influences where this employment takes place. We find large, significant effects on labor migration upon pension arrival. The pension's impact is attributable both to the increase in household resources it represents, which can be used to stake migrants until they become self-sufficient, and to the presence of pensioners who can care for small children, which allows prime-aged adults to look for work elsewhere.

  7. Joint Ventures. The Industry-Labor-Education Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Council on Vocational Education, Tallahassee.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine substate linkages between business, labor, and vocational education in Florida. Information for the paper was gathered by reviewing the activities of the Regional Coordinating Councils for Vocational, Adult and Community Education, the Private Industry Councils, the regional consortia, and organized labor.…

  8. Enabling Labour Market Entry for Adults through Non-Formal Education and Training for Employment in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayombe, Celestin

    2016-01-01

    Adult non-formal education and training (NFET) in South Africa was adopted in 1990 to address the problem of unemployment of non-educated and unskilled adults. Public and private NFET centres aim to meet the training needs of adults who were deprived of formal education that would foster access to opportunities for employment. The paper reports on…

  9. Interactive Marketing: Customers as Collaborators. Marketing Strategies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Dorothy

    This booklet, which is intended for individuals responsible for marketing continuing higher education, presents an interactive approach to educational marketing in which customers play the role of collaborators. The booklet begins with brief profiles of successful interactive marketing programs at three universities. Examined next are labor market…

  10. Did the Labor Contracts between the UAW and the Big Three Automakers Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John J.; Furdek, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    In the Fall 2007, there were landmark labor contracts agreed upon between the United Autoworkers (UAW) and the Big Three Automakers--General Motors, Ford Motor Company, and Chrysler LLC. The impetus for these truly historic labor agreements was to afford the automakers to remain competitive in the global market while labor was to be protected.…

  11. PROBLEMS OF MIGRANT LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLS, FOREST

    PRESENT MIGRANT LABOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPOSED ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. THIS IS HINDERED BY THE PROBLEM OF SECURING COMPLIANCE WITH MINIMUM EDUCATION LAWS AND BY LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN DURING SCHOOL HOURS. A SECOND PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF CHILD LABOR.…

  12. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, M.R.; AND OTHERS

    CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS AND MIGRANTS IN COLORADO ARE PRESENTED. THE FIVE MAJOR SEASONAL FARM LABOR STATE EMPLOYMENT AREAS ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO (1) THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SEASONAL FARM LABOR (4) TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, (5) COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND…

  13. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical risk factors for preterm labor and premature birth Getting late or no prenatal care . Prenatal care is medical ... your everyday life for preterm labor and premature birth Smoking , drinking ... having little education, low income, being unemployed or having little support from ...

  14. The Canadian Labour Market: Readings in Manpower Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, A.M., Ed.; Meltz, N.M., Ed.

    Canadian manpower problems were researched by a group of economists at the University of Toronto in areas of interest to manpower planners and students of the labor market. The dissatisfaction of policy makers with the present operation of the labor market is discussed in three areas: (1) inadequate output due to alleged labor shortages, (2)…

  15. [An investigation on immunological effect of hepatitis B vaccine amongst adult population in high-labor-export rural regions, under 4 different strategies].

    PubMed

    Zheng, X Y; Ji, Z H; Guo, Z W; Liu, Y W; Shao, Z J; Yan, Y P

    2017-03-10

    .05) if Strategy B, C and D were compared with Strategy A (as the gold standard). Over a 3-year follow-up period, the levels of GMTs on protective antibody declined from 179.2 IU/L, 51.6 IU/L, 277.1 IU/L and 10.1 IU/L to 61.3 IU/L, 21.2 IU/L, 31.8 IU/L and 6.0 IU/L in Strategy A, B, C and D, respectively, and the differences of declination on GMTs showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05) when compared within or between the 4 strategies. Conclusion: The 0-1-2 months' prophylactic schedules (Strategy C) seemed superior to the others, in terms of effectively inducing the protective antibody, with shorter duration of vaccination, persisting longer immunity and having higher rate of completive vaccination, so is worth to be recommended as a feasible immune programme for adults, especially for migrants from the rural regions.

  16. DataTrack 7: Women in the Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC.

    One of a series that compiles and interprets data from a variety of sources on one particular subject of interest to life insurance executives, this report deals with women in the labor force. It can be used in the design of new products and services, to meet changing consumer needs, the selection of new markets and marketing strategies, for the…

  17. Comparing Labor Insertion of Graduates from Two Areas of Knowledge in Three Mexican Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Marco Aurelio Navarro; Roux, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Engineering programs are commonly supported by higher education policy and planning initiatives on the grounds of a supposed saturation of the labor market by other types of educational programs. However, labor market saturation is dependent on the economic characteristics and the sociocultural capital of specific locations. The aims of this study…

  18. Advances in labor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Cynthia A

    2010-01-01

    The pain of childbirth is arguably the most severe pain most women will endure in their lifetimes. The pain of the early first stage of labor arises from dilation of the lower uterine segment and cervix. Pain from the late first stage and second stage of labor arises from descent of the fetus in the birth canal, resulting in distension and tearing of tissues in the vagina and perineum. An array of regional nerve blocks, systemic analgesic, and nonpharmacologic techniques are currently used for labor analgesia. Nonpharmacologic methods are commonly used, but the effectiveness of these techniques generally lacks rigorous scientific study. Continuous labor support has been shown to decrease the use of pharmacologic analgesia and shorten labor. Intradermal water injections decrease back labor pain. Neuraxial labor analgesia (most commonly epidural or combined spinal-epidural) is the most effective method of pain relief during childbirth, and the only method that provides complete analgesia without maternal or fetal sedation. Current techniques commonly combine a low dose of local anesthetic (bupivacaine or ropivacaine) with a lipid soluble opioid (fentanyl or sufentanil). Neuraxial analgesia does not increase the rate of cesarean delivery compared to systemic opioid analgesia; however, dense neuraxial analgesia may increase the risk of instrumental vaginal delivery. PMID:21072284

  19. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  20. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...