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Sample records for adult lake herring

  1. Rainbow smelt - larval lake herring interactions: competitors or casual acquaintances?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that competition for food between rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) was a cause for the declines of lake herring stocks in Lake Superior. We studied the diet of larval lake herring and of larval, juvenile, and adult rainbow smelt during 1974 in Black Bay, Ontario, where both species were abundant, and in the Apostle Islands Region, Wisconsin, where rainbow smelt was abundant but lake herring was scarce. No evidence of competition for food was found between larval lake herring and rainbow smelt. Spawning and hatching times of the two species were separate enough that most larvae of the two species did not occupy the study areas simultaneously. Juvenile and adult rainbow smelt were found with lake herring larvae, but their diets differed. Therefore, we concluded that rainbow smelt did not compete with lake herring larvae for food and that competition for food between rainbow smelt and lake herring larvae was not the factor that caused lake herring population declines in Lake Superior.

  2. Competition between larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) for zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1998-01-01

    Diet and growth of larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were compared in mesocosm experiments in a small mesotrophic lake in southeastern Michigan. Fish were sampled from single-species and mixed assemblages in 2-m3 cages for 8 weeks during April and May. Both species initially ate mostly cyclopoid copepodites and small cladocerans (Bosmia spp.). Schoener's index of diet overlap showed considerable overlap (70-90%). Lake whitefish ate Daphnia spp. and adult copepods about 2 weeks earlier than did lake herring, perhaps related to their larger mean mouth gape. Lake whitefish were consistently larger than lake herring until the eighth week, especially in the sympatric treatments. Lake whitefish appeared to have a negative effect on the growth of lake herring, as lake herring in mixed-species treatments were smaller and weighed less than lake herring reared in single-species treatments. The diet similarities of lake whitefish and lake herring larvae could make them competitors for food in the Great Lakes. The greater initial size of lake whitefish could allow them to eat larger prey earlier and thereby limit availability of these prey to lake herring at a crucial period of development.

  3. Biotic and abiotic factors related to lake herring recruitment in the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior, 1984-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoff, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Superior lake herring (Coregonus artedi) recruitment to 13-14 months of age in the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior varied by a factor of 5,233 during 1984-1998. Management agencies have sought models that accurately predict recruitment, but no satisfactory model had previously been developed. Lake herring recruitment was modeled to determine which factors most explained recruitment variability. The Ricker stock-recruitment model derived from only the paired stock and recruit data explained 35% of the variability in the recruitment data. The functional relationship that explained the greatest amount of recruitment variation (93%) included lake herring stock size, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population size, slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) biomass, the interaction of mean daily wind speed in April (month of hatch) and lake herring stock size, and mean air temperature in April (when lake herring are 12-months old). Model results were interpreted to mean that lake herring recruitment was affected negatively by: slimy sculpin predation on lake herring ova; predation on age-0 lake herring by lake trout; and adult cannibalism on lake herring larvae, which was reduced by increased wind speed. April temperature was the variable that explained the least amount of variability in recruitment, but lake herring recruitment was positively affected by a warm April, which shortened winter and apparently reduced first-winter mortality. Stock size caused compensatory, density-dependent mortality on lake herring recruits. Management efforts appear best targeted at stock size protection, and empirical data implies that stock size in the Wisconsin waters of the lake should be maintained at 2.1-15.0 adults/ha in spring, bottom-trawl surveys.

  4. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  5. Lake whitefish and lake herring population structure and niche in ten south-central Ontario lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carl, Leon M.; McGuiness, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    This study compares simple fish communities of ten oligotrophic lakes in south-central Ontario. Species densities and population size structure vary significantly among these lake communities depending on fish species present beyond the littoral zone. Lake whitefish are fewer and larger in the presence of lake herring than in their absence. Diet analysis indicates that lake whitefish shift from feeding on both plankton and benthic prey when lake herring are absent to a primarily benthic feeding niche in the presence of lake herring. When benthic round whitefish are present, lake whitefish size and density decline and they move lower in the lake compared to round whitefish. Burbot are also fewer and larger in lakes with lake herring than in lakes without herring. Burbot, in turn, appear to influence the population structure of benthic coregonine species. Lower densities of benthic lake whitefish and round whitefish are found in lakes containing large benthic burbot than in lakes with either small burbot or where burbot are absent. Predation on the pelagic larvae of burbot and lake whitefish by planktivorous lake herring alters the size and age structure of these populations. As life history theory predicts, those species with poor larval survival appear to adopt a bet-hedging life history strategy of long-lived individuals as a reproductive reserve.

  6. Life history of lake herring of Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1956-01-01

    Although the lake herring has been an important contributor to the commercial fish production of Green Bay, little has been known about it. This study is based on field observations and data from about 6,500 lake herring collected over the period 1948 to 1952. Relatively nonselective commercial pound nets were a primary source of material for the study of age and growth. Commercial and experimental gill nets were used to obtain data on gear selectivity and vertical distribution. Scales were employed to investigate age and growth. Age group IV normally dominated commercial catches during the first half of the calendar year and age group III the last half. At these ages the fish averaged about 10.5 inches in length. The season's growth started in May, was most rapid in July, and terminated near the end of October. The sexes grew at the same rate. Selectivity of fishing gear was found to influence the estimation of growth. Geographical and annual differences in growth are shown. Factors that might contribute to discrepancies in calculated growth are evaluated. Possible real and apparent causes of growth compensation are given. The relation between length and weight is shown to vary with sex, season, year, and method of capture. Females were relatively more plentiful in commercial catches in February than in May through December. The percentage of females decreased with increase in age in pound-net catches but increased with age in gill-net samples. Within a year class the percentage of females decreased with increase in age. Most Green Bay lake herring mature during their second or third year of life. They are pelagic spawners with most intensive spawning over shallow areas. Spawning takes place between mid-November and mid-December, and eggs hatch in April and May. Lake herring ovaries contained from 3,500 to 11,200 eggs (averaged 6,375). Progress of spawning by age, sex, and length is given. Lake herring were distributed at all depths in Green Bay in early May, were

  7. Relationship of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) gill raker characteristics to retention probabilities of zooplankton prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Jason; Hoff, Michael H.

    1998-01-01

    We measured morphometric and meristic parameters of gill rakers from the first gill arch of 36 adult lake herring (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior that ranged in length from 283–504 mm. These data, coupled with the mean of the smallest two body dimensions (length, width, or breadth) of various zooplankton prey, allowed us to calculate retention probabilities for zooplankton taxa that are common in Lake Superior. The mean of the smallest two body dimensions was positively correlated with body length for cladocerans and copepods. The large cladoceran, Daphnia g. mendotae, is estimated to be retained at a greater probability (74%) than smaller cladocerans (18%-38%). The same is true for the large copepod, Limnocalanus macrurus (60%), when compared to smaller copepods (6–38%). Copepods have a lower probability of being retained than cladocerans of similar length. Lake herring gill rakers and total filtering area are also positively correlated with fish total length. These data provide further evidence that lake herring are primarily planktivores in Lake Superior, and our data show that lake herring can retain a broad range of prey sizes.

  8. Winter diet of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Jason; Selgeby, James H.; Hoff, Michael H.; Haskell, Craig

    1995-01-01

    Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and zooplankton samples were simultaneously collected through the ice in the Apostle Islands region of western Lake Superior to provide information on the winter feeding ecology of lake herring. Zooplankton constituted the entire diet of the 38 lake herring collected for this study. We found no evidence of piscivory, although it has been reported by anglers. Diet selectivities were calculated using a Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and showed a preference of lake herring for larger zooplankton, especially Diaptomus sicilis, whereas the smaller copepod,Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, and immature copepod stages were selected against. These data document that overwintering copepods are food for a broad size range of lake herring in winter.

  9. Potential strategies for recovery of lake whitefish and lake herring stocks in eastern Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldenburg, K.; Stapanian, M.A.; Ryan, P.A.; Holm, E.

    2007-01-01

    Lake Erie sustained large populations of ciscoes (Salmonidae: Coregoninae) 120 years ago. By the end of the 19th century, abundance of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) had declined drastically. By 1925, the lake herring (a cisco) population (Coregonus artedii) had collapsed, although a limited lake herring fishery persisted in the eastern basin until the 1950s. In the latter part of the 20th century, the composition of the fish community changed as oligotrophication proceeded. Since 1984, a limited recovery of lake whitefish has occurred, however no recovery was evident for lake herring. Current ecological conditions in Lake Erie probably will not inhibit recovery of the coregonine species. Recovery of walleye (Sander vitreus) and efforts to rehabilitate the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Erie will probably assist recovery because these piscivores reduce populations of alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which inhibit reproductive success of coregonines. Although there are considerable spawning substrates available to coregonine species in eastern Lake Erie, eggs and fry would probably be displaced by storm surge from most shoals. Site selection for stocking or seeding of eggs should consider the reproductive life cycle of the stocked fish and suitable protection from storm events. Two potential sites in the eastern basin have been identified. Recommended management procedures, including commercial fisheries, are suggested to assist in recovery. Stocking in the eastern basin of Lake Erie is recommended for both species, as conditions are adequate and the native spawning population in the eastern basin is low. For lake herring, consideration should be given to match ecophenotypes as much as possible. Egg seeding is recommended. Egg seeding of lake whitefish should be considered initially, with fingerling or yearling stocking suggested if unsuccessful. Spawning stocks of whitefish in the western basin of Lake

  10. Evaluation of methods to estimate lake herring spawner abundance in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Cholwek, G.A.; Evrard, L.M.; Schram, S.; Seider, M.; Symbal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, commercial fishers harvested Lake Superior lake herring Coregonus artedi for their flesh, but recently operators have targeted lake herring for roe. Because no surveys have estimated spawning female abundance, direct estimates of fishing mortality are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using acoustic techniques in combination with midwater trawling to estimate spawning female lake herring densities in a Lake Superior statistical grid (i.e., a 10′ latitude × 10′ longitude area over which annual commercial harvest statistics are compiled). Midwater trawling showed that mature female lake herring were largely pelagic during the night in late November, accounting for 94.5% of all fish caught exceeding 250 mm total length. When calculating acoustic estimates of mature female lake herring, we excluded backscattering from smaller pelagic fishes like immature lake herring and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax by applying an empirically derived threshold of −35.6 dB. We estimated the average density of mature females in statistical grid 1409 at 13.3 fish/ha and the total number of spawning females at 227,600 (95% confidence interval = 172,500–282,700). Using information on mature female densities, size structure, and fecundity, we estimate that females deposited 3.027 billion (109) eggs in grid 1409 (95% confidence interval = 2.356–3.778 billion). The relative estimation error of the mature female density estimate derived using a geostatistical model—based approach was low (12.3%), suggesting that the employed method was robust. Fishing mortality rates of all mature females and their eggs were estimated at 2.3% and 3.8%, respectively. The techniques described for enumerating spawning female lake herring could be used to develop a more accurate stock–recruitment model for Lake Superior lake herring.

  11. Decline of lake herring (Coregonus artedii) in Lake Superior: an analysis of the Wisconsin herring fishery, 1936-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Annual harvests of lake herring (Coregonus artedii) in American waters of Lake Superior declined from an average of 2 million kg in 1936–62 to less than 25 000 kg in 1978. Analysis of commercial fishing records revealed that the sequential overexploitation of discrete unit stocks caused the collapse of the herring population in Wisconsin waters. In each of six major spawning areas, catch exceeded the productive capacity of the stock and the stock failed. Because stocks in the six areas were exploited sequentially, mostly in groups of two or three simultaneously, the demise of the stocks was not readily apparent until the last two failed in the early 1960s. After the collapse of the last major spawning stock, the fishery dwindled but may have continued to overexploit the remaining small stocks. The residual populations were apparently able only to replace themselves. Some form of density-independent mortality was apparently operating to prevent their recovery during the 1960s and 1970s.Key words: lake herring, overfishing, Lake Superior

  12. Effects of pulsed turbidity and vessel traffic on lake herring eggs and larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Blouin, Marc A.; Davis, Bruce M.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Todd, Thomas N.; Fleischer, Guy W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposals to extend commercial shipping in the St. Marys River (connecting Lakes Superior and Huron) to include winter months have raised concerns regarding its effect on lake herring (Coregonus artedi). Because lake herring spawn in fall and their eggs overwinter in the river and hatch in spring, their hatching success could be impacted by early opening of the locks in spring. Our laboratory studies showed that under the range of turbidities expected in the river due to vessel traffic, lake herring eggs hatched and larvae fed adequately. Field incubation studies produced about 75% survival and 70% hatching success of lake herring eggs at two of three study sites. Collections in the river throughout the month following ice-out showed that sufficient plankton of appropriate size were available to ensure growth and survival of larval lake herring. We did not detect any negative impacts on the early life stages of lake herring as a result of sedimentation in the laboratory or field. However, detailing the spawning sites of lake herring and defining the normal survival-to-hatch in these areas are necessary before making accurate predictions of the effects of early season vessel traffic on lake herring hatching success.

  13. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) diets in western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Timothy B.; Brown, William P.; Corry, Timothy D.; Hoff, Michael H.; Scharold, Jill V.; Trebitz, Anett S.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the diets of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in western Lake Superior during the summers of 1996 and 1997. Both species consumed predominantly (> 71% by number) zooplankton, showing a preference for larger taxa. Diet overlap between the two species was low (Schoener's index = 0.42). Mysis was most important in rainbow smelt diets, whereas Diaptomus sicilis was most important in lake herring diets. Rainbow smelt selected larger taxa, and larger individuals within a taxon when compared to lake herring, although rainbow smelt tended to be smaller fish. Fish diets have changed relative to previous studies and may be reflecting changes in the zooplankton community. Continued changes in the fish and zooplankton community will alter predatorprey and energetic pathways, ultimately affecting growth and production of the ecosystem.

  14. LAKE HERRING (COREGONUS ARTEDI) AND RAINBOW SMELT (OSMERUS MORDAX) DIETS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript reports on the diets of lake herring and rainbow smelt, currently the two dominant forage fish species (fish that are food for game fishes) in western Lake Superior. Despite the pelagic nature of both these species, they have substantially different diets and henc...

  15. Discrimination among spawning aggregations of lake herring from Lake Superior using whole-body morphometric characters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoff, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    The lake herring (Coregonus artedi) was one of the most commercially and ecologically valuable Lake Superior fishes, but declined in the second half of the 20th century as the result of overharvest of putatively discrete stocks. No tools were previously available that described lake herring stock structure and accurately classified lake herring to their spawning stocks. The accuracy of discriminating among spawning aggregations was evaluated using whole-body morphometrics based on a truss network. Lake herring were collected from 11 spawning aggregations in Lake Superior and two inland Wisconsin lakes to evaluate morphometrics as a stock discrimination tool. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified 53% of all fish from all spawning aggregations, and fish from all but one aggregation were classified at greater rates than were possible by chance. Discriminant analysis also correctly classified 66% of fish to nearest neighbor groups, which were groups that accounted for the possibility of mixing among the aggregations. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed that posterior body length and depth measurements were among the best discriminators of spawning aggregations. These findings support other evidence that discrete stocks of lake herring exist in Lake Superior, and fishery managers should consider all but one of the spawning aggregations as discrete stocks. Abundance, annual harvest, total annual mortality rate, and exploitation data should be collected from each stock, and surplus production of each stock should be estimated. Prudent management of stock surplus production and exploitation rates will aid in restoration of stocks and will prevent a repeat of the stock collapses that occurred in the middle of the 20th century, when the species was nearly extirpated from the lake.

  16. Piscivory by Lake Superior lake herring (Coregonis artedi) on Rainbow smelt (Osmerus moradax) in winter, 1993-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoff, M.H.; Link, J.; Haskell, C.

    1997-01-01

    The stomach contents of 31 lake herring (Coregonus artedi), captured by anglers from western Lake Superior in the winters of 1993–1995, were examined to determine if predation on rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) was occurring as indicated by anglers. Twenty-six (84%) of the stomachs contained rainbow smelt, with an average of 7.0 rainbow smelt/stomach. This was the first documentation of piscivory by lake herring on rainbow smelt in the Great Lakes.

  17. The effect of light on lake herring (Coregonus artedi) reactive volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Jason; Edsall, Thomas A.

    1996-01-01

    The lake herring (Coregonus artedi) is an important coldwater planktivore in the Laurentian Great Lakes and in smaller inland lakes in portions of Canada and the northern United States. Lake herring cruise the pelagia and feed selectively in both gulping and particulate modes. They are visual predators in environments with adequate illumination. Visual predation by fish consists of a series of discrete steps. We studied the first step in the predation sequence, reaction to prey, at light intensities of 2–1500 Lx in a simulated pelagic environment at 10–13°C. We measured lake herring reactive distances, the distance at which a prey item will be detected and attacked, to liveLimnocalanus macrurus, a natural prey of lake herring in Lake Superior. We used the reactive distances and associated angles of bearing and elevation, which described the location of the prey relative to the lake herring, to calculate reactive volume. This reactive volume can be envisioned as an irregular sphere surrounding the fish, within which prey are detected and attacked. All of the attacks on prey occurred in the anterior portions of the sagittal and lateral planes of the lake herring, as would be expected for a pelagic, cruising fish. The reactive volume surrounding the lake herring was generally spherical, but was more irregular than the simple spheres, hemispheres, cylinders, cones or other geometries assumed in previous studies. The reactive distances and the reactive volume changed with light intensity and were significantly smaller at 2–10 Lx than at 40–1500 Lx. At 40–1500 Lx, the reactive volume was expanded over that observed at 2–10 Lx laterally and caudally. Collectively our results indicate that lake herring can visually forage most effectively in environments with light levels >10 Lx.

  18. Discrimination among spawning concentrations of Lake Superior lake herring based on trace element profiles in sagittae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Shoesmith, John A.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the stock structure of lake herring Coregonus artedi in Lake Superior, and recent increases in harvestable stock sizes has led to expanded exploitation in some areas. Research on marine teleosts has demonstrated that chemical differences in sagittal otoliths can be used for identification of fish stocks. We used plasma emission spectrophotometry to measure the concentrations of 10 trace elements in the sagittal otoliths from lake herring captured at eight spawning sites in Lake Superior and from Little Star Lake, an inland lake outside the Lake Superior basin. Discriminant function analysis indicated that elemental concentrations provided site-specific information but that considerable overlap existed among some locations, especially those in western Lake Superior. Correct classification rates varied from 12.0% to 86.1% and were generally higher for spawning locations from embayments in eastern Lake Superior and for the outgroup population from Little Star Lake. The results presented here demonstrate the potential usefulness of this technique for strictly freshwater species, especially those that live in highly oligotrophic waters such as Lake Superior.

  19. The growth-temperature relation and preferred temperatures of juvenile lake herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, T.A.; Desorcie, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Lake herring, Coregonus artedi, were once extremely abundant in the Great Lakes where they functioned as a major trophic integrator, directly linking the planktonic crustacean resource to lake trout. Salvelinus namaycush. Lake herring populations in the Great Lakes collapsed during the middle third of the 20th century due to overfishing, degradation of critical habitat in major production areas, and interaction with exotic species. Fishery and habitat impediments to the recovery of lake herring have been removed, and it may now be possible to reestablish the species in its former habitats in the Great Lakes if adverse interactions with exotic species can be controlled within acceptable limits. To determine the potential for thermal niche overlap and adverse interaction with exotic fishes, juvenile (age-0) lake herring were held in the laboratory at 5, 10, 15, 18, and 21 C, and fed ad libitum for 54 days. The optimum temperature for growth in weight was about 14.5 C, indicating the fundamental thermal niche was 12.5-16.5 C. Fish used in the growth study were also tested in a vertical thermal gradient tank to measure their final preferendum. The final preferendum, 16.5 C, was in close agreement with the optimum temperature for growth and within the fundamental thermal niche. Both the optimum temperature for growth and the final preferendum have been used as measures of thermal niche, but this is the first time both measures were made on the same group of fish. Published information on the fundamental thermal niche, preferred temperatures, thermal habitat use, and feeding habits of alewives, rainbow smelt, and ruffe, indicates they will co-occur in spring, or summer with age-0 lake herring and that collectively they pose a predation threat to small, age-0 lake herring.

  20. Mercury levels in Great Lakes herring gull eggs, 1972--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Weseloh, D.V.; Koster, M.D.; Ryckman, D.P.; Struger, J.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1971, the herring gull (Larus argentatus) has been used as a sentinel species for monitoring the levels of persistent contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this study, 21 herring gull colonies in the Great Lakes and connecting channels were sampled for years 1972--1976, 1981--1983, 1985 and 1992. For each year, 10 eggs (usually) were collected from each colony site and analyzed for total mercury (ppm, wet weight). Results indicated that eggs from Lake Ontario displayed the highest mercury levels, mean = 0.28 (s.d. = 0.08) to 0.73 (0.23). Lake Erie typically displayed the lowest egg mercury levels, 0.18 (0.08) to 0.24 (0.11). Overall, mercury levels ranged from 0.12 (0.02) in 1985 to 0.88 (0.23) in 1982 for Channel-Shelter Island (Lake Huron) and Pigeon Island (Lake Ontario), respectively. Generally, all colony sites showed peak mercury levels in 1982. A significant decline in egg mercury levels was observed in six colony sites between 1972 and 1992 and in three colony sites between 1981 and 1992. The mean herring gull egg mercury levels observed in the early and mid 1970s and in 1982 for some colony sites were within the range found which potentially reduces hatchability in other fish-eating bird species.

  1. Parasites of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior, with special reference to use of parasites as markers of stock structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoff, Michael H.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Baldanova, Darima R.

    1997-01-01

    We examined parasites of 152 lake herring (Coregonus artedi) collected from three locations in Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior in 1994, four locations in Wisconsin waters in 1996, and one location in Minnesota waters in 1996 to determine; 1) the species composition and relative abundances of parasites in lake herring, 2) the differences in parasite relative abundances across locations sampled, and 3) the utility of parasite relative abundances as markers of stock structure. Parasites from 19 taxa infected lake herring collected in 1994 and 1996; Henneguya zschokkei, Chloromyxumsp., and Cyatho-cephalus truncatus were reported in fishes from Lake Superior for the first time, and Clinostomum mar-ginatum was reported in lake herring for the first time. Significant differences in abundances of eight parasite taxa were found across locations sampled in 1996, with most of the differences occurring between fish from Minnesota and Wisconsin waters. Nonparametric discriminant function analyses correctly classified 105 of the 108 fish (97%) from Wisconsin waters in 1994 and 1996 and also correctly classified 9 of the 13 fish (69%) from the one location in Minnesota waters. This indicated that little mixing of lake herring from those regions occurred and that the potential exists to use parasite abundances as a marker of lake herring stock structure. This was the first time that multivariate analysis of parasites have been used in the Great Lakes to assess stock structure of fishes. Because the technique was highly successful at classifying locations of our samples, we recommend that parasite abundances in lake herring from all areas of the lake be analyzed as part of a larger study to determine whether lake herring from populations throughout the lake can be as accurately classified as were fish in our study.

  2. Marine Incursion: The Freshwater Herring of Lake Tanganyika Are the Product of a Marine Invasion into West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anthony B.; Teugels, Guy G.; Meyer, Axel

    2008-01-01

    The spectacular marine-like diversity of the endemic fauna of Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the African Great Lakes, led early researchers to suggest that the lake must have once been connected to the ocean. Recent geophysical reconstructions clearly indicate that Lake Tanganyika formed by rifting in the African subcontinent and was never directly linked to the sea. Although the Lake has a high proportion of specialized endemics, the absence of close relatives outside Tanganyika has complicated phylogeographic reconstructions of the timing of lake colonization and intralacustrine diversification. The freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are members of a large group of pellonuline herring found in western and southern Africa, offering one of the best opportunities to trace the evolutionary history of members of Tanganyika's biota. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that herring colonized West Africa 25–50MYA, at the end of a major marine incursion in the region. Pellonuline herring subsequently experienced an evolutionary radiation in West Africa, spreading across the continent and reaching East Africa's Lake Tanganyika during its early formation. While Lake Tanganyika has never been directly connected with the sea, the endemic freshwater herring of the lake are the descendents of an ancient marine incursion, a scenario which may also explain the origin of other Tanganyikan endemics. PMID:18431469

  3. Interpreting temporal trends in Great Lakes organochlorine levels: Results from the herring gull surveillance program

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.; Norstrom, R.J.; Weseloh, D.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the utility of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in Great Lakes contaminant levels. Organochlorine concentrations in herring gull eggs decreased significantly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of control measures. Since the mid-1980s, however, concentrations of many compounds have been relatively constant. In addition, periodic fluctuations in egg contaminant concentrations hamper the ability to interpret more recent temporal trends in organochlorine levels. To evaluate the progress towards achieving the virtual elimination of organochlorines from the Great Lakes the authors must improve their understanding of the factors which regulate organochlorine bioaccumulation. This is particularly important for those species which have been selected as key indicators of ecosystem contamination, such as the herring gull. The goal of this paper is to examine some of the factors which may be responsible for the temporal fluctuations in herring gull egg contaminant concentrations. The regulation of contaminant bioavailability and transfer by changes in weather patterns and food web dynamics will be examined.

  4. Mercury levels in herring gulls and fish: 42 years of spatio-temporal trends in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Blukacz-Richards, E Agnes; Visha, Ariola; Graham, Matthew L; McGoldrick, Daryl L; de Solla, Shane R; Moore, David J; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-04-01

    Total mercury levels in aquatic birds and fish communities have been monitored across the Canadian Great Lakes by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for the past 42 years (1974-2015). These data (22 sites) were used to examine spatio-temporal variability of mercury levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), walleye (Sander vitreus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Trends were quantified with dynamic linear models, which provided time-variant rates of change of mercury concentrations. Lipid content (in both fish and eggs) and length in fish were used as covariates in all models. For the first three decades, mercury levels in gull eggs and fish declined at all stations. In the 2000s, trends for herring gull eggs reversed at two sites in Lake Erie and two sites in Lake Ontario. Similar trend reversals in the 2000s were observed for lake trout in Lake Superior and at a single station in Lake Ontario. Mercury levels in lake trout continued to slowly decline at all of the remaining stations, except for Lake Huron, where the levels remained stable. A post-hoc Bayesian regression analysis suggests strong trophic interactions between herring gulls and rainbow smelt in Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, but also pinpoints the likelihood of a trophic decoupling in Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Continued monitoring of mercury levels in herring gulls and fish is required to consolidate these trophic shifts and further evaluate their broader implications.

  5. Overwinter survival of juvenile lake herring in relation to body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Kevin L.; Sutton, Trent M.; Kinnunen, Ronald E.; Hoff, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Populations of lake herring Coregonus artedi in Lake Superior have exhibited high recruitment variability over the past three decades. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms which influence year-class strength, we conducted a 225-d laboratory experiment to evaluate the effects of body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration on the winter survival of age-0 lake herring. Small (total length (TL) range = 60–85 mm) and large (TL range = 86–110 mm) fish were maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size-class were maintained at two feeding treatments: brine shrimp Artemiaspp. ad libitum and no food. The mortality of large lake herring (fed, 3.8%; starved, 20.1%) was significantly less than that of small fish (fed, 11.7%; starved, 32.0%). Body condition and crude lipid content declined for all fish over the experiment; however, these variables were significantly greater for large fed (0.68% and 9.8%) and small fed (0.65% and 7.3%) fish than large starved (0.49% and 5.7%) and small starved (0.45% and 4.8%) individuals. Final crude protein and gross energy contents were also significantly greater in large fed lake herring (17.6% and 1,966 cal/g), followed by small fed (17.1% and 1,497 cal/g), large starved (15.4% and 1,125 cal/g), and small starved (13.2% and 799 cal/g) fish. Lake herring that died during the experiment had significantly lower body condition and energy stores relative to those of the surviving fish. These results suggest that the depletion of energy stores contributes to greater winter mortality of small lake herring with limited energy uptake and may partially explain the variability in recruitment observed in Lake Superior.

  6. Effects of temperature on embryonic development of lake herring (Coregonus artedii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, Peter J.; Brooke, L.T.

    1973-01-01

    Embryonic development of lake herring (Coregonus artedii) was observed in the laboratory at 13 constant temperatures from 0.0 to 12.1 C and in Pickerel Lake (Washtenaw County, Michigan) at natural temperature regimes. Rate of development during incubation was based on progression of the embryos through 20 identifiable stages. An equation was derived to predict development stage at constant temperatures, on the general assumption that development stage (DS) is a function of time (days, D) and temperature (T). The equation should also be useful in interpreting estimates from future regressions that include other environmental variables that affect egg development. A second regression model, derived primarily for fluctuating temperatures, related development rate for stage j (DRj), expressed as the reciprocal of time, to temperature (x). The generalized equation for a development stage is: DRj = abx cx2 dx3. In general, time required for embryos to reach each stage of development in Pickerel Lake agreed closely with the time predicted from this equation, derived from our laboratory observations. Hatching time was predicted within 1 day in 1969 and within 2 days in 1970. We used the equations derived with the second model to predict the effect of the superimposition of temperature increases of 1 and 2 C on the measured temperatures in Pickerel Lake. Conceivably, hatching dates could be affected sufficiently to jeopardize the first feeding of lake herring through loss of harmony between hatching date and seasonal food availability.

  7. Effects of body size, condition, and lipid content on the survival of juvenile lake herring during rapid cooling events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, K.L.; Sutton, T.M.; Kinnunen, R.E.; Hoff, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile lake herring Coregonus artedi were exposed to rapid cooling events during two laboratory experiments to determine the effects of body size, physiological condition, and lipid content on survival. The first experiment was conducted at the onset of winter, exposing small (50 to 85 mm) and large (85 to 129 mm) fish to a decline in water temperature from 12 to 2??C at a rate of 1??C/hr. During this experiment, both large and small individuals exposed to a rapid cooling event experienced no mortality or abnormal behaviors. Separate fish were then maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size class were maintained at two feeding treatments: Artemia ad libitum and no food. At the completion of the winter period, these lake herring were subjected to the same rapid cooling event conducted in the first experiment. During the experiment, lake herring exhibited no mortality or abnormal behaviors despite treatment-dependent differences in condition and lipid content. Our results indicate that mortality due to rapid cooling events does not appear to contribute to the recruitment variability observed for juvenile lake herring in Lake Superior.

  8. Geographical distribution of organochlorine contaminants and reproductive parameters in Herring Gulls on Lake Superior in 1983.

    PubMed

    Chip Weseloh, D V; Ewins, P J; Struger, J; Mineau, P; Norstrom, R J

    1994-02-01

    As part of the Great Lakes International Surveillance Plan, 1978-83, egg contaminant levels and reproductive output were determined for Herring Gull colonies on Lake Superior in 1983. Since 1974, the Herring Gull has been widely used in the Great Lakes as a spatial and temporal monitor of organochlorine (OC) contaminant levels and associated biological effects. Most eggs contained a wide range of OCs, the main compounds being DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene and mirex. Levels of an additional ten OCs and five polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners were also determined for some sites. Overall, levels varied significantly among colonies, but there was no obvious relationship to spatial distribution of contaminants in sediments or fish species. OC levels in eggs had declined by up to 84% since 1974. Eggshells were only 8% thinner than before the introduction of DDT, and shell thinning was not a cause of breeding failure. Average reproductive output varied from 0.15 to 1.57 young per apparently occupied nest in 1983: at 56% of colonies the value was below that thought necessary to maintain stable populations. The main causes of failure were egg disappearence and cannibalism of chicks. Despite this, the population appeared to have been increasing at about 4% per annum. Reduced availability of forage fish during the early 1980s was the most likely reason for the poor reproductive output in 1983.

  9. What`s normal?: Body condition in Great Lakes herring gulls

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the usefulness of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels. However, the effects of environmental contaminants on gulls are difficult to distinguish from the effects of other anthropogenic stressors such as the introduction of exotic species, overfishing and habitat loss. To understand the relative importance of these factors in regulating the success of individual gulls and, hence, gull populations, the authors must first have a better understanding of what constitutes a ``normal`` bird. Improving the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal birds is crucial in any health assessment of Great Lakes gulls. Body condition has been shown to be an important measure of a bird`s ability to provide energy for egg production, migration etc. Numerous approaches have been used to assess condition, most of which required that the bird be sacrificed. In this study, the authors describe a nonlethal technique to quantify body condition in herring gulls. Multivariate statistics are used to quantify body size, relate body size to total mass and from that, determine relative body condition. Initially, body condition is assessed in gulls from a reference colony where reproductive success is normal and anthropogenic influences are limited. This reference population is then used as a baseline against which other gull populations are compared.

  10. Geographical distribution of contaminants and productivity measures of herring gulls in the Great Lakes: Lake Erie and connecting channels 1978/79.

    PubMed

    Weseloh, D V; Mineau, P; Struger, J

    1990-02-01

    The distribution and size of colonies, residue levels of DDE, DDT, HCB, dieldrin, mirex and PCBs in eggs, productivity and eggshell thickness were determined for herring gulls at 14 sites in Lake Erie and connecting channels. The centre of distribution for breeding herring gulls was the Western Basin where approximately 90% of the 6200 nests in the study area were located. Seven of 22 colonies showed an average annual population increase of 48.3%. Most of the increase in breeding herring gulls on Lake Erie is directly associated with sites that have undergone habitat modification by man. Levels of PCBs and DDE ranged from 35 to 140 ppm (wet weight) and from 2.8 to 9.4 ppm, respectively; all other residues were less than 0.49 ppm. Most organochlorine residue levels were highest in eggs from colonies in or near the Niagara or Detroit Rivers. Mirex residues were greatest in the Niagara River and decreased significantly to the west. PCB residues were greatest in the Detroit River and decreased significantly to the east. The lowest levels generally came from colonies in the Sandusky Basin and near Pelee Island in western Lake Erie. Discriminant function analysis of six organochlorine contaminants correctly classified 90% or more of the eggs from up to four colonies in one or more years. Levels of PCBs and HCB appeared to have the greatest discriminating power. Herring gull productivity at all colonies (1-1.7 young gulls/pair) was normal and showed no significant geographical variation. Eggshell thickness was greatest in colonies in the Sandusky Basin and least in colonies in the Detroit River and extreme west end of the lake; mean eggshell thickness was 0.350 +/- 0.02 mm (6.7% thinning), which was weakly, but significantly correlated to DDE concentration. The variation in contaminants in herring gull eggs on a Basin basis (i.e., Western, Eastern, Sandusky, etc.) paralleled those known for sediments, water and fish. Thus, we suggest that in addition to its role as an

  11. The reproductive success of lake herring in habitats near shipping channels and ice-breaking operations in the St. Marys River, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blouin, Marc A.; Kostich, M.M.; Todd, T.N.; Savino, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the reproductive success of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in the St. Marys River was conducted in the winters and springs of 1994, 1995, and 1996. The St. Marys River connects Lake Superior to the lower Great Lakes making it an important route for ship traffic. Recent pressure by commercial carriers to extend the shipping season by breaking ice earlier in spring, has raised concerns over the possible adverse effects on lake herring reproduction in the river caused by increased turbidity associated with vessel passage. Lake herring spawn in fall and their eggs overwinter under ice cover on the bottom of the St. Marys River. Hatching occurs in the spring after ice-out when water temperatures rise. Specialized incubators were used to hold fertilized lake herring eggs at four experimental sites, chosen to represent the range of various bottom substrate types of the St. Marys River from boulder rock reefs to soft sediments. In winter, incubators were placed under the ice on the bottom of the river at three sites each year. After ice-out, sites were relocated, and the incubators were retrieved and opened to determine the number of live and dead lake herring eggs and larvae. Survival was consistent from year to year at each site with the lowest survival percentage found at the site with the softest sediments, directly adjacent to the St. Marys River channel and downstream of the mouth of the Charlotte River. River bottom type and geographic location were the most important factors in determining egg survival. Sampling for indigenous larval lake herring was done throughout the spring hatching season in the areas adjacent to the incubator sites using nets and a diver-operated suction sampler. Result indicate that a small population (3) of larval lake herring was present throughout the sampling areas during the springs of 1994, 1995, and 1996 in the St. Marys River.

  12. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  13. Herring gulls and great black-backed gulls as indicators of contaminants in bald eagles in Lake Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weseloh, D Vaughn; Hughes, Kimberly D; Ewins, Peter J; Best, Dave; Kubiak, Timothy; Shieldcastle, Mark C

    2002-05-01

    In 2000, a pair of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nested successfully along the shorelines of Lake Ontario in North America for the first time since 1957. However, it is a continuing question whether bald eagles will be able to reproduce successfully as they return to nest on Lake Ontario. Great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and herring gulls (L. argentatus) were selected as surrogate species to predict contaminant levels in eggs of bald eagles nesting on Lake Ontario. Because of the suspected overlap in the diets of great black-backed gulls and bald eagles (i.e., fish, gull chicks, and waterfowl), the two species probably occupy a similar trophic level in the Lake Ontario food web and, thus, may have similar contaminant levels. Fresh great black-backed gull and herring gull eggs were collected from three study sites in eastern Lake Ontario in 1993 and 1994 and analyzed for contaminants. Average contaminant levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dieldrin in great black-backed gull eggs were 12.85, 26.27, and 0.27 microg/g, respectively. The mean ratio of contaminant levels in great black-backed gull eggs to contaminant levels in herring gull eggs for these three contaminants was 2.09 (range of means, 1.73-2.38). Predicted levels of contaminants in bald eagle eggs in Lake Ontario would be expected to be similar to the mean levels reported for great black-backed gull eggs. As a comparison, contaminant levels in bald eagle eggs collected from other Great Lakes nesting sites were compared to mean levels reported for herring gull eggs collected from nearby sites in 1986 to 1995. The mean ratio of contaminant levels in bald eagle eggs to contaminant levels in herring gull eggs from these sites for DDE, total PCBs, and dieldrin was 2.40 (range of means, 1.73-3.28). These ratios are very similar to those reported using great black-backed gull eggs, illustrating the apparent similarity in trophic status

  14. Development and survival of embryos of lake herring at different constant oxygen concentrations and temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke, L.T.; Colby, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Eggs of lake herring (Coregonus artedii) were incubated in a continuous-flow system at four constant water temperatures (2-8°C) and five dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (1-12 mg/L). In comparison with incubation time at 12 mg/L DO, time to median hatch was significantly longer (P<0.05) at 2 mg/L at 6°C (no hatch at 1 mg/L), at 3 mg/L or less at 4°C, and at 4 mg/L or less at 2°C. The time between hatching of the first and last eggs varied inversely with temperature. Mean total lengths of newly hatched fry were significantly shortened (P < 0.05) at 1 and 2 mg/L DO. At 6 and 8°C, percent survival through hatching was greater than at 2 and 4°C at DO of 4 mg/L or more, but fell to zero at 1 mg/L. The percentage of normal fry produced decreased noticeably below 4 mg/L DO. The optimum temperature for highest percentage survival of normal fry decreased directly with the level of dissolved oxygen. The temperatures at which the highest percentages of normal fry hatched from eggs incubated at DO concentrations of 4 or 8, 2, and 1 mg/L, were 6, 4, and 2°C, respectively-indicating a decreasing DO demand by embryos incubated at the lower temperatures. Our findings supported a previously published hypothesis that DO concentrations below 4 mg/L can be adverse to survival and development of coregonid embryos in nature.

  15. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vänern, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-11-01

    In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vänern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the μg/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist.

  16. Linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonate isomer patterns in herring gull eggs from colonial sites across the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Letcher, Robert J

    2010-05-15

    Linear and branched (six mono(trifluoromethyl) and four di(trifluoromethyl)) isomers of the bioaccumulative contaminant perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed for and the spatial patterns examined in individual herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs (n = 13 per site) collected (in 2007) from 15 colonies across the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Linear PFOS (n-perfluoro-1-octanesulfonate (L-PFOS)) consistently dominated the isomer pattern in all eggs, comprising between 95.0% and 98.3% of the summation sigmaPFOS concentration. L-PFOS was highly enriched in the gull eggs as the summation sigmabranched-PFOS to L-PFOS isomer concentration ratios were very constant (overall average 0.038 +/- 0.001) and much lower compared to technical PFOS (range 0.27-0.54). The highest proportions of L-PFOS were generally observed in the eggs from the lower lakes (Erie and Ontario) colonies. All six mono(trifluoromethyl) branched isomers, or perfluoro-n-methyl-heptanesulfonates where n describes the carbon of the hydrocarbon chain were there is trifluoromethyl substitution relative to the sulfonate terminal group, were detected in the eggs from all the colonies. For example, P1MHpS is perfluoro-1-methyl-heptanesulfonate. Comparable to technical PFOS (T-PFOS), the percentage of the mono(trifluoromethyl) isomer to summation sigmaPFOS concentration decreased as the branch substitution was located closer to the sulfonate group, that is, P6MHpS (0%-2.5%), P5MHpS (0.43%-1.18%), P4MHpS (0.25%-0.69%), and P3MHpS (0.32%-0.74%). Although at even lower fractional composition than the mono(trifluoromethyl) isomers, of the di(trifluoromethyl) isomers, detected in >60% of the individual eggs per site was P35DMHxS and P45DMHxS for Toronto Harbour (Lake Ontario), P35DMHxS for Chantry (Lake Huron) and Fighting Island (Detroit River), and P45DMHxS for Gull Island (Lake Michigan). Relative to T-PFOS, and independent of colonial location, the high and consistent enrichment of L-PFOS in

  17. Comprehensive re-analysis of archived herring gull eggs reconstructs historical temporal trends in chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination in Lake Ontario and Green Bay, Lake Michigan, 1971-1982.

    PubMed

    Norstrom, Ross J; Hebert, Craig E

    2006-08-01

    Herring gull egg homogenates collected between 1971 and 1982 from a colony in central Lake Ontario (Scotch Bonnet Island) and from a colony in central Green Bay, Lake Michigan (Big Sister Island) were archived in the Canadian Wildlife Service Specimen Bank. Pooled samples (N = 10) were exhaustively analyzed in 1993 for a wide range of individual chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant (CHC) compounds: DDT, mirex and chlordane compounds and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (CBzs), dieldrin, chlorostyrenes (CSs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 87 PCB congeners, including the TCDD-like non-ortho and mono-ortho congeners. PCBs and DDTs were the dominant residues in eggs from both Lake Ontario (31-242 mg kg(-1) and 9-64 mg kg(-1)) and Green Bay (34-133 mg kg(-1) and 14-91 mg kg(-1)). SigmaPCBs declined by a factor of 4-5 and DDTs a factor of 4-7 at both colonies between 1971 and 1982. Lake Ontario eggs had significantly higher residues of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (0.2-2.0 microg kg(-1)), HCBz (0.1-4.7 mg kg(-1)), OCS (0.03-0.45 mg kg(-1)), three HpCSs (0.13-0.97 mg kg(-1)), mirex and mirex photodegradation products (2.1-9.2 mg kg(-1)) than Green Bay eggs. HCBz levels in Lake Ontario eggs declined a factor of 40, TCDD and chlorostyrenes a factor of 8-10, and mirex a factor of 4 between 1971-1978. Green Bay eggs had slightly higher levels of chlordane-related compounds, dieldrin and beta-HCH than Lake Ontario eggs. There were no consistent or strong trends in residue levels of these pesticides, PCDDs (except TCDD) and PCDFs in either lake, indicating that rates of input and removal of these CHCs in the lakes were much closer in the early 1970s than was the case for the other compounds.

  18. Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of Herring Gull Egg Extracts from Variably Contaminated Colonies of the Laurentian Great Lakes in Chicken Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L; Chiu, Suzanne; Letcher, Robert J; Periard, Luke; Kennedy, Sean W

    2015-08-18

    Determining the effects of complex mixtures of environmental contaminants poses many challenges within the field of ecotoxicology. In this study, graded concentrations of herring gull egg extracts, collected from five Great Lakes breeding colonies with variable burdens of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs), were administered to chicken embryonic hepatocytes to determine effects on 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, porphyrin accumulation, and mRNA expression. EROD activity and porphyrin accumulation permitted the ranking of colonies based on the efficacy of eliciting an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated response. An avian ToxChip polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array provided more exhaustive coverage in terms of potential toxicity pathways being affected, including xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Herring gull eggs from Channel Shelter Island (CHSH, Lake Huron) and Gull Island (GULL, Lake Michigan) had among the highest OHC burdens, and extracts elicited a biochemical and transcriptomic response greater than that of extracts from the other three, less polluted colonies. For example, EROD EC50 values and porphyrin ECthreshold values were lower for CHSH and GULL extracts than for the other colonies. Extracts from CHSH and GULL altered 15 and 13 of 27 genes on the PCR array compared to no more than eight genes for the less contaminated sites. The combination of a well-established avian in vitro assay, two well-characterized biochemical assays, and the avian ToxChip PCR array permitted the geographical discrimination of variably contaminated herring gull eggs from the Great Lakes. Such high-throughput assays show potential promise as cost-effective tools for determining toxic potencies of complex mixtures in the environment.

  19. Isomers of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in the eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America: temporal changes and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Lewis T; Letcher, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a chlorinated flame retardant (FR) comprised of two major structural isomers, syn and anti. For the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America, reports on DP have been limited to sediment and fish, not known for birds, and regardless temporal trends in Great Lakes wildlife is unknown. In the present study, syn- and anti-DP isomers were detected in egg pools spanning 1982-2006 of a Great Lakes biomonitoring species, the herring gull (Larus argentatus), from seven colonies in the five Laurentian Great Lakes. The sum (Sigma) of syn- and anti-DP concentrations were generally <15 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and variable depending on the colonial site and year, although Sigma-DP concentrations were generally higher post mid-1990s for all sites. Syn- and anti-DP concentrations ranged from 3.1 x 10(2) to 1.4 x 10(3)pg g(-1)ww and 1.3 x 10(2) to 4.4 x 10(3)pg g(-1)ww, respectively. There was a weak but significant (r(S)=-0.31, p<0.001) negative relationship between the Sigma-DP concentration and the distance for the only DP production facility in North America at Niagara Falls, New York. However, the fraction of the anti-DP to the Sigma-DP concentration (f(anti)) was 0.69+/-0.08 (for all seven colonies and years, n=101 pools), and there was no significant (r(S)=-0.18, p=0.07) negative relationship of f(anti) with increasing distance from the production facility at Niagara Falls, New York, which indicated that there was no temporal or spatial enrichment of either isomer relative to the commercial DP mixture. Over the past 25 years, it is clear that DP isomers have accumulated in the food web of female herring gulls with subsequent transfer during ovogenesis.

  20. Contaminants of emerging concern in Caspian tern compared to herring gull eggs from Michigan colonies in the Great Lakes of North America.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Letcher, Robert J; Moore, Jeremy N; Williams, Lisa L; Grasman, Keith A

    2017-03-01

    A broad suite of 87 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including 26 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 23 non-PBDEs halogenated FRs (NPHFRs), 16 organophosphate esters (OPEs), 4 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 5 emerging perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) or precursors, were determined in 30 individual Caspian tern (listed as a threatened species in the U.S. State of Michigan) eggs collected in 2013 and 2014 from Michigan nesting sites on Two Tree Island (St, Mary's River), Charity Reef (Saginaw Bay) and Channel-Shelter Island (a Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) in Saginaw Bay). The same CEC suite was determined in 10 herring gull eggs on the Pipe Island Twins in the lower St. Mary's River. In tern eggs, the order of concentrations were ΣPFSA (mean: 793 ng/g wet weight (ww); range: 116-4690 ng/g ww) > ΣPFCAs (131; 30.4-506 ng/g ww) ≈ ΣPBDEs (86.7; 32.4-189 ng/g ww) » ΣNPHFRs (0.67; ND-4.3 ng/g ww) ≈ ΣOPEs (0.46; ND-2.89 ng/g ww). Compared to gull eggs collected from the same area, tern egg exposure contained significantly lower concentrations of ΣPBDE, but with up to 10 times greater mean concentrations of ΣPFSAs and ΣPFCAs. This study highlights the importance of consistent monitoring in eggs of different Great Lakes birds of PBDEs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFEtCHxS) given that: 1) PBDE concentrations in all analyzed avian eggs exceeded or approached a concentration of 29 ng/g ww, which for birds is the current Canadian FEQG (Federal Environmental Quality Guideline); 2) ΣPBDE concentrations were comparable to lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) values reported in the literature; 3) PFOS concentrations in Caspian tern eggs were extremely high with many eggs across sites exceeding 1 ppm, and with the greatest being up to 4.7 ppm; and 4) PFEtCHxS, a potentially persistent and bioaccumulative substance, showed a detection

  1. Seasonal thermal ecology of adult walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peat, Tyler B; Hayden, Todd A.; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Fielder, David G.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Murchie, Karen J; Dettmers, John M.; Krueger, Charles C.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize thermal patterns and generate occupancy models for adult walleye from lakes Erie and Huron with internally implanted biologgers coupled with a telemetry study to assess the effects of sex, fish size, diel periods, and lake. Sex, size, and diel periods had no effect on thermal occupancy of adult walleye in either lake. Thermal occupancy differed between lakes and seasons. Walleye from Lake Erie generally experienced higher temperatures throughout the spring and summer months than did walleye in Lake Huron, due to limnological differences between the lakes. Tagged walleye that remained in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron (i.e., adjacent to the release location), as opposed to those migrating to the main basin of Lake Huron, experienced higher temperatures, and thus accumulated more thermal units (the amount of temperature units amassed over time) throughout the year. Walleye that migrated toward the southern end of Lake Huron occupied higher temperatures than those that moved toward the north. Consequently, walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay experienced thermal environments that were more favorable for growth as they spent more time within their thermal optimas than those that remained in Saginaw Bay. Results presented in this paper provide information on the thermal experience of wild fish in a large lake, and could be used to refine sex- and lake-specific bioenergetics models of walleye in the Great Lakes to enable the testing of ecological hypotheses.

  2. Seasonal thermal ecology of adult walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Huron and Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Peat, Tyler B; Hayden, Todd A; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Vandergoot, Christopher S; Fielder, David G; Madenjian, Charles P; Murchie, Karen J; Dettmers, John M; Krueger, Charles C; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize thermal patterns and generate occupancy models for adult walleye from lakes Erie and Huron with internally implanted biologgers coupled with a telemetry study to assess the effects of sex, fish size, diel periods, and lake. Sex, size, and diel periods had no effect on thermal occupancy of adult walleye in either lake. Thermal occupancy differed between lakes and seasons. Walleye from Lake Erie generally experienced higher temperatures throughout the spring and summer months than did walleye in Lake Huron, due to limnological differences between the lakes. Tagged walleye that remained in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron (i.e., adjacent to the release location), as opposed to those migrating to the main basin of Lake Huron, experienced higher temperatures, and thus accumulated more thermal units (the amount of temperature units amassed over time) throughout the year. Walleye that migrated toward the southern end of Lake Huron occupied higher temperatures than those that moved toward the north. Consequently, walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay experienced thermal environments that were more favorable for growth as they spent more time within their thermal optimas than those that remained in Saginaw Bay. Results presented in this paper provide information on the thermal experience of wild fish in a large lake, and could be used to refine sex- and lake-specific bioenergetics models of walleye in the Great Lakes to enable the testing of ecological hypotheses.

  3. Is disease an important mortality factor for Pacific herring?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Marine pelagic forage fishes, including sardines, anchovies, and herring, undergo large oscillations in population abundance. Although over-fishing can have a dramatic impact in reducing population size, this anthropogenic perturbation cannot fully account for all population declines because natural oscillations in marine pelagic fish biomasses occurred prior to the onset of commercial fishing. Among the herring metapopulation in Puget Sound / Straight of Georgia, the mean estimated annual mortality, exclusive of commercial fishing, increased from 20% in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s to 64-87% during 1996-1999. This natural mortality affects primarily the older age cohorts and resulted in recent decreased median ages of adult herring from age 4-6 cohorts to age 2-3 cohorts that die prior to iteroparous spawning. Surveys of wild herring from the region indicate that the protozoan parasite Ichthyophonus sp., is currently ubiquitous among Pacific herring populations in Washington and British Columbia, and prevalence of infection increase directly with herring age, from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the underrepresented age 6+ cohorts. Ichthyophonus can be highly pathogenic to immunologically naïve Pacific herring, causing 80% mortality 2 mo. after exposure in the laboratory. Current laboratory-based studies are underway to determine whether natural Ichthyophonus infections are terminal for the host, and whether these infections account for the decreasing median age of wild Pacific herring populations in recent years.

  4. Temporal and geographic variation of organochlorine residues in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) (1981-1991) and comparisons to trends in the herring gull (Larus argentatus) in the Great Lakes basin in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Ng, P; Norstrom, R J; Brooks, R J; Pettit, K E

    1996-11-01

    Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) eggs from five sites within the Great Lakes basin, and from a reference site in north-central Ontario were collected during 1981-1991 and analyzed for four organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including six non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The pattern of geographic variation was consistent over time in eggs with Cootes Paradise/ Hamilton Harbour and Lynde Creek eggs on Lake Ontario containing the highest concentrations and most PCDD and PCDF congeners among all sites. Eggs from Cranberry Marsh on Lake Ontario contained organochlorine concentrations similar to those from Big Creek Marsh and Rondeau Provincial Park on Lake Erie except PCDDs and PCDFs which occurred at higher concentrations and more congeners were detectable in Cranberry Marsh eggs. Concentrations of most contaminants in turtle eggs from Algonquin Park, the reference site, have significantly decreased in the past decade. Dieldrin concentrations, however, increased in Algonquin Park eggs from 1981 to 1989. Significant decreases in concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, mirex and PCBs occurred between turtle eggs collected in 1981/84 and 1989 at Big Creek Marsh and Rondeau Provincial Park, whereas there was no significant change in concentrations of p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. In Lake Ontario eggs, concentrations of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and dieldrin increased significantly between 1984 and 1991. Differences were also found in patterns of temporal variation in contamination between herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and snapping turtles which were attributed to differences in diet. Elevated and continued contamination in turtle eggs from Lake. Ontario is probably due to a combination of local sources of chemicals and consumption of large migratory fish that spawn in wetlands inhabited by these turtles.

  5. Tagging experiments with lake trout, whitefish, and other species of fish from Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Oliver H.; Van Oosten, John

    1940-01-01

    A total of 2,902 Lake Michigan fish was tagged and released, 48.8 per cent of which were lake trout and 85 per cent lake trout, lake herring, and whitefish. A total of 388 fish or 13.4 per cent was recaptured. The percentages of returns indicated a tremendous fishing intensity for lake trout, whitefish, and sturgeon. About 81 per cent of the recaptured fish were retaken within a radius of 25 miles from the port of tagging (Port Washington, Wisconsin). Lake trout, rainbow trout, and sturgeon were found to be extensive travelers; lake herring, whitefish, chubs, pilots, and perhaps perch did not migrate so extensively. Lake trout, herring, and whitefish tended to move in a northerly direction, perch in a southerly, and rainbow trout in all easterly, toward the Michigan shore. Sturgeon apparently roam all over the lake. Fifty-three per cent of the recovered lake trout were recaptured within one year of release, 73 per cent within 25 miles from Port Washington. It required three years for the trout to become fairly well scattered throughout the lake. With the attainment of adulthood lake trout moved in all directions from the port of release, although nearly 50 per cent of the adults were retaken within 25 miles from this port. Fish moved across state boundaries. Data are given on the growth and estimated age of the tagged lake trout, rainbow trout, whitefish, and sturgeon. The minimum size limits of lake trout and whitefish on the Great Lakes are economically unsound–they are too low–because they permit the capture of these species at a time of most rapid increase in weight.

  6. Changes in a population of exotic rainbow smelt in Lake Superior: Boom to bust, 1974-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, O.T.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in a population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior were chronicled over a 32-yr time series, 1974–2005. At the beginning of the time series, rainbow smelt was the predominant prey species, abundance of lake herring (Coregonis artedi) was very low, and the dominant predator was stocked lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Following a period of successful lake trout stocking in the 1970s, the rainbow smelt population declined sharply in 1980, largely through mortality of adult fish and subsequent poor recruitment. In the succeeding 4 years, rainbow smelt populations reached historic low levels, resulting in reduced food resources for both wild and stocked lake trout. During 1985–1990 lake herring stocks began a spectacular recovery following the appearance of a very strong 1984 year class and subsequent 1988, 1989, and 1990 year classes. Rainbow smelt benefited from the high abundance of young lake herring as an alternate prey source for lake trout and showed a partial recovery in the late 1980s. However, a growing lake trout population coupled with an 8-yr period of low herring reproduction after 1990 resulted in a diminished rainbow smelt population dominated by age-1 and 2 fish and showing a pattern of alternating recruitment attributed to cannibalism. Low productivity of rainbow smelt and intermittent production of herring over the past decade has left lake trout populations with a diminished prey base. Although lake trout recovery benefited from the presence of rainbow smelt as a prey resource, the Lake Superior fish community was fundamentally altered by the introduction of rainbow smelt.

  7. Icelandic herring-eating killer whales feed at night.

    PubMed

    Richard, Gaëtan; Filatova, Olga A; Samarra, Filipa I P; Fedutin, Ivan D; Lammers, Marc; Miller, Patrick J

    2017-01-01

    Herring-eating killer whales debilitate herring with underwater tail slaps and likely herd herring into tighter schools using a feeding-specific low-frequency pulsed call ('herding' call). Feeding on herring may be dependent upon daylight, as the whales use their white underside to help herd herring; however, feeding at night has not been investigated. The production of feeding-specific sounds provides an opportunity to use passive acoustic monitoring to investigate feeding behaviour at different times of day. We compared the acoustic behaviour of killer whales between day and night, using an autonomous recorder deployed in Iceland during winter. Based upon acoustic detection of underwater tail slaps used to feed upon herring we found that killer whales fed both at night and day: they spent 50% of their time at night and 73% of daytime feeding. Interestingly, there was a significant diel variation in acoustic behaviour. Herding calls were significantly associated with underwater tail slap rate and were recorded significantly more often at night, suggesting that in low-light conditions killer whales rely more on acoustics to herd herring. Communicative sounds were also related to underwater tail slap rate and produced at different rates during day and night. The capability to adapt feeding behaviour to different light conditions may be particularly relevant for predator species occurring in high latitudes during winter, when light availability is limited.

  8. Retraction of a longevity record for a 36-year-old herring gull

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonkel, G.M.; Pettingill, O.S.

    1974-01-01

    Full text: The longevity record for a 36-year-old Herring Gull, Larus argentatus (Pettingill 1967, Auk 84: 123), is erroneous. Herring Gull with band number A-676871, the basis of the record, was found dead on 20 June 1966 on the shore of Little Traverse Bay near Petoskey, Michigan, and reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory. The laboratory then mistakenly advised Pettingill that this gull was banded by him on 29 June 1930 on coastal Maine. He actually banded Herring Gull number A-676871 as a young bird on one of the Beaver Islands in Lake Michigan on 8 July 1948. The gull was thus 18 instead of 36 years old.

  9. Thiamine status in adult salmonines in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.B.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Hnath, J.G.; Wolgamood, M.; Marcquenski, S.V.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    In 1996 and again in 1999, hatchery personnel noted that some Lake Michigan coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch from fall spawning runs on the Platte River weir exhibited abnormal wiggling behavior that was similar to the behavior exhibited by thiamine-deficient Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, from the Baltic Sea. Samples of eggs or gonads, muscle, and liver from salmon and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush exhibiting abnormal behaviors were collected to determine the extent to which the behaviors were related to a thiamine deficiency. We compared these values with those found in normally behaving fish that produced offspring with high embryonic survival. In all adult fish exhibiting abnormal behavior, tissue residues of thiamine were among the lowest observed in the Great Lakes. Where embryonic survival was assessed, abnormal adult behavior was also associated with very high levels of offspring mortality due to early mortality syndrome. While the overall ecological significance remains to be determined, it appears that adult fish also exhibit neurological dysfunction and mortality associated with thiamine deficiency.

  10. Red herring in acid rain research

    SciTech Connect

    Havas, M.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Likens, G.E.

    1984-06-01

    Five common misconceptions, red herrings, regarding the effects of acid deposition on aquatic ecosystems are described in an attempt to clarify some of the confusion they have created. These misconceptions are the following: Bog lakes have been acidic for thousands of years; thus the acidification of lakes is not a recent phenomenon. The early methods for measuring pH are in error; therfore, no statements can be made regarding historical trends. Acidification of lakes and streams results from changed land use practices (forestry, agriculture, animal husbandry) and not acid deposition. The decrease in fish populations is caused by overfishing, disease, and water pollution, not acidification. Because lakes that receive identical rainfall can have considerable different pHs, regional lake acidification cannot be due to acid precipitation. It is easy to suggest a whole series of alternative, and often unlikely, explanations of the causes and consequences of acid deposition. These keep scientists busy for years assembling and examining data only to conclude that the explanation is not valid. These tactics cause, and perhaps are designed to cause, continuous delay in remedial action. They fail to take into account the large body of information that deals with the sources of the acid deposition and the seriousness of its effects.

  11. In Vitro Metabolism of Photolytic Breakdown Products of Tetradecabromo-1,4-diphenoxybenzene Flame Retardant in Herring Gull and Rat Liver Microsomal Assays.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Greaves, Alana K; Teclechiel, Daniel; Letcher, Robert J

    2016-08-02

    Tetradecabromo-1,4-diphenoxybenzene (TeDB-DiPhOBz) is used as a flame retardant chemical and has been hypothesized to be the precursor of methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzene (MeO-PB-DiPhOBz) contaminants reported in herring gulls from sites across the Laurentian Great Lakes. Here, by irradiating the parent TeDB-DiPhOBz (solution 1) with natural sunlight or UV, we prepared three solutions where solution 2 was dominated by the Br8-11-PB-DiPhOBzs, along with Br5-8-PB-DiPhOBzs (solution 3) and Br4-6-PB-DiPhOBzs (solution 4). The in vitro metabolism of TeDB-DiPhOBz and PB-DiPhOBzs was investigated using harvested wild herring gull (Larus argentatus) and adult male Wister-Han rat liver microsomal assays. After a 90 min incubation period of solution 1 in gull or rat microsomal assays, there was no significant (p > 0.05) depletion of TeDB-DiPhOBz. OH-PB-DiPhOBz metabolites were detectable after gull and rat microsomal assay incubation with solutions 3 or 4, and showed clear species-specific differences. Also detected were two polybrominated hydroxylated metabolites having polybenzofuran structures. Overall, this study suggested that TeDB-DiPhOBz is slowly metabolized in vitro, and also indicated that if wild herring gulls are exposed (e.g., via the diet) to photolytic products of TeDB-DiPhOBz, OH-PB-DiPhOBz and other metabolites could be formed. OH-PH-DiPhOBz are likely precursors to MeO-PB-DiPhOBz contaminants that we reported previously in eggs of wild Great Lakes herring gulls.

  12. Roost site selection by ring-billed and herring gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Daniel E.; Destefano, Stephen; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Whitney, Jillian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gulls (Larus spp.) commonly roost in large numbers on inland and coastal waters, yet there is little information on how or where gulls choose sites for roosting. Roost site selection can lead to water quality degradation or aviation hazards when roosts are formed on water supply reservoirs or are close to airports. Harassment programs are frequently initiated to move or relocate roosting gulls but often have mixed results because gulls are reluctant to leave or keep returning. As such, knowledge of gull roost site selection and roosting ecology has applied and ecological importance. We used satellite telemetry and an information-theoretic approach to model seasonal roost selection of ring-billed (L. delawarensis) and herring gulls (L. argentatus) in Massachusetts, USA. Our results indicated that ring-billed gulls preferred freshwater roosts and will use a variety of rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Herring gulls regularly roosted on fresh water but used salt water roosts more often than ring-billed gulls and also roosted on a variety of land habitats. Roost modeling showed that herring and ring-billed gulls selected inland fresh water roosts based on size of the water body and proximity to their last daytime location; they selected the largest roost closest to where they ended the day. Management strategies to reduce or eliminate roosting gulls could identify and try to eliminate other habitat variables (e.g., close-by foraging sites) that are attracting gulls before attempting to relocate or redistribute (e.g., through hazing programs) roosting birds.

  13. Effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus on Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska, from 1989 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Elston, Ralph A; Meyers, Theodore R

    2009-02-25

    We critically review the role of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in the 1992-1993 collapse of the Prince William Sound (PWS) herring fishery. VHSV was detected in samples of moribund Pacific herring from PWS in spring 1993 when about 63% of the expected fish failed to appear. A low prevalence and severity of VHSV were observed in adult pre-spawning PWS herring in most of the years from 1994 to 2002. The North American strain of VHSV became established about 500 yr ago in many northeast Pacific marine fish species, including herring. In Alaska, the typical annual prevalence of VHSV in pre-spawning herring ranges from 0 to 17%. New threshold analysis of a 9 yr study indicates that only about half of the virus-infected adult fish in PWS were clinically affected; ulcers formerly attributed to VHS have been overestimated by a factor of about 3. We conclude that VHSV was not a primary causative factor in the PWS herring population collapse or in its failure to recover. Because older age classes of herring were not disproportionately missing in 1993, the protozoan Ichthyophonus hoferi was also not a likely cause of losses. The 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill occurred in PWS, Alaska, U.S.A., in 1989. Evidence for interaction of oil and VHSV expression is also evaluated. A study exposing herring to varying concentrations of weathered crude oil showed increasing prevalences of VHSV correlated with oil concentration; however, repeated experiments with juvenile and adult fish failed to corroborate these results or link oil to VHSV infection in herring.

  14. Detecting Atlantic herring by parametric sonar.

    PubMed

    Godo, Olav Rune; Foote, Kenneth G; Dybedal, Johnny; Tenningen, Eirik; Patel, Ruben

    2010-04-01

    The difference-frequency band of the Kongsberg TOPAS PS18 parametric sub-bottom profiling sonar, nominally 1-6 kHz, is being used to observe Atlantic herring. Representative TOPAS echograms of herring layers and schools observed in situ in December 2008 and November 2009 are presented. These agree well with echograms of volume backscattering strength derived simultaneously with the narrowband Simrad EK60/18- and 38-kHz scientific echo sounder, also giving insight into herring avoidance behavior in relation to survey vessel passage. Progress in rendering the TOPAS echograms quantitative is described.

  15. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Pacific Herring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    these times are salmon, seals, abnormalities developed in the lower jaws of sea lions, killer whales, dogfish , and birds larvae from eggs incubated at 4.0...offshore, important predators include Optimal temperatures for juvenile and adult hake, sablefish, dogfish , Pacific cod, and salmon. Pacific herring

  16. Incidence of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Puget Sound fishes and its increase with age of Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Stick, K.; Bui, B.; Carroll, C.; Fall, B.; Mork, C.; Perry, J.A.; Sweeney, E.; Wittouck, J.; Winton, J.; Kocan, R.

    2002-01-01

    A recent decrease in the mean age of adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi in Puget Sound was associated with a high prevalence of Ichthyophonus hoferi, a protistan parasite that can be highly pathogenic to Pacific herring. In Puget Sound, high intensities of I. hoferiinfection may be maintained in older cohorts of Pacific herring because the prevalence ofI. hoferi increased with age from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the oldest, age-6 and older cohorts. Low intensities of I. hoferi infection in the region may be maintained in alternative fish hosts, such as surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus, Puget Sound rockfishSebastes emphaeus, Pacific tomcod Microgadus proximus, and speckled sanddabCithanichthys stigmaeus.

  17. HYDROACOUSTIC ESTIMATES OF ABUNDANCE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PELAGIC PREY FISHES IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) are a valuable prey resource for the recovering lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). However, their respective biomasses may be insufficient to support the current predator demand. In August 1977, we assessed the ...

  18. Structure of the New England herring gull population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kadlec, J.A.; Drury, W.H.

    1968-01-01

    Measurements of the rates of population increase, reproduction, and mortality together with an observed age ratio, were used to analyze the population of the Herring Gull in New England. Data from sporadic censuses prior to this study, aerial censuses by the authors, and National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count indicated that the New England breeding population has been doubling every 12 to 15 years since the early 1900's. This increase has involved founding new colonies and expanding the breeding range There is evidence that 15 to 30% of the adults do not breed in any given year. Sixty-one productivity measurements on 43 islands from 1963 through 1966, involving almost 13,000 nests, showed that from 0.8 to 1.4 young/breeding pair/year is the usual range of rate of production. The age distribution in the population was determined by classifying Herring Gulls by plumage category on an aerial census of the coast from Tampico, Mexico, to Cape Sable, Nova Scotia. Of the 622,000 gulls observed, 68% were adults, 17% were second- and third-year birds, and 15% were first-year birds. Mortality rates derived from band recovery data were too high to be consistent with the observed rate of population growth, productivity, and age structure. Loss of bands increasing to the rate of about 20%/year 5 years after banding eliminates most of the discrepancy. The age structure and rate of population increase indicate a mortality rate of 4 to 9% for gulls 2 years old or older, compared with the 25 to 30% indicated by band recoveries. The population structure we have developed fits everything we have observed about Herring Gull population dynamics, except mortality based on band recoveries.

  19. Seasonal movement and mesohabitat usage of adult and juvenile lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Chan, Matthew D.; Bridges, W.C.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term restoration efforts for lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens populations will benefit from better understanding of this species' movements and habitat use in riverine systems. Radio transmitters were implanted in both juvenile and adult lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York, and individuals were relocated over a 2-year period. Adult lake sturgeon demonstrated greater minimum daily distance moved, absolute distance moved, and mean home range size than juvenile lake sturgeon during the spring. During the course of the study, both adult and juvenile lake sturgeon exhibited movements upstream and downstream through a breached low-head weir, and individuals did not necessarily remain resident on an annual basis in the Grasse River. Mesohabitat and substrate use patterns were determined based on comparisons of frequency distributions for relocated lake sturgeon and quantified mesohabitat and substrate over a 15-km river reach. Lake sturgeon used pool mesohabitat and limited their use of run mesohabitat under both low- and mid-flow conditions. During most of the year, adult and juvenile lake sturgeon were detected over silt substrate. This study illustrates behavioral differences and similarities between the movements and habitat use of adult and juvenile lake sturgeon in a riverine system.

  20. Lethal and sublethal effects of the water-soluble fraction of Cook Inlet crude oil on Pacific herring (clupea harengus pallasi) reproduction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.D.; Babcock, M.M.; Brodersen, C.C.; Carls, M.G.; Gharrett, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed sale of continental shelf leases for petroleum development in Bristol Bay, Alaska, is generating concern about the possible effects on valuable fishery resources, such as Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi), in the area. The inshore spawning strategy of herring makes them particularly vulnerable to the effects of an oil spill. Using the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil, the effects of lethal and sublethal exposures on prespawn adult Pacific herring, eggs, yolk-sac larvae, and feeding larvae as well as on hatching success of eggs from exposed adults were studied. The effects of feeding oil-contaminated prey to herring larvae were also examined. The life stage at which the reproductive success of Pacific herring seems most likely to be impaired by oil is feeding larvae. Even if oil is present at levels too low to threaten the survival of herring, the fisheries could be impacted because the rapid bioaccumulation of oil hydrocarbons in the edible muscle and ovarian tissues could make the herring unmarketable.

  1. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    PubMed

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy.

  2. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  3. Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.

    2000-05-01

    Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring gull diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the gulls to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the gull diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.

  4. [The consumption of dishes and/or fishy snacks by school youth from Miedzychodzko-Sierakowskie lakes].

    PubMed

    Bortnowska, Grazyna; Grotowska, Longina; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna

    2011-01-01

    The school youth inhabiting Miedzychodzko-Sierakowskie lakes consumed dishes and/or fishy snacks on the similar low level as their peers in other regions of country, mainly breaded fried fishes and partly or highly manufactured products i.e., herrings in sour cream as well as pastes from smoked fishes and canned fishes. Relatively high ranks in rows of preference (liking) and frequency intake were found for carp, herring and cheap cultured panga from import. The presence of bones and specific odour were the factors that mostly affected low consumption of dishes and/or snacks from fishes. It seems that preparation of attractive tasty dishes and/or snacks from fresh fishes could help in youth teaching regarding correct nutritional habits as well as retain tradition of their consumption during adult life.

  5. 76 FR 54385 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Regulatory Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... groundfish and river herring/ shad bycatch in the herring fishery. In Section 3.1.2 of the EA, the status of... Trip Report, filled out as required by the LOA to transfer herring at sea, and a weekly IVR report for... by the LOA to transfer herring at sea, and a daily VMS catch report for the amount of herring...

  6. Relative abundance, site fidelity, and survival of adult lake trout in Lake Michigan from 1999 to 2001: Implications for future restoration strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, C.R.; Holey, M.E.; Madenjian, C.P.; Jonas, J.L.; Claramunt, R.M.; McKee, P.C.; Toneys, M.L.; Ebener, M.P.; Breidert, B.; Fleischer, G.W.; Hess, R.; Martell, A.W.; Olsen, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the relative abundance of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawners in gill nets during fall 1999–2001 in Lake Michigan at 19 stocked spawning sites with that at 25 unstocked sites to evaluate how effective site-specific stocking was in recolonizing historically important spawning reefs. The abundance of adult fish was higher at stocked onshore and offshore sites than at unstocked sites. This suggests that site-specific stocking is more effective at establishing spawning aggregations than relying on the ability of hatchery-reared lake trout to find spawning reefs, especially those offshore. Spawner densities were generally too low and too young at most sites to expect significant natural reproduction. However, densities were sufficiently high at some sites for reproduction to occur and therefore the lack of recruitment was attributable to other factors. Less than 3% of all spawners could have been wild fish, which indicates that little natural reproduction occurred in past years. Wounding by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus was generally lower for Seneca Lake strain fish and highest for strains from Lake Superior. Fish captured at offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan had the lowest probability of wounding, while fish at onshore sites in northern Lake Michigan had the highest probability. The relative survival of the Seneca Lake strain was higher than that of the Lewis Lake or the Marquette strains for the older year-classes examined. Survival differences among strains were less evident for younger year-classes. Recaptures of coded-wire-tagged fish of five strains indicated that most fish returned to their stocking site or to a nearby site and that dispersal from stocking sites during spawning was about 100 km. Restoration strategies should rely on site-specific stocking of lake trout strains with good survival at selected historically important offshore spawning sites to increase egg deposition and the probability of natural reproduction in Lake

  7. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  8. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  9. Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking

  10. Maternal beef and postweaning herring diets increase bone mineral density and strength in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aysha; Olausson, Hanna; Nilsson, Staffan; Nookaew, Intawat; Khoomrung, Sakda; Andersson, Louise; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Holmäng, Agneta

    2013-12-01

    The maternal diet during gestation and lactation affects the long-term health of the offspring. We sought to determine whether maternal and postweaning crossover isocaloric diets based on fish or meat affect the geometry, mineral density, and biomechanical properties of bone in mouse offspring in adulthood. During gestation and lactation, C57BL/6 dams were fed a herring- or beef-based diet. After weaning, half of the pups in each group were fed the same diet as their dams, and half were fed the other diet. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body and lumbar spine were measured in the offspring by dual X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 21 weeks of age. At 22-26 weeks, tibia bone geometry (length, cortical volumetric (v) BMD, BMC, area and thickness) was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and the biomechanical properties of the tibia were analyzed by the three-point bending test. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 was analyzed at 12 weeks. In comparison to the maternal herring diet, the maternal beef diet increased aBMD and BMC in the whole body and lumbar spine of adult offspring, as well as cortical vBMD, BMC, bone area, and thickness at the mid-diaphyseal region of the tibia and the biomechanical properties of tibia strength. In contrast, a postweaning beef diet decreased aBMD in the lumbar spine and BMC in the whole body and lumbar spine compared with a postweaning herring diet, which instead increased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. The change from a maternal beef diet before weaning to a herring diet after weaning decreased body weight and increased the cortical area, vBMD, BMC, thickness, and strength of the tibia. These significant crossover effects indicate that a preweaning maternal beef diet and a postweaning herring diet are optimal for increasing BMC and bone strength in offspring in adulthood.

  11. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, Glen A.; Ruff, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA.

  12. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Alewife and blueback herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardue, Garland B.

    1983-01-01

    Alewives and blueback herring are anadromous clupeids found along the Atlantic coast in marine, estuarine, and riverine habitats, depending upon life stage. Both are important commercial species, used fresh or salted for human consumption, and used as crab bait, fish meal (particularly in animal food manufacturing), and fish oil. Alewife and blueback herring are marketed collectively as 'river herring,' a term that will be used for both species in this report. River herring play important ecological roles. In marine, estuarine, and riverine food webs, they occupy a level between zooplankton, their principal food, and piscivores.

  14. Organochlorine-induced immunosuppression in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Grasman, K.A.; Scanlon, P.F.; Fox, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    This investigation studied the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes and evaluated the use of immunological tests as biomarkers for contaminant exposure in wild birds. During 1991--1994, specific immune functions and general hematological parameters were measured in herring gull (Larus argentatus) and Caspian tern (Stema caspia) chicks. Study sites were chosen across a wide range of organochlorine contamination caused primarily by PCBs. In herring gull adults, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio decreased as liver EROD, an index of contaminant exposure, increased, In herring gull chicks, thymus mass decreased as EROD increased. At highly contaminated sites, gull and tern chicks showed a marked reduction in T cell-mediated immunity as measured by the phytohemagglutinin skin test. The thymic atrophy and T cell suppression were consistent with documented effects of PCBs in laboratory animals during development and growth. In both species, chicks exhibited biologically significant differences in antibody production among sites, but any relationships to contaminants or other factors remain unclear. In laboratory animals, PCBs exhibit variable effects on antibody production. Structural and functional parameters related to the immune system are useful biomarkers for assessing the effects of contaminants on wild birds.

  15. Hybridization of ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1989-01-01

    Gill raker number and length were compared for lake herring, Coregonus artedii LeSueur, and bloater, Coregonus hoyi (Gill), collected in 1917, 1956, and 1984-1985 at four locations in western Lake Huron to examine the effects of suspected introgressive hybridization on these distinctive species characters. Gill raker length showed no change from 1917 to 1984-1985, but gill raker number became similar in the two species over that period. Between 1917 and 1984-1985, mean gill raker counts decreased from 48.0 to 45.8 in lake herring, but increased from 41.8 to 43.1 in bloaters. The modal count for both species was 43 in 1984-1985. Intermediate gill raker counts were consistent with the hypothesis of hybridization. Bloater abundance increased greatly in the 1980's, but lake herring remained scarce. Under these circumstances, the rare lake herring would be increasingly likely to encounter abundant ripe bloaters during the overlapping spawning seasons of these species, increasing the probability for hybridization. Basic biological differences between the species, such as lower vulnerability of bloaters to commercial harvest, better survival of bloater fry, or greater fecundity of bloaters, may have contributed to the substantially better success of bloaters. Cisco populations are fragile; only the bloater has ever made a strong and sustained recovery after a severe decline. Hybridization with bloaters may impede the recovery of lake herring in Lake Huron.

  16. Potential Population Consequences of Active Sonar Disturbance in Atlantic Herring: Estimating the Maximum Risk.

    PubMed

    Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Kvadsheim, Petter Helgevold; Ainslie, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Effects of noise on fish populations may be predicted by the population consequence of acoustic disturbance (PCAD) model. We have predicted the potential risk of population disturbance when the highest sound exposure level (SEL) at which adult herring do not respond to naval sonar (SEL(0)) is exceeded. When the population density is low (feeding), the risk is low even at high sonar source levels and long-duration exercises (>24 h). With densely packed populations (overwintering), a sonar exercise might expose the entire population to levels >SEL(0) within a 24-h exercise period. However, the disturbance will be short and the response threshold used here is highly conservative. It is therefore unlikely that naval sonar will significantly impact the herring population.

  17. Pacific herring: Species profiles, life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, R.A.

    1988-02-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi, spawns in intertidal and subtidal waters of the Pacific coast during the winter-spring season. In California, female herring average about 220 eggs per gram body weight. Herring are fished commercially primarily during the spawning season to obtain herring roe for export to Japan. Herring have a significant ecological role; herring spawn deposits attract many predators, and the abundant herring larvae and juveniles found in estuaries and nearshore waters serve as food for larger sea life. Herring embryos and larvae are fairly plastic regarding temperature and salinity, and survival probably depends largely on extent of predation and food supply. Excessive turbidity hinders the spawning and incubation of herring. Herring embryos, larvae, and juveniles are subject to various pollutants introduced into the estuarine environment. 60 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pacific herring

    SciTech Connect

    Lassuy, D.R. . Oregon Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit)

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, ecological role, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist coastal managers, engineers, and biologists in the gathering of information pertinent to coastal development activities. The Pacific herring has a long history of exploitation for human consumption, animal feed, and trade. It also provides food for a wide variety of pelagic, intertidal, and avian predators. The herring roe fishery has dominated catches since Japan opened its market to imports in the early 1970's. Pacific herring spawn in quiescent, nearshore areas, primarily on marine vegetation. Spawning peaks in the Pacific Northwest region during February and March. Larvae remain inshore, transform into juveniles after 2--3 months, then move offshore in the fall. Adults move inshore on their spawning migration in late fall and early winter. Optimum physiological performance during the early life history is achieved at about 12--17 ppT salinity at temperatures near 6.5--8.3{degree}C. It is important to avoid siltation at or near the spawning grounds in order to prevent disruption of spawning behavior or smothering of eggs. 65 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Combining genetic and demographic information to prioritize conservation efforts for anadromous alewife and blueback herring

    PubMed Central

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Hasselman, Daniel J; Argo, Emily E; Gephard, Stephen R; Limburg, Karin E; Post, David M; Schultz, Thomas F; Willis, Theodore V

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in conservation biology is the need to broadly prioritize conservation efforts when demographic data are limited. One method to address this challenge is to use population genetic data to define groups of populations linked by migration and then use demographic information from monitored populations to draw inferences about the status of unmonitored populations within those groups. We applied this method to anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), species for which long-term demographic data are limited. Recent decades have seen dramatic declines in these species, which are an important ecological component of coastal ecosystems and once represented an important fishery resource. Results show that most populations comprise genetically distinguishable units, which are nested geographically within genetically distinct clusters or stocks. We identified three distinct stocks in alewife and four stocks in blueback herring. Analysis of available time series data for spawning adult abundance and body size indicate declines across the US ranges of both species, with the most severe declines having occurred for populations belonging to the Southern New England and the Mid-Atlantic Stocks. While all alewife and blueback herring populations deserve conservation attention, those belonging to these genetic stocks warrant the highest conservation prioritization. PMID:24567743

  20. Disease surveillance of Atlantic herring: molecular characterization of hepatic coccidiosis and a morphological report of a novel intestinal coccidian.

    PubMed

    Friend, Sarah E; Lovy, Jan; Hershberger, Paul K

    2016-07-07

    Surveillance for pathogens of Atlantic herring, including viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), Ichthyophonus hoferi, and hepatic and intestinal coccidians, was conducted from 2012 to 2016 in the NW Atlantic Ocean, New Jersey, USA. Neither VHSV nor I. hoferi was detected in any sample. Goussia clupearum was found in the livers of 40 to 78% of adult herring in varying parasite loads; however, associated pathological changes were negligible. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit 18S rRNA gene sequences placed G. clupearum most closely with other extraintestinal liver coccidia from the genus Calyptospora, though the G. clupearum isolates had a unique nucleotide insertion between 604 and 729 bp that did not occur in any other coccidian species. G. clupearum oocysts from Atlantic and Pacific herring were morphologically similar, though differences occurred in oocyst dimensions. Comparison of G. clupearum genetic sequences from Atlantic and Pacific herring revealed 4 nucleotide substitutions and 2 gaps in a 1749 bp region, indicating some divergence in the geographically separate populations. Pacific G. clupearum oocysts were not directly infective, suggesting that a heteroxenous life cycle is likely. Intestinal coccidiosis was described for the first time from juvenile and adult Atlantic herring. A novel intestinal coccidian species was detected based on morphological characteristics of exogenously sporulated oocysts. A unique feature in these oocysts was the presence of 3 long (15.1 ± 5.1 µm, mean ±SD) spiny projections on both ends of the oocyst. The novel morphology of this coccidian led us to tentatively name this parasite G. echinata n. sp.

  1. Disease surveillance of Atlantic herring: molecular characterization of hepatic coccidiosis and a morphological report of a novel intestinal coccidian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Sarah E; Lovey, J; Hershberger, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance for pathogens of Atlantic herring, including viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV),Ichthyophonus hoferi, and hepatic and intestinal coccidians, was conducted from 2012 to 2016 in the NW Atlantic Ocean, New Jersey, USA. Neither VHSV nor I. hoferi was detected in any sample. Goussia clupearum was found in the livers of 40 to 78% of adult herring in varying parasite loads; however, associated pathological changes were negligible. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit 18S rRNA gene sequences placed G. clupearum most closely with other extraintestinal liver coccidia from the genus Calyptospora, though the G. clupearum isolates had a unique nucleotide insertion between 604 and 729 bp that did not occur in any other coccidian species. G. clupearum oocysts from Atlantic and Pacific herring were morphologically similar, though differences occurred in oocyst dimensions. Comparison of G. clupearum genetic sequences from Atlantic and Pacific herring revealed 4 nucleotide substitutions and 2 gaps in a 1749 bp region, indicating some divergence in the geographically separate populations. Pacific G. clupearum oocysts were not directly infective, suggesting that a heteroxenous life cycle is likely. Intestinal coccidiosis was described for the first time from juvenile and adult Atlantic herring. A novel intestinal coccidian species was detected based on morphological characteristics of exogenously sporulated oocysts. A unique feature in these oocysts was the presence of 3 long (15.1 ± 5.1 µm, mean ±SD) spiny projections on both ends of the oocyst. The novel morphology of this coccidian led us to tentatively name this parasite G. echinata n. sp.

  2. Relation of adult size to movements and distribution of smallmouth bass in a central Maine Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu of three size-classes were radiotracked in Green Lake, Maine, during summer 1993 (10 June-1 September) to determine whether adult size influenced distribution and movement. Large smallmouth bass (>406 mm) used deep water (>8 m) more often than did small (248-279 mm) or medium-sized (305-356 mm) smallmouth bass during the late summer (15 July-1 September). Large smallmouth bass also were found at middepths (4-8 m) significantly more often than were small individuals during late summer. Small fish used cover more frequently than large ones during early summer (10 June-13 July). Both small and medium-sized individuals were associated with cover more frequently than large smallmouth bass were during the late summer. Small smallmouth bass exhibited significantly smaller summer total ranges than did large individuals, and mean active displacement differed among all three size-classes.

  3. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  4. Experimental evaluation of size-dependent predation by adult post-spawned rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) on larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Gorsky, Dimitry

    2013-01-01

    Introduced landlocked Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are hypothesized to be a major factor in the decline of Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis populations in many lakes. We sought to identify the size of Lake Whitefish preyed upon by adult Rainbow Smelt and how the efficiency of Rainbow Smelt predation changes Lake Whitefish ontogeny. In a laboratory setting, we exposed larval Lake Whitefish of increasing sizes to groups of seven Rainbow Smelt (>100 mm) for a 1-h period and observed predation behaviors and efficiencies. In each trial, the group of Rainbow Smelt consumed at least one larval Lake Whitefish, which were up to 45 mm in length (up to 89% of Rainbow Smelt gape width). Predation efficiency, the total number of Lake Whitefish consumed by Rainbow Smelt during trials, was 100% after Lake Whitefish hatching and followed a decreasing sigmoidal response to increasing lengths of Lake Whitefish. The apparent predatory window of Rainbow Smelt on Lake Whitefish is from Lake Whitefish size at hatch (∼12 mm) to approximately 34 mm. Rainbow Smelt generally required multiple attacks to capture a single Lake Whitefish. The capture efficiencies of Rainbow Smelt decreased from 30% as Lake Whitefish length increased and were highly variable within each Lake Whitefish size-group. The overall impact that Rainbow Smelt predation will have on Lake Whitefish populations is dependent on the growth rate of Lake Whitefish, environmental conditions that cause the Lake Whitefish hatching period to coincide with Rainbow Smelt spawning events, and the degree of overlap in habitat use between spawning Rainbow Smelt, nonspawning subadult Rainbow Smelt, and hatching Lake Whitefish.

  5. Immunological and reproductive health assessment in herring gulls and black-crowned night herons in the Hudson–Raritan Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grasman, Keith A.; Echols, Kathy R.; May, Thomas M.; Peterman, Paul H.; Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown inexplicable declines in breeding waterbirds within western New York/New Jersey Harbor between 1996 and 2002 and elevated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs. The present study assessed associations between immune function, prefledgling survival, and selected organochlorine compounds and metals in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in lower New York Harbor during 2003. In pipping gull embryos, lymphoid cells were counted in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius (sites of T and B lymphocyte maturation, respectively). The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response assessed T cell function in gull and heron chicks. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured in vitro in adult and prefledgling gulls. Reference data came from the Great Lakes and Bay of Fundy. Survival of prefledgling gulls was poor, with only 0.68 and 0.5 chicks per nest surviving to three and four weeks after hatch, respectively. Developing lymphoid cells were reduced 51% in the thymus and 42% in the bursa of gull embryos from New York Harbor. In vitro lymphocyte assays demonstrated reduced spontaneous proliferation, reduced T cell mitogen-induced proliferation, and increased B cell mitogen-induced proliferation in gull chicks from New York Harbor. The PHA skin response was suppressed 70 to 80% in gull and heron chicks. Strong negative correlations (r = –0.95 to –0.98) between the PHA response and dioxins and PCBs in gull livers was strong evidence suggesting that these chemicals contribute significantly to immunosuppression in New York Harbor waterbirds.

  6. Immunological and reproductive health assessment in herring gulls and black-crowned night herons in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary.

    PubMed

    Grasman, Keith A; Echols, Kathy R; May, Thomas M; Peterman, Paul H; Gale, Robert W; Orazio, Carl E

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown inexplicable declines in breeding waterbirds within western New York/New Jersey Harbor between 1996 and 2002 and elevated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs. The present study assessed associations between immune function, prefledgling survival, and selected organochlorine compounds and metals in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in lower New York Harbor during 2003. In pipping gull embryos, lymphoid cells were counted in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius (sites of T and B lymphocyte maturation, respectively). The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response assessed T cell function in gull and heron chicks. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured in vitro in adult and prefledgling gulls. Reference data came from the Great Lakes and Bay of Fundy. Survival of prefledgling gulls was poor, with only 0.68 and 0.5 chicks per nest surviving to three and four weeks after hatch, respectively. Developing lymphoid cells were reduced 51% in the thymus and 42% in the bursa of gull embryos from New York Harbor. In vitro lymphocyte assays demonstrated reduced spontaneous proliferation, reduced T cell mitogen-induced proliferation, and increased B cell mitogen-induced proliferation in gull chicks from New York Harbor. The PHA skin response was suppressed 70 to 80% in gull and heron chicks. Strong negative correlations (r = -0.95 to -0.98) between the PHA response and dioxins and PCBs in gull livers was strong evidence suggesting that these chemicals contribute significantly to immunosuppression in New York Harbor waterbirds.

  7. Swimming activity and energetic costs of adult lake sturgeon during fishway passage.

    PubMed

    Thiem, Jason D; Dawson, Jeff W; Hatin, Daniel; Danylchuk, Andy J; Dumont, Pierre; Gleiss, Adrian C; Wilson, Rory P; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-08-15

    Fish migrations through riverine systems can be energetically demanding, and the presence of fishways to facilitate upstream passage can add an additional energetic cost that may directly affect fitness. Successful fishway passage is a function of the ability of fish to select appropriate paths and swimming strategies that do not exceed their swimming capacity. Triaxial accelerometers were used to estimate the energetic expenditure of adult lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) swimming through a vertical slot fishway, to determine whether individual behaviour or path selection, resulting in differences in cumulative energy use, explain fishway passage success. Most individuals attempted to pass the fishway (n=30/44; 68%), although successful passage only occurred for a subset of those attempting (n=7/30; 23%). High-speed swimming was rarely observed during upstream passage through fishway basins, and was of short duration. Two turning basins delayed passage, subsequently resulting in a higher energetic cost. The rate at which energy was expended did not differ among successful and unsuccessful individuals, although successful sturgeon exhibited higher costs of transport (42.75 versus 25.85 J kg(-1) m(-1)). Energy expenditure metrics were not predictive of successful fishway passage, leading us to conclude that other endogenous or exogenous factors influence passage success. In a practical application of field measurements of energy expenditure, we demonstrate that fishway passage through a structure designed to facilitate migration does result in an energetic loss for lake sturgeon (3249-16,331 J kg(-1)), equivalent to individuals travelling 5.8-28.2 km in a lentic system.

  8. PCB patterns in herring and pike with special regard to co-planar congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Alsberg, T.; Wit, C. de; Eriksson, U.; Jaernberg, U.; Bignert, A.; Olsson, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the patterns of PCB in two aquatic organisms, herring and pike. The aim is to establish a basis for a model for estimating the levels of co-planar PCBs from the concentrations of nonplanar congeners. The chosen fish populations reflect differences in species, age, habitat (locations) and time of catch, as well as differences in total PCB concentrations. More stable patterns would be presumed, the more homogeneous the population. Herring were sampled at two locations, one in the Bothnian Bay (Harufjaerden) and one in the Southern Baltic (Utlaengan). Two age classes were sampled at each location, 2- and 6-year olds, respectively at Utlaengan, and 2- and 5-year olds, respectively at Harufjaerden. Pike were sampled from Lake Bolmen in southern Sweden in 1992, and pike from the same location but sampled in 1971 were taken from the specimen bank. Ten individuals per population were analyzed. Thirteen PCB congeners were determined, namely PCBs 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 1 38, 153, 156, 157, 169, 180, thus including the seven PCBs that are measured in the national monitoring program, in addition to three monoortho and three non-ortho PCBs. Regarding the possibility of creating a model for calculating the concentrations of the planar PCBs from those of the non-planar, the results look promising for PCB-126 and PCB-169, whereas PCB-77 shows a lower correlation to the non-planar congeners.

  9. Vertical migration and nighttime distribution of adult bloaters in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    TeWinkel, Leslie M.; Fleischer, Guy W.

    1999-01-01

    The vertical migration and nighttime vertical distribution of adult bloaters Coregonus hoyi were investigated during late summer in Lake Michigan using acoustics simultaneously with either midwater or bottom trawling. Bloaters remained on or near bottom during the day. At night, bloaters were distributed throughout 30-65 m of water, depending on bottom depth. Shallowest depths of migration were not related to water temperature or incident light. Maximum distances of migration increased with increasing bottom depth. Nighttime midwater densities ranged from 0.00 to 6.61 fish/1,000 mA? and decreased with increasing bottom depth. Comparisons of length distributions showed that migrating and nonmigrating bloaters did not differ in size. However, at most sites, daytime bottom catches collected a greater proportion of larger individuals compared with nighttime midwater or bottom catches. Mean target strengths by 5-m strata indicated that migrating bloaters did not stratify by size in the water column at night. Overall, patterns in frequency of empty stomachs and mean digestive state of prey indicated that a portion of the bloater population fed in the water column at night. Bloater diet composition indicated both midwater feeding and bottom feeding. In sum, although a portion of the bloater population fed in the water column at night, bloaters were not limited to feeding at this time. This research confirmed that bloaters are opportunistic feeders and did not fully support the previously proposed hypothesis that bloater vertical migration is driven by the vertically migrating macroinvertebrate the opossom shrimp Mysis relicta.

  10. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  11. Distribution and migration of adult striped bass in Lake Whitney, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farquhar, B.W.; Gutreuter, S.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty adult (3.2a??8.6 kg) striped bass Morone saxatilis were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked for up to 475 d in 9,510-hectare Lake Whitney, a Texas reservoir, to determine seasonal distribution, migration patterns, and water temperatures occupied. Striped bass distribution in summer was limited to an area near the dam, where they survived temperatures as high as 29.0A?C. Tagged fish generally were found in the coolest water available (27.0a??29.0A?C) that contained adequate dissolved oxygen (>4.0 mg/L) in summer and occupied the warmest water (7.4a??8.8A?C) in winter. For the rest of the year, the fish were distributed throughout available water temperatures. Beginning in autumn, most striped bass moved up the reservoir to and into the main tributaries and remained there until spring, when they returned to the main reservoir. No spawning run up main tributaries was observed in either of the two study years, possibly due to low inflows. Individual fish displayed a preference for certain areas to which they returned yearly.

  12. 75 FR 20550 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-AY14 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes 2010-2012 specifications for the Atlantic herring (herring) fishery....

  13. 75 FR 48874 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-AY14 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... announces final specifications for the 2010-2012 fishing years for the Atlantic herring (herring)...

  14. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be for the upcoming 3 fishing years, unless the Council identifies new/different research priorities... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.207 Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). (a) NMFS...

  15. 77 FR 65498 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the Atlantic Herring Management Area 1A Sub... fishing year sub-annual catch limit for Atlantic Herring Management Area 1A due to an under-harvest in the... processing, U.S. at-sea processing, border transfer and sub-ACLs for each management area. The 2012...

  16. 78 FR 46897 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Framework Adjustment 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Atlantic herring fishery. Framework 2 would allow the New England Fishery Management Council to split... specifications for the herring fishery for the 2013-2015 fishing years and would establish seasonal splits for... Measures Framework 2 would allow seasonal splits of sub-ACLs for all herring management areas through...

  17. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.207 Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). (a) NMFS shall... of the set-asides, the unutilized portion of the set-aside shall be reallocated back to...

  18. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.207 Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). (a) NMFS shall... of the set-asides, the unutilized portion of the set-aside shall be reallocated back to...

  19. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.207 Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). (a) NMFS shall... of the set-asides, the unutilized portion of the set-aside shall be reallocated back to...

  20. 78 FR 33020 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Amendment 5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... unsampled catch; addressing the incidental catch and bycatch of river herring; and revising the criteria for... considered under Amendment 5 included: A catch-monitoring program; measures to address river herring bycatch... maximum of $325 per day; Establish a framework provision for a river herring catch cap, such that a...

  1. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... research priorities and/or management needs, project design, participants other than the applicant, funding... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.207 Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). (a) NMFS...

  2. Pacific and Atlantic herring produce burst pulse sounds.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ben; Batty, Robert S; Dill, Lawrence M

    2004-02-07

    The commercial importance of Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea pallasii and Clupea harengus) has ensured that much of their biology has received attention. However, their sound production remains poorly studied. We describe the sounds made by captive wild-caught herring. Pacific herring produce distinctive bursts of pulses, termed Fast Repetitive Tick (FRT) sounds. These trains of broadband pulses (1.7-22 kHz) lasted between 0.6 s and 7.6 s. Most were produced at night; feeding regime did not affect their frequency, and fish produced FRT sounds without direct access to the air. Digestive gas or gulped air transfer to the swim bladder, therefore, do not appear to be responsible for FRT sound generation. Atlantic herring also produce FRT sounds, and video analysis showed an association with bubble expulsion from the anal duct region (i.e. from the gut or swim bladder). To the best of the authors' knowledge, sound production by such means has not previously been described. The function(s) of these sounds are unknown, but as the per capita rates of sound production by fish at higher densities were greater, social mediation appears likely. These sounds may have consequences for our understanding of herring behaviour and the effects of noise pollution.

  3. Segregation of herring larvae from inshore and offshore spawning grounds in the north-western North Sea — Implications for stock structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, M.

    Herring larvae hatching from spawning sites around the Scottish coast are dispersed by water currents during the weeks following hatching. Hydrographic data, observations on the distribution of caesium-137 and measurements of current velocities by moored meters and drifting buoys, suggest that larvae from offshore spawning sites around the north of Scotland should be more rapidly dispersed than those hatching in inshore areas. This has been confirmed by direct observations on the advection of herring larvae in different regions of the north western North Sea. The conclusion is that larvae hatching in inshore areas, especially in the Moray Firth, are most likely to contribute to nearby juvenile populations, whereas larvae from offshore spawning sites should be widely dispersed over the North Sea. Tagging and parasitology investigations have shown that adult herring spawning in the north-western North Sea have been widely dispersed in the North Sea and adjacent waters as juveniles (six months — one and a half years old). However, a high proportion of adult fish caught at inshore spawning sites and in the Moray Firth were found to have been recruited from more local areas. Taken together with the observations on larval drift, these observations suggest that the stock structure of herring in the northern North Sea may in part be a consequence of the physical oceanography of the area.

  4. Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe.

  5. Feasibility of Surgically Implanting Acoustic Tags into Pacific Herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Seitz, A.C.; Norcross, Brenda L.; Payne, J.C.; Kagley, A.N.; Meloy, B

    2010-01-01

    Internally implanted acoustic tags represent a potentially valuable approach to assessing the seasonal migration and distribution patterns of Pacific herring Clupea palasii. We examined the feasibility of implanting two sizes of dummy acoustic tags (9 mm in diameter × 21 mm long, 1.6 g; and 7 mm in diameter × 18 mm long, 0.7 g) in Pacific herring that had been held in captivity for nearly a year and that ranged from 165 to 215 mm in fork length (FL) and from 41.6 to 142.6 g. Relatively low mortality (4%) and tag shedding (4%), as well as growth similar to that observed in control fish after 135 d, indicate that, with proper handling, Pacific herring are amenable to surgical implantation of acoustic tags.

  6. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Ward, Eric J; Adkison, Milo; Couture, Jessica; Dressel, Sherri C; Litzow, Michael A; Moffitt, Steve; Hoem Neher, Tammy; Trochta, John; Brenner, Rich

    2017-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1) density dependence, (2) the EVOS event, (3) changing environmental conditions, (4) interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5) predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the interactions between

  7. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Adkison, Milo; Couture, Jessica; Dressel, Sherri C.; Litzow, Michael A.; Moffitt, Steve; Hoem Neher, Tammy; Trochta, John

    2017-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1) density dependence, (2) the EVOS event, (3) changing environmental conditions, (4) interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5) predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures—before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the interactions between

  8. Demographics and 2008 Run Timing of Adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and Shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Hewitt, David A.; Barry, Patrick M.; Scott, Alta; Koller, Justin; Johnson, Mark; Blackwood, Greta

    2009-01-01

    We used capture-recapture data to assess population dynamics of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber method was used to estimate apparent survival probabilities, and a temporal symmetry model was used to estimate annual seniority probabilities. Information theoretic modeling was used to assess variation in parameter estimates due to time, gender, and species. In addition, length data were used to detect multiple year-class failures and events of high recruitment into adult spawning populations. Survival of adult Lost River and shortnose suckers varied substantially across years. Relatively high annual mortality was observed for the lakeshore-spawning Lost River sucker subpopulation in 2002 and for the river spawning subpopulation in 2001. Shortnose suckers experienced high mortality in 2001 and 2004. This indicates that high mortality events are not only species specific, but also are specific to subpopulations for Lost River suckers. Seniority probability estimates and length composition data indicate that recruitment of new individuals into adult sucker populations has been sparse. The overall fitness of Upper Klamath Lake sucker populations are of concern given the low observed survival in some years and the paucity of recent recruitment. During most years, estimates of survival probabilities were lower than seniority probabilities, indicating net losses in adult sucker population abundances. The evidence for decline was more marked for shortnose suckers than for Lost River suckers. Our data indicated that sucker survival for both species, but especially shortnose suckers, was sometimes low in years without any observed fish kills. This indicates that high mortality can occur over a protracted period, resulting in poor annual survival, but will not necessarily be observed in association with a fish kill. A better understanding of the factors

  9. HD 65949: Rosetta stone or red herring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Hubrig, S.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Biémont, É.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Schütz, O.; González, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    HD 65949 is a late B star with exceptionally strong HgII λ3984, but it is not a typical HgMn star. The ReII spectrum is of extraordinary strength. Abundances or upper limits are derived here for 58 elements based on a model with Teff = 13100K and log (g) = 4.0. Even-Z elements through nickel show minor deviations from solar abundances. Anomalies among the odd-Z elements through copper are mostly small. Beyond the iron peak, a huge scatter is found. Enormous enhancements are found for the elements rhenium through mercury (Z = 75-80). We note the presence of ThIII in the spectrum. The abundance pattern of the heaviest elements resembles the N = 126 r-process peak of solar material, though not in detail. An odd-Z anomaly appears at the triplet (Zr Nb Mo), and there is a large abundance jump between Xe (Z = 54) and Ba (Z = 56). These are signatures of chemical fractionation. We find a significant correlation of the abundance excesses with second ionization potentials for elements with Z > 30. If this is not a red herring (false lead), it indicates the relevance of photospheric or near-photospheric processes. Large excesses (4-6 dex) require diffusion from deeper layers with the elements passing through a number of ionization stages. That would make the correlation with second ionization potential puzzling. We explore a model with mass accretion of exotic material followed by the more commonly accepted differentiation by diffusion. That model leads to a number of predictions which challenge future work. New observations confirm the orbital elements of Gieseking and Karimie, apart from the systemic velocity, which has increased. Likely primary and secondary masses are near 3.3 and 1.6 Msolar, with a separation of ca. 0.25 au. New atomic structure calculations are presented in two appendices. These include partition functions for the first through third spectra of Ru, Re and Os, as well as oscillator strengths in the ReII spectrum. Based on observations obtained at the

  10. Abnormalities in larvae from the once-largest Pacific herring population in Washington State result primarily from factors independent of spawning location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.; Wittouck, J.; Stick, K.; Kocan, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Among larvae from populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in Washington State those from Cherry Point have consistently demonstrated abnormalities indicative of distress, including low weights and lengths at hatch, increased prevalences of skeletal abnormalities, and shorter survival times in food deprivation studies. The biomass of adult, prespawn Pacific herring at Cherry Point declined from 13,606 metric tons in 1973 to a record low 733 metric tons in 2000. However, correlation of larval abnormalities with adult recruitment was weak, indicating that the larval abnormalities did not directly cause the decline. Larval abnormalities originated primarily from factors independent of conditions at the spawning location because they were not reproduced by incubation of foreign zygotes along the Cherry Point shoreline but were reproduced after the development of indigenous zygotes in controlled laboratory conditions. Although the precise cause of the abnormalities was not determined, recent zoographic trends in elevated natural mortality among adult Pacific herring and resulting reduced age structures may be involved. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  11. High Potential for Using DNA from Ancient Herring Bones to Inform Modern Fisheries Management and Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Speller, Camilla F.; Hauser, Lorenz; Lepofsky, Dana; Moore, Jason; Rodrigues, Antonia T.; Moss, Madonna L.; McKechnie, Iain; Yang, Dongya Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) are an abundant and important component of the coastal ecosystems for the west coast of North America. Current Canadian federal herring management assumes five regional herring populations in British Columbia with a high degree of exchange between units, and few distinct local populations within them. Indigenous traditional knowledge and historic sources, however, suggest that locally adapted, distinct regional herring populations may have been more prevalent in the past. Within the last century, the combined effects of commercial fishing and other anthropogenic factors have resulted in severe declines of herring populations, with contemporary populations potentially reflecting only the remnants of a previously more abundant and genetically diverse metapopulation. Through the analysis of 85 archaeological herring bones, this study attempted to reconstruct the genetic diversity and population structure of ancient herring populations using three different marker systems (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites and SNPs). A high success rate (91%) of DNA recovery was obtained from the extremely small herring bone samples (often <10 mg). The ancient herring mtDNA revealed high haplotype diversity comparable to modern populations, although population discrimination was not possible due to the limited power of the mtDNA marker. Ancient microsatellite diversity was also similar to modern samples, but the data quality was compromised by large allele drop-out and stuttering. In contrast, SNPs were found to have low error rates with no evidence for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and simulations indicated high power to detect genetic differentiation if loci under selection are used. This study demonstrates that SNPs may be the most effective and feasible approach to survey genetic population structure in ancient remains, and further efforts should be made to screen for high differentiation markers.This study provides the much

  12. Projected habitat loss for Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A

    2016-02-01

    Projected, climate-driven changes in rainfall patterns are expected to alter the salinity (S) of estuaries and larger brackish water bodies, such as the Baltic Sea. Some marine fish larvae are potentially more sensitive to low salinity than older stages, hence we compared the low salinity tolerance of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae at the individual and population levels including four populations in the North and Baltic Seas. Acute low salinity tolerance was similar (S = 1.9-2.7) across populations and increased with increasing body size. Based on this physiological threshold and a regionally down-scaled climate model, spawning habitats in the northern and eastern Baltic Sea are projected to be largely unsuitable for herring by 2100. Although adaptive mechanisms may attenuate the effect in some species, the limited physiological tolerance of fish larvae will remain an important bottleneck for the persistence of marine fish populations in brackish waters undergoing climate-driven freshening.

  13. Status of river herring stocks in large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, R.E.; Jessop, B.M.; Hightower, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined long-term data sets from large rivers in the northern, central, and southern parts of the ranges of anadromous river herring (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and blueback herring A. aestivalis) to assess the current status of these species and for evidence of fishery-induced effects on their demographic characteristics. Both species show signs of overexploitation in all rivers examined, such as reductions in mean age, decreases in percentage of returning spawners, and decreases in abundance. These two species should be managed separately since exploitation within a given river is often biased toward one or the other and there are enough differences in their biology so that a single management option will affect them differently. These species are not distinguished in commercial catches, which hinders understanding of their exploitation. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  14. Passive immunization of Pacific herring against viral hemorrhagic septicemia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; LaPatra, S.E.; Winton, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    The plasma of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii that survived laboratory-induced viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) epizootics contained humoral substances that, when injected into naive animals, conferred passive immunity against the disease. Among groups exposed to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), injection of donor plasma from VHS survivors resulted in significantly greater survival (50%) and significantly lower tissue titers (1.5 x 10(5) plaque-forming units [PFU]/g) than the injection of plasma from VHSV-naive donors (6% survival; 3.7 x 10(6) PFU/g). Additionally, the magnitude of the protective immune response increased during the postexposure period; plasma that was collected from survivors at 123 d postexposure (931 degree-days) provided greater protection than plasma collected from survivors at 60 d postexposure (409 degree-days). These results provide proof of concept that the VHSV exposure history of Pacific herring populations can be determined post hoc; furthermore, the results can be used as the foundation for developing additional high-throughput diagnostic techniques that may be effective at quantifying herd immunity and forecasting the potential for future VHS epizootics in populations of wild Pacific herring.

  15. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  16. Chemical Characterization of Lipophilic Constituents in the Skin of Migratory Adult Sea Lamprey from the Great Lakes Region

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, Amila A.; Wagner, C. Michael; Nair, Muraleedharan G.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromzons marinus) is an invasive ectoparasite of large-bodied fishes that adversely affects the fishing industry and ecology of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lipid content in the whole sea lamprey and muscles, liver and kidney of metamorphosing larval stages has been reported. Similarly, the fatty acid profile of the rope tissues of sexually-mature male sea lampreys has also been reported. The average body weight of a sub-adult migratory sea lamprey is 250 g, which includes 14.4% skin (36 g). Our preliminary extraction data of an adult sea lamprey skin revealed that it contained approximately 8.5% of lipophilic compounds. Lamprey skin is home to a naturally aversive compound (an alarm cue) that is being developed into a repellent for use in pest management. As part of an ongoing investigation to identify the chemical structure of the sea lamprey alarm cue, we extracted the skin with water and methanol, respectively. The methanolic extract (1.55%) contained exclusively lipophilic compounds and did not include the alarm cue. We chemically characterized all compounds present in the methanolic extract as cholesterol esters (CE), tri- and di-glycerides (TG and DG), cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA) and minor amounts of plasticizers. The free fatty acids fraction was composed of saturated (41.8%), monounsaturated (40.7%) and polyunsaturated (17.4%) fatty acids, respectively. The plasticizers characterized were phthalate and benzoate and found to be 0.95 mg and 2.54 mg, respectively, per adult sea lamprey skin. This is the first report of the chemical characterization of all the lipophilic constituents in the skin of sub-adult migratory sea lamprey. The CEs isolated and characterized from sea lamprey skin are also for the first time. PMID:27992570

  17. Thermal impacts on the growth, development and ontogeny of critical swimming speed in Atlantic herring larvae.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Marta; Illing, Björn; Peschutter, Philip; Huebert, Klaus B; Peck, Myron A

    2016-07-01

    Increases in swimming ability have a profound influence on larval fish growth and survival by increasing foraging success, predator avoidance and the ability to favorably influence transport. Understanding how development and environmental factors combine to influence swimming performance in aquatic organisms is particularly important during the transition from viscous to inertial environments. We measured the growth, development and ontogenetic changes in critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae reared at three temperatures (7, 11, 15°C). Temperature had a significant effect on growth rates (from 0.21 at 7°C to 0.34mm·d(-1) at 15°C), and larval morphology-at-length (increased dry weight (DW), body height and developmental rate at warmer temperatures). Temperature-dependent differences in morphology influenced swimming performance (e.g. the exponential increase in Ucrit with increasing body size was faster at warmer temperatures). Larvae entered the transition to an inertial environment (Reynolds numbers ≥300) at body lengths between 15 (15°C) and 17mm (7°C). Inter-individual differences in Ucrit were not related to nutritional condition (RNA·DNA(-1) or DNA·DW(-1)), but were negatively correlated to length-at-age, suggesting a trade-off between growth rate and locomotor activity. The Ucrit data from this and previously published studies suggest that Atlantic herring pass through four activity phases: 1) yolk-sac (<0.6cm·s(-1)), 2) pre-flexion (0.6-3.0cm·s(-1), temperature effect changes with body size), 3) post-flexion (up to 6-8cm·s(-1), Q10~1.8-2.0), 4) juvenile-adult period (20-170cm·s(-1)).

  18. Monitoring of adult Lost River and shortnose suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, 2008–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Hayes, Brian S.

    2013-01-01

    Problems with inferring status and population dynamics from size composition data can be overcome by a robust capture-recapture program that follows the histories of PIT-tagged individuals. Inferences from such a program are currently hindered by poor detection rates during spawning seasons with low flows in Willow Creek, which indicate that a key assumption of capture-recapture models is violated. We suggest that the most straightforward solution to this issue would be to collect detection data during the spawning season using remote PIT tag antennas in the strait between the west and east lobes of the lake.

  19. 77 FR 62257 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Herring River Restoration Project, Cape Cod National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ...-0081-422] Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Herring River Restoration Project, Cape Cod... Statement (DEIS) for the Herring River Restoration Project in Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. The... scheduled, the meeting date will be announced via the Cape Cod National Seashore Web site (...

  20. Energetic cost of ichthyophonus infection in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Gregg, J.L.; Heintz, R.A.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The energetic costs of fasting and Ichthyophonus infection were measured in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in a lab setting at three temperatures. Infected herring incurred significant energetic costs, the magnitude of which depended on fish condition at the time of infection (fat versus lean). Herring that were fed continually and were in relatively good condition at the time of infection (fat) never stored lipid despite ad libitum feeding. In feeding herring, the energetic cost of infection was a 30 reduction in total energy content relative to controls 52 days post infection. Following food deprivation (lean condition), infection caused an initial delay in the compensatory response of herring. Thirty-one days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 32 reduction in total energy content relative to controls. Body composition of infected herring subsequently recovered to some degree, though infected herring never attained the same energy content as their continuously fed counterparts. Fifty-two days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 6 reduction in total energy content relative to controls. The greatest impacts of infection occurred in colder temperatures, suggesting Ichthyophonus-induced reductions in body condition may have greater consequences in the northern extent of herring's range, where juveniles use most of their energy reserves to survive their first winter. Copyright ?? 2011 Johanna J. Vollenweider et al.

  1. 77 FR 10978 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to 2012 Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... (herring) fishery to account for catch overages in 2010 and to prevent overfishing. DATES: Effective... not experiencing overfishing, the herring annual acceptable biological catch for fishing years 2010..., ACLs must be set at a level that prevents overfishing. The sub-ACLs overages in 2010 did not result...

  2. 78 FR 70009 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustments to 2014 Sub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... (ACLs) for the Atlantic herring (herring) fishery to account for catch overages and underharvest in 2012. Three of the four sub-ACLs are being decreased and one sub-ACL is being increased. This would result in... in error. To improve the likelihood of not exceeding ACLs, in those instances we used the...

  3. 75 FR 69014 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch Harvested for Management Area 1A AGENCY... August 12, 2010 (75 FR 48874). The 2010 total TAC is 91,200 mt, allocated to the herring management areas...), per trip or calendar day, in or from Management Area 1A (Area 1A) until January 1, 2011, except...

  4. 76 FR 34947 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Regulatory Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... considered measures related to catch monitoring and reporting, interactions with river herring, access by... specification issues, but that all other issues (e.g., catch monitoring and reporting, interactions with river... Trip Report, filled out as required by the LOA to transfer herring at sea, and a weekly IVR report...

  5. Lake-front property: a unique germinal niche by the lateral ventricles of the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Ihrie, Rebecca A; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2011-05-26

    New neurons and glial cells are generated in an extensive germinal niche adjacent to the walls of the lateral ventricles in the adult brain. The primary progenitors (B1 cells) have astroglial characteristics but retain important neuroepithelial properties. Recent work shows how B1 cells contact all major compartments of this niche. They share the "shoreline" on the ventricles with ependymal cells, forming a unique adult ventricular zone (VZ). In the subventricular zone (SVZ), B1 cells contact transit amplifying (type C) cells, chains of young neurons (A cells), and blood vessels. How signals from these compartments influence the behavior of B1 or C cells remains largely unknown, but recent work highlights growth factors, neurotransmitters, morphogens, and the extracellular matrix as key regulators of this niche. The integration of emerging molecular and anatomical clues forecasts an exciting new understanding of how the germ of youth is actively maintained in the adult brain.

  6. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in

  7. Pathogenecity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish--thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  8. Pathogenicity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish - thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  9. Effects of chlorpyrifos on in vitro sex steroid production and thyroid follicular development in adult and larval Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Catherine; Burnett, Duncan C; Arcinas, Liane; Palace, Vince; Gary Anderson, W

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate pesticide that has previously been shown to enter waterways in biologically relevant concentrations and has the potential to disrupt both thyroid hormone and sex steroid biosynthesis in vertebrates. Because gonadal maturation and larval development in Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, potentially coincide with the application of chlorpyrifos we examined the effects of chlorpyrifos on both thyroid follicular development in larval Lake Sturgeon, and sex hormone synthesis in adult Lake Sturgeon. For the first time, the present study reports steroidogenesis from testicular and ovarian tissue in Lake Sturgeon using an established in vitro bioassay. Furthermore, incubating gonad tissue with 5, 500 or 2000ngmL(-1) chlorpyrifos revealed an inhibitory effect on testosterone synthesis in both testicular (control, 40.29pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 21.84pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) and ovarian (control, 33.83pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 15.19pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) tissue. In a second series of experiments, larval Lake Sturgeon were exposed to equivalent concentrations of chlorpyrifos as above for 10days (d) between hatch and the onset of exogenous feeding. Larvae from each treatment group were raised until 67days post hatch (dph) and growth rates were compared alongside key indicators of thyroid follicle growth. Chlorpyrifos treatment had no effect on the measured indicators of thyroid follicular development.

  10. The herring gull complex is not a ring species.

    PubMed Central

    Liebers, Dorit; de Knijff, Peter; Helbig, Andreas J.

    2004-01-01

    Under what circumstances speciation in sexually reproducing animals can occur without geographical disjunction is still controversial. According to the ring-species model, a reproductive barrier may arise through 'isolation by distance' when peripheral populations of a species meet after expanding around some uninhabitable barrier. The classical example of this kind of speciation is the herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex, with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on mitochondrial DNA variation among 21 gull taxa, we show that members of this complex differentiated largely in allopatry following multiple vicariance and long-distance-colonization events, not primarily through isolation by distance. Reproductive isolation evolved more rapidly between some lineages than between others, irrespective of their genetic distance. Extant taxa are the result of divergent as well as reticulate evolution between two ancestral lineages originally separated in a North Atlantic refugium and a continental Eurasian refugium, respectively. Continental birds expanded along the entire north Eurasian coast and via Beringia into North America. Contrary to the ring-species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. However, closure of the ring in the opposite direction may be imminent, with lesser black-backed gulls about to colonize North America. PMID:15255043

  11. Infecting Pacific Herring with Ichthyophonus sp. in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul; Hart, Lucas; Mackenzie, Ashley; Yanney, M.L.; Conway, Carla M.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2015-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus sp. occurs in coastal populations of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii throughout the northeast Pacific region, but the route(s) by which these planktivorous fish become infected is unknown. Several methods for establishing Ichthyophonus infections in laboratory challenges were examined. Infections were most effectively established after intraperitoneal (IP) injections with suspended parasite isolates from culture or after repeated feedings with infected fish tissues. Among groups that were offered the infected tissues, infection prevalence was greater after multiple feedings (65%) than after a single feeding (5%). Additionally, among groups that were exposed to parasite suspensions prepared from culture isolates, infection prevalence was greater after exposure by IP injection (74%) than after exposure via gastric intubation (12%); the flushing of parasite suspensions over the gills did not lead to infections in any of the experimental fish. Although the consumption of infected fish tissues is unlikely to be the primary route of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission in wild populations of Pacific Herring, this route may contribute to abnormally high infection prevalence in areas where juveniles have access to infected offal.

  12. Infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in eider ducks and Herring Gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J. Christian; Docherty, Douglas E.; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Petersen, Margaret R.

    2000-01-01

    We measured antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in blood of nesting Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) females and immature Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in the Baltic Sea, and in blood of Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) females nesting in a remote area of western Alaska. Positive (??? 1:16) IBDV titers occurred in 75% of the eiders and 45% of the Herring Gull chicks. In eiders, the prevalence of positive titers differed among locations. We found no evidence that IBDV exposure impaired the immune function of Herring Gull chicks, based on their response to inoculation of sheep red blood cells. We suggest that eider ducks and Herring Gulls have been exposed to IBDV, even in locations where contact with poultry is unlikely. The presence of this virus in wild bird populations is of concern because it causes mortality of up to 30% in susceptible poultry.

  13. 76 FR 79610 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to 2012 Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... overfishing. DATES: Public comments must be received no later than 5 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, on January 6... overfished and is not experiencing overfishing, the herring annual acceptable biological catch for...

  14. The analysis and composition of fatty material produced by the decomposition of herring in sea water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.; Erickson, E.T.

    1933-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids derived from herring buried under sea water, and discusses some geochemical possibilities related to the origin of petroleum in sedimentary deposits.

  15. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic). Atlantic Herring,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    from alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) economy (Briggs et al. 1982). The and shads (Alosa spp.): the point of average annual value of Maine herring origin...D.J. Wildish, and R.H. pp. Peterson. 1981. Possible impact 20 .. .. , ,,n ,nnmm, m mm • ~ mlm mBNIN - - !| from dredging and spoil disposal on...a herring (Clu__ a No. 1008. 33 pp. harengus L.) spawning bed in Miramichi Bay, New Brunswick. Can. Meyer, H.A. 1878. Beobachtungen uber Tech. Rep

  16. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerer, A. J. (Principal Investigator); Brucks, J. T.; Butler, J. A.; Faller, K. H.; Holley, H. J.; Leming, T. D.; Savastano, K. J.; Vanselous, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The relationship between the distribution of menhaden and selected oceanographic parameters (water color, turbidity, and possibly chlorophyll concentrations) was established. Similar relationships for thread herring were not established nor were relationships relating to the abundance of either species. Use of aircraft and LANDSAT remote sensing instruments to measure or infer a set of basic oceanographic parameters was evaluated. Parameters which could be accurately inferred included surface water temperature, salinity, and color. Water turbidity (Secchi disk) was evaluated as marginally inferrable from the LANDSAT MSS data and chlorophyll-a concentrations as less than marginal. These evaluations considered the parameters only as experienced in the two test areas using available sensors and statistical techniques.

  17. Effects of introducing foxes and raccoons on herring gull colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kadlec, J.A.

    1971-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) released at colonies of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on islands off the Massachusetts coast effectively eliminated the production of young gulls. Annual predator introductions for 2-4 years caused major reductions in colony size and occasionally total abandonment of the island as a colony site. Observations of the experimental islands for 2 years after cessation of predator introductions showed slow repopulation of the islands and lower breeding success than on control islands. The size of the regional population was reduced largely because of the movements of gulls off the experimental islands. The introduced predators are, in most cases, difficult to maintain on the islands; this restricts their utility in population management.

  18. The Adopt-a-Herring program as a fisheries conservation tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Holly J.; Mather, Martha E.; Muth, Robert M.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Smith, Joseph M.; Finn, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Successful conservation depends on a scientifically literate public. We developed the adopt-a-Herring program to educate nonscientists about fisheries and watershed restoration. this interactive educational and outreach project encouraged coastal residents to be involved in local watershed restoration. In the northeastern United States, river herring (Alosa spp.) are an important component of many coastal watersheds and often are the object of conservation efforts. In order to understand river herring spawning behavior and to improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts, our research tracked these fish via radiotelemetry in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts. In our adopt-a-Herring Program, participating stakeholder organizations adopted and named individual tagged river herring and followed their movements online. We also made information available to our adopters on our larger research goals, the mission and activities of other research and management agencies, examples of human actions that adversely affect watersheds, and opportunities for proactive conservation. Research results were communicated to adopters through our project web page and end-of-the-season summary presentations. Both tools cultivated a personal interest in river herring, stimulated discussion about fisheries and watershed restoration, educated participants about the goals and methods of scientists in general, and initiated critical thinking about human activities that advance or impede sustainability.

  19. Role of egg predation by haddock in the decline of an Atlantic herring population

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David E.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Fogarty, Michael J.; Link, Jason S.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical studies suggest that the abrupt and substantial changes in the productivity of some fisheries species may be explained by predation-driven alternate stable states in their population levels. With this hypothesis, an increase in fishing or a natural perturbation can drive a population from an upper to a lower stable-equilibrium population level. After fishing is reduced or the perturbation ended, this low population level can persist due to the regulatory effect of the predator. Although established in theoretical studies, there is limited empirical support for predation-driven alternate stable states in exploited marine fish populations. We present evidence that egg predation by haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) can cause alternate stable population levels in Georges Bank Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). Egg predation by haddock explains a substantial decoupling of herring spawning stock biomass (an index of egg production) from observed larval herring abundance (an index of egg hatching). Estimated egg survival rates ranged from <2–70% from 1971 to 2005. A population model incorporating egg predation and herring fishing explains the major population trends of Georges Bank herring over four decades and predicts that, when the haddock population is high, seemingly conservative levels of fishing can still precipitate a severe decline in the herring population. These findings illustrate how efforts to rebuild fisheries can be undermined by not incorporating ecological interactions into fisheries models and management plans. PMID:21825166

  20. Role of egg predation by haddock in the decline of an Atlantic herring population.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David E; Hare, Jonathan A; Fogarty, Michael J; Link, Jason S

    2011-08-16

    Theoretical studies suggest that the abrupt and substantial changes in the productivity of some fisheries species may be explained by predation-driven alternate stable states in their population levels. With this hypothesis, an increase in fishing or a natural perturbation can drive a population from an upper to a lower stable-equilibrium population level. After fishing is reduced or the perturbation ended, this low population level can persist due to the regulatory effect of the predator. Although established in theoretical studies, there is limited empirical support for predation-driven alternate stable states in exploited marine fish populations. We present evidence that egg predation by haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) can cause alternate stable population levels in Georges Bank Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). Egg predation by haddock explains a substantial decoupling of herring spawning stock biomass (an index of egg production) from observed larval herring abundance (an index of egg hatching). Estimated egg survival rates ranged from <2-70% from 1971 to 2005. A population model incorporating egg predation and herring fishing explains the major population trends of Georges Bank herring over four decades and predicts that, when the haddock population is high, seemingly conservative levels of fishing can still precipitate a severe decline in the herring population. These findings illustrate how efforts to rebuild fisheries can be undermined by not incorporating ecological interactions into fisheries models and management plans.

  1. Metazoan parasites from herring (Clupea harengus L.) as biological indicators in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Unger, Patrick; Klimpel, Sven; Lang, Thomas; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    Zoographical distribution of metazoan fish parasites in herring, Clupea harengus, from the Baltic Sea was analysed in order to use them as potential biological indicators. A total of 210 herring from six different sampling sites were investigated, harbouring 12 different parasite species [five digeneans (D), one cestode (C), three nematodes (N) and three acanthocephalans (A)]. The distribution of the parasite species differed according to region, with a distinct gradient of decreasing species richness towards the east of the Baltic Sea. The western localities at Kiel Bay, Rügen and Poland had the highest parasite diversity, including the marine parasite species Anisakis simplex (s.s.) (N), Brachyphallus crenatus and Hemiurus luehei (both D). The eastern localities had low parasite species richness, predominated by the freshwater digenean Diplostomum spathaceum. We could identify three different Baltic herring stocks, the spring-spawning herring of the western Baltic reaching from the Kattegat to the German and Polish coast, the stock of the central Baltic proper and the northern stock of C. harengus var. membras of the Gulf of Finland. The limited distribution of the herring parasites within the Baltic Sea enables their use as biological indicators for migration patterns and stock separation. The acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis that has already been used as an accumulation bioindicator for heavy metals was only recorded for the western herring stocks. However, the presence of mainly generalistic parasites and their uneven distribution patterns make their use as indicators for regional environmental and global change more difficult.

  2. Migration dynamics of Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasii) and response to spring environmental variability in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tojo, Naoki; Kruse, Gordon H.; Funk, Fritz C.

    2007-11-01

    In the southeastern Bering Sea, Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasii) migrate from the Pribilof Islands region where they overwinter, to the Alaska coast where they spawn in spring. The migration sustains a nearshore commercial fishery that targets roe-bearing females just prior to spawning. Herring also are taken as bycatch in groundfish trawl fisheries, where time and area closures in these fisheries are triggered by herring bycatch caps. Using herring bycatch data collected since the 1970s by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) observers aboard groundfish fishing vessels, a retrospective analysis was conducted to describe the seasonal migration pattern of Pacific herring in the southeastern Bering Sea and to study its spatial and temporal variability. Observed changes in herring catch per unit of effort were compared with variability in climate and oceanographic conditions. The seasonal migration is complex, but annual shifts in migration routes and a possible northward shift of the overwintering grounds was identified. Pre-spawning herring aggregated in different areas depending on whether spawning occurred early or late in spring. The thermal structure of the ocean around the ice edge appears to influence herring migration timing and route as well as spawning date. Thus, on the basis of recent changes in sea-ice extent and duration, we suggest that the herring bycatch savings area that was developed from data collected in the 1980s should be revised to reflect prevailing conditions.

  3. Status and trends of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2015-10-02

    Despite relatively high survival in most years, we conclude that both species have experienced substantial decreases in the abundance of spawning adults because losses from mortality have not been balanced by recruitment of new individuals. Although capture-recapture data indicate substantial recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations for SNS and river spawning LRS in some years, size data do not corroborate these estimates. As a result, the status of the endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake remains worrisome, especially for shortnose suckers. Our monitoring program provides a robust platform for estimating vital population parameters, evaluating the status of the populations, and assessing the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  4. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  5. Seasonal variation in the levels of organohalogen compounds in herring (Clupea harengus) from the Norwegian Sea.

    PubMed

    Frantzen, Sylvia; Måge, Amund; Iversen, Svein Arnholt; Julshamn, Kåre

    2011-09-01

    The Norwegian spring spawning (NSS) herring is an ecologically important fish stock in the Norwegian Sea, and with a catch volume exceeding one million tons a year it is also economically important and a valuable food source. In order to provide a baseline of the levels of contaminants in this fish stock, the levels of organohalogen compounds were determined in 800 individual herring sampled at 29 positions in the Norwegian Sea and off the coast of Norway. Due to seasonal migration, the herring were sampled where they were located during the different seasons. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCB(7)) and PBDEs were determined in fillet samples of individual herring, and found to be relatively low, with means (min-max) of 0.77 (0.24-3.5) ng TEQ kg(-1) wet weight (ww), 5.0 (1.4-24) μg kg(-1) ww and 0.47 (0.091-3.1) μg kg(-1) ww, respectively. The concentrations varied throughout the year due to the feeding- and spawning cycle: Starved, pre-spawning herring caught off the Norwegian coast in January-February had the highest levels and those caught in the Norwegian Sea in April-June, after further starvation and spawning, had the lowest levels. These results show that the concentrations of organohalogen compounds in NSS herring are relatively low and closely tied to their physiological condition, and that in the future regular monitoring of NSS herring should be made in the spawning areas off the Norwegian coast in late winter.

  6. Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Schilt, C.R.; Jones, D.P.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents results of studies to predict the mortality rate of juvenile blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and American shad (A. sapidissima) associated with reduced pressure as they pass downstream through a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina. The primary function of the siphon is to increase attracting flow to better guide upstream migrating adult herring of both species into the existing fish lift for upstream passage. The US Army Engineer District, Charleston, wishes to consider the siphon as an alternative bypass route through the dam for downstream migrating juvenile and adult herring. A pressure-reduction testing system that emulates some of the pressure characteristics of the siphon was used to determine the approximate percentage of juvenile fishes that could be reasonably expected to be killed passing through the reduced pressures anticipated for the siphon water lift system. The testing system could duplicate the range of pressure change anticipated for the siphon lift system but could not obtain pressures lower than 4.1 psi, whereas pressures for some design alternatives may approach the theoretical minimum pressure of 0.0 psi. Study results indicate that the mortality rate is probably about 20 percent. Power analysis indicates that mortality rate above 30 percent is unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates. Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.

  7. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Morbidity Associated with Schistosomiasis among Adult Population in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Siza, Julius E.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a community survey on schistosomiais and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to suggest feasible and effective intervention strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. A total of 37 communities selected from 23 districts of the 4 regions in the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania were involved in the study. From each of the selected locality, 50 adult community members, 25 males and 25 females, were recruited for the study. Each study participant was requested to submit stool and urine specimens. From each stool specimen, duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were prepared and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH eggs. Urine specimens were processed by the filtration technique and microscopically examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Ultrasound examination for morbidity due to schistosomiasis was performed. Mass treatment was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosome and STHs infections, respectively. Out of 1,606 adults who provided stool specimens, 199 (12.4%) were positive for S. mansoni, 349 (21.7%) for hookworms, 133 (8.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 33 (2.0%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 1,400 participants who provided urine specimens, 25 (1.8%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. Because of the co-endemicity of these afflictions and their impact on vulnerable population groups, the helminthiasis could be simultaneously treated with 2 drugs, praziquantel for schistosomiasis and albendazole for STHs. PMID:26537031

  8. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Morbidity Associated with Schistosomiasis among Adult Population in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siza, Julius E; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a community survey on schistosomiais and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to suggest feasible and effective intervention strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. A total of 37 communities selected from 23 districts of the 4 regions in the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania were involved in the study. From each of the selected locality, 50 adult community members, 25 males and 25 females, were recruited for the study. Each study participant was requested to submit stool and urine specimens. From each stool specimen, duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were prepared and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH eggs. Urine specimens were processed by the filtration technique and microscopically examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Ultrasound examination for morbidity due to schistosomiasis was performed. Mass treatment was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosome and STHs infections, respectively. Out of 1,606 adults who provided stool specimens, 199 (12.4%) were positive for S. mansoni, 349 (21.7%) for hookworms, 133 (8.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 33 (2.0%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 1,400 participants who provided urine specimens, 25 (1.8%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. Because of the co-endemicity of these afflictions and their impact on vulnerable population groups, the helminthiasis could be simultaneously treated with 2 drugs, praziquantel for schistosomiasis and albendazole for STHs.

  9. Foraging behaviors of Surf Scoters and White-Winged Scoters during spawning of Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Winter diets of Surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and White-winged Scoters (M. fusca) are composed primarily of bivalves. During spawning of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) in early spring, scoters shift their diets to herring eggs. Using radio-telemetry, we contrasted scoter foraging behaviorsbetween winter and herring spawning periods. Scoters increased their dive durations during herring spawning, likely to maximize the amount of roe consumed per dive; in winter, dives were typically terminated upon clam capture. Scoters spent approximately 50% less time foraging ( $min underwater hr^{-1}$ ) and decreased their dive rate (dives hr -1 ) by 70% when feeding on roe. The observed reduction in time spent foraging was presumably caused by the abundance of herring eggs, and thus a reduction in prey search-time. Scoters were able to meet energetic requirements with reduced effort, despite potentially increased demands related to spring fattening. Less time spentforaging may also allow more time for premigratory courtship behaviors

  10. Food of blueback herring and threadfin shad in Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Foltz, Jeffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense and blueback herring Alosa aestivalis were introduced into Jocassee Reservoir, South Carolina, in the early 1970s as prey for large piscivores. To assess the potential for trophic competition between these clupeids, we examined their diets and the extent of diet overlap in May, August, and December 1982 and February 1983. The diet of blueback herring consisted mainly of large species of cladocerans and copepods supplemented in August with Chaoborus punctipennis and young fish. Mean length of the organisms eaten by blueback herring was 1.4 mm. Threadfin shad fed on smaller species of cladocerans and copepods, as well as on rotifers and copepod nauplii. The mean length of the organisms eaten by threadfin shad was 0.4 mm, which differed significantly from the mean length of the zooplankton population in Jocassee Reservoir (0.6 mm). Phytoplankton contributed 24 and 32% of the stomach contents of threadfin shad in August and December. Bosmina longirostris was important in the diet of both species, although blueback herring showed negative selection for it. Diet overlap between the two clupeids was low on all four dates. Although we found no evidence of trophic competition between the two species in Jocassee Reservoir, we do not recommend stocking them together, because both species are voracious planktivores and blueback herring are piscivorous.

  11. Seasonal plankton-fish interactions: light regime, prey phenology, and herring foraging.

    PubMed

    Varpe, Øystein; Fiksen, Øyvind

    2010-02-01

    When prey and predator are seasonal migrants, encounters depend on migration phenologies and environmental constraints on predation. Here we investigate the relative contribution of seasonality in irradiance and prey abundance in shaping the rapid seasonal body condition increase of a migrating predator searching visually for its prey: the Norwegian spring-spawning herring, Clupea harengus, feeding on the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Two main seasonal pulses of prey are available to herring: (1) the parent generation of C. finmarchicus, with peak abundance in March-April, which appear too early to cause the main increase in herring condition; and (2) the abundant offspring generation of C. finmarchicus, with peak abundance in June-July, too late to explain the main increase in body condition. However, a mechanistic model of ingestion rate, including both solar irradiance and prey abundance, predicted seasonal food intake in good accordance with observed herring body condition. This suggests that the seasonality in herring foraging and energy storage is closely linked to the return of longer days in spring, and less dependent on a match or mismatch with seasonal peaks in abundance of their zooplankton prey. Consequently, light related constraints on foraging may make visually searching predators at high latitudes resilient to changes and fluctuations in prey phenology and abundance, but vulnerable to changes in the light regime, such as water clarity.

  12. Outlier Loci Detect Intraspecific Biodiversity amongst Spring and Autumn Spawning Herring across Local Scales.

    PubMed

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Gross, Riho; Arula, Timo; Helyar, Sarah J; Ojaveer, Henn

    2016-01-01

    Herring, Clupea harengus, is one of the ecologically and commercially most important species in European northern seas, where two distinct ecotypes have been described based on spawning time; spring and autumn. To date, it is unknown if these spring and autumn spawning herring constitute genetically distinct units. We assessed levels of genetic divergence between spring and autumn spawning herring in the Baltic Sea using two types of DNA markers, microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and compared the results with data for autumn spawning North Sea herring. Temporally replicated analyses reveal clear genetic differences between ecotypes and hence support reproductive isolation. Loci showing non-neutral behaviour, so-called outlier loci, show convergence between autumn spawning herring from demographically disjoint populations, potentially reflecting selective processes associated with autumn spawning ecotypes. The abundance and exploitation of the two ecotypes have varied strongly over space and time in the Baltic Sea, where autumn spawners have faced strong depression for decades. The results therefore have practical implications by highlighting the need for specific management of these co-occurring ecotypes to meet requirements for sustainable exploitation and ensure optimal livelihood for coastal communities.

  13. 77 FR 10977 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-Annual Catch Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-Annual Catch Limit (ACL) Harvested for Management... January 1, 2013, when the 2013 sub-ACL for Area 1B becomes available, except when transiting as described in this notice. This action is based on the determination that the revised Atlantic herring...

  14. 76 FR 61059 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... calendar day until January 1, 2012, when the 2012 sub-ACL for Area 1B becomes available, except when... Atlantic herring sub-ACL allocated to Area 1B for 2011 is projected to be harvested by October 1,...

  15. 76 FR 61061 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... day until January 1, 2012, when the 2012 sub-ACL (annual catch limit) for Area 3 becomes available... percent of the herring sub-ACL allocated to Area 3 for 2011 is projected to be harvested by October...

  16. Susceptibility of Pacific herring to viral hemorrhagic septicemia is influenced by diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaulaurier, Joshua; Bickford, N.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Gannam, A.L.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Groups of specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were highly susceptible to infection by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV); however, the level of mortality was influenced by diet during the 40–71 d before, during, and after the first exposure to the virus. Cumulative mortality was highest among the herring maintained on an experimental soy-based pellet, intermediate among those maintained on a commercially available fish-meal-based pellet, and lowest among those maintained on a second commercially available fish-meal-based pellet containing ß-glucans. Additionally, the herring maintained on the experimental soy-based feed demonstrated less growth than those on the commercially available feeds. The results indicate the importance of standardizing diet during empirical determinations of disease susceptibility and provide insights into the risk factors affecting VHS susceptibility in wild populations.

  17. Influence of photoperiod on Orius thyestes Herring (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) reproduction and longevity.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alessandra R; Bueno, Vanda H P; Pedroso, Elizabeth C; Kon, Leonardo I; Diniz, Alexandre J F; Silva, Robson J

    2006-01-01

    Several species of Orius Wolff are used in biological control of thrips in protected cultivations in temperate regions, but some of them show reproductive diapause, compromising the efficiency of these agents of biological control. There are no reports on the biology of the neotropical species Orius thyestes Herring under different environmental conditions. The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of photoperiod on reproduction and longevity of this predator. Nymphs were kept in petri dishes in climatic chambers at 28+/-1 degree C, 70+/-10% RH and under the photoperiods of 12L:12D, 11L:13D, 10 L:14D e 09L:15D. The mating adults were kept in petri dishes with Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae inflorescences as oviposition substracts and eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as food. The pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity and longevity were evaluated and O. thyestes did not show reprodutive diapause in all photoperiod conditions established. The mean number of eggs obtained per female decreased with the reduction of the photophase, with a difference (P < 0.05) between the values obtained in 12h and 9h of photophase. Longevity of females and males under 9h photophase was shorter (P < 0.05) than in all other photoperiods tested. The knowledge of the biology of the natural enemy under different conditions allows to optimise the mass rearing and to predict the performance of the predator in different photoperiods which may occur along the year and in greenhouses.

  18. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Prince William Sound Herring disease program (HDP), restoration project 070819

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul; Elliott, Diane G.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hansen, John D.; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of pathogens in Pacific herring from 2007 – 2010 indicated that Ichthyophonus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, and erythrocytic necrosis virus are endemic in Prince William Sound and throughout the NE Pacific. Laboratory studies with VHSV indicated that multiple herring stocks are equally susceptible to the resulting disease, Pacific herring shed copious levels of VHSV (as high at 5x108 plaque-forming units/day) shortly after exposure, chronic and persistent infections can occur in Pacific herring, susceptibility of Pacific herring to VHS extends to the larval life stages but not the embryonic stages, and the prior exposure history of Pacific herring to VHSV can be determined post hoc. Laboratory studies involving Ichthyophonus indicated that schizonts can be inactivated with chlorine and iodine solutions, the parasite can survive for extended periods in saltwater but not freshwater, a low potential exists for cross contamination between in vitro explant cultures, infectious schizonts are released from the skin surface of infected herring, schizonts are not uniformly distributed throughout the skeletal muscle of infected Pacific herring, multiple types of Ichthyophonus exist with different genotypes and phenotypic traits, and temperature is an important factor influencing the infectivity of Ichthyophonus. Additional field and laboratory studies indicated that Ichthyophonus negatively influences the swimming performance of infected hosts and the negative impacts effects are exacerbated by increasing temperatures, American shad are an important reservoir of Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, Pacific herring are not susceptible to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and Pacific herring will accept surgically implanted acoustic tags with negligible impacts on survival.

  19. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  20. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Bromage, Erin S.; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D.; Badil, Samantha M.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM+ B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring.

  1. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii).

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Bromage, Erin S; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D; Badil, Samantha M; Woodson, James C; Hershberger, Paul K

    2012-09-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM⁺ B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring.

  2. Primary productivity and the carrying capacity for herring in NE Pacific marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R. Ian; Schweigert, Jacob F.

    2008-05-01

    The carrying capacity for Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasi) and its relationship to primary productivity was examined for eight populations in the NE Pacific and eastern Bering Sea. Data on biomass (ages 3 and older) and catches of herring in British Columbia (Georgia Strait, west coast Vancouver Island, Central Coast, Queen Charlotte Islands, Prince Rupert) and Alaska (Sitka, Prince William Sound, eastern Bering Sea) during the second half of the 20th Century derived from analytical stock assessments were used to calculate annual surplus production of herring. There was considerable interannual variability in herring productivity among all populations, however, only three (Georgia Strait, Prince Rupert, Prince William Sound) showed significant differences in mean productivity on decadal time scales (productivity regimes). Carrying capacity for the most recent productivity regime for each population was estimated using the Schaefer surplus production model. Mean annual primary productivity was estimated from remotely-sensed (SeaWiFS) chlorophyll data for British Columbia and Sitka ecosystems, and from in situ chlorophyll data for Prince William Sound and the eastern Bering Sea. The carrying capacity for herring populations in the NE Pacific ranged from 28,000 to 250,000 tonnes, and to 325,000 tonnes in the eastern Bering Sea. When considered on the basis of their distributional area, the west coast of Vancouver Island and Georgia Strait populations had the highest carrying capacity per unit area (9.3-13.8 tonnes km -2) and the eastern Bering Sea had the lowest (0.7 tonnes km -2). There is a significant positive linear relationship between the productivity of herring populations at carrying capacity and primary productivity on a per unit area basis. Although similar direct relationships have been observed between phytoplankton standing stock (as chlorophyll biomass) and total catches of resident fish populations from these regions, such a direct relationship was

  3. Geographic variation in Pacific herring growth in response to regime shifts in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Shin-ichi; Rose, Kenneth A.; Megrey, Bernard A.; Schweigert, Jake; Hay, Douglas; Werner, Francisco E.; Aita, Maki Noguchi

    2015-11-01

    Pacific herring populations at eight North Pacific Rim locations were simulated to compare basin-wide geographic variations in age-specific growth due to environmental influences on marine productivity and population-specific responses to regime shifts. Temperature and zooplankton abundance from a three-dimensional lower-trophic ecosystem model (NEMURO: North Pacific Ecosystem Model for Understanding Regional Oceanography) simulation from 1948 to 2002 were used as inputs to a herring bioenergetics growth model. Herring populations from California, the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI), Prince William Sound (PWS), Togiak Alaska, the western Bering Sea (WBS), the Sea of Okhotsk (SO), Sakhalin, and Peter the Great Bay (PGB) were examined. The half-saturation coefficients of herring feeding were calibrated to climatological conditions at each of the eight locations to reproduce averaged size-at-age data. The depth of averaging used for water temperature and zooplankton, and the maximum consumption rate parameter, were made specific to each location. Using the calibrated half-saturation coefficients, the 1948-2002 period was then simulated using daily values of water temperature and zooplankton densities interpolated from monthly model output. To detect regime shifts in simulated temperatures, zooplankton and herring growth rates, we applied sequential t-test analyses on the 54 years of hindcast simulation values. The detected shifts of herring age-5 growth showed closest match (69%) to the regime shift years (1957/58, 1970/71, 1976/77, 1988/89, 1998/99). We explored relationships among locations using cluster and principal component analyses. The first principal component of water temperature showed good correspondence to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and all zooplankton groups showed a pan-Pacific decrease after the 1976/77 regime shift. However, the first principal component of herring growth rate showed decreased growth at the SO, PWS, WCVI and California

  4. A transactional analysis of changes in parent and chick behaviour prior to separation of Herring Gulls (Larus Argentatus): A three-term contingency model.

    PubMed

    Reed, Phil

    2015-09-01

    The effect of the passage of time on parent-offspring behaviour of urban Herring Gulls (Larus Argentatus) was studied and analysed using a three-term contingency model. A behavioural sequence was initiated by the arrival of a parental adult gull, which would lead to feeding in the chick. However, with the passage of time, and approach of the separation period, this pattern changed. Chicks' begging became more intense, and parent gulls more often withheld food. However, the chicks' begging became directed at a wider range of adults over the observation period. These activities are placed within a three-term contingency model, which may have implications for understanding some behavioural processes involved in parent-offspring separation.

  5. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite relatively high survival in most years, both species have experienced substantial declines in the abundance of spawning fish because losses from mortality have not been balanced by recruitment of new individuals. Although capture-recapture data indicate substantial recruitment of new individuals into the adult spawning populations for SNS and river spawning LRS in some years, size data do not corroborate these estimates. In fact, fork length data indicate that all populations are largely comprised of fish that were present in the late 1990s and early 2000s. As a result, the status of the endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake remains worrisome, and the situation is most dire for shortnose suckers. Future investigations should explore the connections between sucker recruitment and survival and various environmental factors, such as water quality and disease. Our monitoring program provides a robust platform for estimating vital population parameters, evaluating the status of the populations, and assessing the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  6. Infection of the walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, of western Lake Erie with Bothriocephalus cuspidatus (Cooper)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.; Applegate, Vernon C.; Allison, Leonard N.

    1967-01-01

    In recent years appreciable changes have taken place in the biota and physiochemical conditions in Lake Erie. The accelerated eutrophication of the lake has been accompanied by the near disappearance of several fish species, e.g., blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum), lake herring (Coregonus artedi), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Interest in the biology of the remaining species has increased as means have been sought to preserve their numbers in the lake. This report, which describes the caecal and intestinal parasites of the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum, is a contribution to the natural history of this fish in western Lake Erie. This study concerns: the type and degree of intestinal parasitic infestations in a single year class of walleyes during their first 3 years of life; seasonal changes in the incidence and maturity of the dominant parasite Bothriocephalus cuspidatus; and the effects of the infestations on the physical condition of the host.

  7. Impact of extreme climate and bioinvasion on temporal coupling of spring herring (Clupea harengus m.) larvae and their prey.

    PubMed

    Arula, T; Ojaveer, H; Klais, R

    2014-12-01

    We used weekly observational data from mid-May to end of July in 1958-2012 in Gulf of Riga to investigate temporal coupling between spring herring larvae and their first prey - copepod nauplii, under the extreme hydroclimatic conditions. We focused on a small shallow estuary that is important nursery ground for larvae of the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea) herring population. We quantified the effect of extreme values of the winter air temperatures, time of ice retreat and spring water temperatures on the timing of peak abundance of herring larvae and copepod nauplii. We also assessed whether the invasion of the non-native cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi had notable effect on timing and abundance of copepod nauplii during the peak occurrence of herring larvae. In the years of earliest ice retreat the peak abundance of herring larvae was five weeks earlier than in the years of latest ice retreat, while the timing of nauplii remained unchanged. Abundant presence of the C. pengoi affected neither timing nor maximum abundance of copepod nauplii during the herring larvae first feeding period. Thus, we conclude that processes induced by climate variability are superior to invasion of C. pengoi in determining the timing and coupling of larval herring and copepod nauplii.

  8. Teaching to the Test: A Very Large Red Herring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Elevating teaching-to-the-test to dogma, from the beginning with the distortion of J.J. Cannell's 1980s "Lake Wobegon" findings, has served to divert attention from scandals that should have threatened US educators' almost complete control of their own evaluation. Had the test cheating scandal Dr. Cannell uncovered been portrayed…

  9. Chronic and persistent viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infections in Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Cortney A.; Taylor, L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infections were established in a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii held in a large-volume tank supplied with pathogen-free seawater at temperatures ranging from 6.8 to 11.6°C. The infections were characterized by viral persistence for extended periods and near-background levels of host mortality. Infectious virus was recovered from mortalities occurring up to 167 d post-exposure and was detected in normal-appearing herring for as long as 224 d following initial challenge. Geometric mean viral titers were generally as high as or higher in brain tissues than in pools of kidney and spleen tissues, with overall prevalence of infection being higher in the brain. Upon re-exposure to VHSV in a standard laboratory challenge, negligible mortality occurred among groups of herring that were either chronically infected or fully recovered, indicating that survival from chronic manifestations conferred protection against future disease. However, some survivors of chronic VHS infections were capable of replicating virus upon re-exposure. Demonstration of a chronic manifestation of VHSV infection among Pacific herring maintained at ambient seawater temperatures provides insights into the mechanisms by which the virus is maintained among populations of endemic hosts.

  10. Chronic and persistent viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infections in Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Taylor, L.; Winton, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infections were established in a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii held in a large-volume tank supplied with pathogenfree seawater at temperatures ranging from 6.8 to 11.6??C. The infections were characterized by viral persistence for extended periods and near-background levels of host mortality. Infectious virus was recovered from mortalities occurring up to 167 d post-exposure and was detected in normal-appearing herring for as long as 224 d following initial challenge. Geometric mean viral titers were generally as high as or higher in brain tissues than in pools of kidney and spleen tissues, with overall prevalence of infection being higher in the brain. Upon re-exposure to VHSV in a standard laboratory challenge, negligible mortality occurred among groups of herring that were either chronically infected or fully recovered, indicating that survival from chronic manifestations conferred protection against future disease. However, some survivors of chronic VHS infections were capable of replicating virus upon re-exposure. Demonstration of a chronic manifestation of VHSV infection among Pacific herring maintained at ambient seawater temperatures provides insights into the mechanisms by which the virus is maintained among populations of endemic hosts. ?? 2010 Inter-Research.

  11. Very low embryonic crude oil exposures cause lasting cardiac defects in salmon and herring

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, John P.; Carls, Mark G.; Holland, Larry; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Baldwin, David H.; Myers, Mark S.; Peck, Karen A.; Tagal, Mark; Rice, Stanley D.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster exposed embryos of pink salmon and Pacific herring to crude oil in shoreline spawning habitats throughout Prince William Sound, Alaska. The herring fishery collapsed four years later. The role of the spill, if any, in this decline remains one of the most controversial unanswered questions in modern natural resource injury assessment. Crude oil disrupts excitation-contraction coupling in fish heart muscle cells, and we show here that salmon and herring exposed as embryos to trace levels of crude oil grow into juveniles with abnormal hearts and reduced cardiorespiratory function, the latter a key determinant of individual survival and population recruitment. Oil exposure during cardiogenesis led to specific defects in the outflow tract and compact myocardium, and a hypertrophic response in spongy myocardium, evident in juveniles 7 to 9 months after exposure. The thresholds for developmental cardiotoxicity were remarkably low, suggesting the scale of the Exxon Valdez impact in shoreline spawning habitats was much greater than previously appreciated. Moreover, an irreversible loss of cardiac fitness and consequent increases in delayed mortality in oil-exposed cohorts may have been important contributors to the delayed decline of pink salmon and herring stocks in Prince William Sound. PMID:26345607

  12. Bayesian stock assessment of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Muradian, Melissa L; Branch, Trevor A; Moffitt, Steven D; Hulson, Peter-John F

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150-31,740 mt), with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound. The main advantages of the Bayesian model are that it can more objectively weight different datasets and provide estimates of uncertainty for model parameters and outputs, unlike the weighted sum-of-squares used in the original model. In addition, the revised model could be used to manage herring stocks with a decision rule that considers both stock status and the uncertainty in stock status.

  13. 78 FR 62471 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Framework Adjustment 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BD17 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Framework Adjustment 2 and Specifications Correction In rule document 2013-24271 appearing on pages...

  14. PickleHerring and Marlsite Projects: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Junk Music-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matt

    2008-01-01

    This project report describes the way PickleHerring Theatre approaches community music-making with "junk" materials. The report has an emphasis on the group experience, the participants' creativity, and their play. In conclusion a case is presented for the efficacy of junk music-making as a dynamic form of community music. (Contains 5 footnotes…

  15. Very low embryonic crude oil exposures cause lasting cardiac defects in salmon and herring.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Carls, Mark G; Holland, Larry; Linbo, Tiffany L; Baldwin, David H; Myers, Mark S; Peck, Karen A; Tagal, Mark; Rice, Stanley D; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2015-09-08

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster exposed embryos of pink salmon and Pacific herring to crude oil in shoreline spawning habitats throughout Prince William Sound, Alaska. The herring fishery collapsed four years later. The role of the spill, if any, in this decline remains one of the most controversial unanswered questions in modern natural resource injury assessment. Crude oil disrupts excitation-contraction coupling in fish heart muscle cells, and we show here that salmon and herring exposed as embryos to trace levels of crude oil grow into juveniles with abnormal hearts and reduced cardiorespiratory function, the latter a key determinant of individual survival and population recruitment. Oil exposure during cardiogenesis led to specific defects in the outflow tract and compact myocardium, and a hypertrophic response in spongy myocardium, evident in juveniles 7 to 9 months after exposure. The thresholds for developmental cardiotoxicity were remarkably low, suggesting the scale of the Exxon Valdez impact in shoreline spawning habitats was much greater than previously appreciated. Moreover, an irreversible loss of cardiac fitness and consequent increases in delayed mortality in oil-exposed cohorts may have been important contributors to the delayed decline of pink salmon and herring stocks in Prince William Sound.

  16. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 679 - BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI 4 Figure 4 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... hours, A.l.t. September 1 of the current fishing year through 1200 hours, A.l.t. March 1 of...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 679 - BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI 4 Figure 4 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... hours, A.l.t. September 1 of the current fishing year through 1200 hours, A.l.t. March 1 of...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 679 - BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI 4 Figure 4 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... hours, A.l.t. September 1 of the current fishing year through 1200 hours, A.l.t. March 1 of...

  19. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Total Allowable Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    .... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that, effective 0001 hours, September 14, 2010...) of Atlantic herring in or from Management Area 1B (Area 1B) per trip or calendar day until January 1... TAC allocated to Area 1B for 2010 is projected to be harvested by September 14, 2010....

  20. Anisakiasis ('herring worm disease') as a cause of acute abdominal crisis.

    PubMed

    Kark, A E; McAlpine, J C

    1994-01-01

    A hazard associated with eating raw fish is presented. The larval nematode Anisakis marina ('herring worm') is a recognised public health problem in Japan, and cases have been reported in the UK. The intestinal burrowing of the larval form causes acute abdominal symptoms clinically resembling acute appendicitis. Operation is required; no antiparasitic agent is available.

  1. 76 FR 68657 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Temporary Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Management Area 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... fully attained. Vessels issued a Federal Atlantic herring permit may resume fishing for and landing..., 2011, vessels will again be prohibited from fishing for, catching, possessing, transferring, or...

  2. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Richard L.; Stick, K.; Coonradt, Eric; Otis, E. O.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Garver, Kyle A.; Lovy, Jan; Meyers, Tilden R.

    2016-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20–32% in 2007 to 0–3% during 2009–13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host–pathogen relationship.

  3. Use of Herring Bait to Farm Lobsters in the Gulf of Maine

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Clesceri, Erika J.; Baukus, Adam J.; Gaudette, Julien; Weber, Matthew; Yund, Philip O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus) are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free) sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. Conclusions/Significance Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions. PMID:20419167

  4. Bayesian stock assessment of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Steven D.; Hulson, Peter-John F.

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150–31,740 mt), with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound. The main advantages of the Bayesian model are that it can more objectively weight different datasets and provide estimates of uncertainty for model parameters and outputs, unlike the weighted sum-of-squares used in the original model. In addition, the revised model could be used to manage herring stocks with a decision rule that considers both stock status and the uncertainty in stock status. PMID:28222151

  5. 78 FR 61828 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Framework Adjustment 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ..., 2012, meeting, both for the 2013-2015 specifications and for long-term management. The Council also... a long-term strategy for managing herring. Based on the SSC's recommendations, the Council...) and that consideration of other approaches for the long term will require additional analyses of...

  6. Fish community change in Lake Superior, 1970-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Ebener, Mark P.; Schreiner, Donald R.; DeVault, David S.; Petzold, Michael M.; Jensen, Douglas A.; Richards, Carl; Lozano, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in Lake Superior's fish community are reviewed from 1970 to 2000. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks have increased substantially and may be approaching ancestral states. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) have also recovered, but under sporadic recruitment. Contaminant levels have declined and are in equilibrium with inputs, but toxaphene levels are higher than in all other Great Lakes. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control, harvest limits, and stocking fostered recoveries of lake trout and allowed establishment of small nonnative salmonine populations. Natural reproduction supports most salmonine populations, therefore further stocking is not required. Nonnative salmonines will likely remain minor components of the fish community. Forage biomass has shifted from exotic rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to native species, and high predation may prevent their recovery. Introductions of exotics have increased and threaten the recovering fish community. Agencies have little influence on the abundance of forage fish or the major predator, siscowet lake trout, and must now focus on habitat protection and enhancement in nearshore areas and prevent additional species introductions to further restoration. Persistence of Lake Superior's native deepwater species is in contrast to other Great Lakes where restoration will be difficult in the absence of these ecologically important fishes.

  7. Food of salmonine predators in Lake Superior, 1981-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conner, David J.; Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Collins, Hollie L.

    1993-01-01

    Diets of ten species of Lake Superior salmonines are described. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) were the primary prey during all seasons and years for inshore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (S. trutta), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and splake (lake trout x brook trout hybrid). Coregonines were the second most-important prey for chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), siscowet trout (S. namaycush siscowet), and splake. Invertebrates were important to rainbow trout (O. mykiss), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), especially during the summer. Diets of lake trout from inshore and offshore locations differed markedly. Rainbow smelt were the primary food of inshore lake trout, and coregonines were the main food of offshore lake trout. Chinook salmon and inshore lake trout had the most similar diets because they ate similar proportions of rainbow smelt and coregonines. Salmonines generally ate more rainbow smelt and less coregonines in proportion to the abundance of these prey in the lake. If rainbow smelt populations collapse, the ability of salmonines to convert to a diet based on lake herring (Coregonus artedi) could be important to the stability of predator populations.

  8. Population Dynamics of Adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and Shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) Suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, Patrick M.; Janney, Eric C.; Hewitt, David A.; Hayes, Brian S.; Scott, Alta C.

    2009-01-01

    of Lost River suckers detected in Willow Creek was skewed toward males, despite consistently more females having been tagged in fall sampling. This pattern indicates that some tagged female Lost River suckers may be spawning elsewhere in the system, and we intend to investigate this possibility to verify or alter the representativeness of our spring monitoring. Length frequency analysis of fall trammel net catches showed that the populations of both species in Clear Lake Reservoir have undergone major demographic transitions during the last 15 years. In the mid-1990s, the populations were dominated by larger fish and showed little evidence of recent recruitment. These larger fish apparently disappeared in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and the populations are now dominated by fish that recruited into the adult populations in the late 1990s. The length frequencies from the last 4 years provide evidence of consistent recruitment into the Lost River sucker population, but provide no such evidence for the shortnose sucker population. Overall, annual growth rates for both species in Clear Lake were 2-4 times greater than growth rates for conspecifics in Upper Klamath Lake. However, little or no growth occurred for either species in Clear Lake between 2006 and 2007. Based on available evidence, we are unable to fully explain differences in growth rates between systems or among years within Clear Lake.

  9. Association of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus with epizootic hemorrhages of the skin in Pacific herring Clupea harengus pallasi from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, T.R.; Short, S.; Lipson, K.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.; Wilcock, J.; Brown, E.

    1994-01-01

    Only one-third of the Pacific hernng Clupea harengus pallasi expected to spawn in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, USA, in sprlng 1993 were observed. Of these herring, 15 to 43 '% had external ulcers or subdermal hemorrhages of the skln and fins. A rhabdovirus identified as the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from affected herring and 1 Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus with skin lesions from PWS, and from herring with similar lesions collected near Kodiak Island. No other pathogens were detected in the herring examined. Although VHSV may have been responsible for the skin lesions, there was no confirmed mass herring mortality observed in PWS; hence the actual cause of the reduced herring numbers is still unknown. The same strain of VHSV was subsequently isolated from captive juvenile herring collected from Auke Bay, Alaska, near Juneau, from herring in British Columbia, Canada, and from Puget Sound, Washington, USA. These findings suggest the virus is an opportunistic pathogen that is widely indigenous to Pacific herring populations in the Pacific Northwest and that herring are a significant marine reservoir for North American VHSV.

  10. Controlled field and laboratory studies on VHS and Ichtyophonus in Pacific herring: Section II in Investigations of disease factors affecting declines of Pacific herring populations in Prince William Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, Richard M.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Winton, James R.

    1999-01-01

    No evidence for increased susceptibility, mortality or loss of disease resistance was observed in wild or laboratory-reared herring exposed to oil or synthetic corticosteroids, either prior to or following exposure to VHSV.

  11. Summary of investigations on the morphometry of the cisco, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), in the lakes of the northeastern highlands, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    The morphometric studies on the cisco or lake herring, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), which are briefly summarized in this paper are part of a program of investigation of the fishes of the lakes in the northeastern highland district, Wisconsin. For the morphometric studies, 1,548 specimens were employed, all of them collected in the summers of 1931 and 1932 from four 'type' lakes, selected on the basis of their size, depth, and physicochemical and biological characteristics. Of this number 753 individuals were used to determine the general nature of the morphological variations in the Trout Lake, Muskellunge Lake, Silver Lake, and Clear Lakes cisco populations, while 795, collected from Muskellunge Lake in 1932 were employed in a detailed examination of certain morphological differences between the 1928 and 1929 year classes of that population. An attempt is made in this paper to present all the important conculsions, together with a small amount of illustrative material.

  12. Commission of Professors of Adult Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (Salt Lake City, Utah, October 28-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Adrian, Ed.

    These proceedings are presented in three parts. The first, "The CPAE (Commission of Professors of Adult Education) and Its Mission," contains seven presentations: "Some Observations on the Role of the Commission of Professors" (Collins); "Which Way? This Way and That Way: Recommendations from the Task Forces" (Blunt);…

  13. Incorporating covariates into fisheries stock assessment models with application to Pacific herring.

    PubMed

    Deriso, Richard B; Maunder, Mark N; Pearson, Walter H

    2008-07-01

    We present a framework for evaluating the cause of fishery declines by integrating covariates into a fisheries stock assessment model. This allows the evaluation of fisheries' effects vs. natural and other human impacts. The analyses presented are based on integrating ecological science and statistics and form the basis for environmental decision-making advice. Hypothesis tests are described to rank hypotheses and determine the size of a multiple covariate model. We extend recent developments in integrated analysis and use novel methods to produce effect size estimates that are relevant to policy makers and include estimates of uncertainty. Results can be directly applied to evaluate trade-offs among alternative management decisions. The methods and results are also broadly applicable outside fisheries stock assessment. We show that multiple factors influence populations and that analysis of factors in isolation can be misleading. We illustrate the framework by applying it to Pacific herring of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA). The Pacific herring stock that spawns in Prince William Sound is a stock that has collapsed, but there are several competing or alternative hypotheses to account for the initial collapse and subsequent lack of recovery. Factors failing the initial screening tests for statistical significance included indicators of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, coho salmon predation, sea lion predation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Northern Oscillation Index, and effects of containment in the herring egg-on-kelp pound fishery. The overall results indicate that the most statistically significant factors related to the lack of recovery of the herring stock involve competition or predation by juvenile hatchery pink salmon on herring juveniles. Secondary factors identified in the analysis were poor nutrition in the winter, ocean (Gulf of Alaska) temperature in the winter, the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, and the pathogen Ichthyophonus hoferi. The

  14. Diets of aquatic birds reflect changes in the Lake Huron ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hebert, Craig E.; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Idrissi, Abode; Arts, Michael T.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2009-01-01

    Human activities have affected the Lake Huron ecosystem, in part, through alterations in the structure and function of its food webs. Insights into the nature of food web change and its ecological ramifications can be obtained through the monitoring of high trophic level predators such as aquatic birds. Often, food web change involves alterations in the relative abundance of constituent species and/or the introduction of new species (exotic invaders). Diet composition of aquatic birds is influenced, in part, by relative prey availability and therefore is a sensitive measure of food web structure. Using bird diet data to make inferences regarding food web change requires consistent measures of diet composition through time. This can be accomplished by measuring stable chemical and/or biochemical “ecological tracers” in archived avian samples. Such tracers provide insights into pathways of energy and nutrient transfer. In this study, we examine the utility of two groups of naturally-occurring intrinsic tracers (stable isotopes and fatty acids) to provide such information in a predatory seabird, the herring gull (Larus argentatus). Retrospective stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of archived herring gull eggs identified declines in gull trophic position and shifts in food sources in Lake Huron over the last 25 years and changes in gull diet composition were inferred from egg fatty acid patterns. These independent groups of ecological tracers provided corroborating evidence of dietary change in this high trophic level predator. Gull dietary shifts were related to declines in prey fish abundance which suggests large-scale alterations to the Lake Huron ecosystem. Dietary shifts in herring gulls may be contributing to reductions in resources available for egg formation. Further research is required to evaluate how changes in resource availability may affect population sustainability in herring gulls and other waterbird species. Long-term biological monitoring

  15. Effects of environmental temperature on the dynamics of ichthyophoniasis in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, J.L.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Grady, C.A.; Heintz, R.A.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of temperature and infection by Ichthyophonus were examined in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) maintained under simulated overwinter fasting conditions. In addition to defining parameters for a herring bioenergetics model (discussed in Vollenweider et al. this issue), these experiments provided new insights into factors influencing the infectivity and virulence of the parasite Ichthyophonus. In groups of fish with established disease, temperature variation had little effect on disease outcome. Ichthyophonus mortality outpaced that resulting from starvation alone. In newly infected fish, temperature variation significantly changed the mortality patterns related to disease. Both elevated and lowered temperatures suppressed disease-related mortality relative to ambient treatments. When parasite exposure dose decreased, an inverse relationship between infection prevalence and temperature was detected. These findings suggest interplay between temperature optima for parasite growth and host immune function and have implications for our understanding of how Ichthyophonus infections are established in wild fish populations.

  16. Viability and infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. in post-mortem Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, Richard M.; Hart, Lucas M.; Lewandowski, Naomi; Hershberger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyophonus-infected Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, were allowed to decompose in ambient seawater then serially sampled for 29 days to evaluate parasite viability and infectivity for Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus. Ichthyophonus sp. was viable in decomposing herring tissues for at least 29 days post-mortem and could be transmitted via ingestion to sculpin for up to 5 days. The parasite underwent morphologic changes during the first 48 hr following death of the host that were similar to those previously reported, but as host tissue decomposition progressed, several previously un-described forms of the parasite were observed. The significance of long-term survival and continued morphologic transformation in the post-mortem host is unknown, but it could represent a saprozoic phase of the parasite life cycle that has survival value for Ichthyophonus sp.

  17. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4)…

  18. Feeding strategy of Downs herring larvae (Clupea harengus L.) in the English Channel and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Jeremy; Vallet, Carole; Courcot, Lucie; Lefebvre, Valérie; Caboche, Josselin; Antajan, Elvire; Marchal, Paul; Loots, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize the larval feeding strategy of the Downs sub-population of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus L.). Diet composition, vacuity rate and prey selectivity of larvae from 8 to 15 mm collected during the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) - MIK sampling from 2008 to 2013 were assessed by direct observation of their gut contents using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The high contribution of protists and small zooplanktonic prey observed in the gut contents proved the relevance of SEM to study the diet of first feeding larvae. The relatively low vacuity rate of 45% suggests that food may not be a limiting factor for Downs herring larvae in winter. These larvae appeared to be omnivorous and there was a clear shift in term of prey composition at a size of 13 mm. Smaller larvae (8-12 mm) fed on a higher diversity of small prey, mainly small copepods (Oncaea spp. and Euterpina acutifrons), invertebrate eggs, diatoms (Psammodicthyon panduriforme and Coscinodiscus spp.) and dinoflagellates (Dinophysis acuminate and Prorocentrum micans) whereas bigger larvae (13-15 mm) fed on a lower diversity of larger prey, mainly copepods (Temora longicornis and Paracalanus parvus) and dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax spp.). Downs herring larvae had clear prey preferences as some dinoflagellates (Pyrophacus spp., Gonyaulax spp., P. micans and Porocentrum lima), invertebrate eggs, copepods (Oncaea spp. and nauplii) and diatoms (Thalassiosira curviseriata) were positively selected and other diatoms (Nitzschia spp., Thalassiosira tenera, Thalassiosira spp. and Chaetoceros spp.) and copepods (Pseudocalanus elongatus, T. longicornis and Unidentified calanoid) were negatively selected. We argue that this shift in term of prey preferences occurring at a size of 13 mm constitutes the critical period for Downs herring larvae.

  19. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii).

    PubMed

    Emmenegger, Eveline J; Glenn, Jolene A; Winton, James R; Batts, William N; Gregg, Jacob L; Hershberger, Paul K

    2014-11-07

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  20. Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

    2011-12-01

    Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 μatm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 μatm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

  1. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  2. Could a Mathematics Student Have Prevented the Collapse of the Atlanto-Scandian Herring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Thorir

    2006-01-01

    Herring in the ocean between Iceland and Norway was one of the largest fish stocks in the world until the fishery crashed in the late 1960s. The catch in 1971 was only 20 thousand metric tons in contrast with the record of 2 million tons in 1966 and the spawning stock declined from 10 million tons to 10 thousand tons in 20 years. After 25 years of…

  3. Transcriptional effects of dietary exposure of oil-contaminated Calanus finmarchicus in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Waagbø, Rune; Pedersen, Sindre A; Meier, Sonnich

    2011-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library construction and characterization was used to identify differentially regulated transcripts from oil exposure in liver of male Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) fed a diet containing 900 mg crude oil/kg for 2 mo. In total, 439 expressed sequence tags (EST) were sequenced, 223 from the forward subtracted library (enriched for genes putatively upregulated by oil exposure) and 216 from the reverse subtracted library (enriched for genes putatively downregulated by oil exposure). Follow-up reverse-transcription (RT) quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses of gene transcription were conducted on additional herring exposed to food containing 9 (low), 90 (medium), and 900 (high) mg crude oil/kg feed for 2 mo. Chronic exposure of Atlantic herring to an oil-contaminated diet mediated upregulation of transcripts encoding antifreeze proteins, proteins in the classical complement pathway (innate immunity), and iron-metabolism proteins. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that "cellular response to stress," "regulation to biological quality," "response to abiotic stimuli," and "temperature homeostasis" were the most affected go at the biological processes level, and "carbohydrate binding," "water binding," and "ion binding" at the molecular function level. Of the genes examined with RT-qPCR, CYP1A, antifreeze protein, retinol binding protein 1, deleted in malignant brain tumor 1, and ovary-specific C1q-like factor demonstrated a significant upregulation. Myeloid protein 1, microfibrillar-associated protein 4, WAP65, and pentraxin were downregulated in liver of fish from the high exposure group. In conclusion, this study suggests that 2 mo of oil exposure affected genes encoding proteins involved in temperature homeostasis and possible membrane stability in addition to immune-responsive proteins in Atlantic herring.

  4. 77 FR 67624 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to 2013 Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Specifications and Amendment 4 to the Herring Fishery Management Plan (FMP) are available from: Paul J. Howard... the resulting list and click on the ``Submit a Comment'' icon on the right of that line. Mail: NMFS... for Area 1A, 4,362 mt for Area 1B, 22,146 mt for Area 2, and 38,146 mt for Area 3. Amendment 4 to...

  5. Age dependence of the concentrations of harmful substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)

    SciTech Connect

    Perttila, M.; Tervo, V.; Parmanne, R.

    1982-01-01

    The age dependence of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg, CH/sub 3/-Hg, DDT, DDD, DDE, HCH, HCB and the PCBs have been studied in Baltic herring of 1 to 6 years of age. Lead, cadmium, mercury and the organochlorine concentrations increase significantly with age. In the case of the DDTs and the PCBs, the variations can be attributed almost totally to the combined effect of age and variations in the lipid percentage.

  6. Influence of temperature on viral hemorrhagic septicemia (Genogroup IVa) in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valenciennes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Purcell, M.K.; Hart, L.M.; Gregg, J.L.; Thompson, R.L.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    An inverse relationship between water temperature and susceptibility of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) to viral hemorrhagic septicemia, genogroup IVa (VHS) was indicated by controlled exposure studies where cumulative mortalities, viral shedding rates, and viral persistence in survivors were greatest at the coolest exposure temperatures. Among groups of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific herring maintained at 8, 11, and 15 °C, cumulative mortalities after waterborne exposure to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were 78%, 40%, and 13%, respectively. The prevalence of survivors with VHSV-positive tissues 25 d post-exposure was 64%, 16%, and 0% (at 8, 11 and 15 °C, respectively) with viral prevalence typically higher in brain tissues than in kidney/spleen tissue pools at each temperature. Similarly, geometric mean viral titers in brain tissues and kidney/spleen tissue pools decreased at higher temperatures, and kidney/spleen titers were generally 10-fold lower than those in brain tissues at each temperature. This inverse relationship between temperature and VHS severity was likely mediated by an enhanced immune response at the warmer temperatures, where a robust type I interferon response was indicated by rapid and significant upregulation of the herring Mx gene. The effect of relatively small temperature differences on the susceptibility of a natural host to VHS provides insights into conditions that preface periodic VHSV epizootics in wild populations throughout the NE Pacific.

  7. Prevalence of viral erythrocytic necrosis in Pacific herring and epizootics in Skagit Bay, Puget Sound, Washington.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.; Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Pacheco, C.A.; Greene, C.; Rice, C.; Meyers, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Epizootics of viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) occurred among juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in Skagit Bay, Puget Sound, Washington, during 2005-2007 and were characterized by high prevalences and intensities of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies within circulating erythrocytes. The prevalence of VEN peaked at 67% during the first epizootic in October 2005 and waned to 0% by August 2006. A second VEN epizootic occurred throughout the summer of 2007; this was characterized by disease initiation and perpetuation in the age-1, 2006 year-class, followed by involvement of the age-0, 2007 year-class shortly after the latter's metamorphosis to the juvenile stage. The disease was detected in other populations of juvenile Pacific herring throughout Puget Sound and Prince William Sound, Alaska, where the prevalences and intensities typically did not correspond to those observed in Skagit Bay. The persistence and recurrence of VEN epizootics indicate that the disease is probably common among juvenile Pacific herring throughout the eastern North Pacific Ocean, and although population-level impacts probably occur they are typically covert and not easily detected.

  8. An outbreak of type C botulism in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Southeastern Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neimanis, A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Leighton, F.; Bollinger, T.; Rocke, T.; Morner, T.

    2007-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  9. Persistence of external signs in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes with ichthyophoniasis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Lucas M.; Conway, Carla M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    The progression of external signs of Ichthyophonus infection in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes was highly variable and asynchronous after intraperitoneal injection with pure parasite preparations; however, external signs generally persisted through the end of the study (429 days post-exposure). Observed signs included papules, erosions and ulcers. The prevalence of external signs plateaued 35 days post-exposure and persisted in 73–79% of exposed individuals through the end of the first experiment (147 days post-exposure). Among a second group of infected herring, external signs completely resolved in only 10% of the fish after 429 days. The onset of mortality preceded the appearance of external signs. Histological examination of infected skin and skeletal muscle tissues indicated an apparent affinity of the parasite for host red muscle. Host responses consisted primarily of granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and necrosis in the skeletal muscle and other tissues. The persistence and asynchrony of external signs and host response indicated that they were neither a precursor to host mortality nor did they provide reliable metrics for hindcasting on the date of exposure. However, the long-term persistence of clinical signs in Pacific herring may be useful in ascertaining the population-level impacts of ichthyophoniasis in regularly observed populations.

  10. Low level exposure to weathered crude oil causes genetic damage and malformations in larval herring

    SciTech Connect

    Carls, M.; Rice, S.D.; Hose, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    An initial concentration of 0.7 ppb polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil caused genetic damage in newly hatched Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) exposed for 16 days during incubation. The endpoint for genetic damage was a significant increase in the percentage of anaphase aberrations in pectoral fin cells, a response that has been previously shown to be a highly sensitive indicator of crude oil exposure in larval herring. At this exposure level, there were also significant decreases in the percentages of larval survival, normal development and competent swimming, and increased percentages of yolk sac edema. Composition of the PAH, which ranged from naphthalenes through chrysenes, was weighted toward the larger ring compounds, particularly phenanthrenes. Genetic response was not as sensitive an indicator of oil exposure as yolk sac edema, jaw size, and formation of pectoral fin rays. The consequences of chromosomal aberrations in larval herring are not clear. Other experiments have shown that although the frequency of genetic damage decreases with age, malformations persist and are coupled with growth reductions. It is likely that malformed larvae die; evidence for this comes from simultaneous measurements of mortality, malformations and genetic damage in the field.

  11. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.; Gregg, J.; Grady, C.; Collins, R.; Winton, J.

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 10 1 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml-1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 ?? ?10 8 pfu fish-1 d-1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? Inter-Research 2010.

  12. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea.

  14. Radium-226 in water, sediments, and fish from lakes near the city of Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Avadhanula, R

    1998-01-01

    Ra-226 was measured by alpha-emission spectroscopy in water, sediments, and fish (tissues and gut contents), from five lakes in a watershed containing U mining and milling operations at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from control lakes in an adjacent non-industrialized watershed. Ra-226 transfer parameters from lake water and sediments to fish tissues, and annual intakes by humans consuming fish, were estimated. Mean dissolved 226Ra levels ranged from approximately 76 mBq litre(-1) in water of the most affected lake, to < 10 mBq litre(-1) in control lakes. Levels in summer were consistently higher than in fall or winter; no consistent variation with depth was noted. Sediment levels ranged from approximately 3000 mBq g(-1) dry wt in one study lake to < 100 mBq g(-1) dry wt of sediment in control lakes. Bone 226Ra concentrations were higher than in muscle. The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), a predatory secondary consumer, had bone 226Ra levels (< 20 mBq g(-1) dry wt) that did not show significant site variation. In contrast, bottom feeding whitefish had significantly more 226Ra in bone tissue (to 38 mBq g(-1) dry wt in the lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, and 76 mBq g(-1) in round whitefish, Prosopium cylindraceum) in study lakes than in controls (< 20 mBq g(-1) dry wt). Ra-226 levels in lake trout muscle were low and showed erratic variation among lakes whereas levels in whitefish muscle did not vary significantly among study and control sites. Lake herring (= cisco, Coregonus artedii), a planktivorous fish taken only from Quirke Lake, had mean 226Ra levels of 18 and 1.4 mBq g(-1) dry wt in bone and muscle, respectively. Gut 226Ra levels, highest in lake trout from McCabe and Quirke Lakes (126 +/- 53, 64 +/- 44 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), and just detectable in McCabe and Elliot Lake whitefish (24 +/- 2, 36 +/- 14 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), were below detection in lake trout and whitefish from other lakes. Concentration ratios (CRs) of 226Ra from

  15. Effects of different concentrations of crude oil on first feeding larvae of Atlantic herring ( Clupea harengus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingvarsdóttir, A.; Bjørkblom, C.; Ravagnan, E.; Godal, B. F.; Arnberg, M.; Joachim, D. L.; Sanni, S.

    2012-05-01

    Studies have shown that exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other oil related components alter normal fish larvae development and can cause increased mortality in early life stages. Modelling of results from controlled laboratory exposure experiments will help relate typical oil exposure parameters (biomarkers) to field observations and are valuable tools for oil exposure monitoring and risk assessment. Post yolk sack larval stages of Atlantic herring were exposed to different concentrations of dispersed Arctic crude oil. The selected nominal concentrations were 0.015, 0.040, 0.060, 0.250 and 0.750 mg l - 1 raw dispersed oil (0.129, 0.373, 0.496, 2.486 and 6.019 μg l - 1 Total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (TPAH) respectively), and control seawater in flow through systems. The larvae were exposed for 12 days and daily mortality recorded in all treatments. Thereafter, the larvae were transported to two large (300 l) rearing tanks, one for control/trace oil and one for oil exposed larvae. The larvae were allowed to recover for 8 weeks after exposure, and mortality and morphological factors then assessed, giving preliminary information on recovery of Atlantic herring larvae after oil exposure. Throughout the testing period, there was a general trend for higher mortality of herring larvae in the oil exposure concentrations than in control, and significantly higher mortality was found in all oil concentrations than in the control after 12 days. We did not detect a clear dose related mortality for our test concentrations, except for the highest concentration. There was no difference found in mortality rates of the herring larvae from either the oil or control/trace oil batch during the recovery phase during the following 60 days. Morphological observations of the herring larvae after 2 months recovery in clean seawater showed that the oil exposed larvae had morphological features that could be described as deformities, and growth was found to be

  16. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  17. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  18. Growth and potential yield of perch (Perca spp.) in selected areas of Lake Baikal and the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Bronte, Charles R.; Hatcher, Charles O.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Sokolnikov, Yury

    1998-01-01

    We compared growth, mortality, and potential yield of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Chivirkui Bay in Lake Baikal with that of yellow perch (P. flavescens) from three areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes --Chequamegon Bay in Lake Superior, northeastern Lake Ontario, and southwestern Lake Erie. Graded mesh gill nets were fished in August to sample perch in lakes Baikal (1993), Ontario (1985-93), and Erie (1994). Bottom trawls were fished in July-August to sample perch in Lake Superior (1973-93). Adult yellow perch from the Laurentian Great Lakes were heavier at most lengths than adult Eurasian perch from Lake Baikal. The increase in body weight per unit increase in length was greatest in Lake Erie. Total annual mortality of perch was low in Lake Baikal (0.31), intermediate in lakes Superior (0.41) and Ontario (0.54), and high in Lake Erie (0.66). Annual fishing mortality (u) for perch in Lake Baikal was 60%-70% lower than that for perch in the Great Lakes. At ages 1-3, perch in Lake Erie were longer than those in lakes Baikal, Superior, and Ontario but at ages 4-9 perch in Lake Baikal were longer than those in the other lakes. Although Eurasian perch in Lake Baikal were longer at age 4 and older, growth in length, as measured by the Brody growth coefficient, K, was lower there than in the other lakes and was similar to that in Lake Superior; yellow perch in Lake Erie grew the fastest. Yield-per-recruit was lowest in Lake Erie and highest in Lake Superior. Potential yield was influenced by growth rates and fishing mortality.

  19. [The content of histamine and tyramine dependent of microbiological quality of salted herring stored at different temperatures].

    PubMed

    Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota; Windyga, Bozena; Sciezyńska, Halina; Jedra, Małgorzata; Badowski, Paweł; Urbanek-Karłowska, Bogumiła

    2003-01-01

    Twenty six samples of salted herring from Warsaw food market were analyzed. Herrings in high-salted brine (with 26% content of salt) were stored for 21 days at temperature of 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C; low-salted (16% content of salt in brine) herring were stored for 42 days at temperature of 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Microbiological contamination level was assessed by standard methods for fish products, and biogenic amines--histamine and tyramine content by spectrofluorometric methods. There was no level change of both amines in high-salted herrings. Significant increase of tyramine content was observed in low-salted samples, depending on the time of storage. The highest level of tyramine up to 318 mg/kg--was observed after 6 weeks of storage. Histamine content increased in low-salted sampled up to 35 mg/kg during the period of storage. Aerobic microflora in the amount up to 10(6)/g was detected during storage of low-salted samples. Such level changes were not observed in high-salted herring samples.

  20. Experimental evidence of threat-sensitive collective avoidance responses in a large wild-caught herring school.

    PubMed

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J; Handegard, Nils Olav

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60,000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the "threat-sensitive hypothesis".

  1. Spawning cycle and fecundity of a multiple spawner round herring Etrumeus teres off southern Japan: Oocyte growth and maturation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyuji, Mitsuo; Takasuka, Akinori

    2017-04-01

    The spawning characteristics of round herring Etrumeus teres remain unclear despite its commercial and ecological importance. The oocyte growth and maturation during the spawning cycle of round herring were examined based on the samples collected at different hours of the day off southern Japan during their 2015 spawning season. The ovarian histological analysis showed that germinal vesicle migration (GVM) and subsequent germinal vesicle breakdown occurred from the afternoon to the next morning. The appearance of hydrated oocytes indicated that round herring spawned between midday and evening. Degeneration of post-ovulatory follicles and the ovarian developmental stage suggested that individual round herring did not spawn on consecutive days but rather spawned at an interval of at least 2 days. The oocyte diameters of the second clutch (subsequent spawning batch) increased gradually when the first clutch (spawning batch) underwent GVM and hydrated, but oocytes in the second clutch increased significantly in size immediately after spawning, suggesting that vitellogenesis of the second clutch may be accelerated for the next spawning. Size at maturity in all females was estimated to 17.6 cm in body length (BL), and batch fecundity was 1409-21,023 oocytes (15.7-24.0 cm in BL). Our findings provide a foundation for conducting stock assessment studies on round herring using an egg production method.

  2. Experimental Evidence of Threat-Sensitive Collective Avoidance Responses in a Large Wild-Caught Herring School

    PubMed Central

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M.; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J.; Handegard, Nils Olav

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60 000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the “threat-sensitive hypothesis”. PMID:24489778

  3. Episootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in Pacific herring from the spawn-on-kelp fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Kocan, R.M.; Elder, N.E.; Meyers, T.R.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Both the prevalence and tissue titer of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) increased in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi following their introduction into net pens (pounds) used in the closed pound spawn-on-kelp (SOK) fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska. VHSV was also found in water samples from inside and outside the SOK pounds after herring had been confined for several days; however, water samples taken near wild free-ranging, spawning herring either failed to test positive or tested weakly positive for virus. Little or no virus was found in tissue samples from free-ranging, spawning herring captured from the vicinity of the pounds, nor did the prevalence of VHSV increase following spawning as it did in impounded herring. The data indicated that increased prevalences of VHSV were correlated with confinement of herring for the closed pound SOK fishery and that infection was spread within the pounds through waterborne exposure to virus particles originating from impounded fish. In addition, pounds containing predominantly young fish had higher prevalences of VHSV, suggesting that older fish may be partially immune, perhaps as a result of previous infection with the virus. Operation of SOK pounds during spawning seasons in which young herring predominate may amplify the disease and possibly exacerbate the population fluctuations observed in wild herring stocks.

  4. Epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in Pacific herring from the spawn-on-kelp fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Kocan, R.M.; Elder, N.E.; Meyers, T.R.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Both the prevalence and tissue titer of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) increased in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi following their introduction into net pens (pounds) used in the closed pound spawn-on-kelp (SOK) fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska. VHSV was also found in water samples from inside and outside the SOK pounds after herring had been confined for several days; however, water samples taken near wild free-ranging, spawning herring either failed to test positive or tested weakly positive for virus. Little or no virus was found in tissue samples from free-ranging, spawning herring captured from the vicinity of the pounds, nor did the prevalence of VHSV increase following spawning as it did in impounded herring. The data indicated that increased prevalences of VHSV were correlated with confinement of herring for the closed pound SOK fishery and that infection was spread within the pounds through waterborne exposure to virus particles originating from impounded fish. In addition, pounds containing predominantly young fish had higher prevalences of VHSV, suggesting that older fish may be partially immune, perhaps as a result of previous infection with the virus. Operation of SOK pounds during spawning seasons in which young herring predominate may amplify the disease and possibly exacerbate the population fluctuations observed in wild herring stocks.

  5. Estimate of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan lake trout from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both lake trout and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan lake trout retain PCBs from their food. Our estimates were the most reliable estimates to date because (a) the lake trout and prey fish sampled during our study were all from the same vicinity of the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both lake trout and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) lake trout diet was analyzed in detail over a wide range of lake trout size. Our estimates of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to lake trout from their prey averaged from 0.73 to 0.89 for lake trout between the ages of 5 and 10 years old. There was no evidence of an upward or downward trend in our estimates of net trophic transfer efficiency for lake trout between the ages of 5 and 10 years old, and therefore this efficiency appeared to be constant over the duration of the lake trout's adult life in the lake. On the basis of our estimtes, lake trout retained 80% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  6. Lake Tahoe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, list of partner agencies.

  7. Species succession and fishery exploitation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1968-01-01

    The species composition of fish in the Great Lakes has undergone continual change since the earliest records. Some changes were caused by enrichment of the environment, but others primarily by an intensive and selective fishery for certain species. Major changes related to the fishery were less frequent before the late 1930's than in recent years and involved few species. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were overexploited knowingly during the late 1800's because they interfered with fishing for preferred species; sturgeon were greatly reduced in all lakes by the early 1900's. Heavy exploitation accompanied sharp declines of lake herring (Leucichthys artedi) in Lake Erie during the 1920's and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Huron during the 1930's. A rapid succession of fish species in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior that started about 1940 has been caused by selective predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on native predatory species, and the resultant shifting emphasis of the fishery and species interaction as various species declined. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and burbot (Lota lota), the deepwater predators, were depleted first; this favored their prey, the chubs (Leucichthys spp.). The seven species of chubs were influenced differently according to differences in size. Fishing emphasis and predation by sea lampreys were selective for the largest species of chubs as lake trout and burbot declined. A single slow-growing chub, the bloater, was favored and increased, but as the large chubs declined the bloater was exploited by a new trawl fishery. The growth rate and size of the bloater increased, making it more vulnerable to conventional gillnet fishery and lamprey predation. This situation in Lakes Michigan and Huron favored the small alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) which had recently become established in the upper Great Lakes, and the alewife increased rapidly and dominated the fish stocks of the lakes. The successive

  8. Broad-scale climate influences on spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, L.) recruitment in the Western Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gröger, Joachim P; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Polte, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study investigates the potential climatic impact on the reproduction success of spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) in the Western Baltic Sea (WBSS herring). To test for climate effects on reproduction success, the regionally determined and scientifically well-documented spawning grounds of WBSS herring represent an ideal model system. Climate effects on herring reproduction were investigated using two global indices of atmospheric variability and sea surface temperature, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), respectively, and the Baltic Sea Index (BSI) which is a regional-scale atmospheric index for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, we combined a traditional approach with modern time series analysis based on a recruitment model connecting parental population components with reproduction success. Generalized transfer functions (ARIMAX models) allowed evaluating the dynamic nature of exogenous climate processes interacting with the endogenous recruitment process. Using different model selection criteria our results reveal that in contrast to NAO and AMO, the BSI shows a significant positive but delayed signal on the annual dynamics of herring recruitment. The westward influence of the Siberian high is considered strongly suppressing the influence of the NAO in this area leading to a higher explanatory power of the BSI reflecting the atmospheric pressure regime on a North-South transect between Oslo, Norway and Szczecin, Poland. We suggest incorporating climate-induced effects into stock and risk assessments and management strategies as part

  9. Solubility and viscosity of herring (Clupea harengus) proteins as affected by freezing and frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, M; Hlynsdottir, H; Thorkelsson, G; Sigurgisladottir, S

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of freezing and frozen storage at -24 degrees C on the quality of Icelandic herring fillets, focusing on protein solubility and viscosity at pH 2.7 and 11 used for pH-aided protein isolation. The evaluation of quality was based on chemical analyses, protein degradation measurements, and changes in protein solubility and viscosity at pH 2.7 and 11 after up to 6-mo frozen storage of the herring fillets. Lipid oxidation measured as TBARS values increased significantly during the frozen storage (P < 0.05). Protein solubility at pH 2.7 decreased during frozen storage for 6 mo, where the solubility was about 10% lower after 6-mo frozen storage compared to the beginning (P < 0.05). At pH 11, the solubility became approximately 15% lower after 6-mo frozen storage compared to initial solubility (P < 0.05). Viscosity, measured at pH 2.7, increased after 3 mo of frozen storage (P < 0.05). At pH 11, the viscosity increased significantly after 1-wk frozen storage, compared to fresh herring fillets, but did not increase significantly with further storage (P < 0.05). Changes found in solubility and viscosity indicated protein degradation due to freezing and frozen storage. SDS-PAGE analysis did not reveal any protein cross-linking or aggregation formation, either with frozen storage or due to exposure to low pH.

  10. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Vines, Carol A; Linbo, Tiffany L; Myers, Mark S; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Boyd, Daryle; Collier, Tracy K; Morgan, Steven; Cherr, Gary N; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi) spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes) before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity) with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network.

  11. Investigating the Effect of Tones and Frequency Sweeps on the Collective Behavior of Penned Herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Handegard, Nils Olav; Boswell, Kevin; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin John; Rieucau, Guillaume; Sivle, Lise Doksæter

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally played back tones and sweeps to captive herring (Clupea harengus) in a net pen and measured the collective response of a large and a small group of fish using a camera, echo sounder, and multibeam sonar. The playbacks ranged in frequency from 160 to 500 Hz and 131 to 147 dB re 1 μPa in received sound pressure level. Herring behavior was scored by a team that blindly evaluated the observations. Overall, the responses were modest. Stronger reactions were observed at higher source levels, lower frequencies, and smaller school sizes, but there was no effect on signal rise time.

  12. Lake trout demographics in relation to burbot and coregonine populations in the Algonquin Highlands, Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carl, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lake trout populations change in relation to cisco, lake whitefish, round whitefish and burbot populations in lakes in the Algonquin Highlands region of Ontario. Lake trout population change is greatest where cisco and lake whitefish are present. Lake trout populations in lakes without either coregonine tend to have small adults and many juveniles. Where cisco or lake whitefish are present, adult lake trout are large, juvenile abundance is low, and the stock-recruit relationship appears to be uncoupled likely due to a larval bottleneck. Lake trout populations in these lakes may be sensitive to overfishing and recruitment failure. Lake trout populations do not appear to change in relation to round whitefish. There appears to be an indirect positive change on juvenile lake trout abundance through reductions in the density of benthic coregonines in the presence of large, hypolimnetic burbot. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Echolocation clicks from killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Simon, Malene; Wahlberg, Magnus; Miller, Lee A

    2007-02-01

    Echolocation clicks from Norwegian killer whales feeding on herring schools were recorded using a four-hydrophone array. The clicks had broadband bimodal frequency spectra with low and high frequency peaks at 24 and 108 kHz, respectively. The -10 dB bandwidth was 35 kHz. The average source level varied from 173 to 202 dB re 1 microPa (peak-to-peak) at 1 m. This is considerably lower than source levels described for Canadian killer whales foraging on salmon. It is suggested that biosonar clicks of Norwegian killer whales are adapted for localization of prey with high target strength and acute hearing abilities.

  14. Lake Erie: Effects of exploitation, environmental changes and new species on the fishery resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1972-01-01

    In no other lake as large as Lake Erie (surface area, 25,690 km2) have such extensive changes taken place in the drainage basin, the lake environment, and the fish populations over the last 100 years. Deforestation and prairie burning led to erosion and siltation of valuable spawning grounds. Marsh spawning areas were drained. Lake-to-river spawning migrations were blocked by mill dams. Accelerated cultural nutrient loading increased total dissolved solids by nearly 50% (1920-70). Average summer water temperatures increased 1.1 C. Phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance increased severalfold. Severe oxygen depletion developed in the bottom waters of all three basins of the lake. Lake sturgeon were fished out as nuisance fish in the late 1800s. The commercial fisheries for lake trout, lake whitefish, and lake herring collapsed by 1940 and those for blue pike and walleye by 1960. Yellow perch production became unstable in the 1960s. The effects of exploitation, environmental changes, and new species on these fish populations are discussed.

  15. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and short nose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2014-01-01

    percent and the abundance of females decreased by 69 percent between 2001 and 2011. The worst-case scenario, which assumes no recruitment and seems more likely, suggests an 86 percent decrease for males and an 81 percent decrease for females. Despite relatively high survival in most years, we conclude that both species have experienced substantial declines in the abundance of spawning fish because losses from mortality have not been balanced by recruitment of new individuals. Although capture-recapture data indicate substantial recruitment of new individuals into the adult spawning populations for SNS and river spawning LRS in some years, size data do not corroborate these estimates. In fact, fork length data indicate that all populations are largely comprised of fish that were present in the late 1990s and early 2000s. As a result, the status of the endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake remains worrisome, and the situation is especially dire for shortnose suckers. Future investigations should explore the connections between sucker recruitment and survival and various environmental factors, such as water quality and disease. Our monitoring program provides a robust platform for estimating vital population parameters, evaluating the status of the populations, and assessing the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  16. Behavioral responses of herring (Clupea harengus) to 1-2 and 6-7 kHz sonar signals and killer whale feeding sounds.

    PubMed

    Doksaeter, Lise; Rune Godo, Olav; Olav Handegard, Nils; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Donovan, Carl; Miller, Patrick J O

    2009-01-01

    Military antisubmarine sonars produce intense sounds within the hearing range of most clupeid fish. The behavioral reactions of overwintering herring (Clupea harengus) to sonar signals of two different frequency ranges (1-2 and 6-7 kHz), and to playback of killer whale feeding sounds, were tested in controlled exposure experiments in Vestfjorden, Norway, November 2006. The behavior of free ranging herring was monitored by two upward-looking echosounders. A vessel towing an operational naval sonar source approached and passed over one of them in a block design setup. No significant escape reactions, either vertically or horizontally, were detected in response to sonar transmissions. Killer whale feeding sounds induced vertical and horizontal movements of herring. The results indicate that neither transmission of 1-2 kHz nor 6-7 kHz have significant negative influence on herring on the received sound pressure level tested (127-197 and 139-209 dB(rms) re 1 microPa, respectively). Military sonars of such frequencies and source levels may thus be operated in areas of overwintering herring without substantially affecting herring behavior or herring fishery. The avoidance during playback of killer whale sounds demonstrates the nature of an avoidance reaction and the ability of the experimental design to reveal it.

  17. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  18. Loss of vitamin B(12) in fish (round herring) meats during various cooking treatments.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Michiko; Kanosue, Fuki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The loss of vitamin B(12) in round herring meats during various cooking treatments was evaluated. Although amounts of vitamin B(12) were three times greater in the viscera (37.5 ± 10.6 µg/100 g fresh weight) than in the meats, about 73% of total vitamin B(12) found in the whole fish body (except for head and bones) were recovered in the meats (5.1 ± 1.0 µg of vitamin B(12)). The vitamin B(12) contents of the round herring's meats were significantly decreased up to ~62% during cooking by grilling, boiling, frying, steaming, and microwaving. There was, however, no loss of vitamin B(12) during vacuum-packed pouch cooking. Model experiment using hydroxocobalamin suggest that loss of vitamin B(12) is dependent on the degree of temperature and time used in conventional cooking, and is further affected by the concomitant ingredients of food. Retention of vitamin B(12) was not dependent on vacuum or temperature (or both) used in the vacuum-packed pouch cooking.

  19. The Red Herring technique: a methodological response to the problem of demand characteristics.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Kaasa, Suzanne O; Morris, Erin K; Berkowitz, Shari R; Bernstein, Daniel M; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-07-01

    In past research, we planted false memories for food related childhood events using a simple false feedback procedure. Some critics have worried that our findings may be due to demand characteristics. In the present studies, we developed a novel procedure designed to reduce the influence of demand characteristics by providing an alternate magnet for subjects' natural suspicions. We used two separate levels of deception. In addition to giving subjects a typical untrue rationale for the study (i.e., normal deceptive cover story), we built in strong indicators (the "Red Herring") that the study actually had another purpose. Later, we told subjects that we had deceived them, and asked what they believed the "real purpose" of the study was. We also interviewed a subset of subjects in depth in order to analyze their subjective experiences of the procedure and any relevant demand. Our Red Herring successfully tricked subjects, and left little worry that our false memory results were due to demand. This "double cross" technique may have widespread uses in psychological research that hopes to conceal its real hypotheses from experimental subjects.

  20. Susceptibility of three stocks of pacific herring to viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Collins, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory challenges using specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii from three distinct populations indicated that stock origin had no effect on susceptibility to viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS). All of the populations were highly susceptible to the disease upon initial exposure, with significantly greater cumulative mortalities occurring in the exposed treatment groups (56.3-64.3%) than in the unexposed control groups (0.8-9.0%). Interstock differences in cumulative mortality were not significant. The virus loads in the tissues of fish experiencing mortality were 10-10,000 times higher during the acute phase of the epizootics (day 13 postexposure) than during the recovery phase (days 30-42). Survivors of the epizootics were refractory to subsequent VHS, with reexposure of VHS survivors resulting in significantly less cumulative mortality (1.2-4.0%) than among positive controls (38.1-64.4%); interstock differences in susceptibility did not occur after reexposure. These results indicate that data from experiments designed to understand the ecology of VHS virus in a given stock of Pacific herring are broadly applicable to stocks throughout the northeastern Pacific.

  1. Toxaphene congeners in the Canadian Great Lakes basin: temporal and spatial food web dynamics.

    PubMed

    Whittle, D M; Kiriluk, R M; Carswell, A A; Keir, M J; MacEachen, D C

    2000-01-01

    Samples of a top predator fish species, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and predominant forage species including smelt (Osmerus mordax), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and lake herring (Coregonus artedii) were, collected from throughout 4 of the 5 Great Lakes (Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario) (Fig. 1). Lake trout were also collected from three isolated lake systems (Lakes Nipigon, Simcoe and Opeongo), all located within the basin. All the samples were analysed for body burdens of total toxaphene and 22 toxaphene congeners. In addition, from each of the Great Lakes sites samples of major invertebrate dietary items, which included Mysis relicta, Diporeia hoyi and plankton, were similarly analysed. Whole lake trout samples, archived at -80 degrees C, were reanalysed to determine historical trends of toxaphene congeners plus carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures. The Lake Superior food web consistently had the highest levels of total toxaphene of all the Great Lakes monitored. The primary source of toxaphene to Lake Superior has been identified as atmospheric transport and deposition from sites in the southern US, Mexico and Central America (Hoff, R.M., Strachan, W.M.J., Sweet, C.W., Chan, C.H., Shackelton, M., Bidleman, T.F., Brice, K.A., Burnison, D.A., Cussion, S., Gatz, D.F., Harlin, K., Schroeder, W.H., 1996. Atmospheric deposition of toxic chemicals to the Great Lakes: A review of data through 1994. Atmospheric Environ. 30, 3505-3527). Of the offsystem lakes surveyed. Lake Nipigon, situated due north of Lake Superior and with a Lake Basin area of about 6% of Lake Superior (Hendendorf, C.E., 1982. J. Great Lakes Res. 8(3), 379-412) had total toxaphene levels in lake trout equivalent to about 50% of those found in lake trout from Lake Superior. Temporal trend toxaphene congener analysis was conducted on archived whole fish samples collected over the period 1980 through to

  2. 78 FR 62331 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-Annual Catch Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-17

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-Annual Catch Limit (ACL) Harvested for Management...), optimum yield, domestic harvest and processing, U.S. at-sea processing, border transfer, and sub-ACLs for each management area. The 2013 Domestic Annual Harvest is 107,800 metric tons (mt); the 2013...

  3. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... harvest and processing, U.S. at-sea processing, border transfer, and sub-ACLs for each management area. The 2012 Domestic Annual Harvest is 91,200 metric tons (mt); the 2012 sub-ACL allocated to Area 2...

  4. 78 FR 63406 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-Annual Catch Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-Annual Catch Limit (ACL) Harvested for Management..., and sub-ACLs for each management area. The 2013 Domestic Annual Harvest is 107,800 metric tons (mt); the 2013 sub-ACL allocated to Area 3 is 42,000 mt, and 0 mt of the sub-ACL is set aside for...

  5. 78 FR 21071 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management.... at-sea processing, border transfer, and sub-ACLs for each management area. The 2013 Domestic Annual Harvest is 91,200 metric tons (mt); the 2013 sub-ACL allocated to Area 2 is 22,146 mt, and 0 mt of the...

  6. 77 FR 61299 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management..., domestic harvest and processing, U.S. at-sea processing, border transfer, and the sub-ACL for each management area. The 2012 Domestic Annual Harvest was set as 91,200 metric tons (mt); the sub-ACL...

  7. 77 FR 66746 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management..., domestic harvest and processing, U.S. at-sea processing, border transfer, and the sub-ACL for each management area. The 2012 Domestic Annual Harvest was set as 91,200 metric tons (mt); the sub-ACL...

  8. 76 FR 66654 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management..., domestic harvest and processing, U.S. at-sea processing, border transfer, and sub-ACLs for each management area. The 2011 Domestic Annual Harvest is 91,200 metric tons (mt); the 2011 sub-ACL allocated to...

  9. Larval and juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii are not susceptible to infectious hematopoietic necrosis under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, L.M.; Traxler, G.S.; Garver, K.A.; Richard, J.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Kurath, G.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) leads to periodic epidemics among certain wild and farmed fish species of the Northeast (NE) Pacific. The source of the IHN virus (IHNV) that initiates these outbreaks remains unknown; however, a leading hypothesis involves viral persistence in marine host species such as Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. Under laboratory conditions we exposed specific pathogen-free (SPF) larval and juvenile Pacific herring to 103 to 104 plaque-forming units (pfu) of IHNV ml–1 by waterborne immersion. Cumulative mortalities among exposed groups were not significantly different from those of negative control groups. After waterborne exposure, IHNV was transiently recovered from the tissues of larvae but absent in tissues of juveniles. Additionally, no evidence of viral shedding was detected in the tank water containing exposed juveniles. After intraperitoneal (IP) injection of IHNV in juvenile herring with 103 pfu, IHNV was recovered from the tissues of sub-sampled individuals for only the first 5 d post-exposure. The lack of susceptibility to overt disease and transient levels of IHNV in the tissues of exposed fish indicate that Pacific herring do not likely serve a major epizootiological role in perpetuation of IHNV among free-ranging sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the NE Pacific.

  10. Toxicity of Orimulsion-400 to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Monica; Sweezey, Michael J; Lee, Kenneth; Hodson, Peter V; Courtenay, Simon C

    2009-06-01

    The toxicity of Orimulsion-400 (PDVSA-BITOR), an emulsion of 70% bitumen in 30% water, was tested during the embryonic development of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) in duplicate experiments. Air injection and different salinities were included in the herring assays to examine their effects on Orimulsion-400 toxicity. Water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of no. 6 fuel oil were tested in the mummichog assays to compare Orimulsion-400 toxicity with that of a heavy fuel oil. Concentrations of Orimulsion-400 as low as 0.001% (v/v) were harmful to both species. In herring, the more sensitive of the two species, this concentration produced 100% abnormal larvae. Similar abnormalities, including pericardial edema and spinal deformities, the same signs of toxicity caused by heavy fuel oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were produced in both herring and mummichog. Fish exposed to Orimulsion-400 also suffered from increased mortality, reduced heart rates, premature hatch, and reduced lengths compared to control fish. Orimulsion-400 was approximately 300-fold more toxic than the WAFs of no. 6 fuel oil. Salinity had few clear effects on Orimulsion-400 toxicity, but aeration of test solutions greatly reduced toxicity by causing bitumen to coalesce and float. Aeration also removed toxic chemicals such as PAHs. The present study suggests that in the event of a spill, Orimulsion-400 could impair fish recruitment, but that strong wave action would reduce toxicity by accelerating the removal of emulsified bitumen from the water column.

  11. Lake trout population dynamics in the Northern Refuge of Lake Michigan: implications for future rehabilitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjiana, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Northern Refuge was established in 1985 as part of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush rehabilitation effort for Lake Michigan. To evaluate progress toward lake trout rehabilitation in the Northern Refuge, we conducted annual (1991–2008) gill-net surveys in the fall to assess the adult population and beam trawl surveys in the spring to assess naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout. Our criteria for evaluating progress included the density of “wild” age-0 fish within the Northern Refuge, the proportion of wild fish within the adult population, density of spawners, adult survival, growth, and wounding rate by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. No wild age-0 lake trout were caught in the Northern Refuge during 1991–2008. Overall, wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. The mean density of spawning lake trout decreased from 45 fish·305 m of gill net−1·d−1 during 1991–1999 to only 4 fish·305 m−1·d−1 during 2000–2008. Although the sea lamprey wounding rate more than doubled between these two time periods, catch curve analysis revealed that mortality of adult lake trout actually decreased between the two periods. Therefore, the 90% decrease in abundance of spawning lake trout between the two periods could not be attributed to increased sea lamprey predation but instead was probably due in part to the reduced lake trout stocking rate during 1995–2005. The paucity of natural reproduction in the Northern Refuge during 1991–2008 most likely resulted from alewife Alosa pseudoharengus interference with lake trout reproduction and from the relatively low lake trout spawner density during 2000–2008. Our results suggest that the annual stocking rate of lake trout yearlings should be increased to at least 250,000 fish/reef to achieve greater densities of spawners.

  12. Seasonal bathymetric distributions of 16 fishes in Lake Superior, 1958-75

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    The bathymetric distributions of fishes in Lake Superior, which is one of the largest and deepest lakes in the world, has not been studied on a lakewide scale. Knowledge about the bathymetric distributions will aid in designing fish sampling programs, estimating absolute abundances, and modeling energy flow in the lake. Seasonal bathymetric distributions were determined , by 10-m depth intervals, for 16 fishes collected with bottom trawls and bottom-set gill nets within the upper 150 m of Lake Superior during 1958-75. In spring trawl catches, maximum abundance occurred at these depths: 15 m for round whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum); 25m for longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus); 35 m for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax); 45 m for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush); 65 m for pygmy whitefish (Prospoium coulteri) and bloater (Coregonus hoyi); 75 m for trout- perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus); 105 m for shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus); and 115 m for ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), burbot (Lota lota), slimy sculpin (Cottus cogantus), spoonhead sculpin (Cottus ricei), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxcephalus thompsoni). Bathymetric distributions in spring gill nets were similar to those in trawls, except that depths of maximum abundances in gill nets were shallower than those in trawls for lake trout, rainbow smelt, longnose sucker, and burbot. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) were rarely caught in trawls, and their maximum abundances in spring gill net collections were at depths of 25 and 145 m, respectively. In summer, pygmy whitefish, shortjaw cisco, lake herring, kiyi, longnose sucker, burbot, ninespine stickleback, trout-perch, slimy sculpin, and spponhead sculpin were at shallower depths than in spring, whereas rainbow smelt were found in deeper water; there was no change for other species. In fall, shortjaw cisco was at shallower depths than in summer, whereas the remaining species

  13. Epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) among juvenile Pacific herring and Pacific sandlances in Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.; Winton, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) and the associated virus (VHSV) were identified in newly metamorphosed Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and Pacific sand lances Ammodytes hexapterus captured from Puget Sound, Washington, between 1995 and 1998. During that 4-year period, virus was detected in less than 1% of free-ranging, age-0 Pacific herring; however, when groups of these fish were confined in the laboratory, they experienced severe mortality, occasionally exceeding 50%, with the prevalence of VHSV reaching 100% by 14 d postcapture. At 7–21 d postcapture, VHSV titers peaked in excess of 108 plaque-forming units/g of tissue; by 30 d postcapture, however, the virus could no longer be isolated. Fish surviving beyond 30 d eliminated the virus from their tissues, but some remained lethargic and continued to show signs of hemorrhage around the mouth, skin, and fins until about 6 weeks postcapture. No cutaneous ulcers were observed during either the acute or the recovery phases of infection. Eighteen-month-old Pacific herring captured from the same area were also negative for VHSV but developed active infections after confinement for 7 d. Unlike younger fish, only 8.4% of these older fish died of VHS, and 7.7% of survivors were positive for VHSV at 7–10 d postcapture, which suggests that a higher proportion of the older fish had developed resistance to VHSV from prior exposure to it. Three months after fatalities ceased in the laboratory-held fish, the surviving fish were challenged with 5 3 103 plaque-forming units/mL of VHSV for 1 h. No mortality was observed during the next 30 d, and virus was recoverable at very low titers in fewer than 5% of the challenged fish, indicating the development of an active immunity to VHSV. Laboratory cohabitation of infected wild Pacific herring with laboratory-reared, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring resulted in transmission of VHSV to the nonimmune fish, with the resulting course of disease resembling that seen in wild

  14. Artificial propagation of coregonines in the management of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous stresses caused wide fluctuations in the abundance of Great Lakes coregonine fishes during the last century. State, Provincial, and Federal agencies attempted to bolster these fisheries by stocking more than 32 billion fry of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 6 billion fry of lake herring (C. artedii) over a period of about 90 years (1870-1960). Propagation efforts were unsuccessful in arresting the decline of these fishes, perhaps because the stocking densities were too low. It appears that stocking densities must exceed 41% of the natural hatch to produce measurable success in a planting program that augments natural reproduction. Stocking of any of the Great Lakes with lake whitefish at these levels would require several billion fry per lake annually. Such a program is too large to be practical and intensified protection of the remaining stocks would be more cost effective. A species such as the shortnose cisco (C. reighardi) which has only a small number of extant individuals, and can therefore be significantly augmented with fewer stocked fish, may be a much better candidate for propagation than is the lake whitefish. Propagation of coregonines in the Great Lakes should be considered only in localities that have little or no natural recruitment and then only for rehabilitation, and only if accompanied by adequate assessment of the performance of the stocked fish.

  15. Investigations on the Interactions of 5-Fluorouracil with Herring Sperm DNA: Steady State/Time Resolved and Molecular Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Karthikeyan, Subramani; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the interaction of 5-Fluorouracil with herring sperm DNA is reported using spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques. This binding study of 5-FU with hs-DNA is of paramount importance in understanding chemico-biological interactions for drug design, pharmacy and biochemistry without altering the original structure. The challenge of the study was to find the exact binding mode of the drug 5-Fluorouracil with hs-DNA. From the absorption studies, a hyperchromic effect was observed for the herring sperm DNA in the presence of 5-Fluorouracil and a binding constant of 6.153 × 103 M-1 for 5-Fluorouracil reveals the existence of weak interaction between the 5-Fluorouracil and herring sperm DNA. Ethidium bromide loaded herring sperm DNA showed a quenching in the fluorescence intensity after the addition of 5-Fluorouracil. The binding constants for 5-Fluorouracil stranded DNA and competitive bindings of 5-FU interacting with DNA-EB systems were examined by fluorescence spectra. The Stern-Volmer plots and fluorescence lifetime results confirm the static quenching nature of the drug-DNA complex. The binding constant Kb was 2.5 × 104 L mol-1 and the number of binding sites are 1.17. The 5-FU on DNA system was calculated using double logarithmic plot. From the Forster nonradiative energy transfer study it has been found that the distance of 5-FU from DNA was 4.24 nm. In addition to the spectroscopic results, the molecular modeling studies also revealed the major groove binding as well as the partial intercalation mode of binding between the 5-Fluorouracil and herring sperm DNA. The binding energy and major groove binding as -6.04 kcal mol-1 and -6.31 kcal mol-1 were calculated from the modeling studies. All the testimonies manifested that binding modes between 5-Fluorouracil and DNA were evidenced to be groove binding and in partial intercalative mode.

  16. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  17. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005–2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  18. Characterization of AhR agonists reveals antagonistic activity in European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs.

    PubMed

    Muusse, Martine; Christensen, Guttorm; Gomes, Tânia; Kočan, Anton; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Vaňková, Lenka; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-05-01

    European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from two Norwegian islands, Musvær in the south east and Reiaren in Northern Norway, were screened for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like and selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and subjected to non-target analysis to try to identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, responsible for elevated levels measured using the dioxin responsive chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay. Eggs from Musvær contained chemically calculated toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) levels of between 109 and 483 pg TEQ/g lw, and between 82 and 337 pg TEQ/g lw was determined in eggs from Reiaren. In particular PCB126 contributed highly to the total TEQ (69-82%). In 19 of the 23 samples the calculated WHO TEQ was higher than the TEQCALUX. Using CALUX specific relative effect potencies (REPs), the levels were lower at between 77 and 292 pg/g lw in eggs from Musvær and between 55 and 223 pg/g lw in eggs from Reiaren, which was higher than the TEQCALUX in 16 of the 23 samples. However, the means of the REP values and the TEQCALUX were not significantly different. This suggests the presence of compounds that can elicit antagonist effects, with a low binding affinity to the AhR. Non-target analysis identified the presence of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (quantified at 9.6-185 pg/g lw) but neither this compound nor high concentrations of PCB126 and non-dioxin-like PCBs could explain the differences between the calculated TEQ or REP values and the TEQCALUX. Even though, for most AhR agonists, the sensitivity of herring gulls is not known, the reported levels can be considered to represent a risk for biological effects in the developing embryo, compared to LC50 values in chicken embryos. For human consumers of herring gull eggs, these eggs contain TEQ levels up to four times higher than the maximum tolerable weekly intake.

  19. Lake Constance

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... Swiss shores of Lake Constance at the town of Rorschach. Eutrophication, or the process of nutrient enrichment, is rapidly accelerated ... of the value of Lake Constance, efforts to mitigate eutrophication were initiated in the 1970's. MISR was built and is managed ...

  20. Atlas of contaminants in the eggs of fish-eating colonial birds of the Great Lakes, 1993--1997: Volume 1 -- Accounts by location. Technical report series number 321

    SciTech Connect

    Pekarik, C.

    1998-01-01

    During 1993--97, the Canadian Wildlife Service collected 1,252 eggs from 32 fish-eating colonial water bird sites throughout the Great Lakes. The work was part of a monitoring program to understand the temporal and spatial trends of environmental contaminant levels in Great Lakes biota. Eggs of four species (double-crested cormorant, great black-backed gull, herring gull, and ring-billed gull) were sampled and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins and furans, and lipid and moisture. This volume contains contaminant data for all four species summarized by sample size and by location, as well as data on non-coplanar PCB congener patterns in herring gull eggs.

  1. Effects of exploitation, environmental changes, and new species on the fish habitats and resources of Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1973-01-01

    No other lake as large as Lake Erie (surface area, 25,690 km2) has been subjected to such extensive changes in the drainage basin, the lake environment, and the fish populations over the last 150 years. Deforestation and prairie burning led to erosion of the watershed and siltation of valuable spawning grounds. Marsh spawning areas were drained. Lake-to-river spawning migrations of sturgeon, walleye, and other fishes were blocked by mill dams. Accelerated cultural nutrient loading increased total dissolved solids by nearly 50% (1920-70). Phosphate loading reached 469 metric tons per year by the 1950's and continued to increase. The biomass of phytoplankton increased 20-fold between 1919 and 1963. Oxygen demand for decomposition of these algae so degraded oxygen regimes in the western and central basins by the 1950's that the once abundant mayfly nymphs were destroyed and the central basin hypolimnion became anoxic. The sequence of disappearance or severe depletion of fish species was as follows: lake trout, sturgeon, lake herring, lake whitefish, sauger, blue pike, and walleye. Yellow perch are now declining. All resources were intensively exploited at one time or another. Lake trout suffered only this stress, but changes in the watershed significantly stressed sturgeon and lake whitefish. Degradation of the lake spawning grounds, benthos, and oxygen regimes culminated in severe stress by the 1950's on the remnants of the lake herring and lake whitefish, and on the sauger, blue pike, and walleye. Additional mortality may have been imposed on walleye and blue pike fry by predacious smelt that successfully colonized Lake Erie after first appearing in 1932. The cultural stresses, in the probable order of greatest to least net effects on the fish community of Lake Erie, appear to have been: (1) an intense, opportunistic, ineffectively controlled commercial fishery; (2) changes in the watershed, such as erosion and siltation of stream beds and inshore lake areas, and

  2. The influence of predation by herring gulls Larus argentatus and oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on a newly established mussel Mytilus edulis bed in autumn and winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgerloh, G.; Herlyn, M.; Michaelis, H.

    1997-08-01

    Predation by herring gulls Larus argentatus and oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus was evaluated on a newly established mussel Mytilus edulis bed on tidal flats of the German Wadden Sea. The mussel bed covered an area of 2 ha and showed a decrease in biomass of 40% in the most densely covered parts from August to January. Synchronously, the extent of the mussel bed was reduced, resulting in a decrease of average biomass of 98% over the whole mussel bed. From the beginning of August 1994 to mid January 1995, the average size of mussels increased from 10.7 to 20.3 mm. The P/B-ratio was 0.68 in August and 0.18 between September and November. Herring gulls and oystercatchers were the most important mussel predators. On average, 266 herring gulls and 63 oystercatchers were present on the mussel bed during one low tide; 34% of the herring gulls and 78% of the oystercatchers were observed to be feeding. Herring gulls fed at a rate of 4.2 mussels per minute and oystercatchers at a rate of 1.3 mussels per minute. While herring gulls took the most common mussel sizes (mean: 20 mm), oystercatchers searched for the largest mussels available (mean: 25 mm). Herring gulls consumed 13 mussels/m2 (0.3g AFDW) during one day and oystercatchers 1.7 mussels/m2 (0.1 g AFDW). Predation by birds was compensated by 33% of the production. The proportion removed by bird predation amounted to 10% of abundance and to 16% of biomass (including production). Oystercatchers were responsible for 1% of the reduction in abundance and for 3% of biomass. Removal was highest in the most common size classes of mussels, mainly caused by herring gulls. However, the highest proportion of mussels was eaten in the largest size classes, mainly by oystercatchers. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A03B6035 00004

  3. The genetic basis for ecological adaptation of the Atlantic herring revealed by genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Martinez Barrio, Alvaro; Lamichhaney, Sangeet; Fan, Guangyi; Rafati, Nima; Pettersson, Mats; Zhang, He; Dainat, Jacques; Ekman, Diana; Höppner, Marc; Jern, Patric; Martin, Marcel; Nystedt, Björn; Liu, Xin; Chen, Wenbin; Liang, Xinming; Shi, Chengcheng; Fu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Kailong; Zhan, Xiao; Feng, Chungang; Gustafson, Ulla; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Sällman Almén, Markus; Blass, Martina; Casini, Michele; Folkvord, Arild; Laikre, Linda; Ryman, Nils; Ming-Yuen Lee, Simon; Xu, Xun; Andersson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Ecological adaptation is of major relevance to speciation and sustainable population management, but the underlying genetic factors are typically hard to study in natural populations due to genetic differentiation caused by natural selection being confounded with genetic drift in subdivided populations. Here, we use whole genome population sequencing of Atlantic and Baltic herring to reveal the underlying genetic architecture at an unprecedented detailed resolution for both adaptation to a new niche environment and timing of reproduction. We identify almost 500 independent loci associated with a recent niche expansion from marine (Atlantic Ocean) to brackish waters (Baltic Sea), and more than 100 independent loci showing genetic differentiation between spring- and autumn-spawning populations irrespective of geographic origin. Our results show that both coding and non-coding changes contribute to adaptation. Haplotype blocks, often spanning multiple genes and maintained by selection, are associated with genetic differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12081.001 PMID:27138043

  4. Interaction of drug based copper(II) complexes with Herring Sperm DNA and their biological activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Patel, Chintan R.; Joshi, Hardik N.

    2012-11-01

    Square pyramidal Cu(II) complexes with NS donor ligand and ciprofloxacin have been synthesized and characterized using analytical and spectral techniques. The synthesized complexes have been tested for their antimicrobial activity using double dilution technique in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and colony forming unit (CFU). The DNA binding ability of the complexes with Sperm Herring DNA has been performed using absorption titration and viscosity measurement. The nuclease activity of complexes with plasmid DNA (pUC19) has been carried out using agarose gel electrophoresis technique. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using NBT/NADH/PMS system. The cytotoxic properties of metal complexes have been evaluated using brine shrimp lethality bioassay.

  5. Increasing thiamine concentrations in lake trout eggs from Lakes Huron and Michigan coincide with low alewife abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Rinchard, Jacques; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Evans, Allison N.; Begnoche, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes suffer from thiamine deficiency as a result of adult lake trout consuming prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Sufficiently low egg thiamine concentrations result in direct mortality of or sublethal effects on newly hatched lake trout fry. To determine the prevalence and severity of low thiamine in lake trout eggs, we monitored thiamine concentrations in lake trout eggs from 15 sites in Lakes Huron and Michigan from 2001 to 2009. Lake trout egg thiamine concentrations at most sites in both lakes were initially low and increased over time at 11 of 15 sites, and the proportion of females with egg thiamine concentrations lower than the recommended management objective of 4 nmol/g decreased over time at eight sites. Egg thiamine concentrations at five of six sites in Lakes Huron and Michigan were significantly inversely related to site-specific estimates of mean abundance of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, and successful natural reproduction of lake trout has been observed in Lake Huron since the alewife population crashed. These results support the hypothesis that low egg thiamine in Great Lakes lake trout is associated with increased alewife abundance and that low alewife abundance may currently be a prerequisite for successful reproduction by lake trout in the Great Lakes.

  6. Application of a sensitive, specific and controlled real-time PCR assay to surveillance indicates a low prevalence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in wild herring, Clupea harengus L., in Scottish waters.

    PubMed

    Matejusova, I; McKay, P; Bland, F; Snow, M

    2010-10-01

    Surveillance data on the distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the North Sea (UK), targeting Atlantic herring in areas with previous virus detection, were obtained from research cruises conducted during 2005. The sensitive molecular approach of real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied alongside a newly developed endogenous positive control assay specific for herring (elongation factor 1α) to ensure integrity of template. Three hundred and five pools from 1937 individual herring were tested, and no evidence of VHSV in association with wild Atlantic herring was detected. Samples were obtained from Scottish waters where marine aquaculture is conducted. The results confirm that previous tissue culture studies have most likely not significantly underestimated the prevalence of carrier herring in this area. The significance of migratory species such as herring as a reservoir species for VHSV, with the potential to translocate virus genotypes between geographical areas, is discussed.

  7. Hydroacoustic estimates of abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic prey fishes in western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Doran M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Harvey, Chris J.; Kitchell, James F.; Schram, Stephen T.; Bronte, Charles R.; Hoff, MIchael H.; Lozano, Stephen J.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Lamon, E. Conrad; Hrabik, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) are a valuable prey resource for the recovering lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior. However, prey biomass may be insufficient to support the current predator demand. In August 1997, we assessed the abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic coregonines and rainbow smelt in western Lake Superior by combining a 120 kHz split beam acoustics system with midwater trawls. Coregonines comprised the majority of the midwater trawl catches and the length distributions for trawl caught fish coincided with estimated sizes of acoustic targets. Overall mean pelagic prey fish biomass was 15.56 kg ha−1 with the greatest fish biomass occurring in the Apostle Islands region (27.98 kg ha−1), followed by the Duluth Minnesota region (20.22 kg ha−1), and with the lowest biomass occurring in the open waters of western Lake Superior (9.46 kg ha−1). Biomass estimates from hydroacoustics were typically 2–134 times greater than estimates derived from spring bottom trawl surveys. Prey fish biomass for Lake Superior is about order of magnitude less than acoustic estimates for Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Discrepancies observed between bioenergetics-based estimates of predator consumption of coregonines and earlier coregonine biomass estimates may be accounted for by our hydroacoustic estimates.

  8. Spatial patterns in assemblage structures of pelagic forage fish and zooplankton in western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Timothy B.; Hoff, Michael H.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Bronte, Charles R.; Corry, Timothy D.; Kitchell, James F.; Lozano, Stephen J.; Mason, Doran M.; Scharold, Jill V.; Schram, Stephen T.; Schreiner, Donald R.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed abundance, size, and species composition of forage fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during August 1996 and July 1997. Data were analyzed for three ecoregions (Duluth-Superior, Apostle Islands, and the open lake) differing in bathymetry and limnological and biological patterns. Zooplankton abundance was three times higher in the Duluth-Superior and Apostle Islands regions than in the open lake due to the large numbers of rotifers. Copepods were far more abundant than Cladocera in all ecoregions. Mean zooplankton size was larger in the open lake due to dominance by large calanoid copepods although size of individual taxa was similar among ecoregions. Forage fish abundance and biomass was highest in the Apostle Islands region and lowest in the open lake ecoregion. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) comprised over 90% of the abundance and biomass of fishes caught in midwater trawls and recorded with hydroacoustics. Growth and condition of fish was good, suggesting they were not resource limited. Fish and zooplankton assemblages differed among the three ecoregions of western Lake Superior, due to a combination of physical and limnological factors related to bathymetry and landscape position.

  9. Patterns of egg deposition by lake trout and lake whitefish at Tawas artificial Reef, Lake Huron, 1990-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; Kennedy, G.W.; Munawar, M.; Edsall, T.; Leach, J.

    1995-01-01

    In August 1987, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), with the help and co-sponsorship of Walleyes for Iosco County, constructed Tawas artificial reef to improve recreational fishing in Tawas Bay. Post-construction assessment in October, 1987, by the MDNR found twice as many adult lake trout in a gill net set on the reef as in a similar net set off the reef, indicating that lake trout already had begun to investigate this new habitat. Similar netting efforts in October 1989 caught three times as many adults on the reef as off it, even though the on-reef net was set for less than one third as long a period. Using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), we detected prespawning aggregations of lake trout on the reef in fall 1989, and MDNR biologists set emergent fly traps on the reef in April-May 1990-1991. These fry traps captured several newly emerged lake trout and lake whitefish fry, demonstrating that eggs of both species has hatched successfully. Gill netting in 1992-1993 by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists netted large numbers of ripe lake trout in late October and ripe lake whitefish in early to mid-November. The purpose of this paper is to describe the relative quantities of eggs deposited and the spatial patterns of egg deposition by lake trout and lake whitefish at Tawas artificial reef during 1990-1993.

  10. Prevalence of Tumors in Brown Bullhead from Three Lakes in Southeastern Massachusetts, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Paul C.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Blazer, Vicki; Meier, John R.; Hurley, Stephen T.; Kiryu, Yasu

    2008-01-01

    The Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) has been a military base on western Cape Cod since the early 1900s. Contaminated surface water and ground water from the MMR have discharged into several kettle lakes on or near the base. To discover whether the prevalences of tumors and other lesions in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in these lakes, particularly Ashumet Pond, were elevated above normal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), assisted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife (MADFW), conducted a study in 2002 of brown bullhead in Ashumet Pond and in two reference lakes, Santuit Pond (on Cape Cod) and Great Herring Pond (on the mainland of Massachusetts). Brown bullhead from Great Herring Pond had few external raised lesions (2.8 percent), a low prevalence of liver neoplasms (5 percent), and little genetic damage to their red blood cell nuclei. Brown bullhead from Ashumet Pond had a high prevalence of raised lesions (62.1 percent), which included histopathologically verified papillomas and squamous carcinoma; an elevated incidence of liver neoplasms (16.7 percent); and an elevated level of genetic damage to their red blood cell nuclei. Because red blood cells in fish have a lifespan of about 100 days, these results indicate an ongoing exposure to genotoxins in Ashumet Pond. Brown bullhead from Santuit Pond also had elevated prevalences of raised lesions (48.3 percent) and liver neoplasms (15 percent), although the prevalences of large and multiple lesions were significantly lower than those in fish from Ashumet Pond. These differences may indicate differing causes of pathology in the two lakes. The high prevalence of melanistic lesions on brown bullhead from Ashumet Pond, combined with the tumor pathology and genetic damage, implicates chemical carcinogens as one of the causal factors in that lake.

  11. Introgressive hybridization and the evolutionary history of the herring gull complex revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Based on extensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data, we previously showed that the model of speciation among species of herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex was not that of a ring species, but most likely due more complex speciation scenario's. We also found that two species, herring gull and glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus) displayed an unexpected biphyletic distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes. It was evident that mtDNA sequence data alone were far from sufficient to obtain a more accurate and detailed insight into the demographic processes that underlie speciation of this complex, and that extensive autosomal genetic analysis was warranted. Results For this reason, the present study focuses on the reconstruction of the phylogeographic history of a limited number of gull species by means of a combined approach of mtDNA sequence data and 230 autosomal amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci. At the species level, the mtDNA and AFLP genetic data were largely congruent. Not only for argentatus and hyperboreus, but also among a third species, great black-backed gull (L. marinus) we observed two distinct groups of mtDNA sequence haplotypes. Based on the AFLP data we were also able to detect distinct genetic subgroups among the various argentatus, hyperboreus, and marinus populations, supporting our initial hypothesis that complex demographic scenario's underlie speciation in the herring gull complex. Conclusions We present evidence that for each of these three biphyletic gull species, extensive mtDNA introgression could have taken place among the various geographically distinct subpopulations, or even among current species. Moreover, based on a large number of autosomal AFLP loci, we found evidence for distinct and complex demographic scenario's for each of the three species we studied. A more refined insight into the exact phylogeographic history within the herring gull complex is still impossible, and requires detailed autosomal

  12. Principles underlying the epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring and other fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Garver, Kyle A.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Although viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) typically occurs at low prevalence and intensity in natural populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and other marine fishes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, epizootics of the resulting disease (VHS) periodically occur, often in association with observed fish kills. Here we identify a list of principles, based on a combination of field studies, controlled laboratory experiments, and previously unpublished observations, that govern the epizootiology of VHS in Pacific herring. A thorough understanding of these principles provides the basis for identifying risk factors that predispose certain marine fish populations to VHS epizootics, including the lack of population resistance, presence of chronic viral carriers in a population, copious viral shedding by infected individuals, cool water temperatures, limited water circulation patterns, and gregarious host behavioral patterns. Further, these principles are used to define the epizootiological stages of the disease in Pacific herring, including the susceptible (where susceptible individuals predominate a school or subpopulation), enzootic (where infection prevalence and intensity are often below the limits of reasonable laboratory detection), disease amplification (where infection prevalence and intensity increase rapidly), outbreak (often accompanied by host mortalities with high virus loads and active shedding), recovery (in which the mortality rate and virus load decline owing to an active host immune response), and refractory stages (characterized by little or no susceptibility and where viral clearance occurs in most VHS survivors). In addition to providing a foundation for quantitatively assessing the potential risks of future VHS epizootics in Pacific herring, these principles provide insights into the epizootiology of VHS in other fish communities where susceptible species exist.

  13. Ontogenic and spatial patterns in diet and growth of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1998-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in nearshore waters of Lake Michigan grow faster than lake trout residing offshore on Sheboygan Reef, which is in midlake. We examined the stomachs of lake trout, spanning ages 1 through 16, caught in both nearshore and offshore environments of Lake Michigan during 1994 and 1995 to determine whether diet differences may be responsible for the difference in growth rate. A comparison of the diets, coupled with bioenergetics modeling, indicated that juvenile lake trout on Sheboygan Reef experienced slow growth due to low food availability rather than to cold water temperatures. The availability of appropriate-size prey appeared to regulate lake trout growth. Small prey fish were probably not readily available to small (200- to 399-mm total length) lake trout on Sheboygan Reef, a substantial portion of whose diet consisted of invertebrates; in contrast, nearshore juveniles had a nearly 100% fish diet. Growth rate on the reef remained slow through intermediate lake trout sizes (400-599 mm total length), presumably due to low availability of rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax on the reef. Once lake trout achieved total lengths of approximately 600 mm, they grew slightly faster on Sheboygan Reef than near shore, indicating that large (>170-mm total length) prey fish were readily available to lake trout in the reef area. On a wet-weight basis, alewife Alosa pseudoharengus dominated the diet of large (a?Y 600 mm total length) lake trout from both the nearshore and offshore regions of the lake, although bloater Coregonus hoyi composed over 30% of the diet on Sheboygan Reef and in southeastern nearshore Lake Michigan. Size of alewife prey increased with lake trout size. The bloater population currently represents the bulk of the biomass of the adult prey fish community, so our diet analysis suggests that large lake trout are continuing to select alewives.

  14. White Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  15. Effect of various electric field strengths and current durations on stunning and spinal injuries of Atlantic herring.

    PubMed

    Nordgreen, Andreas Hoel; Slinde, Erik; Møller, Dag; Roth, Bjorn

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electric field strength and current duration on wild-caught Atlantic herring Clupea harengus stunned with sinusoidal 50-Hz AC in seawater. The fish were exposed to electric field strengths ranging from 16 to 142 V/m and current durations from 1 to 12 s. We recorded the elapsed times between the point at which each fish became unconscious and the points at which it resumed normal behavioral functions. We also investigated injuries such as broken spinal columns and hematomas after the fish were filleted. The threshold electric field strength required to stun all of the fish to unconsciousness was 33 V/m for 1 s. The duration of the unconscious condition increased as both electric field strength and current duration increased. Of a total of 260 Atlantic herring, 60% had broken spinal columns. The proportion of fish with fractured spines was independent of field strength and duration, but the number of fractures per fish increased with field strength. We conclude that electrical stunning would promote the welfare of Atlantic herring that are landed alive but negatively affect fillet quality owing to hematomas associated with the fractures.

  16. In situ exposure of herring embryos in Prince William Sound two years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Kocan, R.; Brown, E.; Baker, T.

    1995-12-31

    In order to evaluate long-term residual toxicity, artificially spawned Pacific herring (Clupea pallasl) embryos were deployed at 5 oiled and 5 unoiled sites in Prince William Sound two years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Embryos were exposed at 1.5 m and 4.5 m below mean low water for 8--10 d post fertilization. The embryos were then retrieved and transported to the laboratory for hatching and evaluation under controlled conditions, Endpoints were (1) embryo survival, (2) live hatch, (3) deformed larvae and (4) larval dry weight. The oiled sites produced significantly (P < 0.01) more deformed larvae (63.3%) than did the unoiled sites (51.3%), but there was a lower hatching success at the unoiled sites which resulted in no overall difference in normal live larvae produced between oiled and unoiled sites. The mean dry weight of newly hatched larvae from the oiled sites (78 {micro}g/larva) was significantly lower than those from the unoiled sites (97 {micro}g/larva) at all depths (P < 0.01). Increased larval deformities and reduced hatching weight is consistent with what has been reported by several investigators for herring larvae experimentally and naturally exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. Based on the data, there appeared to be differences between the previously oiled and unoiled sites relative to herring development, but it is not clear whether this was due to residual oil effects or parental effects.

  17. Quantitative risk model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon photoinduced toxicity in Pacific herring following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K; Claytor, Carrie; Stubblefield, William; Pearson, Walter H; Oris, James T

    2013-05-21

    Phototoxicity occurs when exposure to ultraviolet radiation increases the toxicity of certain contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study aimed to (1) develop a quantitative model to predict the risk of PAH phototoxicity to fish, (2) assess the predictive value of the model, and (3) estimate the risk of PAH phototoxicity to larval and young of year Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The model, in which median lethal times (LT50 values) are estimated from whole-body phototoxic PAH concentrations and ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure, was constructed from previously reported PAH phototoxicity data. The predictive value of this model was confirmed by the overlap of model-predicted and experimentally derived LT50 values. The model, along with UVA characterization data, was used to generate estimates for depths of de minimiz risk for PAH phototoxicity in young herring in 2003/2004 and immediately following the 1989 EVOS, assuming average and worst case conditions. Depths of de minimiz risk were estimated to be between 0 and 2 m deep when worst case UVA and PAH conditions were considered. A post hoc assessment determined that <1% of the young herring population would have been present at depths associated with significant risk of PAH phototoxicity in 2003/2004 and 1989.

  18. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L.).

    PubMed

    Skagseth, Øystein; Slotte, Aril; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Nash, Richard D M

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH) Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling) winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock.

  19. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Skagseth, Øystein; Slotte, Aril; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Nash, Richard D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH) Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling) winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock. PMID:26636759

  20. Increased piscivory by lake whitefish in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Madenjian, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the diet of Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in Lake Huron during 2002–2011 to determine the importance of Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus and other fish as prey items. Lake Whitefish that had reached approximately 400 mm in length incorporated fish into their diets. The overall percentage of adult Lake Whitefish in Lake Huron that had eaten fish increased from 10% in 2002–2006 to 20% in 2007–2011, with a corresponding decrease in the frequency of Lake Whitefish that ate Dreissena spp. from 52% to 33%. During 2002–2006, Round Goby (wet mass, 38%), sculpins (Cottidae) (34%), and Ninespine Stickleback Pungitius pungitius (18%) were the primary fish eaten, whereas Round Goby accounted for 92% of the fish eaten in 2007–2011. Overall, Round Goby were found in the fewest Lake Whitefish stomachs in the north region of Lake Huron (6%) and in the most in the central (23%) and south (19%) regions of the lake. In the central region, Round Goby were eaten during all seasons that were sampled (spring through fall). In the south region, Round Goby were eaten only in the winter and spring but not in the summer when Dreissena spp. and spiny water flea Bythotrephes longimanus dominated the diet. Based on the 2007–2011 diet composition, an individual Lake Whitefish would need to have increased their consumption relative to that in 1983–1994 by 6% in the north region, 12% in the central region, and 41% in the southern region in order to achieve the same growth that was observed before dreissenid mussels arrived. However, Lake Whitefish weight adjusted for length only increased by 2% between 2002–2006 and 2007–2011 in the central region, decreased by 4% in the northern region, and remained constant in the southern region. This suggests that a shift toward more frequent piscivory does not necessarily improve the condition of a generalist feeder like Lake Whitefish.

  1. Genetic assessment of strain-specific sources of lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Kevin S.; Scribner, Kim T.; Bennett, Kristine R.; Garzel, Laura M.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of wild lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been extirpated from nearly all their historical habitats across the Great Lakes. Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout populations in U.S. waters have emphasized the stocking of coded-wire-tagged juveniles from six hatchery strains (Seneca Lake, Lewis Lake, Green Lake, Apostle Islands, Isle Royale, and Marquette) into vacant habitats. Strain-specific stocking success has historically been based on estimates of the survival and catch rates of coded-wire-tagged adults returning to spawning sites. However, traditional marking methods and estimates of relative strain abundance provide no means of assessing strain fitness (i.e., the realized contributions to natural recruitment) except by assuming that young-of-the-year production is proportional to adult spawner abundance. We used microsatellite genetic data collected from six hatchery strains with likelihood-based individual assignment tests (IA) and mixed-stock analysis (MSA) to identify the strain composition of young of the year recruited each year. We show that strain classifications based on IA and MSA were concordant and that the accuracy of both methods varied based on strain composition. Analyses of young-of-the-year lake trout samples from Little Traverse Bay (Lake Michigan) and Six Fathom Bank (Lake Huron) revealed that strain contributions differed significantly from estimates of the strain composition of adults returning to spawning reefs. The Seneca Lake strain contributed the majority of juveniles produced on Six Fathom Bank and more young of the year than expected within Little Traverse Bay. Microsatellite markers provided a method for accurately classifying the lake trout hatchery strains used for restoration efforts in the Great Lakes and for assessment of strain-specific reproductive success.

  2. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. and Strelkovimermis ozawindibi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2002-10-01

    Two new species of Strelkovimermis are described from chironomid imagoes eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes. The 2 species are distinguished from the other 12 species in the genus by terminal mouths, rounded or nippled posterior ends, short buccal funnels, short terminal limbs of the S-shaped vagina, and presence of a bursal sleeve. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. is distinguished from S. ozawindibi n. sp. by the presence of a dorsal protractor. Procladius (Psilotanypus) bellus (Loew) is the host of S. rubtsovi. The chironomid host of S. ozawindibi has not been determined. An artificial key is provided to distinguish the 14 species of the genus.

  3. Great Lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformities syndrome (GLEMEDS) in colonial fish-eating birds: similarity to chick-edema disease.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, M; Kubiak, T; Ludwig, J; Fox, G

    1991-08-01

    Several species of colonial fish-eating birds nesting in the Great Lakes basin, including herring gulls, common terns and double-crested cormorants, have exhibited chronic impairment of reproduction. In addition to eggshell thinning caused by high levels of DDT and metabolites, the reproductive impairment is characterized by high embryonic and chick mortality, edema, growth retardation, and deformities, hence the name Great Lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformities syndrome (GLEMEDS). The hypothesis has been advanced that GLEMEDS in colonial fish-eating birds resembles chick-edema disease of poultry and has been caused by exposure to chick-edema active compounds that have a common mode of action through the cytochrome P-448 system. Detailed evidence has been collected from the following three groups of studies on herring gulls in the lower Great Lakes during the early 1970s; Forster's terns in Green Bay, Wisconsin in 1983; and double-crested cormorants and Caspian terns in various locations in the upper Great Lakes from 1986 onwards. It has proved difficult to establish not only the onset of the disease in the various species at various locations but also the period in which chick-edema active compounds were released. Anecdotal evidence suggested that serious egg mortality in Lake Ontario herring gulls first occurred in 1966, through the signs of chick-edema disease were not looked for until 1974. Only indirect evidence is available on the date of the release of one of the presumed causal agents, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, but highest levels may have occurred in the early to mid 1960s. More reliable data show that the onset of the improvement of reproduction of Lake Ontario herring gulls coincided with the declines in organochlorine compounds and particularly 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB. Similarly, information on the onset of the disease and exposures in the Forster's tern and double-crested cormorants in Green Bay is uncertain but bird banders did not

  4. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Structure and stability of the midsummer fish communities in Chequamegon Bay, Lake Superior, 1973-1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoff, M.H.; Bronte, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed the structure and stability of the summer fish communities of Chequamegon Bay, Lake Superior, during 1973-1996 from data collected with bottom trawls at 39 stations. Fifty-three taxa were collected during the study, but we found that relative abundances for 20 taxa described most of the internal variability of the data for all taxa. Abundance data for the 20 species showed that two communities existed in the bay; one inhabited shallow water (3.0 m) whereas the other inhabited deeper water (>3.0 m). No temporal patterns of change were found in the structure of the shallow-water community, whose variation was best described by abundances of 12 taxa. The deepwater community, whose variation was best described by eight taxa, underwent three periods ofstability; 1973-1978, 1979-1988, and 1989-1996. We conclude that the shallow-water community was stable throughout the 24 years studied. Dynamics of the deepwater community were greatly affected by changes in stocking rates of lake troutSalvelinus namaycush and splake (hybrid of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis × lake trout) and by rehabilitation of populations of lake herring Coregonus artedi and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis. Information on the existence, structure, stability, and habitats of fish communities in the bay will be useful for assessing changes in those communities that result from further changes in the bay or lake ecosystems.

  6. Lake Michigan: effects of exploitation, introductions, and eutrophication on the salmonid community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue; McLain, Alberton L.

    1972-01-01

    Lake Michigan surface area is 22,400 square miles and its main depth is 276 ft. Its fauna is generally typical of North American oligotrophic lakes. The original fish populations included 10 coregonines and one salmonine. The lake whitefish, the lake herring, and the lake trout were most abundant. Man's activities have caused great changes in the lake in the past 120 years. Although changes in water chemistry and in the lower biota have been generally modest (except locally), those in salmonid communities have been vast. Exploitation, exotic fish species (especially the sea lamprey and alewife), and accelerated eutrophication and other pollution, all have played a role in bringing about the modifications (mostly marked declines in abundance) in salmonid communities. Commercial exploitation was largely responsible for the changes in the salmonid communities before the invasion of the lamprey (1936), although eutrophication and other pollution, and alterations of spawning streams, also were important. The lamprey and alewife (first reported in 1949), however, have exerted a greater impact than the other factors in recent decades.

  7. (90)Sr in fish from the southern Baltic Sea, coastal lagoons and freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Tamara; Saniewski, Michał; Suplińska, Maria; Rubel, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radioactive (90)Sr were studied in four fish species: herring, flounder, sprat and cod caught in the southern Baltic Sea in two periods: 2005-2009 and 2013-2014. The study included also perch from the coastal lagoons - Vistula Lagoon and Szczcin Lagoon and a freshwater lake - Żarnowieckie Lake as well as additional lake species: pike and bream. (90)Sr activity concentrations were compared in relation to species and to particular tissue: muscle, whole fish (eviscerated) and bones. In 2014, in the Baltic, the maximal (90)Sr concentrations were found in fishbones: herring - 0.39 Bq kg(-1) w.w., cod - 0.48 Bq kg(-1) w.w., and flounder - 0.54 Bq kg(-1) w.w. In the whole fish the maximal concentrations were found in flounder - 0.16 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and cod - 0.15 Bq kg(-1) w.w., while in herring - 0.022 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and sprat - 0.026 Bq kg(-1) w.w. they stayed at lower level. Relatively high (90)Sr concentrations were detected in whole fish from freshwater Lake Żarnowieckie: perch - 0.054 Bq kg(-1) w.w., pike - 0.062 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and bream - 0.140 Bq kg(-1) w.w. Concentration ratio (CR) determined for particular fish tissues and for whole eviscerated fish in relation to (90)Sr concentrations in seawater and lake water were showing significant variability unlike the corresponding (137)Cs concentration ratios which are stable and specific for fish species. The study corroborates with the conviction of the growing role of (90)Sr in the overall radioactivity in the southern Baltic Sea as compared to (137)Cs.

  8. Status of lake trout rehabilitation on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; McClain, Jerry R.; Woldt, Aaron P.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank, an offshore reef in the central region of Lake Huron's main basin, was stocked annually with hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush during 1985–1998, and nearby Yankee Reef was stocked with hatchery-reared lake trout in 1992, 1997, and annually during 1999–2001. We conducted gill-net surveys during spring and fall to evaluate performances of each of the various strains of lake trout, as well as the performance of the entire lake trout population (all strains pooled), on these two offshore reefs during 1992–2000. Criteria to evaluate performance included the proportion of “wild” fish within the population, spawner density, adult survival, growth, maturity, and wounding rate by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Although naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout fry were caught on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef, wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. The density of spawning lake trout on Six Fathom Bank (>100 fish/305 m of gill net) during 1995–1998 appeared to be sufficiently high to initiate a self-sustaining population. However, annual mortality estimates for all lake trout strains pooled from catch curve analyses ranged from 0.48 to 0.62, well exceeding the target level of 0.40 suggested for lake trout rehabilitation. Annual mortality rate for the Seneca Lake strain (0.34) was significantly lower than that for the Superior–Marquette (0.69) and Lewis Lake (0.69) strains. This disparity in survival among strains was probably attributable to the lower sea-lamprey-induced mortality experienced by the Seneca Lake strain. The relatively high mortality experienced by adult lake trout partly contributed to the lack of successful natural recruitment to the adult population on these offshore reefs, but other factors were probably also involved. We recommend that both stocking of the Seneca Lake strain and enhanced efforts to reduce sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron be continued.

  9. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  10. Atlas of contaminants in the eggs of fish-eating colonial birds of the Great Lakes, 1993--1997: Volume 2 -- Accounts by chemical. Technical report series number 322

    SciTech Connect

    Pekarik, C.

    1998-01-01

    During 1993--97, the Canadian Wildlife Service collected 1,252 eggs from 32 fish-eating colonial water bird sites throughout the Great Lakes. The work was part of a monitoring program to understand the temporal and spatial trends of environmental contaminant levels in Great Lakes biota. Eggs of four species (double-crested cormorant, great black-backed gull, herring gull, and ring-billed gull) were sampled and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins and furans, and lipid and moisture. This volume contains contaminant data for all four species summarized by compound.

  11. Lake acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, J.E.; Peplies, R.W.; Rush, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    This paper examined a National Research Council (NRC) report called Acid Deposition: Long-Term Trends. The report has been the final word on acid deposition as the cause of acidification of lakes. The authors considered it important that the tentative nature of this report be kept in perspective so that the work of the NRC would promote rather than inhibit scientific inquiry on the lake acidification issue. In this spirit, this report proposed that degradation of storm damaged trees could increase the acidity of the forest humus and as a result the ground water which would fed local streams and lakes. They proposed that extensive forest blowdown could be a factor in acidification of surface waters.

  12. Contaminant levels in colonial waterbirds from Green Bay and Lake Michigan, 1975-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Erdman, T.C.; Haseltine, S.D.; Stafford, C.

    1985-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated styrenes (PCSs), and mercury were measured in the eggs of 10 species of colonial waterbirds nesting in areas aroung Green Bay or Lake Michigan from 1975 to 1980. Residues also were measured in the carcasses and brains of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). The highest residues were of PCBs, DDE, mercury, and dieldrin; for some species, levels of these chemicals possibly were high enough to have caused reproductive effects. Other organochlorine pesticides were found at low levels. Only trace amounts of PCSs and PBBs were found. Eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) collected in 1977 from an island in Lake Michigan contained an average of 100 ppm PCBs and 33 ppm DDE; this was the most- contaminated species. Cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis), the only bird that is not a fish eater, contained only small quantities of DDE and mercury.

  13. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii).

    PubMed

    Hansen, John D; Woodson, James C; Hershberger, Paul K; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L; Purcell, Maureen K

    2012-02-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, -UAA.001, and -PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  14. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV).

    PubMed

    Grady, C A; Gregg, J L; Wade, R M; Winton, J R; Hershberger, P K

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between naïve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU) mL(-1) VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P < 0.01) among naïve herring (1.2 × 10(3) PFU mL(-1) ) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 × 10(2) PFU mL(-1) ); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among naïve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring.

  15. Behavior of captive herring exposed to naval sonar transmissions (1.0-1.6 kHz) throughout a yearly cycle.

    PubMed

    Doksæter, Lise; Handegard, Nils Olav; Godø, Olav Rune; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Nordlund, Nina

    2012-02-01

    Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, is a hearing specialist, and several studies have demonstrated strong responses to man-made noise, for example, from an approaching vessel. To avoid negative impacts from naval sonar operations, a set of studies of reaction patters of herring to low-frequency (1.0-1.5 kHz) naval sonar signals has been undertaken. This paper presents herring reactions to sonar signals and other stimuli when kept in captivity under detailed acoustic and video monitoring. Throughout the experiment, spanning three seasons of a year, the fish did not react significantly to sonar signals from a passing frigate, at received root-mean-square sound-pressure level (SPL) up to 168 dB re 1 μPa. In contrast, the fish did exhibit a significant diving reaction when exposed to other sounds, with a much lower SPL, e.g., from a two-stroke engine. This shows that the experimental setup is sensitive to herring reactions when occurring. The lack of herring reaction to sonar signals is consistent with earlier in situ behavioral studies. The complexity of the behavioral reactions in captivity underline the need for better understanding of the causal relationship between stimuli and reaction patterns of fish.

  16. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Wade, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between na??ve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >105 plaque-forming units (PFU) mL-1 VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P < 0.01) among na??ve herring (1.2 ?? 103 PFU mL-1) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 ?? 102 PFU mL-1); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among na??ve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Comparing temporal trends of organochlorines in guillemot eggs and Baltic herring: advantages and disadvantage for selecting sentinel species for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Danielsson, Sara; Faxneld, Suzanne; Haglund, Peter; Bignert, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Within Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is aimed at addressing the chemical status and quality of the marine environment. One of the main goals is to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in the marine environment. Environmental monitoring of biota e.g., Baltic herring and guillemot eggs, is conducted annually in Sweden to follow temporal changes in environmental contaminants. To determine the suitability of guillemot eggs as a sentinel species for investigating GES, we compared temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in these two species from single sampling sites within Sweden. Lipid content from guillemot eggs was consistently high and stable (yearly mean for >40 years, ∼12%) compared to that of herring (yearly mean for >20 years, ∼3%). A significant decreasing trend of ΣPCDD/F in TEQ WHO1998 was observed in guillemot eggs, but no trend was seen in herring. CB118 significantly decreased in both species, but in the last 10 years this decrease was not significant in herring. A number of advantages, such as high lipid content in the egg and a low coefficient of variation make guillemot suitable as a sentinel species. The advantages and disadvantages of using either guillemot eggs or Baltic herring are compared.

  18. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, John D.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, −UAA.001, and −PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  19. Sea lamprey mark type, marking rate, and parasite-host relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  20. The trophodynamics of PCBs in the Lake Ontario food web

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, T.L.; Metcalfe, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of water, sediment, invertebrates, fish, and herring gull eggs were collected in north-central Lake Ontario and were analyzed to determine the concentrations of PCBs, including non-ortho substituted PCB congeners, in the benthic and pelagic components of the Lake Ontario food web. There was biomagnification of PCBs in the food web from benthic and planktonic invertebrates through to lake trout and gulls. However, all of the fish species had about the same lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs. The relative proportions of the PCB congeners changed as they passed through the food web. An index of metabolism for each PCB congener was calculated by comparing the concentrations of PCB congeners in various predator/prey groupings within the food web. These data indicate that invertebrates, fish and gulls have different capabilities in metabolizing and eliminating specific PCB congeners. While tri and tetrachlorinated congeners with no chlorine substitution at meta-para carbons on the biphenyl ring were readily metabolized by all taxa, only gulls appeared to be capable of metabolizing the PCBs with no chlorine substitution at ortho-meta positions. The trophodynamics of nonortho substituted (coplanar) PCBs did not differ from other PCB congeners of similar chlorine number, which indicates that non-ortho congeners are not any more persistent in biota than other PCBs.

  1. Development of Genomic Resources for Pacific Herring through Targeted Transcriptome Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Steven B.; Hauser, Lorenz; Seeb, Lisa W.; Seeb, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) support commercially and culturally important fisheries but have experienced significant additional pressure from a variety of anthropogenic and environmental sources. In order to provide genomic resources to facilitate organismal and population level research, high-throughput pyrosequencing (Roche 454) was carried out on transcriptome libraries from liver and testes samples taken in Prince William Sound, the Bering Sea, and the Gulf of Alaska. Over 40,000 contigs were identified with an average length of 728 bp. We describe an annotated transcriptome as well as a workflow for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and validation. A subset of 96 candidate SNPs chosen from 10,933 potential SNPs, were tested using a combination of Sanger sequencing and high-resolution melt-curve analysis. Five SNPs supported between-ocean-basin differentiation, while one SNP associated with immune function provided high differentiation between Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island within the Gulf of Alaska. These genomic resources provide a basis for environmental physiology studies and opportunities for marker development and subsequent population structure analysis. PMID:22383979

  2. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish. PMID:26035592

  3. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction between tryptophan-erbium(III) complex and herring sperm DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xingming; Pan, Haizhuan; Hu, Yamin; Ding, Lisheng

    2010-05-01

    By means of UV and fluorescence spectra, the binding ratios between Er(III)-Trp and DNA in physiological pH environment (pH 7.40) were determined as n(Trp):n(Er(III))=3:1 and (n)ER(III)(Trp)(3):(n)(DNA) = 2:1, and the apparent molar absorptivity of epsilon(Er(III)-Trp-DNA) is 4.33 x 10(5) L mol(-1)cm(-1) which was confirmed by molar ratio method. The binding constants at different temperatures K(B25 degrees C)(theta)=1.93 x 10(4)L mol(-1) and K(B37 degrees C)(theta)=5.28 x 10(3)L mol(-1) were obtained by double reciprocal method. Thermodynamic function computation demonstrates that Delta(r)H(m)(theta) is the primary driving power of the interaction between Er(III)(Trp)(3) and DNA. By combination analysis of the Scatchard method and CD spectrometry, we suggested that the interaction mode between Er(III)(Trp)(3) complex and herring sperm DNA is groove and intercalation bindings.

  4. Effects of Invasive European Fire Ants (Myrmica rubra) on Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    DeFisher, Luke E.; Bonter, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities. PMID:23691168

  5. The Prince William Sound herring fishery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hose, J.E.; Brown, E.; Marty, G.D.; McGurk, M.D.; Norcross, B.L.; Short, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Exxon Valdez oil (EVO) spill of 1989 occurred a few weeks before herring spawned in Prince William Sound (PWS), AK. An estimated 40% to 50% of the egg biomass sustained exposure during early development, and the majority of pelagic larvae were collected within the oil trajectory path. Sublethal effects observed at hatch (morphologic defects and genetic damage) were related to ambient EVO concentrations. Reduced survival rates, decreased growth, genetic damage and histopathological changes were measured in pelagic larvae from oiled areas. However, because the 1989 year class is one of the smallest cohorts now in PWS, population effects are difficult to assess. From 1990 to 1992, population abundance and reproductive potential remained high. When the 1989 year class was fully recruited (1993--1994), the spawning population decreased by 50% to 75% of the expected abundance. Many of the surviving fish were infected with viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) and failed to spawn. Proposed causes for the VHS epizootic include previous oil exposure, density-dependent effects following the 1989 fishery closure, and reduced food availability from 1990 to 1994.

  6. An Unusual Presentation of Gallstone Ileus: A Red-Herring or Missed Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mudares, Saif; Kurer, Mohamed; Koshy, Renol M.; El-Menyar, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 72 Final Diagnosis: Gallstone ileus Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of chronic calcular cholecystitis and an uncommon etiological entity responsible for mechanical intestinal obstruction. The most common obstructed part is the narrow terminal ileum, whereas the jejunum is rarely affected. The gallstone is postulated to reach the small bowel by gradual erosion from the gall bladder, most commonly into the duodenum, forming a cholecysto-duodenal fistula. Case Report: Herein, we report a 72-year-old male who presented with intestinal obstruction of a 5-day duration, with a clinical diagnosis of an irreducible inguinal hernia. However, the patient continued to be symptomatic following an uncomplicated hernioplasty. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed a small bowel lesion, which intra-operatively was confirmed to be an impacted gallstone in the jejunum with a cholecysto-duodenal fistula. Conclusions: Despite gallstone is uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction, a high index of suspicion with a careful CT scan interpretation is the key to the diagnosis, especially when there is a red-herring distracting the attention, like irreducible hernia in this case. PMID:27133032

  7. Lake Bonneville

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Grove Karl

    1890-01-01

    This volume is a contribution to the later physical history of the Great Basin. As a geographic province the Great Basin is characterized by a dry climate, changes of drainage, volcanic eruption, and crustal displacement. Lake Bonneville, the special theme of the volume, was a phenomenon of climate and drainage, but its complete history includes an account of contemporaneous eruption and displacement.

  8. Suppression of invasive lake trout in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredenberg, C. R.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Syslo, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Fisheries managers have implemented suppression programmes to control non-native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum), in several lakes throughout the western United States. This study determined the feasibility of experimentally suppressing lake trout using gillnets in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, for the conservation of threatened bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley). The demographics of the lake trout population during suppression (2009–2013) were described, and those data were used to assess the effects of suppression scenarios on population growth rate (λ) using an age-structured population model. Model simulations indicated that the population was growing exponentially (λ = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16–1.28) prior to suppression. However, suppression resulted in declining λ(0.61–0.79) for lake trout, which was concomitant with stable bull trout adult abundances. Continued suppression at or above observed exploitation levels is needed to ensure continued population declines.

  9. Ups and Downs of Burbot and their predator Lake Trout in Lake Superior, 1953-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, Owen T.; Sitar, Shawn P.

    2013-01-01

    The fish community of Lake Superior has undergone a spectacular cycle of decline and recovery over the past 60 years. A combination of Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus depredation and commercial overfishing resulted in severe declines in Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush, which served as the primary top predator of the community. Burbot Lota lota populations also declined as a result of Sea Lamprey depredation, largely owing to the loss of adult fish. After Sea Lamprey control measures were instituted in the early 1960s, Burbot populations rebounded rapidly but Lake Trout populations recovered more slowly and recovery was not fully evident until the mid-1980s. As Lake Trout populations recovered, Burbot populations began to decline, and predation on small Burbot was identified as the most likely cause. By 2000, Burbot densities had dropped below their nadir in the early 1960s and have continued to decline, with the densities of juveniles and small adults falling below that of large adults. Although Burbot populations are at record lows in Lake Superior, the density of large reproductive adults remains stable and a large reserve of adult Burbot is present in deep offshore waters. The combination of the Burbot's early maturation, long life span, and high fecundity provides the species with the resiliency to remain a viable member of the Lake Superior fish community into the foreseeable future.

  10. Morphometric variation among spawning cisco aggregations in the Laurentian Great Lakes: are historic forms still present?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Moore, Seth A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Salawater, Lorrie L.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cisco (Coregonus artedi Leseur, formerly lake herring Leucichthys artedi Leseur) populations in each of the Laurentian Great Lakes collapsed between the late 1920s and early 1960s following a multitude of stressors, and never recovered in Lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Prior to their collapse, Koelz (1929) studied Leucichthys spp. in the Great Lakes basin and provided a description of their diversity. Three cisco morphotypes were described; a ‘slim terete’morphotype (L. artedi artedi), a ‘deep compressed’ morphotype (L. artedi albus), and a deep-bodied form resembling tullibee in western Canadian lakes (L. artedi manitoulinus). Based on body measurements of 159 individuals (Koelz 1929), we used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to discriminate historic morphotypes. Shapes of historic morphotypes were found to vary significantly (Pillai’s trace = 1.16, P < 0.0001). The final DFA model used nine body measurements and correctly classified 90% of the historic cisco. Important discriminating measurements included body depth, eye diameter, and dorsal fin base and height. Between October-November of 2007-2011, we sampled cisco from 16 Great Lakes sites collecting digital photographs of over 1, 700 individuals. We applied the DFA model to their body measurements and classified each individual to a morphotype. Contemporary cisco from Lakes Superior, Ontario and Michigan were predominantly classified as artedi, while the most common classifications from northern Lake Huron were albus and manitoulinus. Finding historic morphotypes is encouraging because it suggests that the morphological variation present prior to their collapse still exists. We conclude that contemporary cisco having shapes matching the missing historic morphotypes in the lower lakes warrant special consideration as potential donor populations in reestablishment efforts.

  11. Seasonal Evolution of Supra-glacial Lakes Across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundal, A.; Shepherd, A.; Nienow, P.; Palmer, S.; Hanna, E.

    2008-12-01

    We used 268 MODIS satellite images spanning the melt seasons 2003 and 2005-2007 to investigate the seasonal evolution of supra-glacial lakes in three different regions of the Greenland ice sheet. Lake area estimates were obtained by developing an automated classification method for their identification based on 250 m resolution MODIS surface reflectance images. Our dataset reveal widespread supra-glacial lake formation and drainage across the Greenland ice sheet, with a 2-3 weeks delay in the evolution of total supra-glacial lake area in the northern study areas compared to the south-western study area. The onset of lake growth varies by up to one month inter-annually, and lakes form and drain at progressively higher altitudes during the melt season. The annual peak in total lake area is positively correlated with modelled annual runoff across all study areas. Our results indicate that, in a warmer climate, supra-glacial lakes on the surface of the Greenland ice sheet can be expected to form earlier in the melt season and at higher altitudes than is presently the case. In consequence, the area and time period over which connections between the ice sheet surface and base may be established (Das et al 2008) will increase, potentially increasing the rate of ice sheet discharge and its sea level contribution (Zwally et al 2002). Das, S., Joughin, M., Behn, M., Howat, I., King, M., Lizarralde, D., Bhatia, M., 2008. Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supra-glacial lake drainage, Science, 5877, p.778-781. Zwally, H.J., Abdalati, W., Herring, T., Larson, K., Saba, J., Steffen, K., 2002. Surface Melt-Induced Acceleration of Greenland Ice-Sheet Flow, Science, 297, p.218-221.

  12. The Use of Peptide Markers of Carp and Herring Allergens as an Example of Detection of Sequenced and Non-Sequenced Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Minkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Summary The objective of this study is to identify fish protein markers for detecting multiple species based on a comparative proteomic approach that relies on fragments with identical sequences. The possibilities and challenges of the use of peptides obtained from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and herring (Clupea harengus) proteins are discussed. A bioinformatic analysis was followed by an LC-MS/MS experiment to identify markers predicting the presence of fish allergenic proteins. Selected myosin peptides were found in carp protein hydrolysates with known sequences and in herring protein hydrolysates with unknown sequences. The results obtained for carp and herring proteins myosin and parvalbumin indicate that proteins with unknown sequences can be identified by peptide markers. Such markers can be designed by disregarding the principle that peptides should be unique (present in one sequence). The challenge is to determine a group of proteins that can be detected by peptide identification. PMID:27956857

  13. Causes of declining survival of lake trout stocked in U.S. waters of Lake Superior in 1963-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Schram, Stephen T.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Selgeby, James H.; Taylor, William W.

    1996-01-01

    Survival of the 1963-1982 year-classes of stocked yearling lake trout Salvelinus namaycush declined significantly over time in Lake Superior. To investigate possible causes of this decline, a Ricker model of stock-recruitment was used to describe the catch per effort (CPE) of age-7 stocked lake trout in the Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior as functions of the numbers of yearlings stocked 6 years earlier (an index of density dependence), the density (CPE) of wild adult lake trout (an index of predation), and large-mesh (a?Y 114-mm stretch-measure) gill-net fishing effort (an index of fishing mortality). Declining CPE of stocked lake trout in Michigan and Wisconsin was significantly associated with increasing large-mesh gillnet fishing effort. Declining CPE of stocked lake trout in Minnesota was significantly associated with increasing density of wild lake trout. Declining survival of stocked lake trout may therefore have been caused by increased mortality in large-mesh gill-net fisheries in Michigan and Wisconsin, and by predation by wild lake trout that recently recolonized the Minnesota area. We recommend that experimental management be pursued to determine the relative importance of large-mesh gillnet fishing effort and of predation by wild lake trout on the survival of stocked lake trout in U.S. waters of Lake Superior.

  14. Acoustic characteristics of underwater tail slaps used by Norwegian and Icelandic killer whales (Orcinus orca) to debilitate herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Simon, Malene; Wahlberg, Magnus; Ugarte, Fernando; Miller, Lee A

    2005-06-01

    Norwegian killer whales debilitate prey by slapping their tails into herring schools. These underwater tail slaps produce a thud-like sound. It is unclear whether this sound is caused by cavitation and/or physical contact between herring and whale tail. Also the forces causing debilitation of the fish are not understood. Here we present an acoustic analysis of underwater tail slaps using a multi-channel wide (150 kHz) band recording system. Underwater tail slaps produced by Norwegian killer whales generated sounds consisting of multiple pulses with source levels of 186+/-5.4 dB (pp) re.1 microPa at 1 m (+/-1 s.d., N = 4). The -3 dB and 97% energy bandwidths were 36.8+/-22.5 kHz and 130.5+/-17.5 kHz (+/-1 s.d., N = 13), respectively, with a centre frequency of 46.1+/-22.3 kHz. The similarities between the acoustic properties of underwater tail slaps recorded from killer whales in Norway, and thud-like sounds recorded from killer whales in Iceland suggest that Norwegian and Icelandic killer whales use similar hunting techniques. The acoustic characteristics of sounds produced by underwater tail slaps were similar to the ones from other cavitation sound sources described in the literature, both in term of temporal and frequency features as well as in source level. We suggest that multiple factors generated by the tail slaps like particle fluctuations, turbulence, pressure changes and physical impact cause debilitation of herring.

  15. Unexpectedly high mortality in Pacific herring embryos exposed to the 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Vines, Carol A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Baldwin, David H; Day, Heather L; French, Barbara L; Labenia, Jana S; Linbo, Tiffany L; Myers, Mark S; Olson, O Paul; Sloan, Catherine A; Sol, Sean; Griffin, Frederick J; Menard, Karl; Morgan, Steven G; West, James E; Collier, Tracy K; Ylitalo, Gina M; Cherr, Gary N; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2012-01-10

    In November 2007, the container ship Cosco Busan released 54,000 gallons of bunker fuel oil into San Francisco Bay. The accident oiled shoreline near spawning habitats for the largest population of Pacific herring on the west coast of the continental United States. We assessed the health and viability of herring embryos from oiled and unoiled locations that were either deposited by natural spawning or incubated in subtidal cages. Three months after the spill, caged embryos at oiled sites showed sublethal cardiac toxicity, as expected from exposure to oil-derived polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). By contrast, embryos from the adjacent and shallower intertidal zone showed unexpectedly high rates of tissue necrosis and lethality unrelated to cardiotoxicity. No toxicity was observed in embryos from unoiled sites. Patterns of PACs at oiled sites were consistent with oil exposure against a background of urban sources, although tissue concentrations were lower than expected to cause lethality. Embryos sampled 2 y later from oiled sites showed modest sublethal cardiotoxicity but no elevated necrosis or mortality. Bunker oil contains the chemically uncharacterized remains of crude oil refinement, and one or more of these unidentified chemicals likely interacted with natural sunlight in the intertidal zone to kill herring embryos. This reveals an important discrepancy between the resolving power of current forensic analytical chemistry and biological responses of keystone ecological species in oiled habitats. Nevertheless, we successfully delineated the biological impacts of an oil spill in an urbanized coastal estuary with an overlapping backdrop of atmospheric, vessel, and land-based sources of PAC pollution.

  16. Waterbird predation on fish in western Lake Erie: a bioenergetics model application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Gabrey, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    To better understand the role of piscivorous waterbirds in the food web of western Lake Erie, we applied a bioenergetics model to determine their total fish consumption, The important nesting species included the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gull (L. delawarensis), Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and Great Egret (Casmerodius albus). The impact of migrant waterbirds, including the Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator), on western Lake Erie fish biomass was also considered in the analysis. According to the modeling results, during the early 1990s, piscivorous waterbirds consumed 13,368 tonnes of fish from western Lake Erie each year. This tonnage was equivalent to 15.2% of the prey fish biomass needed to support the walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) population in western Lake Erie during a single growing season. The model application was useful in quantifying energy flow between birds and fish in a large lake ecosystem.

  17. Management of Pacific herring closed pound spawn-on-kelp fisheries to optimize fish health and product quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.; Marty, G.D.; Johnson, J.; Kocan, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Use of high densities of newly recruited Pacific herring Clupea pallasi for the closed-pound spawn-on-kelp (PPSOK) fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was associated with increased gamete retention, decreased product quality, and increased prevalence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) relative to the confinement of older cohorts at lower densities. To maximize product quality and reduce the potential for disease outbreaks, three management alternatives are proposed for the PPSOK fishery: (1) establish minimum pound volumes per permit holder; (2) prohibit PPSOK fisheries during years predominated by newly recruited cohorts; and (3) develop effective open-pounding techniques.

  18. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus is highly pathogenic for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Bradley, M.; Elder, N.; Meyers, T.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    1997-01-01

    Specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasi were reared in the laboratory from eggs and then challenged at 5, 9, and 13 months of age by waterborne exposure to low (101.5–2.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per milliliter), medium (103.5–4.5 PFU/mL), or high (105.5–6.5 PFU/mL) levels of a North American isolate of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). The fish were extremely susceptible to the virus, showing clinical disease, mortality approaching 100%, and only a limited increase in resistance with age. Mortality began 4–6 d after exposure and peaked at approximately day 7 in fish exposed to high levels of virus. Whereas the mean time to death showed a significant dose response (P < 0.001), the percent mortality and virus titers in dead fish were generally high in all groups regardless of initial challenge dose. External signs of disease were usually limited to 1–2-mm hemorrhagic areas on the lower jaw and isthmus and around the eye, but 2 of 130 infected fish exhibited extensive cutaneous hemorrhaging. Histopathologic examination of tissues from moribund fish sampled at 2–8 d after exposure revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes, diffuse necrosis of interstitial hematopoietic tissues in the kidney, diffuse necrosis of the spleen, epidermis, and subcutis, and occasional necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells. Virus titers in tissues of experimentally infected herring were first detected 48 h after exposure and peaked 6-8 d after exposure at 107.7 PFU/g. Fish began shedding virus at 48 h after exposure with titers in the flow-through aquaria reaching 102.5 PFU/mL at 4–5 d after exposure, just before peak mortality. When the water flow was turned off for 3 h, titers in the water rose to 103.5 PFU/mL, and the amount of virus shed by infected fish (on average, greater than 106.5 PFU/h per fish) appeared sufficient to sustain a natural epizootic among schooling herring. Taken together, these data suggest that VHSV could be a

  19. Dissolved saxitoxin causes transient inhibition of sensorimotor function in larval Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) Kathi A. Lefebvre , N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Elder, Nancy E.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Trainer, Vera L.; Stehr, Carla M.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2005-01-01

    Herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) spawning sites in Puget Sound, Washington overlap spatially and temporally with blooms of Alexandrium catenella, a toxic dinoflagellate species responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning. Consequently, newly hatched herring larvae may be regularly exposed to the suite of dissolved paralytic shellfish toxins that are released into the water column from toxic cells during blooms. To date, virtually nothing is known about the impacts of these neurotoxins on early developmental stages of marine fish. In the present study, herring larvae at three ages, 0 days post hatch (dph), 4 dph, and 11 dph, were exposed to dissolved saxitoxin (STX) in 24-h and multi-day exposures. All larvae were examined for sensorimotor function (i.e. spontaneous swimming behavior and touch response). Significant reductions in spontaneous and touch-activated swimming behavior occurred within 1 h of exposure. EC50s at 1 h of exposure were 1,500, 840, and 700 μg STX equiv. l−1 for larvae introduced to STX at 0, 4, and 11 dph, respectively. This progressive age-specific increase in STX-induced paralysis suggests that older larvae were more sensitive to the toxin than younger larvae. Interestingly, herring larvae at all ages exhibited a significant degree of neurobehavioral recovery within 4–24 h of continuous exposure relative to the 1-h time point. This recovery of normal motor behaviors was not observed in previous studies with freshwater zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae under the same continuous exposure conditions, suggesting that an adaptive detoxification or toxin sequestration mechanism may have evolved in some species of marine fish larvae. Our data reveal that (1) dissolved STX is bioavailable to marine finfish larvae, (2) the toxin is a paralytic agent with potencies that differ between developmental stages, and (3) STX-induced sensorimotor inhibition occurs rapidly but is transient in marine larvae. Collectively, these results suggest that

  20. [Role of layered double hydroxide (LDH) in the protection of herring testis DNA from heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Ni; Wu, Ping-Xiao; Zhu, Neng-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The role of layered double hydroxide (LDH) in the protection of herring testis DNA from heavy metals Cd2+ and Pb2+ was studied by X-ray diffraction ( XRD) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Cyclic Voltammetry and Ultraviolet Spectrometry. Size expansion of the basal spacing (003) from 0. 76 nm in LDH to 2. 30 nm was observed in the resulting DNA-LDH nanohybrids and it gave peaks corresponding to C=O (1 534 cm(-1) and 1488 cm(-1)) in skeleton and bases, C-O stretching vibration (1228 cm(-1)), and P-O symmetrical stretching vibration (1096 cm(-1)) in functional groups of DNA, indicating that DNA were intercalated into the LDH by the ion exchange. However, the displacement of NO3(-) was not fully complete (partial intercalation of DNA). The DNA outside LDH interlayers was absorbed on the surface of LDH. The cyclic voltammetric curves showed that DNA in the composites exhibited a very similar peaks, which corresponded to the two reduction current peaks (E(P) = - 1.2 mV and E(P) = -2.4 mV) of free DNA. Also there was no cathode sag emerging in cyclic voltammetric curves, suggesting that both Cd2+ and Pb2+ cannot insert into the groove of DNA to associate with base pairs or other groups when DNA was bound on LDH. The results showed that, on the one hand, both Cd2+ and Pb2+ were absorbed on the external surface of LDH for immobilization, on the other hand, the layer of LDH provided ideal space for DNA by the action of protecting DNA molecules from Cd2+ and Pb2+.

  1. DNA fingerprinting reveals elevated mutation rates in herring gulls inhabiting a genotoxically contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Yauk, C.L.; Quinn, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The authors used multi-locus DNA fingerprinting to examine families of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a genotoxically contaminated site (Hamilton Harbour) and from a pristine location (Kent Island, Bay of Fundy) to show significant differences in mutation rates between the locations. Overall the authors identified 17 mutant bands from 15 individuals of the 35 examined from Hamilton Harbour, and 7 mutant fragments from 7 individuals, of the 43 examined from Kent Island; a mutation frequency of 0.429 per nestling for Hamilton Harbour and 0.163 for Kent Island. The total number of individuals with mutant bands was significantly higher at Hamilton Harbour than at Kent Island (X{sup 2}=6.734; df = 1; P < 0.01). Ongoing analysis of other less contaminated sites also reveals lower mutation rates than those seen in Hamilton Harbour. With multi-locus DNA fingerprinting many regions of the genome can be surveyed simultaneously. The tandemly repeated arrays of nucleotides examined with DNA fingerprinting are known to have elevated rates of mutation. Furthermore, the mutations seen with DNA fingerprinting are predominantly heritable. Other biomarkers currently used in situ are not able to monitor direct and heritable DNA mutation, or measure biological endpoints that frequently result in spontaneous abortion creating difficulty in observing significantly elevated levels in viable offspring. The authors suggest that multilocus DNA fingerprinting can be used as a biomarker to identify potentially heritable risks before the onset of other types of ecological damage. This approach provides a direct measure of mutation in situ and in vivo in a vertebrate species under ambient conditions.

  2. Status of lake trout rehabilitation in the Northern Refuge of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    The Northern Refuge in Lake Michigan was established in 1985 as part of a rehabilitation program to stock yearling lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in areas with the best potential for success. Stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout within the refuge began in 1986 at three reefs: Boulder Reef, Gull Island Reef, and Richards Reef. On each reef from 1991 to 1997 we conducted gill-net surveys during the fall spawning season to evaluate performance of adult lake trout, and we conducted beam trawl surveys for naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout in the spring. Criteria to evaluate performance included spawner density, growth, maturity, and mortality. We found no evidence of natural reproduction by lake trout from our surveys. Nevertheless, density of spawning lake trout on Boulder Reef (69 fish/305 m of gill net/night) and Gull Island Reef (34 fish/305 m of gill net/night) appeared to be sufficiently high to initiate a self-sustaining population. Growth and maturity rates of lake trout in the Northern Refuge were similar to those for lake trout stocked in the nearshore region of Lake Michigan. In the Northern Refuge, growth rate for the Marquette strain of lake trout was slightly higher than for the Lewis Lake strain. Annual mortality estimates from catch curve analyses ranged from 0.46 to 0.41, and therefore, these estimates approached a level that was considered to be sufficiently low to allow for a self-sustaining population. Thus, it appeared that the lack of evidence for natural reproduction by lake trout in the Northern Refuge should not be attributed to inability of the population to attain a sufficiently large stock of spawners.

  3. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  4. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Hayes, Brian S.; Janney, Eric C.; Harris, Alta C.; Koller, Justin P.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout the spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2009 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics over the last decade. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish was examined for any additional evidence of recruitment. Survival and recruitment estimates were combined to estimate changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations through 2007. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). One subpopulation of LRS migrates into tributaries to spawn, similar to shortnose suckers (SNS), whereas the other subpopulation spawns at upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2009, we captured and tagged 781 LRS at four shoreline areas and recaptured an additional 638 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,056 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Sucker Springs and Cinder Flats. In the Williamson

  5. Biochemical indicators of contaminant exposure in birds and turtles of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.; Trudeau, S.; Kennedy, S.; Norstrom, R.; Stegeman, J.

    1995-12-31

    Pre-fledgling chicks of tree swallows, double-crested cormorants, herring gulls, common terns and hatchling snapping turtles were collected from contaminated Areas of Concern and reference sites in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River to determine the geographic and species variation in biomarker responses. EROD activity in colonial waterbirds was generally an order of magnitude above EROD activity in tree swallows and snapping turtles. Notably, EROD activity in colonial waterbirds did not correlate with organochlorine contamination in livers at one industrialized site suggesting that exposure to other contaminants, possibly PAHs, may be an important factor. Retinol concentrations in cormorants were non-detectable and retinyl palmitate concentrations were equal or greater than those in herring gulls. In tree swallows, there was a significant negative correlation between vitamin A concentration in liver and kidney and EROD activity. In snapping turtles, there was a significant induction in EROD activity and significantly higher cytochrome P450 IAI level in livers from the Great Lakes site relative to a clean inland location. There were no significant differences in porphyrin concentrations between sites.

  6. Evaluation of offshore stocking of Lake Trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T.G.; Lantry, J.R.; Connerton, M.J.; Schanger, T.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration

  7. Genetic evaluation of a Great Lakes lake trout hatchery program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Bast, D.; Holey, M.E.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts over several decades to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in U.S. waters of the upper Great Lakes have emphasized the stocking of juveniles from each of six hatchery broodstocks. Retention of genetic diversity across all offspring life history stages throughout the hatchery system has been an important component of the restoration hatchery and stocking program. Different stages of the lake trout hatchery program were examined to determine how effective hatchery practices have been in minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in broodstock adults and in progeny stocked. Microsatellite loci were used to estimate allele frequencies, measures of genetic diversity, and relatedness for wild source populations, hatchery broodstocks, and juveniles. We also estimated the effective number of breeders for each broodstock. Hatchery records were used to track destinations of fertilized eggs from all spawning dates to determine whether adult contributions to stocking programs were proportional to reproductive effort. Overall, management goals of maintaining genetic diversity were met across all stages of the hatchery program; however, we identified key areas where changes in mating regimes and in the distribution of fertilized gametes and juveniles could be improved. Estimates of effective breeding population size (Nb) were 9-41% of the total number of adults spawned. Low estimates of Nb were primarily attributed to spawning practices, including the pooling of gametes from multiple males and females and the reuse of males. Nonrandom selection and distribution of fertilized eggs before stocking accentuated declines in effective breeding population size and increased levels of relatedness of juveniles distributed to different rearing facilities and stocking locales. Adoption of guidelines that decrease adult reproductive variance and promote more equitable reproductive contributions of broodstock adults to juveniles would further enhance management goals of

  8. Cardiac arrhythmia is the primary response of embryonic Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) exposed to crude oil during weathering.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Carls, Mark G; Day, Heather L; Sloan, Catherine A; Bolton, Jennie L; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2009-01-01

    Teleost embryos develop a syndrome characterized by edema when exposed to water that weathers substrates contaminated with crude oil. Previous studies using zebrafish demonstrated that crude oil exposure causes cardiogenic edema, and that the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in weathered crude oils (tricyclic fluorenes, dibenzothiophenes, and phenanthrenes) are cardiotoxic, causing arrhythmia through a pathway that does not require activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We demonstrate here for Pacific herring, a species impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, that the developing heart is the primary target of crude oil exposure. Herring embryos exposed to the effluent of oiled gravel columns developed dose-dependent edema and irregular cardiac arrhythmia soon afterthe heartbeat was established. At a dose that produced cardiac dysfunction in 100% of exposed embryos, tissue levels of tricyclic PAHs were below 1 micromol/kg, suggesting a specific, high affinity target in the heart. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanism of tricyclic PAH cardiotoxicity, the development of biomarkers for the effects of PAH exposure in fish, and understanding the long-term impacts of oil spills and other sources of PAH pollution in aquatic environments.

  9. [Preparative isolation of hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona- and decapyrimidine oligonucleotides from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA].

    PubMed

    Schott, H

    1984-02-03

    The pyrimidine oligonucleotides (dT)5; (dT)6 and the mixtures of sequence isomers (dC, dT5); (dC2, dT5); (dC3, dT4); (dC4, dT3); (dC4, dT4); (dC3, dT5); (dC2, dT6); (dC4, dT5); (dC3, dT6); (dC2, dT7); (dC5, dT5); (dC4, dT6) and (dC3, dT7) with or without terminal phosphate groups have been isolated on a preparative scale from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA by the following procedure. Herring sperm DNA (1 kg) is chemically depurinated and partially hydrolysed to a mixture of pyrimidine nucleotides. The partial hydrolysate is first separated into a low- and a high-molecular-weight pyrimidine nucleotide mixture by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The mixture of high-molecular-weight pyrimidine nucleotides is subsequently fractionated on QAE-Sephadex. Impurities which are not fully removed by column chromatography are separated by paper chromatography. The compositions of the mixtures of sequence isomers are determined from the data of column, paper and homochromatography; from absorption characteristics and by enzymatic degradation.

  10. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast

    PubMed Central

    Stienen, Eric W.M.; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M.; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26877689

  11. Two egg-derived molecules in sperm motility initiation and fertilization in the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi).

    PubMed

    Cherr, Gary N; Morisawa, Masaaki; Vines, Carol A; Yoshida, Kaoru; Smith, Edmund H; Matsubara, Takahiro; Pillai, Murali C; Griffin, Frederick J; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

    2008-01-01

    Sperm of the Pacific herring are immotile at spawning. Two egg-derived molecules are capable of initiating sperm motility. One is herring sperm activating protein(s) (HSAPs) and the other is sperm motility initiation factor (SMIF). These two motility initiators differ in their location and association with the chorion, and in their isoelectric points and molecular weights. In this study we have investigated the roles of these two inducers with respect to motility and fertilization. Using computer analysis of sperm motility, we found that HSAPs, as well as the C-terminal HSAPs peptide, elicit a linear motility pattern, while SMIF induced a highly circular and asymmetric pattern. HSAPs induced a two-fold increase in intracellular calcium, whereas SMIF induced a four-fold increase of motility initiation. SMIF-exposed sperm, preloaded with BAPTA-AM, showed a more linear motility and this motility trajectory decreased with their fertilizing capability. The difference in intracellular calcium levels between HSAPs and SMIF is consistent with the observed linear and circular motility. In the absence of SMIF, HSAPs do not support fertilization. Fertilization is rescued in these experiments if SMIF is reintroduced. We propose that diffusible HSAPs are not essential for fertilization, but enhance sperm-egg collisions via linear motility. SMIF, which is bound to the micropylar region of the chorion, is required for fertilization and induces circular motility that is a prerequisite for sperm to enter the micropylar canal and fertilize the egg.

  12. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Eric W M; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  13. Reestablishing a spawning population of lake trout in Lake Superior with fertilized eggs in artificial turf incubators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    Fertilized eggs from lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were placed in artificial turf incubators and deployed on Devils Island Shoal, Lake Superior, in an attempt to reestablish a spawning population on this once important spawning area. Efficacy was measured by the changes in catch rates, age composition, and origin of adult lake trout returning to the shoal in the fall in subsequent years. The abundance of lake trout spawners without fin clips, which implies that these fish hatched in the lake, increased throughout the sampling period, whereas the abundance of hatchery-reared fish (indicated by one or more fin clips) stocked for restoration purposes remained low. Year-class-specific stock-recruitment analysis suggested that the recruitment of unclipped spawners was related to the number of eggs planted in previous years rather than to spawning by the few adult lake trout visiting the reef. Increases in adult fish at Devils Island Shoal were independent of trends at adjacent sites, where unclipped spawner abundances remained low. Enhanced survival to hatch and apparent site imprinting of young lake trout make this technique a viable alternative to stocking fingerling and yearling lake trout to reestablish spawning populations on specific sites in the Great Lakes.

  14. Low-frequency target strength and abundance of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Andrews, Mark; Jagannathan, Srinivasan; Patel, Ruben; Jech, J Michael; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2010-01-01

    The low-frequency target strength of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during Autumn 2006 spawning season is estimated from experimental data acquired simultaneously at multiple frequencies in the 300-1200 Hz range using (1) a low-frequency ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (OAWRS) system, (2) areal population density calibration with several conventional fish finding sonar (CFFS) systems, and (3) low-frequency transmission loss measurements. The OAWRS system's instantaneous imaging diameter of 100 km and regular updating enabled unaliased monitoring of fish populations over ecosystem scales including shoals of Atlantic herring containing hundreds of millions of individuals, as confirmed by concurrent trawl and CFFS sampling. High spatial-temporal coregistration was found between herring shoals imaged by OAWRS and concurrent CFFS line-transects, which also provided fish depth distributions. The mean scattering cross-section of an individual shoaling herring is found to consistently exhibit a strong, roughly 20 dB/octave roll-off with decreasing frequency in the range of the OAWRS survey over all days of the roughly 2-week experiment, consistent with the steep roll-offs expected for sub-resonance scattering from fish with air-filled swimbladders.

  15. A baseline study of metals in herring (Clupea harengus) from the Norwegian Sea, with focus on mercury, cadmium, arsenic and lead.

    PubMed

    Frantzen, Sylvia; Maage, Amund; Duinker, Arne; Julshamn, Kaare; Iversen, Svein A

    2015-05-01

    The Norwegian spring spawning (NSS) herring is an ecologically and economically important fish population in the Norwegian Sea. It was the first of several Norwegian fish stocks subject to a baseline study designed to give a comprehensive account of the levels of contaminants in a fish species from most of its area of distribution and during different seasons. During 2006 and 2007, 800 individual herring were sampled in their feeding areas in the Norwegian Sea in spring and autumn and at their spawning grounds off the coast of Norway during late winter. Metals including Hg, Cd, As and Pb were determined in muscle samples of individual herring, and mean concentrations±sd (mg kg(-1) ww) were: Hg: 0.04±0.03, Cd: 0.010±0.006, As: 2.2±0.6 and Pb: <0.01-0.10. Apart from one sample, no individual herring exceeded the EU's maximum level for any of these elements, as has been seen also in previous monitoring. Hg and Cd concentration increased with increasing fish age and As concentration varied seasonally, possibly due to uptake during feeding (summer), elimination during starvation (winter) and up-concentration during spawning (spring).

  16. Sustainability of the Lake Superior fish community: Interactions in a food web context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitchell, James F.; Cox, Sean P.; Harvey, Chris J.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Mason, Doran M.; Schoen, Kurt K.; Aydin, Kerim; Bronte, Charles; Ebener, Mark; Hansen, Michael; Hoff, Michael; Schram, Steve; Schreiner, Don; Walters, Carl J.

    2000-01-01

    The restoration and rehabilitation of the native fish communities is a long-term goal for the Laurentian Great Lakes. In Lake Superior, the ongoing restoration of the native lake trout populations is now regarded as one of the major success stories in fisheries management. However, populations of the deepwater morphotype (siscowet lake trout) have increased much more substantially than those of the nearshore morphotype (lean lake trout), and the ecosystem now contains an assemblage of exotic species such as sea lamprey, rainbow smelt, and Pacific salmon (chinook, coho, and steelhead). Those species play an important role in defining the constraints and opportunities for ecosystem management. We combined an equilibrium mass balance model (Ecopath) with a dynamic food web model (Ecosim) to evaluate the ecological consequences of future alternative management strategies and the interaction of two different sets of life history characteristics for fishes at the top of the food web. Relatively rapid turnover rates occur among the exotic forage fish, rainbow smelt, and its primary predators, exotic Pacific salmonids. Slower turnover rates occur among the native lake trout and burbot and their primary prey—lake herring, smelt, deepwater cisco, and sculpins. The abundance of forage fish is a key constraint for all salmonids in Lake Superior. Smelt and Mysis play a prominent role in sustaining the current trophic structure. Competition between the native lake trout and the exotic salmonids is asymmetric. Reductions in the salmon population yield only a modest benefit for the stocks of lake trout, whereas increased fishing of lake trout produces substantial potential increases in the yields of Pacific salmon to recreational fisheries. The deepwater or siscowet morphotype of lake trout has become very abundant. Although it plays a major role in the structure of the food web it offers little potential for the restoration of a valuable commercial or recreational fishery

  17. The effects of diffusible creosote-derived compounds on development in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi).

    PubMed

    Vines, C A; Robbins, T; Griffin, F J; Cherr, G N

    2000-12-01

    The effects of diffusible creosote-derived compounds from weathered creosote-treated pilings on embryonic development in the Pacific herring were investigated. Parameters used to evaluate toxicity included embryonic development, cardiac function, embryo/larval activity (movement of developing embryos), hatching success, and larval morphology at hatch. For acute exposures, embryos were incubated in seawater containing either creosote-treated wood (creosote) or untreated wood (wood control), or seawater alone (control). All embryos adhering directly to creosote-treated wood and 40-50% of embryos not adhering to the creosote-treated wood failed to develop beyond the first few days of incubation. For surviving embryos, a 93% reduction in heart rate, and moderate to marked arrhythmia was observed. Surviving embryos also exhibited both an increase in frequency and an alteration in pattern of embryo/larval movement, with most embryos exhibiting tremors as compared with the vigorous movements of the control embryos. Cardiac function and embryo/larval movements of embryos exposed to untreated wood were not significantly different from controls. The hatching rate of embryos exposed to creosote was 90% lower than control embryos and 72.4% lower than embryos exposed to untreated wood, and the LC(50) for hatching success was 0.05 mg/l. Partial hatching (incomplete hatch) was observed in 15-20% of embryos exposed to creosote. All of the hatched larvae exposed as embryos to creosote exhibited morphological deformities, including scoliosis, pericardial edema and/or ascites. Similar effects were observed in embryos collected from creosoted pilings in San Francisco Bay, with a 72% decrease in hatching success compared with embryos collected from the Bay and severely deformed larvae. To investigate the combined effects of creosote and salinity on hatching success, larval morphology, and cardiac function, embryos were exposed to a sublethal concentration of creosote (0.003 mg/l) at

  18. Lake trout population dynamics at Drummond Island Refuge in Lake Huron: Implications for future rehabilitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Ebener, M.P.; Desorcie, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Drummond Island Refuge (DIR) was established in 1985 as part of the rehabilitation effort for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since then, several strains of hatchery-reared lake trout have been stocked annually at the DIR. An intensive lampricide treatment of the St. Marys River during 1998-2001 was expected to lower the abundance of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus within the DIR by 2000. We conducted annual gill-net surveys during spring and fall to evaluate the performance of each of the strains of lake trout as well as that of the entire lake trout population (all strains pooled) in the DIR during 1991-2005. The criteria to evaluate performance included the proportion of "wild" fish within the population, spawner density, adult survival, growth, maturity, and wounding rate by sea lampreys. Wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. During 1991-2005, the average density of spawning lake trout appeared to be marginally sufficient to initiate a self-sustaining population. Survival of the Seneca Lake (SEN) strain of lake trout was significantly higher than that of the Superior-Marquette (SUP) strain, in part because of the higher sea-lamprey-induced mortality suffered by the SUP strain. However, other factors were also involved. Apparently SUP fish were more vulnerable to fishing conducted in waters near the refuge boundaries than SEN fish. The St. Marys River treatment appeared to be effective in reducing the sea lamprey wounding rate on SEN fish. We recommend that the stocking of SEN lake trout in the DIR, control of sea lampreys in the St. Marys River, and reduction of commercial fishery effort in waters near the DIR be maintained. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Optimization of a Plaque Neutralization Test (PNT) to identify the exposure history of Pacific Herring to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Lucas; Mackenzie, Ashley; Purcell, Maureen; Thompson, Rachel L.; Hershberger, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Methods for a plaque neutralization test (PNT) were optimized for the detection and quantification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) neutralizing activity in the plasma of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii. The PNT was complement dependent, as neutralizing activity was attenuated by heat inactivation; further, neutralizing activity was mostly restored by the addition of exogenous complement from specific-pathogen-free Pacific Herring. Optimal methods included the overnight incubation of VHSV aliquots in serial dilutions (starting at 1:16) of whole test plasma containing endogenous complement. The resulting viral titers were then enumerated using a viral plaque assay in 96-well microplates. Serum neutralizing activity was virus-specific as plasma from viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) survivors demonstrated only negligible reactivity to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, a closely related rhabdovirus. Among Pacific Herring that survived VHSV exposure, neutralizing activity was detected in the plasma as early as 37 d postexposure and peaked at approximately 64 d postexposure. The onset of neutralizing activity was slightly delayed in fish reared at 7.4°C relative to those in warmer temperatures (9.9°C and 13.1°C); however, neutralizing activity persisted for at least 345 d postexposure in all temperature treatments. It is anticipated that this novel ability to assess VHSV neutralizing activity in Pacific Herring will enable retrospective comparisons between prior VHS infections and year-class recruitment failures. Additionally, the optimized PNT could be employed as a forecasting tool capable of identifying the potential for future VHS epizootics in wild Pacific Herring populations.

  20. Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Elbin, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed.

  1. Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Elbin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed. PMID:25471353

  2. Anisakis simplex third stage larvae in Norwegian spring spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.), with emphasis on larval distribution in the flesh.

    PubMed

    Levsen, Arne; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore

    2010-08-04

    The third stage larvae of the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex commonly occur in most commercially important fish species of the North Atlantic, including Norwegian spring spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.). The presence of nematode larvae in the flesh of fish may significantly lower the aesthetical quality of the product, or even pose a consumer health risk, especially with regard to the possible allergenic nature of the larvae or molecular traces thereof. In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of A. simplex larvae in comparable size groups of Norwegian spring spawning herring caught in the north-eastern Norwegian Sea in October 2004 and in the outer basin of Vestfjorden, northern Norway, in November 2007, was investigated. Emphasis was put on manually- and industrially produced, i.e. automatically trimmed and skinned fillets of herring. The overall larval prevalence was 98-100% in the herring of all size groups and the abundance increased with increasing body weight in both sampling years. On an average 3.5% of the larvae were found in the belly flaps, i.e. the ventral portion of the body musculature covering the visceral cavity on both sides, while 0.5% occurred in the dorsal part of the fillets. The larval prevalence varied from 42 to 70% and 8 to 10% in the manually- and industrially produced fillets, respectively. Thus, any product that is based on industrially produced fillets of Norwegian spring spawning herring may still carry nematode larvae when put on the market. However, compared to the manually produced ones, especially those untrimmed, the probability of A. simplex larvae to be present in industrially produced fillets appears to be approximately 5-8 times lower.

  3. Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armitage, Brian J.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are subject to natural processes, such as water-level fluctuation and wave-induced erosion, and to human alterations. In order to evaluate the quality of these wetlands over space and time, biological communities are often examined. This paper reports on the use of adult caddisflies to evaluate fringing wetlands of Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior.

  4. Changing abundance of Hexagenia mayfly nymphs in western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes: Impediments to assessment of lake recovery?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, D.W.; Nalepa, T.F.

    2001-01-01

    After an absence of 40 years, mayfly nymphs of the genus Hexagenia were found in sediments of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1993 and, by 1997, were abundant enough to meet a mayfly-density management goal (ca. 350 nymphs m—2) based on pollution-abatement programs. We sampled nymphs in western Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair, located upstream of western Lake Erie, to determine the importance of seasonal abundance and life-history characteristics of nymphs (e.g., emergence and recruitment) on density estimates relative to the mayfly-density management goal. Two types of density patterns were observed: (1) densities were relatively high in spring and gradually decreased through late summer (observed in Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair in 1997 and Lake St. Clair in 1999) and (2) densities were relatively high in spring, gradually decreased to mid summer, abruptly decreased in mid summer, and then increased between summer and late fall (Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair in 1998 and Lake Erie in 1999). Length-frequency distributions of nymphs and observations of adults indicate that the primary cause for the two density patterns was attributed to failed (first pattern) and successful (second pattern) reproduction and emergence of nymphs into adults in mid summer. Gradual declines in densities were attributed to mortality of nymphs. Our results indicate that caution should be used when evaluating progress of pollution-abatement programs based on mayfly densities because recruitment success is variable both between and within years. Additionally, the interpretation of progress toward management goals, relative to the restoration of Hexagenia populations in the Great Lakes and possibly other water bodies throughout the world, is influenced by the number of years in which consequtive collections are made.

  5. Lake Volta, Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Lake Volta in Ghana was acquired March 31, 2002 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Lake Volta is one of the world's largest artificially created lakes. Lake Volta is actually a reservoir formed from the damming of the Volta River, and extends 250 miles north of the Akosombo Dam. The lake covers an area of 8,482 square km. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Organochlorine contaminants in eggs of common terns from the Canadian Great Lakes 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weseloh, D.V.; Custer, T.W.; Braune, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    To determine if contaminant levels in common terns had changed over the last decade, we collected and analyzed eggs from four nesting colonies on the three lower Great lakes during 1981. DDE and PCBs were detected in every egg from the four colonies. Dieldrin, mirex and trans-nonachlor were detected in more than 45% of the eggs. Seven other organochlorine contaminants (DDD, DDT, hexachlorobenzene, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, cis-nonachlor and toxaphene) were detected in less than 25% of the eggs. Eggs from the Lake Ontario colony were generally the most heavily contaminated. Comparisons of DDE and PCB data with earlier studies of common terns indicated that contaminant levels in eggs from the four sampled colonies, or nearby sites, have decreased by up to 80-90% from 1969-73 to 1981. Interspecies comparisons showed that common tern eggs have lower organochlorine residue levels than eggs of caspian terns or herring gulls. Dietary variation and migratory status are possible explanations for the differences in residue levels among species. Eggshell thickness, log-PCBs, and log-DDE were not significantly intercorrelated. Elevated contaminant levels in the early 1970s might be at least partly responsible for the decline of the Great Lakes Common Tern population over the past decade. Stabilization of population numbers during the early 1980s suggests that organochlorine pollution levels have been reduced to a point where they are no longer an important factor in the population dynamics of this species on the Great Lakes.

  7. Allelic variability in species and stocks of Lake Superior ciscoes (Coregoninae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.

    1981-01-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis was used as a means of recognizing species and stocks in Lake Superior Coregonus. Allelic variability at isocitrate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase loci was recorded for samples of lake herring (Coregonus artedii), bloater (C. hoyi), kiyi (C. kiyi), and shortjaw cisco (C. zenithicus) from five Lake Superior localities. The observed frequencies of genotypes within each subsample did not differ significantly from those expected on the basis of random mating, and suggested that each subsample represented either a random sample from a larger randomly mating population or an independent and isolated subpopulation within which mating was random. Significant contingency X2 values for comparisons between both localities and species suggested that more than one randomly mating population occurred among the Lake Superior ciscoes, but did not reveal how many such populations there were. In contrast to the genetic results of this study, morphology seems to be a better descriptor of cisco stocks, and identification of cisco stocks and species will still have to be based on morphological criteria until more data are forthcoming. Where several species are sympatric, management should strive to preserve the least abundant. Failure to do so could result in the extinction or depletion of the rarer forms.

  8. Recovery and decline of lake whitefish in U.S. waters of eastern Lake Ontario, 1980-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Eckert, Thomas H.; Lantry, Brian F.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2005-01-01

    The lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) was an important member of the native fish community and a valued commercial species in Lake Ontario. Lake whitefish were common in U.S. waters of the lake until 1965 and very abundant in Canadian waters through the early 1970s, although their numbers declined shortly thereafter. During 1975-1985, lake whitefish stocks remained depressed throughout the lake as a result of the combined effects of degraded water quality, overfishing, and predation. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) probably preyed on whitefish fry, and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) preyed on adults. During 1985-1987, lake whitefish stocks began to recover in eastern Lake Ontario, and their buildup continued into the mid-1990s. Reasons for the recovery likely included control of the sea lamprey population and a reduction in the number of piscivorous rainbow smelt. By 1997, lake whitefish abundance had declined severely again; some fish appeared to have dispersed from the northeastern to the southeastern regions of the lake, and the depth of capture increased. We believe that the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations during 1992-1999 was responsible for the decline in the lake whitefish populations and the shifts in geographic and bathymetric distribution because lake whitefish fed primarily on Diporeia spp. After the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations, lake whitefish in southeastern Lake Ontario fed on Mysis relicta and quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis). Changing from a diet of high-lipid Diporeia spp to low-lipid dreissenids and foraging on Mysis relicta at lower temperatures are apparently hampering the rebuilding of lake whitefish stocks.

  9. Unravelling the Gordian knot! Key processes impacting overwintering larval survival and growth: A North Sea herring case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A.; Nash, Richard D. M.; Dickey-Collas, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Unraveling the key processes affecting marine fish recruitment will ultimately require a combination of field, laboratory and modelling studies. We combined analyzes of long-term (30-year) field data on larval fish abundance, distribution and length, and biophysical model simulations of different levels of complexity to identify processes impacting the survival and growth of autumn- and winter-spawned Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae. Field survey data revealed interannual changes in intensity of utilization of the five major spawning grounds (Orkney/Shetland, Buchan, Banks north, Banks south, and Downs) as well as spatio-temporal variability in the length and abundance of overwintered larvae. The mean length of larvae captured in post-winter surveys was negatively correlated to the proportion of larvae from the southern-most (Downs) winter-spawning component. Furthermore, the mean length of larvae originating from all spawning components has decreased since 1990 suggesting ecosystem-wide changes impacting larval growth potential, most likely due to changes in prey fields. A simple biophysical model assuming temperature-dependent growth and constant mortality underestimated larval growth rates suggesting that larval mortality rates steeply declined with increasing size and/or age during winter as no match with field data could be obtained. In contrast better agreement was found between observed and modelled post-winter abundance for larvae originating from four spawning components when a more complex, physiological-based foraging and growth model was employed using a suite of potential prey field and size-based mortality scenarios. Nonetheless, agreement between field and model-derived estimates was poor for larvae originating from the winter-spawned Downs component. In North Sea herring, the dominant processes impacting larval growth and survival appear to have shifted in time and space highlighting how environmental forcing, ecosystem state and other

  10. Egg thiamine status of Lake Ontario salmonines 1995-2004 with emphasis on lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzsimons, J.D.; Williston, B.; Williston, G.; Brown, L.; El-Shaarawi, A.; Vandenbyllaardt, L.; Honeyfeld, D.; Tillitt, D.; Wolgamood, M.; Brown, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), the major prey fish for Lake Ontario, contain thiaminase. They are associated with development of a thiamine deficiency in salmonines which greatly increases the potential for developing an early mortality syndrome (EMS). To assess the possible effects of thiamine deficiency on salmonine reproduction we measured egg thiamine concentrations for five species of Lake Ontario salmonines. From this we estimated the proportion of families susceptible to EMS based on whether they were below the ED20, the egg thiamine concentration associated with 20% mortality due to EMS. The ED20s were 1.52, 2.63, and 2.99 nmol/g egg for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), respectively. Based on the proportion of fish having egg thiamine concentrations falling below the ED20, the risk of developing EMS in Lake Ontario was highest for lake trout, followed by coho (O. kisutch), and Chinook salmon, with the least risk for rainbow trout (O. mykiss). For lake trout from western Lake Ontario, mean egg thiamine concentration showed significant annual variability during 1994 to 2003, when the proportion of lake trout at risk of developing EMS based on ED20 ranged between 77 and 100%. Variation in the annual mean egg thiamine concentration for western Lake Ontario lake trout was positively related (p < 0.001, r2 = 0.94) with indices of annual adult alewife biomass. While suggesting the possible involvement of density-dependent changes in alewives, the changes are small relative to egg thiamine concentrations when alewife are not part of the diet and are of insufficient magnitude to allow for natural reproduction by lake trout.

  11. Sea lamprey mark type, wounding rate, and parasite-host preference and abundance relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  12. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  13. Infection of larval herring by helminth parasites in the North Sea and the effect on feeding incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, M.; Nicoll, N.

    1991-12-01

    Specimens of larval herring ( Clupea harengus L.) collected during the Autumn Circulation Experiment in the North Sea were found to be infected with two species of helminth parasites—a trematode Hemiurus sp. and a cestode Scolex pleuronectis. The prevalence of both parasites was significantly dependent on larval length, sampling month and sampling area. Analysis of larval stomach contents indicated that feeding incidence was significantly lower in larvae which were infected with S. pleuronectis. The difference in feeding incidence between parasitized and non-parasitized larvae represented up to 50% reduction in prey uptake rate. Up to 40% of larvae were infected with S. pleuronectis and the consequences of infection for the mean growth rate in the population could therefore be significant. The geographical variation in the distribution of S. pleuronectis infection suggests the possibility of an interaction between larval advection routes and growth rate, which could influence recruitment.

  14. Autofilet.pro: An Improved Method for Automated Removal of Herring-bone Pattern Noise from CCD Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, R. A.; Collins, N. R.; Windhorst, R. A.

    We present an improved method for the automatic removal of the highly variable pattern-noise that was introduced in HST/STIS CCD data when it was switched to its redundant (``Side-2'') electronics in July 2001. While mainly a cosmetic nuisance for work on bright objects, this ``herring-bone'' noise severely limits the sensitivity at optical wavelengths for projects that aim to push STIS to its design limits. We build on the Fourier filtering technique described by Brown (2001) and present a method to automatically find and remove the power associated with the noise patterns in frequency space, while avoiding the introduction of ringing (aliasing) around genuine astronomical signal--in particular around stellar images, spectroscopic (emission) lines, and cosmic ray hits. We implement this method as an IDL procedure and show several applications. Details of the method will be discussed in Jansen et al. 2003.

  15. Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Teleostei: Clupeiformes: Pristigasteridae), a small predaceous herring with folded and distinctively oriented prey in stomach.

    PubMed

    Sazima, C; Moura, R L; Sazima, I

    2004-02-01

    Predaceous fish-eating species of the order Clupeiformes have a large mouth with well-developed teeth, and reach the greatest sizes within their families (up to 90 cm). We found that the pristigasterid Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, a small clupeiform (about 10 cm) from the tropical SW Atlantic, is able to prey on proportionally large clupeoid fishes and caridean shrimps. Fish preys are folded in the stomach of this herring, their heads and tails pointing toward the predator's head. This distinctive orientation of fish prey is also recorded for some small to medium-sized, fish-eating species of the tropical freshwater order Characiformes with canine-like teeth similar to those found in C. bleekerianus.

  16. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in Pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jolene A; Emmenegger, Eveline J; Grady, Courtney A; Roon, Sean R; Gregg, Jacob L; Conway, Carla M; Winton, James R; Hershberger, Paul K

    2012-09-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic-a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0-4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  17. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic—a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0–4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  18. Toxicity of crude oil chemically dispersed in a wave tank to embryos of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Greer, Colleen D; Hodson, Peter V; Li, Zhengkai; King, Thomas; Lee, Kenneth

    2012-06-01

    Tests of crude oil toxicity to fish are often chronic, exposing embryos from fertilization to hatch to oil solutions prepared using standard mixing procedures. However, during oil spills, fish are not often exposed for long periods and the dynamic nature of the ocean is not easily replicated in the lab. Our objective was to determine if brief exposures of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) embryos to dispersed oil prepared by standard mixing procedures was as toxic as oil dispersed in a more realistic model system. Embryos were first exposed to chemically dispersed Alaska North Slope crude and Arabian light crude oil for 2.4 h to 14 d from fertilization to determine if exposure time affected toxicity. Toxicity increased with exposure time, but 2.4-h exposures at realistic concentrations of oil induced blue-sac disease and reduced the percentage of normal embryos at hatch; there was little difference in toxicity between the two oils. Secondly, oil was chemically dispersed in a wave tank to determine if the resultant oil solutions were as toxic to herring embryos as laboratory-derived dispersed oil using a single exposure period of 24 h. Samples taken 15 min postdispersion were more toxic than laboratory-prepared solutions, but samples taken at 5, 30, and 60 min postdispersion were less toxic. Overall, the laboratory- and wave tank-derived solutions of dispersed oil provided similar estimates of toxicity despite differences in the methods for preparing test solutions, suggesting that laboratory and wave tank data are a reliable basis for ecological risk assessments of spilled oil.

  19. Impaired immune function in seals and laboratory rats exposed to dioxin-like compounds from Baltic herring

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.S. |; Swart, R.L. de |; Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. ||

    1995-12-31

    Complex mixtures of lipophilic contaminants have been shown to affect certain top predators in the aquatic food chain, including seals. A recent demonstration that harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring displayed impaired natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function represented the first demonstration of immunotoxicity induced by ambient levels of contaminants in the environment. While these animals had a lower ability to respond to immunizations with inactivated vaccines, specific antibody responses, and in vitro antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses, obvious constraints limited the ability to extend these results with host resistance tests or an evaluation of thymus and other lymphoid organs. The authors therefore set up a parallel study by exposing pregnant laboratory rats to the same Baltic herring contaminant mixture as received the seals. They then examined immune function parameters and host resistance to virus infection. As in the seals, rat pups of the Baltic group had impaired T-lymphocyte function. In addition, thymus cells and/or their precursors appeared to be targeted, as their numbers and function were reduced in the rats. Following challenge with rat cytomegalovirus in a host resistance study, rat pups in the Baltic group had impaired natural killer cell responses to the virus infection, and lower specific CD8 + (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte) responses following in vitro stimulation. By extrapolation, these results suggest that the impaired immune responses observed in the Baltic group of seals may lead to a less effective defense against virus infections in marine mammals inhabiting polluted coastal waters. Toxicological profiles and results of both the captive seal and laboratory rat experiments tend to implicate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-like PCB, dioxin and furan congeners in the immunosuppression, and point to a major role for the PCBs.

  20. Phylogeography of amphi-boreal fish: tracing the history of the Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in North-East European seas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between North Atlantic and North Pacific faunas through times have been controlled by the variation of hydrographic circumstances in the intervening Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait. We address the history of trans-Arctic connections in a clade of amphi-boreal pelagic fishes using genealogical information from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The Pacific and Atlantic herrings (Clupea pallasii and C. harengus) have basically vicarious distributions in the two oceans since pre-Pleistocene times. However, remote populations of C. pallasii are also present in the border waters of the North-East Atlantic in Europe. These populations show considerable regional and life history differentiation and have been recognized in subspecies classification. The chronology of the inter-oceanic invasions and genetic basis of the phenotypic structuring however remain unclear. Results The Atlantic and Pacific herrings both feature high mtDNA diversities (large long-term population sizes) in their native basins, but an ocean-wide homogeneity of C. harengus is contrasted by deep east-west Pacific subdivision within Pacific C. pallasii. The outpost populations of C. pallasii in NE Europe are identified as members of the western Pacific C. pallasii clade, with some retained inter-oceanic haplotype sharing. They have lost diversity in colonization bottlenecks, but have also thereafter accumulated abundant new variation. The data delineate three phylogeographic groups within the European C. pallasii: herring from the inner White Sea; herring from the Mezen and Chesha Bays; and a strongly bottlenecked peripheral population in Balsfjord of the Norwegian Sea. Conclusions The NE European outposts of C. pallasii are judged to be early post-glacial colonists from the NW Pacific. A strong regional substructure has evolved since that time, in contrast to the apparent broad-scale uniformity maintained by herrings in their native basins. The structure only partly matches the

  1. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. Species density of waterbirds in offshore habitats in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Waite, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Offshore censuses of birds are lacking for inland seas, such as the Laurentian Great Lakes, but may provide valuable information for managing species that are in conflict with human interests. Birds were counted along 31 established transects in four habitats in western Lake Erie: offshore of waterbird refuges, offshore of beaches with human development, on reefs and shoals, and in open water. A total of 161 10-min counts were conducted between 24 April and 1 September 2000. The mean number of aquatic bird species/kmA? (species density) was greater offshore of refuges than on open water. For all habitats combined, species density increased over time. This was mainly due to the arrival of Bonaparte's Gulls (Larus philadelphia) and Great Black-backed Gulls (L. marinus), two fall and winter residents that do not breed in the study area, and increased use of open water and reefs and shoals by Herring Gulls (L argentatus) and Ring-billed Gulls (L delawarensis) after the nesting season. Species density was not strongly spatially autocorrelated, either for all species or for only those species that were floating on the water when recorded. Neither Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) nor Herring Gulls exhibited spatial autocorrelation. In contrast, Bonaparte's and Ring-billed gulls exhibited positive spatial autocorrelations. Unlike marine studies, species density was only weakly associated with water depth. This result was due mainly to Double-crested Cormorants, the only diving bird species that lived year-round in the area, which preferred reefs and shoals (depth 3-6 m) over open water (10 m). The results suggest that offshore habitat influences species density in this area during the breeding and immediate post-breeding seasons.

  3. Contaminant effects on Great Lakes' fish-eating birds: a population perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Kendall, Ronald J.; Dickerson, Richard L.; Giesy, John P.; Suk, William P.

    1998-01-01

    Preventing environmental contaminants from reducing wildlife populations is the greatest concern in wildlife toxicology. In the Great Lakes, environmental contaminants have a history of reducing populations of many species of fish-eating birds. Endocrine effects may have contributed to declines in fish-eating bird populations, but the overriding harm was caused by DDE-induced eggshell thinning. Toxic effects may still be occurring today, but apparently they are not of a sufficient magnitude to depress populations of most fish-eating birds. Once DDE levels in the Great Lakes declined, eggshells of birds began to get thicker and reproductive success improved. Populations of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) have increased dramatically since the bans on DDT and other organochlorine pesticides. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are still not reproducing at a normal rate along the shores of the Great Lakes, but success is much improved compared to earlier records when eggshell thinning was worse. Other species, such as herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), seem to be having improved reproductive success, but data on Great Lakes'-wide population changes are incomplete. Reproductive success of common terns (Sterna hirundo), Caspian terns (Sterna caspia), and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) seems to have improved in recent years, but, again, data on population changes are not very complete, and these birds face many habitat related problems as well as contaminant problems. Although contaminants are still producing toxic effects, and these effects may include endocrine disfunction, fish-eating birds in the Great Lakes seem to be largely weathering these effects, at least as far as populations are concerned. A lack of obvious contaminant effects on populations of fish-eating birds in the Great Lakes, however, should not be equated with a lack of any harm to

  4. Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Charles S.; Mabury, Scott A.; Whittle, D. Michael; Backus, Sean M.; Teixeira, Camilla; DeVault, David S.; Bronte, Charles R.; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. All chiral PCB congeners studied (CBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183) biomagnified in the Lake Superior aquatic food web, based on biomagnification and food web magnification factors greater than unity. PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. However, Diporeia and mysids had significantly nonracemic residues for most chiral congeners studied. This observation suggests that these macrozooplankton can stereoselectively metabolize chiral congeners. Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments at PCB concentrations far lower than that previously associated with such activity. Widely nonracemic PCB residues in forage fish (lake herring, rainbow smelt, and slimy sculpin) and lake trout suggest a combination of both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from prey for these species. Minimum biotransformation rates, calculated from enantiomer mass balances between predators and prey, suggest metabolic half-lives on the order of 8 yr for CB 136 in lake trout and 2.6 yr for CB 95 in sculpins. This result suggests that significant biotransformation may occur for metaboliz able PCB congeners over the lifespan of these biota. This study highlights the potential of chiral analysis to study biotransformation processes in food webs.

  5. Lakes Ecosystem Services Online

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

  6. National Lakes Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Lakes Assessment is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  7. Lake Huron LAMPs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The approach in Lake Huron differs from the Lakewide Management Plans of the other Great Lakes: no formal binational designation of lakewide beneficial use impairments, nor extensive lakewide modeling of chemical loadings

  8. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  9. The Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  10. About Lake Tahoe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, list of partner agencies.

  11. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  12. Successional change in the Lake Superior fish community: population trends in ciscoes, rainbow smelt, and lake trout, 1958-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community underwent massive changes in the second half of the 20th century. Those changes are largely reflected in changes in abundance of the adults of principal prey species, the ciscoes (Coregonus spp.), the invasive rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and the principal predator, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). To better understand changes in species abundances, a comprehensive series of gillnet and bottom trawl data collected from 1958 to 2008 were examined. In the late 1950s/early 1960s, smelt abundance was at its maximum, wild lake trout was at its minimum, and an abundance of hatchery lake trout was increasing rapidly. The bloater (Coregonus hoyi) was the prevalent cisco in the lake; abundance was more than 300% greater than the next most abundant cisco, shortjaw cisco (C. zenithicus), followed by kiyi (C. kiyi) and lake cisco (C. artedi). By the mid-1960s, abundance of hatchery lake trout was nearing maximum, smelt abundance was beginning to decline, and abundances of all ciscoes declined, but especially that of shortjaw cisco and kiyi. By the late 1970s, recovery of wild lake trout stocks was well underway and abundances of hatchery lake trout and smelt were declining and the ciscoes were reaching their nadir. During 1980–1990, the fish community underwent a dramatic shift in organization and structure. The rapid increase in abundance of wild lake trout, concurrent with a rapid decline in hatchery lake trout, signaled the impending recovery. Rainbow smelt abundance dropped precipitously and within four years, lake cisco and bloater populations rebounded on the heels of a series of strong recruitment events. Kiyi populations showed signs of recovery by 1989, and shortjaw by 2000, though well below historic maximum abundances. High abundance of adult smelt prior to 1980 appears to be the only factor linked to recruitment failure in the ciscoes. Life history traits of the cisco species were examined to better understand their different

  13. Release of infectious cells from epidermal ulcers in Ichthyophonus sp.–infected Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii): Evidence for multiple mechanisms of transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Kocan, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    A common clinical sign of ichthyophoniasis in herring and trout is “sandpaper” skin, a roughening of the epidermis characterized by the appearance of small papules, followed by ulceration and sloughing of the epithelium; early investigators hypothesized that these ulcers might be a means of transmitting the parasite, Ichthyophonus sp., without the necessity of ingesting an infected host. We examined the cells associated with the epidermal lesions and confirmed that they were viable Ichthyophonus sp. cells that were readily released from the skin into the mucous layer and ultimately into the aquatic environment. The released cells were infectious when injected into the body cavity of specific-pathogen-free herring. Our hypothesis is that different mechanisms of transmission occur in carnivorous and planktivorous hosts: Planktonic feeders become infected by ingestion of ulcer-derived cells, while carnivores become infected by ingestion of whole infected fish.

  14. Comparison of the effects of microwave cooking and conventional cooking methods on the composition of fatty acids and fat quality indicators in herring.

    PubMed

    Regulska-llow, Bozena; Ilow, Rafal

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the changes which occur under the influence of different heating methods in the compositions of fatty acids and selected fat quality indicators in fillets of herring. The results that are compared herein were obtained via conventional culinary techniques and using microwave radiation. Culinary processes like boiling, grilling and frying, whether done conventionally or with a microwave oven, did not lead to a reduction in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) fraction of the total fatty acids, indicating that these fatty acids have a high durability and a low susceptibility to thermal oxidative processes. The culinary processes used in this study also had an insignificant influence on the fat quality indicators--the peroxide and anisidine value. The fat quality indicators in herring, both after conventional and microwave heating, differ little, and indicate a low content of primary and secondary products of oxidation.

  15. Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in flounder (Platichthys flesus), herring (Clupea harengus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from chemical munitions dumping zones in the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Baršienė, Janina; Butrimavičienė, Laura; Grygiel, Wlodzimierz; Lang, Thomas; Michailovas, Aleksandras; Jackūnas, Tomas

    2014-05-01

    The data on environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity levels as well as on genotoxicity risk in flounder (Platichthys flesus), herring (Clupea harengus) and cod (Gadus morhua) collected in 2010-2012 at 42 stations located in chemical munitions dumping areas of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The frequency of micronuclei, nuclear buds and nucleoplasmic bridges in erythrocytes was used as genotoxicity endpoint and the induction of fragmented-apoptotic, bi-nucleated and 8-shaped erythrocytes as cytotoxicity endpoint. The most significantly increased geno-cytotoxicity levels were determined in fish collected near known chemical munitions dumpsites. Extremely high genotoxicity risk for flounder were identified at 21 out of 24 stations, for herring at 29 out of 31 and for cod at 5 out of 10 stations studied. The reference level of genotoxicity was not recorded at any of the stations revealing that in the sampling area fish were affected generally.

  16. Age and condition of juvenile catostomids in Clear Lake Reservoir, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Rasmussen, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Although infrequent recruitment of new individuals into the adult spawning populations of Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) limits recovery of these species in Upper Klamath Lake, it is not clear that populations are recruitment limited in Clear Lake Reservoir (hereafter Clear Lake). Specifically, some evidence indicates that shortnose suckers may regularly recruit to the adult spawning population in Clear Lake. Therefore, a study of early life history patterns and recruitment dynamics in Clear Lake may lead to a better understanding of what is limiting recovery of suckers in both lakes. Adult suckers in Clear Lake migrate up Willow Creek and its tributaries to spawn in some years, but low flow in Willow Creek may inhibit spawning migrations in other years. It is unclear whether spawning is successful, larvae survive, or how frequently juveniles persist to adulthood. Environmental variables associated with successful spawning or young-of-year survival have not been identified, and early life history for these populations is poorly understood. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, initiated a study in 2011 to better understand juvenile sucker life history in Clear Lake, and to identify constraints in the early life history that may limit recruitment to the adult spawning populations. The relative weights of shortnose suckers from Clear Lake and Upper Klamath Lake were compared to examine differences in condition. However, it is unclear whether the disparity in relative weights between the populations reflects differences in condition, phenotype, or both. Approximately 80 percent of juvenile suckers in Clear Lake are shortnose suckers with some morphologic features similar to Klamath largescale suckers (Catostomus snyderi), whereas juvenile suckers in Upper Klamath Lake can be clearly classified as either shortnose or Lost River suckers. The presence of juvenile suckers

  17. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…

  18. Lake Layers: Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

  19. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  20. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  1. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  2. Population dynamics and evaluation of alternative management strategies for nonnative Lake Trout in Priest Lake, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ng, Elizabeth L.; Fredericks, Jim P.; Quist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush have been introduced widely throughout the western USA to enhance recreational fisheries, but high predatory demand can create challenges for management of yield and trophy fisheries alike. Lake Trout were introduced to Priest Lake, Idaho, during the 1920s, but few fishery-independent data are available to guide current or future management actions. We collected fishery-independent data to describe population dynamics and evaluate potential management scenarios using an age-structured population model. Lake Trout in Priest Lake were characterized by fast growth at young ages, which resulted in young age at maturity. However, adult growth rates and body condition were lower than for other Lake Trout populations. High rates of skipped spawning (>50%) were also observed. Model projections indicated that the population was growing (λ = 1.03). Eradication could be achieved by increasing annual mortality to 0.32, approximately twice the current rate. A protected slot length limit could increase population length-structure, but few fish grew fast enough to exit the slot. In contrast, a juvenile removal scenario targeting age-2 to age-5 Lake Trout maintained short-term harvest of trophy-length individuals while reducing overall population abundance.

  3. Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Tom; And Others

    This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…

  4. Low-frequency Target Strength and Abundance of Shoaling Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    populations over wide areas in complex continental-shelf environments with highly variable bathymetry and oceanography. Shoals imaged by OAWRS typically...behavior to be determined during the Autumn spawning sea - son on Georges Bank.3,4 The mean scattering cross-section of an individual shoaling herring is...waveguide transmission loss in the range-dependent Georges Bank environment with the hourly sound speed pro- file updates and known bathymetry .27 III. DATA

  5. Dietary inclusion of salmon, herring and pompano as oily fish reduces CVD risk markers in dyslipidaemic middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Song, Pengkun; Frøyland, Livar; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2012-10-28

    Dietary intervention studies to assess the cardioprotective effects of oily fish are scarce in China. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the oily fish, Norwegian salmon, herring and local farmed pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) on CVD risk markers when included in the Chinese diet. In this 8-week, parallel-arm, randomised intervention study, 126 Chinese women with hypertriacylglycerolaemia, aged 35-70 years, were assigned to four groups to consume an experimental lunch containing 80 g fillets of either one of three oily fish or a mix of commonly eaten meats (pork/chicken/beef/lean fish) for 5 d/week. The results showed that inclusion of the three oily fish significantly increased the intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) while decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Compared to the control group, significant increases of DHA, EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFA in plasma choline phosphoglyceride were observed in the three oily fish groups. Plasma TAG levels were significantly reduced only in the salmon and herring groups. When compared to the baseline level, the three oily fish diets significantly decreased serum concentrations of TAG, apoB, apoCII and apoCIII, but only the salmon and herring diets significantly lowered TNF-α and raised adiponectin levels in serum. The salmon diet additionally decreased the serum concentration of IL-6. To conclude, dietary inclusion of salmon, herring and pompano as oily fish can effectively increase serum n-3 LC-PUFA content and are associated with favourable biochemical changes in dyslipidaemic middle-aged and elderly Chinese women, and these beneficial effects are mainly associated with n-3 LC-PUFA contents.

  6. Oogenesis and reproductive investment of Atlantic herring are functions of not only present but long-ago environmental influences as well

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Schmidt, Thassya C.; Slotte, Aril; Kennedy, James; Sundby, Svein; Johannessen, Arne; Óskarsson, Gudmundur J.; Kurita, Yutaka; Stenseth, Nils C.; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    Following general life history theory, immediate reproductive investment (egg mass × fecundity/body mass) in oviparous teleosts is a consequence of both present and past environmental influences. This clarification questions the frequent use of season-independent (general) fecundity formulas in marine fish recruitment studies based on body metrics only. Here we test the underlying assumption of no lag effect on gametogenesis in the planktivorous, determinate-fecundity Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) displaying large plasticity in egg mass and fecundity, examining Norwegian summer–autumn spawning herring (NASH), North Sea autumn-spawning herring (NSAH), and Norwegian spring-spawning herring (NSSH). No prior reproductive information existed for NASH. Compared with the 1960s, recent reproductive investment had dropped markedly, especially for NSAH, likely reflecting long-term changes in zooplankton biography and productivity. As egg mass was characteristically small for autumn spawners, although large for spring spawners (cf. different larval feeding conditions), fecundity was the most dynamic factor within reproductive investment. For the data-rich NSSH, we showed evidence that transient, major declines in zooplankton abundance resulted in low fecundity over several subsequent seasons, even if Fulton’s condition factor (K) turned high. Temporal trends in Kslope (K on total length) were, however, informative. These results clarify that fecundity is defined by (i) dynamics of primary (standing stock) oocytes and (ii) down-regulation of secondary oocytes, both processes intimately linked to environmental conditions but operating at different timescales. Thus, general fecundity formulas typically understate interannual variability in actual fecundity. We therefore argue for the use of segmented fecundity formulas linked to dedicated monitoring programs. PMID:28223491

  7. Temporal trends in the bioaccumulation of trace metals in herring, sprat, and cod from the southern Baltic Sea in the 1994-2003 period.

    PubMed

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

    2009-09-01

    This study is based on raw data obtained from 1 225 samples of herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus), and cod (Gadus morhua) collected in the 1994-2003 period from the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. This paper presents the results of investigations of the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As in fish. The aim was to identify temporal trends in trace metal contamination and variations in the concentrations of Hg in the flesh of herring, sprat, and cod of different lengths. A positive correlation between fish length and Hg concentration was noted for cod, sprat, and herring. The temporal trend analyses of heavy metal concentrations in the fish in the 1994-2003 period indicated ten significant downward trends out of eighteen tests; these referred to concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in all the species studied, and to As in sprat. Concentrations of Cu and Zn remained stable in all the species studied, as did As in herring and cod. No upward trends were detected in the concentration of trace metals in the fish studied. Smaller scale temporal variations in concentrations of some elements were also observed and were associated with natural events, such as increased river discharge resulting from floods. The most likely factors which contributed to the observed downward trends in heavy metals concentrations in fish could possibly stem from lesser quantities of Cd, Pb, and Hg being introduced to the Baltic Sea with the waters of rivers from Baltic countries, including Poland, and atmospheric depositions in the 1994-2003 period. Diminishing trends of concentrations of these elements in Baltic Sea waters are also evidence of this. These facts might indicate that advantageous changes are occurring in the concentrations of heavy metals in the southern Baltic environment.

  8. Inability to demonstrate fish-to-fish transmission of Ichthyophonus from laboratory infected Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to naïve conspecifics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Friedman, C.S.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    The parasite Ichthyophonus is enzootic in many marine fish populations of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Forage fishes are a likely source of infection for higher trophic level predators; however, the processes that maintain Ichthyophonus in forage fish populations (primarily clupeids) are not well understood. Lack of an identified intermediate host has led to the convenient hypothesis that the parasite can be maintained within populations of schooling fishes by waterborne fish-to-fish transmission. To test this hypothesis we established Ichthyophonus infections in Age-1 and young-of-the-year (YOY) Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) via intraperitoneal (IP) injection and cohabitated these donors with naïve conspecifics (sentinels) in the laboratory. IP injections established infection in 75 to 84% of donor herring, and this exposure led to clinical disease and mortality in the YOY cohort. However, after cohabitation for 113 d no infections were detected in naïve sentinels. These data do not preclude the possibility of fish-to-fish transmission, but they do suggest that other transmission processes are necessary to maintain Ichthyophonus in wild Pacific herring populations.

  9. Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study, we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50 % reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant, the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment.

  10. Shifts in the spring herring (Clupea harengus membras) larvae and related environment in the eastern Baltic Sea over the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Arula, Timo; Gröger, Joachim; Ojaveer, Henn; Simm, Mart

    2014-01-01

    Because of the high management relevance, commercial fish related aspects have often been central in marine ecosystem investigations. The iterative shiftogram method was applied to detect occurrence, type and timing of shifts in the single and multivariate time series linked to the spring spawning herring larvae in the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea). Altogether nineteen larval herring and related environmental variables were utilized during the period of 1957-2010. All the time series investigated, either single or multivariate, exhibited one or more shifts with variable type and timing. Multivariate shiftogram based on all time series identified two distinct states (1957-1983 and 1992-2010) in studied variables, separated by a smooth transition period lasting almost ten years. The observed shift was mainly related to hydroclimate and not to phenology or biota. Significantly increased variability was found in larval herring and recruitment abundances after the shift. While the shift in hydroclimate (1985-1991) was followed by the shift in phenology (1991-1997), the shift in biota occurred remarkably later (2003). It is likely that the dynamics in biota were affected by other drivers than those investigated in the current paper.

  11. Alligator diet in relation to alligator mortality on Lake Griffin, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, A.N.; Ross, J.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Percival, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligators) demonstrated low hatch-rate success and increased adult mortality on Lake Griffin, FL, between 1998 and 2003. Dying Lake Griffin alligators with symptoms of poor motor coordination were reported to show specific neurological impairment and brain lesions. Similar lesions were documented in salmonines that consumed clupeids with high thiaminase levels. Therefore, we investigated the diet of Lake Griffin alligators and compared it with alligator diets from two lakes that exhibited relatively low levels of unexplained alligator mortality to see if consumption of Dorosoma cepedianum (gizzard shad) could be correlated with patterns of mortality. Shad in both lakes Griffin and Apopka had high levels of thiaminase and Lake Apopka alligators were consuming greater amounts of shad relative to Lake Griffin without showing mortality rates similar to Lake Griffin alligators. Therefore, a relationship between shad consumption alone and alligator mortality is not supported.

  12. Organochlorine contaminants in eggs of common terns from the Canadian Great Lakes, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weseloh, D.V.; Custer, T.W.; Braune, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    DDE and PCB's were detected in every egg from the four colonies. Dieldrin, mirex and trans-nonachlor were detected in more than 45% of the eggs. Seven other organochlorine contaminants were detected in less than 25% of the eggs. Eggs from the Lake Ontario colony were generally the most heavily contaminated. Comparisons of DDE and PCB data with earlier studies of Common Terns indicated that contaminant levels in eggs from the four sampled colonies, or nearby sites, have decreased by up to 80-% from 1969-73 to 1981. Interspecies comparisons showed that Common Tern eggs have lower organochlorine residue levels than eggs of Caspian Terns or Herring Gulls. Eggshell thickness, log-PCB's, and log-DDE were not significantly intercorrelated. It is argued that elevated contaminant levels in the early 1970s were at least partially responsible for the decline of the Great Lakes Common Tern population over the past decade. Stabilization of population numbers during the early 1980s suggests that pollution levels have since been reduced to a point where they are no longer a driving factor in the population dynamics of this species on the Great Lakes.

  13. Estimation of invertebrate production from patterns of fish predation in western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Timothy B.; Mason, Doran M.; Bronte, Charles R.; Kitchell, James F.

    1998-01-01

    We used bioenergetic models for lake herring Coregonus artedi, bloater Coregonus hoyi, and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax to estimate consumption of zooplankton,Mysis, andDiporeia in western Lake Superior for selected years between 1978 and 1995. Total invertebrate biomass consumed yearly ranged from 2.5 to 38 g/m2 with nearly 40% consumed between August and October in all years. Copepod zooplankton represented the largest proportion of biomass collectively consumed by the three species (81%), although rainbow smelt consumed almost twice as much Mysis as zooplankton. Growth efficiency was highest for rainbow smelt (3.84–16.64%) and lower for the coregonids (1.91–12.26%). In the absence of quantitative secondary production values, we suggest our estimates of predatory demand provide a conservative range of the minimum invertebrate production in western Lake Superior during the past 20 years.

  14. Hazardous crater lakes studied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Minoru

    Crater lakes usually sit on top of volcanic conduits and act as condensers of magmatic vapor. Studies of crater lakes can therefore provide information on both deep magmatic activity and variations in the degassing state of a shallow magmatic body. The Lake Nyos gas disaster of August 1986 and a similar event in August 1984 at Lake Monoun, both in Cameroon, resulted from the accumulation of magmatic CO2 in the bottom layers of the lakes. Geochemical monitoring of crater lakes is a promising tool for forecasting not only limnic but also volcanic eruptions. Acid-mineralized waters formed by condensation of hot magmatic volatiles in crater lakes are thought to bear some resemblance to hydrothermal fluids acting in the genesis of acid-sulfate alteration and Au-Cu-Ag mineralization of volcanic-hosted precious metal deposits.

  15. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles; Ebener, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

  16. Salting our freshwater lakes.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Hilary A; Bartlett, Sarah L; Burke, Samantha M; Doubek, Jonathan P; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E; Skaff, Nicholas K; Summers, Jamie C; Farrell, Kaitlin J; McCullough, Ian M; Morales-Williams, Ana M; Roberts, Derek C; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2017-04-10

    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L(-1)), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue.

  17. Evolution of supra-glacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundal, A. V.; Shepherd, A.; Nienow, P.; Hanna, E.; Palmer, S.; Huybrechts, P.

    2009-04-01

    We have used 268 cloud-free Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images spanning the 2003 and 2005-2007 melt seasons to study the seasonal evolution of supra-glacial lakes in three different regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Lake area estimates were obtained by developing an automated classification method for their identification based on 250 m resolution MODIS surface reflectance observations. Widespread supra-glacial lake formation and drainage is observed across the ice sheet, with a 2-3 weeks delay in the evolution of total supra-glacial lake area in the northern areas compared to the south-west. The onset of lake growth varies by up to one month inter-annually, and lakes form and drain at progressively higher altitudes during the melt season. A correlation was found between the annual peak in total lake area and modelled annual runoff across all study areas. Our results indicate that, in a future warmer climate (Meehl et al., 2007), Greenland supra-glacial lakes can be expected to form at higher altitudes and over a longer time period than is presently the case, expanding the area and time period over which connections between the ice sheet surface and base may be established (Das et al., 2008) with potential consequences for ice sheet discharge (Zwally et al., 2002). Das, S., Joughin, M., Behn, M., Howat, I., King, M., Lizarralde, D., & Bhatia, M. (2008). Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supra-glacial lake drainage. Science, 5877, 778-781. Meehl, G.A., Stocker, T.F., Collins W.D., Friedlingstein, P., Gaye, A.T., Gregory, J.M., Kitoh, A., Knutti, R., Murphy, J.M., Noda, A., Raper, S.C.B., Watterson, I.G., Weaver, A.J. & Zhao, Z.C. (2007). Global Climate Projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor

  18. Residues of DDT in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1974-01-01

    Concentrations of DDT residues were higher in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from southern Lake Michigan in 1966–70 (average 18.1 ppm in fish 558–684 mm long) than in lake trout of the same size-class from Lake Superior in 1968–69 (4.4 ppm), and higher in adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Lake Michigan in 1968–71 (averages for different year-classes, 9.9–14.0 ppm) than in those from Lake Erie in 1969 (2.2 ppm). Residues were significantly higher in lake trout from southern Lake Michigan than in those from the northern part of the lake. In lakes Michigan and Superior, the levels increased with length of fish and percentage oil. In Lake Michigan coho salmon, the residues remained nearly stable (2–4 ppm) from September of the 1st yr of lake residence through May or early June of the 2nd yr, but increased three to four times in the next 3 mo. Residues in Lake Erie coho salmon did not increase during this period, which preceded the spawning season. Although the concentrations of total residues in whole, maturing Lake Michigan coho salmon remained unchanged from August 1968 until near the end of the spawning season in January 1969, the residues were redistributed in the tissues of the spawning-run fish; concentrations in the loin and brain were markedly higher in January than in August. This relocation of DDT residues accompanied a marked decrease in the percentage of oil in the fish, from 13.2 in August to 2.8 in January. Concentrations of residues were relatively high in eggs of both lake trout (4.6 ppm) and coho salmon (7.4–10.2 ppm) from Lake Michigan. The percentage composition of the residues (p,p′DDE, o,p′/DDT, p,p′DDT, and p,p′DDT) did not differ significantly with life stage, size, age, or locality, or date of collection of lake trout or coho salmon.

  19. 9. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. In-lake Modeling Recommendation Report for Lake Champlain TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes the recommended modeling approach for the in-lake modeling component of the Lake Champlain TMDL project. The report was prepared by Tetra Tech, with input from the Lake Champlain modeling workgroup. (TetraTech, 2012b)

  1. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ridge showing spillway at photo center, view southwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  2. Mechanistic pathway for controlled extraction of guest molecule bound to herring sperm DNA using α-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffer, S. Syed; Ghosh, Prasun; Purkayastha, Pradipta

    2011-05-01

    trans-2-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]benzothiazole (DMASBT) is known to have dual emitting states where the locally excited (LE) state is responsible for fluorescence in less polar environment and in polar milieu fluorescence is from the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state. This compound also undergoes minor groove binding to herring sperm DNA (hsDNA) evidenced by the absorption spectra before and after the binding process and an effect on DMASBT fluorescence by an anionic quencher. The binding occurs efficiently in a 1:1 manner, i.e. one guest molecule binds to one site on the hsDNA. Instead of following the DNA twist, the aromatic part seems to project outward. Thus, the bound molecule can be successfully extracted out from the DNA in a controlled way by the hydrophobic cavity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD). The extraction starts even with a low concentration of α-CD and increases as the concentration is increased. Absorption, steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic methods have been employed to explore the mechanistic pathway of binding of DMASBT to hsDNA. The mechanistic approach toward controlled extraction of the guest molecules from hsDNA by α-CD is reported and is expected to serve a significant purpose in treatment of drug overdose.

  3. Effect of spatial differences in growth on distribution of seasonally co-occurring herring Clupea harengus stocks.

    PubMed

    Clausen, L A W; Stæhr, K-J; Rindorf, A; Mosegaard, H

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms most likely to determine the distribution of the two major herring Clupea harengus stocks in their common early summer feeding ground in the eastern North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat were investigated through analysis of acoustic survey data from six consecutive years. No change was detected in biomass of North Sea autumn spawning C. harengus (NSAS) over time, whereas the biomass of western Baltic spring spawning C. harengus (WBSS) declined severely. Analyses of centre of abundance by stock showed no change in NSAS distribution, whereas the WBSS changed to a more western distribution over time. Contrary to previous perception of the juvenile migration, NSAS were found to leave the study area at the age between 1 and 2 years and WBSS 1 year olds were encountered in the Skagerrak. The estimated parameters of von Bertalanffy growth equations showed marked differences between areas with fish in the eastern part of the area having the lowest size at age at all ages. Further, their growth conditions appeared to deteriorate progressively over the period studied. Both NSAS and WBSS showed the highest condition in the North Sea and Skagerrak while condition was substantially lower in age Kattegat. The westward movement of spring spawners over time suggests that growth rate and possibly density of conspecifics influence the migration pattern and distribution of C. harengus in the area. In contrast, there was no evidence to suggest that distribution was constant over time within stocks or that distribution reflected size-dependent limitations on migration distance.

  4. The evolutionary origins of diadromy inferred from a time-calibrated phylogeny for Clupeiformes (herring and allies)

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Devin D.; Lovejoy, Nathan R.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most remarkable types of migration found in animals is diadromy, a life-history behaviour in which individuals move between oceans and freshwater habitats for feeding and reproduction. Diadromous fishes include iconic species such as salmon, eels and shad, and have long fascinated biologists because they undergo extraordinary physiological and behavioural modifications to survive in very different habitats. However, the evolutionary origins of diadromy remain poorly understood. Here, we examine the widely accepted productivity hypothesis, which states that differences in productivity between marine and freshwater biomes determine the origins of the different modes of diadromy. Specifically, the productivity hypothesis predicts that anadromous lineages should evolve in temperate areas from freshwater ancestors and catadromous lineages should evolve in tropical areas from marine ancestors. To test this, we generated a time-calibrated phylogeny for Clupeiformes (herrings, anchovies, sardines and allies), an ecologically and economically important group that includes high diversity of diadromous species. Our results do not support the productivity hypothesis. Instead we find that the different modes of diadromy do not have predictable ancestry based on latitude, and that predation, competition and geological history may be at least as important as productivity in determining the origins of diadromy. PMID:24430843

  5. Seasonal variations in aldrin epoxidase (MFO) activity of yellow-legged herring gulls: the relationship to breeding and PCB residues

    SciTech Connect

    Fossi, C.; Leonzio, C.; Focardi, S.; Renzoni, A.

    1988-09-01

    The hepatic mixed function oxidases (MFO) constitute a defense mechanism which enables the organism to make xenobiotics more polar and thus render them more readily excretable. The degree of induction of this system is an expression of its exposure to xenobiotics, but it is also a function of endogenous physiological mechanisms. These two forms of induction may lead to mutual interference: foreign compounds may stimulate hepatic hydroxylation and affect the metabolism of steroid hormones; the later may in turn stimulate the activity of the MFO system favoring the degradation of the xenobiotics. Induction and detoxication processes of endogenous and exogenous compounds have been observed in mammals in laboratory experiments. Relationships between MRO activity, the reproductive cycle and variations in tissue levels of liposoluble xenobiotics, have been reported for marine organisms. In birds, seasonal variations of MFO levels have been observed, but the relationship between these enzyme variations and the levels of contaminants in the animal tissues has never been made clear. The authors aim to clarify this relationship by determining the levels of PCBs residues and aldrin epoxidase activities in Yellow-legged Herring gull (Larus cachinnans) specimens from different areas of Italy collected during two phases of the annual cycle, namely those of reproduction (spring) and of sexual inactivity (autumn). This species was chosen because of its wide distribution, its opportunistic feeding habits and its adaptive capacity in polluted environments.

  6. Effects of contaminant exposure and food restriction on hepatic autophagic lysosomal parameters in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Hegseth, Marit Nøst; Gorbi, Stephania; Bocchetti, Raffaella; Camus, Lionel; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Regoli, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Lysosomal autophagic responses, such as lysosomal membrane stability, neutral lipids (NL), lipofuscin (LF), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, are valuable measures of cellular early-onset effects induced by environmental stress factors, such as contaminant exposure and fasting. In this study, these parameters were analysed and related to levels of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in 40 Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) chicks. Chicks were experimentally exposed to HOCs through diet and went through a period of nutrient deprivation at the end of the experiment. HOC exposure and fasting were conducted separately and in combination. NL storages were depleted, and lysosomal membranes were destabilised after HOC exposure and nutrient deprivation. These responses were not related specifically to one type of stress or the extent of the treatment. No synergistic or additive effects from the combination of HOC exposure and fasting were observed. LF accumulated, and MDA levels increased as a result of fasting, but were unaffected by HOC exposure. LF accumulation was strongly associated with the percent weight change in the chicks. Large weight loss was associated with high LF levels, and slight weight gain was associated with low LF levels. Hence, food deprivation affected all the measured parameters, and HOC exposure decreased NL levels and lysosomal membrane stability in HG chick liver. Furthermore, autophagic lysosomal parameters have frequently been applied as biomarkers of cellular health status in previous studies of marine and terrestrial invertebrates, and this study suggests that these parameters may be good candidates for biomarkers of cellular health status in seabirds as well.

  7. Dynamics of viral hemorrhagic septicemia, viral erythrocytic necrosis and ichthyophoniasis in confined juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.; Hart, A.; Gregg, J.; Elder, N.; Winton, J.

    2006-01-01

    Capture of wild, juvenile herring Clupea pallasii from Puget Sound (Washington, USA) and confinement in laboratory tanks resulted in outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) and ichthyophoniasis; however, the timing and progression of the 3 diseases differed. The VHS epidemic occurred first, characterized by an initially low infection prevalence that increased quickly with confinement time, peaking at 93 to 98% after confinement for 6 d, then decreasing to negligible levels after 20 d. The VHS outbreak was followed by a VEN epidemic that, within 12 d of confinement, progressed from undetectable levels to 100% infection prevalence with >90% of erythrocytes demonstrating inclusions. The VEN epidemic persisted for 54 d, after which the study was terminated, and was characterized by severe blood dyscrasias including reduction of mean hematocrit from 42 to 6% and replacement of mature erythrocytes with circulating erythroblasts and ghost cells. All fish with ichthyophoniasis at capture died within the first 3 wk of confinement, probably as a result of the multiple stressors associated with capture, transport, confinement, and progression of concomitant viral diseases. The results illustrate the differences in disease ecology and possible synergistic effects of pathogens affecting marine fish and highlight the difficulty in ascribing a single causation to outbreaks of disease among populations of wild fishes. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  8. New estimates of lethality of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): Implications for fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Chipman, B.D.; Marsden, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in North America costs millions of dollars each year, and control measures are guided by assessment of lamprey-induced damage to fisheries. The favored prey of sea lamprey in freshwater ecosystems has been lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). A key parameter in assessing sea lamprey damage, as well as managing lake trout fisheries, is the probability of an adult lake trout surviving a lamprey attack. The conventional value for this parameter has been 0.55, based on laboratory experiments. In contrast, based on catch curve analysis, mark-recapture techniques, and observed wounding rates, we estimated that adult lake trout in Lake Champlain have a 0.74 probability of surviving a lamprey attack. Although sea lamprey growth in Lake Champlain was lower than that observed in Lake Huron, application of an individual-based model to both lakes indicated that the probability of surviving an attack in Lake Champlain was only 1.1 times higher than that in Lake Huron. Thus, we estimated that lake trout survive a lamprey attack in Lake Huron with a probability of 0.66. Therefore, our results suggested that lethality of a sea lamprey attack on lake trout has been overestimated in previous model applications used in fisheries management. ?? 2008 NRC.

  9. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  10. Speciation in ancient lakes.

    PubMed

    Martens, K

    1997-05-01

    About a dozen lakes in the world are up to three orders of magnitude older than most others. Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Baikal (Siberia) have probably existed in some form for 12-20 million years, maybe more. Such lakes can have different origins, sizes, shapes, depths and limnologies, but, in contrast to short-lived (mostly post-glacial) lakes, they have exceptionally high faunal diversity and levels of endemicity. A multitude of and processes accounting for these explosive radiations have recently been documented, most of them based on particular groups in certain lakes, but comparative research can detect repeated patterns. No special speciafion mechanism, exclusive to ancient lakes has been demonstrated, although cases of ultra-rapid speciation have been documented. Extant diversity results not by simple accumulation, but by a complex process of immigration, speciation and extinction.

  11. Hydrology of Indiana lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perrey, Joseph Irving; Corbett, Don Melvin

    1956-01-01

    The stabilization of lake levels often requires the construction of outlet control structures. A detailed study of past lake-level elevations and other hydologic date is necessary to establish a level that can be maintained and to determine the means necessary for maintaining the established level. Detailed lake-level records for 28 lakes are included in the report, and records for over 100 other lakes data are available in the U.S. Geological Survey Office, Indianapolis, Ind. Evaporation data from the four Class A evaporation station of the U. S. Weather Bureau have been compiled in this report. A table showing the established legal lake level and related data is included.

  12. David Morrison on Lake Vostok

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. David Morrison discusses the implications of research possibilities at Lake Vostok, one of the largest subglacial lakes located over two miles beneath the ice in Antarctica. The lake has been c...

  13. Genetic effects of habitat restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes: an assessment of lake sturgeon origin and genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamie Marie Marranca,; Amy Welsh,; Roseman, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) have experienced significant habitat loss, resulting in reduced population sizes. Three artificial reefs were built in the Huron-Erie corridor in the Great Lakes to replace lost spawning habitat. Genetic data were collected to determine the source and numbers of adult lake sturgeon spawning on the reefs and to determine if the founder effect resulted in reduced genetic diversity. DNA was extracted from larval tail clips and 12 microsatellite loci were amplified. Larval genotypes were then compared to 22 previously studied spawning lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes to determine the source of the parental population. The effective number of breeders (Nb) was calculated for each reef cohort. The larval genotypes were then compared to the source population to determine if there were any losses in genetic diversity that are indicative of the founder effect. The St. Clair and Detroit River adult populations were found to be the source parental population for the larvae collected on all three artificial reefs. There were large numbers of contributing adults relative to the number of sampled larvae. There was no significant difference between levels of genetic diversity in the source population and larval samples from the artificial reefs; however, there is some evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the reef populations likely due to the founder effect. Habitat restoration in the Huron-Erie corridor is likely resulting in increased habitat for the large lake sturgeon population in the system and in maintenance of the population's genetic diversity.

  14. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  15. Persistence of an unusual pelagic zooplankton assemblage in a clear mountain lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Hoffman, Robert L.; McIntire, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    The planktonic zooplankton assemblage in Mowich Lake, Mount Rainier National Park (MORA), was composed almost entirely of rotifers in 1966 and 1967. Adult pelagic crustacean taxa were rare. Their paucity was attributed to predation by kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), which had been stocked in 1961. During a park-wide survey of 24 lakes in 1988, Mowich Lake was the only one that did not contain at least one planktonic crustacean species. Given the apparent persistence of the unusual pelagic zooplankton assemblage in Mowich Lake, the first objective of this study was to document the interannual variation in the taxonomic structure of the zooplankton assemblages in the lake from 1988 through 1999. A second objective was to determine if it was possible to predict the taxonomic composition of the pelagic crustacean zooplankton assemblage in Mowich Lake prior to the stocking of kokanee salmon. The Mowich Lake zooplankton assemblages in 1988a??1999 were consistent with those in 1966 and 1967. Crustacean taxa were extremely rare, but they included most of the primary taxa collected from 23 MORA lakes surveyed in 1988. Nonetheless, the 1988 collections showed that the September rotifer assemblage in Mowich Lake was similar to 10 of the 24 lakes sampled. Seven of the 10 lakes were dominated by cladocerans, primarily Daphnia rosea and Holopedium gibberum. Therefore, it appeared that either one or both of these species may have numerically dominated the crustacean zooplankton assemblage in the lake prior to 1961.

  16. Persistence of an unusual pelagic zooplankton assemblage in a clear, mountain lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.L.; David, McIntire C.

    2002-01-01

    The planktonic zooplankton assemblage in Mowich Lake, Mount Rainier National Park (MORA), was composed almost entirely of rotifers in 1966 and 1967. Adult pelagic crustacean taxa were rare. Their paucity was attributed to predation by kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), which had been stocked in 1961. During a park-wide survey of 24 lakes in 1988, Mowich Lake was the only one that did not contain at least one planktonic crustacean species. Given the apparent persistence of the unusual pelagic zooplankton assemblage in Mowich Lake, the first objective of this study was to document the interannual variation in the taxonomic structure of the zooplankton assemblages in the lake from 1988 through 1999. A second objective was to determine if it was possible to predict the taxonomic composition of the pelagic crustacean zooplankton assemblage in Mowich Lake prior to the stocking of kokanee salmon. The Mowich Lake zooplankton assemblages in 1988-1999 were consistent with those in 1966 and 1967. Crustacean taxa were extremely rare, but they included most of the primary taxa collected from 23 MORA lakes surveyed in 1988. Nonetheless, the 1988 collections showed that the September rotifer assemblage in Mowich Lake was similar to 10 of the 24 lakes sampled. Seven of the 10 lakes were dominated by cladocerans, primarily Daphnia rosea and Holopedium gibberum. Therefore, it appeared that either one or both of these species may have numerically dominated the crustacean zooplankton assemblage in the lake prior to 1961.

  17. Challenge to the model of lake charr evolution: Shallow- and deep-water morphs exist within a small postglacial lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Baillie, Shauna M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Yule, Daniel L.; Middel, Trevor; Bentzen, Paul; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    All examples of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) diversity occur within the largest, deepest lakes of North America (i.e. > 2000 km2). We report here Rush Lake (1.3 km2) as the first example of a small lake with two lake charr morphs (lean and huronicus). Morphology, diet, life history, and genetics were examined to demonstrate the existence of morphs and determine the potential influence of evolutionary processes that led to their formation or maintenance. Results showed that the huronicus morph, caught in deep-water, had a deeper body, smaller head and jaws, higher eye position, greater buoyancy, and deeper peduncle than the shallow-water lean morph. Huronicus grew slower to a smaller adult size, and had an older mean age than the lean morph. Genetic comparisons showed low genetic divergence between morphs, indicating incomplete reproductive isolation. Phenotypic plasticity and differences in habitat use between deep and shallow waters associated with variation in foraging opportunities seems to have been sufficient to maintain the two morphs, demonstrating their important roles in resource polymorphism. Rush Lake expands previous explanations for lake charr intraspecific diversity, from large to small lakes and from reproductive isolation to the presence of gene flow associated with strong ecological drivers.

  18. Population recovery and natural recruitment of lake trout at Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior, 1964-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    We documented an increase in the abundance of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior and examined the relationship between parental-stock size and recruitment of age-0 fish in 1964–1992. Abundance of adult wild female lake trout and densities of age-0 fish both increased during the 28-year period. A significant positive, linear relationship (P = 0.0002) was found between the abundance of wild females on the spawning reef in the fall and density of age-0 lake trout on adjacent nursery grounds in August and September of the following year. The abundance of hatchery-origin females did not explain significant amounts (P = 0.107) of variation in recruitment. We concluded that most recruitment in 1965–1992 was the result of natural reproduction of wild females. After 28 years of recovery the Gull Island Shoal lake trout population appears to have additional capacity to increase because the stock-recruitment relationship is still linear. Therefore, restoration periods on the order of 30 years may be needed for other lake trout populations in the Great Lakes. We recommend that the refuge established to protect this population be maintained to allow further study of the relationship between parental stock and recruitment, and to provide a major source of recruitment to the lake trout population in the surrounding waters

  19. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of

  20. The Impact of Television on Public Environmental Knowledge Concerning the Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Christine C.

    The purpose of this study was to collect baseline information about public knowledge of and opinions toward the Great Lakes and to measure the impact of a television news program in educating adults about the Great Lakes. Survey questionnaires containing multiple-choice knowledge items and Likert scale opinion statements were completed by 570…

  1. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, and other causes of morbidity in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi spawning in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Marty, G D; Freiberg, E F; Meyers, T R; Wilcock, J; Farver, T B; Hinton, D E

    1998-02-26

    Pacific herring Clupea pallasi populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, declined from an estimated 9.8 x 10(7) kg in 1992 to 1.5 x 10(7) kg in 1994. To determine the role of disease in population decline, 233 Pacific herring from Prince William Sound were subjected to complete necropsy during April 1994. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from 11 of 233 fish (4.7%). VHSV was significantly related to myocardial mineralization, hepatocellular necrosis, submucosal gastritis, and meningoencephalitis. Ichthyophonus hoferi infected 62 of 212 (29%) fish. I. hoferi infections were associated with severe, disseminated, granulomatous inflammation and with increased levels of plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). I. hoferi prevalence in 1994 was more than double that of most previous years (1989 to 1993). Plasma chemistry values significantly greater (p < 0.01) in males than females included albumin, total protein, cholesterol, chloride, glucose, and potassium; only alkaline phosphatase was significantly greater in females. Hypoalbuminemia was relatively common in postspawning females; other risk factors included VHSV and moderate or severe focal skin reddening. Pacific herring had more than 10 species of parasites, but they were not associated with significant lesions. Two of the parasites have not previously been described: a renal intraductal myxosporean (11% prevalence) and an intestinal coccidian (91% prevalence). Transmission electron microscopy of a solitary mesenteric lesion revealed viral particles consistent with lymphocystis virus. No fish had viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN). Prevalence of external gross lesions and major parasites was not related to fish age, and fish that were year-lings at the time of the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill (1988 year class) had no evidence of increased disease prevalence.

  2. Recovery discrepancies of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum versus herring and long-tailed duck plasma.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Norrgran, Jessica; Hovander, Lotta; Bergman, Ke; Asplund, Lillemor

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified as metabolites of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or as natural products. The OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols have come into focus over the last decade due to their abundance in biota and their potential adverse health effects. The present recovery study aims to validate a commonly used method (published by Hovander et al. 2000) for OH-PBDE analysis in human plasma. Further, the authors intended to determine the method's applicability to serum/plasma matrices from other species than humans. The investigated matrices were human plasma, cat serum, herring- and long-tailed duck plasma. The recovery study included nine OH-PBDEs, four polybromophenols and three methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Five replicates of each matrix were spiked with these compounds at two dose levels; a low dose (0.5 ng) and a high dose (5 ng) and were cleaned up according to the Hovander method. The recovery of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum were high and reproducible at both dose levels whereas the recovery for herring and long-tailed duck plasma were low and insufficient with great variability amongst OH-PBDE congeners at both dose levels. Our data show that the method can be fully applied to matrices like human plasma and cat serum but not for herring and long-tailed duck plasma without further method development. Hence care needs to be taken when applying the method onto other blood matrices without validation since the present study have demonstrated that the recoveries may differ amongst OH-PBDE congeners and specie.

  3. A field and laboratory assessment of oil spill effects on survival and reproduction of Pacific herring following the Exxon Valdez spill

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, W.H.; Skalski, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Field and laboratory investigations in 1989 and 1990 were designed to assess potential injury to Prince William Sound herring by testing for differences between oiled regions and unoiled reference areas and by relating biological response variables to the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in eggs-on-kelp samples. Hydrocarbon analyses and laboratory incubation were conducted on eggs-on-kelp samples from Prince William Sound and Sitka Sound. The eggs and hatching larvae were examined to evaluate several response variables: egg development, hatch, larval survival, abnormal development of larvae, larval length, and larval yolk-sac volume. Analysis of 1989 shoreline surveys indicate that about 96% of the total spawn length (158 km) in Prince William Sound occurred along shorelines with no oiling, and less than 1% of the 1989 total spawn length occurred along shorelines with moderate to heavy oiling. Analysis of shoreline oiling in both 1989 and 1990 from all surveys indicates that about 90 to 91% of the total 1989 spawn length occurred along unoiled shorelines. Effects on herring eggs were minor in 1989 even in oiled areas. No significant relationship was found between 1989 PAH burdens in eggs-on-kelp samples and 9 out of 10 biological response variables. In 1989, significantly lower proportions of developed eggs were observed for Cabin Bay samples visibly contaminated with tarry deposits. The location where these effects were seen represented less than 2% of total 1989 spawn length. No effects of the spill on herring were evident in 1990. No significant relationship was found between 1990 PAH burdens and the seven biological response variables studied. 33 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Morphological abnormalities in gonads of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras): Description of types and prevalence in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rajasilta, Marjut; Elfving, Mikael; Hänninen, Jari; Laine, Päivi; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Paranko, Jorma

    2016-03-01

    Due to heavy anthropogenic influence and variation of the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea, reproductive disorders are becoming a major environmental concern. We show here an increasing prevalence of gonadal malformations in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), a key species of the Baltic ecosystem and important in commercial fishery. During 1987-2014, the spawning herring population in the Archipelago Sea (AS) (North Baltic Sea, Finland) was monitored annually and analyzed for gross morphology of the gonads [total number (n) of analyzed fish = 38 284]. Four different types of malformations were repeatedly found and named as asymmetric, rudimentary, segmented, and branched gonads, but also hermaphroditic gonads and miscellaneous (unidentified) disorders were recorded. In 2013, additional samplings (n of fish analyzed = 541) showed similar malformations in herring from the Bothnian Sea. In some gonad types, histological examination revealed disintegration of seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue. In 2014, the overall prevalence of malformations was still relatively low in the AS (frequency = 0-3.4 %; n = 750) and had apparently minimal effect on population recruitment. However, an increasing trend in the time-series (GLM; F = 32.65; p < 0.001) and a significantly higher prevalence in the Bothnian Sea (frequency = 0.7-5.0 %; n = 541; χ (2) = 6.24; p < 0.05) suggest that gonadal malformations may become a new threat for fish in the Baltic Sea. The observed gonad atrophies may be due to environmental endocrine disruption; however, also other explanations may exist and potential explanations are discussed.

  5. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  7. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  8. The lakes of Titan.

    PubMed

    Stofan, E R; Elachi, C; Lunine, J I; Lorenz, R D; Stiles, B; Mitchell, K L; Ostro, S; Soderblom, L; Wood, C; Zebker, H; Wall, S; Janssen, M; Kirk, R; Lopes, R; Paganelli, F; Radebaugh, J; Wye, L; Anderson, Y; Allison, M; Boehmer, R; Callahan, P; Encrenaz, P; Flamini, E; Francescetti, G; Gim, Y; Hamilton, G; Hensley, S; Johnson, W T K; Kelleher, K; Muhleman, D; Paillou, P; Picardi, G; Posa, F; Roth, L; Seu, R; Shaffer, S; Vetrella, S; West, R

    2007-01-04

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70 degrees north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table.

  9. Lessons from a Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)

  10. Lake Wobegon Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…

  11. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  12. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  13. Evaporation From Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

    2009-05-01

    Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

  14. Predicting submerged aquatic vegetation occurence (SAV) in a Great Lakes estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAV provides the biophysical basis for several ecosystem services in Great Lakes estuaries including rearing and adult habitat for commercially and recreationally important fishes, foraging habit for waterfowl, and nutrient retention. Understanding sources of variation in SAV in ...

  15. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  16. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Water-quality data collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake, following runoff, generally were not adequate to fully determine the effects of runoff on the lakes. Data collection should not to be limited to fixed-station sampling following runoff, and both lakes need to be sampled simultaneously as soon as possible following significant precipitation.

  17. Wildlife as sentinels of human health effects in the Great Lakes--St. Lawrence basin.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, G A

    2001-01-01

    There is no existing formal, long-term program for gathering evidence of the incidence and severity of the health effects of toxic substances in wildlife. However, research-based studies of bald eagles, herring gulls, night herons, tree swallows, snapping turtles, mink, and beluga over the past 30 years have revealed a broad spectrum of health effects in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin including thyroid and other endocrine disorders, metabolic diseases, altered immune function, reproductive impairment, developmental toxicity, genotoxicity, and cancer. These effects occurred most often and were most severe in the most contaminated sites (Green Bay, Saginaw Bay, Lake Ontario, the St. Lawrence estuary, and more recently, Lake Erie), some of which are International Joint Commission-designated Areas of Concern (AOCs). In all cases, a strong argument can be made for an environmental etiology, and in many cases for the involvement of persistent organic pollutants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For some, the association with particular contaminants is consistent with controlled studies, and in some, dose-response relationships were documented. The biologic significance of these health impairments to the affected species is currently unclear, but they resemble those observed with increased incidence in human subpopulations in one or more AOCs. Formalizing health effects monitoring of sentinel wildlife species by the parties to the Canada-USA Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement is required. This would facilitate the optimal use of sentinel wildlife health data in a larger, epidemiologic weight-of-evidence context upon which to base decisions and policies regarding the effects of chemical exposures on human populations. PMID:11744503

  18. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  19. Evidence that sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) complete their life cycle within a tributary of the Laurentian Great Lakes by parasitizing fishes in inland lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas; Twohey, Michael B.; Miehls, Scott M.; Cwalinski, Tim A; Godby, Neal A; Lochet, Aude; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Jubar, Aaron K.; Siefkes, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) invaded the upper Laurentian Great Lakes and feeds on valued fish. The Cheboygan River, Michigan, USA, is a large sea lamprey producing tributary to Lake Huron and despite having a renovated dam 2 km from the river mouth that presumably blocks sea lamprey spawning migrations, the watershed upstream of the dam remains infested with larval sea lamprey. A navigational lock near the dam has been hypothesized as the means of escapement of adult sea lampreys from Lake Huron and source of the upper river population (H1). However, an alternative hypothesis (H2) is that some sea lampreys complete their life cycle upstream of the dam, without entering Lake Huron. To evaluate the alternative hypothesis, we gathered angler reports of lamprey wounds on game fishes upstream of the dam, and captured adult sea lampreys downstream and upstream of the dam to contrast abundance, run timing, size, and statolith microchemistry. Results indicate that a small population of adult sea lampreys (n < 200) completed their life cycle upstream of the dam during 2013 and 2014. This is the most comprehensive evidence that sea lampreys complete their life history within a tributary of the upper Great Lakes, and indicates that similar landlocked populations could occur in other watersheds. Because the adult sea lamprey population upstream of the dam is small, complete elimination of the already low adult escapement from Lake Huron might allow multiple control tactics such as lampricides, trapping, and sterile male release to eradicate the population.

  20. Chironomids (Insecta: Diptera) as Indicators of Ecological Status in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziali, L.; Lencioni, V.; Rossaro, B.

    2005-05-01

    Benthic communities are used in biological assessment and monitoring in lakes. Chironomids are considered indicators of oxygen level and trophic state. The taxocoenosis of 42 Italian lakes with different volume, depth, annual minimum hypolimnetic oxygen concentration, transparency and phosphorous concentration were investigated. Larvae were collected with a Petersen grab at different depths, pupal exuviae with a drift net near the outlet of lakes and adults with a sweep net along the shore. 334 species were identified: 41 Tanypodinae, 17 Diamesinae, 3 Prodiamesinae, 118 Orthocladiinae, 155 Chironominae (61 Tanytarsini, 93 Chironomini and 1 Pseudochironomini). Drift samples included many more taxa than grab samples, adult samples often included terrestrial species. Lake Garda, Como and Maggiore were the richest in species (78, 72 and 66 respectively), as expected because of their large size. Species richness did not result as good indicator: both oligotrophic (Monate 52 species, Toblino 33) and eutrophic lakes (Annone 57, Pusiano 42) were characterized by similar species numbers. Different species were more suitable indicators of oxygen concentration rather than of nutrients. A comparison of different lakes is preliminary because of: 1. different morphometric and trophic conditions; 2. different sampling effort; 3. lack of knowledge of species optima and tolerance.

  1. Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes. Lake Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    has three major bathymetric regions, a southern, central, and northern basin. Depths over the lake are generally greater than 100 m with the...AD-A243 784 w,,v,,,,l,,,IWAVE INFORMATION STUDIES L OF US COASTLINES US AmWIS REPORT 24 HINDCAST WAVE INFORMATION FOR THE GREAT LAKES : LAKE MICHIGAN...October 1991 Final report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes : Lake Michigan 6. AUTHOR(S) Jon M

  2. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  3. Ecology under lake ice.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Galloway, Aaron W E; Powers, Stephen M; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H; Batt, Ryan D; Labou, Stephanie G; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R; Stanley, Emily H; North, Rebecca L; Stockwell, Jason D; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L; Carey, Cayelan C; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N; Jolley, Jeff C; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W; Mariash, Heather L; McKay, Robert M; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C; Post, David M; Pruett, Matthew J; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S; Roberts, Sarah L; Rücker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A; Smith, Derek E; Sterner, Robert W; Swann, George E A; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R; Vogt, Richard J; Watson, Susan B; Whiteford, Erika J; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2017-01-01

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass.

  4. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  6. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Holly

    2003-03-01

    Lake Whatcom, Washington kokanee have been stocked in Lake Roosevelt since 1987 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining fishery. Success has been limited by low recruitment to the fishery, low adult returns to hatcheries, and a skewed sex ratio. It was hypothesized that a stock native to the upper Columbia River might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom stock. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Post smolts from each stock were released from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance was evaluated using three measures; (1) number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to 86 tributaries sampled and, (3) the number of returns to the creel. In two repeated experiments, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appeared to be capable of providing a run of three-year old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. Less than 10 three-years olds from either stock were collected during the study period. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek and to other tributaries in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Lake Whatcom stock in both 2000 and 2001. However, preliminary data from the Spokane Tribe of Indians indicated that a large number of both stocks were precocial before they were stocked. The small number of hatchery three-year olds collected indicated that the current hatchery rearing and stocking methods will continue to produce a limited jacking run largely composed of precocious males and a small number of three-year olds. No kokanee from the study were collected during standard lake wide creel surveys. Supplemental creel data, including fishing derbies, test fisheries, and angler diaries, indicated anglers harvested two-year-old hatchery kokanee a month after release. The majority of the two-year old kokanee harvested

  7. Ecology of playa lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  8. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, D.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  9. Spawning by lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caswell, N.M.; Peterson, D.L.; Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    Overfishing and habitat destruction in the early 1900s devastated lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations in the Great Lakes. Although a comprehensive restoration strategy for this species was recently drafted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, a lack of current data on Great Lakes sturgeon stocks has hindered rehabilitation efforts. Historically, the Detroit River supported one of the largest lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes; however, little is known about the current population or its habitat use. The main objective of this study was to determine if lake sturgeon spawns in the Detroit River. As part of a larger study, baited setlines were used to capture lake sturgeon in the Detroit River in the spring and summer of 2000 and 2001. In each year of the study, ultrasonic transmitters were surgically implanted in 10 adult fish to track their movements, evaluate habitat use and identify possible spawning sites. Using telemetry and egg mats to verify spawning activity, one spawning site was located and verified in the Detroit River. Spawning was verified by recovering sturgeon eggs deposited on egg collection mats anchored at the site. Telemetry data suggested that several other possible spawning sites also may exist, however, spawning activity was not verified at these sites.

  10. Development and characterization of a cell line from Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi, sensitive to both naphthalene cytotoxicity and infection by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus.

    PubMed

    Ganassin, R C; Sanders, S M; Kennedy, C J; Joyce, E M; Bols, N C

    1999-01-01

    A cell line, PHL, has been successfully established from newly hatched herring larvae. The cells are maintained in growth medium consisting of Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and have been cryopreserved and maintain viability after thawing. These cells retain a diploid karotype after 65 population doublings. PHL are susceptible to infection by the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus, and are sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of naphthalene, a common environmental contaminant. Naphthalene is a component of crude and refined oil, and may be found in the marine environment following acute events such as oil spills. In addition, chronic sources of naphthalene contamination include offshore drilling and petroleum contamination from areas such as docks and marinas that have creosote-treated docks and pilings and also receive constant small inputs of petroleum products. This cell line should be useful for investigations of the toxicity of naphthalene and other petroleum components to juvenile herring. In addition, studies of the VHS virus will be facilitated by the availability of a susceptible cell line from an alternative species.

  11. The Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassibe, W.R.; Keck, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The western part of the conterminous United States is often thought of as being a desert without any large bodies of water. In the desert area of western Utah, however, lies Great Salt Lake, which in 1986 covered approximately 2,300 square miles and contained 30 million acre-feet of water (an acre-foot is the amount of water necessary to cover 1 acre of land with water 1 foot in depth or about 326,000 gallons). To emphasize its size, the Great Salt Lake is the largest lake west of the Mississippi River, larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware.

  12. National Lakes Assessment Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worked with states and tribes to conduct the assessment in 2007. Data for each parameter sampled in the National Lakes Assessment (NLA) are available for downloading in a series of files as comma separated values (*.csv). Each *.csv data file has a companion text file (*.txt) that lists a dataset label and individual descriptions for each variable. Users should view the *.txt files first to help guide their understanding and use of the data.

  13. Can lake sensitivity to desiccation be predicted from lake geometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Aminnezhad, Mousa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-08-01

    Declining lake levels (Aral Sea syndrome) can be caused by changes in climate, increased water use or changed regulation patterns. This paper introduces a novel lake geometry index (LGI) to quantify lake hydrological characteristics. The index was developed using a large representative dataset of lake hypsographic characteristics from 152 lakes and man-made reservoirs. Using the LGI index, lakes can be classified into five groups: groups 1-4 when LGI is 0.5-2.5, 2.5-4.5, 4.5-6.5 and 6.5-8.5, respectively, and group 5 when LGI is >8.5. Naturally shallow and vast lakes and wetlands fall into the first group and deep man-made reservoirs in narrow valleys are in group 5. The response of three different lake systems (LGI 0.75, 2.75 and 6.5) to different water flow scenarios was then simulated using the water balance equation. From this, the index 'potential lake area' (Apot) was developed to show lake responses to changed hydro-climatological conditions. Apot and LGI can be used to classify lakes into open or closed systems. Simulations showed that lakes with low LGI have a shorter response time to flow and climate changes. As a result, the impact of water balance restoration is faster for lakes with low LGI than for lakes with high LGI. The latter are also more vulnerable to climate variation and change.

  14. Near shore-wetland fish movements in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linkages of Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitats are under-explored, yet 90 species of fish are known to utilize wetlands for spawning and/or nursery habitat. The duration and frequency of wetland use for pelagic species with mobile adult stages is also poorly un...

  15. Challenges to the Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade we have extensively studied coastal ecosystems in the Great Lakes. Some research efforts have linked coastal receiving systems to conditions in their contributing watersheds; others have focused on developing invasive species detection and monitoring strat...

  16. About Deer Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Named an Area of Concern under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987, due to beneficial use impairments caused by mercury contamination: consumption restrictions, deformities or reproductive problems, eutrophication.

  17. Lake trout status in the main basin of Lake Huron, 1973-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    He, Ji X.; Ebener, Mark P.; Riley, Stephen C.; Cottrill, Adam; Kowalski, Adam; Koproski, Scott; Mohr, Lloyd; Johnson, James E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed indices of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush status in the main basin of Lake Huron (1973-2010) to understand increases in the relative abundance of wild year-classes during 1995-2010. Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus wounds per 100 lake trout declined from 23.63 in 2000 to 5.86-10.64 in 2002-2010. The average age-7 lake trout catch per effort per recruitment (CPE/R; fish•305mof gill net-1•million stocked yearlings-1) increased from 0.56 for the 1973-1990 year-classes to 0.92 for the 1991-2001 year-classes. Total CPE (fish/305 m of gill net) declined from 16.4 fish in 1996 to 4.1 fish in 2010, but the percentage of age-5 and younger lake trout steadily decreased from more than 70% before 1996 to less than 10% by 2009. The modal age in gill-net catches increased from age 5 before 1996 to age 7 by 2005. The average adult CPE increased from 2.8 fish/305 m of gill net during 1978-1995 to 5.34 fish/305 m of gill net during 1996-2010. The 1995-2010 year-classes of wild fish weremore abundant than previous year-classes and were associated with the relatively high adult abundance during 1996-2010. Until the 2002 year-class, there was no decline in age-7 CPE/R; until 2008, there was no decline in adult CPE. Low survival of the 2002 and 2003 year-classes of stocked fish was related to the event of alewife Alosa pseudoharengus population collapse in 2003-2004. Lake trout in the main basin of Lake Huron are undergoing a transition from a hatchery stock to a wild stock, accompanied by an increased uncertainty in delayed recruitment. Future management should pay more attention to the protection of wild recruitment and the abundance of the spawning stock.

  18. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  19. Stratification of lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehrer, Bertram; Schultze, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Many lakes show vertical stratification of their water masses, at least for some extended time periods. Density differences in water bodies facilitate an evolution of chemical differences with many consequences for living organisms in lakes. Temperature and dissolved substances contribute to density differences in water. The atmosphere imposes a temperature signal on the lake surface. As a result, thermal stratification can be established during the warm season if a lake is sufficiently deep. On the contrary, during the cold period, surface cooling forces vertical circulation of water masses and removal of gradients of water properties. However, gradients of dissolved substances may be sustained for periods much longer than one annual cycle. Such lakes do not experience full overturns. Gradients may be a consequence of external inflows or groundwater seepage. In addition, photosynthesis at the lake surface and subsequent decomposition of organic material in the deeper layers of a lake can sustain a gradient of dissolved substances. Three more geochemical cycles, namely, calcite precipitation, iron cycle, and manganese cycle, are known for sustaining meromixis. A limited number of lakes do not experience a complete overturn because of pressure dependence of temperature of maximum density. Such lakes must be sufficiently deep and lie in the appropriate climate zone. Although these lakes are permanently stratified, deep waters are well ventilated, and chemical differences are small. Turbulent mixing and convective deep water renewal must be very effective. As a consequence, these lakes usually are not termed meromictic. Permanent stratification may also be created by episodic partial recharging of the deep water layer. This mechanism resembles the cycling of the ocean: horizontal gradients result from gradients at the surface, such as differential cooling or enhanced evaporation in adjacent shallow side bays. Dense water parcels can be formed which intrude the deep

  20. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  1. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  2. Antarctic subglacial lake discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank

    Antarctic subglacial lakes were long time supposed to be relatively closed and stable environments with long residence times and slow circulations. This view has recently been challenged with evidence of active subglacial lake discharge underneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Satellite altimetry observations witnessed rapid changes in surface elevation across subglacial lakes over periods ranging from several months to more than a year, which were interpreted as subglacial lake discharge and subsequent lake filling, and which seem to be a common and widespread feature. Such discharges are comparable to jökulhlaups and can be modeled that way using the Nye-Röthlisberger theory. Considering the ice at the base of the ice sheet at pressure melting point, subglacial conduits are sustainable over periods of more than a year and over distances of several hundreds of kilometers. Coupling of an ice sheet model to a subglacial lake system demonstrated that small changes in surface slope are sufficient to start and sustain episodic subglacial drainage events on decadal time scales. Therefore, lake discharge may well be a common feature of the subglacial hydrological system, influencing the behavior of large ice sheets, especially when subglacial lakes are perched at or near the onset of large outlet glaciers and ice streams. While most of the observed discharge events are relatively small (101-102 m3 s-1), evidence for larger subglacial discharges is found in ice free areas bordering Antarctica, and witnessing subglacial floods of more than 106 m3 s-1 that occurred during the middle Miocene.

  3. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. Efficacy of a glycoprotein DNA vaccine against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valenciennes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, L.M.; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.; Grady, C.A.; Roon, S.E.; O’Reilly, J.; Gregg, J.L.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and its associated disease state, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), is hypothesized to be a proximate factor accounting for the decline and failed recovery of Pacific herring populations in Prince William Sound, AK (Marty et al. 1998, 2003, 2010). Survivors of laboratory-induced VHSV epizootics develop resistance to subsequent viral exposure (Kocan et al. 2001; Hershberger et al. 2007, 2010), which is likely the result of immune system recognition of the viral glycoprotein (G) (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994), a surface antigen that contains neutralizing epitopes (Lorenzen, Olesen & Jorgensen 1990; Jørgensen et al. 1995) and cell attachment domains (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994; Estepa & Coll 1996). These properties have proven useful in the development of G-gene-based DNA vaccines for VHSV and a related rhabdovirus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) (Anderson et al. 1996; Heppell et al. 1998; Corbeil et al. 1999; Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), vaccinated with 1 µg of either the VHS or IHN vaccine are protected from VHS when exposed to virus as early as 4 days (44 degree days) post-vaccination (p.v.) (Lorenzen et al. 2002). At later time points (80 days p.v.; 880 degree days), the level of cross-protection against VHS by IHN vaccination is either completely lost (60 days p.v.; 660 degree days) (3 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Lorenzen et al. 2002) or present at intermediate levels (6.5 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Comparatively, VHS vaccination remains effective as long as 9 months (2520 degree days) p.v. (100 g rainbow trout; 0.5 µg vaccine dose) (McLauchlan et al. 2003). These results suggest that IHN and VHS vaccination activate a rapid transitory innate immune response against VHSV that is followed by long-term adaptive immunity in VHS-vaccinated trout (Lorenzen et al. 2002).

  5. [Preparative isolation of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexapyrimidine nucleotides from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schott, H

    1979-04-21

    The pyrimidine nucleotides p(dC)3p, p(dT)3p and p(dT)4p and mixtures of the sequence isomers p(dC3, dT), (dC3, dT)p; p(dC3, dT)p; p(dC2, dT2)p; p(dC, dT3)p; p(dC3, dT2)p; p(dC2, dT3); p(dC2, dT3)p; p(dC, dT4)p; p(dC4, dT2); p(dC3, dT3); p(dC3, dT3)p and p(dC2, dT4)p have been isolated on a preparative scale from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA. The DNA hydrolysate is first separated into a high- and a low-molecular weight pyrimidine nucleotide mixture by column chromatography at pH 7.5 on DEAE-cellulose. The high-molecular-weight pyrimidine nucleotide mixture is further separated into four peaks on QAE-Sephadex at pH 7.5. The second peak is re-chromatographed on QAE-Sephadex at pH 3.5. Pyrimidine nucleotides containing predominantly cytidylic acid units may thus be separated from these with predominantly thymidylic acid units. Subsequent separation according to number of phosphate groups at pH 7.5 on QAE-Sephadex yields products of 70--93% purity. In a final separation step, the pyrimidine nucleotides and mixtures of sequence isomers are once again chromatographed on QAE-Sephadex with 7 M urea at pH 7.5. The products thus obtained are generally chromatographically pure. Impurities which are not fully removed by column chromatography are separated by paper chromatography. The structure of the isolated DNA fragments and the composition of the mixtures of sequence isomers are determined from the chromatographic data, absorption characteristics and by enzymatic degradation.

  6. Comparison of harvest scenarios for the cost-effective suppression of Lake Trout in Swan Lake, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syslo, John M.; Guy, Christopher S.; Cox, Benjamin S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the large amount of resources required for long-term control or eradication projects, it is important to assess strategies and associated costs and outcomes before a particular plan is implemented. We developed a population model to assess the cost-effectiveness of mechanical removal strategies for suppressing long-term abundance of nonnative Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in Swan Lake, Montana. We examined the efficacy of targeting life stages (i.e., juveniles or adults) using temporally pulsed fishing effort for reducing abundance and program cost. Exploitation rates were high (0.80 for juveniles and 0.68 for adults) compared with other lakes in the western USA with Lake Trout suppression programs. Harvesting juveniles every year caused the population to decline, whereas harvesting only adults caused the population to increase above carrying capacity. Simultaneous harvest of juveniles and adults was required to cause the population to collapse (i.e., 95% reduction relative to unharvested abundance) with 95% confidence. The population could collapse within 15 years for a total program cost of US$1,578,480 using the most aggressive scenario. Substantial variation in cost existed among harvest scenarios for a given reduction in abundance; however, total program cost was minimized when collapse was rapid. Our approach provides a useful case study for evaluating long-term mechanical removal options for fish populations that are not likely to be eradicated.

  7. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Koelmans, A A; Quik, J T K; Velzeboer, I

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hydraulic loadings covered the widest possible range among existing lakes. Sedimentation accounted for natural colloid as well as suspended solid settling regimes. An ENP-specific mixed sedimentation regime is proposed. This regime combines ENP sedimentation through slow settling with natural colloids from the water column, with faster settling with suspended solids from a selected part of the water column. Although sedimentation data and hydrodynamic concepts as such were not new, their first time combination or application to ENPs shows in which cases lake retention is important for these particles. In combination with ENP emission data, lake retention translates directly into potential risks of ENPs for lake benthic communities.

  8. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi.

    PubMed

    Cetron, M S; Chitsulo, L; Sullivan, J J; Pilcher, J; Wilson, M; Noh, J; Tsang, V C; Hightower, A W; Addiss, D G

    1996-11-09

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by trematodes. Humans are infected through skin contact with free-swimming cercariae which develop in freshwater snails. Schistosomiasis has been endemic to Malawi for several decades, but the open waters and shores of Lake Malawi have long been thought to be risk-free with regard to schistosomiasis transmission. However, in 1992, two US Peace Corps volunteers developed central nervous system schistosomiasis due to infection with Schistosoma haematobium following recreational water exposure at Cape Maclear on Lake Malawi. In light of these infections, a cross-sectional survey of resident expatriates and visitors to Malawi was subsequently conducted during March-April 1993 to determine the transmission potential and risk for acquiring schistosomiasis in the lake. 305 US citizens and 650 non-US foreign nationals participated in the study. Serological evidence of current or past schistosome infection was identified in 303 subjects. Indeed, seroprevalence was 32% among expatriates whose freshwater exposure was limited to Lake Malawi; S. haematobium antibodies were found in 135 of 141 seropositive specimens. The risk of seropositivity increased with the number of freshwater exposures at Lake Malawi resorts. While many resort areas in the southwestern lake region posed a significant risk, Cape Maclear was the location most strongly associated with seropositivity. Schistosome-infected Bulinus globosus, the snail vector of S. haematobium in Malawi, were found at Cape Maclear and other locations along the lakeshore.

  9. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  10. Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers, Red Lake County, Minnesota. Reconnaissance Report for Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    the -stbbasin. These are the result of efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (e.g., Agassiz Lake Project and Goose Lake Project), U.S. Soil...by glacial Lake Agassiz . Upper and Lower Red Lakes are remnants of this glacial lake. The topography of the subbasin ranges from 800 feet above mean...glacial Lake Agassiz and together comprise thelargest lake area wholly contained in Minnesota. The watershed drained by the Red Lake River lies within

  11. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  12. Ecosystem scale acoustic sensing reveals humpback whale behavior synchronous with herring spawning processes and re-evaluation finds no effect of sonar on humpback song occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in fall 2006.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Jain, Ankita D; Tran, Duong; Yi, Dong Hoon; Wu, Fan; Zorn, Alexander; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2014-01-01

    We show that humpback-whale vocalization behavior is synchronous with peak annual Atlantic herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. With a passive, wide-aperture, densely-sampled, coherent hydrophone array towed north of Georges Bank in a Fall 2006 Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment, vocalizing whales could be instantaneously detected and localized over most of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem in a roughly 400-km diameter area by introducing array gain, of 18 dB, orders of magnitude higher than previously available in acoustic whale sensing. With humpback-whale vocalizations consistently recorded at roughly 2000/day, we show that vocalizing humpbacks (i) were overwhelmingly distributed along the northern flank of Georges Bank, coinciding with the peak spawning time and location of Atlantic herring, and (ii) their overall vocalization behavior was strongly diurnal, synchronous with the formation of large nocturnal herring shoals, with a call rate roughly ten-times higher at night than during the day. Humpback-whale vocalizations were comprised of (1) highly diurnal non-song calls, suited to hunting and feeding behavior, and (2) songs, which had constant occurrence rate over a diurnal cycle, invariant to diurnal herring shoaling. Before and during OAWRS survey transmissions: (a) no vocalizing whales were found at Stellwagen Bank, which had negligible herring populations, and (b) a constant humpback-whale song occurrence rate indicates the transmissions had no effect on humpback song. These measurements contradict the conclusions of Risch et al. Our analysis indicates that (a) the song occurrence variation reported in Risch et al. is consistent with natural causes other than sonar, (b) the reducing change in song reported in Risch et al. occurred days before the sonar survey began, and (c) the Risch et al. method lacks the statistical significance to draw the conclusions of Risch et al. because it has a 98-100% false-positive rate and lacks

  13. Ecosystem Scale Acoustic Sensing Reveals Humpback Whale Behavior Synchronous with Herring Spawning Processes and Re-Evaluation Finds No Effect of Sonar on Humpback Song Occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in Fall 2006

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zheng; Jain, Ankita D.; Tran, Duong; Yi, Dong Hoon; Wu, Fan; Zorn, Alexander; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    We show that humpback-whale vocalization behavior is synchronous with peak annual Atlantic herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. With a passive, wide-aperture, densely-sampled, coherent hydrophone array towed north of Georges Bank in a Fall 2006 Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment, vocalizing whales could be instantaneously detected and localized over most of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem in a roughly 400-km diameter area by introducing array gain, of 18 dB, orders of magnitude higher than previously available in acoustic whale sensing. With humpback-whale vocalizations consistently recorded at roughly 2000/day, we show that vocalizing humpbacks (i) were overwhelmingly distributed along the northern flank of Georges Bank, coinciding with the peak spawning time and location of Atlantic herring, and (ii) their overall vocalization behavior was strongly diurnal, synchronous with the formation of large nocturnal herring shoals, with a call rate roughly ten-times higher at night than during the day. Humpback-whale vocalizations were comprised of (1) highly diurnal non-song calls, suited to hunting and feeding behavior, and (2) songs, which had constant occurrence rate over a diurnal cycle, invariant to diurnal herring shoaling. Before and during OAWRS survey transmissions: (a) no vocalizing whales were found at Stellwagen Bank, which had negligible herring populations, and (b) a constant humpback-whale song occurrence rate indicates the transmissions had no effect on humpback song. These measurements contradict the conclusions of Risch et al. Our analysis indicates that (a) the song occurrence variation reported in Risch et al. is consistent with natural causes other than sonar, (b) the reducing change in song reported in Risch et al. occurred days before the sonar survey began, and (c) the Risch et al. method lacks the statistical significance to draw the conclusions of Risch et al. because it has a 98–100% false-positive rate and

  14. Depth as an organizer of fish assemblages in floodplain lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Depth reduction is a natural process in floodplain lakes, but in many basins has been accelerated by anthropogenic disturbances. A diverse set of 42 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin (Mississippi, USA) was examined to test the hypothesis of whether depth reduction was a key determinant of water quality and fish assemblage structure. Single and multiple variable analyses were applied to 10 commonly monitored water variables and 54 fish species. Results showed strong associations between depth and water characteristics, and between depth and fish assemblages. Deep lakes provided less variable environments, clearer water, and a wider range of microhabitats than shallow lakes. The greater environmental stability was reflected by the dominant species in the assemblages, which included a broader representation of large-body species, species less tolerant of extreme water quality, and more predators. Stability in deep lakes was further reflected by reduced among-lake variability in taxa representation. Fish assemblages in shallow lakes were more variable than deep lakes, and commonly dominated by opportunistic species that have early maturity, extended breeding seasons, small adult size, and short lifespan. Depth is a causal factor that drives many physical and chemical variables that contribute to organizing fish assemblages in floodplain lakes. Thus, correlations between fish and water transparency, temperature, oxygen, trophic state, habitat structure, and other environmental descriptors may ultimately be totally or partly regulated by depth. In basins undergoing rapid anthropogenic modifications, local changes forced by depth reductions may be expected to eliminate species available from the regional pool and could have considerable ecological implications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG (outside the USA).